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Sample records for adversely affect aquatic

  1. Diagnosis of potential stressors adversely affecting benthic ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Greenwich Bay is an urbanized embayment of Narragansett Bay potentially impacted by multiple stressors. The present study identified the important stressors affecting Greenwich Bay benthic fauna. First, existing data and information were used to confirm that the waterbody was impaired. Second, the presence of source, stressor, and effect were established. Then linkages between source, stressor, and effect were developed. This allows identification of probable stressors adversely affecting the waterbody. Three pollutant categories were assessed: chemicals, nutrients, and suspended sediments. This weight of evidence approach indicated that Greenwich Bay was primarily impacted by eutrophication-related stressors. The sediments of Greenwich Bay were carbon enriched and low dissolved oxygen concentrations were commonly seen, especially in the western portions of Greenwich Bay. The benthic community was depauperate, as would be expected under oxygen stress. Although our analysis indicated that contaminant loads in Greenwich Bay were at concentrations where adverse effects might be expected, no toxicity was observed, as a result of high levels of organic carbon in these sediments reducing contaminant bioavailability. Our analysis also indicated that suspended sediment impacts were likely nonexistent for much of the Bay. This analysis demonstrates that the diagnostic procedure was useful to organize and assess the potential stressors impacting the ecological well-being

  2. Hyperinsulinemia adversely affects lung structure and function.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suchita; Bodas, Manish; Bhatraju, Naveen K; Pattnaik, Bijay; Gheware, Atish; Parameswaran, Praveen Kolumam; Thompson, Michael; Freeman, Michelle; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Gosens, Reinoud; Ghosh, Balaram; Pabelick, Christina; Linneberg, Allan; Prakash, Y S; Agrawal, Anurag

    2016-05-01

    There is limited knowledge regarding the consequences of hyperinsulinemia on the lung. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, and epidemiological associations with asthma, this is a critical lacuna, more so with inhaled insulin on the horizon. Here, we demonstrate that insulin can adversely affect respiratory health. Insulin treatment (1 μg/ml) significantly (P < 0.05) increased the proliferation of primary human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells and induced collagen release. Additionally, ASM cells showed a significant increase in calcium response and mitochondrial respiration upon insulin exposure. Mice administered intranasal insulin showed increased collagen deposition in the lungs as well as a significant increase in airway hyperresponsiveness. PI3K/Akt mediated activation of β-catenin, a positive regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibrosis, was observed in the lungs of insulin-treated mice and lung cells. Our data suggests that hyperinsulinemia may have adverse effects on airway structure and function. Insulin-induced activation of β-catenin in lung tissue and the contractile effects on ASM cells may be causally related to the development of asthma-like phenotype.

  3. FACTORS ADVERSELY AFFECTING AMPHIBIAN POPULATIONS IN THE US

    EPA Science Inventory

    Factors known or suspected to be adversely affecting native amphibian populations in the US were identified using information from species accounts written in a standardized format by multiple authors in a forthcoming book. Specific adverse factors were identified for 53 (58%) of...

  4. Adversity before Conception Will Affect Adult Progeny in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shachar-Dadon, Alice; Schulkin, Jay; Leshem, Micah

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated whether adversity in a female, before she conceives, will influence the affective and social behavior of her progeny. Virgin female rats were either undisturbed (controls) or exposed to varied, unpredictable, stressors for 7 days (preconceptual stress [PCS]) and then either mated immediately after the end of the stress…

  5. The mechanisms of nickel toxicity in aquatic environments: an adverse outcome pathway analysis.

    PubMed

    Brix, Kevin V; Schlekat, Christian E; Garman, Emily R

    2016-12-09

    Current ecological risk assessment and water quality regulations for nickel (Ni) use mechanistically based, predictive tools such as biotic ligand models (BLMs). However, despite many detailed studies, the precise mechanism(s) of Ni toxicity to aquatic organisms remains elusive. This uncertainty in the mechanism(s) of action for Ni has led to concern over the use of tools like the BLM in some regulatory settings. To address this knowledge gap, the authors used an adverse outcome pathway (AOP) analysis, the first AOP for a metal, to identify multiple potential mechanisms of Ni toxicity and their interactions with freshwater aquatic organisms. The analysis considered potential mechanisms of action based on data from a wide range of organisms in aquatic and terrestrial environments on the premise that molecular initiating events for an essential metal would potentially be conserved across taxa. Through this analysis the authors identified 5 potential molecular initiating events by which Ni may exert toxicity on aquatic organisms: disruption of Ca(2+) homeostasis, disruption of Mg(2+) homeostasis, disruption of Fe(2+/3+) homeostasis, reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative damage, and an allergic-type response of respiratory epithelia. At the organ level of biological organization, these 5 potential molecular initiating events collapse into 3 potential pathways: reduced Ca(2+) availability to support formation of exoskeleton, shell, and bone for growth; impaired respiration; and cytotoxicity and tumor formation. At the level of the whole organism, the organ-level responses contribute to potential reductions in growth and reproduction and/or alterations in energy metabolism, with several potential feedback loops between each of the pathways. Overall, the present AOP analysis provides a robust framework for future directed studies on the mechanisms of Ni toxicity and for developing AOPs for other metals. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;9999:1-10. © 2016 SETAC.

  6. Factors affecting the development of adverse drug reactions (Review article)

    PubMed Central

    Alomar, Muaed Jamal

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To discuss the effect of certain factors on the occurrence of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs). Data Sources A systematic review of the literature in the period between 1991 and 2012 was made based on PubMed, the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, EMBASE and IDIS. Key words used were: medication error, adverse drug reaction, iatrogenic disease factors, ambulatory care, primary health care, side effects and treatment hazards. Summary Many factors play a crucial role in the occurrence of ADRs, some of these are patient related, drug related or socially related factors. Age for instance has a very critical impact on the occurrence of ADRs, both very young and very old patients are more vulnerable to these reactions than other age groups. Alcohol intake also has a crucial impact on ADRs. Other factors are gender, race, pregnancy, breast feeding, kidney problems, liver function, drug dose and frequency and many other factors. The effect of these factors on ADRs is well documented in the medical literature. Taking these factors into consideration during medical evaluation enables medical practitioners to choose the best drug regimen. Conclusion Many factors affect the occurrence of ADRs. Some of these factors can be changed like smoking or alcohol intake others cannot be changed like age, presence of other diseases or genetic factors. Understanding the different effects of these factors on ADRs enables healthcare professionals to choose the most appropriate medication for that particular patient. It also helps the healthcare professionals to give the best advice to patients. Pharmacogenomics is the most recent science which emphasizes the genetic predisposition of ADRs. This innovative science provides a new perspective in dealing with the decision making process of drug selection. PMID:24648818

  7. Does Ramadan Fasting Adversely Affect Cognitive Function in Young Females?

    PubMed Central

    Ghayour Najafabadi, Mahboubeh; Rahbar Nikoukar, Laya; Memari, Amir; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Beygi, Sara

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of Ramadan fasting on cognitive function in 17 female athletes. Data were obtained from participants of two fasting (n = 9) and nonfasting (n = 8) groups at three periods of the study (before Ramadan, at the third week in Ramadan, and after Ramadan). Digit span test (DST) and Stroop color test were employed to assess short-term memory and inhibition/cognitive flexibility at each time point. There were no significant changes for DST and Stroop task 1 in both groups, whereas Stroop task 2 and task 3 showed significant improvements in Ramadan condition (p < 0.05). Interference indices did not change significantly across the study except in post-Ramadan period of fasting group (p < 0.05). Group × week interaction was significant only for error numbers (p < 0.05). Athletes in nonfasting showed a significant decrease in number of errors in Ramadan compared to baseline (p < 0.05). The results suggest that Ramadan fasting may not adversely affect cognitive function in female athletes. PMID:26697263

  8. California's racial and ethnic minorities more adversely affected by asthma.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ying-Ying; Babey, Susan H; Hastert, Theresa A; Brown, E Richard

    2007-02-01

    In California, nearly 2.8 million adults and children (8%) had active asthma in 2003. Of Californians with active asthma, 890,000 are children (ages 0-17) and 1.8 million are adults (age 18 and above). The prevalence of active asthma varies by racial and ethnic group, with racial and ethnic minority groups affected more adversely by asthma. They are more likely to go to the emergency department for asthma care, miss more school and work days because of asthma, and have poorer health status. They are also more likely to lack access to health care and to live in conditions associated with asthma exacerbations. Among California children, the prevalence of active asthma varies by racial and ethnic groups-with the highest prevalence among African Americans (17%) and American Indians/Alaska Natives (17%), followed by whites (10%), Latinos (7%) and Asians (7%; Exhibit 1). Among adults, American Indians/Alaska Natives have the highest prevalence of active asthma (13%), followed by African Americans (10%), whites (9%), Asians (5%) and Latinos (5%). The National data similarly show that both African Americans and American Indians have higher current asthma prevalence rates than non- Hispanic whites.

  9. Forest Management Intensity Affects Aquatic Communities in Artificial Tree Holes

    PubMed Central

    Petermann, Jana S.; Rohland, Anja; Sichardt, Nora; Lade, Peggy; Guidetti, Brenda; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Gossner, Martin M.

    2016-01-01

    Forest management could potentially affect organisms in all forest habitats. However, aquatic communities in water-filled tree-holes may be especially sensitive because of small population sizes, the risk of drought and potential dispersal limitation. We set up artificial tree holes in forest stands subject to different management intensities in two regions in Germany and assessed the influence of local environmental properties (tree-hole opening type, tree diameter, water volume and water temperature) as well as regional drivers (forest management intensity, tree-hole density) on tree-hole insect communities (not considering other organisms such as nematodes or rotifers), detritus content, oxygen and nutrient concentrations. In addition, we compared data from artificial tree holes with data from natural tree holes in the same area to evaluate the methodological approach of using tree-hole analogues. We found that forest management had strong effects on communities in artificial tree holes in both regions and across the season. Abundance and species richness declined, community composition shifted and detritus content declined with increasing forest management intensity. Environmental variables, such as tree-hole density and tree diameter partly explained these changes. However, dispersal limitation, indicated by effects of tree-hole density, generally showed rather weak impacts on communities. Artificial tree holes had higher water temperatures (on average 2°C higher) and oxygen concentrations (on average 25% higher) than natural tree holes. The abundance of organisms was higher but species richness was lower in artificial tree holes. Community composition differed between artificial and natural tree holes. Negative management effects were detectable in both tree-hole systems, despite their abiotic and biotic differences. Our results indicate that forest management has substantial and pervasive effects on tree-hole communities and may alter their structure and

  10. Forest Management Intensity Affects Aquatic Communities in Artificial Tree Holes.

    PubMed

    Petermann, Jana S; Rohland, Anja; Sichardt, Nora; Lade, Peggy; Guidetti, Brenda; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Gossner, Martin M

    2016-01-01

    Forest management could potentially affect organisms in all forest habitats. However, aquatic communities in water-filled tree-holes may be especially sensitive because of small population sizes, the risk of drought and potential dispersal limitation. We set up artificial tree holes in forest stands subject to different management intensities in two regions in Germany and assessed the influence of local environmental properties (tree-hole opening type, tree diameter, water volume and water temperature) as well as regional drivers (forest management intensity, tree-hole density) on tree-hole insect communities (not considering other organisms such as nematodes or rotifers), detritus content, oxygen and nutrient concentrations. In addition, we compared data from artificial tree holes with data from natural tree holes in the same area to evaluate the methodological approach of using tree-hole analogues. We found that forest management had strong effects on communities in artificial tree holes in both regions and across the season. Abundance and species richness declined, community composition shifted and detritus content declined with increasing forest management intensity. Environmental variables, such as tree-hole density and tree diameter partly explained these changes. However, dispersal limitation, indicated by effects of tree-hole density, generally showed rather weak impacts on communities. Artificial tree holes had higher water temperatures (on average 2°C higher) and oxygen concentrations (on average 25% higher) than natural tree holes. The abundance of organisms was higher but species richness was lower in artificial tree holes. Community composition differed between artificial and natural tree holes. Negative management effects were detectable in both tree-hole systems, despite their abiotic and biotic differences. Our results indicate that forest management has substantial and pervasive effects on tree-hole communities and may alter their structure and

  11. Toxins and adverse drug reactions affecting the equine nervous system.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Dominic R

    2011-12-01

    This article provides an overview of the more common toxins and adverse drug reactions, along with more rare toxins and reactions (Table 1), that result in neurologic dysfunction in horses. A wide variety of symptoms, treatments, and outcomes are seen with toxic neurologic disease in horses. An in-depth history and thorough physical examination are needed to determine if a toxin or adverse drug reaction is responsible for the clinical signs. Once a toxin or adverse drug reaction is identified, the specific antidote, if available, and supportive care should be administered promptly.

  12. Biogeochemical interactions affecting hepatic trace element levels in aquatic birds

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, G.

    1996-07-01

    Knowledge of elemental interactions is important to the toxicological assessment of wildlife in the geochemical environment. This study determines the concentrations of Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Li, Mg, Mn, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Ag, V, and Zn in aquatic bird liver, fish liver, whole bivalves, insects, and waters in several aquatic ecosystems in northern California. There is evidence of strong in vivo and environmental interactions, including the observation of manganese as a possible cofactor or indicator in selenium bioaccumulation. The nearest neighbor selenium correlation in aquatic bird liver tissue that results from this work is Cd-Mn-Se-Hg-As. The correlation of liver selenium to manganese in vivo and the result that the majority of the variance in liver selenium concentration is contained in the manganese term of the regression model relating Se to Cd, Mn, and Hg is new knowledge in the study of aquatic birds. A linear relationship between liver selenium and environmental manganese (water and sediment) is found in the data, suggesting a water chemistry compartmentalization or activation of toxicants. Alternatively, the hepatic concentrations of selenium, manganese, and iron suggest induction of enzymes in response to oxidative stress.

  13. 47 CFR 73.4157 - Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....4157 Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service. See Public Notice, FCC 79-387... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service. 73.4157 Section 73.4157 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS...

  14. Habitat Complexity in Aquatic Microcosms Affects Processes Driven by Detritivores

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Lorea; Bailey, R. A.; Elosegi, Arturo; Larrañaga, Aitor; Reiss, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Habitat complexity can influence predation rates (e.g. by providing refuge) but other ecosystem processes and species interactions might also be modulated by the properties of habitat structure. Here, we focussed on how complexity of artificial habitat (plastic plants), in microcosms, influenced short-term processes driven by three aquatic detritivores. The effects of habitat complexity on leaf decomposition, production of fine organic matter and pH levels were explored by measuring complexity in three ways: 1. as the presence vs. absence of habitat structure; 2. as the amount of structure (3 or 4.5 g of plastic plants); and 3. as the spatial configuration of structures (measured as fractal dimension). The experiment also addressed potential interactions among the consumers by running all possible species combinations. In the experimental microcosms, habitat complexity influenced how species performed, especially when comparing structure present vs. structure absent. Treatments with structure showed higher fine particulate matter production and lower pH compared to treatments without structures and this was probably due to higher digestion and respiration when structures were present. When we explored the effects of the different complexity levels, we found that the amount of structure added explained more than the fractal dimension of the structures. We give a detailed overview of the experimental design, statistical models and R codes, because our statistical analysis can be applied to other study systems (and disciplines such as restoration ecology). We further make suggestions of how to optimise statistical power when artificially assembling, and analysing, ‘habitat complexity’ by not confounding complexity with the amount of structure added. In summary, this study highlights the importance of habitat complexity for energy flow and the maintenance of ecosystem processes in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:27802267

  15. Root-Zone Glyphosate Exposure Adversely Affects Two Ditch Species

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Lyndsay E.; Koontz, Melissa B.; Pezeshki, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Glyphosate, one of the most applied herbicides globally, has been extensively studied for its effects on non-target organisms. In the field, following precipitation, glyphosate runs off into agricultural ditches where it infiltrates into the soil and thus may encounter the roots of vegetation. These edge-of-field ditches share many characteristics with wetlands, including the ability to reduce loads of anthropogenic chemicals through uptake, transformation, and retention. Different species within the ditches may have a differential sensitivity to exposure of the root zone to glyphosate, contributing to patterns of abundance of ruderal species. The present laboratory experiment investigated whether two species commonly found in agricultural ditches in southcentral United States were affected by root zone glyphosate in a dose-dependent manner, with the objective of identifying a sublethal concentration threshold. The root zone of individuals of Polygonum hydropiperoides and Panicum hemitomon were exposed to four concentrations of glyphosate. Leaf chlorophyll content was measured, and the ratio of aboveground biomass to belowground biomass and survival were quantified. The findings from this study showed that root zone glyphosate exposure negatively affected both species including dose-dependent reductions in chlorophyll content. P. hydropiperdoides showed the greatest negative response, with decreased belowground biomass allocation and total mortality at the highest concentrations tested. PMID:24833234

  16. Urban sprawl and you: how sprawl adversely affects worker health.

    PubMed

    Pohanka, Mary; Fitzgerald, Sheila

    2004-06-01

    Urban sprawl, once thought of as just an environmental issue, is currently gaining momentum as an emerging public health issue worthy of research and political attention. Characteristics seen in sprawling communities include increasing traffic volumes; inadequate public transportation; pedestrian unfriendly streets; and the division of businesses, shops, and homes. These characteristics can affect health in many ways. Greater air pollution contributes to higher asthma and other lung disorder rates. An increased dependence on the automobile encourages a more sedentary lifestyle and can potentially contribute to obesity. The increased danger and stress of long commutes can lead to more accidents, anxiety, and social isolation. Occupational health nurses can become involved by promoting physical activity in the workplace, creating programs for injury prevention and stress management, becoming involved in political smart growth measures, and educating and encouraging colleagues to become active in addressing this issue.

  17. Negative affect predicts adults' ratings of the current, but not childhood, impact of adverse childhood events.

    PubMed

    LaNoue, Marianna; Graeber, David A; Helitzer, Deborah L; Fawcett, Jan

    2013-10-01

    Adverse childhood events (ACE's) have been empirically related to a wide range of negative health and mental health outcomes. However, not all individuals who experience ACE's follow a trajectory of poor outcomes, and not all individuals perceive the impact of ACE's as necessarily negative. The purpose of this study was to investigate positive and negative affect as predictors of adults' ratings of both the childhood and adult impact of their childhood adversity. Self-report data on ACE experiences, including number, severity, and 'impact' were collected from 158 community members recruited on the basis of having adverse childhood experiences. Results indicated that, regardless of event severity and number of different types of adverse events experienced, high levels of negative affect were the strongest predictor of whether the adult impact of the adverse childhood events was rated as negative. All individuals rated the childhood impact of events the same. Implications are discussed.

  18. Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) Informed Modeling of Aquatic Toxicology: QSARs, Read-Across, and Interspecies Verification of Modes of Action.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Claire M; Piechota, Przemyslaw; Madden, Judith C; Enoch, Steven J; Cronin, Mark T D

    2016-04-05

    Alternative approaches have been promoted to reduce the number of vertebrate and invertebrate animals required for the assessment of the potential of compounds to cause harm to the aquatic environment. A key philosophy in the development of alternatives is a greater understanding of the relevant adverse outcome pathway (AOP). One alternative method is the fish embryo toxicity (FET) assay. Although the trends in potency have been shown to be equivalent in embryo and adult assays, a detailed mechanistic analysis of the toxicity data has yet to be performed; such analysis is vital for a full understanding of the AOP. The research presented herein used an updated implementation of the Verhaar scheme to categorize compounds into AOP-informed categories. These were then used in mechanistic (quantitative) structure-activity relationship ((Q)SAR) analysis to show that the descriptors governing the distinct mechanisms of acute fish toxicity are capable of modeling data from the FET assay. The results show that compounds do appear to exhibit the same mechanisms of toxicity across life stages. Thus, this mechanistic analysis supports the argument that the FET assay is a suitable alternative testing strategy for the specified mechanisms and that understanding the AOPs is useful for toxicity prediction across test systems.

  19. Fluidized bed ash and passive treatment reduce the adverse effects of acid mine drainage on aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Porter, Clint M; Nairn, Robert W

    2010-10-15

    Elevated concentrations of acidity and metals in acid mine drainage (AMD) may be effectively addressed by active and passive treatment technologies. However, typical evaluations consider only chemical water quality with little if any regard for biological metrics. Robust evaluations including both chemical and biological indicators of water quality improvement are needed. In this study, injection of alkaline fluidized bed ash (FBA) into a flooded underground coal mine was coupled with a five-cell passive treatment system to ameliorate an abandoned AMD discharge in eastern Oklahoma. The passive system included process units promoting both aerobic and anaerobic treatment mechanisms. Resulting water quality changes and biological responses were evaluated. Organisms of two distinct functional groups (the filter-feeding mollusk Corbicula fluminea and the wide-spectrum feeding fish Lepomis macrochirus) were exposed to mine waters in several treatment cells. The combination of treatment technologies was hypothesized to limit potential negative effects on these aquatic organisms. Tissues were harvested and analyzed for concentrations of several metals (Al, Fe, Mn, Mg, Ca, Ni, Cu and Zn) of interest. Organismal responses, such as hepatosomatic index, condition factor, and condition index, did not vary significantly among organisms exposed within different treatment cells when compared to non-AMD impaired waters. Metal tissue accumulation trends, compared to aqueous concentrations, were observed for Fe, Ni and Zn. Exposure experiments with these two organisms indicated that FBA introductions coupled with passive treatment decreased the potential adverse effects of AMD to biological systems.

  20. Irrigation agriculture affects organic matter decomposition in semi-arid terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Arroita, Maite; Causapé, Jesús; Comín, Francisco A; Díez, Joserra; Jimenez, Juan José; Lacarta, Juan; Lorente, Carmen; Merchán, Daniel; Muñiz, Selene; Navarro, Enrique; Val, Jonatan; Elosegi, Arturo

    2013-12-15

    Many dryland areas are being converted into intensively managed irrigation crops, what can disrupt the hydrological regime, degrade soil and water quality, enhance siltation, erosion and bank instability, and affect biological communities. Still, the impacts of irrigation schemes on the functioning of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are poorly understood. Here we assess the effects of irrigation agriculture on breakdown of coarse organic matter in soil and water. We measured breakdown rates of alder and holm oak leaves, and of poplar sticks in terrestrial and aquatic sites following a gradient of increasing irrigation agriculture in a semi-arid Mediterranean basin transformed into irrigation agriculture in 50% of its surface. Spatial patterns of stick breakdown paralleled those of leaf breakdown. In soil, stick breakdown rates were extremely low in non-irrigated sites (0.0001-0.0003 day(-1)), and increased with the intensity of agriculture (0.0018-0.0044 day(-1)). In water, stick breakdown rates ranged from 0.0005 to 0.001 day(-1), and increased with the area of the basin subject to irrigation agriculture. Results showed that irrigation agriculture affects functioning of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, accelerating decomposition of organic matter, especially in soil. These changes can have important consequences for global carbon budgets.

  1. Is there evidence that recent consolidation in the health insurance industry has adversely affected premiums?

    PubMed

    Kopit, William G

    2004-01-01

    James Robinson suggests that recent consolidation in the insurance market has been a cause of higher health insurance prices (premiums). Although the recent consolidation among health insurers and rising premiums are indisputable, it is unlikely that consolidation has had any adverse effect on premiums nationwide, and Robinson provides no data that suggest otherwise. Specifically, he does not present data showing an increase in concentration in any relevant market during the past few years, let alone any resulting increase in premiums. Health insurance consolidation in certain local markets could adversely affect premiums, but it seems clear that it is not a major national antitrust issue.

  2. Ecotoxicological assessments show sucralose and fluoxetine affect the aquatic plant, Lemna minor.

    PubMed

    Amy-Sagers, Cherisse; Reinhardt, Keith; Larson, Danelle M

    2017-04-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP) are prevalent in aquatic systems, yet the fate and impacts on aquatic plants needs quantification for many compounds. We measured and detected sucralose (an artificial sweetener), fluoxetine (an antidepressant), and other PPCP in the Portneuf River in Idaho, USA, where Lemna minor (an aquatic plant in the environment and used in ecotoxicology studies) naturally occurs. Sucralose was hypothesized to negatively affect photosynthesis and growth of L. minor because sucralose is a chlorinated molecule that may be toxic or unusable for plant metabolism. A priori hypotheses were not created for fluoxetine due to lack of previous studies examining its impacts on plants. We conducted laboratory ecotoxicological assessments for a large range of concentrations of sucralose and fluoxetine on L. minor physiology and photosynthetic function. Frond green leaf area, root length, growth rate, photosynthetic capacity, and plant carbon isotopic composition (discrimination relative to a standard; δ(13)C) were measured among treatments ranging from 0 to 15000nmol/L-sucralose and 0-323nmol/L-fluoxetine. Contrary to our predictions, sucralose significantly increased green leaf area, photosynthetic capacity, and δ (13)C of L. minor at environmentally relevant concentrations. The increase of δ (13)C from sucralose amendments and an isotope-mixing model indicated substantial sucralose uptake and assimilation within the plant. Unlike humans who cannot break down and utilize sucralose, we documented that L. minor-a mixotrophic plant-can use sucralose as a sugar substitute to increase its green leaf area and photosynthetic capacity. Fluoxetine significantly decreased L. minor root growth, daily growth rate, and asexual reproduction at 323nmol/L-fluoxetine; however, ambiguity remains regarding the mechanisms responsible and the applicability of these extreme concentrations unprecedented in the natural environment. To our knowledge, this was

  3. Family Adversity and Autonomic Reactivity Association With Immune Changes in HIV-Affected School Children

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Melanie; Wara, Diane; Saxton, Katherine; Truskier, Mary; Chesney, Margaret; Boyce, W. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore whether primary school entry is associated with changes in immune system parameters in HIV-affected children. HIV-affected children are vulnerable to psychosocial stressors, regardless of their own HIV serological status. Methods Data from 38 HIV+ and 29 HIV− children born to seropositive women were obtained before and after school entry. Measures included family adversity questionnaires, autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity (based on mean arterial responses to challenge tasks), and enumerative and functional changes in peripheral blood immune parameters. Results In comparison to children who were HIV−, children who were HIV+ at baseline had fewer CD4+ T lymphocytes (M = 916 vs. 1206 cells/mm3 × 103; F = 7.8, p = .007), more CD8+ cells (M = 1046 vs. 720 cells/mm3 ×103; F = 7.98, p = .006), and diminished NK cell cytotoxicity (M =−.29 vs. .41; F = 8.87, p = .004). School entry was associated with changes in immune parameters, but HIV status was not associated with the magnitude of changes. Changes in immune parameters following school entry were associated with family stress and pre school entry ANS reactivity. Highly ANS reactive children had either the greatest increase in CD8+ cells following school entry or the greatest decrease, depending upon reported levels of family adversity (B = 215.35; t = 3.74, p < .001). Changes in functional immune assays were significantly associated with the interactions between HIV status and ANS reactivity. Conclusions These results suggest that autonomic reactivity is associated with increased immunological sensitivity to adverse or challenging social contexts among children affected by HIV. PMID:23766380

  4. A review on factors affecting microcystins production by algae in aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ruihua; Wang, Pinfei; Jia, Peili; Zhang, Yi; Chu, Xincheng; Wang, Yifei

    2016-03-01

    Microcystins, a toxin produced by Microcystis aeruginosa have become a global environmental issue in recent years. As a consequence of eutrophication, microcystins have become widely disseminated in drinking water sources, seriously impairing drinking water quality. This review focuses on the relationship between microcystins synthesis and physical, chemical, and biological environmental factors that are significant in controlling their production. Light intensity and temperature are the more important physical factors, and in many cases, an optimum level for these two factors has been observed. Nitrogen and phosphorus are the key chemical factors causing frequent occurrence of harmful algal blooms and microcystins production. The absorption of nutrients and metabolic activities of algae are affected by different concentrations and forms of nitrogen and phosphorus, leading to variations in microcystins production Metal ions and emerging pollutants are other significant chemical factors, whose comprehensive impact is still being studied. Algae can also interact with biological agents like predators and competitors in aquatic environments, and such interactions are suggested to promote MCs production and release. This review further highlights areas that require further research in order to gain a better understanding of microcystins production. It provides a theoretical basis for the control of microcystins production and releasing into aquatic environments.

  5. AQUATIC PLANT SPECIATION AFFECTED BY DIVERSIFYING SELECTION OF ORGANELLE DNA REGIONS(1).

    PubMed

    Kato, Syou; Misawa, Kazuharu; Takahashi, Fumio; Sakayama, Hidetoshi; Sano, Satomi; Kosuge, Keiko; Kasai, Fumie; Watanabe, Makoto M; Tanaka, Jiro; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

    2011-10-01

    Many of the genes that control photosynthesis are carried in the chloroplast. These genes differ among species. However, evidence has yet to be reported revealing the involvement of organelle genes in the initial stages of plant speciation. To elucidate the molecular basis of aquatic plant speciation, we focused on the unique plant species Chara braunii C. C. Gmel. that inhabits both shallow and deep freshwater habitats and exhibits habitat-based dimorphism of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA). Here, we examined the "shallow" and "deep" subpopulations of C. braunii using two nuclear DNA (nDNA) markers and cpDNA. Genetic differentiation between the two subpopulations was measured in both nDNA and cpDNA regions, although phylogenetic analyses suggested nuclear gene flow between subpopulations. Neutrality tests based on Tajima's D demonstrated diversifying selection acting on organelle DNA regions. Furthermore, both "shallow" and "deep" haplotypes of cpDNA detected in cultures originating from bottom soils of three deep environments suggested that migration of oospores (dormant zygotes) between the two habitats occurs irrespective of the complete habitat-based dimorphism of cpDNA from field-collected vegetative thalli. Therefore, the two subpopulations are highly selected by their different aquatic habitats and show prezygotic isolation, which represents an initial process of speciation affected by ecologically based divergent selection of organelle genes.

  6. Emerging aquatic insects affect riparian spider distribution and growth rates in a temperate rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marczak, L. B.; Richardson, J. S.

    2005-05-01

    Emerging aquatic insects from streams provide a temporally shifting, alternative source of energy to riparian web-building spiders. The effects of dynamics in aquatic insect emergence on spider distributions are poorly understood. We manipulated the abundance of aquatic insects in riparian forests of British Columbia by excluding aquatic insects using a greenhouse type covering from May through the end of July. In the absence of manipulations, aquatic insect abundance generally peaks in July. The overall density of riparian spiders was reduced when aquatic insects were excluded in May and July but not in June. As in similar studies, tetragnathid spiders in particular showed a strong response to aquatic insect exclusion. The ideal free distribution predicts that organisms at low densities should have equal access to resources for growth to those at high densities. Using comparisons of body size low and high densities of animals we determined that tetragnathid abundance and growth patterns do represent an ideal free distribution.

  7. Mancozeb adversely affects meiotic spindle organization and fertilization in mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gianna; Palmerini, Maria Grazia; Macchiarelli, Guido; Buccione, Roberto; Cecconi, Sandra

    2006-07-01

    In this study the effects of mancozeb, a widely used ethylenebisdithiocarbamate fungicide, on mouse oocyte meiotic maturation and fertilization were analyzed. Oocyte cumulus cell-complexes were matured in vitro with or without increasing concentrations of the fungicide (from 0.001 to 1 microg/ml) that, due to its different stability in organic solvents and in water, was resuspended either in dimethyl sulfoxide or in culture medium. Although, about 95% of oocytes reached the metaphase II stage; mancozeb-exposed oocytes showed a dose-dependent increase of alterations in spindle morphology, and this negative effect was more evident when the fungicide was resuspended in culture medium. Under the latter culture condition, oocytes matured in the presence of 0.1 and 1 microg/ml mancozeb showed a significant reduction also in the formation of male and female pronuclei. These results indicate that mancozeb can adversely affect mammalian reproductive performance, likely by perturbing microtubular organization during meiotic maturation.

  8. Does nitrate co-pollution affect biological responses of an aquatic plant to two common herbicides?

    PubMed

    Nuttens, A; Chatellier, S; Devin, S; Guignard, C; Lenouvel, A; Gross, E M

    2016-08-01

    Aquatic systems in agricultural landscapes are subjected to multiple stressors, among them pesticide and nitrate run-off, but effects of both together have rarely been studied. We investigated possible stress-specific and interaction effects using the new OECD test organism, Myriophyllum spicatum, a widespread aquatic plant. In a fully factorial design, we used two widely applied herbicides, isoproturon and mesosulfuron-methyl, in concentration-response curves at two nitrate levels (219.63 and 878.52mg N-NO3). We applied different endpoints reflecting plant performance such as growth, pigment content, content in phenolic compounds, and plant stoichiometry. Relative growth rates based on length (RGR-L) were affected strongly by both herbicides, while effects on relative growth rate based on dry weight (RGR-DW) were apparent for isoproturon but hardly visible for mesosulfuron-methyl due to an increase in dry matter content. The higher nitrate level further reduced growth rates, specifically with mesosulfuron-methyl. Effects were visible between 50 and 500μgL(-1) for isoproturon and 0.5-5μgL(-1) for mesosulfuron-methyl, with some differences between endpoints. The two herbicides had opposite effects on chlorophyll, carotenoid and nitrogen contents in plants, with values increasing with increasing concentrations of isoproturon and decreasing for mesosulfuron-methyl. Herbicides and nitrate level exhibited distinct effects on the content in phenolic compounds, with higher nitrate levels reducing total phenolic compounds in controls and with isoproturon, but not with mesosulfuron-methyl. Increasing concentrations of mesosulfuron-methyl lead to a decline of total phenolic compounds, while isoproturon had little effect. Contents of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus changed depending on the stressor combination. We observed higher phosphorus levels in plants exposed to certain concentrations of herbicides, potentially indicating a metabolic response. The C:N molar ratio

  9. Factors Affecting the Timing of Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reactions.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Masayuki; Imai, Shungo; Uehara, Keiko; Maruyama, Junya; Shimizu, Mikiko; Mochizuki, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated factors affecting the timing of signal detection by comparing variations in reporting time of known and unknown ADRs after initial drug release in the USA. Data on adverse event reactions (AERs) submitted to U.S. FDA was used. Six ADRs associated with 6 drugs (rosuvastatin, aripiprazole, teriparatide, telithromycin, exenatide, varenicline) were investigated: Changes in the proportional reporting ratio, reporting odds ratio, and information component as indexes of signal detection were followed every 3 months after each drugs release, and the time for detection of signals was investigated. The time for the detection of signal to be detected after drug release in the USA was 2-10 months for known ADRs and 19-44 months for unknown ones. The median lag time for known and unknown ADRs was 99.0-122.5 days and 185.5-306.0 days, respectively. When the FDA released advisory information on rare but potentially serious health risks of an unknown ADR, the time lag to report from the onset of ADRs to the FDA was shorter. This study suggested that one factor affecting signal detection time is whether an ADR was known or unknown at release.

  10. Catheterization of Intestinal Loops in Ruminants Does Not Adversely Affect Loop Function

    PubMed Central

    Inglis, G Douglas; Kastelic, John P; Uwiera, Richard R E

    2010-01-01

    Catheterized intestinal loops may be a valuable model to elucidate key components of the host response to various treatments within the small intestine of ruminants. We examined whether catheterizing ileal loops in sheep affected the overall health of animals and intestinal function, whether a bacterial treatment could be introduced into the loops through the catheters, and whether broad-spectrum antibiotics could sterilize the loops. Escherichia coli cells transformed to express the GFP gene were introduced readily into the loops through the catheters, and GFP E. coli cells were localized within the injected loops. Catheterized loops, interspaces, and intact ileum exhibited no abnormalities in tissue appearance or electrical resistance. Expression of the IFNγ, IL1α, IL4, IL6, IL12p40, IL18, TGFβ1, and TNFα cytokine genes did not differ significantly among the intact ileum, catheterized loops, and interspaces, nor did the expression of the gene for inducible nitric oxide synthase. Broad-spectrum antibiotics administered during surgery did not sterilize the loops or interspaces and did not substantively change the composition of the microbiota. However, antibiotics reduced the overall number of bacterial cells within the loop and the relative abundance of community constituents. We concluded that catheterization of intestinal loops did not adversely affect health or loop function in sheep. Furthermore, allowing animals to recover fully from surgery and to clear pharmaceuticals will remove any confounding effects due to these factors, making catheterized intestinal loops a feasible model for studying host responses in ruminants. PMID:21262134

  11. Sexually Dimorphic Responses to Early Adversity: Implications for Affective Problems and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Pfaff, Donald

    2014-01-01

    During gestation, development proceeds at a pace that is unmatched by any other stage of the lifecycle. For these reason the human fetus is particularly susceptible not only to organizing influences, but also to pathogenic disorganizing influences. Growing evidence suggests that exposure to prenatal adversity leads to neurological changes that underlie lifetime risks for mental illness. Beginning early in gestation, males and females show differential developmental trajectories and responses to stress. It is likely that sex-dependent organization of neural circuits during the fetal period influences differential vulnerability to mental health problems. We consider in this review evidence that sexually dimorphic responses to early life stress are linked to two developmental disorders: affective problems (greater female prevalence) and autism spectrum disorder (greater male prevalence). Recent prospective studies illustrating the neurodevelopmental consequences of fetal exposure to stress and stress hormones for males and females are considered here. Plausible biological mechanisms including the role of the sexually differentiated placenta are discussed. We consider in this review evidence that sexually dimorphic responses to early life stress are linked to two sets of developmental disorders: affective problems (greater female prevalence) and autism spectrum disorders (greater male prevalence). PMID:25038479

  12. 42 CFR 137.445 - Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in other self-governance negotiations? 137.445 Section 137.445..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Appeals Appeals of An Immediate Reassumption of A Self-Governance Program § 137.445 Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect...

  13. Sunlight affects aggregation and deposition of graphene oxide in the aquatic environment.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we investigate the role of simulated sunlight on the physicochemical properties, aggregation, and deposition of graphene oxide (GO) in aquatic environments. Results show that light exposure under varied environmental conditions significantly impacts the physicochem...

  14. Exposing physicians to reduced residency work hours did not adversely affect patient outcomes after residency.

    PubMed

    Jena, Anupam B; Schoemaker, Lena; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2014-10-01

    In 2003, work hours for physicians-in-training (residents) were capped by regulation at eighty hours per week, leading to the hotly debated but unexplored issue of whether physicians today are less well trained as a result of these work-hour reforms. Using a unique database of nearly all hospitalizations in Florida during 2000-09 that were linked to detailed information on the medical training history of the physician of record for each hospitalization, we studied whether hospital mortality and patients' length-of-stay varied according to the number of years a physician was exposed to the 2003 duty-hour regulations during his or her residency. We examined this database of practicing Florida physicians, using a difference-in-differences analysis that compared trends in outcomes of junior physicians (those with one-year post-residency experience) pre- and post-2003 to a control group of senior physicians (those with ten or more years of post-residency experience) who were not exposed to these reforms during their residency. We found that the duty-hour reforms did not adversely affect hospital mortality and length-of-stay of patients cared for by new attending physicians who were partly or fully exposed to reduced duty hours during their own residency. However, assessment of the impact of the duty-hour reforms on other clinical outcomes is needed.

  15. A systematic review of early life factors which adversely affect subsequent lung function.

    PubMed

    Kouzouna, A; Gilchrist, F J; Ball, V; Kyriacou, T; Henderson, J; Pandyan, A D; Lenney, W

    2016-09-01

    It has been known for many years that multiple early life factors can adversely affect lung function and future respiratory health. This is the first systematic review to attempt to analyse all these factors simultaneously. We adhered to strict a priori criteria for inclusion and exclusion of studies. The initial search yielded 29,351 citations of which 208 articles were reviewed in full and 25 were included in the review. This included 6 birth cohorts and 19 longitudinal population studies. The 25 studies reported the effect of 74 childhood factors (on their own or in combinations with other factors) on subsequent lung function reported as percent predicted forced expiration in one second (FEV1). The childhood factors that were associated with a significant reduction in future FEV1 could be grouped as: early infection, bronchial hyper-reactivity (BHR) / airway lability, a diagnosis of asthma, wheeze, family history of atopy or asthma, respiratory symptoms and prematurity / low birth weight. A complete mathematical model will only be possible if the raw data from all previous studies is made available. This highlights the need for increased cooperation between researchers and the need for international consensus about the outcome measures for future longitudinal studies.

  16. Early Life in a Barren Environment Adversely Affects Spatial Cognition in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Nordgreen, Janicke; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition in vertebrates is adversely affected by a lack of environmental complexity during early life. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies have tested the effect of early exposure to varying degrees of environmental complexity on specific components of spatial cognition in chickens. There are two main rearing systems for laying hens in the EU: aviaries and cages. These two systems differ from one another in environmental complexity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that rearing in a barren cage environment relative to a complex aviary environment causes long-lasting deficits in the ability to perform spatial tasks. For this purpose, 24 white Dekalb laying hens, half of which had been reared in an aviary system and the other half in a conventional cage system, were tested in a holeboard task. Birds from both treatment groups learnt the task; however, the cage-reared hens required more time to locate rewards and had poorer levels of working memory. The latter finding supports the hypothesis that rearing in a barren environment causes long-term impairment of short-term memory in chickens. PMID:26664932

  17. No adverse affect after harvesting of free fibula osteoseptocutaneous flaps on gait function.

    PubMed

    Maurer-Ertl, Werner; Glehr, Mathias; Friesenbichler, Joerg; Sadoghi, Patrick; Wiedner, Maria; Haas, Franz; Leithner, Andreas; Windhager, Reinhard; Zwick, Ernst B

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze gait function and muscular strength on donor site after harvesting of a vascularized fibula osteoseptocutaneous flap. Nine patients with a mean follow-up of 33 months (range, 7-59) and a mean resection length of the middle portion of the fibula of 18.0 cm (range, 14.0-23.0) underwent an instrumented three-dimensional gait analysis to evaluate gait function. Furthermore, CYBEX II extremity system was used for muscular strength measurements. Subjective muscle strength measurements were performed according to Kendall et al. and were classified according to the British Medical Research Council. Intraindividual comparison between the operated and the nonoperated leg revealed no significant differences for gait function parameters (cadence, velocity, and stride length, P > 1.00) and for muscular strength measurements for flexion (knee: P = 0.93, ankle: P = 0.54) and extension (knee: P = 0.97, ankle: P= 0.21), respectively. In conclusion, intraindividual comparison of the operated and nonoperated sides after harvesting of the middle portion of the fibula for gaining a free fibula osteoseptocutaneous flap has no adverse affect on gait function or muscular flexion and extension strength on donor site at a mean follow-up of 33 months.

  18. Neonicotinoid clothianidin adversely affects insect immunity and promotes replication of a viral pathogen in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Di Prisco, Gennaro; Cavaliere, Valeria; Annoscia, Desiderato; Varricchio, Paola; Caprio, Emilio; Nazzi, Francesco; Gargiulo, Giuseppe; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2013-11-12

    Large-scale losses of honey bee colonies represent a poorly understood problem of global importance. Both biotic and abiotic factors are involved in this phenomenon that is often associated with high loads of parasites and pathogens. A stronger impact of pathogens in honey bees exposed to neonicotinoid insecticides has been reported, but the causal link between insecticide exposure and the possible immune alteration of honey bees remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin negatively modulates NF-κB immune signaling in insects and adversely affects honey bee antiviral defenses controlled by this transcription factor. We have identified in insects a negative modulator of NF-κB activation, which is a leucine-rich repeat protein. Exposure to clothianidin, by enhancing the transcription of the gene encoding this inhibitor, reduces immune defenses and promotes the replication of the deformed wing virus in honey bees bearing covert infections. This honey bee immunosuppression is similarly induced by a different neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, but not by the organophosphate chlorpyriphos, which does not affect NF-κB signaling. The occurrence at sublethal doses of this insecticide-induced viral proliferation suggests that the studied neonicotinoids might have a negative effect at the field level. Our experiments uncover a further level of regulation of the immune response in insects and set the stage for studies on neural modulation of immunity in animals. Furthermore, this study has implications for the conservation of bees, as it will contribute to the definition of more appropriate guidelines for testing chronic or sublethal effects of pesticides used in agriculture.

  19. Neonicotinoid clothianidin adversely affects insect immunity and promotes replication of a viral pathogen in honey bees

    PubMed Central

    Di Prisco, Gennaro; Cavaliere, Valeria; Annoscia, Desiderato; Varricchio, Paola; Caprio, Emilio; Nazzi, Francesco; Gargiulo, Giuseppe; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale losses of honey bee colonies represent a poorly understood problem of global importance. Both biotic and abiotic factors are involved in this phenomenon that is often associated with high loads of parasites and pathogens. A stronger impact of pathogens in honey bees exposed to neonicotinoid insecticides has been reported, but the causal link between insecticide exposure and the possible immune alteration of honey bees remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin negatively modulates NF-κB immune signaling in insects and adversely affects honey bee antiviral defenses controlled by this transcription factor. We have identified in insects a negative modulator of NF-κB activation, which is a leucine-rich repeat protein. Exposure to clothianidin, by enhancing the transcription of the gene encoding this inhibitor, reduces immune defenses and promotes the replication of the deformed wing virus in honey bees bearing covert infections. This honey bee immunosuppression is similarly induced by a different neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, but not by the organophosphate chlorpyriphos, which does not affect NF-κB signaling. The occurrence at sublethal doses of this insecticide-induced viral proliferation suggests that the studied neonicotinoids might have a negative effect at the field level. Our experiments uncover a further level of regulation of the immune response in insects and set the stage for studies on neural modulation of immunity in animals. Furthermore, this study has implications for the conservation of bees, as it will contribute to the definition of more appropriate guidelines for testing chronic or sublethal effects of pesticides used in agriculture. PMID:24145453

  20. Antibiotics as a chemical stressor affecting an aquatic decomposer-detritivore system.

    PubMed

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Hahn, Torsten; Gessner, Mark O; Schulz, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that a variety of antibiotic residues may affect the integrity of streams located downstream from wastewater treatment plants. Aquatic communities comprising bacterial and fungal decomposers and invertebrate detritivores (shredders) play an important role in the decomposition of allochthonous leaf litter, which acts as a primary energy source for small running waters. The aim of the present study was to assess whether an antibiotic mixture consisting of sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, erythromycin-H2O, roxithromycin, and clarithromycin has an effect on such a decomposer-detritivore system. Leaf discs were exposed to these antibiotics (total concentration of 2 or 200 microg/L) for approximately 20 d before offering these discs and corresponding control discs to an amphipod shredder, Gammarus fossarum, in a food choice experiment. Gammarus preferred the leaf discs conditioned in the presence of the antibiotic mixture at 200 microg/L over the control discs (pair-wise t test; p = 0.006). A similar tendency, while not significant, was observed for leaves conditioned with antibiotics at a concentration of 2 microg/L. The number of bacteria associated with leaves did not differ between treatments at either antibiotic concentration (t test; p = 0.57). In contrast, fungal biomass (measured as ergosterol) was significantly higher in the 200 microg/L treatment (t test; p = 0.038), suggesting that the preference of Gammarus may be related to a shift in fungal communities. Overall these results indicate that mixtures of antibiotics may disrupt important ecosystem processes such as organic matter flow in stream ecosystems, although effects are likely to be weak at antibiotic concentrations typical of streams receiving wastewater treatment plant effluents.

  1. Antioxidant-rich beetroot juice does not adversely affect acute neuromuscular adaptation following eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Tom; Bell, Oliver; West, Daniel J; Howatson, Glyn; Stevenson, Emma J

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the effects of beetroot juice on the repeated bout effect (RBE) to eccentric exercise. Twenty-nine recreationally active males performed two bouts of 100-drop jumps, separated by 14-21 days. Using a double-blind, independent groups design, participants consumed either a higher dose beetroot juice (H-BT; 250 ml, n = 10), a lower dose beetroot juice (L-BT; 125 ml, n = 9) or an isocaloric placebo (PLA; 250 ml, n = 10) for 3 days after bout 1; no drinks were consumed after bout 2. Maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC), countermovement jump (CMJ), pressure-pain threshold (PPT) and creatine kinase (CK) were measured pre, post, 24, 48 and 72 h following both bouts. In bout 2, CMJ and MIVC recovered quicker and CK activity was attenuated (versus bout 1) (P < 0.05) in all groups, demonstrating an RBE. At 24 h post bout 1, MIVC was 84.1 ± 16.1, 83.6 ± 11.6, 79.7 ± 15.1% relative to baseline values in the H-BT, L-BT and PLA groups, respectively; at 24 h post bout 2, MIVC recovered to 90.7 ± 13.7, 92.9 ± 6.9, 87.8 ± 6.9, in the H-BT, L-BT and PLA groups, respectively. These findings suggest that supplementation with antioxidant-rich beetroot juice does not adversely affect acute adaptations to a bout of eccentric exercise.

  2. Quality of life and functional capacity are adversely affected in osteoarthritis patients with neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Aşkın, Ayhan; Özkan, Ayten; Tosun, Aliye; Demirdal, Ümit Seçil; İsnaç, Fethi

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the neuropathic pain component of knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients and to investigate the relationship between neuropathic pain, disease stage, functional state, depression, anxiety, and quality of life. This study included 60 patients with knee OA. All demographic data and radiological results were recorded. Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Timed Up and Go Test, Chair Stand Test, Western Ontario and McMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), PainDETECT questionnaire, DN4 questionnaire, Short form-36 questionnaire, and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale were performed for each patient. Neuropathic pain was detected in 66.7% of patients based on the PainDETECT scale and in 46.7% of patients based on DN4 scale. VAS-resting, OA grade, WOMAC scores, and SF-scores showed a significant difference in patients that detected neuropathic pain with PainDETECT (p<0.05). Based on the DN4 scale, patients with neuropathic pain had significantly higher WOMAC scores and significantly lower SF-36 scores (p<0.05). The PainDETECT questionnaire scores showed positive correlations with Timed Up-and-go Test, VAS-resting, WOMAC scores, Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale scores, and a negative correlation with all SF-36 scores (p<0.05). DN4 questionnaire scores showed a negative correlation with SF-36 scores and positive correlation with WOMAC scores (p<0.05). To conclude, it should be kept in mind that patients with knee OA who describe intense pain may have a neuropathic component involved in the clinical condition. Quality of life and functional capacity are adversely affected in patients with knee OA who have neuropathic pain. This should be taken into account while planning the treatment of these patients.

  3. Probabilities of adverse weather affecting transport in Europe: climatology and scenarios up to the 2050s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajda, A.; Tuomenvirta, H.; Jokinen, P.; Luomaranta, A.; Makkonen, L.; Tikanmäki, M.; Groenemeijer, P.; Saarikivi, P.; Michaelides, S.; Papadakis, M.; Tymvios, F.; Athanasatos, S.

    2012-04-01

    This paper provides the first comprehensive climatology of the adverse and extreme weather events affecting the European transport system by estimating the frequency (or probability) of phenomena for the present climate (1971-2000) and an overview of the projected changes in some of these extremes in the future climate until the 2050s. The research was carried out within the framework of the EWENT Project that addresses the European Union (EU) policies and strategies related to climate change, with a particular focus on extreme weather impacts on the EU transportation system. This project is funded by the Seventh Framework Programme (Transports, call ID FPT7-TPT-2008-RTD-1). The analyzed phenomena are wind, snow, blizzards, heavy precipitation, cold spells and heat waves. In addition, reduced visibility conditions determined by fog and dust events, small-scale phenomena affecting the transport system, such as thunderstorms, lightning, large hail and tornadoes and events damaging infrastructure of the transport system, have been considered. Frequency and probability analysis of past and present ex¬tremes were performed using observational and atmospheric reanalysis data. Future changes in the probability of severe events were assessed based on six regional climate model simulations produced in the FP6 ENSEMBLES project (http://www.ensembles-eu.org/). To facilitate the assessment of impacts and consequences of extreme phenomena on a continental level, the WP2 Deliverable introduces a regionalization of the European extreme phenomena, defining the climate zones with similarities in extreme phenomena. The projected changes as well as large natural variability in weather extremes on the transportation network will have impacts of both signs. The decline of extreme cold and snowfall over most of the continent implies a positive impact on road, rail, inland water and air transportation, e.g., by reducing snow removal. However, even with a general decreasing trend in

  4. 50 CFR 402.45 - Alternative consultation on FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Counterpart Regulations Governing Actions by the U.S... that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat. 402.45 Section...

  5. 50 CFR 402.45 - Alternative consultation on FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Counterpart Regulations Governing Actions by the U.S... that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat. 402.45 Section...

  6. 50 CFR 402.45 - Alternative consultation on FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Counterpart Regulations Governing Actions by the U.S... that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat. 402.45 Section...

  7. 50 CFR 402.45 - Alternative consultation on FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Counterpart Regulations Governing Actions by the U.S... that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat. 402.45 Section...

  8. 50 CFR 402.45 - Alternative consultation on FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Counterpart Regulations Governing Actions by the U.S... that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat. 402.45 Section...

  9. Exposure to serotonin adversely affects oligodendrocyte development and myelination in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lir-Wan; Bhatt, Abhay; Tien, Lu-Tai; Zheng, Baoying; Simpson, Kimberly L; Lin, Rick C S; Cai, Zhengwei; Kumar, Praveen; Pang, Yi

    2015-05-01

    patterns of contactin-associated protein (Caspr) clustering were observed at the sites of Node of Ranvier, suggesting that 5-HT exposure may affect other axon-derived factors for myelination. In summary, this is the first study to demonstrate that manipulation of serotonin levels affects OL development and myelination, which may contribute to altered neural connectivity noted in SSRIs-treated animals. The current in vitro study demonstrated that exposure to high level of serotonin (5-HT) led to aberrant oligodendrocyte (OL) development, cell injury, and myelination deficit. We propose that elevated extracellular serotonin levels in the fetal brain, such as upon the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy, may adversely affect OL development and/or myelination, thus contributing to altered neural connectivity seen in Autism Spectrum Disorders. OPC = oligodendrocyte progenitor cell.

  10. Factors Affecting Stakeholders' Willingness to Pay to Prevent the Spread of Aquatic Nuisance Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaine, Thomas W.; Lichtkoppler, Frank R.

    2016-01-01

    Physical separation of the Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins has been identified as the most effective method for preventing the transfer of aquatic nuisance species, particularly Asian carp, from the Mississippi River Basin to the Great Lakes. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers selected Extension to conduct a study of a key stakeholder…

  11. FACTORS AFFECTING COLORED DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS OF THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sunlight-absorbing (colored) component of dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in aquatic environments is widely distributed in freshwaters and coastal regions where it influences the fate and transport of toxic organic substances and biologically-important metals such as mercury,...

  12. Severe Affective and Behavioural Dysregulation Is Associated with Significant Psychosocial Adversity and Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jucksch, Viola; Salbach-Andrae, Harriet; Lenz, Klaus; Goth, Kirstin; Dopfner, Manfred; Poustka, Fritz; Freitag, Christine M.; Lehmkuhl, Gerd; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Holtmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Recently, a highly heritable behavioral phenotype of simultaneous deviance on the Anxious/Depressed, Attention Problems, and Aggressive Behavior syndrome scales has been identified on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL-Dysregulation Profile, CBCL-DP). This study aims to investigate psychosocial adversity and impairment of the CBCL-DP.…

  13. Desiccation of sediments affects assimilate transport within aquatic plants and carbon transfer to microorganisms.

    PubMed

    von Rein, I; Kayler, Z E; Premke, K; Gessler, A

    2016-11-01

    With the projected increase in drought duration and intensity in future, small water bodies, and especially the terrestrial-aquatic interfaces, will be subjected to longer dry periods with desiccation of the sediment. Drought effects on the plant-sediment microorganism carbon continuum may disrupt the tight linkage between plants and microbes which governs sediment carbon and nutrient cycling, thus having a potential negative impact on carbon sequestration of small freshwater ecosystems. However, research on drought effects on the plant-sediment carbon transfer in aquatic ecosystems is scarce. We therefore exposed two emergent aquatic macrophytes, Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia, to a month-long summer drought in a mesocosm experiment. We followed the fate of carbon from leaves to sediment microbial communities with (13) CO2 pulse labelling and microbial phospholipid-derived fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. We found that drought reduced the total amount of carbon allocated to stem tissues but did not delay the transport. We also observed an increase in accumulation of (13) C-labelled sugars in roots and found a reduced incorporation of (13) C into the PLFAs of sediment microorganisms. Drought induced a switch in plant carbon allocation priorities, where stems received less new assimilates leading to reduced starch reserves whilst roots were prioritised with new assimilates, suggesting their use for osmoregulation. There were indications that the reduced carbon transfer from roots to microorganisms was due to the reduction of microbial activity via direct drought effects rather than to a decrease in root exudation or exudate availability.

  14. 25 CFR 1000.317 - Is a Tribe's/Consortium's general right to negotiate an AFA adversely affected by a reassumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AFA adversely affected by a reassumption action? 1000.317 Section 1000.317 Indians OFFICE OF THE....317 Is a Tribe's/Consortium's general right to negotiate an AFA adversely affected by a reassumption... negotiate an AFA for programs not affected by the reassumption....

  15. 25 CFR 1000.317 - Is a Tribe's/Consortium's general right to negotiate an AFA adversely affected by a reassumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AFA adversely affected by a reassumption action? 1000.317 Section 1000.317 Indians OFFICE OF THE....317 Is a Tribe's/Consortium's general right to negotiate an AFA adversely affected by a reassumption... negotiate an AFA for programs not affected by the reassumption....

  16. 25 CFR 1000.317 - Is a Tribe's/Consortium's general right to negotiate an AFA adversely affected by a reassumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AFA adversely affected by a reassumption action? 1000.317 Section 1000.317 Indians OFFICE OF THE....317 Is a Tribe's/Consortium's general right to negotiate an AFA adversely affected by a reassumption... negotiate an AFA for programs not affected by the reassumption....

  17. 25 CFR 1000.317 - Is a Tribe's/Consortium's general right to negotiate an AFA adversely affected by a reassumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AFA adversely affected by a reassumption action? 1000.317 Section 1000.317 Indians OFFICE OF THE....317 Is a Tribe's/Consortium's general right to negotiate an AFA adversely affected by a reassumption... negotiate an AFA for programs not affected by the reassumption....

  18. 25 CFR 1000.317 - Is a Tribe's/Consortium's general right to negotiate an AFA adversely affected by a reassumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AFA adversely affected by a reassumption action? 1000.317 Section 1000.317 Indians OFFICE OF THE....317 Is a Tribe's/Consortium's general right to negotiate an AFA adversely affected by a reassumption... negotiate an AFA for programs not affected by the reassumption....

  19. 30 CFR 585.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 585.816 Section 585.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU... affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? If environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility so as to endanger the safety or the environment, you must: (a) Submit a plan...

  20. 30 CFR 585.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 585.816 Section 585.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU... affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? If environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility so as to endanger the safety or the environment, you must: (a) Submit a plan...

  1. 30 CFR 585.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 585.816 Section 585.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU... affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? If environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility so as to endanger the safety or the environment, you must: (a) Submit a plan...

  2. Enantiomer specific measurements of current-use pesticides in aquatic systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contrary to predictions, current-use pesticides are adversely affecting aquatic systems in both urban and agricultural watersheds, particularly in California. One possible divergence from fate and effect predictions is that some current-use pesticides are chiral molecules. Increa...

  3. Does Employment-Related Resilience Affect the Relationship between Childhood Adversity, Community Violence, and Depression?

    PubMed

    Welles, Seth L; Patel, Falguni; Chilton, Mariana

    2017-04-01

    Depression is a barrier to employment among low-income caregivers receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and exposure to community violence (ECV) are often associated with depression. Using baseline data of 103 TANF caregivers of young children of the Building Wealth and Health Network Randomized Controlled Trial Pilot, this study investigated associations of two forms of employment-related resilience-self-efficacy and employment hope-with exposure to adversity/violence and depression, measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) short form. Using contingency table analysis and regression analysis, we identified associations between ACEs and depression [OR = 1.70 (1.25-2.32), p = 0.0008] and having high levels of ECV with a 6.9-fold increased risk for depression when compared with those without ECV [OR = 6.86 (1.43-33.01), p = 0.02]. While self-efficacy and employment hope were significantly associated with depression, neither resilience factor impacted the association of ACE level and depression, whereas self-efficacy and employment hope modestly reduced the associations between ECV and depression, 13 and 16%, respectively. Results suggest that self-efficacy and employment hope may not have an impact on the strong associations between adversity, violence, and depression.

  4. How does predation affect the bioaccumulation of hydrophobic organic compounds in aquatic organisms?

    PubMed

    Xia, Xinghui; Li, Husheng; Yang, Zhifeng; Zhang, Xiaotian; Wang, Haotian

    2015-04-21

    It is well-known that the body burden of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) increases with the trophic level of aquatic organisms. However, the mechanism of HOC biomagnification is not fully understood. To fill this gap, this study investigated the effect of predation on the bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), one type of HOC, in low-to-high aquatic trophic levels under constant freely dissolved PAH concentrations (1, 5, or 10 μg L(-1)) maintained by passive dosing systems. The tested PAHs included phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. The test organisms included zebrafish, which prey on Daphnia magna, and cichlids, which prey on zebrafish. The results revealed that for both zebrafish and cichlids, predation elevated the uptake and elimination rates of PAHs. The increase of uptake rate constant ranged from 20.8% to 39.4% in zebrafish with the amount of predation of 5 daphnids per fish per day, and the PAH uptake rate constant increased with the amount of predation. However, predation did not change the final bioaccumulation equilibrium; the equilibrium concentrations of PAHs in fish only depended on the freely dissolved concentration in water. Furthermore, the lipid-normalized water-based bioaccumulation factor of each PAH was constant for fish at different trophic levels. These findings infer that the final bioaccumulation equilibrium of PAHs is related to a partition between water and lipids in aquatic organisms, and predation between trophic levels does not change bioaccumulation equilibrium but bioaccumulation kinetics at stable freely dissolved PAH concentrations. This study suggests that if HOCs have not reached bioaccumulation equilibrium, biomagnification occurs due to enhanced uptake rates caused by predation in addition to higher lipid contents in higher trophic organisms. Otherwise, it is only due to the higher lipid contents in higher trophic organisms.

  5. Folic acid supplementation can adversely affect murine neural tube closure and embryonic survival.

    PubMed

    Marean, Amber; Graf, Amanda; Zhang, Ying; Niswander, Lee

    2011-09-15

    Neural tube defects (NTDs), a common birth defect in humans, result from the failure of the embryonic neural tube (NT) to close properly. NT closure is a complex, poorly understood morphogenetic process influenced by genes and environment. The most effective environmental influence in decreasing the risk for NTDs is folic acid (FA) fortification and supplementation, and these findings led to the recommendation of periconceptual FA intake and mandatory fortification of the US grain supply in 1998. To explore the relationship between genetics and responsiveness to FA supplementation, we used five mouse NTDs models-Zic2, Shroom3, Frem2, Grhl2 (Grainyhead-like 2) and L3P (Line3P)-and a long-term generational FA supplementation scheme. Contrary to expectations, we find that three genetic mutants respond adversely to FA supplementation with increased incidence of NTDs in homozygous mutants, occurrence of NTDs in heterozygous embryos and embryonic lethality prior to NT closure. Because of these unexpected responses, we examined NTD risk after short-term FA supplementation. Our results indicate that, for the same genetic allele, NTD risk can depend on the length of FA exposure. Our data indicate that, depending on the gene mutation, FA supplementation may adversely influence embryonic development and NT closure.

  6. Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutteling, Barbara M.; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50…

  7. Lead-induced oxidative stress adversely affects health of the occupational workers.

    PubMed

    Khan, D A; Qayyum, S; Saleem, S; Khan, F A

    2008-10-01

    Lead is a persistent toxic metal and associated with impairment of various body functions in occupational workers. The main objective was to determine the lead-induced oxidative stress and adverse health effects by biochemical markers in industrial workers. One hundred and forty-eight males consisting of 87 lead-exposed industrial workers and 61 controls were included. Blood lead level (BLL) was determined on a 3010B ESA lead analyzer. Blood complete counts were done on a hematology analyzer. Biochemical markers including serum uric acid, urea, creatinine, phosphate, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) were measured on a Selectra E auto analyzer. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured spectrophotometrically and C-reactive protein (CRP) on Immulite-1000. Results revealed that lead-exposed workers had significantly high BLLs, median (range), 29.1 (9.0-61.1) microg/dL compared with controls, 8.3 (1.0-21.7) microg/dL. Oxidative stress (MDA, GGT) and inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity CRP) were significantly increased (P < or = 0.05). Blood pressure was raised, whereas hemoglobin was decreased in exposed group (P < or = 0.002). Serum urea, uric acid, phosphate, and ALT were significantly raised in lead-exposed workers (P < or = 0.001). Serum albumin, total proteins, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were decreased. Blood lead showed a significant positive correlation with serum GGT (r = 0.63), MDA (r = 0.71), CRP (r = 0.75), urea (r = 0.34), creatinine (r = 0.51), and uric acid (r = 0.29) (P < or = 0.01). It is concluded that lead exposure increases oxidative stress that correlates with adverse changes in hematological, renal, and hepatic function in the occupational workers. Elevated blood lead has positive correlation with oxidative stress, inflammatory and biochemical markers that might be used to detect impairment in the body function in lead exposed workers.

  8. Diagnosis of potential stressors adversely affecting benthic invertebrate communities in Greenwich Bay, Rhode Island, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Greenwich Bay is an urbanized embayment of Narragansett Bay potentially impacted by multiple stressors. The present study identified the important stressors affecting Greenwich Bay benthic fauna. First, existing data and information were used to confirm that the waterbody was imp...

  9. Can aircraft noise less than or equal 115 to dBA adversely affect reproductive outcome in USAF women?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brubaker, P. A.

    1985-06-01

    It has been suggested, mainly through animal studies, that exposure to high noise levels may be associated with lower birth weight, reduced gestational length and other adverse reproductive outcomes. Few studies have been done on humans to show this association. The Air Force employs pregnant women in areas where there is a high potential for exposure to high noise levels. This study proposes a method to determine if there is an association between high frequency noise levels or = 115 dBA and adverse reproductive outcomes through a review of records and self-administered questionnaires in a case-comparison design. Prevelance rates will be calculated and a multiple logistic regression analysis computed for the independent variables that can affect reproduction.

  10. Elevated depressive affect is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes among African Americans with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Michael J; Kimmel, Paul L; Greene, Tom; Gassman, Jennifer J; Wang, Xuelei; Brooks, Deborah H; Charleston, Jeanne; Dowie, Donna; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Cooper, Lisa A; Bruce, Marino A; Kusek, John W; Norris, Keith C; Lash, James P

    2011-09-01

    This study was designed to examine the impact of elevated depressive affect on health outcomes among participants with hypertensive chronic kidney disease in the African-American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) Cohort Study. Elevated depressive affect was defined by Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) thresholds of 11 or more, above 14, and by 5-Unit increments in the score. Cox regression analyses were used to relate cardiovascular death/hospitalization, doubling of serum creatinine/end-stage renal disease, overall hospitalization, and all-cause death to depressive affect evaluated at baseline, the most recent annual visit (time-varying), or average from baseline to the most recent visit (cumulative). Among 628 participants at baseline, 42% had BDI-II scores of 11 or more and 26% had a score above 14. During a 5-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of cardiovascular death/hospitalization was significantly greater for participants with baseline BDI-II scores of 11 or more compared with those with scores <11. The baseline, time-varying, and cumulative elevated depressive affect were each associated with a significant higher risk of cardiovascular death/hospitalization, especially with a time-varying BDI-II score over 14 (adjusted HR 1.63) but not with the other outcomes. Thus, elevated depressive affect is associated with unfavorable cardiovascular outcomes in African Americans with hypertensive chronic kidney disease.

  11. Adverse childhood experiences associate to reduced glutamate levels in the hippocampus of patients affected by mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Sara; Locatelli, Clara; Falini, Andrea; Colombo, Cristina; Benedetti, Francesco

    2016-11-03

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) can possibly permanently alter the stress response system, affect the glutamatergic system and influence hippocampal volume in mood disorders. The aim of the study is to investigate the association between glutamate levels in the hippocampus, measured through single proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), and ACE in patients affected by mood disorders and healthy controls. Higher levels of early stress associate to reduced levels of Glx/Cr in the hippocampus in depressed patients but not in healthy controls. Exposure to stress during early life could lead to a hypofunctionality of the glutamatergic system in the hippocampus of depressed patients. Abnormalities of glutamatergic signaling could then possibly underpin the structural and functional abnormalities observed in patients affected by mood disorders.

  12. Exposure to zidovudine adversely affects mitochondrial turnover in primary T cells.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Zoë R; Sanderson, Sharon; Simon, Anna Katarina; Dorrell, Lucy

    2016-09-01

    Zidovudine (ZDV) is a widely used component of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings, despite its known adverse effects, which include mitochondrial toxicity in muscle, liver and adipose tissue. It has also been associated with impaired immunological recovery. We hypothesised that ZDV might impair mitochondrial health and survival of primary T cells. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of mitochondrial function, mitophagy and susceptibility to apoptosis in healthy donor primary T cells after exposure to ZDV in vitro, together with T cells from patients who were virologically suppressed on ZDV-containing ART regimens for ≥1 year and age-matched subjects receiving non-ZDV ART regimens. The proportion of T cells expressing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) was significantly higher after in vitro (CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cells) and in vivo (CD4(+) T cells) exposure to ZDV than other antiretroviral agents. We did not detect any effect of ZDV on mitophagy, as indicated by change in autophagic flux. However, spontaneous apoptosis, indicated by upregulation of caspase-3 was greater in ZDV-exposed T cells. In conclusion, ZDV exposure was associated with impaired mitochondrial turnover and increased susceptibility to apoptosis in T cells. These mechanisms could contribute to sub-optimal immune reconstitution.

  13. Coralline algal physiology is more adversely affected by elevated temperature than reduced pH

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez-Elizondo, Román Manuel; Enríquez, Susana

    2016-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the physiological responses of coralline algae to ocean acidification (OA) and global warming, by exposing algal thalli of three species with contrasting photobiology and growth-form to reduced pH and elevated temperature. The analysis aimed to discern between direct and combined effects, while elucidating the role of light and photosynthesis inhibition in this response. We demonstrate the high sensitivity of coralline algae to photodamage under elevated temperature and its severe consequences on thallus photosynthesis and calcification rates. Moderate levels of light-stress, however, were maintained under reduced pH, resulting in no impact on algal photosynthesis, although moderate adverse effects on calcification rates were still observed. Accordingly, our results support the conclusion that global warming is a stronger threat to algal performance than OA, in particular in highly illuminated habitats such as coral reefs. We provide in this study a quantitative physiological model for the estimation of the impact of thermal-stress on coralline carbonate production, useful to foresee the impact of global warming on coralline contribution to reef carbon budgets, reef cementation, coral recruitment and the maintenance of reef biodiversity. This model, however, cannot yet account for the moderate physiological impact of low pH on coralline calcification. PMID:26740396

  14. Maternal and young child nutrition adversely affected by external shocks such as increasing global food prices.

    PubMed

    Darnton-Hill, Ian; Cogill, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Rising food prices, resulting from the ongoing global economic crisis, fuel price volatility, and climate change, have an adverse impact upon the poor, especially those in food-importing, resource-limited countries. The conventional approach by large organizations has been to advocate for increased staple crop yields of mainly cereals. High food prices are predicted to continue to at least 2015. Past shocks and their known impacts upon nutrition were reviewed. Price instability and increases have long been an existing global problem, which has been exacerbated by recent macroeconomic shocks such as acute emergencies due to war and civil strife, acute climatic events, increase in food prices, fuel price volatility, dysfunction of the global financial systems, long-term climate change, and the emergence of failed states. The FAO estimated that there were 815 million "hungry" people in 2006, with a now additional 75-135 million with increased vulnerability, and currently it is estimated that there are one billion people at risk of food insecurity. The shocks initially compromise maternal and child nutrition, mainly through a reduction in dietary quality and an increase in micronutrient deficiencies and concomitant increases in infectious disease morbidity and mortality. A further reduction in the quantity of diet may follow with greater underweight and wasting. Recent macroeconomic shocks have greatly increased the number of people who are vulnerable to hunger in developing countries. Nutritional surveillance systems need to be strengthened and expanded to inform policy decisions.

  15. Coralline algal physiology is more adversely affected by elevated temperature than reduced pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vásquez-Elizondo, Román Manuel; Enríquez, Susana

    2016-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the physiological responses of coralline algae to ocean acidification (OA) and global warming, by exposing algal thalli of three species with contrasting photobiology and growth-form to reduced pH and elevated temperature. The analysis aimed to discern between direct and combined effects, while elucidating the role of light and photosynthesis inhibition in this response. We demonstrate the high sensitivity of coralline algae to photodamage under elevated temperature and its severe consequences on thallus photosynthesis and calcification rates. Moderate levels of light-stress, however, were maintained under reduced pH, resulting in no impact on algal photosynthesis, although moderate adverse effects on calcification rates were still observed. Accordingly, our results support the conclusion that global warming is a stronger threat to algal performance than OA, in particular in highly illuminated habitats such as coral reefs. We provide in this study a quantitative physiological model for the estimation of the impact of thermal-stress on coralline carbonate production, useful to foresee the impact of global warming on coralline contribution to reef carbon budgets, reef cementation, coral recruitment and the maintenance of reef biodiversity. This model, however, cannot yet account for the moderate physiological impact of low pH on coralline calcification.

  16. Coralline algal physiology is more adversely affected by elevated temperature than reduced pH.

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Elizondo, Román Manuel; Enríquez, Susana

    2016-01-07

    In this study we analyzed the physiological responses of coralline algae to ocean acidification (OA) and global warming, by exposing algal thalli of three species with contrasting photobiology and growth-form to reduced pH and elevated temperature. The analysis aimed to discern between direct and combined effects, while elucidating the role of light and photosynthesis inhibition in this response. We demonstrate the high sensitivity of coralline algae to photodamage under elevated temperature and its severe consequences on thallus photosynthesis and calcification rates. Moderate levels of light-stress, however, were maintained under reduced pH, resulting in no impact on algal photosynthesis, although moderate adverse effects on calcification rates were still observed. Accordingly, our results support the conclusion that global warming is a stronger threat to algal performance than OA, in particular in highly illuminated habitats such as coral reefs. We provide in this study a quantitative physiological model for the estimation of the impact of thermal-stress on coralline carbonate production, useful to foresee the impact of global warming on coralline contribution to reef carbon budgets, reef cementation, coral recruitment and the maintenance of reef biodiversity. This model, however, cannot yet account for the moderate physiological impact of low pH on coralline calcification.

  17. Weight Reduction in Athletes May Adversely Affect the Phagocytic Function of Monocytes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kono, Ichiro; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Study of the monocyte phagocytic function in nine competitive athletes before and after a two-week weight reduction (through calorie restriction) program revealed that their pre-program phagocytic activity was higher than in sedentary controls but decreased significantly after the program. This suggests calorie restriction may affect the human…

  18. A dietary assessment of selenium risk to aquatic birds on a coal mine affected stream in Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Wayland, M.; Casey, R.; Woodsworth, E.

    2007-07-15

    In this article, we present the results of a dietary-based assessment of the risk that selenium may pose to two aquatic bird species, the American Dipper (Cinclus mexicanus) and the Harlequin Duck (Histrionicus histrionicus), on one of the coal mine-affected streams, the Gregg River. The study consisted of (1) a literature-based toxicity assessment, (2) simulation of selenium exposure in the diets and eggs of the two species, and (3) a risk assessment that coupled information on toxicity and exposure. Diet and egg selenium concentrations associated with a 20% hatch failure rate were 6.4 and 17 {mu} g {center_dot} g{sup -1} dry wt, respectively. Simulated dietary selenium concentrations were about 2.0-2.5 {mu} g {center_dot} g{sup -1} higher on the Gregg River than on reference streams for both species. When simulated dietary concentrations were considered, hatch failure rates on the Gregg River were predicted to average 12% higher in American Dippers and 8% higher in Harlequin Ducks than at reference streams. Corresponding values were only 3% for both species when predicted egg concentrations were used. Elevated levels of selenium in insects in some of the reference streams were unexpected and raised a question as to whether aquatic birds have evolved a higher tolerance level for dietary selenium in these areas.

  19. Hydrologic alteration affects aquatic plant assemblages in an arid-land river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vinson, Mark; Hestmark, Bennett; Barkworth, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of long-term flow alteration on primary-producer assemblages. In 1962, Flaming Gorge Dam was constructed on the Green River. The Yampa River has remained an unregulated hydrologically variable river that joins the Green River 100 km downstream from Flaming Gorge Dam. In the 1960s before dam construction only sparse occurrences of two macroalgae, Cladophora and Chara, and no submerged vascular plants were recorded in the Green and Yampa rivers. In 2009–2010, aquatic plants were abundant and widespread in the Green River from the dam downstream to the confluence with the Yampa River. The assemblage consisted of six vascular species, Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum sibiricum, Nasturtium officinale,Potamogeton crispus, Potamogeton pectinatus, and Ranunculus aquatilis, the macroalgae Chara and Cladophora, and the bryophyte, Amblystegium riparium. In the Green River downstream from the Yampa River, and in the Yampa River, only sparse patches of Chara and Cladophora growing in the splash zone on boulders were collected. We attribute the observed changes in the Green River to an increase in water transparency and a reduction in suspended and bed-load sediment and high flow disturbances. The lack of hydrophyte colonization downstream from the confluence with the Yampa River has implications for understanding tributary amelioration of dam effects and for designing more natural flow-regime schedules downstream from large dams.

  20. Does maternal prenatal stress adversely affect the child's learning and memory at age six?

    PubMed

    Gutteling, Barbara M; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J H; Visser, Gerard H A; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2006-12-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50 boys, 62 girls, Age: M=6.7 years, SD=8.4 months), with the Test of Memory and Learning (TOMAL). Maternal stress levels were determined three times during pregnancy by self-report questionnaires. Furthermore, maternal saliva cortisol samples were used as a measure of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning. Results of hierarchical multivariate regression analyses showed that maternal life events measured during the first part of pregnancy were negatively associated with the child's attention/concentration index, while controlling for overall IQ, gender, and postnatal stress. No associations were found between prenatal maternal cortisol and the offspring's learning and memory.

  1. Early-life adversity accelerates cellular ageing and affects adult inflammation: Experimental evidence from the European starling

    PubMed Central

    Nettle, Daniel; Andrews, Clare; Reichert, Sophie; Bedford, Tom; Kolenda, Claire; Parker, Craig; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Monaghan, Pat; Bateson, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Early-life adversity is associated with accelerated cellular ageing during development and increased inflammation during adulthood. However, human studies can only establish correlation, not causation, and existing experimental animal approaches alter multiple components of early-life adversity simultaneously. We developed a novel hand-rearing paradigm in European starling nestlings (Sturnus vulgaris), in which we separately manipulated nutritional shortfall and begging effort for a period of 10 days. The experimental treatments accelerated erythrocyte telomere attrition and increased DNA damage measured in the juvenile period. For telomere attrition, amount of food and begging effort exerted additive effects. Only the combination of low food amount and high begging effort increased DNA damage. We then measured two markers of inflammation, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin-6, when the birds were adults. The experimental treatments affected both inflammatory markers, though the patterns were complex and different for each marker. The effect of the experimental treatments on adult interleukin-6 was partially mediated by increased juvenile DNA damage. Our results show that both nutritional input and begging effort in the nestling period affect cellular ageing and adult inflammation in the starling. However, the pattern of effects is different for different biomarkers measured at different time points. PMID:28094324

  2. Metal toxicity differently affects the Iris pseudacorus-arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi symbiosis in terrestrial and semi-aquatic habitats.

    PubMed

    Wężowicz, K; Turnau, K; Anielska, T; Zhebrak, I; Gołuszka, K; Błaszkowski, J; Rozpądek, P

    2015-12-01

    Phytoremediation offers an environmental friendly alternative to conventional cleanup techniques. In this study, mycorrhizal fungi isolated from the roots of Mentha longifolia grown in the basin of the Centuria River (S Poland) were used. Iris pseudacorus was grown in substratum from an industrial waste, enriched in Pb, Fe, Zn, and Cd in a terrestrial and water-logged habitat. Plant yield and photosynthetic performance was the highest in the aquatic environment; however, the presence of toxic metals (TM) negatively affected photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry as shown by the JIP test. Fungi colonization and Cd accumulation within plant tissues was decreased. In the terrestrial habitat, neither arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) nor metal toxicity affected plant growth, although metal uptake, Cd in particular, as well as photosynthesis were affected. Inoculated plants accumulated significantly more Cd, and photosynthesis was downregulated. The results presented in this study clearly indicate that the I. pseudacorus-AMF symbiosis adapts itself to the presence of toxic metals in the environment, optimizing resource supply, energy fluxes, and possibly stress tolerance mechanisms. Plant/AMF consortia grown in terrestrial and water-logged habitats utilize different strategies to cope with metal toxicity. The use of AMF in improving the phytoremediation potential of I. pseudacorus needs, however, further research.

  3. Alkaline decontamination of sputum specimens adversely affects stability of mycobacterial mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Desjardin, L E; Perkins, M D; Teixeira, L; Cave, M D; Eisenach, K D

    1996-01-01

    Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) is an important tool for Mycobacterium tuberculosis research and diagnostics. A standard procedure using N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NALC) and NaOH has been widely adopted for digestion and decontamination of sputum specimens for mycobacterial culture. The objective of this study was to determine the compatibility of this method with the recovery of RNA for RT-PCR assays. Nineteen sputum specimens were collected from smear-positive, pretreatment tuberculosis patients. After homogenization with NALC and glass beads, specimens were further processed by the addition of either NaOH, as per the standard decontamination protocol, or phosphate buffer. RNA was prepared by using a modified guanidine-phenol extraction method developed specifically for sputum sediments. DNA was isolated from the same specimens. Reverse transcriptions of alpha antigen (85B protein) mRNA and 16S rRNA were performed together, and aliquots were removed for separate PCRs. In all specimens, the 85B mRNA target was greatly diminished by treatment with NaOH; however, the 16S rRNA target remained unaffected. Storing sputum specimens for 48 h at 4 degrees C before processing did not seem to affect the integrity or yield of RNA; however, some degradation occurred by 72 h. Data suggest that the NaOH-NALC method for processing sputum samples is not suitable for detecting mRNA targets in RT-PCR assays. PMID:8880495

  4. Fibrinolysis inhibitors adversely affect remodeling of tissues sealed with fibrin glue.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Lissy K; Vijayan Lal, Arthur; Uma Shankar, P R; Mohanty, Mira

    2003-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out to determine if aprotinin and epsilon -amino caproic acid increases the quality of Fibrin glue. A rat model was used for tissues such as liver and skin while rabbits were used for application of glue in dura mater. Apposition of all the tissues, glued with fibrin was found to be good and remnants of the polymerized fibrin were seen even on the seventh day of application, though inhibitors were not incorporated with the glue. In skin, excessive amounts of fibrin remained as a result of addition of aprotinin and epsilon -amino caproic acid, as compared to the glue applied without any inhibitor. After dural sealing, the wound repair and new bone formation at craniotomy site progressed well in the fibrin glue applied area as compared to the commercially available glue that contained aprotinin. The adhesive strength of the glue without or with fibrinolysis inhibitors was found to be similar, after 1h grafts on rat back. The observations from this study suggests that the use of aprotinin with fibrin glue may not be required because, even liver tissue that is known to have high fibrinolytic activity was sealed and repaired well in the absence of plasminogen inhibitors. On the other hand, it was found that if inhibitors were added, nondegraded matrix remained in the tissue even after 15 days and affected migration of repair cells. Thus, the inhibition of fibrinolysis after fibrin glue application is found detrimental to wound healing.

  5. Combining S-cone and luminance signals adversely affects discrimination of objects within backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Ben J.; Tsattalios, Konstantinos; Chakravarthi, Ramakrishna; Martinovic, Jasna

    2016-01-01

    The visual system processes objects embedded in complex scenes that vary in both luminance and colour. In such scenes, colour contributes to the segmentation of objects from backgrounds, but does it also affect perceptual organisation of object contours which are already defined by luminance signals, or are these processes unaffected by colour’s presence? We investigated if luminance and chromatic signals comparably sustain processing of objects embedded in backgrounds, by varying contrast along the luminance dimension and along the two cone-opponent colour directions. In the first experiment thresholds for object/non-object discrimination of Gaborised shapes were obtained in the presence and absence of background clutter. Contrast of the component Gabors was modulated along single colour/luminance dimensions or co-modulated along multiple dimensions simultaneously. Background clutter elevated discrimination thresholds only for combined S-(L + M) and L + M signals. The second experiment replicated and extended this finding by demonstrating that the effect was dependent on the presence of relatively high S-(L + M) contrast. These results indicate that S-(L + M) signals impair spatial vision when combined with luminance. Since S-(L + M) signals are characterised by relatively large receptive fields, this is likely to be due to an increase in the size of the integration field over which contour-defining information is summed. PMID:26856308

  6. Glyphosate Adversely Affects Danio rerio Males: Acetylcholinesterase Modulation and Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Fernanda Moreira; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Primel, Ednei Gilberto; da Rosa, Carlos Eduardo

    2017-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that glyphosate-based herbicides are toxic to animals. In the present study, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), and lipid peroxidation (LPO), as well as the activity and expression of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme, were evaluated in Danio rerio males exposed to 5 or 10 mg/L of glyphosate for 24 and 96 h. An increase in ACAP in gills after 24 h was observed in the animals exposed to 5 mg/L of glyphosate. A decrease in LPO was observed in brain tissue of animals exposed to 10 mg/L after 24 h, while an increase was observed in muscle after 96 h. No significant alterations were observed in ROS generation. AChE activity was not altered in muscles or brains of animals exposed to either glyphosate concentration for 24 or 96 h. However, gene expression of this enzyme in the brain was reduced after 24 h and was enhanced in both brain and muscle tissues after 96 h. Thus, contrary to previous findings that had attributed the imbalance in the oxidative state of animals exposed to glyphosate-based herbicides to surfactants and other inert compounds, the present study demonstrated that glyphosate per se promotes this same effect in zebrafish males. Although glyphosate concentrations did not alter AChE activity, this study demonstrated for the first time that this molecule affects ache expression in male zebrafish D. rerio.

  7. Degradation and aquatic toxicity of naphthenic acids in oil sands process-affected waters using simulated wetlands.

    PubMed

    Toor, Navdeep S; Franz, Eric D; Fedorak, Phillip M; MacKinnon, Michael D; Liber, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Oil sands process-affected waters (OSPWs) produced during the extraction of bitumen at the Athabasca Oil Sands (AOS) located in northeastern Alberta, Canada, are toxic to many aquatic organisms. Much of this toxicity is related to a group of dissolved organic acids known as naphthenic acids (NAs). Naphthenic acids are a natural component of bitumen and are released into process water during the separation of bitumen from the oil sand ore by a caustic hot water extraction process. Using laboratory microcosms as an analogue of a proposed constructed wetland reclamation strategy for OSPW, we evaluated the effectiveness of these microcosms in degrading NAs and reducing the aquatic toxicity of OSPW over a 52-week test period. Experimental manipulations included two sources of OSPW (one from Syncrude Canada Ltd. and one from Suncor Energy Inc.), two different hydraulic retention times (HRTs; 40 and 400 d), and increased nutrient availability (added nitrate and phosphate). Microcosms with a longer HRT (for both OSPWs) showed higher reductions in total NAs concentrations (64-74% NAs reduction, p<0.05) over the test period, while nutrient enrichment appeared to have little effect. A 96 h static acute rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) bioassay showed that the initial acute toxicity of Syncrude OSPW (LC50=67% v/v) was reduced (LC50>100% v/v) independent of HRT. However, EC20s from separate Microtox® bioassays were relatively unchanged when comparing the input and microcosm waters at both HRTs over the 52-week study period (p>0.05), indicating that some sub-lethal toxicity persisted under these experimental conditions. The present study demonstrated that given sufficiently long HRTs, simulated wetland microcosms containing OSPW significantly reduced total NAs concentrations and acute toxicity, but left behind a persistent component of the NAs mixture that appeared to be associated with residual chronic toxicity.

  8. A Screening-Level Approach for Comparing Risks Affecting Aquatic Ecosystem Services over Socio-Environmental Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, T. C.; Conde, D.; Villamizar, S. R.; Reid, B.; Escobar, J.; Rusak, J.; Hoyos, N.; Scordo, F.; Perillo, G. M.; Piccolo, M. C.; Zilio, M.; Velez, M.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing risks to aquatic ecosystems services (ES) is challenging and time-consuming, and effective strategies for prioritizing more detailed assessment efforts are needed. We propose a screening-level risk analysis (SRA) approach that scales ES risk using socioeconomic and environmental indices to capture anthropic and climatic pressures, as well as the capacity for institutional responses to those pressures. The method considers ES within a watershed context, and uses expert input to prioritize key services and the associated pressures that threaten them. The SRA approach focuses on estimating ES risk affect factors, which are the sum of the intensity factors for all hazards or pressures affecting the ES. We estimate the pressure intensity factors in a novel manner, basing them on the nation's (i) human development (proxied by Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, IHDI), (ii) environmental regulatory and monitoring state (Environmental Performance Index, EPI) and (iii) the current level of water stress in the watershed (baseline water stress, BWS). Anthropic intensity factors for future conditions are derived from the baseline values based on the nation's 10-year trend in IHDI and EPI; ES risks in nations with stronger records of change are rewarded more/penalized less in estimates for good/poor future management scenarios. Future climatic intensity factors are tied to water stress estimates based on two general circulation model (GCM) outcomes. We demonstrate the method for an international array of six sites representing a wide range of socio-environmental settings. The outcomes illustrate novel consequences of the scaling scheme. Risk affect factors may be greater in a highly developed region under intense climatic pressure, or in less well-developed regions due to human factors (e.g., poor environmental records). As a screening-level tool, the SRA approach offers considerable promise for ES risk comparisons among watersheds and regions so that

  9. The cultivation of Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect non-target arthropods.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanyan; Feng, Yanjie; Ge, Yang; Tetreau, Guillaume; Chen, Xiaowen; Dong, Xuehui; Shi, Wangpeng

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic corn producing Cry1Ac toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provides effective control of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), and thus reduces insecticide applications. However, whether Bt corn exerts undesirable effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs) is still controversial. We conducted a 2-yr study in Shangzhuang Agricultural Experiment Station to assess the potential impact of Bt corn on field population density, biodiversity, community composition and structure of NTAs. On each sampling date, the total abundance, Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness index and Simpson's diversity index were not significantly affected by Bt corn as compared to non-Bt corn. The "sampling dates" had a significant effect on these indices, but no clear tendencies related to "Bt corn" or "sampling dates X corn variety" interaction were recorded. Principal response curve analysis of variance indicated that Bt corn did not alter the distribution of NTAs communities. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and distance analysis showed that Cry1Ac toxin exposure did not increase community dissimilarities between Bt and non-Bt corn plots and that the evolution of non-target arthropod community was similar on the two corn varieties. The cultivation of Bt corn failed to show any detrimental evidence on the density of non-target herbivores, predators and parasitoids. The composition of herbivores, predators and parasitoids was identical in Bt and non-Bt corn plots. Taken together, results from the present work support that Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect NTAs.

  10. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  11. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  12. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  13. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  14. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  15. The Cultivation of Bt Corn Producing Cry1Ac Toxins Does Not Adversely Affect Non-Target Arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanyan; Feng, Yanjie; Ge, Yang; Tetreau, Guillaume; Chen, Xiaowen; Dong, Xuehui; Shi, Wangpeng

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic corn producing Cry1Ac toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provides effective control of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), and thus reduces insecticide applications. However, whether Bt corn exerts undesirable effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs) is still controversial. We conducted a 2-yr study in Shangzhuang Agricultural Experiment Station to assess the potential impact of Bt corn on field population density, biodiversity, community composition and structure of NTAs. On each sampling date, the total abundance, Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness index and Simpson's diversity index were not significantly affected by Bt corn as compared to non-Bt corn. The “sampling dates” had a significant effect on these indices, but no clear tendencies related to “Bt corn” or “sampling dates X corn variety” interaction were recorded. Principal response curve analysis of variance indicated that Bt corn did not alter the distribution of NTAs communities. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and distance analysis showed that Cry1Ac toxin exposure did not increase community dissimilarities between Bt and non-Bt corn plots and that the evolution of non-target arthropod community was similar on the two corn varieties. The cultivation of Bt corn failed to show any detrimental evidence on the density of non-target herbivores, predators and parasitoids. The composition of herbivores, predators and parasitoids was identical in Bt and non-Bt corn plots. Taken together, results from the present work support that Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect NTAs. PMID:25437213

  16. Extreme Air Pollution Conditions Adversely Affect Blood Pressure and Insulin Resistance: The Air Pollution and Cardiometabolic Disease Study.

    PubMed

    Brook, Robert D; Sun, Zhichao; Brook, Jeffrey R; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Ruan, Yanping; Yan, Jianhua; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Rao, Xiaoquan; Duan, Fengkui; Sun, Lixian; Liang, Ruijuan; Lian, Hui; Zhang, Shuyang; Fang, Quan; Gu, Dongfeng; Sun, Qinghua; Fan, Zhongjie; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports that fine particulate matter adversely affects cardiometabolic diseases particularly in susceptible individuals; however, health effects induced by the extreme concentrations within megacities in Asia are not well described. We enrolled 65 nonsmoking adults with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the Beijing metropolitan area into a panel study of 4 repeated visits across 4 seasons since 2012. Daily ambient fine particulate matter and personal black carbon levels ranged from 9.0 to 552.5 µg/m(3) and 0.2 to 24.5 µg/m(3), respectively, with extreme levels observed during January 2013. Cumulative fine particulate matter exposure windows across the prior 1 to 7 days were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure elevations ranging from 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.7) to 2.7 (0.6-4.8) mm Hg per SD increase (67.2 µg/m(3)), whereas cumulative black carbon exposure during the previous 2 to 5 days were significantly associated with ranges in elevations in diastolic blood pressure from 1.3 (0.0-2.5) to 1.7 (0.3-3.2) mm Hg per SD increase (3.6 µg/m(3)). Both black carbon and fine particulate matter were significantly associated with worsening insulin resistance (0.18 [0.01-0.36] and 0.22 [0.04-0.39] unit increase per SD increase of personal-level black carbon and 0.18 [0.02-0.34] and 0.22 [0.08-0.36] unit increase per SD increase of ambient fine particulate matter on lag days 4 and 5). These results provide important global public health warnings that air pollution may pose a risk to cardiometabolic health even at the extremely high concentrations faced by billions of people in the developing world today.

  17. How Are Changing Solar Ultraviolet Radiation and Climate Affecting Light-induced Chemical Processes in Aquatic Environments?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in the ozone layer over the past three decades have resulted in increases in solar UV-B radiation (280-315 nm) that reach the surface of aquatic environments. These changes have been accompanied by unprecedented changes in temperature and precipitation patterns around the...

  18. Physiological Integration Affects Expansion of an Amphibious Clonal Plant from Terrestrial to Cu-Polluted Aquatic Environments.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Zhou, Zhen-Feng

    2017-03-08

    The effects of physiological integration on clonal plants growing in aquatic and terrestrial habitats have been extensively studied, but little is known about the role in the extension of amphibious clonal plants in the heterogeneous aquatic-terrestrial ecotones, especially when the water environments are polluted by heavy metals. Ramets of the amphibious clonal herb Alternanthera philoxeroides were rooted in unpolluted soil and polluted water at three concentrations of Cu. The extension of populations from unpolluted terrestrial to polluted aqueous environments mainly relied on stem elongation rather than production of new ramets. The absorbed Cu in the ramets growing in polluted water could be spread horizontally to other ramets in unpolluted soil via physiological integration and redistributed in different organs. The performances of ramets in both terrestrial and aquatic habitats were negatively correlated with Cu intensities in different organs of plants. It is concluded that physiological integration might lessen the fitness of connected ramets in heterogeneously polluted environments. The mechanical strength of the stems decreased with increasing Cu levels, especially in polluted water. We suggest that, except for direct toxicity to growth and expansion, heavy metal pollution might also increase the mechanical risk in breaking failure of plants.

  19. Physiological Integration Affects Expansion of an Amphibious Clonal Plant from Terrestrial to Cu-Polluted Aquatic Environments

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liang; Zhou, Zhen-Feng

    2017-01-01

    The effects of physiological integration on clonal plants growing in aquatic and terrestrial habitats have been extensively studied, but little is known about the role in the extension of amphibious clonal plants in the heterogeneous aquatic-terrestrial ecotones, especially when the water environments are polluted by heavy metals. Ramets of the amphibious clonal herb Alternanthera philoxeroides were rooted in unpolluted soil and polluted water at three concentrations of Cu. The extension of populations from unpolluted terrestrial to polluted aqueous environments mainly relied on stem elongation rather than production of new ramets. The absorbed Cu in the ramets growing in polluted water could be spread horizontally to other ramets in unpolluted soil via physiological integration and redistributed in different organs. The performances of ramets in both terrestrial and aquatic habitats were negatively correlated with Cu intensities in different organs of plants. It is concluded that physiological integration might lessen the fitness of connected ramets in heterogeneously polluted environments. The mechanical strength of the stems decreased with increasing Cu levels, especially in polluted water. We suggest that, except for direct toxicity to growth and expansion, heavy metal pollution might also increase the mechanical risk in breaking failure of plants. PMID:28272515

  20. Physiological Integration Affects Expansion of an Amphibious Clonal Plant from Terrestrial to Cu-Polluted Aquatic Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Liang; Zhou, Zhen-Feng

    2017-03-01

    The effects of physiological integration on clonal plants growing in aquatic and terrestrial habitats have been extensively studied, but little is known about the role in the extension of amphibious clonal plants in the heterogeneous aquatic-terrestrial ecotones, especially when the water environments are polluted by heavy metals. Ramets of the amphibious clonal herb Alternanthera philoxeroides were rooted in unpolluted soil and polluted water at three concentrations of Cu. The extension of populations from unpolluted terrestrial to polluted aqueous environments mainly relied on stem elongation rather than production of new ramets. The absorbed Cu in the ramets growing in polluted water could be spread horizontally to other ramets in unpolluted soil via physiological integration and redistributed in different organs. The performances of ramets in both terrestrial and aquatic habitats were negatively correlated with Cu intensities in different organs of plants. It is concluded that physiological integration might lessen the fitness of connected ramets in heterogeneously polluted environments. The mechanical strength of the stems decreased with increasing Cu levels, especially in polluted water. We suggest that, except for direct toxicity to growth and expansion, heavy metal pollution might also increase the mechanical risk in breaking failure of plants.

  1. Do pharmaceuticals reach and affect the aquatic ecosystems in Brazil? A critical review of current studies in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Quadra, Gabrielle Rabelo; Oliveira de Souza, Helena; Costa, Rafaela Dos Santos; Fernandez, Marcos Antonio Dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Pharmaceutical residues are not completely removed in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) becoming contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Thereby, it is important to investigate their concentrations in the environment and the possible consequences of their occurrence, including for human health. Here, we briefly reviewed the paths of pharmaceuticals to reach the environment, their behavior and fate in the environment, and the possible consequences of their occurrence. Moreover, we synthetized all the studies about the detection of pharmaceuticals in Brazilian water bodies and the available ecotoxicological knowledge on their effects. In this study, when we compare the data found on these compounds worldwide, we observed that Brazilian surface waters present considerable concentrations of 17α-ethinylestradiol, 17β-estradiol, and caffeine. In general, concentrations found in aquatic systems worldwide seems to be low; however, ecotoxicological tests showed that even these low concentrations can cause sublethal effects in biota. The knowledge about the effects of continuous exposure and mixtures is sparse. In summary, new research is urgently required about the effects of these compounds in biota-including long-term exposition and mixture tests-and on specific technologies to remove these compounds in water bodies and WWTPs, besides the introduction of new policies for pharmaceutical use.

  2. Pre-operative psychological distress does not adversely affect functional or mental health gain after primary total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Munier; Parfitt, Daniel J; Beard, David J; Darrah, Clare; Nolan, John; Murray, David W; Andrew, John G

    2011-01-01

    Preoperative psychological distress has been reported to predict poor outcome and patient dissatisfaction after total hip arthroplasty (THA). The purpose of this study was to investigate if pre-operative psychological distress was associated with adverse functional outcome after primary THR. We analysed the database of a prospective multi-centre study undertaken between January 1999 and January 2002. We recorded the Oxford Hip Score (OHS) and SF36 score preoperatively and up to five years after surgery for 1055 patients. We dichotomised the patients into the mentally distressed (Mental Health Scale score - MHS =56) and the not mentally distressed (MHS >56) groups based on their pre-operative MHS of the SF36. 762 (72.22%). Patients (595 not distressed and 167 distressed) were followed up at 5 years. Both pre and post-operative OHS and SF-36 scores were significantly worse in the distressed group (both p<0.001). However, both groups experienced statistically significant improvement in OHS and MHS, which was maximal at 1 year after surgery and was maintained over the follow up (p=0.00). There was a substantial improvement in mental distress in patients who reported mental distress prior to surgery. The results suggest that pre-operative psychological distress did not adversely compromise functional outcome gain after THA. Despite having worse absolute values both pre and post operatively, patients with mental distress did not have any less functional gain from THA as measured by improvement in OHS.

  3. Factors affecting the development of adverse drug reactions to β-blockers in hospitalized cardiac patient population.

    PubMed

    Mugoša, Snežana; Djordjević, Nataša; Djukanović, Nina; Protić, Dragana; Bukumirić, Zoran; Radosavljević, Ivan; Bošković, Aneta; Todorović, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to undertake a study on the prevalence of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) poor metabolizer alleles (*3, *4, *5, and *6) on a Montenegrin population and its impact on developing adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of β-blockers in a hospitalized cardiac patient population. A prospective study was conducted in the Cardiology Center of the Clinical Center of Montenegro and included 138 patients who had received any β-blocker in their therapy. ADRs were collected using a specially designed questionnaire, based on the symptom list and any signs that could point to eventual ADRs. Data from patients' medical charts, laboratory tests, and other available parameters were observed and combined with the data from the questionnaire. ADRs to β-blockers were observed in 15 (10.9%) patients. There was a statistically significant difference in the frequency of ADRs in relation to genetically determined enzymatic activity (P<0.001), with ADRs' occurrence significantly correlating with slower CYP2D6 metabolism. Our study showed that the adverse reactions to β-blockers could be predicted by the length of hospitalization, CYP2D6 poor metabolizer phenotype, and the concomitant use of other CYP2D6-metabolizing drugs. Therefore, in hospitalized patients with polypharmacy CYP2D6 genotyping might be useful in detecting those at risk of ADRs.

  4. Factors affecting the development of adverse drug reactions to β-blockers in hospitalized cardiac patient population

    PubMed Central

    Mugoša, Snežana; Djordjević, Nataša; Djukanović, Nina; Protić, Dragana; Bukumirić, Zoran; Radosavljević, Ivan; Bošković, Aneta; Todorović, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to undertake a study on the prevalence of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) poor metabolizer alleles (*3, *4, *5, and *6) on a Montenegrin population and its impact on developing adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of β-blockers in a hospitalized cardiac patient population. A prospective study was conducted in the Cardiology Center of the Clinical Center of Montenegro and included 138 patients who had received any β-blocker in their therapy. ADRs were collected using a specially designed questionnaire, based on the symptom list and any signs that could point to eventual ADRs. Data from patients’ medical charts, laboratory tests, and other available parameters were observed and combined with the data from the questionnaire. ADRs to β-blockers were observed in 15 (10.9%) patients. There was a statistically significant difference in the frequency of ADRs in relation to genetically determined enzymatic activity (P<0.001), with ADRs’ occurrence significantly correlating with slower CYP2D6 metabolism. Our study showed that the adverse reactions to β-blockers could be predicted by the length of hospitalization, CYP2D6 poor metabolizer phenotype, and the concomitant use of other CYP2D6-metabolizing drugs. Therefore, in hospitalized patients with polypharmacy CYP2D6 genotyping might be useful in detecting those at risk of ADRs. PMID:27536078

  5. Synthetic progestins medroxyprogesterone acetate and dydrogesterone and their binary mixtures adversely affect reproduction and lead to histological and transcriptional alterations in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanbin; Castiglioni, Sara; Fent, Karl

    2015-04-07

    Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and dydrogesterone (DDG) are synthetic progestins widely used in human and veterinary medicine. Although aquatic organisms are exposed to them through wastewater and animal farm runoff, very little is known about their effects in the environment. Here we provide a comprehensive analysis of the responses of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to MPA, DDG, and their binary mixtures at measured concentrations between 4.5 and 1663 ng/L. DDG and both mixtures impaired reproductive capacities (egg production) of breeding pairs and led to histological alterations of ovaries and testes and increased gonadosomatic index. Transcriptional analysis of up to 28 genes belonging to different pathways demonstrated alterations in steroid hormone receptors, steroidogenesis enzymes, and specifically, the circadian rhythm genes, in different organs of adult zebrafish and eleuthero-embryos. Alterations occurred even at environmentally relevant concentrations of 4.5-4.8 ng/L MPA, DDG and the mixture in eleuthero-embryos and at 43-89 ng/L in adult zebrafish. Additionally, the mixtures displayed additive effects in most but not all parameters in adults and eleuthero-embryos, suggesting concentration addition. Our data suggest that MPA and DDG and their mixtures induce multiple transcriptional responses at environmentally relevant concentrations and adverse effects on reproduction and gonad histology at higher levels.

  6. Enantiomer Specific Measurements of Current-Use Pesticides in Aquatic Systems.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that current-use pesticides can enter urban and agricultural watersheds and adversely affect aquatic organisms. A potential cause may be higher concentrations of the more toxic pesticide enantiomer present in the pesticide mixture. The presence of pesticide ena...

  7. #2) Enantiomer Specific Measurements of Current-use Pesticides in Aquatic Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that current-use pesticides can enter urban and agricultural watersheds and adversely affect aquatic organisms. A potential cause may be higher concentrations of the more toxic pesticide enantiomer present in the pesticide mixture. The presence of pesticide ena...

  8. Enantiomer Specific Measurements of Current-use Pesticides in Aquatic Systems (#2)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that current-use pesticides can enter urban and agricultural watersheds and adversely affect aquatic organisms. A potential cause may be higher concentrations of the more toxic pesticide enantiomer present in the pesticide mixture. The presence of pesticide ena...

  9. Bayesian approach to potency estimation for aquatic toxicology experiments when a toxicant affects both fecundity and survival.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Bailer, A John; Oris, James T

    2012-08-01

    Chemicals in aquatic systems may impact a variety of endpoints including mortality, growth, or reproduction. Clearly, growth or reproduction will only be observed in organisms that survive. Because it is common to observe mortality in studies focusing on the reproduction of organisms, especially in higher concentration conditions, the resulting observed numbers of young become a mixture of zeroes and positive counts. Zeroes are recorded for organisms that die before having any young and living organisms with no offspring. Positive counts are recorded for living organisms with offspring. Thus, responses reflect both fecundity and mortality of the organisms used in such tests. In the present study, the authors propose the estimation of the concentration associated with a specified level of reproductive inhibition (RIp) using a Bayesian zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression model. This approach allows any prior information and expert knowledge about the model parameters to be incorporated into the regression coefficients or RIp estimation. Simulation studies are conducted to compare the Bayesian ZIP regression model and classical methods. The Bayesian estimator outperforms the frequentist alternative by producing more precise point estimates with smaller mean square differences between RIp estimates and true values, narrower interval estimates with better coverage probabilities. The authors also applied their proposed model to a study of Ceriodaphnia dubia exposed to a test toxicant.

  10. A Computational Study on the Effects of Dynamic Roughness Application to Separated Transitional Flows Affected by Adverse Pressure Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campitelli, Gennaro

    The study of transitional flows is considered crucial for many practical engineering applications. In fact, a comprehensive understanding of the laminar-turbulent transition phenomenon often helps to improve the overall performance of apparatuses such as airfoils, wind turbines, hulls and turbomachinery blades. In addition to understanding and prediction of transitional flows, active research continues in the area of boundary layer control, which includes control of phenomena such as flow separation and transition. For instance, optimum geometrical shaping may be followed by the adoption on the wall-surface of riblets to adjust pressure gradient and reduce drag. Further "flow control" may also be acquired by introducing active devices able to modify the flow field in order to accomplish a desired aerodynamic task. Such flow manipulation is often achieved by using time-dependent forcing mechanisms which promote natural instabilities amplifying the control effectiveness. Localized energy inputs such as Lorentz-force actuator, piezoelectric flaps and synthetic jets all produce a consistent boundary layer mixing enhancement with lift increase and drag abatement. The current numerical study attempts to demonstrate the efficacy of dynamic roughness (DR) on altering separated-reattached transitional flows under adverse pressure gradient. It has already been proven how DR, acting on the boundary sublayer perturbation, is able to suppress (partially or completely) the typical leading edge separation for an airfoil at different angles of attack. This makes DR particularly suitable for separated flow control applications where the shear layer reattaches presenting the characteristic laminar separation bubble. A numerical sensitivity study has been conducted with an efficient orthogonal design taking into account four different control parameters on three levels (actuation frequency, humps height, rows displacement, synchronization) to provide an optimum DR setup which limits

  11. Lactate adversely affects the in vitro formation of endothelial cell tubular structures through the action of TGF-{beta}1

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Stephan A. . E-mail: leoni.kunz-schughart@oncoray.de; Gaumann, Andreas; Wondrak, Marit; Eckermann, Christoph; Schulte, Stephanie; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang; Wheatley, Denys N.; Kunz-Schughart, Leoni A.

    2007-07-15

    When lactate accumulation in a tumor microenvironment reaches an average concentration of 10-20 mM, it tends to reflect a high degree of malignancy. However, the hypothesis that tumor-derived lactate has a number of partially adverse biological effects on malignant and tumor-associated host cells requires further evidence. The present study attempted to evaluate the impact of lactate on the process of angiogenesis, in particular on the formation of tubular structures. The endothelial cell (EC) network in desmoplastic breast tumors is primarily located in areas of reactive fibroblastic stroma. We employed a fibroblast-endothelial cell co-culture model as in vitro angiogenesis system normally producing florid in vitro tubule formation to analyze this situation. In contrast to previous studies, we found that lactate significantly reduces EC network formation in a dose-dependent manner as quantified by semi-automated morphometric analyses following immunohistochemical staining. The decrease in CD31-positive tubular structures and the number of intersections was independent of VEGF supplementation and became more pronounced in the presence of protons. The number of cells, primarily of the fibroblast population, was reduced but cell loss could not be attributed to a decrease in proliferative activity or pronounced apoptotic cell death. Treatment with 10 mM lactate was accompanied by enhanced mRNA expression and release of TGF-{beta}1, which also shows anti-angiogenic activity in the model. Both TGF-{beta}1 and lactate induced myofibroblastic differentiation adjacent to the EC tubular structures. The lactate response on the EC network was diminished by TGF-{beta}1 neutralization, indicating a causal relationship between lactate and TGF-{beta}1 in the finely tuned processes of vessel formation and maturation which may also occur in vivo within tumor tissue.

  12. When the serotonin transporter gene meets adversity: the contribution of animal models to understanding epigenetic mechanisms in affective disorders and resilience.

    PubMed

    Lesch, Klaus-Peter

    2011-01-01

    Although converging epidemiological evidence links exposure to stressful life events with increased risk for affective spectrum disorders, there is extraordinary interindividual variability in vulnerability to adversity. The environmentally moderated penetrance of genetic variation is thought to play a major role in determining who will either develop disease or remain resilient. Research on genetic factors in the aetiology of disorders of emotion regulation has, nevertheless, been complicated by a mysterious discrepancy between high heritability estimates and a scarcity of replicable gene-disorder associations. One explanation for this incongruity is that at least some specific gene effects are conditional on environmental cues, i.e. gene-by-environment interaction (G × E) is present. For example, a remarkable number of studies reported an association of variation in the human serotonin (5-HT) transporter gene (SLC6A4, 5-HTT, SERT) with emotional and cognitive traits as well as increased risk for depression in interaction with psychosocial adversity. The results from investigations in non-human primate and mouse support the occurrence of G × E interaction by showing that variation of 5-HTT function is associated with a vulnerability to adversity across the lifespan leading to unfavourable outcomes resembling various neuropsychiatric disorders. The neural and molecular mechanisms by which environmental adversity in early life increases disease risk in adulthood are not known but may include epigenetic programming of gene expression during development. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and chromatin modification, are dynamic and reversible and may also provide targets for intervention strategies (see Bountra et al., Curr Top Behav Neurosci, 2011). Animal models amenable to genetic manipulation are useful in the identification of molecular mechanisms underlying epigenetic programming by adverse environments and individual differences in

  13. The skin tissue is adversely affected by TNF-alpha blockers in patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis: a 5-year prospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Natalia P.; dos Reis Neto, Edgard Torres; Soares, Maria Roberta M. P.; Freitas, Daniele S.; Porro, Adriana; Ciconelli, Rozana M.; Pinheiro, Marcelo M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the incidence of and the main risk factors associated with cutaneous adverse events in patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis following anti-TNF-α therapy. METHODS: A total of 257 patients with active arthritis who were taking TNF-α blockers, including 158 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 87 with ankylosing spondylitis and 12 with psoriatic arthritis, were enrolled in a 5-year prospective analysis. Patients with overlapping or other rheumatic diseases were excluded. Anthropometric, socioeconomic, demographic and clinical data were evaluated, including the Disease Activity Score-28, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index and Psoriasis Area Severity Index. Skin conditions were evaluated by two dermatology experts, and in doubtful cases, skin lesion biopsies were performed. Associations between adverse cutaneous events and clinical, demographic and epidemiological variables were determined using the chi-square test, and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors. The significance level was set at p<0.05. RESULTS: After 60 months of follow-up, 71 adverse events (73.85/1000 patient-years) were observed, of which allergic and immune-mediated phenomena were the most frequent events, followed by infectious conditions involving bacterial (47.1%), parasitic (23.5%), fungal (20.6%) and viral (8.8%) agents. CONCLUSION: The skin is significantly affected by adverse reactions resulting from the use of TNF-α blockers, and the main risk factors for cutaneous events were advanced age, female sex, a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, disease activity and the use of infliximab. PMID:24141833

  14. Protein-enriched meal replacements do not adversely affect liver, kidney or bone density: an outpatient randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    0.19 g/cm2, p = 0.210; SP -0.03 ± 0.17 g/cm2, p = 0.320) in either group over one year. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that protein-enriched meals replacements as compared to standard meal replacements recommended for weight management do not have adverse effects on routine measures of liver function, renal function or bone density at one year. Clinicaltrial.gov: NCT01030354. PMID:21194471

  15. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) adversely affects the life-cycle of the damselfly Enallagma cyathigerum.

    PubMed

    Bots, Jessica; De Bruyn, Luc; Snijkers, Tom; Van den Branden, Bert; Van Gossum, Hans

    2010-03-01

    We evaluated whether life-time exposure to PFOS affects egg development, hatching, larval development, survival, metamorphosis and body mass of Enallagma cyathigerum (Insecta: Odonata). Eggs and larvae were exposed to five concentrations ranging from 0 to 10000 microg/L. Our results show reduced egg hatching success, slower larval development, greater larval mortality, and decreased metamorphosis success with increasing PFOS concentration. PFOS had no effect on egg developmental time and hatching or on mass of adults. Eggs were the least sensitive stage (NOEC=10000 microg/L). Larval NOEC values were 1000 times smaller (10 microg/L). Successful metamorphosis was the most sensitive response trait studied (NOEC<10 microg/L). The NOEC value suggests that E. cyathigerum is amongst the most sensitive freshwater organisms tested. NOEC for metamorphosis is less than 10-times greater than the ordinary reported environmental concentrations in freshwater, but is more than 200-times smaller than the greatest concentrations measured after accidental releases.

  16. Human Cytomegalovirus Infant Infection Adversely Affects Growth and Development in Maternally HIV-Exposed and Unexposed Infants in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Larke, N.; Sanz-Ramos, M.; Bates, M.; Musonda, K.; Manno, D.; Siame, J.; Monze, M.; Filteau, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) coinfections have been shown to increase infant morbidity, mortality, and AIDS progression. In HIV-endemic regions, maternal HIV-exposed but HIV-uninfected infants, which is the majority of children affected by HIV, also show poor growth and increased morbidity. Although nutrition has been examined, the effects of HCMV infection have not been evaluated. We studied the effects of HCMV infection on the growth, development, and health of maternally HIV-exposed and unexposed infants in Zambia. Methods. Infants were examined in a cohort recruited to a trial of micronutrient-fortified complementary foods. HIV-infected mothers and infants had received perinatal antiretroviral therapy to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission. Growth, development, and morbidity were analyzed by linear regression analyses in relation to maternal HIV exposure and HCMV infection, as screened by sera DNA for viremia at 6 months of age and by antibody for infection at 18 months. Results. All HCMV-seropositive infants had decreased length-for-age by 18 months compared with seronegative infants (standard deviation [z]-score difference: −0.44 [95% confidence interval {CI}, −.72 to −.17]; P = .002). In HIV-exposed infants, those who were HCMV positive compared with those who were negative, also had reduced head size (mean z-score difference: −0.72 [95% CI, −1.23 to −.22]; P = .01) and lower psychomotor development (Bayley test score difference: −4.1 [95% CI, −7.8 to −.5]; P = .03). HIV-exposed, HCMV-viremic infants were more commonly referred for hospital treatment than HCMV-negative infants. The effects of HCMV were unaffected by micronutrient fortification. Conclusion. HCMV affects child growth, development, and morbidity of African infants, particularly in those maternally exposed to HIV. HCMV is therefore a risk factor for child health in this region. PMID:22247303

  17. Mutation increasing β-carotene concentrations does not adversely affect concentrations of essential mineral elements in pepper fruit

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Jacqueline A.; Penchev, Emil A.; Nielen, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin and mineral deficiencies are prevalent in human populations throughout the world. Vitamin A deficiency affects hundreds of millions of pre-school age children in low income countries. Fruits of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) can be a major dietary source of precursors to Vitamin A biosynthesis, such as β-carotene. Recently, pepper breeding programs have introduced the orange-fruited (of) trait of the mutant variety Oranzheva kapiya, which is associated with high fruit β-carotene concentrations, to the mutant variety Albena. In this manuscript, concentrations of β-carotene and mineral elements (magnesium, phosphorus, sulphur, potassium, zinc, calcium, manganese, iron and copper) were compared in fruit from P31, a red-fruited genotype derived from the variety Albena, and M38, a genotype developed by transferring the orange-fruited mutation (of) into Albena. It was observed that fruit from M38 plants had greater β-carotene concentration at both commercial and botanical maturity (4.9 and 52.7 mg / kg fresh weight, respectively) than fruit from P31 plants (2.3 and 30.1 mg / kg fresh weight, respectively). The mutation producing high β-carotene concentrations in pepper fruits had no detrimental effect on the concentrations of mineral elements required for human nutrition. PMID:28207797

  18. Mutation increasing β-carotene concentrations does not adversely affect concentrations of essential mineral elements in pepper fruit.

    PubMed

    Tomlekova, Nasya B; White, Philip J; Thompson, Jacqueline A; Penchev, Emil A; Nielen, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin and mineral deficiencies are prevalent in human populations throughout the world. Vitamin A deficiency affects hundreds of millions of pre-school age children in low income countries. Fruits of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) can be a major dietary source of precursors to Vitamin A biosynthesis, such as β-carotene. Recently, pepper breeding programs have introduced the orange-fruited (of) trait of the mutant variety Oranzheva kapiya, which is associated with high fruit β-carotene concentrations, to the mutant variety Albena. In this manuscript, concentrations of β-carotene and mineral elements (magnesium, phosphorus, sulphur, potassium, zinc, calcium, manganese, iron and copper) were compared in fruit from P31, a red-fruited genotype derived from the variety Albena, and M38, a genotype developed by transferring the orange-fruited mutation (of) into Albena. It was observed that fruit from M38 plants had greater β-carotene concentration at both commercial and botanical maturity (4.9 and 52.7 mg / kg fresh weight, respectively) than fruit from P31 plants (2.3 and 30.1 mg / kg fresh weight, respectively). The mutation producing high β-carotene concentrations in pepper fruits had no detrimental effect on the concentrations of mineral elements required for human nutrition.

  19. AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS,

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic ecosystems are a vital part of the urban water cycle (and of urban areas more broadly), and, if healthy, provide a range of goods and services valued by humans (Meyer 1997). For example, aquatic ecosystems (e.g., rivers, lakes, wetlands) provide potable water, food resou...

  20. Aquatic Environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquatic microbiology can be defined as the study of microorganisms and microbial communities in water environments. Aquatic environments occupy more than 70% of the earth’s surface including oceans, estuaries, rivers, lakes, wetlands, streams, springs, and aquifers. Water is essential for life and m...

  1. Unbalanced international collaboration affects adversely the usefulness of countries' scientific output as well as their technological and social impact.

    PubMed

    Zanotto, Sonia R; Haeffner, Cristina; Guimarães, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    The unbalanced international scientific collaboration as cause of misleading information on the country's contribution to the scientific world output was analyzed. ESI Data Base (Thomson Reuters' InCites), covering the scientific production of 217 active countries in the period 2010-2014 was used. International collaboration implicates in a high percentage (33.1 %) of double-counted world articles, thus impacting qualitative data as citations, impact and impact relative to word. The countries were divided into three groups, according to their individual contribution to the world publications: Group I (24 countries, at least 1 %) representing 83.9 % of the total double-counted world articles. Group II (40 countries, 0.1-0.99 % each). Group III, 153 countries (70.5 %) with <0.1 % and altogether 1.9 % of the world. Qualitative characteristics of each group were also analyzed: percentage of the country's GNP applied in R&D, proportion of Scientists and Engineers per million inhabitants and Human Development Index. Average international collaboration were: Group I, 43.0 %; Group II, 55.8 % and Group III, 85.2 %. We concluded that very high and unbalanced international collaboration, as presented by many countries, misrepresent the importance of their scientific production, technological and social outputs. Furthermore, it jeopardizes qualitative outputs of the countries themselves, artificially increasing their scientific impact, affecting all fields and therefore, the whole world. The data confirm that when dealing with the qualitative contribution of countries, it is necessary to take in consideration the level of international cooperation because, as seen here, it can and in fact it does create false impression of the real contribution of countries.

  2. Single layer centrifugation of stallion spermatozoa through Androcoll™-E does not adversely affect their capacitation-like status, as measured by CTC staining.

    PubMed

    Bergqvist, A-S; Johannisson, A; Bäckgren, L; Dalin, A-M; Rodriguez-Martinez, H; Morrell, J M

    2011-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of single layer centrifugation (SLC) and subsequent cold storage on stallion sperm capacitation-like status and acrosome reaction. Three stallions were included in the study, with three ejaculates per stallion. The samples were examined 4, 24 and 72 h after collection, extension and SLC, with storage at 6°C. Sperm capacitation-like status was investigated using the fluorescent dye chlortetracycline (CTC). There was no difference in capacitation-like status between colloid-selected and non-selected spermatozoa. Sperm motility decreased significantly during cold storage, whereas the proportion of apparently capacitated spermatozoa increased. There was no change in the proportion of acrosome-reacted spermatozoa. In conclusion, SLC through Androcoll™-E does not adversely affect the capacitation-like status of stallion spermatozoa, although it did increase with time during cold storage.

  3. Can ozone be used to control the spread of freshwater Aquatic Invasive Species?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buley, Riley P.; Hasler, Caleb T.; Tix, John A.; Suski, Cory D.; Hubert, Terrance D.

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of aquatic invasive species to non-native habitats can cause negative ecological effects and also billions of dollars in economic damage to governments and private industries. Once aquatic invasive species are introduced, eradication may be difficult without adversely affecting native species and habitats, urging resource managers to find preventative methods to protect non-invaded areas. The use of ozone (O3) as a non-physical barrier has shown promise as it is lethal to a wide range of aquatic taxa, requires a short contact time, and is relatively environmentally safe in aquatic systems when compared to other chemicals. However, before O3 can be considered as an approach to prevent the spread of aquatic invasive species, its effects on non-target organisms and already established aquatic invasive species must be fully evaluated. A review of the current literature was conducted to summarize data regarding the effects of O3 on aquatic taxa including fish, macroinvertebrates, zooplankton, phytoplankton, microbes, and pathogens. In addition, we assessed the practicality of ozone applications to control the movement of aquatic invasive species, and identified data gaps concerning the use of O3 as a non-physical barrier in field applications.

  4. Technical issues affecting the implementation of US Environmental Protection Agency's proposed fish tissue-based aquatic criterion for selenium.

    PubMed

    Lemly, A Dennis; Skorupa, Joseph P

    2007-10-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency is developing a national water quality criterion for selenium that is based on concentrations of the element in fish tissue. Although this approach offers advantages over the current water-based regulations, it also presents new challenges with respect to implementation. A comprehensive protocol that answers the "what, where, and when" is essential with the new tissue-based approach in order to ensure proper acquisition of data that apply to the criterion. Dischargers will need to understand selenium transport, cycling, and bioaccumulation in order to effectively monitor for the criterion and, if necessary, develop site-specific standards. This paper discusses 11 key issues that affect the implementation of a tissue-based criterion, ranging from the selection of fish species to the importance of hydrological units in the sampling design. It also outlines a strategy that incorporates both water column and tissue-based approaches. A national generic safety-net water criterion could be combined with a fish tissue-based criterion for site-specific implementation. For the majority of waters nationwide, National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permitting and other activities associated with the Clean Water Act could continue without the increased expense of sampling and interpreting biological materials. Dischargers would do biotic sampling intermittently (not a routine monitoring burden) on fish tissue relative to the fish tissue criterion. Only when the fish tissue criterion is exceeded would a full site-specific analysis including development of intermedia translation factors be necessary.

  5. Mapping patterns of depression-related brain regions with cytochrome oxidase histochemistry: relevance of animal affective systems to human disorders, with a focus on resilience to adverse events.

    PubMed

    Harro, Jaanus; Kanarik, Margus; Matrov, Denis; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    The search for novel antidepressants may be facilitated by pre-clinical animal models that relay on specific neural circuit and related neurochemical endpoint measures, which are anchored in concrete neuro-anatomical and functional neural-network analyzes. One of the most important initial considerations must be which regions of the brain are candidates for the maladaptive response to depressogenic challenges. Consideration of persistent differences or changes in the activity of cerebral networks can be achieved by mapping oxidative metabolism in ethologically or pathogenetically relevant animal models. Cytochrome oxidase histochemistry is a technique suitable to detect regional long-term brain activity changes relative to control conditions and has been used in a variety of animal models. This work is summarized and indicates that major changes occur mainly in subcortical areas, highlighting specific brain regions where some alterations in regional oxidative metabolism may represent adaptive changes to depressogenic adverse life events, while others may reflect failures of adaptation. Many of these changes in oxidative metabolism may depend upon the integrity of serotonergic neurotransmission, and occur in several brain regions shown by other techniques to be involved in endogenous affective circuits that control emotional behaviors as well as related higher brain regions that integrate learning and cognitive information processing. These brain regions appear as primary targets for further identification of endophenotypes specific to affective disorders.

  6. Effects of the antihistamine diphenhydramine on selected aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Berninger, Jason P; Du, Bowen; Connors, Kristin A; Eytcheson, Stephanie A; Kolkmeier, Mark A; Prosser, Krista N; Valenti, Theodore W; Chambliss, C Kevin; Brooks, Bryan W

    2011-09-01

    In recent years pharmaceuticals have been detected in aquatic systems receiving discharges of municipal and industrial effluents. Although diphenhydramine (DPH) has been reported in water, sediment, and fish tissue, an understanding of its impacts on aquatic organisms is lacking. Diphenhydramine has multiple modes of action (MOA) targeting the histamine H1, acetylcholine (ACh), and 5-HT reuptake transporter receptors, and as such is used in hundreds of pharmaceutical formulations. The primary objective of this study was to develop a baseline aquatic toxicological understanding of DPH using standard acute and subchronic methodologies with common aquatic plant, invertebrate, and fish models. A secondary objective was to test the utility of leveraging mammalian pharmacology information to predict aquatic toxicity thresholds. The plant model, Lemna gibba, was not adversely affected at exposures as high as 10 mg/L. In the fish model, Pimephales promelas, pH affected acute toxicity thresholds and feeding behavior was more sensitive (no-observed-effect concentration = 2.8 µg/L) than standardized survival or growth endpoints. This response threshold was slightly underpredicted using a novel plasma partitioning approach and a mammalian pharmacological potency model. Interestingly, results from both acute mortality and subchronic reproduction studies indicated that the model aquatic invertebrate, Daphnia magna, was more sensitive to DPH than the fish model. These responses suggest that DPH may exert toxicity in Daphnia through ACh and histamine MOAs. The D. magna reproduction no-observed-effect concentration of 0.8 µg/L is environmentally relevant and suggests that additional studies of more potent antihistamines and antihistamine mixtures are warranted.

  7. Aquatic Sediments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanville, W. D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of aquatic sediments and its effect upon water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) sediment water interchange; (2) chemical and physical characterization; and (3) heavy water in sediments. A list of 129 references is also presented. (HM)

  8. Down-regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 adversely affects the expression of Alzheimer's disease-relevant genes and proteins.

    PubMed

    Zuchner, Thole; Schliebs, Reinhard; Perez-Polo, J Regino

    2005-10-01

    Beta-amyloid peptides play a major role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, preventing beta-amyloid formation by inhibition of the beta site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme (BACE) 1 is considered as a potential strategy to treat AD. Cholinergic mechanisms have been shown to control amyloid precursor protein processing and the number of muscarinic M2-acetylcholine receptors is decreased in brain regions of patients with AD enriched with senile plaques. Therefore, the present study investigates the effect of this M2 muscarinic receptor down-regulation by siRNA on total gene expression and on regulation of BACE1 in particular in SK-SH-SY5Y cells. This model system was used for microarray analysis after carbachol stimulation of siRNA-treated cells compared with carbachol stimulated, non-siRNA-treated cells. The same model system was used to elucidate changes at the protein level by using two-dimensional gels followed by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) analysis. Taken together, the results indicate that the M2 acetylcholine receptor down-regulation in brains of patients with AD has important effects on the expression of several genes and proteins with major functions in the pathology of AD. This includes beta-secretase BACE1 as well as several modulators of the tau protein and other AD-relevant genes and proteins. Moreover, most of these genes and proteins are adversely affected against the background of AD.

  9. High fat diet enriched with saturated, but not monounsaturated fatty acids adversely affects femur, and both diets increase calcium absorption in older female mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Dellatore, Peter; Douard, Veronique; Qin, Ling; Watford, Malcolm; Ferraris, Ronaldo P; Lin, Tiao; Shapses, Sue A

    2016-07-01

    Diet induced obesity has been shown to reduce bone mineral density (BMD) and Ca absorption. However, previous experiments have not examined the effect of high fat diet (HFD) in the absence of obesity or addressed the type of dietary fatty acids. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effects of different types of high fat feeding, without obesity, on fractional calcium absorption (FCA) and bone health. It was hypothesized that dietary fat would increase FCA and reduce BMD. Mature 8-month-old female C57BL/6J mice were fed one of three diets: a HFD (45% fat) enriched either with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or with saturated fatty acids (SFAs), and a normal fat diet (NFD; 10% fat). Food consumption was controlled to achieve a similar body weight gain in all groups. After 8wk, total body bone mineral content and BMD as well as femur total and cortical volumetric BMD were lower in SFA compared with NFD groups (P<.05). In contrast, femoral trabecular bone was not affected by the SFAs, whereas MUFAs increased trabecular volume fraction and thickness. The rise over time in FCA was greater in mice fed HFD than NFD and final FCA was higher with HFD (P<.05). Intestinal calbindin-D9k gene and hepatic cytochrome P450 2r1 protein levels were higher with the MUFA than the NFD diet (P<.05). In conclusion, HFDs elevated FCA overtime; however, an adverse effect of HFD on bone was only observed in the SFA group, while MUFAs show neutral or beneficial effects.

  10. Maternal fish oil supplementation during lactation may adversely affect long-term blood pressure, energy intake, and physical activity of 7-year-old boys.

    PubMed

    Asserhøj, Marie; Nehammer, Sofie; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Michaelsen, Kim F; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2009-02-01

    Early nutrition may program obesity and cardiovascular risk later in life, and one of the potential agents is (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA). In this study, our objective was to examine whether fish oil (FO) supplementation during lactation affects blood pressure and body composition of children. Danish mothers (n = 122) were randomized to FO [1.5 g/d (n-3) LCPUFA] or olive oil (OO) supplementations during the first 4 mo of lactation. The trial also included a high-fish intake reference group (n = 53). Ninety-eight children were followed-up with blood pressure and anthropometry measurements at 7 y. Diet and physical activity level (PAL) were assessed by 4-d weighed dietary records and ActiReg. The PAL value was 4% lower (P = 0.048) and energy intake (EI) of the boys was 1.1 +/- 0.4 MJ/d higher (P = 0.014) in the FO group than in the OO group. Starch intake was 15 +/- 6 g/d higher (P = 0.012) in the FO group, but there were no other differences in diet. Body composition did not differ between the randomized groups with or without adjustment for starch intake, EI, and PAL. FO boys had 6 mm Hg higher diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure than OO boys (P < 0.01), but girls did not differ. Within the randomized groups, blood pressure was not correlated with maternal RBC (n-3) LCPUFA after the intervention, but PAL values were (r = -0.277; P = 0.038). We previously found higher BMI at 2.5 y in the FO group, but the difference did not persist. The differences in blood pressure, EI, and PAL, particularly among boys, suggest that early (n-3) LCPUFA intake may have adverse effects, which should be investigated in future studies.

  11. DELAY OF 2 OR 6 WEEKS ADVERSELY AFFECTS THE FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME OF AUGMENTED PRIMARY REPAIR OF THE PORCINE ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT

    PubMed Central

    Magarian, Elise M.; Fleming, Braden C.; Harrison, Sophia L.; Mastrangelo, Ashley N.; Badger, Gary J.; Murray, Martha M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Enhanced primary ACL repair, in which suture repair is performed in conjunction with a collagen-platelet composite to stimulate healing, is a potential new treatment option for ACL injuries. Previous studies have evaluated this approach at the time of ACL disruption. HYPOTHESIS In this study, we hypothesized that delaying surgery by 2 or 6 weeks would have a significant effect on the functional outcome of the repair. STUDY DESIGN Controlled Laboratory Study METHODS Sixteen female Yorkshire pigs underwent staged, bilateral surgical ACL transections. ACL transection was initially performed on one knee and the knee closed. Two or six weeks later, enhanced primary repair was performed in that knee while the contralateral knee had an ACL transection and immediate repair. Biomechanical parameters were measured after 15 weeks in vivo to determine the effect of delay time relative to immediate repair on the healing response. RESULTS Yield load of the repairs at 15 weeks was decreased by 40% and 60% in the groups where repair was delayed for 2 and 6 weeks respectively (p=0.01). Maximum load showed similar results (55% and 60% decrease in the 2 and 6 week delay groups respectively, p=0.011). Linear stiffness also was adversely affected by delay (50% decrease compared to immediate repair after either a 2 or 6 week delay, p=0.011). AP laxity after 15 weeks of healing was 40% higher in knees repaired after a 2 week delay, and 10% higher in those repaired after a six week delay (p=0.012) when tested at 30 degrees of flexion, but was not significantly affected by delay when tested at 60 or 90 degrees (p=0.21). CONCLUSIONS A delay between ACL injury and enhanced primary repair has a significant negative effect on the functional performance of the repair. CLINICAL RELEVANCE As future investigations assess new techniques of ACL repair, the timing of the repair should be considered in the design and the interpretation of experimental studies. PMID:20855556

  12. Is detection of adverse events affected by record review methodology? an evaluation of the “Harvard Medical Practice Study” method and the “Global Trigger Tool”

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There has been a theoretical debate as to which retrospective record review method is the most valid, reliable, cost efficient and feasible for detecting adverse events. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility and capability of two common retrospective record review methods, the “Harvard Medical Practice Study” method and the “Global Trigger Tool” in detecting adverse events in adult orthopaedic inpatients. Methods We performed a three-stage structured retrospective record review process in a random sample of 350 orthopaedic admissions during 2009 at a Swedish university hospital. Two teams comprised each of a registered nurse and two physicians were assigned, one to each method. All records were primarily reviewed by registered nurses. Records containing a potential adverse event were forwarded to physicians for review in stage 2. Physicians made an independent review regarding, for example, healthcare causation, preventability and severity. In the third review stage all adverse events that were found with the two methods together were compared and all discrepancies after review stage 2 were analysed. Events that had not been identified by one of the methods in the first two review stages were reviewed by the respective physicians. Results Altogether, 160 different adverse events were identified in 105 (30.0%) of the 350 records with both methods combined. The “Harvard Medical Practice Study” method identified 155 of the 160 (96.9%, 95% CI: 92.9-99.0) adverse events in 104 (29.7%) records compared with 137 (85.6%, 95% CI: 79.2-90.7) adverse events in 98 (28.0%) records using the “Global Trigger Tool”. Adverse events “causing harm without permanent disability” accounted for most of the observed difference. The overall positive predictive value for criteria and triggers using the “Harvard Medical Practice Study” method and the “Global Trigger Tool” was 40.3% and 30.4%, respectively. Conclusions More adverse

  13. Factors Affecting Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting of Healthcare Professionals and Their Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice towards ADR Reporting in Nekemte Town, West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gurmesa, Lense Temesgen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Adverse drug reactions are global problems of major concern. Adverse drug reaction reporting helps the drug monitoring system to detect the unwanted effects of those drugs which are already in the market. Aims. To assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of health care professionals working in Nekemte town towards adverse drug reaction reporting. Methods and Materials. A cross-sectional study design was conducted on a total of 133 health care professionals by interview to assess their knowledge, attitude, and practice using structured questionnaire. Results. Of the total respondents, only 64 (48.2%), 56 (42.1%), and 13 (9.8%) health care professionals have correctly answered the knowledge, attitude, and practice assessment questions, respectively. Lack of awareness and knowledge on what, when, and to whom to report adverse drug reactions and lack of commitments of health care professionals were identified as the major discouraging factors against adverse drug reaction reporting. Conclusion. This study has revealed that the knowledge, attitude, and practice of the health care professionals working in Nekemte town towards spontaneous adverse drug reaction reporting were low that we would like to recommend the concerned bodies to strive on the improvement of the knowledge, attitude, and practice status of health care professionals. PMID:28042569

  14. An Investigation into the Physico-chemical Factors Affecting the Abundance and Diversity of Aquatic Insects in Organically Manured Aquadams and Their Utilization by Oreochromis mossambicus (Perciformes: Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Rapatsa, M M; Moyo, N A G

    2015-08-01

    The interaction between the fish Oreochromis mossambicus (Percifomes: Cichlidae) and aquatic insects after application of chicken, cow, and pig manure was studied in 7,000-liter plastic aquadams. Principal component analysis showed that most of the variation in water quality after application of manure was accounted for by potassium, nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, and alkalinity. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that Gyrinidae, Elminidae, Hydrophilidae, Hydraenidae, and Athericidae were associated with high nutrient levels (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) characteristic of the chicken manure. However, the most abundant aquatic insects Gerridae, Notonectidae, and Culicidae were close to the centre of the ordination and not defined by any nutrient gradient. The Shannon-Wiener diversity was highest in the aquadams treated with chicken manure. The most frequently occurring aquatic insects in the diet of O. mossambicus were culicid mosquitoes in all the treatments. However, in the laboratory, Chironomidae were the most preferred because they lacked refuge. Notonectidae and Gerridae were not recorded in the diet of O. mossambicus despite their abundance. This may be because of their anti-predation strategies. Laboratory experiments showed that Notonectidae, Gyrinidae, and Gerridae fed on Chironomidae and Culicidae. This implies that aquatic predatory insects competed for food with O. mossambicus.

  15. Effects of Fungicides on Aquatic Fungi and Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conners, D. E.; Rosemond, A. D.; Black, M. C.

    2005-05-01

    Aquatic microorganisms play an important role in conditioning leaf litter that enters streams and serves as an important base of production for consumers. Contamination of streams by fungicides may adversely affect microorganisms and alter leaf litter processing rates. Unfortunately, microorganisms are rarely used in acute toxicity tests for fungicide evaluation and registration. We adapted the resazurin reduction assay, which is used in medical microbiology, to assess the acute toxicity of four fungicides (azoxystrobin, trifloxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl and chlorothalonil) to aquatic fungi (Articulospora tetracladia) and bacteria (Cytophaga spp.), and investigated the ability of the toxicants to inhibit leaf breakdown in microcosms. Fungi were more sensitive to fungicides than many standard test organisms (cladocerans, green algae, trout), while bacteria were often the least sensitive. All of the fungicides except kresoxim-methyl, when added to microcosms at concentrations that inhibited the fungi by 90 percent in acute tests, reduced leaf breakdown rates by an average of 14.7 percent. Thus, aquatic fungi and their associated functions in streams may be relatively sensitive to fungicides applied terrestrially that enter streams through non-point sources. These data highlight the importance of including aquatic fungi in safety assessments of pesticides for protection of microbial function.

  16. Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibition Does Not Adversely Affect Immune or Virological Status in HIV Infected Men And Women: A Pilot Safety Study

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Scott R.; Reeds, Dominic N.; Royal, Michael; Struthers, Heidi; Laciny, Erin

    2013-01-01

    Context: People infected with HIV have a higher risk for developing insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease than the general population. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4) inhibitors are glucose-lowering medications with pleiotropic actions that may particularly benefit people with HIV, but the immune and virological safety of DPP4 inhibition in HIV is unknown. Objective: DPP4 inhibition will not reduce CD4+ T lymphocyte number or increase HIV viremia in HIV-positive adults. Design: This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind safety trial of sitagliptin in HIV-positive adults. Setting: The study was conducted at an academic medical center. Participants: Twenty nondiabetic HIV-positive men and women (9.8 ± 5.5 years of known HIV) taking antiretroviral therapy and with stable immune (625 ± 134 CD4+ T cells per microliter) and virological (<48 copies HIV RNA per milliliter) status. Intervention: The intervention included sitagliptin (100 mg/d) vs matching placebo for up to 24 weeks. Main Outcome Measures: CD4+ T cell number and plasma HIV RNA were measured every 4 weeks; fasting serum regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), stromal derived factor (SDF)-1α, Soluble TNF receptor II, and oral glucose tolerance were measured at baseline, week 8, and the end of study. ANOVA was used for between-group comparisons; P < .05 was considered significant. Results: Compared with placebo, sitagliptin did not reduce CD4+ T cell count, plasma HIV RNA remained less than 48 copies/mL, RANTES and soluble TNF receptor II concentrations did not increase. SDF1α concentrations declined (P < .0002) in the sitagliptin group. The oral glucose tolerance levels improved in the sitagliptin group at week 8. Conclusions: Despite lowering SDF1α levels, sitagliptin did not adversely affect immune or virological status, or increase immune activation, but did improve glycemia in healthy, nondiabetic HIV-positive adults. These safety data

  17. Hydro-climatic Changes: Potential Non-linear Responses of Phosphorus Dynamic in Aquatic/Semi-aquatic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, H. K.

    2007-12-01

    Depending on resilience, threshold and lag times, hydro-climatic changes can cause nonlinear and/or irreversible changes in phosphorus (P) dynamic, and instigate P enrichment in aquatic/semi-aquatic systems. Thus, studying direct/indirect effects of expected global climate change on bioavailability of organic P in aquatic systems are in critical need, to help manage or increase the resilience of the ecosystem. The central hypothesis of this study is that P dynamic in aquatic, especially freshwater, ecosystem is likely to behave nonlinearly due to expected changes in sediment and water acidity, redox status, etc., because of potential hydro-climatic changes in the decades to come, thus, could face irreversible adverse changes. Devising possible biological and chemical treatments for the removal of P from eutrophic lakes, estuaries, etc, as well as helping in predicting the movement and fate of P under changing hydro-climatic conditions would be crucial to manage aquatic ecosystem in the near future. The critical question is not how much P is stored in any given aquatic/semi-aquatic system, but how the resilience and nonlinearity relate to the stability of stored P are affected due to the levels of environmental stressors, which are expected to fluctuate due to global change in the decades to come. Studies related to 31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy analysis, and multiple hydraulic retention cycles showed that, in general, frequent drying and reflooding of a semi-aquatic system such as wetland could significantly increase the bioavailability of P due to degradation of relatively less stable organic P, e.g., glycerophosphate and nucleoside monophosphate. Moreover, nutrients flux from sediments to the water column depended on the concentration gradients of the sediment-water interface and redox status. Shift in equilibrium P concentration of the water column as the water level rises, may cause release of adsorbed P from the sediments. Restoration of a

  18. Survey of aquatic macroinvertebrates and amphibians at Wupatki National Monument, Arizona, USA: An evaluation of selected factors affecting species richness in ephemeral pools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, T.B.

    2002-01-01

    Ephemeral aquatic habitats in Wupatki National Monument vary from naturally formed pools in arroyos over 5000 years old, to constructed catchment basins with ages estimated at 60-1000+ years old, and borrow pits and stock ponds 30-60 years old. The different ages of these pools provide different histories of colonization by amphibians and aquatic invertebrates, especially temporary pool specialists such as spadefoot toads and branchiopod crustaceans. Ten pools of five different origins and ages were surveyed in August and/or September 1997 for aquatic organisms; a total of 13 surveys were conducted. Twenty-two taxa were found, with the number of species in a pool during any survey ranging from one to 10. Species composition of the communities changed from one sampling date to the next within individual pools. Community structure is an amalgam of species with different dispersal mechanisms that are influenced by different pool characteristics. Age appears to have little effect overall, but may have influenced branchiopod presence/absence. Distance to permanent water, frequency of disturbance, and current pool size were correlated with presence/absence of some species.

  19. Vaccenic acid and trans fatty acid isomers from partially hydrogenated oil both adversely affect LDL cholesterol: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence of the adverse effects of industrially-produced trans fatty acids (iTFA) on risk of cardiovascular disease is consistent and well documented in the scientific literature; however, the cardiovascular effects of naturally-occurring TFA synthesized in ruminant animals (rTFA), such as vaccenic ...

  20. Minor serous and clear cell components adversely affect prognosis in ''mixed-type'' endometrial carcinomas: a clinicopathologic study of 36 stage-I cases.

    PubMed

    Quddus, M Ruhul; Sung, C James; Zhang, Cunxian; Lawrence, W Dwayne

    2010-07-01

    Most endometrial carcinomas contain only 1 Müllerian cell type although the presence of 2 or more cell types within 1 tumor, for example a predominantly low-grade endometrioid carcinoma with a minor component (arbitrarily defined as 30% or less) of high-grade serous and/or clear cell carcinoma, is not uncommon. The current study attempts to evaluate whether the presence of minor serous or clear cell components exerts an adverse effect on the prognosis in stage-I endometrial carcinomas of ''mixed-type.'' The study cases include 22 cases of stage-I endometrioid carcinoma with a minor component of serous carcinoma and 14 cases of endometrioid carcinoma with a minor component of clear cell carcinoma. Minor components were arbitrarily defined as representing anywhere between 5% and 30% of the total tumor. The study cases were compared with 56 cases of histologically pure age-matched and stage-matched endometrioid carcinomas, 6 pure serous carcinomas, and 13 pure clear cell carcinomas. All study and control cases were fully staged. Treatment history and outcome status were obtained and follow-up ranged from 56 to 140 months. Our study suggests that the presence of minor components of serous and clear cell carcinoma, defined as between 5% and 30%, within a mixed-type endometrial carcinoma appears to adversely influence the long-term survival of stage-I tumors, although a larger study is needed to corroborate our findings.

  1. Comprehensive review on phytotechnology: Heavy metals removal by diverse aquatic plants species from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Rezania, Shahabaldin; Taib, Shazwin Mat; Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Kamyab, Hesam

    2016-11-15

    Environmental pollution specifically water pollution is alarming both in the developed and developing countries. Heavy metal contamination of water resources is a critical issue which adversely affects humans, plants and animals. Phytoremediation is a cost-effective remediation technology which able to treat heavy metal polluted sites. This environmental friendly method has been successfully implemented in constructed wetland (CWs) which is able to restore the aquatic biosystem naturally. Nowadays, many aquatic plant species are being investigated to determine their potential and effectiveness for phytoremediation application, especially high growth rate plants i.e. macrophytes. Based on the findings, phytofiltration (rhizofiltration) is the sole method which defined as heavy metals removal from water by aquatic plants. Due to specific morphology and higher growth rate, free-floating plants were more efficient to uptake heavy metals in comparison with submerged and emergent plants. In this review, the potential of wide range of aquatic plant species with main focus on four well known species (hyper-accumulators): Pistia stratiotes, Eicchornia spp., Lemna spp. and Salvinia spp. was investigated. Moreover, we discussed about the history, methods and future prospects in phytoremediation of heavy metals by aquatic plants comprehensively.

  2. Migration, Neighborhoods, and Networks: Approaches to Understanding How Urban Environmental Conditions Affect Syndemic Adverse Health Outcomes Among Gay, Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Egan, James E.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Latkin, Carl; Chen, Minxing; Tobin, Karin; Yang, Cui; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2011-01-01

    Adopting socioecological, intersectionality, and lifecourse theoretical frameworks may enhance our understanding of the production of syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM). From this perspective, we present preliminary data from three related studies that suggest ways in which social contexts may influence the health of MSM. The first study, using cross-sectional data, looked at migration of MSM to the gay resort area of South Florida, and found that amount of time lived in the area was associated with risk behaviors and HIV infection. The second study, using qualitative interviews, observed complex interactions between neighborhood-level social environments and individual-level racial and sexual identity among MSM in New York City. The third study, using egocentric network analysis with a sample of African American MSM in Baltimore, found that sexual partners were more likely to be found through face-to-face means than the Internet. They also observed that those who co-resided with a sex partner had larger networks of people to depend on for social and financial support, but had the same size sexual networks as those who did not live with a partner. Overall, these findings suggest the need for further investigation into the role of macro-level social forces on the emotional, behavioral, and physical health of urban MSM. PMID:21369730

  3. Rock Glacier Outflows May Adversely Affect Lakes: Lessons from the Past and Present of Two Neighboring Water Bodies in a Crystalline-Rock Watershed

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that rock glaciers are one of the most common geomorphological expressions of mountain permafrost, the impacts of their solute fluxes on lakes still remain largely obscure. We examined water and sediment chemistry, and biota of two neighboring water bodies with and without a rock glacier in their catchments in the European Alps. Paleolimnological techniques were applied to track long-term temporal trends in the ecotoxicological state of the water bodies and to establish their baseline conditions. We show that the active rock glacier in the mineralized catchment of Lake Rasass (RAS) represents a potent source of acid rock drainage that results in enormous concentrations of metals in water, sediment, and biota of RAS. The incidence of morphological abnormalities in the RAS population of Pseudodiamesa nivosa, a chironomid midge, is as high as that recorded in chironomid populations inhabiting sites heavily contaminated by trace metals of anthropogenic origin. The incidence of morphological deformities in P. nivosa of ∼70% persisted in RAS during the last 2.5 millennia and was ∼40% in the early Holocene. The formation of RAS at the toe of the rock glacier most probably began at the onset of acidic drainage in the freshly deglaciated area. The present adverse conditions are not unprecedented in the lake’s history and cannot be associated exclusively with enhanced thawing of the rock glacier in recent years. PMID:24804777

  4. Rock glacier outflows may adversely affect lakes: lessons from the past and present of two neighboring water bodies in a crystalline-rock watershed.

    PubMed

    Ilyashuk, Boris P; Ilyashuk, Elena A; Psenner, Roland; Tessadri, Richard; Koinig, Karin A

    2014-06-03

    Despite the fact that rock glaciers are one of the most common geomorphological expressions of mountain permafrost, the impacts of their solute fluxes on lakes still remain largely obscure. We examined water and sediment chemistry, and biota of two neighboring water bodies with and without a rock glacier in their catchments in the European Alps. Paleolimnological techniques were applied to track long-term temporal trends in the ecotoxicological state of the water bodies and to establish their baseline conditions. We show that the active rock glacier in the mineralized catchment of Lake Rasass (RAS) represents a potent source of acid rock drainage that results in enormous concentrations of metals in water, sediment, and biota of RAS. The incidence of morphological abnormalities in the RAS population of Pseudodiamesa nivosa, a chironomid midge, is as high as that recorded in chironomid populations inhabiting sites heavily contaminated by trace metals of anthropogenic origin. The incidence of morphological deformities in P. nivosa of ∼70% persisted in RAS during the last 2.5 millennia and was ∼40% in the early Holocene. The formation of RAS at the toe of the rock glacier most probably began at the onset of acidic drainage in the freshly deglaciated area. The present adverse conditions are not unprecedented in the lake's history and cannot be associated exclusively with enhanced thawing of the rock glacier in recent years.

  5. 2.45-GHz microwave irradiation adversely affects reproductive function in male mouse, Mus musculus by inducing oxidative and nitrosative stress.

    PubMed

    Shahin, S; Mishra, V; Singh, S P; Chaturvedi, C M

    2014-05-01

    Electromagnetic radiations are reported to produce long-term and short-term biological effects, which are of great concern to human health due to increasing use of devices emitting EMR especially microwave (MW) radiation in our daily life. In view of the unavoidable use of MW emitting devices (microwaves oven, mobile phones, Wi-Fi, etc.) and their harmful effects on biological system, it was thought worthwhile to investigate the long-term effects of low-level MW irradiation on the reproductive function of male Swiss strain mice and its mechanism of action. Twelve-week-old mice were exposed to non-thermal low-level 2.45-GHz MW radiation (CW for 2 h/day for 30 days, power density = 0.029812 mW/cm(2) and SAR = 0.018 W/Kg). Sperm count and sperm viability test were done as well as vital organs were processed to study different stress parameters. Plasma was used for testosterone and testis for 3β HSD assay. Immunohistochemistry of 3β HSD and nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) was also performed in testis. We observed that MW irradiation induced a significant decrease in sperm count and sperm viability along with the decrease in seminiferous tubule diameter and degeneration of seminiferous tubules. Reduction in testicular 3β HSD activity and plasma testosterone levels was also noted in the exposed group of mice. Increased expression of testicular i-NOS was observed in the MW-irradiated group of mice. Further, these adverse reproductive effects suggest that chronic exposure to nonionizing MW radiation may lead to infertility via free radical species-mediated pathway.

  6. Effects of acidification on metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 2. Wetlands, ponds and small lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Camardese, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    High concentrations of trace metals in the water of low-pH lakes and streams could result in elevated amounts of metals within or adsorbed to aquatic plants and, possibly, invertebrates. Concentrations of Al, Cd, Ca, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mg, Mn, Hg, Ni, P, and Zn were compared in water, plants, and aquatic invertebrates of wetlands, ponds, and small lakes in Maryland and Maine. The accumulation of metals by aquatic plants and insects and the concentrations of metals in water were not greatly affected by pH. None of the metal concentrations significantly correlated with metals in insects. Plant metal concentrations poorly correlated with metal concentrations in water. Concentrations of metals exceeded acceptable dietary levels more frequently in plants than in invertebrates. Concerns about metal toxicity in birds that feed on invertebrates and plants from acidified waters seem to be unwarranted. Positive correlations among pH, Ca in water, Ca in insects, and Ca in plants imply that acidification can reduce the Ca content of aquatic biota. Aquatic insects were low in Ca, but crayfishes and snails, which are adversely affected by low pH, were very high. A concern for waterfowl is Ca deprivation from decreased Ca availability in low-pH wetlands, ponds, and small lakes.

  7. Aquatic Therapy for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucher, Greta; Moore, Kelsey; Rodia, Rachel; Moser, Christy Szczech

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic therapy has long been highlighted in the literature as a potentially powerful therapeutic intervention. This review will highlight basic definitions of aquatic therapy, review salient research, and identify specific diagnoses that may benefit from aquatic therapy. Online resources, blogs, and books that occupational therapists may find…

  8. Early life adversity and serotonin transporter gene variation interact at the level of the adrenal gland to affect the adult hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    PubMed

    van der Doelen, R H A; Deschamps, W; D'Annibale, C; Peeters, D; Wevers, R A; Zelena, D; Homberg, J R; Kozicz, T

    2014-07-08

    The short allelic variant of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) promoter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) has been associated with the etiology of major depression by interaction with early life stress (ELS). Furthermore, 5-HTTLPR has been associated with abnormal functioning of the stress-responsive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Here, we examined if, and at what level, the HPA-axis is affected in an animal model for ELS × 5-HTTLPR interactions. Heterozygous and homozygous 5-HTT knockout rats and their wild-type littermates were exposed daily at postnatal days 2-14 to 3 h of maternal separation. When grown to adulthood, plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and the major rat glucocorticoid, corticosterone (CORT), were measured. Furthermore, the gene expression of key HPA-axis players at the level of the hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal glands was assessed. No 5-HTT genotype × ELS interaction effects on gene expression were observed at the level of the hypothalamus or pituitary. However, we found significant 5-HTT genotype × ELS interaction effects for plasma CORT levels and adrenal mRNA levels of the ACTH receptor, such that 5-HTT deficiency was associated under control conditions with increased, but after ELS with decreased basal HPA-axis activity. With the use of an in vitro adrenal assay, naïve 5-HTT knockout rats were furthermore shown to display increased adrenal ACTH sensitivity. Therefore, we conclude that basal HPA-axis activity is affected by the interaction of 5-HTT genotype and ELS, and is programmed, within the axis itself, predominantly at the level of the adrenal gland. This study therefore emphasizes the importance of the adrenal gland for HPA-related psychiatric disorders.

  9. Early life adversity and serotonin transporter gene variation interact to affect DNA methylation of the corticotropin-releasing factor gene promoter region in the adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    van der Doelen, Rick H A; Arnoldussen, Ilse A; Ghareh, Hussein; van Och, Liselot; Homberg, Judith R; Kozicz, Tamás

    2015-02-01

    The interaction between childhood maltreatment and the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene linked polymorphic region has been associated with increased risk to develop major depression. This Gene × Environment interaction has furthermore been linked with increased levels of anxiety and glucocorticoid release upon exposure to stress. Both endophenotypes are regulated by the neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or hormone, which is expressed by the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the central amygdala (CeA). Therefore, we hypothesized that altered regulation of the expression of CRF in these areas represents a major neurobiological mechanism underlying the interaction of early life stress and 5-HTT gene variation. The programming of gene transcription by Gene × Environment interactions has been proposed to involve epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation. In this study, we report that early life stress and 5-HTT genotype interact to affect DNA methylation of the Crf gene promoter in the CeA of adult male rats. Furthermore, we found that DNA methylation of a specific site in the Crf promoter significantly correlated with CRF mRNA levels in the CeA. Moreover, CeA CRF mRNA levels correlated with stress coping behavior in a learned helplessness paradigm. Together, our findings warrant further investigation of the link of Crf promoter methylation and CRF expression in the CeA with behavioral changes that are relevant for psychopathology.

  10. Offering a forage crop at pasture did not adversely affect voluntary cow traffic or milking visits in a pasture-based automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Scott, V E; Kerrisk, K L; Garcia, S C

    2016-03-01

    Feed is a strong incentive for encouraging cows in automatic milking systems (AMS) to voluntarily move around the farm and achieve milkings distributed across the 24 h day. It has been reported that cows show preferences for some forages over others, and it is possible that offering preferred forages may increase cow traffic. A preliminary investigation was conducted to determine the effect of offering a forage crop for grazing on premilking voluntary waiting times in a pasture-based robotic rotary system. Cows were offered one of two treatments (SOYBEAN or GRASS) in a cross-over design. A restricted maximum likelihood procedure was used to model voluntary waiting times. Mean voluntary waiting time was 45.5±6.0 min, with no difference detected between treatments. High and mid-production cows spent 55 min/milking for low-production cows, whereas waiting time increased as queue length increased. Voluntary waiting time was 23% and 80% longer when cows were fetched from the paddock or had a period of forced waiting before volunteering for milking, respectively. The time it took cows to return to the dairy since last exiting was not affected by treatment, with a mean return time of 13.7±0.6 h. Although offering SOYBEAN did not encourage cows to traffic more readily through the premilking yard, the concept of incorporating forage crops in AMS still remains encouraging if the aim is to increase the volume or quantity of home-grown feed rather than improving cow traffic.

  11. Effects of municipal wastewater discharges on aquatic communities, Boise River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frenzel, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Aquatic communities in the Boise River were examined from October 1987 to March 1988 to determine whether they were adversely affected by trace elements in effluents from two Boise wastewater treatment facilities. Trace-element concentrations in the Boise River were less than or near analytical-detection levels and were less than chronic toxicity criteria when detectable. Insect communities colonizing artificial substrates upstream and downstream from the wastewater treatment facilities were strongly associated, and coefficients of community loss indicated that effluents had benign enriching effects. The distributions of trace-element-intolerant mayflies indicated that trace-element concentrations in effluents did not adversely affect intolerant organisms in the Boise River. Condition factor of whitefish was significantly increased downstream from the Lander Street wastewater treatment facility and was significantly decreased downstream from the West Boise wastewater treatment facility.

  12. Fate and effects of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in the aquatic environment: a review.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Lutz; Bundschuh, Mirco

    2014-09-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are distributed ubiquitously in the aquatic environment, which raises concern for the flora and fauna in hydrosystems. The present critical review focuses on the fate and adverse effects of PFASs in the aquatic environment. The PFASs are continuously emitted into the environment from point and nonpoint sources such as sewage treatment plants and atmospheric deposition, respectively. Although concentrations of single substances may be too low to cause adverse effects, their mixtures can be of significant environmental concern. The production of C8 -based PFASs (i.e., perfluorooctane sulfonate [PFOS] and perfluorooctanoate [PFOA]) is largely phased out; however, the emissions of other PFASs, in particular short-chain PFASs and PFAS precursors, are increasing. The PFAS precursors can finally degrade to persistent degradation products, which are, in particular, perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs). In the environment, PFSAs and PFCAs are subject to partitioning processes, whereby short-chain PFSAs and PFCAs are mainly distributed in the water phase, whereas long-chain PFSAs and PFCAs tend to bind to particles and have a substantial bioaccumulation potential. However, there are fundamental knowledge gaps about the interactive toxicity of PFAS precursors and their persistent degradation products but also interactions with other natural and anthropogenic stressors. Moreover, because of the continuous emission of PFASs, further information about their ecotoxicological potential among multiple generations, species interactions, and mixture toxicity seems fundamental to reliably assess the risks for PFASs to affect ecosystem structure and function in the aquatic environment.

  13. Are endocrine disruptors among the causes of the deterioration of aquatic biodiversity?

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin; Cai, Zhong-Hua; Zhu, Xiao-Shan

    2010-07-01

    Exposure to environmental pollutants such as endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) is now taken into account to explain partially the biodiversity decline of aquatic ecosystems. Much research has demonstrated that EDCs can adversely affect the endocrine system, reproductive health, and immune function in aquatic species. These toxicological effects include 1) interference with normal hormonal synthesis, release, and transport, 2) impairment of growth, development, and gonadal maturation, and 3) increased sensitivity to environmental stressors. Recent studies also have confirmed that EDCs have carcinogenic and mutagenic potential. In essence, these changes in physiological and biochemical parameters reflect, to some extent, some phenotypic characteristics of the deterioration of aquatic biodiversity. At present, evidence at the molecular level shows that exposure to EDCs can trigger genotoxicity, such as DNA damage, and can reduce genetic diversity. Field studies have also provided more direct evidence that EDCs contribute to the population decrease and biodiversity decline. Evolutionary toxicology and multigenerational toxicity tests have further demonstrated that EDCs can damage an organism's offspring and eventually likely lead to loss of evolutionary potential. Taken together, these results provide some basis for understanding the relationship between variety deterioration and EDC exposure. It is conceivable that there is a causal association between EDC exposure and variety deterioration of aquatic organisms.

  14. Aquatic toxicity of nitrogen mustard to Ceriodaphina dubia, Daphnia magna, and Pimephales promelas.

    PubMed

    Lan, Cheng-Hang; Lin, Tser-Sheng; Peng, Chiung-Yu

    2005-06-01

    Investigation of toxicity of mustard compounds to aquatic organisms has been limited although their effects on terrestrial mammal species have been well studied. In this study, the 48-h LC50 values of nitrogen mustard (HN2) are reported for two aquatic invertebrate species (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia) and for one fish species (Pimephales promelas). Mean LC50 values to C. dubia, D. magna, and P. promela were 1.12, 2.52, and 98.86 mg/L, respectively. C. dubia was the species most sensitive to HN2. Seven-day lethal and sublethal tests with P. promelas and C. dubia were also conducted. In chronic tests, fathead minnow growth was significantly reduced by 2.50 mg/L HN2, while C. dubia reproduction was significantly affected by 7.81 mug/L HN2. These adverse effects on aquatic organisms caused by lower-level concentrations of HN2 indicate that a possible aquatic ecosystem disaster could occur either after a chemical spill or during chemical warfare.

  15. Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM)‐New Functionality for Predicting Changes in Distribution of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation in Response to Sea Level Rise.Version 1.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) is an ecologically important habitat world-wide. In Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries, SAV in the lower intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats are dominated by the native seagrass, Zostera marina also referred to as submerged aquatic vegetati...

  16. Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) ‐ New functionality for predicting changes in distribution of submerged aquatic vegetation in response to sea level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee II, Henry; Reusser, Deborah A.; Frazier, Melanie R; McCoy, Lee M; Clinton, Patrick J.; Clough, Jonathan S.

    2014-01-01

    The “Sea‐Level Affecting Marshes Model” (SLAMM) is a moderate resolution model used to predict the effects of sea level rise on marsh habitats (Craft et al. 2009). SLAMM has been used extensively on both the west coast (e.g., Glick et al., 2007) and east coast (e.g., Geselbracht et al., 2011) of the United States to evaluate potential changes in the distribution and extent of tidal marsh habitats. However, a limitation of the current version of SLAMM, (Version 6.2) is that it lacks the ability to model distribution changes in seagrass habitat resulting from sea level rise. Because of the ecological importance of SAV habitats, U.S. EPA, USGS, and USDA partnered with Warren Pinnacle Consulting to enhance the SLAMM modeling software to include new functionality in order to predict changes in Zostera marina distribution within Pacific Northwest estuaries in response to sea level rise. Specifically, the objective was to develop a SAV model that used generally available GIS data and parameters that were predictive and that could be customized for other estuaries that have GIS layers of existing SAV distribution. This report describes the procedure used to develop the SAV model for the Yaquina Bay Estuary, Oregon, appends a statistical script based on the open source R software to generate a similar SAV model for other estuaries that have data layers of existing SAV, and describes how to incorporate the model coefficients from the site‐specific SAV model into SLAMM to predict the effects of sea level rise on Zostera marina distributions. To demonstrate the applicability of the R tools, we utilize them to develop model coefficients for Willapa Bay, Washington using site‐specific SAV data.

  17. Adverse ocular reactions to drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Spiteri, M. A.; James, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    Drugs acting on various parts of the body may also affect the eye insidiously. Increased awareness of such drug toxicity by the prescribing doctor should encourage him to consider effects on the cornea, lens, retina, optic nerve and elsewhere when checking the patient's progress. The following review concerns adverse ocular effects of systemic drug administration. PMID:6356101

  18. Evaluation of graphite for environmental toxicity using the standard aquatic microcosm. Technical report, June 1986-March 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Landis, W.G.; Chester, N.A.; Haley, M.V.; Johnson, D.W.; Tauber, R.M.

    1988-08-01

    The impact of a graphite dust on an aquatic ecosystem model, the Standard Aquatic microcosm (SAM), was investigated. Graphite dust produced effects that resembled eutrophication in that a diversity decreased, ammonia increased, and a photosynthesis/respiration ratio of less than one was observed in the highest concentration. Compared to brass dust, graphite has much less potential to adversely impact aquatic ecosystems.

  19. Vaccine Adverse Events

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability ( ... Center for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  20. E-waste disposal effects on the aquatic environment: Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingyu; Nkrumah, Philip Nti; Anim, Desmond Ofosu; Mensah, Ebenezer

    2014-01-01

    , the need for actions to be taken to reduce entry of e-waste pollutants into Ghana's aquatic environment is real and is immediate.Heavy metals (e.g., lead, cadmium, copper and zinc) and organic pollutants (e.g.,PCDD/Fs and PBDEs) have been detected in the sediments of local water bodies in quantities that greatly exceed background levels. This fact alone suggests that aquatic organisms that live in the affected water bodies are highly exposed to these toxic, bio-accumulative, and persistent contaminants. These contaminants have been confirmed to result from the primitive methods used to recycle and process e-waste within the local environment.Only limited local data exist on the threats posed by these e-waste-related contaminants on nearby natural resources, especially aquatic organisms. In this review,we have addressed the potential toxicity of selected heavy metals and organic pollutants on aquatic organisms. Since there are no data on concentrations of contaminants in the water column, we have based our predictions of effects on pollutant release rates from sediments. Pollutants that are attached to sediments are routinely released into the water column from diffusion and advection, the rate of which depends on pH and Eh of the sediments. E-waste contaminants have the potential to produce deleterious effects on the behavior, physiology, metabolism, reproduction,development and growth of many aquatic organisms. Because it is confirmed that both heavy metal and organic contaminants are reaching the biota of Ghana's local waterways, we presume that they are producing adverse effects. Because local data on the aquatic toxicity of these contaminants are as yet unavailable, we strongly recommend that future research be undertaken to examine, on a large scale and long-term basis, both contamination levels in biota, and adverse effects on biota of the nearby water bodies.

  1. Aquatic Activities for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, H. David; And Others

    Designed to meet the diverse educational needs of youth groups, this aquatic program consists of eight individual lesson units, each devoted to one aspect of the aquatic world. Unit topics include: fish aquariums; raising earthworms; simulation of coastal planning; entomology and water; rope; calculating stream flow; saltwater aquariums; and fish…

  2. Effects of acidification of metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 2. Wetlands, ponds and small lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Albers, P.H.; Camardese, M.B. . Patuxent Wildlife Research Center)

    1993-06-01

    Compared were concentrations of Al,Cd,Ca,Cu,Fe,Pb,Mg,Mn,Hg,Ni,P, and Zn in water, plants, and aquatic invertebrates of wetlands, ponds, and small lakes in Maryland and Maine. The accumulation of metals by aquatic plants and insects and the concentration of metals in water were not greatly affected by pH. None of the metal concentrations in water significantly correlated with metals in insects. Plant metal concentrations poorly correlated with metal concentrations in water. Concentrations of metals exceeded acceptable dietary levels more frequently in plants than in invertebrates. Concerns about metal toxicity in birds that feed on invertebrates and plants from acidified waters seems to be unwarranted. Positive correlations among pH, Ca in water, Ca in insects, and Ca in plants imply that acidification can reduce the Ca content of aquatic biota. Aquatic insects were low in Ca, but crayfishes and snails, which are adversely affected by low pH, were very high. A concern for waterfowl is Ca deprivation from decreased Ca availability in low-pH wetlands, ponds, and small lakes..

  3. Non-target effects on aquatic decomposer organisms of imidacloprid as a systemic insecticide to control emerald ash borer in riparian trees.

    PubMed

    Kreutzweiser, David; Good, Kevin; Chartrand, Derek; Scarr, Taylor; Thompson, Dean

    2007-11-01

    Imidacloprid is effective against emerald ash borer when applied as a systemic insecticide. Following stem or soil injections to trees in riparian areas, imidacloprid residues could be indirectly introduced to aquatic systems via leaf fall or leaching. Either route of exposure may affect non-target, aquatic decomposer organisms. Leaves from ash trees treated with imidacloprid at two field rates and an intentionally-high concentration were added to aquatic microcosms. Leaves from trees treated at the two field rates contained imidacloprid concentrations of 0.8-1.3 ppm, and did not significantly affect leaf-shredding insect survival, microbial respiration or microbial decomposition rates. Insect feeding rates were significantly inhibited at foliar concentrations of 1.3 ppm but not at 0.8 ppm. Leaves from intentionally high-dose trees contained concentrations of about 80 ppm, and resulted in 89-91% mortality of leaf-shredding insects, but no adverse effects on microbial respiration and decomposition rates. Imidacloprid applied directly to aquatic microcosms to simulate leaching from soils was at least 10 times more toxic to aquatic insects than the foliar concentrations, with high mortality at 0.13 ppm and significant feeding inhibition at 0.012 ppm.

  4. Toxicity of the herbicides bromacil and simazine to the aquatic macrophyte, Vallisneria americana Michx.

    PubMed

    Wilson, P Chris; Wilson, Sandra B

    2010-01-01

    Vallisneria americana Michx. (tapegrass) is an ecologically important submersed, vascular aquatic plant that provides food and shelter for many aquatic and waterfowl species. This plant often occurs close to land areas where herbicides are used. Nontarget exposure of these plants to herbicides may compromise ecological structure and function. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the suitability of several endpoint measurements for determining no-observable-adverse effect concentrations (NOAECs), lowest-observable-adverse effect concentrations (LOAECs), and median effective concentration values (EC50s) for tapegrass exposed to the herbicides bromacil (0-0.092 mg/L) and simazine (0-0.592 mg/L) following a 13-d single-pulse exposure and 15-d (bromacil) or 14-d (simazine) postexposure periods. The NOAEC/LOAEC/EC50 for fresh weight gains, new leaf production, and total leaf growth after 13-d exposure to bromacil were 0.020/0.036/0.032, 0.036/0.054/0.036, and 0.036/0.054/0.043 mg/L, respectively. The same respective NOAEC/LOAEC/EC50s for simazine were <0.058/0.058/0.067, 0.229/0.344/0.154, and 0.058/0.116/0.081 mg/L. Reductions in quantity and fresh weight of daughter plants produced and stolon fresh weights occurred at bromacil concentrations > or = 77, 0.020, and 0.036 mg/L, respectively; and simazine concentrations > or = 0.344, >0.592, and > or = 0.116 mg/L, respectively. Neither herbicide affected leaf greenness, total chlorophyll concentrations, or carbohydrate allocation. Although toxicity was shown for many endpoints, most EC50 values were greater than aquatic life benchmark values for algae used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), but less than for aquatic plants, indicating that V. americana would likely be protected by use of the algal benchmark criteria.

  5. Methane bubble ascent within muddy aquatic sediments under different ambient methane source strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarboush Sirhan, Shahrazad; Katsman, Regina; Ten Brink, Uri

    2016-04-01

    Methane (CH4) is the simplest and, the most common hydrocarbon in nature. It is considered as one of the most adverse greenhouse gases, at least 25 times more potent than carbon dioxide. When concentration of the dissolved methane in pore waters exceeds the solubility of the gas (affected in turn by temperature, pressure, salinity and by other factors) methane bubbles nucleate. Gas migration in fine-grained cohesive muddy aquatic sediments is accompanied by sediment fracturing. When gas pressure is high enough to overcome compression, friction, and cohesion at grain contacts, gas migrates by pushing the grains apart. These sub-vertical fractures provide lowered-resistance conduits for migration of other bubbles that can destabilize sediment structure resulting even in slope failure. Therefore, understanding the processes governing bubble propagation within fine-grained aquatic sediment is important. Previous models showed that bubbles propagation within fine-grained muddy aquatic sediments can be modeled using principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics. Mass transfer between the bubble rising with high velocity and the surrounding sediments was mostly ignored. We use a coupled macroscopic mechanical/reaction-transport numerical model under a variable source strength profile associated with bio-chemical processes of methane production and consumption within the sediment, as it occurs in nature. The model shows that changes in the dissolved methane concentrations strongly affect bubble ascent velocity, sometimes leading to its retardation below the sediment-water interface

  6. B-cell depletion inhibits arthritis in a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model, but does not adversely affect humoral responses in a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccination model.

    PubMed

    Dunussi-Joannopoulos, Kyri; Hancock, Gerald E; Kunz, Arthur; Hegen, Martin; Zhou, Xiaochuan X; Sheppard, Barbara J; Lamothe, Jennifer; Li, Evelyn; Ma, Hak-Ling; Hamann, Philip R; Damle, Nitin K; Collins, Mary

    2005-10-01

    We report the development of a mouse B cell-depleting immunoconjugate (anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody [mAb] conjugated to calicheamicin) and its in vivo use to characterize the kinetics of CD22+ B-cell depletion and reconstitution in murine primary and secondary lymphoid tissues. The effect of B-cell depletion was further studied in a murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model and a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccination model. Our results show that (1) the immunoconjugate has B-cell-specific in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity; (2) B-cell reconstitution starts in the bone marrow and spleen around day 30 after depletion and is completed in all tissues tested by day 50; (3) B-cell depletion inhibits the development of clinical and histologic arthritis in the CIA model; (4) depletion of type II collagen antibody levels is not necessary for clinical and histologic prevention of CIA; and (5) B-cell depletion does not adversely affect memory antibody responses after challenge nor clearance of infectious virus from lungs in the RSV vaccination model. These results demonstrate for the first time that only B-cell reduction but not type II collagen antibody levels correlate with the prevention of arthritis and represent key insights into the role of CD22-targeted B-cell depletion in mouse autoimmunity and vaccination models.

  7. Defining "adverse environmental impact" and making paragraph 316(b) decisions: a fisheries management approach.

    PubMed

    Bailey, David E; Bulleit, Kristy A N

    2002-05-17

    The electric utility industry has developed an approach for decisionmaking that includes a definition of Adverse Environmental Impact (AEI) and an implementation process. The definition of AEI is based on lessons from fishery management science and analysis of the statutory term "adverse environmental impact" and is consistent with current natural resource management policy. The industry has proposed a definition focusing on "unacceptable risk to the population"s ability to sustain itself, to support reasonably anticipated commercial or recreational harvests, or to perform its normal ecological function." This definition focuses not on counting individual fish or eggs cropped by the various uses of a water body, but on preserving populations of aquatic organisms and their functions in the aquatic community. The definition recognizes that assessment of AEI should be site-specific and requires both a biological decision and a balancing of diverse societal values. The industry believes that the definition of AEI should be implemented in a process that will maximize the overall societal benefit of the paragraph 316(b) decision by considering the facility"s physical location, design, and operation, as well as the local biology. The approach considers effects on affected fish and shellfish populations and the benefits of any necessary best technology available (BTA) alternatives. This is accomplished through consideration of population impacts, which conversely allows consideration of the benefits of any necessary BTA modifications. This in turn allows selection of BTAs that will protect potentially affected populations in a cost-effective manner. The process also employs risk assessment with stakeholder participation, in accordance with EPA's Guidelines for Ecological Risk Assessment. The information and tools are now available to make informed decisions about site-specific impacts that will ensure protection of aquatic ecosystems and best serve the public interest.

  8. The Fish Kill Mystery: Learning about Aquatic Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosal, Erica F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a case where students can learn about aquatic communities. In this case, students speculate on what may have caused a major fish kill in an estuary in North Carolina. In the process, they explore how land runoff and excess nutrients affect aquatic communities. They also learn about the complex life cycle of the dinoflagellate…

  9. VASCULAR PLANTS AS ENGINEERS OF OXYGEN IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of organisms on oxygen is one of the most dramatic examples of ecosystem engineering on Earth. In aquatic systems, which have much lower oxygen concentrations than the atmosphere, vascular aquatic plants can affect oxygen concentrations significantly not only on long t...

  10. Respiration in Aquatic Insects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarland, John

    1985-01-01

    This article: (1) explains the respiratory patterns of several freshwater insects; (2) describes the differences and mechanisms of spiracular cutaneous, and gill respiration; and (3) discusses behavioral aspects of selected aquatic insects. (ML)

  11. Land-use proxies for aquatic species invasions in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic invasive species adversely impact ecosystems, human health, and the economy of the Laurentian Great Lakes region. Targeted preventative and eradication efforts in response to early detection of invasive species can be both cost advantageous and effective. But where should...

  12. Developing a Collegiate Aquatics Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Paul A.

    2001-01-01

    Presents suggestions for departments of health, physical education, and recreation that are planning to develop their own aquatics programs, focusing on: the prevalence of collegiate aquatics programs; course offerings in an aquatics minor; practicums and internships; graduate programs in aquatics; cross-disciplinary appeal; marketing the aquatics…

  13. Aquatic toxicology: fact or fiction

    SciTech Connect

    Macek, K.J.

    1980-02-01

    The science of aquatic toxicology is a relatively new science. The development of the field of aquatic toxicology since 1930 is traced. The state of the art of aquatic toxicology compared with that of classical toxicology is evaluated. The science of aquatic toxicology is expected to undergo a significant period of rapid growth and development, leading ultimately to the formation of a mature science.

  14. Molecular ecology of aquatic microbes

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    Abstracts of reports are presented from a meeting on Molecular Ecology of Aquatic Microbes. Topics included: opportunities offered to aquatic ecology by molecular biology; the role of aquatic microbes in biogeochemical cycles; characterization of the microbial community; the effect of the environment on aquatic microbes; and the targeting of specific biological processes.

  15. Improving the quality of aquatic toxicity tests: Lessons learned and proficiency needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic toxicity testing methodologies have been widely used to assess potential adverse effects of chemicals and wastewater discharges on aquatic life in the United States since the 1970’s. Over the years, continued method modifications, increased training, and technical r...

  16. Ecotoxicity and environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in aquatic environments and wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Ortiz de García, Sheyla Andrea; Pinto Pinto, Gilberto; García-Encina, Pedro A; Irusta-Mata, Rubén

    2014-10-01

    A wide range of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are present in the environment, and many of their adverse effects are unknown. The environmental risk assessment of 26 PPCPs of relevant consumption and occurrence in the aquatic environment in Spain was accomplished in this research. Based on the ecotoxicity values obtained by bioluminescence and respirometry assays and by predictions using the US EPA ecological structure-activity relationship (ECOSAR™), the compounds were classified following the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals. According to the criteria of the European Medicines Agency, the real risk of impact of these compounds in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and in the aquatic environment was predicted. In at least two ecotoxicity tests, 65.4 % of the PPCPs under study showed high toxicity or were harmful to aquatic organisms. The global order of the species' sensitivity to the PPCPs considered was as follows: Vibrio fischeri (5 min) > Vibrio fischeri (15 min) > algae > crustaceans > fish > biomass of WWTP. Acetaminophen, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, clofibrate, ibuprofen, omeprazole, triclosan, parabens and 1,4-benzoquinone showed some type of risk for the aquatic environments and/or for the activated sludge of WWTPs. Development of acute and chronic ecotoxicity data, the determination of predicted and measured environmental concentrations of PPCPs, the inclusion of metabolites and transformation products and the evaluation of mixtures of these compounds will allow further improvements of the results of the ERAs and, finally, to efficiently identify the compounds that could affect the environment.

  17. The interactive effects of excess reactive nitrogen and climate change on aquatic ecosystems and water resources of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, J.S.; Hall, E.K.; Nolan, B.T.; Finlay, J.C.; Bernhardt, E.S.; Harrison, J.A.; Chan, F.; Boyer, E.W.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly all freshwaters and coastal zones of the US are degraded from inputs of excess reactive nitrogen (Nr), sources of which are runoff, atmospheric N deposition, and imported food and feed. Some major adverse effects include harmful algal blooms, hypoxia of fresh and coastal waters, ocean acidification, long-term harm to human health, and increased emissions of greenhouse gases. Nitrogen fluxes to coastal areas and emissions of nitrous oxide from waters have increased in response to N inputs. Denitrification and sedimentation of organic N to sediments are important processes that divert N from downstream transport. Aquatic ecosystems are particularly important denitrification hotspots. Carbon storage in sediments is enhanced by Nr, but whether carbon is permanently buried is unknown. The effect of climate change on N transport and processing in fresh and coastal waters will be felt most strongly through changes to the hydrologic cycle, whereas N loading is mostly climate-independent. Alterations in precipitation amount and dynamics will alter runoff, thereby influencing both rates of Nr inputs to aquatic ecosystems and groundwater and the water residence times that affect Nr removal within aquatic systems. Both infrastructure and climate change alter the landscape connectivity and hydrologic residence time that are essential to denitrification. While Nr inputs to and removal rates from aquatic systems are influenced by climate and management, reduction of N inputs from their source will be the most effective means to prevent or to minimize environmental and economic impacts of excess Nr to the nation’s water resources.

  18. Modeling Mercury Fate and Transport in Aquatic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massoudieh, Arash; Žagar, Dušan; Green, Peter G.; Cabrera-Toledo, Carlos; Horvat, Milena; Ginn, Timothy R.; Barkouki, Tammer; Weathers, Tess; Bombardelli, Fabian A.

    Mercury in the aquatic environment is a neurotoxin with several known adverse effects on the natural ecosystem and the human health. Mathematical modeling is a cost-effective way for assessing the risk associated with mercury to aquatic organisms and for developing management plans for the reduction of mercury exposure in such systems. However, the analysis of mercury fate and transport in the aquatic environment requires multiple disciplines of science ranging from sediment transport and hydraulics, to geochemistry and microbiology. Also, it involves the knowledge of some less understood processes such as the microbial and diagenetic processes affecting the chemical speciation of mercury and various mechanisms involved in the mass-exchange of mercury species between the benthic sediments and the overlying water. Due to these complexities, there are many challenges involved in developing an integrated mercury fate and transport model in aquatic systems. This paper identifies the various processes that are potentially important in mercury fate and transport as well as the knowns and unknowns about these processes. Also, an integrated multi-component reactive transport modeling approach is suggested to capture several of those processes. This integrated modeling framework includes the coupled advective-dispersive transport of mercury species in the water body, both in dissolved phase and as associated to mobile suspended sediments. The flux of mercury in the benthic sediments as a result of diffusive mass exchange, bio-dispersion, and hyporheic flow, and the flow generated due to consolidation of newly deposited sediments is also addressed. The model considers in addition the deposition and resuspension of sediments and their effect on the mass exchange of mercury species between the top water and the benthic sediments. As for the biogeochemical processes, the effect of redox stratification and activities of sulfate and iron-reducing bacteria on the methylation of

  19. Urbanicity, social adversity and psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, Andreas; Deserno, Lorenz; Reininghaus, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in research on geographical variation in the incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses. In this paper, we review the evidence on variation in incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in terms of place, as well as the individual- and area-level factors that account for this variation. We further review findings on potential mechanisms that link adverse urban environment and psychosis. There is evidence from earlier and more recent studies that urbanicity is associated with an increased incidence of schizophrenia and non-affective psychosis. In addition, considerable variation in incidence across neighbourhoods has been observed for these disorders. Findings suggest it is unlikely that social drift alone can fully account for geographical variation in incidence. Evidence further suggests that the impact of adverse social contexts – indexed by area-level exposures such as population density, social fragmentation and deprivation – on risk of psychosis is explained (confounding) or modified (interaction) by environmental exposures at the individual level (i.e., cannabis use, social adversity, exclusion and discrimination). On a neurobiological level, several studies suggest a close link between social adversity, isolation and stress on the one hand, and monoamine dysfunction on the other, which resembles findings in schizophrenia patients. However, studies directly assessing correlations between urban stress or discrimination and neurobiological alterations in schizophrenia are lacking to date. PMID:24096775

  20. Phytotoxicity and accumulation of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the aquatic plants Hydrilla verticillata and Phragmites Australis: leaf-type-dependent responses.

    PubMed

    Song, Uhram; Lee, Sunryung

    2016-05-01

    The phytotoxicity and accumulation of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on aquatic plant Hydrilla verticillata and Phragmites australis were investigated using mesocosms. The percentage of dissolved Zn in the ZnO NP treatment solutions was measured along with plant shoot growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, chlorophyll content, and Zn content. The dissolution rate of ZnO NPs in Hoagland solution was inversely related to the concentration. The submerged aquatic plant H. verticillata, growth was reduced during the early stages of the experiment when exposed to the highest ZnO NP concentration (1000 mg/L), whereas the emerged aquatic plant P. australis began to show significantly reduced growth after a few weeks. The measurements of chlorophyll content, antioxidant enzyme activity, and Zn accumulation showed that P. australis was adversely affected by NPs and absorbed more Zn than H. verticillata. The results indicated that physiological differences among aquatic plants, such as whether they use leaves or roots for nutrient and water uptake, led to differences in nanoparticle toxicity. Overall, High ZnO NP concentrations caused significant phytotoxicity on aquatic plants, and low concentrations caused unpredictable phytotoxicity. Therefore, the use and disposal of zinc oxide nanoparticles should be carefully monitored.

  1. Effects of Carbon Nanotube Environmental Dispersion on an Aquatic Invertebrate, Hirudo medicinalis.

    PubMed

    Girardello, Rossana; Tasselli, Stefano; Baranzini, Nicolò; Valvassori, Roberto; de Eguileor, Magda; Grimaldi, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    The recent widespread applications of nanomaterials, because of their properties, opens new scenarios that affect their dispersal in the environment. In particular multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), despite their qualities, seem to be harmful for animals and humans. To evaluate possible toxic effects caused by carbon nanotube environmental dispersion, with regard to aquatic compartment, we proposed as experimental model a freshwater invertebrate: Hirudo medicinalis. In the present study we analyse acute and chronic immune responses over a short (1, 3, 6 and 12 hours) and long time (from 1 to 5 weeks) exposure to MWCNTs by optical, electron and immunohistochemical approaches. In the exposed leeches angiogenesis and fibroplasia accompanied by massive cellular migration occur. Immunocytochemical characterization using specific markers shows that in these inflammatory processes the monocyte-macrophages (CD45+, CD68+) are the most involved cells. These immunocompetent cells are characterized by sequence of events starting from the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (in particular IL-18), and amyloidogenensis. Our combined experimental approaches, basing on high sensitive inflammatory response can highlight adverse effects of nanomaterials on aquatic organisms and could be useful to assess the MWCNTs impact on aquatic, terrestrial animal and human health.

  2. Effects of Carbon Nanotube Environmental Dispersion on an Aquatic Invertebrate, Hirudo medicinalis

    PubMed Central

    Girardello, Rossana; Tasselli, Stefano; Baranzini, Nicolò; Valvassori, Roberto; de Eguileor, Magda; Grimaldi, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    The recent widespread applications of nanomaterials, because of their properties, opens new scenarios that affect their dispersal in the environment. In particular multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), despite their qualities, seem to be harmful for animals and humans. To evaluate possible toxic effects caused by carbon nanotube environmental dispersion, with regard to aquatic compartment, we proposed as experimental model a freshwater invertebrate: Hirudo medicinalis. In the present study we analyse acute and chronic immune responses over a short (1, 3, 6 and 12 hours) and long time (from 1 to 5 weeks) exposure to MWCNTs by optical, electron and immunohistochemical approaches. In the exposed leeches angiogenesis and fibroplasia accompanied by massive cellular migration occur. Immunocytochemical characterization using specific markers shows that in these inflammatory processes the monocyte-macrophages (CD45+, CD68+) are the most involved cells. These immunocompetent cells are characterized by sequence of events starting from the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (in particular IL-18), and amyloidogenensis. Our combined experimental approaches, basing on high sensitive inflammatory response can highlight adverse effects of nanomaterials on aquatic organisms and could be useful to assess the MWCNTs impact on aquatic, terrestrial animal and human health. PMID:26636582

  3. Development of resource shed delineation in aquatic ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental issues in aquatic ecosystems of high management priority involve spatially explicit phenomena that occur over vast areas. A "landscape" perspective is thus necessary, including an understanding of how ecological phenomena at a local scale are affected by physical fo...

  4. Aquatic Microbiology Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Robert C.; And Others

    This laboratory manual presents information and techniques dealing with aquatic microbiology as it relates to environmental health science, sanitary engineering, and environmental microbiology. The contents are divided into three categories: (1) ecological and physiological considerations; (2) public health aspects; and (3)microbiology of water…

  5. Aquatic Equipment Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sova, Ruth

    Equipment usually used in water exercise programs is designed for variety, intensity, and program necessity. This guide discusses aquatic equipment under the following headings: (1) equipment design; (2) equipment principles; (3) precautions and contraindications; (4) population contraindications; and (5) choosing equipment. Equipment is used…

  6. Investigating Aquatic Dead Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Jeremy; Gurbisz, Cassie; Murray, Laura; Gray, William; Bosch, Jennifer; Burrell, Chris; Kemp, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article features two engaging high school activities that include current scientific information, data, and authentic case studies. The activities address the physical, biological, and chemical processes that are associated with oxygen-depleted areas, or "dead zones," in aquatic systems. Students can explore these dead zones through both…

  7. Adapted Aquatics and Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Martin E.; Conatser, Phillip

    2002-01-01

    Presents strategies and techniques to help instructors and directors promote successful inclusive aquatics programs for students with disabilities, discussing the importance of considering issues related to: teaching style, collaborative planning, goal determination, appropriate inclusive placement, personnel preparation, curriculum adaptation,…

  8. Effects of impervious cover on the surface water quality and aquatic ecosystem of the Kyeongan stream in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bum-Yeon; Park, Shin-Jeong; Paule, Ma Cristina; Jun, Woosong; Lee, Chang-Hee

    2012-08-01

    The extent of impervious cover in a watershed has been linked to the quality of an urban aquatic environment. The Kyeongan watershed in South Korea was investigated to evaluate the relationship between the total impervious area (TIA) and the aquatic ecosystem of the watershed, including water quality and aquatic life using a relatively high-resolution (0.4 m) image. The TIA was found to be approximately 12% of the watershed, which indicates that the quality of its environment was being adversely affected by it. For water quality, Pearson correlation analyses showed that all water quality parameters studied were found to be positively correlated with TIA at p < 0.01, except for nitrate (NO3-). In addition, the zone with a higher TIA was found to have worse water quality. Some water quality parameters, such as nitrite (NO2-), total phosphorus, and phosphate (PO4(3-)) were highly affected by discharges from wastewater treatment plants. Water quality data suggest that TIA could be used to predict the water quality of streams. For ecological parameters, the diatom index for organic pollution and trophic diatom index were found to be highly correlated with TIA, whereas physical habitat and benthic macroinvertebrates were poorly correlated with TIA. However, the results indicate that the extent of impervious cover can be a useful indicator for predicting the status of specific ecosystem of streams.

  9. 7 CFR 1900.55 - Adverse action procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... REGULATIONS GENERAL Adverse Decisions and Administrative Appeals § 1900.55 Adverse action procedures. (a) If an applicant, guaranteed lender, a holder, borrower or grantee is adversely affected by a...

  10. Aquatic Plants and their Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Natural Resources, Lansing.

    Aquatic plants can be divided into two types: algae and macrophytes. The goal of aquatic plant management is to maintain a proper balance of plants within a lake and still retain the lake's recreational and economic importance. Aquatic plant management programs have two phases: long-term management (nutrient control), and short-term management…

  11. Methods for Aquatic Resource Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Methods for Aquatic Resource Assessment (MARA) project consists of three main activities in support of assessing the conditions of the nation’s aquatic resources: 1) scientific support for EPA Office of Water’s national aquatic resource surveys; 2) spatial predications of riv...

  12. Aquatic Pest Control. Manual 99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the aquatic pest control category. The text discusses various water use situations; aquatic weed identification; herbicide use and effects; and aquatic insects and their control. (CS)

  13. Introduced aquatic plants and algae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-native aquatic plants such as waterhyacinth and hydrilla severely impair the uses of aquatic resources including recreational faculties (lakes, reservoirs, rivers) as well as timely delivery of irrigation water for agriculture. Costs associated with impacts and management of all types of aquatic...

  14. Comparing resource pulses in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Nowlin, Weston H; Vanni, Michael J; Yang, Louie H

    2008-03-01

    Resource pulses affect productivity and dynamics in a diversity of ecosystems, including islands, forests, streams, and lakes. Terrestrial and aquatic systems differ in food web structure and biogeochemistry; thus they may also differ in their responses to resource pulses. However, there has been a limited attempt to compare responses across ecosystem types. Here, we identify similarities and differences in the causes and consequences of resource pulses in terrestrial and aquatic systems. We propose that different patterns of food web and ecosystem structure in terrestrial and aquatic systems lead to different responses to resource pulses. Two predictions emerge from a comparison of resource pulses in the literature: (1) the bottom-up effects of resource pulses should transmit through aquatic food webs faster because of differences in the growth rates, life history, and stoichiometry of organisms in aquatic vs. terrestrial systems, and (2) the impacts of resource pulses should also persist longer in terrestrial systems because of longer generation times, the long-lived nature of many terrestrial resource pulses, and reduced top-down effects of consumers in terrestrial systems compared to aquatic systems. To examine these predictions, we use a case study of a resource pulse that affects both terrestrial and aquatic systems: the synchronous emergence of periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in eastern North American forests. In general, studies that have examined the effects of periodical cicadas on terrestrial and aquatic systems support the prediction that resource pulses transmit more rapidly in aquatic systems; however, support for the prediction that resource pulse effects persist longer in terrestrial systems is equivocal. We conclude that there is a need to elucidate the indirect effects and long-term implications of resource pulses in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

  15. Scientists Trace Adversity's Toll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    The stress of a spelling bee or a challenging science project can enhance a student's focus and promote learning. But the stress of a dysfunctional or unstable home life can poison a child's cognitive ability for a lifetime, according to new research. Those studies show that stress forms the link between childhood adversity and poor academic…

  16. Dam removal, connectivity, and aquatic resources in the St. Regis River Watershed, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenna, James E.; Hanak, Kaitlin; DeVilbiss, Katharine; David, Anthony; Johnson, James H.

    2015-10-09

    The decommissioning and planned removal of the Hogansburg Dam on the St. Regis River in New York has stimulated interest in the potential effects of that barrier removal on the St. Regis watershed. There will be immediate and systemic effects of the Hogansburg Dam removal, which may include inundation of habitats below the dam or dewatering of habitats above the dam, possibly affecting local fish assemblages and (or) local native mussel assemblages; and expansion of stream network connectivity, which has the potential to open a large area of the watershed to migratory aquatic species. Information was collected about biota, water quality, sediment distribution, riverbed dimensions in the vicinity of the dam, and habitat characteristics of headwater sample sites. Complete fish assemblages were collected, but species of special concern associated with the connectivity changes included, American Eel, Atlantic Salmon, Brook Trout, Eastern Sand Darter, and Lake Sturgeon. Freshwater mussels in the vicinity of the dam also were examined and may be at risk of exposure (without a rescue plan) after dam removal. Reservoir sediment will be transported downstream and will alter aquatic habitat as it moves through the system. The dam removal will open more than 440 kilometers of stream habitat to migratory species, allowing them to more easily complete their life cycles. Fish assemblages above the dam may be altered by migrating fishes, but resident Brook Trout are not expected to be adversely affected.

  17. Aquatic Nuisance Species Locator

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Data in this map has been collected by the United States Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species program located in Gainesville, Florida (http://nas.er.usgs.gov/default.aspx). This dataset may have some inaccuracies and is only current to June 15, 2012. The species identified in this dataset are not inclusive of all aquatic nuisance species, but rather a subset identified to be at risk for transport by recreational activities such as boating and angling. Additionally, the locations where organisims have been identified are also not inclusive and should be treated as a guide. Organisms are limited to the following: American bullfrog, Asian clam, Asian shore crab, Asian tunicate, Australian spotted jellyfish, Chinese mitten crab, New Zealand mudsnail, Colonial sea squirt, Alewife, Bighead carp, Black carp, Flathead catfish, Grass carp, Green crab, Lionfish, Northern snakehead, Quagga mussel, Round Goby, Ruffe, Rusty crayfish, Sea lamprey, Silver carp, Spiny water flea, Veined rapa whelk, Zebra mussel

  18. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Médéric; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-10-01

    Inertial aquatic swimmers that use undulatory gaits range in length L from a few millimetres to 30 metres, across a wide array of biological taxa. Using elementary hydrodynamic arguments, we uncover a unifying mechanistic principle characterizing their locomotion by deriving a scaling relation that links swimming speed U to body kinematics (tail beat amplitude A and frequency ω) and fluid properties (kinematic viscosity ν). This principle can be simply couched as the power law Re ~ Swα, where Re = UL/ν >> 1 and Sw = ωAL/ν, with α = 4/3 for laminar flows, and α = 1 for turbulent flows. Existing data from over 1,000 measurements on fish, amphibians, larvae, reptiles, mammals and birds, as well as direct numerical simulations are consistent with our scaling. We interpret our results as the consequence of the convergence of aquatic gaits to the performance limits imposed by hydrodynamics.

  19. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Mederic; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

    2014-11-01

    Inertial aquatic swimmers that use undulatory gaits range in length L from a few millimeters to 30 meters, across a wide array of biological taxa. Using elementary hydrodynamic arguments, we uncover a unifying mechanistic principle characterizing their locomotion by deriving a scaling relation that links swimming speed U to body kinematics (tail beat amplitude A and frequency ω) and fluid properties (kinematic viscosity ν). This principle can be simply couched as the power law Re ~ Swα , where Re = UL / ν >> 1 and Sw = ωAL / ν , with α = 4 / 3 for laminar flows, and α = 1 for turbulent flows. Existing data from over 1000 measurements on fish, amphibians, larvae, reptiles, mammals and birds, as well as direct numerical simulations are consistent with our scaling. We interpret our results as the consequence of the convergence of aquatic gaits to the performance limits imposed by hydrodynamics.

  20. Microplastic in Aquatic Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Ivleva, Natalia P; Wiesheu, Alexandra C; Niessner, Reinhard

    2017-02-06

    The contamination of marine and freshwater ecosystems with plastic, and especially with microplastic (MP), is a global ecological problem of increasing scientific concern. This has stimulated a great deal of research on the occurrence of MP, interaction of MP with chemical pollutants, the uptake of MP by aquatic organisms, and the resulting (negative) impact of MP. Herein, we review the major issues of MP in aquatic environments, with the principal aims 1) to characterize the methods applied for MP analysis (including sampling, processing, identification and quantification), indicate the most reliable techniques, and discuss the required further improvements; 2) to estimate the abundance of MP in marine/freshwater ecosystems and clarify the problems that hamper the comparability of such results; and 3) to summarize the existing literature on the uptake of MP by living organisms. Finally, we identify knowledge gaps, suggest possible strategies to assess environmental risks arising from MP, and discuss prospects to minimize MP abundance in aquatic ecosystems.

  1. Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-18

    Fishes and marine mammals may suffer a range of potential effects from exposure to intense underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities such as pile driving, shipping, sonars, and underwater blasting. Several underwater sound recording (USR) devices have been built to acquire samples of the underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities. Software becomes indispensable for processing and analyzing the audio files recorded by these USRs. The new Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface Utility Software (AAMI) is specifically designed for analysis of underwater sound recordings to provide data in metrics that facilitate evaluation of the potential impacts of the sound on aquatic animals. In addition to the basic functions, such as loading and editing audio files recorded by USRs and batch processing of sound files, the software utilizes recording system calibration data to compute important parameters in physical units. The software also facilitates comparison of the noise sound sample metrics with biological measures such as audiograms of the sensitivity of aquatic animals to the sound, integrating various components into a single analytical frame.

  2. Aquatic Global Passive Sampling (AQUA-GAPS) Revisited: First Steps toward a Network of Networks for Monitoring Organic Contaminants in the Aquatic Environment.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, Rainer; Muir, Derek; Zeng, Eddy Y; Bao, Lian-Jun; Allan, Ian J; Arinaitwe, Kenneth; Booij, Kees; Helm, Paul; Kaserzon, Sarit; Mueller, Jochen F; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Smedes, Foppe; Tsapakis, Manolis; Wong, Charles S; You, Jing

    2017-02-07

    Organic contaminants, in particular persistent organic pollutants (POPs), adversely affect water quality and aquatic food webs across the globe. As of now, there is no globally consistent information available on concentrations of dissolved POPs in water bodies. The advance of passive sampling techniques has made it possible to establish a global monitoring program for these compounds in the waters of the world, which we call the Aquatic Global Passive Sampling (AQUA-GAPS) network. A recent expert meeting discussed the background, motivations, and strategic approaches of AQUA-GAPS, and its implementation as a network of networks for monitoring organic contaminants (e.g., POPs and others contaminants of concern). Initially, AQUA-GAPS will demonstrate its operating principle via two proof-of-concept studies focused on the detection of legacy and emerging POPs in freshwater and coastal marine sites using both polyethylene and silicone passive samplers. AQUA-GAPS is set up as a decentralized network, which is open to other participants from around the world to participate in deployments and to initiate new studies. In particular, participants are sought to initiate deployments and studies investigating the presence of legacy and emerging POPs in Africa, Central, and South America.

  3. Fisheries and aquatic resources--fish health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panek, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Fish health research at Leetown had its origin in the 1930’s when the Leetown Fish Hatchery and Experiment Station was constructed. In 1978, the National Fish Health Research Laboratory, now a component of the Leetown Science Center, was established to solve emerging and known disease problems affecting fish and other aquatic organisms critical to species restoration programs. Center scientists develop methods for the isolation, detection, and identification of fish pathogens and for prevention and control of fish diseases.

  4. Adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly-Foley, Georgina

    2017-04-05

    What was the nature of the CPD activity, practice-related feedback and/or event and/or experience in your practice? The CPD article defined the different types of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and explored when they can occur. It emphasised the importance of being knowledgeable about medications, considering patient safety when patients are taking medications, being alert to the possibility of ADRs, and recognising and responding to suspected ADRs.

  5. Ecological risk assessment for aquatic invertebrate communities exposed to imidacloprid as a result of labeled agricultural and nonagricultural uses in the United States.

    PubMed

    Whitfield-Aslund, Melissa; Winchell, Michael; Bowers, Lisa; McGee, Sean; Tang, Jane; Padilla, Lauren; Greer, Colleen; Knopper, Loren; Moore, Dwayne R J

    2016-10-18

    A probabilistic ecological risk assessment (ERA) was conducted to determine the potential effects of acute and chronic exposure of aquatic invertebrate communities to imidacloprid arising from labeled agricultural and nonagricultural uses in the United States. Aquatic exposure estimates were derived using a higher-tier refined modeling approach that accounts for realistic variability in environmental and agronomic factors. Toxicity was assessed using refined acute and chronic community-level effect metrics for aquatic invertebrates (i.e., species or taxon sensitivity distributions) developed using the best available data. Acute and chronic probabilistic risk estimates were derived by integrating the exposure distributions for different use patterns with the applicable species or taxon sensitivity distributions to generate risk curves, which plot cumulative probability of exceedance versus the magnitude of effect. Overall, the results of this assessment indicated that the aquatic invertebrate community is unlikely to be adversely affected by acute or chronic exposure to imidacloprid resulting from currently registered uses of imidacloprid in the United States. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;9999:1-14. © 2016 SETAC.

  6. Early Adverse Experiences and the Developing Brain

    PubMed Central

    Bick, Johanna; Nelson, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    Children exposed to various forms of adversity early in life are at increased risk for a broad range of developmental difficulties, affecting both cognitive and emotional adjustment. We review a growing body of evidence suggesting that exposure to adverse circumstances affects the developing brain in ways that increase risk for a myriad of problems. We focus on two forms of adversity, one in which children are exposed to childhood maltreatment in family environments, and another in which children are exposed to extreme psychosocial deprivation in contexts of institutional rearing. We discuss ways in which each of these experiences represent violations of species-expected caregiving conditions, thereby imposing challenges to the developing brain. We also review emerging data pointing to the effectiveness of early intervention in remediating neurodevelopmental consequences associated with maltreatment or institutional rearing. We conclude by discussing implications of this work for public health efforts and highlight important directions for the field. PMID:26334107

  7. Conceptual Framework for Aquatic Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, J.; Krause, S.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic interfaces are generally characterized by steep gradients of physical, chemical and biological properties due to the contrast between the two adjacent environments. Innovative measurement techniques are required to study the spatially heterogeneous and temporally variable processes. Especially the different spatial and temporal scales are a large challenge. Due to the steep biogeochemical gradients and the intensive structural and compositional heterogeneity, enhanced biogeochemical processing rates are inherent to aquatic interfaces. Nevertheless, the effective turnover depends strongly on the residence time distribution along the flow paths and in sections with particular biogeochemical milieus and reaction kinetics. Thus, identification and characterization of the highly complex flow patterns in and across aquatic interfaces are crucial to understand biogeochemical processing along exchange flow paths and to quantify transport across aquatic interfaces. Hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes are closely coupled at aquatic interfaces. However, interface processing rates are not only enhanced compared to the adjacent compartments that they connect; also completely different reactions might occur if certain thresholds are exceeded or the biogeochemical milieu differs significantly from the adjacent environments. Single events, temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity might increase overall processing rates of aquatic interfaces and thus, should not be neglected when studying aquatic interfaces. Aquatic interfaces are key zones relevant for the ecological state of the entire ecosystem and thus, understanding interface functioning and controls is paramount for ecosystem management. The overall aim of this contribution is a general conceptual framework for aquatic interfaces that is applicable to a wide range of systems, scales and processes.

  8. Morbillivirus infections in aquatic mammals.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, S

    1998-10-01

    Morbillivirus infections which were not documented in aquatic mammals until 1988, have caused at least five epizootics in these species during the last 10 years. Affected populations include European harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) in 1998, Baikal seals (Phoca siberica) in Siberia from 1987-1988, striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) in the Mediterranean Sea from 1990-1992 and bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) along the eastern coast of the United States from 1987-1988 and in the Gulf of Mexico from 1993-1994. Clinical signs and lesions in affected animals were similar to those of canine distemper. Lesions were mainly seen in lung, central nervous and lymphoid tissues and included formation of intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Syncytia were commonly found in lung and lymphoid tissues of cetaceans but not of pinnipeds. Antigenic and molecular biological studies indicate that a newly discovered morbillivirus, termed phocine distemper virus, and canine distemper virus were responsible for recent pinniped epizootics; cetacean die-offs were caused by strains of a second, newly recognized cetacean morbillivirus. Serological evidence of morbillivirus infection has been identified in a broad range of marine mammal populations and recent epizootics probably resulted from transfer of virus to immunologically-naive populations.

  9. Adverse effects of cannabis.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis, Cannabis sativa L., is used to produce a resin that contains high levels of cannabinoids, particularly delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are psychoactive substances. Although cannabis use is illegal in France and in many other countries, it is widely used for its relaxing or euphoric effects, especially by adolescents and young adults. What are the adverse effects of cannabis on health? During consumption? And in the long term? Does cannabis predispose users to the development of psychotic disorders? To answer these questions, we reviewed the available evidence using the standard Prescrire methodology. The long-term adverse effects of cannabis are difficult to evaluate. Since and associated substances, with or without the user's knowledge. Tobacco and alcohol consumption, and particular lifestyles and behaviours are often associated with cannabis use. Some traits predispose individuals to the use of psychoactive substances in general. The effects of cannabis are dosedependent.The most frequently report-ed adverse effects are mental slowness, impaired reaction times, and sometimes accentuation of anxiety. Serious psychological disorders have been reported with high levels of intoxication. The relationship between poor school performance and early, regular, and frequent cannabis use seems to be a vicious circle, in which each sustains the other. Many studies have focused on the long-term effects of cannabis on memory, but their results have been inconclusive. There do not * About fifteen longitudinal cohort studies that examined the influence of cannabis on depressive thoughts or suicidal ideation have yielded conflicting results and are inconclusive. Several longitudinal cohort studies have shown a statistical association between psychotic illness and self-reported cannabis use. However, the results are difficult to interpret due to methodological problems, particularly the unknown reliability of self-reported data. It has not been possible to

  10. Adverse reactions to vaccines.

    PubMed

    Martin, Bryan L; Nelson, Michael R; Hershey, Joyce N; Engler, Renata J M

    2003-06-01

    (The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private views of the authors and are not to be construed as official or as reflecting the views of the Department of the Army or the Department of Defense.) Immunization healthcare is becoming increasingly complex as the number and types of vaccines have continued to expand. Like all prescription drugs, vaccines may be associated with adverse events. The majority of these reactions are self-limited and not associated with prolonged disability. The media, Internet and public advocacy groups have focused on potentially serious vaccine-associated adverse events with questions raised about causal linkages to increasing frequencies of diseases such as autism and asthma. Despite a lack of evidence of a causal relationship to a variety of vaccine safety concerns, including extensive reviews by the Institute of Medicine, questions regarding vaccine safety continue to threaten the success of immunization programs. Risk communication arid individual risk assessment is further challenged by the public health success of vaccine programs creating the perception that certain vaccines are no longer necessary or justified because of the rare reaction risk. There is a need for improved understanding of true vaccine contraindications and precautions as well as host factors and disease threat in order to develop a patient specific balanced risk communication intervention. When they occur, vaccine related adverse events must be treated, documented and reported through the VAERS system. The increasing complexity of vaccination health care has led the Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to identify Vaccine Safety Assessment and Evaluation as a potential new specialty.

  11. Ecotoxicological impact of the fungicide tebuconazole on an aquatic decomposer-detritivore system.

    PubMed

    Zubrod, Jochen P; Bundschuh, Mirco; Feckler, Alexander; Englert, Dominic; Schulz, Ralf

    2011-12-01

    Leaf litter breakdown is a fundamental process in aquatic ecosystems that is realized by microbial decomposers and invertebrate detritivores. Although this process may be adversely affected by fungicides, among other factors, no test design exists to assess combined effects on such decomposer-detritivore systems. Hence, the present study assessed effects of the model fungicide tebuconazole (65 µg/L) on the conditioning of leaf material (by characterizing the associated microbial community) as well as the combined effects (i.e., direct toxicity and food quality-related effects (=indirect)) on the energy processing of the leaf-shredding amphipod Gammarus fossarum using a five-week semistatic test design. Gammarids exposed to tebuconazole produced significantly less feces (≈ 20%), which in turn significantly increased their assimilation (≈ 30%). Moreover, a significantly reduced lipid content (≈ 20%) indicated lower physiological fitness. The conditioning process was altered as well, which was indicated by a significantly reduced fungal biomass (≈ 40%) and sporulation (≈ 30%) associated with the leaf material. These results suggest that tebuconazole affects both components of the investigated decomposer-detritivore system. However, adverse effects on the level of detritivores cannot be explicitly attributed to direct or indirect pathways. Nevertheless, as the endpoints assessed are directly related to leaf litter breakdown and associated energy transfer processes, the protectiveness of environmental risk assessment for this ecosystem function may be more realistically assessed in future studies by using this or comparable test designs.

  12. Aquatic species program

    SciTech Connect

    Bollmeier, W.S.; Sprague, S.

    1989-09-01

    Researchers have learned that many species of aquatic microalgae produce lipids, or oils, when stimulated by environmental stress. These oils can then be processed into diesel fuel or gasoline. Scientists in the Department of Energy (DOE)/Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) Aquatics Species Program have collected and screened more than 3,000 strains of microalgae from desert and saline environments. The most promising of these strains are maintained in a culture collection at SERI, and research is now focusing on applying genetic techniques to enhance lipid production of microalgae. Researchers are also studying ways to optimize microalgae lipid production by growing the microalgae in intensive cultures of large outdoor ponds. Because microalgae require large amounts of carbon dioxide as a nutrient, these microalgae facilities could be coupled with a power plant or other source of carbon dioxide. Thus, this technology offers not only the potential of producing renewable liquid fuels, but a possible way to improve the environment at the same time. 135 refs., 25 figs., 29 tabs.

  13. Nitrogen in aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Rabalais, Nancy N

    2002-03-01

    Aquatic ecosystems respond variably to nutrient enrichment and altered nutrient ratios, along a continuum from fresh water through estuarine, coastal, and marine systems. Although phosphorus is considered the limiting nutrient for phytoplankton production in freshwater systems, the effects of atmospheric nitrogen and its contribution to acidification of fresh waters can be detrimental. Within the estuarine to coastal continuum, multiple nutrient limitations occur among nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon along the salinity gradient and by season, but nitrogen is generally considered the primary limiting nutrient for phytoplankton biomass accumulation. There are well-established, but nonlinear, positive relationships among nitrogen and phosphorus flux, phytoplankton primary production, and fisheries yield. There are thresholds, however, where the load of nutrients to estuarine, coastal and marine systems exceeds the capacity for assimilation of nutrient-enhanced production, and water-quality degradation occurs. Impacts can include noxious and toxic algal blooms, increased turbidity with a subsequent loss of submerged aquatic vegetation, oxygen deficiency, disruption of ecosystem functioning, loss of habitat, loss of biodiversity, shifts in food webs, and loss of harvestable fisheries.

  14. Aquatic sources and sinks for nitrous oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkins, J. W.; Wofsy, S. C.; Mcelroy, M. B.; Kaplan, W. A.; Kolb, C. E.

    1978-01-01

    Data are presented which suggest the complexity of the aquatic nitrogen cycle as it affects N2O. The data are from studies made in the central and south-east tropical regions of the Pacific Ocean and in Chesapeake Bay. The data indicate that oxidation of ammonium and amino nitrogen and nitrification form the principle source for marine N2O. It is estimated that the yearly global yield for oceanic N2O is less than about 10 to the 7th power tons. The consumption of atmospheric N2O by the open ocean has not been evidenced, although data from the south-east tropical Pacific and Chesapeake Bay show the consumption of dissolved N2O in low-oxygen conditions. Preliminary observations have also indicated the consumption of atmospheric N2O by aquatic systems such as freshwater pond and a tidal saltmarsh.

  15. Freshwater biodiversity and aquatic insect diversification.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Klaas-Douwe B; Monaghan, Michael T; Pauls, Steffen U

    2014-01-01

    Inland waters cover less than 1% of Earth's surface but harbor more than 6% of all insect species: Nearly 100,000 species from 12 orders spend one or more life stages in freshwater. Little is known about how this remarkable diversity arose, although allopatric speciation and ecological adaptation are thought to be primary mechanisms. Freshwater habitats are highly susceptible to environmental change and exhibit marked ecological gradients. Standing waters appear to harbor more dispersive species than running waters, but there is little understanding of how this fundamental ecological difference has affected diversification. In contrast to the lack of evolutionary studies, the ecology and habitat preferences of aquatic insects have been intensively studied, in part because of their widespread use as bioindicators. The combination of phylogenetics with the extensive ecological data provides a promising avenue for future research, making aquatic insects highly suitable models for the study of ecological diversification.

  16. Protection Goals for Aquatic Plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Someone once said plants are the ugly stepchildren of the toxicological world. This was not out of lack of respect for plants, but rather reflected the common assumption that aquatic plants were less sensitive than aquatic fauna to chemicals. We now know this is not a valid gener...

  17. Tool use by aquatic animals

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Janet; Patterson, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Tool-use research has focused primarily on land-based animals, with less consideration given to aquatic animals and the environmental challenges and conditions they face. Here, we review aquatic tool use and examine the contributing ecological, physiological, cognitive and social factors. Tool use among aquatic animals is rare but taxonomically diverse, occurring in fish, cephalopods, mammals, crabs, urchins and possibly gastropods. While additional research is required, the scarcity of tool use can likely be attributable to the characteristics of aquatic habitats, which are generally not conducive to tool use. Nonetheless, studying tool use by aquatic animals provides insights into the conditions that promote and inhibit tool-use behaviour across biomes. Like land-based tool users, aquatic animals tend to find tools on the substrate and use tools during foraging. However, unlike on land, tool users in water often use other animals (and their products) and water itself as a tool. Among sea otters and dolphins, the two aquatic tool users studied in greatest detail, some individuals specialize in tool use, which is vertically socially transmitted possibly because of their long dependency periods. In all, the contrasts between aquatic- and land-based tool users enlighten our understanding of the adaptive value of tool-use behaviour. PMID:24101631

  18. PUTATIVE ADVERSE OUTCOME PATHWAY FOR INHIBITON ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) provides a framework for organizing knowledge to define links between a molecular initiating event (MIE) and an adverse outcome (AO) occurring at a higher level of biological organization, such as the individual or population. The AOP framework proceeds from a general (e.g., not chemical specific) molecular mode of action, designated as a MIE, through stepwise changes in biological status, defined as key events (KEs), to a final AO that can be used in risk assessment. Because aromatase-inhibiting pharmaceuticals are widely used to treat breast cancer patients, we explored the unintended consequences that might occur in fish exposed to these chemicals through wastewater discharge into the aquatic environment. Unlike mammals, fish have two isoforms of aromatase, one that predominates in the ovary (cyp19a1a) and a second (cyp19a1b) that prevails in the brain. Aromatase activity in fish brain can be 100 to 1000 times that in mammals and is associated with reproduction. We have developed a putative AOP for inhibition of brain aromatase in fish leading to reproductive dysfunction based on review of relevant literature and reproductive experiments with the marine fish cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) exposed to aromatase-inhibiting pharmaceuticals in the laboratory. The first KE in this AOP is a decrease in brain aromatase activity due to exposure to an aromatase inhibitor. KEs then progress through subsequent steps including decreas

  19. [Cutaneous adverse drug reactions].

    PubMed

    Lebrun-Vignes, B; Valeyrie-Allanore, L

    2015-04-01

    Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR) represent a heterogeneous field including various clinical patterns without specific features suggesting drug causality. Exanthematous eruptions, urticaria and vasculitis are the most common forms of CADR. Fixed eruption is uncommon in western countries. Serious reactions (fatal outcome, sequelae) represent 2% of CADR: bullous reactions (Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis), DRESS (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms or drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome) and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP). These forms must be quickly diagnosed to guide their management. The main risk factors are immunosuppression, autoimmunity and some HLA alleles in bullous reactions and DRESS. Most systemic drugs may induce cutaneous adverse reactions, especially antibiotics, anticonvulsivants, antineoplastic drugs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, allopurinol and contrast media. Pathogenesis includes immediate or delayed immunologic mechanism, usually not related to dose, and pharmacologic/toxic mechanism, commonly dose-dependent or time-dependent. In case of immunologic mechanism, allergologic exploration is possible to clarify drug causality, with a variable sensitivity according to the drug and to the CADR type. It includes epicutaneous patch testing, prick test and intradermal test. However, no in vivo or in vitro test can confirm the drug causality. To determine the cause of the eruption, a logical approach based on clinical characteristics, chronologic factors and elimination of differential diagnosis is required, completed with a literature search. A reporting to pharmacovigilance network is essential in case of a serious CADR whatever the suspected drug and in any case if the involved drug is a newly marketed one or unusually related to cutaneous reactions.

  20. Waving of Aquatic Grasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadevan, A.; Richards, K.

    2004-05-01

    We examine the fluid-structure interaction between submerged flexible grass stems and unidirectional flow in a channel. The stems deform in response to the drag force imposed by the flow. The drag, however, varies non-linearly with the fluid velocity and it's angle of incidence with the stems' axis. An increase in fluid velocity increases drag that consequently decelerates the fluid, but also bends the stems further and reduces drag. Such a drag-induced feedback mechanism between the plant structures and water results in an instability that is responsible for the synchronous waving of aquatic grasses in a flow field that is initially uniform. We construct a model for this phenomenon to explore its dependence on parameters. Experiments are also in progress. We further propose to test the applicability of similar mechanisms to sediment transport over deformable beds.

  1. Aquatic toxicity of triclosan.

    PubMed

    Orvos, David R; Versteeg, Donald J; Inauen, Josef; Capdevielle, Marie; Rothenstein, Arthur; Cunningham, Virginia

    2002-07-01

    The aquatic toxicity of triclosan (TCS), a chlorinated biphenyl ether used as an antimicrobial in consumer products, was studied with activated-sludge microorganisms, algae, invertebrates, and fish. Triclosan, a compound used for inhibiting microbial growth, was not toxic to wastewater microorganisms at concentrations less than aqueous solubility. The 48-h Daphnia magna median effective concentration (EC50) was 390 microg/L and the 96-h median lethal concentration values for Pimephales promelas and Lepomis macrochirus were 260 and 370 microg/L, respectively. A no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) and lowest-observed-effect concentration of 34.1 microg/L and 71.3 microg/L, respectively, were determined with an early life-stage toxicity test with Oncorhynchus mykiss. During a 96-h Scenedesmus study, the 96-h biomass EC50 was 1.4 microg/L and the 96-h NOEC was 0.69 microg/L. Other algae and Lemna also were investigated. Bioconcentration was assessed with Danio rerio. The average TCS accumulation factor over the five-week test period was 4,157 at 3 microg/L and 2,532 at 30 microg/L. Algae were determined to be the most susceptible organisms. Toxicity of a TCS-containing wastewater secondary effluent to P. promelas and Ceriodaphnia was evaluated and no observed differences in toxicity between control and TCS-treated laboratory units were detected. The neutral form of TCS was determined to be associated with toxic effects. Ionization and sorption will mitigate those effects in the aquatic compartment.

  2. Rubber tire leachates in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Evans, J J

    1997-01-01

    Tires have a deleterious effect on the environment. This review discusses the background of scrap tires discarded in the environment, including tire composition, adverse environmental effects, threats to public health and safety, and solid waste management. Despite the widespread use of scrap tires in environmental applications, both land-based and aquatic, data on the indicators of environmental degradation are extremely scarce. Indicators of environmental degradation include analysis of chemicals within the water and sediment, analysis of contaminants within organisms, and analysis of the biological effects of these compounds on plants, animals, microbes, and organelles. Although these indicators are most useful when used in parallel, a review of the available information on chemical characterization of tire leachate from tire storage facilities, manufacturing, usage in recycling applications, and toxicity exposure studies, of vegetation surveys from waste tire areas and reviews of mammalian tire product toxicity, and of toxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity of tire exposure in experimental aquatic animals, microbes, and organelles is presented. The major characteristics of these studies are discussed in specific sections. The "Discussion and Conclusions" section discusses and summarizes the biological effects and chemical characterization of tire leachates. A global environmental perspective is included to improve our understanding of the deficiency of the current knowledge of tire leachate toxicity from various sources and to encourage interdisciplinary studies to establish the pattern of pollution associated with waste tire management.

  3. The B-3 Ethylene Response Factor MtERF1-1 Mediates Resistance to a Subset of Root Pathogens in Medicago truncatula without Adversely Affecting Symbiosis with Rhizobia1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jonathan P.; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Gleason, Cynthia; Oliver, Richard P.; Singh, Karam B.

    2010-01-01

    The fungal necrotrophic pathogen Rhizoctonia solani is a significant constraint to a range of crops as diverse as cereals, canola, and legumes. Despite wide-ranging germplasm screens in many of these crops, no strong genetic resistance has been identified, suggesting that alternative strategies to improve resistance are required. In this study, we characterize moderate resistance to R. solani anastomosis group 8 identified in Medicago truncatula. The activity of the ethylene- and jasmonate-responsive GCC box promoter element was associated with moderate resistance, as was the induction of the B-3 subgroup of ethylene response transcription factors (ERFs). Genes of the B-1 subgroup showed no significant response to R. solani infection. Overexpression of a B-3 ERF, MtERF1-1, in Medicago roots increased resistance to R. solani as well as an oomycete root pathogen, Phytophthora medicaginis, but not root knot nematode. These results indicate that targeting specific regulators of ethylene defense may enhance resistance to an important subset of root pathogens. We also demonstrate that overexpression of MtERF1-1 enhances disease resistance without apparent impact on nodulation in the A17 background, while overexpression in sickle reduced the hypernodulation phenotype. This suggests that under normal regulation of nodulation, enhanced resistance to root diseases can be uncoupled from symbiotic plant-microbe interactions in the same tissue and that ethylene/ERF regulation of nodule number is distinct from the defenses regulated by B-3 ERFs. Furthermore, unlike the stunted phenotype previously described for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ubiquitously overexpressing B-3 ERFs, overexpression of MtERF1-1 in M. truncatula roots did not show adverse effects on plant development. PMID:20713618

  4. Remote Sensing of Aquatic Plants.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    remote sensing methods for identification and assessment of expanses of aquatic plants. Both materials and techniques are examined for cost effectiveness and capability to sense aquatic plants on both the local and regional scales. Computer simulation of photographic responses was employed; Landsat, high-altitude photography, side-looking airborne radar, and low-altitude photography were examined to determine the capabilities of each for identifying and assessing aquatic plants. Results of the study revealed Landsat to be the most cost effective for regional surveys,

  5. Aquatic Invertebrate Development Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, D.

    1985-01-01

    Little definitive evidence exists to show that gravity plays a major role in embyrogenesis of aquatic invertebrates. Two reasons for this may be: (1) few studies have been done that emphasize the role of gravity; and (2) there simply may not be any gravity effect. The buoyant nature of the aquatic environment could have obscured any evolutionary effect of gravity. The small size of most eggs and their apparent lack of orientation suggests reduced gravitational influence. Therefore, it is recommended that the term development, as applied to aquatic invertebrates, be loosely defined to encompass behavioral and morphological parameters for which baseline data already exist.

  6. Environmental enrichment for aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Mike

    2015-05-01

    Aquatic animals are the most popular pets in the United States based on the number of owned pets. They are popular display animals and are increasingly used in research settings. Enrichment of captive animals is an important element of zoo and laboratory medicine. The importance of enrichment for aquatic animals has been slower in implementation. For a long time, there was debate over whether or not fish were able to experience pain or form long-term memories. As that debate has reduced and the consciousness of more aquatic animals is accepted, the need to discuss enrichment for these animals has increased.

  7. Adverse cutaneous drug reaction.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Surajit; Acharjya, Basanti

    2008-01-01

    In everyday clinical practice, almost all physicians come across many instances of suspected adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDR) in different forms. Although such cutaneous reactions are common, comprehensive information regarding their incidence, severity and ultimate health effects are often not available as many cases go unreported. It is also a fact that in the present world, almost everyday a new drug enters market; therefore, a chance of a new drug reaction manifesting somewhere in some form in any corner of world is unknown or unreported. Although many a times, presentation is too trivial and benign, the early identification of the condition and identifying the culprit drug and omit it at earliest holds the keystone in management and prevention of a more severe drug rash. Therefore, not only the dermatologists, but all practicing physicians should be familiar with these conditions to diagnose them early and to be prepared to handle them adequately. However, we all know it is most challenging and practically difficult when patient is on multiple medicines because of myriad clinical symptoms, poorly understood multiple mechanisms of drug-host interaction, relative paucity of laboratory testing that is available for any definitive and confirmatory drug-specific testing. Therefore, in practice, the diagnosis of ACDR is purely based on clinical judgment. In this discussion, we will be primarily focusing on pathomechanism and approach to reach a diagnosis, which is the vital pillar to manage any case of ACDR.

  8. Adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Reiser, Sarah J; McMillan, Katherine A; Wright, Kristi D; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2014-03-01

    Childhood experiences are thought to predispose a person to the development of health anxiety later in life. However, there is a lack of research investigating the influence of specific adverse experiences (e.g., childhood abuse, household dysfunction) on this condition. The current study examined the cumulative influence of multiple types of childhood adversities on health anxiety in adulthood. Adults 18-59 years of age (N=264) completed a battery of measures to assess adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs (i.e., negative affect and trait anxiety). Significant associations were observed between adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicted that adverse childhood experiences were predictive of health anxiety in adulthood; however, the unique contribution of these experience were no longer significant following the inclusion of the other variables of interest. Subsequently, mediation analyses indicated that both negative affect and trait anxiety independently mediated the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood. Increased exposure to adverse childhood experiences is associated with higher levels of health anxiety in adulthood; this relationship is mediated through negative affect and trait anxiety. Findings support the long-term negative impact of cumulative adverse childhood experiences and emphasize the importance of addressing negative affect and trait anxiety in efforts to prevent and treat health anxiety.

  9. Public Lakes, Private Lakeshore: Modeling Protection of Native Aquatic Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.

    2013-07-01

    Protection of native aquatic plants is an important proenvironmental behavior, because plant loss coupled with nutrient loading can produce changes in lake ecosystems. Removal of aquatic plants by lakeshore property owners is a diffuse behavior that may lead to cumulative impacts on lake ecosystems. This class of behavior is challenging to manage because collective impacts are not obvious to the actors. This paper distinguishes positive and negative beliefs about aquatic plants, in models derived from norm activation theory (Schwartz, Adv Exp Soc Psychol 10:221-279, 1977) and the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research, Addison-Wesley, Boston 1975), to examine protection of native aquatic plants by Minnesota lakeshore property owners. We clarify how positive and negative evaluations of native aquatic plants affect protection or removal of these plants. Results are based on a mail survey ( n = 3,115). Results suggest that positive evaluations of aquatic plants (i.e., as valuable to lake ecology) may not connect with the global attitudes and behavioral intentions that direct plant protection or removal. Lakeshore property owners' behavior related to aquatic plants may be driven more by tangible personal benefits derived from accessible, carefully managed lakeshore than intentional action taken to sustain lake ecosystems. The limited connection of positive evaluations of aquatic plants to global attitudes and behavioral intentions may reflect either lack of knowledge of what actions are needed to protect lake health and/or unwillingness to lose perceived benefits derived from lakeshore property.

  10. Public lakes, private lakeshore: modeling protection of native aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Susan A; Fulton, David C

    2013-07-01

    Protection of native aquatic plants is an important proenvironmental behavior, because plant loss coupled with nutrient loading can produce changes in lake ecosystems. Removal of aquatic plants by lakeshore property owners is a diffuse behavior that may lead to cumulative impacts on lake ecosystems. This class of behavior is challenging to manage because collective impacts are not obvious to the actors. This paper distinguishes positive and negative beliefs about aquatic plants, in models derived from norm activation theory (Schwartz, Adv Exp Soc Psychol 10:221-279, 1977) and the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research, Addison-Wesley, Boston 1975), to examine protection of native aquatic plants by Minnesota lakeshore property owners. We clarify how positive and negative evaluations of native aquatic plants affect protection or removal of these plants. Results are based on a mail survey (n = 3,115). Results suggest that positive evaluations of aquatic plants (i.e., as valuable to lake ecology) may not connect with the global attitudes and behavioral intentions that direct plant protection or removal. Lakeshore property owners' behavior related to aquatic plants may be driven more by tangible personal benefits derived from accessible, carefully managed lakeshore than intentional action taken to sustain lake ecosystems. The limited connection of positive evaluations of aquatic plants to global attitudes and behavioral intentions may reflect either lack of knowledge of what actions are needed to protect lake health and/or unwillingness to lose perceived benefits derived from lakeshore property.

  11. Hydroecology of Intermittent and Ephemeral Streams: Will Landscape Connectivity Sustain Aquatic Organisms in a Changing Climate?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-24

    132 5. Ecological strategies predict associations between aquatic and genetic connectivity for dryland amphibians...amphibian and aquatic invertebrate species with contrasting life histories were investigated. How species’ ecological strategies affect the regional...and Boreonectes aequinoctialis (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)]. These species characterize a range of ecological strategies, driven primarily by

  12. Hydroecology of Intermittent and Ephemeral Streams: Will Landscape Connectivity Sustain Aquatic Organisms in a Changing Climate?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    132 5. Ecological strategies predict associations between aquatic and genetic connectivity for dryland amphibians...amphibian and aquatic invertebrate species with contrasting life histories were investigated. How species’ ecological strategies affect the regional...and Boreonectes aequinoctialis (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)]. These species characterize a range of ecological strategies, driven primarily by

  13. WATER QUALITY CHANGES IN HYPORHEIC FLOW AT THE AQUATIC-TERRESTRIAL INTERFACE OF A LARGER RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exchange between river water and groundwater in hyporheic flow at the aquatic-terrestrial interface can importantly affect water quality and aquatic habitat in the main channel of large rivers and at off-channel sites that include flowing and stagnant side channels. With tracer ...

  14. Role Models in Aquatic Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mabel C.

    1982-01-01

    Provided for each of 12 minority group role models in aquatic occupations are job responsibilities, educational requirements, comments on a typical day at the job, salary range, and recommendations for students wishing to enter the field described. (JN)

  15. Aquatic Remediation of Communication Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Virginia M.

    1985-01-01

    A 10-day aquatics program for learning disabled children with hand-eye coordination problems and low self-esteem is described. Activities for each session (including relaxation exercises) are listed. (CL)

  16. Telithromycin: review of adverse effects.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    Telithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic that has been marketed since the early 2000s. It has not been shown to be more effective against any bacteria than other macrolide antibiotics. Its antibacterial activity is in no way remarkable. In early 2014, we reviewed its adverse effect profile using data from periodic safety update reports, drug regulatory agencies, and detailed published case reports. In addition to the adverse effect profile telithromycin shares with the other macrolides, it provokes several specific adverse effects: visual disturbances due to impaired accommodation; taste and smell disorders; severe liver damage; worsening of myasthenia gravis; rhabdomyolysis; and loss of consciousness. Prolongation of the QT interval with standard oral doses is a worrisome adverse effect. In practice, it is better not to use telithromycin as it exposes patients to disproportionate, serious adverse effects. When treatment with a macrolide antibiotic appears necessary, it is prudent to choose a different macrolide, such as spiramycin or azithromycin, which have fewer adverse effects.

  17. Science: Aquatic Toxicology Matures, Gains Importance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagani, Ron

    1980-01-01

    Reviews recent advances in aquatic toxicology, whose major goal is to protect diverse aquatic organisms and whole ecological communities from the dire effects of man-made chemicals. Current legislation is reviewed. Differences in mammalian and aquatic toxicology are listed, and examples of research in aquatic toxicology are discussed. (CS)

  18. LINKING NUTRIENTS TO ALTERATIONS IN AQUATIC LIFE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report estimates the natural background and ambient concentrations of primary producer abundance indicators in California wadeable streams, identifies thresholds of adverse effects of nutrient-stimulated primary producer abundance on benthic macroinvertebrate and algal community structure in CA wadeable streams, and evaluates existing nutrient-algal response models for CA wadeable streams (Tetra Tech 2006), with recommendations for improvements. This information will be included in an assessment of the science forming the basis of recommendations for stream nutrient criteria for the state of California. The objectives of the project are three-fold: 1. Estimate the natural background and ambient concentrations of nutrients and candidate indicators of primary producer abundance in California wadeable streams; 2. Explore relationships and identify thresholds of adverse effects of nutrient concentrations and primary producer abundance on indicators of aquatic life use in California wadeable streams; and 3. Evaluate the Benthic Biomass Spreadsheet Tool (BBST) for California wadeable streams using existing data sets, and recommend avenues for refinement. The intended outcome of this study is NOT final regulatory endpoints for nutrient and response indicators for California wadeable streams.

  19. Aquatic Plants Aid Sewage Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1985-01-01

    Method of wastewater treatment combines micro-organisms and aquatic plant roots in filter bed. Treatment occurs as liquid flows up through system. Micro-organisms, attached themselves to rocky base material of filter, act in several steps to decompose organic matter in wastewater. Vascular aquatic plants (typically, reeds, rushes, cattails, or water hyacinths) absorb nitrogen, phosphorus, other nutrients, and heavy metals from water through finely divided roots.

  20. Montsechia, an ancient aquatic angiosperm.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Bernard; Daviero-Gomez, Véronique; Coiffard, Clément; Martín-Closas, Carles; Dilcher, David L

    2015-09-01

    The early diversification of angiosperms in diverse ecological niches is poorly understood. Some have proposed an origin in a darkened forest habitat and others an open aquatic or near aquatic habitat. The research presented here centers on Montsechia vidalii, first recovered from lithographic limestone deposits in the Pyrenees of Spain more than 100 y ago. This fossil material has been poorly understood and misinterpreted in the past. Now, based upon the study of more than 1,000 carefully prepared specimens, a detailed analysis of Montsechia is presented. The morphology and anatomy of the plant, including aspects of its reproduction, suggest that Montsechia is sister to Ceratophyllum (whenever cladistic analyses are made with or without a backbone). Montsechia was an aquatic angiosperm living and reproducing below the surface of the water, similar to Ceratophyllum. Montsechia is Barremian in age, raising questions about the very early divergence of the Ceratophyllum clade compared with its position as sister to eudicots in many cladistic analyses. Lower Cretaceous aquatic angiosperms, such as Archaefructus and Montsechia, open the possibility that aquatic plants were locally common at a very early stage of angiosperm evolution and that aquatic habitats may have played a major role in the diversification of some early angiosperm lineages.

  1. Watershed geomorphology modifies the temperature sensitivity of aquatic ecosystem metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankowski, K. J.; Schindler, D.

    2015-12-01

    How carbon cycles are regulated by temperature remains a substantial uncertainty in our understanding of how watersheds will respond to ongoing climate change. Aquatic ecosystems are significant components of carbon flux to the atmosphere and ocean, yet we have limited understanding of how changing thermal regimes will alter rates of ecosystem metabolic processes, and, therefore, aquatic contributions to carbon cycles at watershed to global scales. Watershed geomorphology controls the landscape-scale distribution of organic material that can form the metabolic base of aquatic ecosystems, which will likely affect the temperature sensitivity of aquatic ecosystem metabolism. Across 23 streams in a boreal river basin, we estimated how temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration (ER), an important component of the aquatic C cycle, varied among streams with different watershed characteristics. We found that geomorphic conditions imposed strong ultimate controls on temperature sensitivity: ER in streams draining flat watersheds was much more sensitive to temperature than streams draining steeper watersheds. Further, we show that the link between watershed geomorphology and temperature sensitivity was related to changes in the quality of carbon substrates across the gradient in watershed slope. These results suggest that geomorphic conditions will ultimately control how carbon processing responds to warming climate, thereby affecting carbon transport and storage, and likely food web responses, in river networks.

  2. The Neurobiology of Intervention and Prevention in Early Adversity.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Philip A; Beauchamp, Kate G; Roos, Leslie E; Noll, Laura K; Flannery, Jessica; Delker, Brianna C

    2016-01-01

    Early adverse experiences are well understood to affect development and well-being, placing individuals at risk for negative physical and mental health outcomes. A growing literature documents the effects of adversity on developing neurobiological systems. Fewer studies have examined stress neurobiology to understand how to mitigate the effects of early adversity. This review summarizes the research on three neurobiological systems relevant to interventions for populations experiencing high levels of early adversity: the hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary axis, the prefrontal cortex regions involved in executive functioning, and the system involved in threat detection and response, particularly the amygdala. Also discussed is the emerging field of epigenetics and related interventions to mitigate early adversity. Further emphasized is the need for intervention research to integrate knowledge about the neurobiological effects of prenatal stressors (e.g., drug use, alcohol exposure) and early adversity. The review concludes with a discussion of the implications of this research topic for clinical psychology practice and public policy.

  3. The adverse health effects of chronic cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Hall, Wayne; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the most probable of the adverse health effects of regular cannabis use sustained over years, as indicated by epidemiological studies that have established an association between cannabis use and adverse outcomes; ruled out reverse causation; and controlled for plausible alternative explanations. We have also focused on adverse outcomes for which there is good evidence of biological plausibility. The focus is on those adverse health effects of greatest potential public health significance--those that are most likely to occur and to affect a substantial proportion of regular cannabis users. These most probable adverse effects of regular use include a dependence syndrome, impaired respiratory function, cardiovascular disease, adverse effects on adolescent psychosocial development and mental health, and residual cognitive impairment.

  4. Environmental fate and aquatic toxicology studies on phthalate esters

    SciTech Connect

    Group, E.F. Jr.

    1986-03-01

    A comprehensive environmental fate and effects testing program, sponsored by the Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA) Phthalate Esters Program Panel, has been completed. Based on the results, a preliminary safety assessment has shown that all of the 14 commercially important phthalates tested have sufficiently high safety factors to demonstrate low potential for adverse environmental effects. This program comprised acute toxicity studies on nine representative species of aquatic life, chronic reproduction studies on Daphnia magna, biodegradation (fate) testing, and physicochemical property (mobility) determinations on 14 phthalate esters. The objectives of this program were to determine for each test compound: The concentration at which effects on aquatic life might occur, the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic life, and the relative persistence in the environment. These data would provide the basis for an environmental safety assessment and would identify potential effects that might require further investigation. A total of 195 individual studies were carried out. Tests on a wide variety of aquatic organisms representing different food chain levels in both fresh and salt water environments showed that no single test species was unusually sensitive to the test materials. The higher molecular weight (longer side-chain) phthalates exhibited no toxic effects up to their limits of water solubility in the test systems. Even though the lower molecular weight, more water-soluble phthalates produced toxic effects below their limits of water solubility, no product exhibited unusually severe effects of concern.

  5. Environmental fate and aquatic toxicology studies on phthalate esters.

    PubMed

    Group, E F

    1986-03-01

    A comprehensive environmental fate and effects testing program, sponsored by the Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA) Phthalate Esters Program Panel, has been completed. Based on the results, a preliminary safety assessment has shown that all of the 14 commercially important phthalates tested have sufficiently high safety factors to demonstrate low potential for adverse environmental effects. This program comprised acute toxicity studies on nine representative species of aquatic life, chronic reproduction studies on Daphnia magna, biodegradation (fate) testing, and physicochemical property (mobility) determinations on 14 phthalate esters. The objectives of this program were to determine for each test compound: The concentration at which effects on aquatic life might occur, the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic life, and the relative persistence in the environment. These data would provide the basis for an environmental safety assessment and would identify potential effects that might require further investigation. A total of 195 individual studies were carried out. Tests on a wide variety of aquatic organisms representing different food chain levels in both fresh and salt water environments showed that no single test species was unusually sensitive to the test materials. The higher molecular weight (longer side-chain) phthalates exhibited no toxic effects up to their limits of water solubility in the test systems. Even though the lower molecular weight, more water-soluble phthalates produced toxic effects below their limits of water solubility, no product exhibited unusually severe effects of concern.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. 25 CFR 170.110 - How can State and local governments prevent discrimination or adverse impacts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and adverse effects on tribes and Native American populations. (b) Examples of adverse effects include... excessive access to culturally or religiously sensitive areas; (3) Negatively affecting natural resources, trust resources, tribal businesses, religious, and cultural sites; (4) Harming indigenous plants...

  7. Large-Scale Environmental Influences on Aquatic Animal Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the latter portion of the 20th century, North America experienced numerous large-scale mortality events affecting a broad diversity of aquatic animals. Short-term forensic investigations of these events have sometimes characterized a causative agent or condition, but have rare...

  8. The Use of Fish Oil with Warfarin Does Not Significantly Affect either the International Normalised Ratio or Incidence of Adverse Events in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and Deep Vein Thrombosis: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Pryce, Rebecca; Bernaitis, Nijole; Davey, Andrew K.; Badrick, Tony; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Warfarin is a leading anticoagulant in the management of atrial fibrillation (AF) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Drug interactions influence the safety of warfarin use and while extensive literature exists regarding the effect on warfarin control and bleeding incidence with many medicines, there is little evidence on the influence of complementary medicines. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of fish and krill oil supplementation on warfarin control and bleeding incidence in AF and DVT patients. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted utilising patient information from a large private pathology clinic. AF and DVT patients receiving long-term warfarin therapy (>30 days) at the clinic and taking fish and krill oil supplements were eligible for study inclusion. Results: Of the 2081 patients assessed, a total of 573 warfarin users met the inclusion criteria with 145 patients in the fish and krill oil group (supplement group) and 428 patients in the control group. Overall, it was found that fish and krill oils did not significantly alter warfarin time in therapeutic range (TTR) or bleeding incidence, even when compared by gender. Conclusion: Omega-3 supplementation with fish and krill oil does not significantly affect long-term warfarin control and bleeding and thromboembolic events when consumed concurrently in patients managed at an anticoagulation clinic. PMID:27657121

  9. Adverse Reactions to Hallucinogenic Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Roger E. , Ed.

    This reports a conference of psychologists, psychiatrists, geneticists and others concerned with the biological and psychological effects of lysergic acid diethylamide and other hallucinogenic drugs. Clinical data are presented on adverse drug reactions. The difficulty of determining the causes of adverse reactions is discussed, as are different…

  10. Copper and zinc, but not other priority toxic metals, pose risks to native aquatic species in a large urban lake in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhiyou; Wu, Fengchang; Chen, Lulu; Xu, Bingbing; Feng, Chenglian; Bai, Yingchen; Liao, Haiqing; Sun, Siyang; Giesy, John P; Guo, Wenjing

    2016-12-01

    Over the past 20 years, global production of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) rank in the top three compared to other metals such as Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, As and Hg. However, due to the potential for exposure and toxicity to humans, more attention of environmental pollution was paid to other metals such as Cd and Hg. Aquatic organisms are sensitive to Cu and Zn. Even though internal concentrations of these required elements are homeostatically controlled, toxic effects can occur at the fish gill surface. In this work, concentrations in surface waters and toxic effects of Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd, As, Hg were determined and risk of various metals in Tai Lake, China were evaluated using both risk quotients and joint probability distributions. Two transition metals, Cu and Zn posed the greatest risks to aquatic organisms while measured concentrations of other metals were less than thresholds for adverse effects. Approximately 99.9% and 50.7% of the aquatic organisms were predicted to be affected by Cu and Zn in surface water of Tai Lake respectively. Our results highlight ecological risks of Cu and Zn in water of a typical, large, urban lake in Eastern China, which was ignored in the past.

  11. Low-dose exposure to alkylphenols adversely affects the sexual development of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua): acceleration of the onset of puberty and delayed seasonal gonad development in mature female cod.

    PubMed

    Meier, Sonnich; Morton, H Craig; Andersson, Eva; Geffen, Audrey J; Taranger, Geir Lasse; Larsen, Marita; Petersen, Marianne; Djurhuus, Rune; Klungsøyr, Jarle; Svardal, Asbjørn

    2011-09-01

    Produced water (PW), a by-product of the oil-production process, contains large amount of alkylphenols (APs) and other harmful oil compounds. In the last 20 years, there have been increasing concerns regarding the environmental impact of large increases in the amounts of PW released into the North Sea. We have previously shown that low levels of APs can induce disruption of the endocrine and reproductive systems of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). The aims of this follow-up study were to: (i) identify the lowest observable effect concentration of APs; (ii) study the effects of exposure to real PW, obtained from a North Sea oil-production platform; and (iii) study the biological mechanism of endocrine disruption in female cod. Fish were fed with feed paste containing several concentrations of four different APs (4-tert-butylphenol, 4-n-pentylphenol, 4-n-hexylphenol and 4-n-heptylphenol) or real PW for 20 weeks throughout the normal period of vitellogenesis in Atlantic cod from October to January. Male and female cod, exposed to AP and PW, were compared to unexposed fish and to fish fed paste containing 17β-oestradiol (E(2)). Approximately 60% of the females and 96% of the males in the unexposed groups were mature at the end of the experiment. Our results show that exposure to APs and E(2) have different effects depending on the developmental stage of the fish. We observed that juvenile females are advanced into puberty and maturation, while gonad development was delayed in both maturing females and males. The AP-exposed groups contained increased numbers of mature females, and significant differences between the untreated group and the AP-treated groups were seen down to a dose of 4 μg AP/kg body weight. In the high-dose AP and the E(2) exposed groups, all females matured and no juveniles were seen. These results suggest that AP-exposure can affect the timing of the onset of puberty in fish even at extremely low concentrations. Importantly, similar effects were not

  12. The occurrence and ecological risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in urban aquatic environments of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lulu; Liu, Jingling; Liu, Huayong; Wan, Guisheng; Zhang, Shaowei

    2015-07-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are widely used in the manufacturing of plastics, and the demand for PAEs has grown rapidly, especially in China. This trend will lead to much more environmental PAE contamination. PAEs are listed as priority substances in the European Union and are therefore subject to ecological risk assessments. This paper reviews the literature concerning the pollution status of PAEs and their ecological risk to aquatic environments. Risk quotients (RQs) based on the predicted no effect concentration and PAE concentrations in aquatic environments demonstrated significant (10 ≤ RQ < 100) or expected (RQ ≥ 100) potential adverse effects for algae, Daphnia, and fish in aquatic environments near PAE-based industrial and urban areas. Thus, the ecological risk of PAEs in Chinese aquatic environments should be considered, especially in areas where commercial plastics are produced.

  13. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Frank, M.L.

    1986-02-01

    Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products.

  14. Aquatic plants for removal of mevinphos from the aquatic environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1975-01-01

    Fragrant waterlily (Nymphaea odorata, Ait.), joint-grass (Paspalum distichum L.), and rush (Juncus repens, Michx.) were used to evaluate the effectiveness of vascular aquatic plants in removing the insecticide mevinphos (dimethyl-1-carbomethoxy-1propen-2-yl phosphate) from waters contaminated with this chemical. The emersed aquatic plants fragrant waterlily and joint-grass removed 87 and 93 ppm of mevinphos from water test systems in less than 2 weeks without apparent damage to the plants; whereas rush, a submersed plant, removed less insecticide than the water-soil controls. Water-soil control still contained toxic levels of this insecticide, as demonstrated by fish bioassay studies, after 35 days.

  15. Review on environmental alterations propagating from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco; Gergs, René; Brühl, Carsten A; Diehl, Dörte; Entling, Martin H; Fahse, Lorenz; Frör, Oliver; Jungkunst, Hermann F; Lorke, Andreas; Schäfer, Ralf B; Schaumann, Gabriele E; Schwenk, Klaus

    2015-12-15

    Terrestrial inputs into freshwater ecosystems are a classical field of environmental science. Resource fluxes (subsidy) from aquatic to terrestrial systems have been less studied, although they are of high ecological relevance particularly for the receiving ecosystem. These fluxes may, however, be impacted by anthropogenically driven alterations modifying structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. In this context, we reviewed the peer-reviewed literature for studies addressing the subsidy of terrestrial by aquatic ecosystems with special emphasis on the role that anthropogenic alterations play in this water-land coupling. Our analysis revealed a continuously increasing interest in the coupling of aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems between 1990 and 2014 (total: 661 studies), while the research domains focusing on abiotic (502 studies) and biotic (159 studies) processes are strongly separated. Approximately 35% (abiotic) and 25% (biotic) of the studies focused on the propagation of anthropogenic alterations from the aquatic to the terrestrial system. Among these studies, hydromorphological and hydrological alterations were predominantly assessed, whereas water pollution and invasive species were less frequently investigated. Less than 5% of these studies considered indirect effects in the terrestrial system e.g. via food web responses, as a result of anthropogenic alterations in aquatic ecosystems. Nonetheless, these very few publications indicate far-reaching consequences in the receiving terrestrial ecosystem. For example, bottom-up mediated responses via soil quality can cascade over plant communities up to the level of herbivorous arthropods, while top-down mediated responses via predatory spiders can cascade down to herbivorous arthropods and even plants. Overall, the current state of knowledge calls for an integrated assessment on how these interactions within terrestrial ecosystems are affected by propagation of aquatic ecosystem alterations. To fill

  16. Does water chemistry affect the dietary uptake and toxicity of silver nanoparticles by the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    López-Serrano Oliver, Ana; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Stoiber, Tasha L.; Tejamaya, Mila; Römer, Isabella; Lead, Jamie R.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in many applications and likely released into the aquatic environment. There is increasing evidence that Ag is efficiently delivered to aquatic organisms from AgNPs after aqueous and dietary exposures. Accumulation of AgNPs through the diet can damage digestion and adversely affect growth. It is well recognized that aspects of water quality, such as hardness, affect the bioavailability and toxicity of waterborne Ag. However, the influence of water chemistry on the bioavailability and toxicity of dietborne AgNPs to aquatic invertebrates is largely unknown. Here we characterize for the first time the effects of water hardness and humic acids on the bioaccumulation and toxicity of AgNPs coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) to the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis after dietary exposures. Our results indicate that bioaccumulation and toxicity of Ag from PVP-AgNPs ingested with food are not affected by water hardness and by humic acids, although both could affect interactions with the biological membrane and trigger nanoparticle transformations. Snails efficiently assimilated Ag from the PVP-AgNPs mixed with diatoms (Ag assimilation efficiencies ranged from 82 to 93%). Rate constants of Ag uptake from food were similar across the entire range of water hardness and humic acid concentrations. These results suggest that correcting regulations for water quality could be irrelevant and ineffective where dietary exposure is important.

  17. Effect of pesticides on microbial communities in container aquatic habitats.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Donthu, Ravi Kiran; Fields, Christopher J; Moise, Imelda K; Kim, Chang-Hyun

    2017-03-16

    Container aquatic habitats support a specialized community of macroinvertebrates (e.g. mosquitoes) that feed on microbial communities associated with decaying organic matter. These aquatic habitats are often embedded within and around agricultural lands and are frequently exposed to pesticides. We used a microcosm approach to examine the single and combined effects of two herbicides (atrazine, glyphosate), and three insecticides (malathion, carbaryl, permethrin) on microbial communities of container aquatic habitats. MiSeq sequencing of the V4 region of both bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene was used to characterize the microbial communities of indoor microcosms that were either exposed to each pesticide alone, a mix of herbicides, a mix of insecticides, or a mix of all five insecticides. Individual insecticides but not herbicides reduced the microbial diversity and richness and two insecticides, carbaryl and permethrin, also altered the microbial community structure. A mixture of herbicides had no effect on microbial diversity or structure but a mixture of insecticides or all five pesticides reduced microbial diversity and altered the community structure. These findings suggest that exposure of aquatic ecosystems to individual pesticides or their mixtures can disrupt aquatic microbial communities and there is need to decipher how these changes affect resident macroinvertebrate communities.

  18. Effect of pesticides on microbial communities in container aquatic habitats

    PubMed Central

    Muturi, Ephantus J.; Donthu, Ravi Kiran; Fields, Christopher J.; Moise, Imelda K.; Kim, Chang-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Container aquatic habitats support a specialized community of macroinvertebrates (e.g. mosquitoes) that feed on microbial communities associated with decaying organic matter. These aquatic habitats are often embedded within and around agricultural lands and are frequently exposed to pesticides. We used a microcosm approach to examine the single and combined effects of two herbicides (atrazine, glyphosate), and three insecticides (malathion, carbaryl, permethrin) on microbial communities of container aquatic habitats. MiSeq sequencing of the V4 region of both bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene was used to characterize the microbial communities of indoor microcosms that were either exposed to each pesticide alone, a mix of herbicides, a mix of insecticides, or a mix of all five insecticides. Individual insecticides but not herbicides reduced the microbial diversity and richness and two insecticides, carbaryl and permethrin, also altered the microbial community structure. A mixture of herbicides had no effect on microbial diversity or structure but a mixture of insecticides or all five pesticides reduced microbial diversity and altered the community structure. These findings suggest that exposure of aquatic ecosystems to individual pesticides or their mixtures can disrupt aquatic microbial communities and there is need to decipher how these changes affect resident macroinvertebrate communities. PMID:28300212

  19. Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Mirabella, Paula; Waichman, Andrea; Solomon, Keith; Van den Brink, Paul J; Maund, Steve

    2014-10-01

    Latin America is anticipated to be a major growth market for agriculture and production is increasing with use of technologies such as pesticides. Reports of contamination of aquatic ecosystems by pesticides in Latin America have raised concerns about potential for adverse ecological effects. In the registration process of pesticides, all countries require significant data packages on aquatic toxicology and environmental fate. However, there are usually no specific requirements to conduct an aquatic risk assessment. To address this issue, the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry organized a workshop that brought together scientists from academia, government, and industry to review and elaborate on aquatic risk assessment frameworks that can be implemented into regulation of pesticides in Latin America. The workshop concluded that the international framework for risk assessments (protection goals, effects, and exposure assessments, risk characterization, and risk mitigation) is broadly applicable in Latin America but needs further refinement for the use in the region. Some of the challenges associated with these refinements are discussed in the article. It was recognized that there is potential for data sharing both within and outside of the region where conditions are similar. However, there is a need for research to compare local species and environmental conditions to those in other jurisdictions to be able to evaluate the applicability of data used in other countries. Development should also focus on human resources as there is a need to build local capacity and capability, and scientific collaboration and exchange between stakeholders in industry, government, and academia is also important. The meeting also emphasized that, although establishing a regionally relevant risk assessment framework is important, this also needs to be accompanied by enforcement of developed regulations and good management practices to help protect aquatic habitats

  20. Marine and Other Aquatic Dermatoses

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Surg Capt. Jandhyala; Deo, Surg Cdr. Rajeev

    2017-01-01

    Occupational and recreational aquatic activity predisposes our population to a wide variety of dermatoses. Sunburn, urticaria, jellyfish stings, and contact dermatitis to rubber equipment are common allergies that are encountered in the aquatic environment. Among the infections, tinea versicolor, intertrigo, and verruca vulgaris are widespread. Swimmer's itch may occur due to skin penetration by schistosome cercariae, while free-floating nematocysts of marine coelenterates may precipitate seabather's eruption. “Suit squeeze” due to cutaneous barotrauma and lymphoedematous peau d’orange due to decompression are rare, described entities. This review serves as a ready reckoner for Indian dermatologists and medical practitioners to identify and manage these conditions. PMID:28216728

  1. Marine and Other Aquatic Dermatoses.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Surg Capt Jandhyala; Deo, Surg Cdr Rajeev

    2017-01-01

    Occupational and recreational aquatic activity predisposes our population to a wide variety of dermatoses. Sunburn, urticaria, jellyfish stings, and contact dermatitis to rubber equipment are common allergies that are encountered in the aquatic environment. Among the infections, tinea versicolor, intertrigo, and verruca vulgaris are widespread. Swimmer's itch may occur due to skin penetration by schistosome cercariae, while free-floating nematocysts of marine coelenterates may precipitate seabather's eruption. "Suit squeeze" due to cutaneous barotrauma and lymphoedematous peau d'orange due to decompression are rare, described entities. This review serves as a ready reckoner for Indian dermatologists and medical practitioners to identify and manage these conditions.

  2. Cutaneous adverse reactions to lenalidomide.

    PubMed

    Imbesi, S; Allegra, A; Calapai, G; Musolino, C; Gangemi, S

    2015-01-01

    Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory drug (IMiD) used principally in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), myelodysplastic syndromes (MS) and amyloidosis. Adverse reactions related to lenalidomide include myelosuppression (mainly neutropenia but also thrombocytopenia), gastrointestinal problems, skin eruption, atrial fibrillation and asthenia, decreased peripheral blood stem cell yield during stem cell collection, venous thromboembolism, and secondary malignances. In this review we focused our attention on the cutaneous adverse reactions to lenalidomide.

  3. Reverse Engineering Adverse Outcome Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, Edward; Chipman, J.K.; Edwards, Stephen; Habib, Tanwir; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Ronald C.; Van Aggelen, Graham; Vulpe, Chris; Antczak, Philipp; Loguinov, Alexandre

    2011-01-30

    The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or poorly characterized, mechanisms of action. We describe the application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, metabolic, signaling) to characterize adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis in fathead minnows. Gene expression changes in fathead minnow ovaries in response to 7 different chemicals, over different times, doses, and in vivo versus in vitro conditions were captured in a large data set of 868 arrays. We examined potential AOPs of the antiandrogen flutamide using two mutual information theory methods, ARACNE and CLR to infer gene regulatory networks and potential adverse outcome pathways. Representative networks from these studies were used to predict a network path from stressor to adverse outcome as a candidate AOP. The relationship of individual chemicals to an adverse outcome can be determined by following perturbations through the network in response to chemical treatment leading to the nodes associated with the adverse outcome. Identification of candidate pathways allows for formation of testable hypotheses about key biologic processes, biomarkers or alternative endpoints, which could be used to monitor an adverse outcome pathway. Finally, we identify the unique challenges facing the application of this approach in ecotoxicology, and attempt to provide a road map for the utilization of these tools. Key Words: mechanism of action, toxicology, microarray, network inference

  4. Resiliency in the Face of Adversity: A Short Longitudinal Test of the Trait Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Karaırmak, Özlem; Figley, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Resilience represents coping with adversity and is in line with a more positive paradigm for viewing responses to adversity. Most research has focused on resilience as coping-a state-based response to adversity. However, a competing hypothesis views resilience or resiliency as a trait that exists across time and types of adversity. We tested undergraduates enrolled in social work classes at a large southern university at two time periods during a single semester using measures of adversity, positive and negative affect, and trait-based resiliency. Consistent with the trait-based resiliency, and in contrast to state-based resilience, resiliency scores were not strongly correlated with adversity at both testing points but were with positive affect, and resiliency scores remained the same over time despite adversity variations. There was no gender or ethnic group difference in resilience scores. Black/African Americans reported significantly less negative affect and more positive affect than White/Caucasians.

  5. Same Play, Different Actors: The Aquatic Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanis, Ira B.; Saccente, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    Provided are background information, equipment lists, and procedures for four activities for teaching aquatic ecology. Activities include "The Aquatic Food Chain Game"; "Two-Liter Aqua-Vivariums"; "A Sealed World"; and "Weaving a Web: Evaluation." (CW)

  6. Adverse health effects of non-medical cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Hall, Wayne; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2009-10-17

    For over two decades, cannabis, commonly known as marijuana, has been the most widely used illicit drug by young people in high-income countries, and has recently become popular on a global scale. Epidemiological research during the past 10 years suggests that regular use of cannabis during adolescence and into adulthood can have adverse effects. Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies have established an association between cannabis use and adverse outcomes. We focus on adverse health effects of greatest potential public health interest-that is, those that are most likely to occur and to affect a large number of cannabis users. The most probable adverse effects include a dependence syndrome, increased risk of motor vehicle crashes, impaired respiratory function, cardiovascular disease, and adverse effects of regular use on adolescent psychosocial development and mental health.

  7. Exposure to organic solvents. Does it adversely affect pregnancy?

    PubMed Central

    McMartin, K. I.; Koren, G.

    1999-01-01

    QUESTION: One of my patients is a laboratory technician who routinely handles organic solvents. She has just learned that she is pregnant, and she depends very much on this job because her husband is unemployed. What is the risk to her unborn baby? ANSWER: Available epidemiologic data indicate your patient's fetus might be at increased risk for malformations. We recommend that she minimize her occupational exposure to organic solvents by routinely using ventilation systems and protective equipment. This is most important during the first trimester of pregnancy. PMID:10424263

  8. Does prolonged breastfeeding adversely affect a child's nutritional status?

    PubMed

    Brakohiapa, L A; Yartey, J; Bille, A; Harrison, E; Quansah, E; Armar, M A; Kishi, K; Yamamoto, S

    1988-08-20

    In 202 children who visited a children's hospital in the city of Accra, Ghana, breastfeeding beyond the age of 19 months was found to be associated with malnutrition. The effect of weaning on food intake was then studied in 15 breastfed malnourished children in a rural community. Before weaning (complete cessation of breast-feeding) protein and energy intakes of all the malnourished children were about half those of 5 normal children. 10 of the malnourished children were weaned, and their intakes rose to the levels of the normal children; the 5 who continued breastfeeding maintained their low intakes. These results indicate that prolonged breastfeeding can reduce total food intake and thus predispose to malnutrition. They also suggest that in Ghana and other developing countries the proper weaning age may be about 18 months.

  9. Aquatic concentrations of chemical analytes compared to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We describe screening level estimates of potential aquatic toxicity posed by 227 chemical analytes that were measured in 25 ambient water samples collected as part of a joint USGS/USEPA drinking water plant study. Measured concentrations were compared to biological effect concentration (EC) estimates, including USEPA aquatic life criteria, effective plasma concentrations of pharmaceuticals, published toxicity data summarized in the USEPA ECOTOX database, and chemical structure-based predictions. Potential dietary exposures were estimated using a generic 3-tiered food web accumulation scenario. For many analytes, few or no measured effect data were found, and for some analytes, reporting limits exceeded EC estimates, limiting the scope of conclusions. Results suggest occasional occurrence above ECs for copper, aluminum, strontium, lead, uranium, and nitrate. Sparse effect data for manganese, antimony, and vanadium suggest that these analytes may occur above ECs, but additional effect data would be desirable to corroborate EC estimates. These conclusions were not affected by bioaccumulation estimates. No organic analyte concentrations were found to exceed EC estimates, but ten analytes had concentrations in excess of 1/10th of their respective EC: triclocarban, norverapamil, progesterone, atrazine, metolachlor, triclosan, para-nonylphenol, ibuprofen, venlafaxine, and amitriptyline, suggesting more detailed characterization of these analytes. Purpose: to provide sc

  10. Aquatic Plants and Animals as Ecosystem Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wotton, R. S.

    2005-05-01

    Studies on aquatic plants and animals focus on population dynamics, the structure of communities and the part played by organisms in food webs and other ecosystem processes. As Lawton and Jones point out in "Linking Species and Ecosystems", less attention is given to the role of organisms as ecosystem engineers, modifying the environment in which they live. Yet plants can have a profound effect on their surroundings, altering flow patterns and trapping large amounts of organic and inorganic material. Animals also affect aquatic ecosystems in many ways, both in building structures such as tubes and shelters, and in their feeding. For example, detritus feeders often produce large numbers of faecal pellets (and pseudofaeces in bivalves) and these are very different in size to the materials ingested. Pellets are deposited in masses over the bed of streams, lakes and the sea and therefore effect a translocation of nutrients. The action of plants and animals in altering their environment is likely to be a significant process in all water bodies, from both small to large scale.

  11. Aquatic Recreation for the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordellos, Harry C.

    The sixth in a series of booklets on physical education and recreation for the handicapped describes aquatic activities for blind persons. Written by a partially sighted athlete, the document discusses swimming pool characteristics and special pools for the visually impaired. Qualities of swimming instructors are reviewed, and suggestions for…

  12. Photochemistry of environmental aquatic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zika, R.G.; Cooper, W.F.

    1987-01-01

    This text provides an incisive look at the subject of aquatic photochemistry. It divides this topic into three main areas: fresh water, estuarine, and marine environments and discussions on natural and anthropogenic impacts. In summary it brings together a diverse selection of viewpoints.

  13. Aquatic Pest Control. Bulletin 754.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, James F.

    Four groups of aquatic weeds are described: algae, floating weeds, emersed weeds, and submersed weeds. Specific requirements for pesticide application are given for static water, limited flow, and moving water situations. The secondary effects of improper pesticide application rates are given for static, limited flow, and moving water, and the…

  14. Virioplankton: Viruses in Aquatic Ecosystems†

    PubMed Central

    Wommack, K. Eric; Colwell, Rita R.

    2000-01-01

    The discovery that viruses may be the most abundant organisms in natural waters, surpassing the number of bacteria by an order of magnitude, has inspired a resurgence of interest in viruses in the aquatic environment. Surprisingly little was known of the interaction of viruses and their hosts in nature. In the decade since the reports of extraordinarily large virus populations were published, enumeration of viruses in aquatic environments has demonstrated that the virioplankton are dynamic components of the plankton, changing dramatically in number with geographical location and season. The evidence to date suggests that virioplankton communities are composed principally of bacteriophages and, to a lesser extent, eukaryotic algal viruses. The influence of viral infection and lysis on bacterial and phytoplankton host communities was measurable after new methods were developed and prior knowledge of bacteriophage biology was incorporated into concepts of parasite and host community interactions. The new methods have yielded data showing that viral infection can have a significant impact on bacteria and unicellular algae populations and supporting the hypothesis that viruses play a significant role in microbial food webs. Besides predation limiting bacteria and phytoplankton populations, the specific nature of virus-host interaction raises the intriguing possibility that viral infection influences the structure and diversity of aquatic microbial communities. Novel applications of molecular genetic techniques have provided good evidence that viral infection can significantly influence the composition and diversity of aquatic microbial communities. PMID:10704475

  15. Aquatic Plant Water Quality Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA, as stated in the Clean Water Act, is tasked with developing numerical Aquatic Life Critiera for various pollutants found in the waters of the United States. These criteria serve as guidance for States and Tribes to use in developing their water quality standards. The G...

  16. Aquatics and Persons with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Mary Lou

    1993-01-01

    This bulletin shares information regarding adaptive equipment, recommended interventions, precautions, and fun activities related to aquatic activities and exercise for persons with handicapping conditions. The bulletin begins with a list of 13 safety precautions and then describes instructional aids, adaptive aids, fitness-oriented devices, and…

  17. Aquatic Exercise for the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Michael; And Others

    The development and implementation of aquatic exercise programs for the aged are discussed in this paper. Program development includes a discussion of training principles, exercise leadership and the setting up of safe water exercise programs for the participants. The advantages of developing water exercise programs and not swimming programs are…

  18. Conference on Professional Standards for Aquatic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    This report on the 1970 meeting of the Aquatics Council of the American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation is divided into three sections reflecting the three phases of the Council's interest. Section One is devoted to basic aquatic education for the physical educator. Section Two concerns basic aquatic education for the…

  19. Effects of diquat, an aquatic herbicide, on the development of mallard embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sewalk, C.J.; Brewer, G.L.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    Bipyridylium herbicides produce embryotoxic and teratogenic effects in dipteran, amphibian, avian, and mammalian organisms. Diquat dibromide, a bipyridylium compound, is commonly used as an aquatic herbicide. Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggs were exposed to diquat by immersing the eggs for 10s in solutions of 0.88, 3.5, 7, 14, or 56 g/L on either the fourth or twenty-first day of incubation. Application of diquat on day 4 yielded an estimated LC50 of 19.5 g/L through 18 days of incubation, and 9.6 g/L through hatching. Body and organ weights, and bone lengths of hatchlings did not differ between control and treatment groups with the exception of a slight increase in brain weight in the 14 g/L group. Malformations in diquat-treated embryos included defects of the brain, eye, bill, limb, and pelvis; skeletal scoliosis; and incomplete ossification. Subcutaneous edema was also present. Significant manifestations of oxidative stress were apparent in hatchlings and included increased hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (lipid peroxidation) and decreased brain reduced glutathione (GSH). Brain protein-bound sulfhydryls (PBSH) increased. Diquat applied on day 21 of incubation yielded an estimated LC50 of 12.6 g/L through hatching. Exposure at this late stage of development did not produce deformities. Body and organ weights, and, bone lengths of hatchlings did not differ between control and treatment groups. Significant manifestations of oxidative stress in hatchlings included decreased brain GSH, increased oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and ratio of GSSG:GSH. This study suggests that concentrations of diquat commonly used for aquatic weed control, when based upon the expected dilution effect of average water depth of the application area, would probably have little impact on mallard embryos. However, concentrations applied above ground to weeds and cattails along the edge of waters and ditches could adversely affect the survival and development of mallard

  20. Bioconcentration, bioaccumulation, and metabolism of pesticides in aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    The ecotoxicological assessment of pesticide effects in the aquatic environment should normally be based on a deep knowledge of not only the concentration of pesticides and metabolites found but also on the influence of key abiotic and biotic processes that effect rates of dissipation. Although the bioconcentration and bioaccumulation potentials of pesticides in aquatic organisms are conveniently estimated from their hydrophobicity (represented by log K(ow), it is still indispensable to factor in the effects of key abiotic and biotic processes on such pesticides to gain a more precise understanding of how they may have in the natural environment. Relying only on pesticide hydrophobicity may produce an erroneous environmental impact assessment. Several factors affect rates of pesticide dissipation and accumulation in the aquatic environment. Such factors include the amount and type of sediment present in the water and type of diet available to water-dwelling organisms. The particular physiological behavior profiles of aquatic organisms in water, such as capacity for uptake, metabolism, and elimination, are also compelling factors, as is the chemistry of the water. When evaluating pesticide uptake and bioconcentration processes, it is important to know the amount and nature of bottom sediments present and the propensity that the stuffed aquatic organisms have to absorb and process xenobiotics. Extremely hydrophobic pesticides such as the organochlorines and pyrethroids are susceptible to adsorb strongly to dissolved organic matter associated with bottom sediment. Such absorption reduces the bioavailable fraction of pesticide dissolved in the water column and reduces the probable ecotoxicological impact on aquatic organisms living the water. In contrast, sediment dweller may suffer from higher levels of direct exposure to a pesticide, unless it is rapidly degraded in sediment. Metabolism is important to bioconcentration and bioaccumulation processes, as is

  1. Neuropsychiatric Adverse Effects of Amphetamine and Methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Harro, Jaanus

    2015-01-01

    Administration of amphetamine and methamphetamine can elicit psychiatric adverse effects at acute administration, binge use, withdrawal, and chronic use. Most troublesome of these are psychotic states and aggressive behavior, but a large variety of undesirable changes in cognition and affect can be induced. Adverse effects occur more frequently with higher dosages and long-term use. They can subside over time but some persist long-term. Multiple alterations in the gray and white matter of the brain assessed as changes in tissue volume or metabolism, or at molecular level, have been associated with amphetamine and methamphetamine use and the psychiatric adverse effects, but further studies are required to clarify their causal role, specificity, and relationship with preceding states and traits and comorbidities. The latter include other substance use disorders, mood and anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and antisocial personality disorder. Amphetamine- and methamphetamine-related psychosis is similar to schizophrenia in terms of symptomatology and pathogenesis, and these two disorders share predisposing genetic factors.

  2. Combating adverse selection in secondary PC markets.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Stewart W; Fitzpatrick, Colin

    2008-04-15

    Adverse selection is a significant contributor to market failure in secondary personal computer (PC) markets. Signaling can act as a potential solution to adverse selection and facilitate superior remarketing of second-hand PCs. Signaling is a means whereby usage information can be utilized to enhance consumer perception of both value and utility of used PCs and, therefore, promote lifetime extension for these systems. This can help mitigate a large portion of the environmental impact associated with PC system manufacture. In this paper, the computer buying and selling behavior of consumers is characterized via a survey of 270 Irish residential users. Results confirm the existence of adverse selection in the Irish market with 76% of potential buyers being unwilling to purchase and 45% of potential vendors being unwilling to sell a used PC. The so-called "closet affect" is also apparent with 78% of users storing their PC after use has ceased. Results also indicate that consumers place a higher emphasis on specifications when considering a second-hand purchase. This contradicts their application needs which are predominantly Internet and word-processing/spreadsheet/presentation applications, 88% and 60% respectively. Finally, a market solution utilizing self monitoring and reporting technology (SMART) sensors for the purpose of real time usage monitoring is proposed, that can change consumer attitudes with regard to second-hand computer equipment.

  3. Differentiating aquatic plant communities in a eutrophic river using hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tian, Y.Q.; Yu, Q.; Zimmerman, M.J.; Flint, S.; Waldron, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of remote sensing technology to monitor species composition, areal extent and density of aquatic plants (macrophytes and filamentous algae) in impoundments where their presence may violate water-quality standards. Multispectral satellite (IKONOS) images and more than 500 in situ hyperspectral samples were acquired to map aquatic plant distributions. By analyzing field measurements, we created a library of hyperspectral signatures for a variety of aquatic plant species, associations and densities. We also used three vegetation indices. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), near-infrared (NIR)-Green Angle Index (NGAI) and normalized water absorption depth (DH), at wavelengths 554, 680, 820 and 977 nm to differentiate among aquatic plant species composition, areal density and thickness in cases where hyperspectral analysis yielded potentially ambiguous interpretations. We compared the NDVI derived from IKONOS imagery with the in situ, hyperspectral-derived NDVI. The IKONOS-based images were also compared to data obtained through routine visual observations. Our results confirmed that aquatic species composition alters spectral signatures and affects the accuracy of remote sensing of aquatic plant density. The results also demonstrated that the NGAI has apparent advantages in estimating density over the NDVI and the DH. In the feature space of the three indices, 3D scatter plot analysis revealed that hyperspectral data can differentiate several aquatic plant associations. High-resolution multispectral imagery provided useful information to distinguish among biophysical aquatic plant characteristics. Classification analysis indicated that using satellite imagery to assess Lemna coverage yielded an overall agreement of 79% with visual observations and >90% agreement for the densest aquatic plant coverages. Interpretation of biophysical parameters derived from high-resolution satellite or airborne imagery should prove to be a

  4. Assessment of potential aquatic herbicide impacts to California aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Siemering, Geoffrey S; Hayworth, Jennifer D; Greenfield, Ben K

    2008-10-01

    A series of legal decisions culminated in 2002 with the California State Water Resources Control Board funding the San Francisco Estuary Institute to develop and implement a 3-year monitoring program to determine the potential environmental impacts of aquatic herbicide applications. The monitoring program was intended to investigate the behavior of all aquatic pesticides in use in California, to determine potential impacts in a wide range of water-body types receiving applications, and to help regulators determine where to direct future resources. A tiered monitoring approach was developed to achieve a balance between program goals and what was practically achievable within the project time and budget constraints. Water, sediment, and biota were collected under "worst-case" scenarios in close association with herbicide applications. Applications of acrolein, copper sulfate, chelated copper, diquat dibromide, glyphosate, fluridone, triclopyr, and 2,4-D were monitored. A range of chemical analyses, toxicity tests, and bioassessments were conducted. At each site, risk quotients were calculated to determine potential impacts. For sediment-partitioning herbicides, sediment quality triad analysis was performed. Worst-case scenario monitoring and special studies showed limited short-term and no long-term toxicity directly attributable to aquatic herbicide applications. Risk quotient calculations called for additional risk characterizations; these included limited assessments for glyphosate and fluridone and more extensive risk assessments for diquat dibromide, chelated copper products, and copper sulfate. Use of surfactants in conjunction with aquatic herbicides was positively associated with greater ecosystem impacts. Results therefore warrant full risk characterization for all adjuvant compounds.

  5. Biotechnology and DNA vaccines for aquatic animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, G.

    2008-01-01

    Biotechnology has been used extensively in the development of vaccines for aquaculture. Modern molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and microarray analysis have facilitated antigen discovery, construction of novel candidate vaccines, and assessments of vaccine efficacy, mode of action, and host response. This review focuses on DNA vaccines for finfish to illustrate biotechnology applications in this field. Although DNA vaccines for fish rhabdoviruses continue to show the highest efficacy, DNA vaccines for several other viral and bacterial fish pathogens have now been proven to provide significant protection against pathogen challenge. Studies of the fish rhabdovirus DNA vaccines have elucidated factors that affect DNA vaccine efficacy as well as the nature of the fish innate and adaptive immune responses to DNA vaccines. As tools for managing aquatic animal disease emergencies, DNA vaccines have advantages in speed, flexibility, and safety, and one fish DNA vaccine has been licensed.

  6. Biotechnology and DNA vaccines for aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Kurath, G

    2008-04-01

    Biotechnology has been used extensively in the development of vaccines for aquaculture. Modern molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and microarray analysis have facilitated antigen discovery, construction of novel candidate vaccines, and assessments of vaccine efficacy, mode of action, and host response. This review focuses on DNA vaccines for finfish to illustrate biotechnology applications in this field. Although DNA vaccines for fish rhabdoviruses continue to show the highest efficacy, DNA vaccines for several other viral and bacterial fish pathogens have now been proven to provide significant protection against pathogen challenge. Studies of the fish rhabdovirus DNA vaccines have elucidated factors that affect DNA vaccine efficacy as well as the nature of the fish innate and adaptive immune responses to DNA vaccines. As tools for managing aquatic animal disease emergencies, DNA vaccines have advantages in speed, flexibility, and safety, and one fish DNA vaccine has been licensed.

  7. Molecular size of aquatic humic substances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Wershaw, R. L.; Malcolm, R.L.; Pinckney, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Aquatic humic substances, which account for 30 to 50% of the organic carbon in water, are a principal component of aquatic organic matter. The molecular size of aquatic humic substances, determined by small-angle X-ray scattering, varies from 4.7 to 33 A?? in their radius of gyration, corresponding to a molecular weight range of 500 to greater than 10,000. The aquatic fulvic acid fraction contains substances with molecular weights ranging from 500 to 2000 and is monodisperse, whereas the aquatic humic acid fraction contains substances with molecular weights ranging from 1000 to greater than 10,000 and is generally polydisperse. ?? 1982.

  8. Proposed Release Guides to Protect Aquatic Biota

    SciTech Connect

    Marter, W.L.

    2001-03-28

    At the request of South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and the Department of Energy (DOE), the Savannah River Laboratory was assigned the task of developing the release guides to protect aquatic biota. A review of aquatic radioecology literature by two leading experts in the field of radioecology concludes that exposure of aquatic biota at one rad per day or less will not produce detectable deleterious effects on aquatic organisms. On the basis of this report, DOE recommends the use of one rad per day as an interim dose standard to protect aquatic biota.

  9. Fire and aquatic ecosystems of the western USA: Current knowledge and key questions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bisson, P.A.; Rieman, B.; Luce, C.; Hessburg, Paul F.; Lee, D.; Kershner, J.; Reeves, G.H.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    Understanding of the effects of wildland fire and fire management on aquatic and riparian ecosystems is an evolving field, with many questions still to be resolved. Limitations of current knowledge, and the certainty that fire management will continue, underscore the need to summarize available information. Integrating fire and fuels management with aquatic ecosystem conservation begins with recognizing that terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are linked and dynamic, and that fire can play a critical role in maintaining aquatic ecological diversity. To protect aquatic ecosystems we argue that it will be important to: (1) accommodate fire-related and other ecological processes that maintain aquatic habitats and biodiversity, and not simply control fires or fuels; (2) prioritize projects according to risks and opportunities for fire control and the protection of aquatic ecosystems; and (3) develop new consistency in the management and regulatory process. Ultimately, all natural resource management is uncertain; the role of science is to apply experimental design and hypothesis testing to management applications that affect fire and aquatic ecosystems. Policy-makers and the public will benefit from an expanded appreciation of fire ecology that enables them to implement watershed management projects as experiments with hypothesized outcomes, adequate controls, and replication.

  10. Pesticides in stream sediment and aquatic biota: distribution, trends, and governing factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Capel, Peter D.

    1999-01-01

    More than 20 years after the ban of DDT and other organochlorine pesticides, pesticides continue to be detected in air, rain, soil, surface water, bed sediment, and aquatic and terrestrial biota throughout the world. Recent research suggests that low levels of some of these pesticides may have the potential to affect the development, reproduction, and behavior of fish and wildlife, and possibly humans. Pesticides in Stream Sediment and Aquatic Biota: Distribution, Trends, and Governing Factors assesses the occurrence and behavior of pesticides in bed sediment and aquatic biota-the two major compartments of the hydrologic system where organochlorine pesticides are most likely to accumulate. This book collects, for the first time, results from several hundred monitoring studies and field experiments, ranging in scope from individual sites to the entire nation. Comprehensive tables provide concise summaries of study locations, pesticides analyzed, and study outcomes. Comprehensive and extensively illustrated, Pesticides in Stream Sediment and Aquatic Biota: Distribution, Trends, and Governing Factors evaluates the sources, environmental fate, geographic distribution, and long-term trends of pesticides in bed sediment and aquatic biota. The book focuses on organochlorine pesticides, but also assesses the potential for currently used pesticides to be found in bed sediment and aquatic biota. Topics covered in depth include the effect of land use on pesticide occurrence, mechanisms of pesticide uptake and accumulation by aquatic biota, and the environmental significance of observed levels of pesticides in stream sediment and aquatic biota.

  11. Identifying How Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices Affect Aquatic Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G. F.; Copping, Andrea E.; Roberts, Jesse

    2011-04-24

    Significant research is under way to determine the potential environmental effects of marine and hydrokinetic energy systems. This research, being guided and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, is intended to address knowledge gaps and facilitate installation and operation of these systems.

  12. LIGHT-INDUCED PROCESSES AFFECTING ENTEROCOCCI IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal indicator bacteria such as enterococci have been used to assess contamination of freshwater and marine environments by pathogenic microorganisms. Various past studies have shown that sunlight plays an important role in reducing concentrations of culturable enterococci and ...

  13. Nutrient enrichment affects the mechanical resistance of aquatic plants

    PubMed Central

    Puijalon, Sara

    2012-01-01

    For many plant species, nutrient availability induces important anatomical responses, particularly the production of low-density tissues to the detriment of supporting tissues. Due to the contrasting biomechanical properties of plant tissues, these anatomical responses may induce important modifications in the biomechanical properties of plant organs. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of nutrient enrichment on the anatomical traits of two freshwater plant species and its consequences on plant biomechanical performance. Two plant species were grown under controlled conditions in low versus high nutrient levels. The anatomical and biomechanical traits of the plant stems were measured. Both species produced tissues with lower densities under nutrient-rich conditions, accompanied by modifications in the structure of the aerenchyma for one species. As expected, nutrient enrichment also led to important modifications in the biomechanical properties of the stem for both species. In particular, mechanical resistance (breaking force and strength) and stiffness of stems were significantly reduced under nutrient rich conditions. The production of weaker stem tissues as a result of nutrient enrichment may increase the risk of plants to mechanical failure, thus challenging plant maintenance in mechanically stressful or disturbed habitats. PMID:23028018

  14. Morbillivirus infections in aquatic mammals.

    PubMed

    Visser, I K; van Bressem, M F; Barrett, T; Osterhaus, A D

    1993-01-01

    Infections with morbilliviruses have caused heavy losses among different populations of aquatic mammals during the last 5 years. Two different morbilliviruses were isolated from disease outbreaks among seals in Europe and Siberia: phocid distemper virus-1 (PDV-1) and phocid distemper virus-2 (PDV-2) respectively. PDV-1 was characterized as a newly identified morbillivirus, most related to canine distemper virus (CDV), whereas PDV-2 most probably is a strain of CDV. Morbilliviruses were also isolated from porpoises--porpoise morbillivirus (PMV)--and dolphins--dolphin morbillivirus (DMV)--which had stranded on the coasts of Europe. PMV and DMV proved to be closely related to, but distinct from 2 ruminant morbilliviruses, rinderpest virus (RPV) and peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV). Serological surveys carried out among pinniped and cetacean species in the seas of Europe and North America indicated that infections with these newly discovered morbilliviruses or closely related viruses commonly occur among aquatic mammal species.

  15. A bioinspired modular aquatic robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallapragada, Phanindra; Pollard, Beau

    2016-11-01

    Several bio inspired swimming robots exist which seek to emulate the morphology of fish and the flapping motion of the tail and fins or other appendages and body of aquatic creatures. The locomotion of such robots and the aquatic animals that they seek to emulate is determined to a large degree by the changes in the shape of the body, which produce periodic changes in the momentum of the body and the creation and interaction of the vorticity field in the fluid with the body. We demonstrate an underactuated robot which swims due to the periodic changes in the angular momentum of the robot effected by the motion of an internal rotor. The robot is modular, unactuated tail like segments can be easily added to the robot. These segments modulate the interaction of the body with the fluid to produce a variety of passive shape changes that can allow the robot to swim in different modes.

  16. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Hallucinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, C.L.; Dube, S.R.; Felitti, V.J.; Anda, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: Little information is available about the contribution of multiple adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to the likelihood of reporting hallucinations. We used data from the ACE study to assess this relationship. Methods:: We conducted a survey about childhood abuse and household dysfunction while growing up, with questions about health…

  17. Reverse engineering adverse outcome pathways.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Edward J; Chipman, J Kevin; Edwards, Stephen; Habib, Tanwir; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Ronald; Van Aggelen, Graham; Vulpe, Chris; Antczak, Philipp; Loguinov, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or incompletely characterized, mechanisms of action. The application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, metabolic, signaling) can be used to overcome these limitations. This approach was used to characterize adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis in fathead minnows (FHM, Pimephales promelas). Gene expression changes in FHM ovaries in response to seven different chemicals, over different times, doses, and in vivo versus in vitro conditions, were captured in a large data set of 868 arrays. Potential AOPs of the antiandrogen flutamide were examined using two mutual information-based methods to infer gene regulatory networks and potential AOPs. Representative networks from these studies were used to predict network paths from stressor to adverse outcome as candidate AOPs. The relationship of individual chemicals to an adverse outcome can be determined by following perturbations through the network in response to chemical treatment, thus leading to the nodes associated with the adverse outcome. Identification of candidate pathways allows for formation of testable hypotheses about key biological processes, biomarkers, or alternative endpoints that can be used to monitor an AOP. Finally, the unique challenges facing the application of this approach in ecotoxicology were identified and a road map for the utilization of these tools presented.

  18. Selenium toxicity: cause and effects in aquatic birds.

    PubMed

    Spallholz, Julian E; Hoffman, David J

    2002-04-01

    There are several manners in which selenium may express its toxicity: (1) an important mechanism appears to involve the formation of CH(3)Se(minus sign) which either enters a redox cycle and generates superoxide and oxidative stress, or forms free radicals that bind to and inhibit important enzymes and proteins. (2) Excess selenium as selenocysteine results in inhibition of selenium methylation metabolism. As a consequence, concentrations of hydrogen selenide, an intermediate metabolite, accumulate in animals and are hepatotoxic, possibly causing other selenium-related adverse effects. (3) It is also possible that the presence of excess selenium analogs of sulfur-containing enzymes and structural proteins play a role in avian teratogenesis. L-selenomethionine is the most likely major dietary form of selenium encountered by aquatic birds, with lesser amounts of L-selenocysteine ingested from aquatic animal foods. The literature is suggestive that L-selenomethionine is not any more toxic to adult birds than other animals. L-Selenomethionine accumulates in tissue protein of adult birds and in the protein of egg white as would be expected to occur in animals. There is no suggestion from the literature that the levels of L-selenomethionine that would be expected to accumulate in eggs in the absence of environmental concentration of selenium pose harm to the developing embryo. For several species of aquatic birds, levels of Se as selenomethionine in the egg above 3 ppm on a wet weight basis result in reduced hatchability and deformed embryos. The toxicity of L-selenomethionine injected directly into eggs is greater than that found from the entry of L-selenomethionine into the egg from the normal adult diet. This suggests that there is unusual if not abnormal metabolism of L-selenomethionine in the embryo not seen when L-selenomethionine is present in egg white protein where it likely serves as a source of selenium for glutathione peroxidase synthesis in the developing

  19. Selenium toxicity: cause and effects in aquatic birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spallholz, J.E.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    There are several manners in which selenium may express its toxicity: (1) an important mechanism appears to involve the formation of CH3Se- which either enters a redox cycle and generates superoxide and oxidative stress, or forms free radicals that bind to and inhibit important enzymes and proteins. (2) Excess selenium as selenocysteine results in inhibition of selenium methylation metabolism. As a consequence, concentrations of hydrogen selenide, an intermediate metabolite, accumulate in animals and are hepatotoxic, possibly causing other selenium-related adverse effects. (3) It is also possible that the presence of excess selenium analogs of sulfur-containing enzymes and structural proteins play a role in avian teratogenesis. l-selenomethionine is the most likely major dietary form of selenium encountered by aquatic birds, with lesser amounts of l-selenocysteine ingested from aquatic animal foods. The literature is suggestive that l-selenomethionine is not any more toxic to adult birds than other animals. l-Selenomethionine accumulates in tissue protein of adult birds and in the protein of egg white as would be expected to occur in animals. There is no suggestion from the literature that the levels of l-selenomethionine that would be expected to accumulate in eggs in the absence of environmental concentration of selenium pose harm to the developing embryo. For several species of aquatic birds, levels of Se as selenomethionine in the egg above 3 ppm on a wet weight basis result in reduced hatchability and deformed embryos. The toxicity of l-selenomethionine injected directly into eggs is greater than that found from the entry of l-selenomethionine into the egg from the normal adult diet. This suggests that there is unusual if not abnormal metabolism of l-selenomethionine in the embryo not seen when l-selenomethionine is present in egg white protein where it likely serves as a source of selenium for glutathione peroxidase synthesis in the developing aquatic chick.

  20. Pesticide runoff from energy crops: A threat to aquatic invertebrates?

    PubMed

    Bunzel, Katja; Schäfer, Ralf B; Thrän, Daniela; Kattwinkel, Mira

    2015-12-15

    The European Union aims to reach a 10% share of biofuels in the transport sector by 2020. The major burden is most likely to fall on already established annual energy crops such as rapeseed and cereals for the production of biodiesel and bioethanol, respectively. Annual energy crops are typically cultivated in intensive agricultural production systems, which require the application of pesticides. Agricultural pesticides can have adverse effects on aquatic invertebrates in adjacent streams. We assessed the relative ecological risk to aquatic invertebrates associated with the chemical pest management from six energy crops (maize, potato, sugar beet, winter barley, winter rapeseed, and winter wheat) as well as from mixed cultivation scenarios. The pesticide exposure related to energy crops and cultivation scenarios was estimated as surface runoff for 253 small stream sites in Central Germany using a GIS-based runoff potential model. The ecological risk for aquatic invertebrates, an important organism group for the functioning of stream ecosystems, was assessed using acute toxicity data (48-h LC50 values) of the crustacean Daphnia magna. We calculated the Ecological Risk from potential Pesticide Runoff (ERPR) for all three main groups of pesticides (herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides). Our findings suggest that the crops potato, sugar beet, and rapeseed pose a higher ecological risk to aquatic invertebrates than maize, barley, and wheat. As maize had by far the lowest ERPR values, from the perspective of pesticide pollution, its cultivation as substrate for the production of the gaseous biofuel biomethane may be preferable compared to the production of, for example, biodiesel from rapeseed.

  1. The challenges of good governance in the aquatic animal health sector.

    PubMed

    Kahn, S; Mylrea, G; Yaacov, K Bar

    2012-08-01

    Animal health is fundamental to efficient animal production and, therefore, to food security and human health. This holds true for both terrestrial and aquatic animals. Although partnership between producers and governmental services is vital for effective animal health programmes, many key activities are directly carried out by governmental services. Noting the need to improve the governance of such services in many developing countries, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), using the OIE Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services, conducts assessments of Veterinary Services and Aquatic Animal Health Services (AAHS) to help strengthen governance and support more effective delivery of animal health programmes. While good governance and the tools to improve governance in the aquatic animal sector are largely based on the same principles as those that apply in the terrestrial animal sector, there are some specific challenges in the aquatic sector that have a bearing on the governance of services in this area. For example, the aquaculture industry has experienced rapid growth and the use of novel species is increasing; there are important gaps in scientific knowledge on diseases of aquatic animals; there is a need for more information on sustainable production; the level of participation of the veterinary profession in aquatic animal health is low; and there is a lack of standardisation in the training of aquatic animal health professionals. Aquaculture development can be a means of alleviating poverty and hunger in developing countries. However, animal diseases, adverse environmental impacts and food safety risks threaten to limit this development. Strengthening AAHS governance and, in consequence, aquatic animal health programmes, is the best way to ensure a dynamic and sustainable aquaculture sector in future. This paper discusses the specific challenges to AAHS governance and some OIE initiatives to help Member Countries to address

  2. Why do cervids feed on aquatic vegetation?

    PubMed

    Ceacero, Francisco; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Miranda, María; García, Andrés J; Martínez, Alberto; Gallego, Laureano

    2014-03-01

    Consumption of aquatic plants is rare among cervids, despite the common occurrence of this form of vegetation. However, the paucity of literature reporting on this feeding behaviour suggests that Na (but also other minerals), protein, and the ubiquitous availability of aquatic vegetation may play a role in its consumption. We present results quantifying those factors that regulate the consumption of aquatic plants in the Iberian red deer. We focussed our study primarily on two questions: (i) what nutritional values are red deer seeking in the aquatic plants?; and (ii) why do red deer primarily use aquatic plants during the summer? A comparison of the seasonal variations in Na content between terrestrial vs. aquatic vegetation did not fully support the hypothesis that aquatic plants are being consumed more in summer because of any seasonal variation in Na availability. The Na content in the aquatic vegetation was adequate all the year-round; whereas, the Na content in the terrestrial vegetation was consistently deficient. However, a greater summer content of essential minerals and protein in the aquatic vegetation may be the cause for their consumption exclusively during the summer. We suggest that seasonal variations in the consumption of aquatic vegetation by cervids is primarily driven by temporal variations in the nutrient content, combined with seasonal variations in the physiological demands for these nutrients.

  3. Adverse effects of isolation in hospitalised patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Abad, C; Fearday, A; Safdar, N

    2010-10-01

    The use of transmission precautions such as contact isolation in patients known to be colonised or infected with multidrug-resistant organisms is recommended in healthcare institutions. Although essential for infection control, contact isolation has recently been associated with adverse effects in patients. We undertook a systematic review to determine whether contact isolation leads to psychological or physical problems for patients. Studies were included if (1) hospitalised patients were placed under isolation precautions for an underlying medical indication, and (2) any adverse events related to the isolation were evaluated. We found 16 studies that reported data regarding the impact of isolation on patient mental well-being, patient satisfaction, patient safety or time spent by healthcare workers in direct patient care. The majority showed a negative impact on patient mental well-being and behaviour, including higher scores for depression, anxiety and anger among isolated patients. A few studies also found that healthcare workers spent less time with patients in isolation. Patient satisfaction was adversely affected by isolation if patients were kept uninformed of their healthcare. Patient safety was also negatively affected, leading to an eight-fold increase in adverse events related to supportive care failures. We found that contact isolation may negatively impact several dimensions of patient care. Well-validated tools are necessary to investigate these results further. Large studies examining a number of safety indicators to assess the adverse effects of isolation are needed. Patient education may be an important step to mitigate the adverse psychological effects of isolation and is recommended.

  4. RESEARCH: Effects of Recent Volcanic Eruptions on Aquatic Habitat in the Drift River, Alaska, USA: Implications at Other Cook Inlet Region Volcanoes.

    PubMed

    DORAVA; MILNER

    1999-02-01

    / Numerous drainages supporting productive salmon habitat are surrounded by active volcanoes on the west side of Cook Inlet in south-central Alaska. Eruptions have caused massive quantities of flowing water and sediment to enter the river channels emanating from glaciers and snowfields on these volcanoes. Extensive damage to riparian and aquatic habitat has commonly resulted, and benthic macroinvertebrate and salmonid communities can be affected. Because of the economic importance of Alaska's fisheries, detrimental effects on salmonid habitat can have significant economic implications. The Drift River drains glaciers on the northern and eastern flanks of Redoubt Volcano. During and following eruptions in 1989-1990, severe physical disturbances to the habitat features of the river adversely affected the fishery. Frequent eruptions at other Cook Inlet region volcanoes exemplify the potential effects of volcanic activity on Alaska's important commercial, sport, and subsistence fisheries. Few studies have documented the recovery of aquatic habitat following volcanic eruptions. The eruptions of Redoubt Volcano in 1989-1990 offered an opportunity to examine the recovery of the macroinvertebrate community. Macroinvertebrate community composition and structure in the Drift River were similar in both undisturbed and recently disturbed sites. Additionally, macroinvertebrate samples from sites in nearby undisturbed streams were highly similar to those from some Drift River sites. This similarity and the agreement between the Drift River macroinvertebrate community composition and that predicted by a qualitative model of typical macroinvertebrate communities in glacier-fed rivers indicate that the Drift River macroinvertebrate community is recovering five years after the disturbances associated with the most recent eruptions of Redoubt Volcano. KEY WORDS: Aquatic habitat; Volcanoes; Lahars; Lahar-runout flows; Macroinvertebrates; Community structure; Community composition

  5. Plasticizer endocrine disruption: Highlighting developmental and reproductive effects in mammals and non-mammalian aquatic species.

    PubMed

    Mathieu-Denoncourt, Justine; Wallace, Sarah J; de Solla, Shane R; Langlois, Valerie S

    2015-08-01

    Due to their versatility, robustness, and low production costs, plastics are used in a wide variety of applications. Plasticizers are mixed with polymers to increase flexibility of plastics. However, plasticizers are not covalently bound to plastics, and thus leach from products into the environment. Several studies have reported that two common plasticizers, bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates, induce adverse health effects in vertebrates; however few studies have addressed their toxicity to non-mammalian species. The aim of this review is to compare the effects of plasticizers in animals, with a focus on aquatic species. In summary, we identified three main chains of events that occur in animals exposed to BPA and phthalates. Firstly, plasticizers affect development by altering both the thyroid hormone and growth hormone axes. Secondly, these chemicals interfere with reproduction by decreasing cholesterol transport through the mitochondrial membrane, leading to reduced steroidogenesis. Lastly, exposure to plasticizers leads to the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, the increase of fatty acid oxidation, and the reduction in the ability to cope with the augmented oxidative stress leading to reproductive organ malformations, reproductive defects, and decreased fertility.

  6. Diversity of Aquatic Pseudomonas Species and Their Activity against the Fish Pathogenic Oomycete Saprolegnia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiying; Rzeszutek, Elzbieta; van der Voort, Menno; Wu, Cheng-Hsuan; Thoen, Even; Skaar, Ida; Bulone, Vincent; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Raaijmakers, Jos M; de Bruijn, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Emerging fungal and oomycete pathogens are increasingly threatening animals and plants globally. Amongst oomycetes, Saprolegnia species adversely affect wild and cultivated populations of amphibians and fish, leading to substantial reductions in biodiversity and food productivity. With the ban of several chemical control measures, new sustainable methods are needed to mitigate Saprolegnia infections in aquaculture. Here, PhyloChip-based community analyses showed that the Pseudomonadales, particularly Pseudomonas species, represent one of the largest bacterial orders associated with salmon eggs from a commercial hatchery. Among the Pseudomonas species isolated from salmon eggs, significantly more biosurfactant producers were retrieved from healthy salmon eggs than from Saprolegnia-infected eggs. Subsequent in vivo activity bioassays showed that Pseudomonas isolate H6 significantly reduced salmon egg mortality caused by Saprolegnia diclina. Live colony mass spectrometry showed that strain H6 produces a viscosin-like lipopeptide surfactant. This biosurfactant inhibited growth of Saprolegnia in vitro, but no significant protection of salmon eggs against Saprolegniosis was observed. These results indicate that live inocula of aquatic Pseudomonas strains, instead of their bioactive compound, can provide new (micro)biological and sustainable means to mitigate oomycete diseases in aquaculture.

  7. Adverse drug reactions: part II.

    PubMed

    Wooten, James M

    2010-11-01

    Pharmacovigilance is the process of identifying, monitoring, and effectively reducing adverse drug reactions. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are an important consideration when assessing a patient's health. The proliferation of new pharmaceuticals means that the incidence of ADRs is increasing. The goal for all health care providers must be to minimize the risk of ADRs as much as possible. Steps to achieve this include understanding the pharmacology for all drugs prescribed and proactively assessing and monitoring those patients at greatest risk for developing an ADR. Groups at greatest risk for developing ADRs include the elderly, children, and pregnant patients, as well as others. Pharmacovigilance must be effectively practiced by all health care providers in order to avoid ADRs.

  8. Adverse drug reactions: Part I.

    PubMed

    Wooten, James M

    2010-10-01

    Pharmacovigilance is the process of identifying, monitoring, and effectively reducing adverse drug reactions. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are an important consideration when assessing a patient's health. The proliferation of new pharmaceuticals means that the incidence of ADRs is increasing. The goal for all health care providers must be to minimize the risk of ADRs as much as possible. Steps to achieve this include understanding the pharmacology for all drugs prescribed and proactively assessing and monitoring those patients at greatest risk for developing an ADR. Groups at greatest risk for developing ADRs include the elderly, children, and pregnant patients, as well as others. Pharmacovigilance must effectively be practiced by all health providers in order to avoid ADRs.

  9. [Finasteride adverse effects: An update].

    PubMed

    Carreño-Orellana, Néstor; Moll-Manzur, Catherina; Carrasco-Zuber, Juan Eduardo; Álvarez-Véliz, Sergio; Berroeta-Mauriziano, Daniela; Porras-Kusmanic, Ninoska

    2016-12-01

    Finasteride is a 5-α reductase inhibitor that is widely used in the management of benign prostate hyperplasia and male pattern hair loss. It is well known that these agents improve the quality of life in men suffering from these conditions. However, they are associated with some transient and even permanent adverse effects. The aim of this article is to clarify the controversies about the safety of finasteride by analyzing the evidence available in the literature.

  10. [Pain as adverse drug reaction].

    PubMed

    Böhmdorfer, Birgit; Schaffarzick, Daniel; Nagano, Marietta; Janowitz, Susanne Melitta; Schweitzer, Ekkehard

    2012-09-01

    We present a multidisciplinary (anaesthesiology--clinical pharmacy--bioinformatics) analysis of pain as possible adverse drug reaction taking different manifestations of pain, indication groups, relevance to the Austrian drug market and possible mechanistic influence of drugs on development and apprehension of pain into consideration.We designed an overview that shows how transmitters that play a part in nociception and antinociception can be influenced by drugs. This allows conclusions to the dolorigene potential of therapeutics.

  11. The NEON Aquatic Network: Expanding the Availability of Biogeochemical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, J. M.; Bohall, C.; Fitzgerald, M.; Utz, R.; Parker, S. M.; Roehm, C. L.; Goodman, K. J.; McLaughlin, B.

    2013-12-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are facing unprecedented pressure from climate change and land-use practices. Invasive species, whether plant, animal, insect or microbe present additional threat to aquatic ecosystem services. There are significant scientific challenges to understanding how these forces will interact to affect aquatic ecosystems, as the flow of energy and materials in the environment is driven by multivariate and non-linear biogeochemical cycles. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will collect and provide observational data across multiple scales. Sites were selected to maximize representation of major North American ecosystems using a multivariate geographic clustering method that partitioned the continental US, AK, HI, and Puerto Rico into 20 eco-climatic domains. The NEON data collection systems and methods are designed to yield standardized, near real-time data subjected to rigorous quality controls prior to public dissemination through an online data portal. NEON will collect data for 30 years to facilitate spatial-temporal analysis of environmental responses and drivers of ecosystem change, ranging from local through continental scales. Here we present the NEON Aquatic Network, a multi-parameter network consisting of a combination of in situ sensor and observational data. This network will provide data to examine biogeochemical, biological, hydrologic and geomorphic metrics at 36 sites, which are a combination of small 1st/2nd order wadeable streams, large rivers and lakes. A typical NEON Aquatic site will host up to two in-stream sensor sets designed to collect near-continuous water quality data (e.g. pH/ORP, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, CDOM) along with up to 8 shallow groundwater monitoring wells (level, temp., cond.), and a local meteorological station (e.g. 2D wind speed, PAR, barometric pressure, temperature, net radiation). These coupled sensor suites will be complemented by observational data (e.g. water

  12. Thiocolchicoside: review of adverse effects.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Thiocolchicoside has long been used as a muscle relaxant, despite a lack of proven efficacy beyond the placebo effect. Its chemical structure consists of colchicine, a sugar (ose) and a sulphur-containing radical (thio), and its adverse effects are therefore likely to be similar to those of colchicine. Using the standard Prescrire methodology, we reviewed the available data on the adverse effects of thiocolchicoside. Liver injury, pancreatitis, seizures, blood cell disorders, severe cutaneous disorders, rhabdomyolysis and reproductive disorders have all been recorded in the French and European pharmacovigilance databases and in the periodic updates that the companies concerned submit to regulatory agencies. These data do not specify the frequency of the disorders nor do they identify the most susceptible patient populations. Thiocolchicoside is teratogenic in experimental animals and also damages chromosomes. Human data are limited to a follow-up of about 30 pregnant women (no major malformations) and reports of altered spermatogenesis, including cases of azoospermia. In practice, there is no justification for exposing patients to the adverse effects of thiocolchicoside. It is better to use an effective, well-known analgesic for patients complaining of muscle pain, starting with paracetamol.

  13. Adverse food-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Alie; van Hunsel, Florence; Bast, Aalt

    2015-12-01

    Food supplements and herbal products are increasingly popular amongst consumers. This leads to increased risks of interactions between prescribed drugs and these products containing bioactive ingredients. From 1991 up to 2014, 55 cases of suspected adverse drug reactions due to concomitant intake of health-enhancing products and drugs were reported to Lareb, the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre. An overview of these suspected interactions is presented and their potential mechanisms of action are described. Mainly during the metabolism of xenobiotics and due to the pharmacodynamics effects interactions seem to occur, which may result in adverse drug reactions. Where legislation is seen to distinct food and medicine, legislation concerning these different bioactive products is less clear-cut. This can only be resolved by increasing the molecular knowledge on bioactive substances and their potential interactions. Thereby potential interactions can be better understood and prevented on an individual level. By considering the dietary pattern and use of bioactive substances with prescribed medication, both health professionals and consumers will be increasingly aware of interactions and these interactive adverse effects can be prevented.

  14. Aquatic Debris Detection Using Embedded Camera Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Wang, Dianhong; Lu, Qian; Luo, Dapeng; Fang, Wu

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic debris monitoring is of great importance to human health, aquatic habitats and water transport. In this paper, we first introduce the prototype of an aquatic sensor node equipped with an embedded camera sensor. Based on this sensing platform, we propose a fast and accurate debris detection algorithm. Our method is specifically designed based on compressive sensing theory to give full consideration to the unique challenges in aquatic environments, such as waves, swaying reflections, and tight energy budget. To upload debris images, we use an efficient sparse recovery algorithm in which only a few linear measurements need to be transmitted for image reconstruction. Besides, we implement the host software and test the debris detection algorithm on realistically deployed aquatic sensor nodes. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach is reliable and feasible for debris detection using camera sensors in aquatic environments. PMID:25647741

  15. Aquatic toxicology: past, present, and prospects.

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, J B

    1993-01-01

    Aquatic organisms have played important roles as early warning and monitoring systems for pollutant burdens in our environment. However, they have significant potential to do even more, just as they have in basic biology where preparations like the squid axon have been essential tools in establishing physiological and biochemical mechanisms. This review provides a brief summary of the history of aquatic toxicology, focusing on the nature of aquatic contaminants, the levels of contamination in our waters, and the origins of these agents. It considers the features of the aquatic environment that determine the availability of xenobiotics to aquatic life and the fate of foreign chemicals within the organism. Finally, toxic effects are considered with primary emphasis on the potential of aquatic models to facilitate identification of the underlying mechanisms of toxicity. PMID:8354173

  16. Beaver herbivory on aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Parker, John D; Caudill, Christopher C; Hay, Mark E

    2007-04-01

    Herbivores have strong impacts on marine and terrestrial plant communities, but their impact is less well studied in benthic freshwater systems. For example, North American beavers (Castor canadensis) eat both woody and non-woody plants and focus almost exclusively on the latter in summer months, yet their impacts on non-woody plants are generally attributed to ecosystem engineering rather than herbivory. Here, we excluded beavers from areas of two beaver wetlands for over 2 years and demonstrated that beaver herbivory reduced aquatic plant biomass by 60%, plant litter by 75%, and dramatically shifted plant species composition. The perennial forb lizard's tail (Saururus cernuus) comprised less than 5% of plant biomass in areas open to beaver grazing but greater than 50% of plant biomass in beaver exclusions. This shift was likely due to direct herbivory, as beavers preferentially consumed lizard's tail over other plants in a field feeding assay. Beaver herbivory also reduced the abundance of the invasive aquatic plant Myriophyllum aquaticum by nearly 90%, consistent with recent evidence that native generalist herbivores provide biotic resistance against exotic plant invasions. Beaver herbivory also had indirect effects on plant interactions in this community. The palatable plant lizard's tail was 3 times more frequent and 10 times more abundant inside woolgrass (Scirpus cyperinus) tussocks than in spatially paired locations lacking tussocks. When the protective foliage of the woolgrass was removed without exclusion cages, beavers consumed nearly half of the lizard's tail leaves within 2 weeks. In contrast, leaf abundance increased by 73-93% in the treatments retaining woolgrass or protected by a cage. Thus, woolgrass tussocks were as effective as cages at excluding beaver foraging and provided lizard's tail plants an associational refuge from beaver herbivory. These results suggest that beaver herbivory has strong direct and indirect impacts on populations and

  17. Six-year trajectories of post-traumatic stress and severe psychological distress symptoms and associations with timing of trauma exposure, ongoing adversity and sense of injustice: a latent transition analysis of a community cohort in conflict-affected Timor-Leste

    PubMed Central

    Rees, S; Steel, Z; Tam, N; Soares, Z; Soares, C; Silove, DM

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify the 6-year trajectories of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and psychological distress symptoms, and examine for associations with timing of trauma exposure, ongoing adversity and with the sense of injustice in conflict-affected Timor-Leste. Setting A whole-of-household survey was conducted in 2004 and 2010 in Dili, the capital of Timor-Leste. Participants 1022 adults were followed up over 6 years (retention rate 84.5%). Interviews were conducted by field workers applying measures of traumatic events (TEs), ongoing adversity, a sense of injustice, PTS symptoms and psychological distress. Results Latent transition analysis supported a 3-class longitudinal model (psychological distress, comorbid symptoms and low symptoms). We derived 4 composite trajectories comprising recovery (20.8%), a persisting morbidity trajectory (7.2%), an incident trajectory (37.2%) and a low-symptom trajectory (34.7%). Compared with the low-symptom trajectory, the persistent and incident trajectories reported greater stress arising from poverty and family conflict, higher TE exposure for 2 historical periods, and a sense of injustice for 2 historical periods. The persistent trajectory was unique in reporting greater TE exposure in the Indonesian occupation, whereas the incident trajectory reported greater TE exposure during the later internal conflict that occurred between baseline and follow-up. Compared with the low-symptom trajectory, the incident trajectory reported a greater sense of injustice relating to the periods of the Indonesian occupation and independence. The persistent trajectory was characterised by a sense of injustice relating to the internal conflict and contemporary times. The recovery trajectory was characterised by the absence of these risk factors, the only difference from the low-symptom trajectory being that the former reported a sense of injustice for the period surrounding independence. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the timing

  18. Population approaches to aquatic toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, M.B.

    1981-10-01

    Field studies in which age-specific survivorship and fecundity are measured can provide data for the validation of laboratory studies conducted to assess the effects of toxic materials on aquatic species. Comparison of the variability of age-specific survivorship and fecundity in polluted versus nonpolluted areas would provide insight into the consequences of pollution at the population level. Techniques which permit prediction of population structure and growth from age-specific survivorship and fecundity schedules are described. These techniques include the life table and the Leslie matrix. Examples of population studies in which these techniques may be applied are given.

  19. Aquatic versus terrestrial attachment: Water makes a difference

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Adam P

    2014-01-01

    Summary Animal attachment to a substrate is very different in terrestrial and aquatic environments. We discuss variations in both the forces acting to detach animals and forces of attachment. While in a terrestrial environment gravity is commonly understood as the most important detachment force, under submerged conditions gravity is nearly balanced out by buoyancy and therefore matters little. In contrast, flow forces such as drag and lift are of higher importance in an aquatic environment. Depending on the flow conditions, flow forces can reach much higher values than gravity and vary in magnitude and direction. For many of the attachment mechanisms (adhesion including glue, friction, suction and mechanical principles such as hook, lock, clamp and spacer) significant differences have to be considered under water. For example, the main principles of dry adhesion, van der Waals forces and chemical bonding, which make a gecko stick to the ceiling, are weak under submerged conditions. Capillary forces are very important for wet adhesion, e.g., in terrestrial beetles or flies, but usually do not occur under water. Viscous forces are likely an important contributor to adhesion under water in some mobile animals such as torrent frogs and mayflies, but there are still many open questions to be answered. Glue is the dominant attachment mechanism of sessile aquatic animals and the aquatic realm presents many challenges to this mode of attachment. Viscous forces and the lack of surface tension under submerged conditions also affect frictional interactions in the aquatic environment. Moreover, the limitation of suction to the pressure difference at vacuum conditions can be ameliorated under water, due to the increasing pressure with water depth. PMID:25671138

  20. Global ecological impacts of invasive species in aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Belinda; Clavero, Miguel; Sánchez, Marta I; Vilà, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of invasive species, which often differ functionally from the components of the recipient community, generates ecological impacts that propagate along the food web. This review aims to determine how consistent the impacts of aquatic invasions are across taxa and habitats. To that end, we present a global meta-analysis from 151 publications (733 cases), covering a wide range of invaders (primary producers, filter collectors, omnivores and predators), resident aquatic community components (macrophytes, phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic invertebrates and fish) and habitats (rivers, lakes and estuaries). Our synthesis suggests a strong negative influence of invasive species on the abundance of aquatic communities, particularly macrophytes, zooplankton and fish. In contrast, there was no general evidence for a decrease in species diversity in invaded habitats, suggesting a time lag between rapid abundance changes and local extinctions. Invaded habitats showed increased water turbidity, nitrogen and organic matter concentration, which are related to the capacity of invaders to transform habitats and increase eutrophication. The expansion of invasive macrophytes caused the largest decrease in fish abundance, the filtering activity of filter collectors depleted planktonic communities, omnivores (including both facultative and obligate herbivores) were responsible for the greatest decline in macrophyte abundance, and benthic invertebrates were most negatively affected by the introduction of new predators. These impacts were relatively consistent across habitats and experimental approaches. Based on our results, we propose a framework of positive and negative links between invasive species at four trophic positions and the five different components of recipient communities. This framework incorporates both direct biotic interactions (predation, competition, grazing) and indirect changes to the water physicochemical conditions mediated by invaders (habitat

  1. Aquatic pathways model to predict the fate of phenolic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Aaberg, R.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Mellinger, P.J.

    1983-04-01

    Organic materials released from energy-related activities could affect human health and the environment. To better assess possible impacts, we developed a model to predict the fate of spills or discharges of pollutants into flowing or static bodies of fresh water. A computer code, Aquatic Pathways Model (APM), was written to implement the model. The computer programs use compartmental analysis to simulate aquatic ecosystems. The APM estimates the concentrations of chemicals in fish tissue, water and sediment, and is therefore useful for assessing exposure to humans through aquatic pathways. The APM will consider any aquatic pathway for which the user has transport data. Additionally, APM will estimate transport rates from physical and chemical properties of chemicals between several key compartments. The major pathways considered are biodegradation, fish and sediment uptake, photolysis, and evaporation. The model has been implemented with parameters for distribution of phenols, an important class of compounds found in the water-soluble fractions of coal liquids. Current modeling efforts show that, in comparison with many pesticides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), the lighter phenolics (the cresols) are not persistent in the environment. The properties of heavier molecular weight phenolics (indanols, naphthols) are not well enough understood at this time to make similar judgements. For the twelve phenolics studied, biodegradation appears to be the major pathway for elimination from aquatic environments. A pond system simulation (using APM) of a spill of solvent refined coal (SRC-II) materials indicates that phenol, cresols, and other single cyclic phenolics are degraded to 16 to 25 percent of their original concentrations within 30 hours. Adsorption of these compounds into sediments and accumulation by fish was minor.

  2. Aquatic versus terrestrial attachment: Water makes a difference.

    PubMed

    Ditsche, Petra; Summers, Adam P

    2014-01-01

    Animal attachment to a substrate is very different in terrestrial and aquatic environments. We discuss variations in both the forces acting to detach animals and forces of attachment. While in a terrestrial environment gravity is commonly understood as the most important detachment force, under submerged conditions gravity is nearly balanced out by buoyancy and therefore matters little. In contrast, flow forces such as drag and lift are of higher importance in an aquatic environment. Depending on the flow conditions, flow forces can reach much higher values than gravity and vary in magnitude and direction. For many of the attachment mechanisms (adhesion including glue, friction, suction and mechanical principles such as hook, lock, clamp and spacer) significant differences have to be considered under water. For example, the main principles of dry adhesion, van der Waals forces and chemical bonding, which make a gecko stick to the ceiling, are weak under submerged conditions. Capillary forces are very important for wet adhesion, e.g., in terrestrial beetles or flies, but usually do not occur under water. Viscous forces are likely an important contributor to adhesion under water in some mobile animals such as torrent frogs and mayflies, but there are still many open questions to be answered. Glue is the dominant attachment mechanism of sessile aquatic animals and the aquatic realm presents many challenges to this mode of attachment. Viscous forces and the lack of surface tension under submerged conditions also affect frictional interactions in the aquatic environment. Moreover, the limitation of suction to the pressure difference at vacuum conditions can be ameliorated under water, due to the increasing pressure with water depth.

  3. Herbivore regulation of plant abundance in aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Wood, Kevin A; O'Hare, Matthew T; McDonald, Claire; Searle, Kate R; Daunt, Francis; Stillman, Richard A

    2017-05-01

    Herbivory is a fundamental process that controls primary producer abundance and regulates energy and nutrient flows to higher trophic levels. Despite the recent proliferation of small-scale studies on herbivore effects on aquatic plants, there remains limited understanding of the factors that control consumer regulation of vascular plants in aquatic ecosystems. Our current knowledge of the regulation of primary producers has hindered efforts to understand the structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems, and to manage such ecosystems effectively. We conducted a global meta-analysis of the outcomes of plant-herbivore interactions using a data set comprised of 326 values from 163 studies, in order to test two mechanistic hypotheses: first, that greater negative changes in plant abundance would be associated with higher herbivore biomass densities; second, that the magnitude of changes in plant abundance would vary with herbivore taxonomic identity. We found evidence that plant abundance declined with increased herbivore density, with plants eliminated at high densities. Significant between-taxa differences in impact were detected, with insects associated with smaller reductions in plant abundance than all other taxa. Similarly, birds caused smaller reductions in plant abundance than echinoderms, fish, or molluscs. Furthermore, larger reductions in plant abundance were detected for fish relative to crustaceans. We found a positive relationship between herbivore species richness and change in plant abundance, with the strongest reductions in plant abundance reported for low herbivore species richness, suggesting that greater herbivore diversity may protect against large reductions in plant abundance. Finally, we found that herbivore-plant nativeness was a key factor affecting the magnitude of herbivore impacts on plant abundance across a wide range of species assemblages. Assemblages comprised of invasive herbivores and native plant assemblages were associated with

  4. Aquatic ecotoxicity effect of engineered aminoclay nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Choi, Moon-Hee; Hwang, Yuhoon; Lee, Hyun Uk; Kim, Bohwa; Lee, Go-Woon; Oh, You-Kwan; Andersen, Henrik R; Lee, Young-Chul; Huh, Yun Suk

    2014-04-01

    In the present study the short term aquatic ecotoxicity of water-solubilized aminoclay nanoparticles (ANPs) of ~51±31 nm average hydrodynamic diameter was characterized. An ecotoxicological evaluation was carried out utilizing standard test organisms of different phyla and trophic levels namely the eukaryotic microalga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the crustacean Daphnia magna and the bioluminescent marine bacteria Vibrio fisheri. The effective inhibitory concentration (EC50) with 95% confidence limits for the microalga was 1.29 mg/L (0.72-1.82) for the average growth rate and 0.26 mg/L (0.23-0.31) for the cell yield. The entrapping of algal cells in aggregates of ANP may play a major role in the growth inhibition of algae P. subcapitata. No inhibition was observed for V. fisheri up to 25,000 mg/L (no observed effect concentration; NOEC). For D. magna no immobilization was observed in a limit test with 100 mg/L in 24 h while in 48 h a single animal was immobilized (5% inhibition). Correspondingly, the NOEC of ANP in 24 h was 100 mg/L and the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) for 48 h was 100 mg/L. Therefore it can be considered to use ANP as an algal-inhibition agent at concentrations <100 mg/L without affecting or only mildly affecting other organisms including zooplanktons, but further studies on the environmental fate and chronic toxicity of ANP is needed to confirm this.

  5. Aquatic eutrophication promotes pathogenic infection in amphibians.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Pieter T J; Chase, Jonathan M; Dosch, Katherine L; Hartson, Richard B; Gross, Jackson A; Larson, Don J; Sutherland, Daniel R; Carpenter, Stephen R

    2007-10-02

    The widespread emergence of human and wildlife diseases has challenged ecologists to understand how large-scale agents of environmental change affect host-pathogen interactions. Accelerated eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems owing to nitrogen and phosphorus enrichment is a pervasive form of environmental change that has been implicated in the emergence of diseases through direct and indirect pathways. We provide experimental evidence linking eutrophication and disease in a multihost parasite system. The trematode parasite Ribeiroia ondatrae sequentially infects birds, snails, and amphibian larvae, frequently causing severe limb deformities and mortality. Eutrophication has been implicated in the emergence of this parasite, but definitive evidence, as well as a mechanistic understanding, have been lacking until now. We show that the effects of eutrophication cascade through the parasite life cycle to promote algal production, the density of snail hosts, and, ultimately, the intensity of infection in amphibians. Infection also negatively affected the survival of developing amphibians. Mechanistically, eutrophication promoted amphibian disease through two distinctive pathways: by increasing the density of infected snail hosts and by enhancing per-snail production of infectious parasites. Given forecasted increases in global eutrophication, amphibian extinctions, and similarities between Ribeiroia and important human and wildlife pathogens, our results have broad epidemiological and ecological significance.

  6. Influence of salinity and prey presence on the survival of aquatic macroinvertebrates of a freshwater marsh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kang, Sung-Ryong; King, Sammy L.

    2012-01-01

    Salinization of coastal freshwater environments is a global issue. Increased salinity from sea level rise, storm surges, or other mechanisms is common in coastal freshwater marshes of Louisiana, USA. The effects of salinity increases on aquatic macroinvertebrates in these systems have received little attention, despite the importance of aquatic macroinvertebrates for nutrient cycling, biodiversity, and as a food source for vertebrate species. We used microcosm experiments to evaluate the effects of salinity, duration of exposure, and prey availability on the relative survival of dominant aquatic macroinvertebrates (i.e., Procambarus clarkii Girard, Cambarellus puer Hobbs, Libellulidae, Dytiscidae cybister) in a freshwater marsh of southwestern Louisiana. We hypothesized that increased salinity, absence of prey, and increased duration of exposure would decrease survival of aquatic macroinvertebrates and that crustaceans would have higher survival than aquatic insect taxon. Our first hypothesis was only partially supported as only salinity increases combined with prolonged exposure duration affected aquatic macroinvertebrate survival. Furthermore, crustaceans had higher survival than aquatic insects. Salinity stress may cause mortality when acting together with other stressful conditions.

  7. Passive electroreception in aquatic mammals.

    PubMed

    Czech-Damal, Nicole U; Dehnhardt, Guido; Manger, Paul; Hanke, Wolf

    2013-06-01

    Passive electroreception is a sensory modality in many aquatic vertebrates, predominantly fishes. Using passive electroreception, the animal can detect and analyze electric fields in its environment. Most electric fields in the environment are of biogenic origin, often produced by prey items. These electric fields can be relatively strong and can be a highly valuable source of information for a predator, as underlined by the fact that electroreception has evolved multiple times independently. The only mammals that possess electroreception are the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and the echidnas (Tachyglossidae) from the monotreme order, and, recently discovered, the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) from the cetacean order. Here we review the morphology, function and origin of the electroreceptors in the two aquatic species, the platypus and the Guiana dolphin. The morphology shows certain similarities, also similar to ampullary electroreceptors in fishes, that provide cues for the search for electroreceptors in more vertebrate and invertebrate species. The function of these organs appears to be very similar. Both species search for prey animals in low-visibility conditions or while digging in the substrate, and sensory thresholds are within one order of magnitude. The electroreceptors in both species are innervated by the trigeminal nerve. The origin of the accessory structures, however, is completely different; electroreceptors in the platypus have developed from skin glands, in the Guiana dolphin, from the vibrissal system.

  8. Adverse responses to local anaesthetics.

    PubMed

    Fisher, M M; Graham, R

    1984-11-01

    Progressive challenge was used to investigate twenty-seven patients with a history of an adverse response to local anaesthesia. True allergy was detected in only one patient. The method does not exclude reactions to additives and preservatives in local anaesthetics. If preservative-free local anaesthetics are used for subsequent exposure in patients with no response to progressive challenge, subsequent exposure is safe. The possibility that some of these patients may be reacting to preservatives in the solutions cannot be excluded by such testing. Where possible preservative-free local anaesthetic preparations should be used for subsequent anaesthesia.

  9. Adverse Outcomes in Group Psychotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Roback, Howard B.

    2000-01-01

    Group forms of therapy have been growing at a rapid rate, in part because of their documented effectiveness and economic considerations such as managed care. It is therefore becoming increasingly important to assess the psychological risks of these interventions. The author provides an overview of the published literature and conference presentations on negative effects in adult outpatient groups. Although much of the literature on adverse outcomes in group therapy focuses on single risk factors (e.g., negative leader, group process, or patient characteristics), the author argues that an interactional model should be encouraged. Means of reducing casualties are also discussed, as well as methodological issues and research directions. PMID:10896735

  10. Development of aquatic animal experiment facility, Aquatic Habitat (AQH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, S.; Kono, Y.; Sakimura, T.; Nishikawa, W.; Fujimoto, N.; Murakami, K.; Nakamura, T.

    We have been performing technical studies to develop aquatic animal experiment facility, Aquatic Habitat (AQH), for both of short-term experiments in the Space Shuttle middeck and long-term experiments in the Space Station including the Centrifuge Accommodation Module (CAM). The AQH will have the capabilities to accommodate three-generations of small freshwater fish (medaka and zebrafish) and egg through metamorphosis of amphibian (African clawed frog). For these purposes, the AQH will have the following brand-new capabilities that the previous facilities have never had; 90days experiment duration, automatic feeding according to specimen types and their developmental stages, separation of generations for fish, specimen sample collection in various developmental stages, air/water interface control for amphibian, continuous monitoring of specimen behavior even in dark condition, and so on. We have already performed preliminary breeding tests for medaka and zebrafish with a breeding system prototype. Their mating behavior was performed successfully in the small closed chamber and the hatched larvae grew and started spawning on the 45-47th day after hatching. These results demonstrated that three generational breeding of medaka and zebrafish within 90days would be possible based on this breeding system prototype. Also, we have developed almost of the above new mechanisms, that is, an automatic feeding system, an egg separation mechanism for fish, an air stabilizer to control air/water interface, and a continuous specimen monitoring system through light/dark cycle. Based on these results, we have manufactured a BBM of AQH water circulation system and performed biological compatibility tests as a next step. For African clawed frog breeding, some problems have been revealed through the preliminary tests with the breeding system prototype. Currently, we are performing the investigations to resolve the problems and preparing to proceed to the next step.

  11. SUBMERSED AQUATIC VEGETATION MAPPING USING HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) beds are an important resources for aquatic life and
    wildfowl in the Potomac River and Chesapeake Bay region. SAV habitat is threatened in part by nitrogen loadings from human activities. Monitoring and assessing this resource using field bas...

  12. Aquatic Therapy. Making Waves in Therapeutic Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broach, Ellen; Dattilo, John

    1996-01-01

    Therapeutic recreation professionals often use aquatic therapy to improve physiological and psychological functioning, and they have reported improvements for people with many different types of disabilities. The paper discusses aquatic therapy methods, water as a therapeutic environment, professional training and development, and lifestyle…

  13. GULF OF MEXICO AQUATIC MORTALITY NETWORK (GMNET)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five U.S. states share the northern coast of the Gulf, and each has a program to monitor mortalities of aquatic organisms (fish, shellfish, birds). However, each state has different standards, procedures, and documentation of mortality events. The Gulf of Mexico Aquatic Mortality...

  14. Estimating Aquatic Insect Populations. Introduction to Sampling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chihuahuan Desert Research Inst., Alpine, TX.

    This booklet introduces high school and junior high school students to the major groups of aquatic insects and to population sampling techniques. Chapter 1 consists of a short field guide which can be used to identify five separate orders of aquatic insects: odonata (dragonflies and damselflies); ephemeroptera (mayflies); diptera (true flies);…

  15. Control of Fish and Aquatic Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesser, R. B.; And Others

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University is a handbook for the water body manager. The bulk of the contents deals with aquatic plant control. The different types of aquatic plants, their reproduction and growth, and their role in the ecology of the water body are introduced in this main section. Also, the…

  16. Project WILD: Aquatic Education Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memphis State Univ., TN. Tennessee Administrative Software Clearinghouse.

    Project WILD is an interdisciplinary, supplementary environmental and conservation education program which emphasizes wildlife. This document is one guide developed by Project WILD with the specific purpose of focusing on aquatic wildlife, or any wild animals that depend upon aquatic environments for survival. The book contains instructional…

  17. Aquatic Therapy: A Viable Therapeutic Recreation Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broach, Ellen; Dattilo, John

    1996-01-01

    Reviews literature on the effects of aquatic therapy (swimming and exercise) to improve function. Research shows that aquatic therapy has numerous psychological and physical benefits, and it supports the belief that participation can provide a realistic solution to maintaining physical fitness and rehabilitation goals while engaging in enjoyable…

  18. Chapter 6: Selenium Toxicity to Aquatic Organisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter addresses the characteristics and nature of organic selenium (Se) toxicity to aquatic organisms, based on the most current state of scientific knowledge. As such, the information contained in this chapter relates to the 'toxicity assessment' phase of aquatic ecologi...

  19. Role of selenium toxicity and oxidative stress in aquatic birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    Adverse effects of selenium (Se) in wild aquatic birds have been documented as a consequence of pollution of the aquatic environment by subsurface agricultural drainwater and other sources. These effects include mortality, impaired reproduction with teratogenesis, reduced growth, histopathological lesions and alterations in hepatic glutathione metabolism. A review is provided, relating adverse biological effects of Se in aquatic birds to altered glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress. Laboratory studies, mainly with an organic form of Se, selenomethionine, have revealed oxidative stress in different stages of the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) life cycle. As dietary and tissue concentrations of Se increase, increases in plasma and hepatic GSH peroxidase activities occur, followed by dose-dependent increases in the ratio of hepatic oxidized to reduced glutathione (GSSG:GSH) and ultimately hepatic lipid peroxidation measured as an increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). One or more of these oxidative effects were associated with teratogenesis (4.6 ppm wet weight Se in eggs), reduced growth in ducklings (15 ppm Se in liver), diminished immune function (5 ppm Se in liver) and histopathological lesions (29 ppm Se in liver) in adults. Manifestations of Serelated effects on glutathione metabolism were also apparent in field studies in seven species of aquatic birds. Reduced growth and possibly immune function but increased liver:body weight and hepatic GSSG:GSH ratios were apparent in American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) hatchlings from eggs containing 9 ppm Se. In blacknecked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), which contained somewhat lower Se concentrations, a decrease in hepatic GSH was apparent with few other effects. In adult American coots (Fulica americana), signs of Se toxicosis included emaciation, abnormal feather loss and histopathological lesions. Mean liver concentrations of 28 ppm Se (ww) in the coots were associated with elevated

  20. The aquatic ecotoxicology of triazine herbicides

    SciTech Connect

    Giddings, J.M.

    1996-10-01

    Triazine herbicides control plant growth by inhibiting photophosphorylation, but typically do not cause permanent cell damage or death. Effects on aquatic plants are reversible; photosynthesis resumes when the herbicide disappears from the water, and sometimes even while it is still present. Effects on aquatic plant communities are further ameliorated by species replacements, so the communities as a whole are less sensitive than their most sensitive species. Atrazine, a representative triazine herbicide, is toxic to aquatic plants (algae and macrophytes) at concentrations in the range of 20 to 200 {mu}g/L or less. Aquatic invertebrates and fish are much less sensitive than plants, with acute toxicity occurring at 1000 {mu}g/L or higher. Ecologically significant effects in aquatic ecosystems are likely only if plant communities are severely damaged by prolonged exposure to high atrazine concentrations.

  1. The National Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pawlitz, Rachel J.; David, Kayla D.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Nonindigenous Aquatic Species (NAS) Program monitors, analyzes, and records sightings of non-native (introduced) aquatic species throughout the United States. The program is based at the USGS Southeast Ecological Science Center in Gainesville, Florida. The initiative to maintain scientific information on nationwide occurrences of non-native aquatic species began with the Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force, a group created by Congress in 1990 to address the need for this type of information by natural resource managers. Since then, the NAS program has maintained the database as a clearinghouse of information for confirmed sightings of non-native aquatic species throughout the Nation. The program also produces email alerts, maps, summary graphs, publications, and other information products to support natural resource managers.

  2. "Adversative Conjunction": The Poetics of Linguistic Opposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallerstein, Nicholas

    1992-01-01

    The general use of adversative conjunction in (primarily) English and U.S. poetry is outlined. The contention is that the adversative is not merely a grammatical convenience but sometimes a highly functional tool of rhetorical strategy. (36 references) (LB)

  3. The international serious adverse events consortium.

    PubMed

    Holden, Arthur L; Contreras, Jorge L; John, Sally; Nelson, Matthew R

    2014-11-01

    The International Serious Adverse Events Consortium is generating novel insights into the genetics and biology of drug-induced serious adverse events, and thereby improving pharmaceutical product development and decision-making.

  4. Cetacean brains: how aquatic are they?

    PubMed

    Marino, Lori

    2007-06-01

    The adaptation of cetaceans to a fully aquatic lifestyle represents one of the most dramatic transformations in mammalian evolutionary history. Two of the most salient features of modern cetaceans are their fully aquatic lifestyle and their large brains. This review article will offer an overview of comparative neuroanatomical research on aquatic mammals, including analyses of odontocete cetacean, sirenian, pinniped, and fossil archaeocete brains. In particular, the question of whether a relationship exists between being fully aquatic and having a large brain is addressed. It has been hypothesized that the large, well-developed cetacean brain is a direct product of adaptation to a fully aquatic lifestyle. The current consensus is that the paleontological evidence on brain size evolution in cetaceans is not consistent with this hypothesis. Cetacean brain enlargement took place millions of years after adaptation to a fully aquatic existence. Neuroanatomical comparisons with sirenians and pinnipeds provide no evidence for the idea that the odontocete's large brain, high encephalization level, and extreme neocortical gyrification is an adaptation to a fully aquatic lifestyle. Although echolocation has been suggested as a reason for the high encephalization level in odontocetes, it should be noted that not all aquatic mammals echolocate and echolocating terrestrial mammals (e.g., bats) are not particularly highly encephalized. Echolocation is not a requirement of a fully aquatic lifestyle and, thus, cannot be considered a sole effect of aquaticism on brain enlargement. These results indicate that the high encephalization level of odontocetes is likely related to their socially complex lifestyle patterns that transcend the influence of an aquatic environment.

  5. Adverse drug reactions in neonates: could we be documenting more?

    PubMed

    Hawcutt, Daniel B; O'Connor, Olya; Turner, Mark A

    2014-11-01

    Neonates are vulnerable to adverse drug reactions but reports of these events are relatively infrequent. Reporting can be increased by adapting a number of standard techniques to the unique features of neonatal care and pathology. However, clinicians and parents will be reluctant to report information about harms in the absence of mechanisms to ensure that reports affect clinical practice. Improved reporting will depend on education and cultural change that are informed by research about pharmacovigilance in neonatal settings. The efficient use of neonatal adverse drug reaction reports will require harmonization of terminology and interoperable databases.

  6. The synthetic progestogen, Levonorgestrel, but not natural progesterone, affects male mate calling behavior of Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Frauke; Kloas, Werner

    2012-05-01

    Worldwide, more than 100 million women use hormonal contraceptives, which act through progestogenic modes of action. These man-made hormones can enter the aquatic environment as they are excreted via feces and urine. Xeno-progestins are able to interfere with the endocrine system of female aquatic vertebrates impairing oogenesis and reproduction. However, data on progestogenic effects on reproductive behavior of male aquatic vertebrates are lacking. To evaluate whether progestins affect the mating behavior of male Xenopus laevis, we exposed male frogs to three environmentally relevant concentrations (10(-7) M, 10(-8) M and 10(-10) M) of the synthetic progestin Levonorgestrel (LNG) and the corresponding natural steroid progesterone (PRG), respectively. LNG at all exposure concentrations increased the proportions of advertisement calling, indicating a sexually aroused state of the males. Furthermore LNG at 10(-7) M decreased the relative proportions of rasping, a call type indicating a sexually unaroused state of the male. PRG, on the other hand, did not affect any of those parameters. Temporal and spectral features of the advertisement call itself were not affected by any of the two exposure treatments. Since LNG exhibits slight androgenic activity, the results suggest that LNG effects on male mate calling behavior of X. laevis are due to its moderate androgenic but not to its progestogenic activities. However, although males' sexual arousal seems to be enhanced by LNG, the adverse effects of LNG on female reproduction presumably outweigh these enhancing effects and LNG exposure nonetheless might result in reduced reproductive success of these animals.

  7. Weight-of-evidence evaluation of an adverse outcome ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ongoing honey bee colony losses are of significant international concern because of the essential role these insects play in pollinating staple food crops. Chemical and non-chemical stressors both have been implicated as possible contributors to colony failure, however, the potential role of commonly-used neonicotinoid insecticides has emerged as particularly concerning. Neonicotinoids act on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) to eliminate target pest insects, however, mounting evidence indicates that these chemicals may adversely affect beneficial pollinators, such as the honey bee, via impacts on learning and memory thereby affecting foraging success. However, the mechanisms linking activation of the nAChR to adverse effects on learning and memory are uncertain. Additionally, clear connections between observed impacts on individual bees and colony level effects are lacking. Therefore, the objective of this work was to develop adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) as a means to evaluate the biological plausibility and empirical evidence supporting (or refuting) the linkage between the nAChR and colony level impacts. Development of these AOPs has led to the identification of research gaps which, for example, may be of high priority in understanding how perturbation of pathways involved in neurotransmission can adversely affect honey bee health, causing colony instability and further failure. From this effort, an AOP network also was developed, laying the f

  8. Toxicity of select beta adrenergic receptor-blocking pharmaceuticals (B-blockers) on aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Huggett, D B; Brooks, B W; Peterson, B; Foran, C M; Schlenk, D

    2002-08-01

    One class of pharmaceutical compounds identified in U.S. and European waters are the B-adrenergic receptor blocking compounds (B-blockers). However, little information is available on the potential aquatic toxicity of these compounds. Therefore, Hyalella azteca, Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Oryias latipes (Japanese medaka) were exposed to metoprolol, nadolol, and propranolol to determine potential toxicity. Average 48-h LC(50) for propranolol to H. azteca was 29.8 mg/L. The no-observed-effects concentration (NOEC) and lowest-observed-effects concentration (LOEC) for propranolol affecting reproduction of H. azteca were 0.001 and 0.1 mg/L, respectively. The average propranolol and metoprolol 48-h LC(50)s for D. magna were 1.6 and 63.9 mg/L, respectively. C. dubia 48-h LC(50)s were 0.85 and 8.8 mg/L for propranolol and metoprolol, respectively. The NOEC and LOEC of propranolol affecting reproduction in C. dubia were 0.125 and 0.25 mg/L, respectively. In O. latipes, the propranolol 48-h LC(50) was 24.3 mg/L. Medaka growth was decreased at 0.5 mg/L propranolol. A 2-week medaka reproductive study indicated significant changes in plasma steroid levels; however, no changes in the average number of eggs produced or number of viable eggs which hatched was observed. In a 4-week follow-up propranolol exposure, the total number of eggs produced by medaka and the number of viable eggs that hatched were decreased at concentrations as low as 0.5 microg/L. Based on this study and the expected aqueous environmental exposure levels, adverse effects of propranolol to invertebrate populations is unlikely; however, further reproductive studies are need to elucidate the risk to teleosts.

  9. Identifying and designing chemicals with minimal acute aquatic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kostal, Jakub; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina; Anastas, Paul T; Zimmerman, Julie Beth

    2015-05-19

    Industrial ecology has revolutionized our understanding of material stocks and flows in our economy and society. For this important discipline to have even deeper impact, we must understand the inherent nature of these materials in terms of human health and the environment. This paper focuses on methods to design synthetic chemicals to reduce their intrinsic ability to cause adverse consequence to the biosphere. Advances in the fields of computational chemistry and molecular toxicology in recent decades allow the development of predictive models that inform the design of molecules with reduced potential to be toxic to humans or the environment. The approach presented herein builds on the important work in quantitative structure-activity relationships by linking toxicological and chemical mechanistic insights to the identification of critical physical-chemical properties needed to be modified. This in silico approach yields design guidelines using boundary values for physiochemical properties. Acute aquatic toxicity serves as a model endpoint in this study. Defining value ranges for properties related to bioavailability and reactivity eliminates 99% of the chemicals in the highest concern for acute aquatic toxicity category. This approach and its future implementations are expected to yield very powerful tools for life cycle assessment practitioners and molecular designers that allow rapid assessment of multiple environmental and human health endpoints and inform modifications to minimize hazard.

  10. Arsenic and mercury bioaccumulation in the aquatic plant, Vallisneria neotropicalis.

    PubMed

    Lafabrie, C; Major, K M; Major, C S; Cebrián, J

    2011-03-01

    Arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) are among the most toxic metals/metalloids. The overall goal of this study was to investigate the bioaccumulation of these trace elements in Vallisneria neotropicalis, a key trophic species in aquatic environments. For this purpose, As and Hg concentrations were determined in sediments and natural populations of V. neotropicalis in sub-estuaries of Mobile Bay (Alabama, USA), differing with respect to past and present anthropogenic impact. Analyses indicate that the Fish River is the most contaminated among the sub-estuaries investigated; levels of As found in Fish River sediments fall within a range that could potentially cause adverse effects in biota. Sediment As concentrations were only moderately correlated with those in V. neotropicalis; no correlation was found between sediment and plant Hg levels. However, several parameters could have masked such potential relationships (e.g., differences in sediment characteristics and "biological dilution" phenomena). Results presented herein highlight the numerous parameters that can influence metal/metalloids accumulation in aquatic plants as well as species-specific responses to trace element contamination. Finally, this study underscores the need for further investigation into contaminant bioaccumulation in ecologically and economically important coastal environments.

  11. An updated weight of evidence approach to the aquatic hazard assessment of Bisphenol A and the derivation a new predicted no effect concentration (Pnec) using a non-parametric methodology.

    PubMed

    Wright-Walters, Maxine; Volz, Conrad; Talbott, Evelyn; Davis, Devra

    2011-01-15

    An aquatic hazard assessment establishes a derived predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) below which it is assumed that aquatic organisms will not suffer adverse effects from exposure to a chemical. An aquatic hazard assessment of the endocrine disruptor Bisphenol A [BPA; 2, 2-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) propane] was conducted using a weight of evidence approach, using the ecotoxicological endpoints of survival, growth and development and reproduction. New evidence has emerged that suggests that the aquatic system may not be sufficiently protected from adverse effects of BPA exposure at the current PNEC value of 100 μg/L. It is with this background that; 1) An aquatic hazard assessment for BPA using a weight of evidence approach, was conducted, 2) A PNEC value was derived using a non parametric hazardous concentration for 5% of the specie (HC(5)) approach and, 3) The derived BPA hazard assessment values were compared to aquatic environmental concentrations for BPA to determine, sufficient protectiveness from BPA exposure for aquatic species. A total of 61 studies yielded 94 no observed effect concentration (NOEC) and a toxicity dataset, which suggests that the aquatic effects of mortality, growth and development and reproduction are most likely to occur between the concentrations of 0.0483 μg/L and 2280 μg/L. This finding is within the range for aquatic adverse estrogenic effects reported in the literature. A PNEC of 0.06 μg/L was calculated. The 95% confidence interval was found to be (0.02, 3.40) μg/L. Thus, using the weight of evidence approach based on repeated measurements of these endpoints, the results indicate that currently observed BPA concentrations in surface waters exceed this newly derived PNEC value of 0.06 μg/L. This indicates that some aquatic receptors may be at risk for adverse effects on survival, growth and development and reproduction from BPA exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  12. Adverse reactions to drug additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1984-10-01

    There is a long list of additives used by the pharmaceutical industry. Most of the agents used have not been implicated in hypersensitivity reactions. Among those that have, only reactions to parabens and sulfites have been well established. Parabens have been shown to be responsible for rare immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions that occur after the use of local anesthetics. Sulfites, which are present in many drugs, including agents commonly used to treat asthma, have been shown to provoke severe asthmatic attacks in sensitive individuals. Recent studies indicate that additives do not play a significant role in "hyperactivity." The role of additives in urticaria is not well established and therefore the incidence of adverse reactions in this patient population is simply not known. In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, reactions to tartrazine or additives other than sulfites, if they occur at all, are indeed quite rare for the asthmatic population, even for the aspirin-sensitive subpopulation.

  13. A microcosm study to support aquatic risk assessment of nickel: Community-level effects and comparison with bioavailability-normalized species sensitivity distributions.

    PubMed

    Hommen, Udo; Knopf, Burkhard; Rüdel, Heinz; Schäfers, Christoph; De Schamphelaere, Karel; Schlekat, Chris; Garman, Emily Rogevich

    2016-05-01

    The aquatic risk assessment for nickel (Ni) in the European Union is based on chronic species sensitivity distributions and the use of bioavailability models. To test whether a bioavailability-based safe threshold of Ni (the hazardous concentration for 5% of species [HC5]) is protective for aquatic communities, microcosms were exposed to 5 stable Ni treatments (6-96 μg/L) and a control for 4 mo to assess bioaccumulation and effects on phytoplankton, periphyton, zooplankton, and snails. Concentrations of Ni in the periphyton, macrophytes, and snails measured at the end of the exposure period increased in a dose-dependent manner but did not indicate biomagnification. Abundance of phytoplankton and snails decreased in 48 μg Ni/L and 96 μg Ni/L treatments, which may have indirectly affected the abundance of zooplankton and periphyton. Exposure up to 24 μg Ni/L had no adverse effects on algae and zooplankton, whereas the rate of population decline of the snails at 24 μg Ni/L was significantly higher than in the controls. Therefore, the study-specific overall no-observed-adverse-effect concentration (NOAEC) is 12 μg Ni/L. This NOAEC is approximately twice the HC5 derived from a chronic species sensitivity distribution considering the specific water chemistry of the microcosm by means of bioavailability models. Thus, the present study provides support to the protectiveness of the bioavailability-normalized HC5 for freshwater communities.

  14. Do Holocaust survivors show increased vulnerability or resilience to post-Holocaust cumulative adversity?

    PubMed

    Shrira, Amit; Palgi, Yuval; Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Shmotkin, Dov

    2010-06-01

    Prior trauma can hinder coping with additional adversity or inoculate against the effect of recurrent adversity. The present study further addressed this issue by examining whether a subsample of Holocaust survivors and comparison groups, drawn from the Israeli component of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe, were differentially affected by post-Holocaust cumulative adversity. Post-Holocaust cumulative adversity had a stronger effect on the lifetime depression of Holocaust survivors than on that of comparisons. However, comparisons were more negatively affected by post-Holocaust cumulative adversity when examining markers of physical and cognitive functioning. Our findings suggest that previous trauma can both sensitize and immunize, as Holocaust survivors show general resilience intertwined with specific vulnerability when confronted with additional cumulative adversity.

  15. Establishing aquatic restoration priorities using a watershed approach.

    PubMed

    Bohn, B A; Kershner, J L

    2002-04-01

    Since the passage of the Clean Water Act in 1972, the United States has made great strides to reduce the threats to its rivers, lakes, and wetlands from pollution. However, despite our obvious successes, nearly half of the nation's surface water resources remain incapable of supporting basic aquatic values or maintaining water quality adequate for recreational swimming. The Clean Water Act established a significant federal presence in water quality regulation by controlling point and non-point sources of pollution. Point-sources of pollution were the major emphasis of the Act, but Section 208 specifically addressed non-point sources of pollution and designated silviculture and livestock grazing as sources of non-point pollution. Non-point source pollutants include runoff from agriculture, municipalities, timber harvesting, mining, and livestock grazing. Non-point source pollution now accounts for more than half of the United States water quality impairments. To successfully improve water quality, restoration practitioners must start with an understanding of what ecosystem processes are operating in the watershed and how they have been affected by outside variables. A watershed-based analysis template developed in the Pacific Northwest can be a valuable aid in developing that level of understanding. The watershed analysis technique identifies four ecosystem scales useful to identify stream restoration priorities: region, basin, watershed, and site. The watershed analysis technique is based on a set of technically rigorous and defensible procedures designed to provide information on what processes are active at the watershed scale, how those processes are distributed in time and space. They help describe what the current upland and riparian conditions of the watershed are and how these conditions in turn influence aquatic habitat and other beneficial uses. The analysis is organized as a set of six steps that direct an interdisciplinary team of specialists to examine

  16. Early life adversity: Lasting consequences for emotional learning.

    PubMed

    Krugers, Harm J; Arp, J Marit; Xiong, Hui; Kanatsou, Sofia; Lesuis, Sylvie L; Korosi, Aniko; Joels, Marian; Lucassen, Paul J

    2017-02-01

    The early postnatal period is a highly sensitive time period for the developing brain, both in humans and rodents. During this time window, exposure to adverse experiences can lastingly impact cognitive and emotional development. In this review, we briefly discuss human and rodent studies investigating how exposure to adverse early life conditions - mainly related to quality of parental care - affects brain activity, brain structure, cognition and emotional responses later in life. We discuss the evidence that early life adversity hampers later hippocampal and prefrontal cortex functions, while increasing amygdala activity, and the sensitivity to stressors and emotional behavior later in life. Exposure to early life stress may thus on the one hand promote behavioral adaptation to potentially threatening conditions later in life -at the cost of contextual memory formation in less threatening situations- but may on the other hand also increase the sensitivity to develop stress-related and anxiety disorders in vulnerable individuals.

  17. Adverse events in healthcare: learning from mistakes.

    PubMed

    Rafter, N; Hickey, A; Condell, S; Conroy, R; O'Connor, P; Vaughan, D; Williams, D

    2015-04-01

    Large national reviews of patient charts estimate that approximately 10% of hospital admissions are associated with an adverse event (defined as an injury resulting in prolonged hospitalization, disability or death, caused by healthcare management). Apart from having a significant impact on patient morbidity and mortality, adverse events also result in increased healthcare costs due to longer hospital stays. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of adverse events are preventable. Through identifying the nature and rate of adverse events, initiatives to improve care can be developed. A variety of methods exist to gather adverse event data both retrospectively and prospectively but these do not necessarily capture the same events and there is variability in the definition of an adverse event. For example, hospital incident reporting collects only a very small fraction of the adverse events found in retrospective chart reviews. Until there are systematic methods to identify adverse events, progress in patient safety cannot be reliably measured. This review aims to discuss the need for a safety culture that can learn from adverse events, describe ways to measure adverse events, and comment on why current adverse event monitoring is unable to demonstrate trends in patient safety.

  18. Aquatic invasive species: Lessons from cancer research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Gross, Jackson A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are disrupting ecosystems with increasing frequency. Successful control of these invasions has been rare: Biologists and managers have few tools for fighting aquatic invaders. In contrast, the medical community has long worked to develop tools for preventing and fighting cancer. Its successes are marked by a coordinated research approach with multiple steps: prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment options and rehabilitation. The authors discuss how these steps can be applied to aquatic invasive species, such as the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), in the Northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States, to expedite tool development and implementation along with achievement of biodiversity conservation goals.

  19. Protocol for aquatic hazard assessment of selenium

    SciTech Connect

    Lemly, A.D.

    1995-05-24

    A procedure is described for conducting an aquatic hazard assessment of selenium. Hazard is characterized in terms of the potential for food-chain bioaccumulation and reproductive impairment in fish and aquatic birds, which are the most sensitive biological responses for estimating ecosystem-level impacts of selenium contamination. Five degrees of hazard are possible depemding on the expected environmental concentrations of selenium, exposure of fish and aquatic birds to toxic concentrations, and resultant potential for reproductive impairment. An example is given to illustrate how the protocol is applied to selenium data from a typical contaminant monitoring program.

  20. Aquatic hazard assessment of a commercial sample of naphthenic acids.

    PubMed

    Swigert, James P; Lee, Carol; Wong, Diana C L; White, Russell; Scarlett, Alan G; West, Charles E; Rowland, Steven J

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents chemical composition and aquatic toxicity characteristics of a commercial sample of naphthenic acids (NAs). Naphthenic acids are derived from the refining of petroleum middle distillates and can contribute to refinery effluent toxicity. NAs are also present in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), but differences in the NAs compositions from these sources precludes using a common aquatic toxicity dataset to represent the aquatic hazards of NAs from both origins. Our chemical characterization of a commercial sample of NAs showed it to contain in order of abundance, 1-ring>2-ring>acyclic>3-ring acids (∼84%). Also present were monoaromatic acids (7%) and non-acids (9%, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and sulfur heterocyclic compounds). While the acyclic acids were only the third most abundant group, the five most abundant individual compounds were identified as C(10-14) n-acids (n-decanoic acid to n-tetradecanoic acid). Aquatic toxicity testing of fish (Pimephales promelas), invertebrate (Daphnia magna), algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), and bacteria (Vibrio fischeri) showed P. promelas to be the most sensitive species with 96-h LL50=9.0 mg L(-1) (LC50=5.6 mg L(-1)). Acute EL50 values for the other species ranged 24-46 mg L(-1) (EC50 values ranged 20-30 mg L(-1)). Biomimetic extraction via solid-phase-microextraction (BE-SPME) suggested a nonpolar narcosis mode of toxic action for D. magna, P. subcapitata, and V. fischeri. The BE analysis under-predicted fish toxicity, which indicates that a specific mode of action, besides narcosis, may be a factor for fishes.

  1. Biomarkers in aquatic plants: selection and utility.

    PubMed

    Brain, Richard A; Cedergreen, Nina

    2009-01-01

    This review emphasizes the predictive ability, sensitivity and specificity of aquatic plant biomarkers as biomonitoring agents of exposure and effect. Biomarkers of exposure are those that provide functional measures of exposure that are characterized at a sub-organism level. Biomarkers of effect require causal linkages between the biomarker and effects, measured at higher levels of biological organization. With the exception of pathway specific metabolites, the biomarkers assessed in this review show variable sensitivity and predictive ability that is often confounded by variations in growth conditions, rendering them unsuitable as stand alone indicators of environmental stress. The use of gene expression for detecting pollution has been, and remains immature; this immaturity derives from inadequate knowledge on predictive ability, sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, the ability to the detect mode of action of unknown toxicants using gene expression is not as clear-cut as initially hypothesized. The principal patterns in gene expression is not as clear-cut as initially hypothesized. The principal patterns in gene expression are generally derived from stress induced genes, rather than on ones that respond to substances with known modes of action (Baerson et al. 2005). Future developments in multivariate statistics and chemometric methods that enhance pattern analyses in ways that could produce a "fingerprint", may improve methods for discovering modes of action of unknown toxicants. Pathway specific metabolites are unambiguous, sensitive, correlate well to growth effects, and are relatively unaffected by growth conditions. These traits make them excellent biomarkers under both field and laboratory conditions. Changes in metabolites precede visible growth effects; therefore, measuring changes in metabolite concentrations (Harring et al. 1998; Shaner et al. 2005). The metabolic phase I enzymes (primarily associated with P-450 activity) are non-specific biomarkers

  2. The influence of the aquatic environment on the control of postural sway.

    PubMed

    Marinho-Buzelli, Andresa R; Rouhani, Hossein; Masani, Kei; Verrier, Mary C; Popovic, Milos R

    2017-01-01

    Balance training in the aquatic environment is often used in rehabilitation practice to improve static and dynamic balance. Although aquatic therapy is widely used in clinical practice, we still lack evidence on how immersion in water actually impacts postural control. We examined how postural sway measured using centre of pressure and trunk acceleration parameters are influenced by the aquatic environment along with the effects of visual information. Our results suggest that the aquatic environment increases postural instability, measured by the centre of pressure parameters in the time-domain. The mean velocity and area were more significantly affected when individuals stood with eyes closed in the aquatic environment. In addition, a more forward posture was assumed in water with eyes closed in comparison to standing on land. In water, the low frequencies of sway were more dominant compared to standing on dry land. Trunk acceleration differed in water and dry land only for the larger upper trunk acceleration in mediolateral direction during standing in water. This finding shows that the study participants potentially resorted to using their upper trunk to compensate for postural instability in mediolateral direction. Only the lower trunk seemed to change acceleration pattern in anteroposterior and mediolateral directions when the eyes were closed, and it did so depending on the environment conditions. The increased postural instability and the change in postural control strategies that the aquatic environment offers may be a beneficial stimulus for improving balance control.

  3. Low concentrations of metal mixture exposures have adverse effects on selected biomarkers of Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Yologlu, Ertan; Ozmen, Murat

    2015-11-01

    Polluted ecosystems may contain mixtures of metals, such that the combinations of metals, even in low concentrations, may cause adverse effects. In the present study, we focused on toxic effects of mixtures of selected metals, the LC50 values, and also their safety limit in aquatic systems imposed by the European legislation using a model organism. Xenopus laevis tadpoles were used as test organisms. They were exposed to metals or their combinations due to 96-h LC50 values. Glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase (CaE), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) levels were evaluated. Metallothionein concentrations were also determined. The LC50s for Cd, Pb, and Cu were calculated as 5.81mg AI/L, 123.05mg AI/L, and 0.85mg AI/L, respectively. Low lethality ratios were observed with unary exposure of each metal in lower concentrations. Double or triple combinations of LC50 and LC50/2 concentrations caused 100% lethality with Cd+Cu and Pb+Cd+Cu mixtures, while the Pb+Cu mixture also caused high lethal ratios. The selected enzyme activities were significantly affected by metals or mixtures, and dose-related effects were determined. The metallothionein levels generally increased as related to concentration in unary metals and mixtures. Acceptable limit values of unary metals and mixtures did not significantly change metallothionein levels. The results suggest that oxidative stress-related mechanisms are involved in the toxicity induced by selected metals with combinations of very low concentrations.

  4. Adverse effects of antihypertensive drugs.

    PubMed

    Husserl, F E; Messerli, F H

    1981-09-01

    Early essential hypertension is asymptomatic and should remain so throughout treatment. In view of the increasing number of available antihypertensive agents, clinicians need to become familiar with the potential side effects of these drugs. By placing more emphasis on non-pharmacological treatment (sodium restriction, weight loss, exercise) and thoroughly evaluating each case in particular, the pharmacological regimen can be optimally tailored to the patient's needs. Potential side effects should be predicted and can often be avoided; if they become clinically significant they should be rapidly recognised and corrected. These side effects can be easily remembered in most instances, as they fall into 3 broad categories: (a) those caused by an exaggerated therapeutic effect; (b) those due to a non-therapeutic pharmacological effect; and (c) those caused by a non-therapeutic, non-pharmacological effect probably representing idiosyncratic reactions. This review focuses mainly on adverse effects of the second and third kind. Each group of drugs in general shares the common side effects of the first two categories, while each individual drug has its own idiosyncratic side effects.

  5. Rethinking the Measurement of Adversity.

    PubMed

    Mersky, Joshua P; Janczewski, Colleen E; Topitzes, James

    2017-02-01

    Research on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) has unified the study of interrelated risks and generated insights into the origins of disorder and disease. Ten indicators of child maltreatment and household dysfunction are widely accepted as ACEs, but further progress requires a more systematic approach to conceptualizing and measuring ACEs. Using data from a diverse, low-income sample of women who received home visiting services in Wisconsin ( N = 1,241), this study assessed the prevalence of and interrelations among 10 conventional ACEs and 7 potential ACEs: family financial problems, food insecurity, homelessness, parental absence, parent/sibling death, bullying, and violent crime. Associations between ACEs and two outcomes, perceived stress and smoking, were examined. The factor structure and test-retest reliability of ACEs was also explored. As expected, prevalence rates were high compared to studies of more representative samples. Except for parent/sibling death, all ACEs were intercorrelated and associated at the bivariate level with perceived stress and smoking. Exploratory factor analysis confirmed that conventional ACEs loaded on two factors, child maltreatment and household dysfunction, though a more complex four-factor solution emerged once new ACEs were introduced. All ACEs demonstrated acceptable test-retest reliability. Implications and future directions toward a second generation of ACE research are discussed.

  6. Life adversity is associated with smoking relapse after a quit attempt.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Andrine; Olson, Leif; Nakajima, Motohiro; Schulberg, Lauren; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2016-09-01

    Multiple cross-sectional studies have linked adverse childhood events and adult adversities to current smoking, lifetime smoking, and former smoking. To date, however, there have been no direct observational studies assessing the influence of adversities on smoking relapse. We prospectively followed 123 participants, 86 of whom were habitual smokers, from pre-quit ad libitum smoking to four weeks post-quit. Thirty-seven non-smokers were also tested in parallel as a comparison group. Subjects provided biological samples for confirmation of abstinence status and self-report history of adversities such as abuse, neglect, family dysfunction, incarceration, and child-parent separation. They also completed mood and smoking withdrawal symptom measures. The results indicated that within non-smokers and smokers who relapsed within the first month of a quit attempt, but not abstainers, females had significantly higher adversity scores than males. Cigarette craving, which was independent from depressive affect, increased for low adversity participants, but not those with no adversity nor high adversity. These results demonstrate that sex and relapse status interact to predict adversity and that craving for nicotine may be an important additional mediator of relapse. These results add further support to the previous cross-sectional evidence of an adversity and smoking relationship. Further studies to clarify how adversity complicates smoking cessation and impacts smoking behaviors are warranted.

  7. Minimizing AED adverse effects: improving quality of life in the interictal state in epilepsy care.

    PubMed

    St Louis, Erik K; Louis, Erik K

    2009-06-01

    The goals of epilepsy therapy are to achieve seizure freedom while minimizing adverse effects of treatment. However, producing seizure-freedom is often overemphasized, at the expense of inducing adverse effects of treatment. All antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have the potential to cause dose-related, "neurotoxic" adverse effects (i.e., drowsiness, fatigue, dizziness, blurry vision, and incoordination). Such adverse effects are common, especially when initiating AED therapy and with polytherapy. Dose-related adverse effects may be obviated in most patients by dose reduction of monotherapy, reduction or elimination of polytherapy, or substituting for a better tolerated AED. Additionally, all older and several newer AEDs have idiosyncratic adverse effects which usually require withdrawal in an affected patient, including serious rash (i.e., Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis), hematologic dyscrasias, hepatotoxicity, teratogenesis in women of child bearing potential, bone density loss, neuropathy, and severe gingival hyperplasia. Unfortunately, occurrence of idiosyncratic AED adverse effects cannot be predicted or, in most cases, prevented in susceptible patients. This article reviews a practical approach for the definition and identification of adverse effects of epilepsy therapies, and reviews the literature demonstrating that adverse effects result in detrimental quality of life in epilepsy patients. Strategies for minimizing AED adverse effects by reduction or elimination of AED polytherapy, appropriately employing drug-sparing therapies, and optimally administering AEDs are outlined, including tenets of AED selection, titration, therapeutic AED laboratory monitoring, and avoidance of chronic idiosyncratic adverse effects.

  8. Epidemiological approach to aquatic animal health management: opportunities and challenges for developing countries to increase aquatic production through aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Subasinghe, Rohana P

    2005-02-01

    Aquaculture appears to have strongest potential to meet the increasing demands for aquatic products in most regions of the world. The world population is on the increase, as is the demand for aquatic food products. Production from capture fisheries at a global level is levelling off. Potential contributions from aquaculture to local food security, livelihoods and nutrition can be highly significant, especially in many remote and resource-poor rural areas. One of the major constraints to aquaculture production is the losses due to diseases. Over the decades, the sector has faced significant problems with disease outbreaks and epidemics which caused significant economic losses. The use of sound epidemiological principles and logical and science-based approach to identify and manage risks comprise two of the most important components of an effective biosecurity program. The maintenance of effective biosecurity in aquaculture is becoming more and more essential. There will be more demand for aquatic animal epidemiologists as well as epidemiological tools/resources in the region. The use of epidemiology will significantly improve health management, risk analysis and disease control. Although there are clear limitations and complications in the use of epidemiology for controlling aquatic animal pathogens, some positive results have recently emerged from a series of studies and trials to control diseases affecting the small-scale shrimp farming sector in southern India. This paper summarises the results of one such study which emphasizes the significant benefit of close collaboration with farmers, both individually and as groups, and capacity and awareness building among them and the importance of understanding the risk factors and implementing better management practices.

  9. OAE: The Ontology of Adverse Events

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A medical intervention is a medical procedure or application intended to relieve or prevent illness or injury. Examples of medical interventions include vaccination and drug administration. After a medical intervention, adverse events (AEs) may occur which lie outside the intended consequences of the intervention. The representation and analysis of AEs are critical to the improvement of public health. Description The Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE), previously named Adverse Event Ontology (AEO), is a community-driven ontology developed to standardize and integrate data relating to AEs arising subsequent to medical interventions, as well as to support computer-assisted reasoning. OAE has over 3,000 terms with unique identifiers, including terms imported from existing ontologies and more than 1,800 OAE-specific terms. In OAE, the term ‘adverse event’ denotes a pathological bodily process in a patient that occurs after a medical intervention. Causal adverse events are defined by OAE as those events that are causal consequences of a medical intervention. OAE represents various adverse events based on patient anatomic regions and clinical outcomes, including symptoms, signs, and abnormal processes. OAE has been used in the analysis of several different sorts of vaccine and drug adverse event data. For example, using the data extracted from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), OAE was used to analyse vaccine adverse events associated with the administrations of different types of influenza vaccines. OAE has also been used to represent and classify the vaccine adverse events cited in package inserts of FDA-licensed human vaccines in the USA. Conclusion OAE is a biomedical ontology that logically defines and classifies various adverse events occurring after medical interventions. OAE has successfully been applied in several adverse event studies. The OAE ontological framework provides a platform for systematic representation and analysis of

  10. Chemical contamination in aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Hisato; Kim, Eun-Young; Yamauchi, Masanobu; Inoue, Suguru; Agusa, Tetsuro; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-03-01

    The 21st Century's Center of Excellence (COE) Program "Coastal Marine Environmental Research" in Ehime University, funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Government of Japan, started its activities in October 2002. One of the core projects of the COE Program in Ehime University is "studies on environmental behavior of hazardous chemicals and their toxic effects on wildlife". This core project deals with studies of the local and global distribution of environmental contaminants in aquatic ecosystems, retrospective analysis of such chemicals, their toxicokinetics in humans and wildlife, molecular mechanisms to determine species-specific reactions, and sensitivity of chemically induced effects, and with the development of methodology for risk assessment for the conservation of ecological and species diversity. This presentation describes our recent achievements of this project, including research on contamination by arsenic and organohalogen pollutants in the Mekong River basin and molecular mechanisms of morphologic deformities in dioxin-exposed red seabream (Pagrus major) embryos. We established the Environmental Specimen Bank (es-BANK) in Ehime University in 2004, archiving approximately 100000 cryogenic samples containing tissues of wildlife and humans that have been collected for the past 40 years. The CMES homepage offers details of samples through online database retrieval. The es-BANK facility was in operation by the end of 2005.

  11. Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

    2014-08-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk.

  12. SYNOPSIS OF HISTOTECHNIQUES FOR AQUATIC ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This synopsis provides an overview of the necropsy, fixation, trimming, and processing of tissues from aquatic organisms for examination using light microscopy. The handling of animals, their tissues, uses of knives, and processing chemicals will be covered. Understanding the his...

  13. Applying the National Aquatic Resource Survey Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The NARS generate nationally-consistent water quality data across a variety of indicators. States have applied the NARS data to help address local policy questions and to implement changes regarding aquatic resource management.

  14. The National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) are statistical surveys designed to assess the status of and changes in quality of the nation’s coastal waters, lakes and reservoirs, rivers and streams, and wetlands.

  15. Background of the National Aquatic Resource Surveys

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) are statistical surveys designed to assess the status of and changes in quality of the nation’s coastal waters, lakes and reservoirs, rivers and streams, and wetlands.

  16. Partners in the National Aquatic Resource Surveys

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is working with state, tribal, and other federal agencies to implement the National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS). States and tribes participate in these surveys through their Clean Water Act Section 106 Monitoring Initiative grants.

  17. Nitrous oxide emission by aquatic macrofauna

    PubMed Central

    Stief, Peter; Poulsen, Morten; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Brix, Hans; Schramm, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    A large variety of aquatic animals was found to emit the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide when nitrate was present in the environment. The emission was ascribed to denitrification by ingested bacteria in the anoxic animal gut, and the exceptionally high N2O-to-N2 production ratio suggested delayed induction of the last step of denitrification. Filter- and deposit-feeding animal species showed the highest rates of nitrous oxide emission and predators the lowest, probably reflecting the different amounts of denitrifying bacteria in the diet. We estimate that nitrous oxide emission by aquatic animals is quantitatively important in nitrate-rich aquatic environments like freshwater, coastal marine, and deep-sea ecosystems. The contribution of this source to overall nitrous oxide emission from aquatic environments might further increase because of the projected increase of nitrate availability in tropical regions and the numeric dominance of filter- and deposit-feeders in eutrophic ecosystems. PMID:19255427

  18. A Submersible Light Sensor for Aquatic Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatina, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Describes the construction of an inexpensive light sensor that can be used to measure irradiance in aquatic habitats. Includes a list of tools and materials, details of construction, and usage of the light sensor. (DDR)

  19. Aquatic Trash Prevention National Great Practices Compendium

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Great Practice Compendium highlights outstanding activities, technologies, and programs that prevent trash from entering the aquatic environment and/or that reduce the overall volume of trash that is generated.

  20. Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds in Aquatic Ecosystems.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are a ubiquitous issue of concern in our aquatic systems. Commonly detected EDCs include natural and synthetic hormones, surfactants, plasticizers, disinfectants, herbicides and metals. The potency of these chemicals varies substantially, as ...

  1. Urban Runoff: Model Ordinances for Aquatic Buffers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Aquatic Buffers serve as natural boundaries between local waterways and existing development. The model and example ordinaces below provide suggested language or technical guidance designed to create the most effective stream buffer zones possible.

  2. Freshwater aquatic plant biomass production in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.R.; Sutton, D.L.; Bowes, G.

    1983-01-01

    About 8% (1.2 million ha) of the total surface area of Florida is occupied by freshwater. Many of these water bodies are eutrophic. Nutrients present in these water bodies can be potentially used to culture aquatic plants as a possible feedstock for methane production. This paper summarizes the results of known research findings on biomass production potential of freshwater aquatic plants in Florida and identifies key research needs to improve the quality and quantity of biomass yields. Among floating aquatic plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of water-hyacinth > water lettuce > pennywort > salvinia > duckweed > azolla. Pennywort, duckweed, and azolla appear to perform well during the cooler months compared to other aquatic plants. Among emergent plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of southern wild rice > cattails > soft rush > bulrush. Cultural techniques, nutrient management, and environmental factors influencing the biomass yields were discussed. 68 references.

  3. Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients and Aquatic Organisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presence of active pharmaceuticals ingredients (APIs) in aquatic systems in recent years has led to a burgeoning literature examining environmental occurrence, fate, effects, risk assessment, and treatability of these compounds. Although APIs have received much attention as ...

  4. Aquatic Life Benchmarks for Pesticide Registration

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Each Aquatic Life Benchmark is based on the most sensitive, scientifically acceptable toxicity endpoint available to EPA for a given taxon (for example, freshwater fish) of all scientifically acceptable toxicity data available to EPA.

  5. Project WILD Aquatic K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Environmental Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "Project WILD Aquatic K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide" emphasizes aquatic wildlife and aquatic ecosystems. It is organized in topic units and is based on the Project WILD conceptual framework. Because these activities are designed for integration into existing courses of study, instructors may use one or many Project WILD Aquatic activities…

  6. Aquatic Plant Control and Environmental Consequences.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    4), insects, and plant pathogens (2,3), but biological control reivains only a potential tool for large-scale control of aquatic weeds. Researchers in...fishes often do not feed selectively, yet there is no requirement for specific food selection by them. Use of Plant Pathogens k. Lack of information...on aquatic plant pathogens . Most work on plant pathogens , such as fungi, has been done on terrestrial species. Little is known with regard to methods

  7. Aquatic biodiversity and the electric utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Olmsted, L.L.; Bolin, J.W.

    1996-11-01

    Results for a 1995 survey of utility company biologists indicate that aquatic biodiversity is an emerging and poorly understood issue. As a result, there is some confusion about what aquatic biodiversity actually is, and how we can best conserve it. Only one fourth (24%) of the respondents said their company has a stated environmental policy that addresses biodiversity. Many respondents indicate that over the years they have not specially managed for biodiversity, but have been doing that through their efforts to assure balanced indigenous populations. While regulations are still the major driver for biological work, an increasing number of companies are involved in voluntary partnerships in managing water resources. Of these voluntary partnerships, 70% have biodiversity as a goal. Biodiversity is becoming an increasingly common subject of study, and a vast majority (75%) of the respondents suggested is should be a goal for utility for resource management. Conservation of aquatic biodiversity is a complex task, and to date most aquatic efforts have been directed toward fish and macroinvertebrates. Ecological research and technological development performed by the utility industry have resulted in a number of successful biopreservation and biorestoration success stories. A common theme to preserving or enhancing aquatic biodiversity is preserving aquatic habitat. Increasingly, ecosystem management is touted as the most likely approach to achieve success in preserving aquatic biodiversity. Several utilities are conducting progressive work in implementing ecosystem management. This paper presents the potential interactions between power plants and biodiversity, and overview of aquatic biodiversity preservations efforts within the electric utility industry, more detail on the results of the survey, and recent initiatives in ecosystem management. 17 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Propagation and Production of Native Aquatic Plants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    ERDC/TN APCRP-EA-11 September 2005 Propagation and Production of Native Aquatic Plants by Gary Owen Dick , R. Michael Smart, and Joe R. Snow...small, protected plant colonies at strategic locations within unvegetated reservoirs (Smart and Dick 1999). Once successfully established, these...specific treatment of this information is given in Smart and Dick (1999). FACILITIES FOR OFF-SITE PRODUCTION: Production of aquatic plants requires

  9. Nutrition and training adaptations in aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Mujika, Iñigo; Stellingwerff, Trent; Tipton, Kevin

    2014-08-01

    The adaptive response to training is determined by the combination of the intensity, volume, and frequency of the training. Various periodized approaches to training are used by aquatic sports athletes to achieve performance peaks. Nutritional support to optimize training adaptations should take periodization into consideration; that is, nutrition should also be periodized to optimally support training and facilitate adaptations. Moreover, other aspects of training (e.g., overload training, tapering and detraining) should be considered when making nutrition recommendations for aquatic athletes. There is evidence, albeit not in aquatic sports, that restricting carbohydrate availability may enhance some training adaptations. More research needs to be performed, particularly in aquatic sports, to determine the optimal strategy for periodizing carbohydrate intake to optimize adaptations. Protein nutrition is an important consideration for optimal training adaptations. Factors other than the total amount of daily protein intake should be considered. For instance, the type of protein, timing and pattern of protein intake and the amount of protein ingested at any one time influence the metabolic response to protein ingestion. Body mass and composition are important for aquatic sport athletes in relation to power-to-mass and for aesthetic reasons. Protein may be particularly important for athletes desiring to maintain muscle while losing body mass. Nutritional supplements, such as b-alanine and sodium bicarbonate, may have particular usefulness for aquatic athletes' training adaptation.

  10. Aquatic arsenic: phytoremediation using floating macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H

    2011-04-01

    Phytoremediation, a plant based green technology, has received increasing attention after the discovery of hyperaccumulating plants which are able to accumulate, translocate, and concentrate high amount of certain toxic elements in their above-ground/harvestable parts. Phytoremediation includes several processes namely, phytoextraction, phytodegradation, rhizofiltration, phytostabilization and phytovolatilization. Both terrestrial and aquatic plants have been tested to remediate contaminated soils and waters, respectively. A number of aquatic plant species have been investigated for the remediation of toxic contaminants such as As, Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Hg, etc. Arsenic, one of the deadly toxic elements, is widely distributed in the aquatic systems as a result of mineral dissolution from volcanic or sedimentary rocks as well as from the dilution of geothermal waters. In addition, the agricultural and industrial effluent discharges are also considered for arsenic contamination in natural waters. Some aquatic plants have been reported to accumulate high level of arsenic from contaminated water. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweeds (Lemna gibba, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza), water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), water ferns (Azolla caroliniana, Azolla filiculoides, and Azolla pinnata), water cabbage (Pistia stratiotes), hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) and watercress (Lepidium sativum) have been studied to investigate their arsenic uptake ability and mechanisms, and to evaluate their potential in phytoremediation technology. It has been suggested that the aquatic macrophytes would be potential for arsenic phytoremediation, and this paper reviews up to date knowledge on arsenic phytoremediation by common aquatic macrophytes.

  11. Changing Medicine and Building Community: Maine’s Adverse Childhood Experiences Momentum

    PubMed Central

    Forstadt, Leslie; Cooper, Sally; Andrews, Sue Mackey

    2015-01-01

    Physicians are instrumental in community education, prevention, and intervention for adverse childhood experiences. In Maine, a statewide effort is focusing on education about adverse childhood experiences and ways that communities and physicians can approach childhood adversity. This article describes how education about adversity and resilience can positively change the practice of medicine and related fields. The Maine Resilience Building Network brings together ongoing programs, supports new ventures, and builds on existing resources to increase its impact. It exemplifies the collective impact model by increasing community knowledge, affecting medical practice, and improving lives. PMID:25902346

  12. Integration of geographic information systems and logistic multiple regression for aquatic macrophyte modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Narumalani, S.; Jensen, J.R.; Althausen, J.D.; Burkhalter, S.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1994-06-01

    Since aquatic macrophytes have an important influence on the physical and chemical processes of an ecosystem while simultaneously affecting human activity, it is imperative that they be inventoried and managed wisely. However, mapping wetlands can be a major challenge because they are found in diverse geographic areas ranging from small tributary streams, to shrub or scrub and marsh communities, to open water lacustrian environments. In addition, the type and spatial distribution of wetlands can change dramatically from season to season, especially when nonpersistent species are present. This research, focuses on developing a model for predicting the future growth and distribution of aquatic macrophytes. This model will use a geographic information system (GIS) to analyze some of the biophysical variables that affect aquatic macrophyte growth and distribution. The data will provide scientists information on the future spatial growth and distribution of aquatic macrophytes. This study focuses on the Savannah River Site Par Pond (1,000 ha) and L Lake (400 ha) these are two cooling ponds that have received thermal effluent from nuclear reactor operations. Par Pond was constructed in 1958, and natural invasion of wetland has occurred over its 35-year history, with much of the shoreline having developed extensive beds of persistent and non-persistent aquatic macrophytes.

  13. Hospital deaths and adverse events in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Adverse events are considered a major international problem related to the performance of health systems. Evaluating the occurrence of adverse events involves, as any other outcome measure, determining the extent to which the observed differences can be attributed to the patient's risk factors or to variations in the treatment process, and this in turn highlights the importance of measuring differences in the severity of the cases. The current study aims to evaluate the association between deaths and adverse events, adjusted according to patient risk factors. Methods The study is based on a random sample of 1103 patient charts from hospitalizations in the year 2003 in 3 teaching hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The methodology involved a retrospective review of patient charts in two stages - screening phase and evaluation phase. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between hospital deaths and adverse events. Results The overall mortality rate was 8.5%, while the rate related to the occurrence of an adverse event was 2.9% (32/1103) and that related to preventable adverse events was 2.3% (25/1103). Among the 94 deaths analyzed, 34% were related to cases involving adverse events, and 26.6% of deaths occurred in cases whose adverse events were considered preventable. The models tested showed good discriminatory capacity. The unadjusted odds ratio (OR 11.43) and the odds ratio adjusted for patient risk factors (OR 8.23) between death and preventable adverse event were high. Conclusions Despite discussions in the literature regarding the limitations of evaluating preventable adverse events based on peer review, the results presented here emphasize that adverse events are not only prevalent, but are associated with serious harm and even death. These results also highlight the importance of risk adjustment and multivariate models in the study of adverse events. PMID:21929810

  14. Structural and functional effects of herbicides on non-target organisms in aquatic ecosystems with an emphasis on atrazine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fairchild, James; Kortekamp, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural production accounts for approximately 90% of herbicide use in the U.S. (Kiely et al., 2004). Gianessi and Reigner (2007) indicated that herbicides are routinely used on more than 90% of the area designated for large commercial crops including corn, soybeans, cotton, sugar beets, peanuts, and rice. Increased farm mechanization, technological advancements in production of inexpensive sources of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer (e.g., anhydrous ammonia), and conversion of forest, grassland, and wetland habitats to cropland has led to a tremendous increase in global food production over the past half-century. Herbicides have augmented advances in large-scale agricultural systems and have largely replaced mechanical and hand-weeding control mechanisms (Gianessi and Reigner, 2007). The wide-spread use of herbicides in agriculture has resulted in frequent chemical detections in surface and groundwaters (Gilliom, 2007). The majority of herbicides used are highly water soluble and are therefore prone to runoff from terrestrial environments. In additon, spray drift and atmospheric deposition can contribute to herbicide contamination of aquatic environments. Lastly, selected herbicides are deliberately applied to aquatic environments for controlling nuisance aquatic vegetation. Although aquatic herbicide exposure has been widely documented, these exposures are not necessarily related to adverse non-target ecological effects on natural communities in aquatic environments. This chapter evaluates the potential for effects of herbicides on the structure and function of aquatic envrionments at the population, community, and ecosystem levels of biological organization. In this manuscript I examine several critical aspects of the subject matter area: primary herbicides in use and chemical modes of action; the regulatory process used for registration and risk assessment of herbicides; data regarding non-target risks and the relative sensitivity of aquatic plants

  15. Characterizing "Adversity" of Pathology Findings in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The identification of adverse health effects has a central role in the development and risk/safety assessment of chemical entities and pharmaceuticals. There is currently a need for better alignment in the toxicologic pathology community regarding how nonclinical adversity is determined and characterized. The European Society of Toxicologic Pathology (ESTP) therefore coordinated a workshop in June 2015 to review available definitions of adversity, weigh determining and qualifying factors of adversity based on case examples, and recommend a practical approach to define and characterize adversity in toxicology reports. The international group of expert pathologists and toxicologists emphasized that a holistic, weight-of-evidence, case-specific approach should be followed for each adversity assessment. It was recommended that nonclinical adversity should typically be determined at a morphological level (most often the organ) in the pathology report and should refer specifically to the test species. Final adversity calls, integration of target pharmacology/pathway information, and consideration of human translation should generally be made in toxicology overview reports. Differences in interpretation and implications of adversity calls between (agro)chemical and pharmaceutical industries and among world regions were highlighted. The results of this workshop should serve a valuable prerequisite for future organ- or lesion-specific workshops planned by the ESTP. This

  16. Ecotoxicogenomic approaches for understanding molecular mechanisms of environmental chemical toxicity using aquatic invertebrate, Daphnia model organism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Jeong; Koedrith, Preeyaporn; Seo, Young Rok

    2015-05-29

    Due to the rapid advent in genomics technologies and attention to ecological risk assessment, the term "ecotoxicogenomics" has recently emerged to describe integration of omics studies (i.e., transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and epigenomics) into ecotoxicological fields. Ecotoxicogenomics is defined as study of an entire set of genes or proteins expression in ecological organisms to provide insight on environmental toxicity, offering benefit in ecological risk assessment. Indeed, Daphnia is a model species to study aquatic environmental toxicity designated in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's toxicity test guideline and to investigate expression patterns using ecotoxicology-oriented genomics tools. Our main purpose is to demonstrate the potential utility of gene expression profiling in ecotoxicology by identifying novel biomarkers and relevant modes of toxicity in Daphnia magna. These approaches enable us to address adverse phenotypic outcomes linked to particular gene function(s) and mechanistic understanding of aquatic ecotoxicology as well as exploration of useful biomarkers. Furthermore, key challenges that currently face aquatic ecotoxicology (e.g., predicting toxicant responses among a broad spectrum of phytogenetic groups, predicting impact of temporal exposure on toxicant responses) necessitate the parallel use of other model organisms, both aquatic and terrestrial. By investigating gene expression profiling in an environmentally important organism, this provides viable support for the utility of ecotoxicogenomics.

  17. Ecotoxicogenomic Approaches for Understanding Molecular Mechanisms of Environmental Chemical Toxicity Using Aquatic Invertebrate, Daphnia Model Organism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo Jeong; Koedrith, Preeyaporn; Seo, Young Rok

    2015-01-01

    Due to the rapid advent in genomics technologies and attention to ecological risk assessment, the term “ecotoxicogenomics” has recently emerged to describe integration of omics studies (i.e., transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and epigenomics) into ecotoxicological fields. Ecotoxicogenomics is defined as study of an entire set of genes or proteins expression in ecological organisms to provide insight on environmental toxicity, offering benefit in ecological risk assessment. Indeed, Daphnia is a model species to study aquatic environmental toxicity designated in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development’s toxicity test guideline and to investigate expression patterns using ecotoxicology-oriented genomics tools. Our main purpose is to demonstrate the potential utility of gene expression profiling in ecotoxicology by identifying novel biomarkers and relevant modes of toxicity in Daphnia magna. These approaches enable us to address adverse phenotypic outcomes linked to particular gene function(s) and mechanistic understanding of aquatic ecotoxicology as well as exploration of useful biomarkers. Furthermore, key challenges that currently face aquatic ecotoxicology (e.g., predicting toxicant responses among a broad spectrum of phytogenetic groups, predicting impact of temporal exposure on toxicant responses) necessitate the parallel use of other model organisms, both aquatic and terrestrial. By investigating gene expression profiling in an environmentally important organism, this provides viable support for the utility of ecotoxicogenomics. PMID:26035755

  18. Transplanted aquatic mosses for monitoring trace metal mobilization in acidified streams of the Vosges Mountains, France

    SciTech Connect

    Mersch, J.; Guerold, F.; Rousselle, P.; Pihan, J.C. )

    1993-08-01

    As a result of acid depositions, trace metals are mobilized from the soils to the aquatic environment. Especially in poorly mineralized waters, elevated metal concentrations may rapidly have adverse effects on aquatic organisms. In particular, it has been shown that aluminium, a key element in the acidification process, is a toxic cofactor for fish and other biota. An accurate assessment of this specific form of water pollution may not be possible when only based on analyses of single water samples. On the one hand, water metal concentrations are often close to the detection limit of usual analytical techniques, and on the other hand, levels in acidified streams undergo strong temporal variations caused by acid pulses following meteorological events such as heavy rainfall and snowmelt. Compared to water analyses, indirect monitoring methods provide undeniable advantages for assessing water contamination. Aquatic bryophytes, in particular, have been regarded as interesting indicator organisms for trace metal pollution. However, their use has mainly been restricted to the lower course of streams for evaluating the impact of industrial discharges. The purpose of this study was to test the suitability of transplanted aquatic mosses for monitoring aluminium and four other trace metals (copper, iron, lead and zinc) in the particular context of acidifed streams draining a forested headwater catchment. 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Unifying Rules for Aquatic Locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadat, Mehdi; Domel, August; di Santo, Valentina; Lauder, George; Haj-Hariri, Hossein

    2016-11-01

    Strouhal number, St (=fA/U) , a scaling parameter that relates speed, U, to the tail-beat frequency, f, and tail-beat amplitude, A, has been used many times to describe animal locomotion. It has been observed that swimming animals cruise at 0.2 <=St <=0.4. Using simple dimensional and scaling analyses supported by new experimental evidence of a self-propelled fish-like swimmer, we show that when cruising at minimum hydrodynamic input power, St is predetermined, and is only a function of the shape, i.e. drag coefficient and area. The narrow range for St, 0.2-0.4, has been previously associated with optimal propulsive efficiency. However, St alone is insufficient for deciding optimal motion. We show that hydrodynamic input power (energy usage to propel over a unit distance) in fish locomotion is minimized at all cruising speeds when A* (= A/L), a scaling parameter that relates tail-beat amplitude, A, to the length of the swimmer, L, is constrained to a narrow range of 0.15-0.25. Our analysis proposes a constraint on A*, in addition to the previously found constraint on St, to fully describe the optimal swimming gait for fast swimmers. A survey of kinematics for dolphin, as well as new data for trout, show that the range of St and A* for fast swimmers indeed are constrained to 0.2-0.4 and 0.15-0.25, respectively. Our findings provide physical explanation as to why fast aquatic swimmers cruise with relatively constant tail-beat amplitude at approximately 20 percent of body length, while their swimming speed is linearly correlated with their tail-beat frequency.

  20. Toxicity on aquatic organisms exposed to secondary effluent disinfected with chlorine, peracetic acid, ozone and UV radiation.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Juliana Berninger; Rodgher, Suzelei; Daniel, Luiz Antonio; Espíndola, Evaldo Luiz Gaeta

    2014-11-01

    The toxic potential of four disinfectant agents (chlorine, ozone, peracetic acid and UV radiation), used in the disinfection of urban wastewater, was evaluated with respect to four aquatic organisms. Disinfection assays were carried out with wastewater from the city of Araraquara (São Paulo State, Brazil), and subsequently, toxicity bioassays were applied in order to verify possible adverse effects to the cladocerans (Ceriodaphnia silvestrii and Daphnia similis), midge larvae Chironomus xanthus and fish (Danio rerio). Under the experimental conditions tested, all the disinfectants were capable of producing harmful effects on the test organisms, except for C. xanthus. The toxicity of the effluent to C. silvestrii was observed to increase significantly as a result of disinfection using 2.5 mg L(-1) chlorine and 29.9 mg L(-1) ozone. Ozonation and chlorination significantly affected the survival of D. similis and D. rerio, causing mortality of 60 to 100 % in comparison to the non-disinfected effluent. In experiments with effluent treated with peracetic acid (PAA) and UV radiation, a statistically significant decrease in survival was only detected for D. rerio. This investigation suggested that the study of the ideal concentrations of disinfectants is a research need for ecologically safe options for the treatment of wastewater.

  1. AQUATIC BUGS OF LAKE SUPERIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outreach programs conducted by MED serve to educate the general public about issues affecting the environment. By conducting outreach programs here at MED we advance our mission of protecting the environment thru education.

  2. Effects of contaminants on reproductive success of aquatic birds nesting at Edwards Air Force Base, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hothem, R.L.; Crayon, J.J.; Law, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Contamination by organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and trace elements at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), located in the Mojave Desert, could adversely affect nesting aquatic birds, especially at the sewage lagoons that comprise Piute Ponds. Estimates of avian reproduction, in conjunction with analyses of eggs and avian foods for contaminant residues, may indicate the potential for negative effects on avian populations. From 1996 to 1999, we conducted studies at the Piute Ponds area of EAFB to evaluate the impacts of contaminants on nesting birds. Avian reproduction was evaluated in 1999. Eggs were collected for chemical analyses in 1996 and 1999, and African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis), a likely food source, were collected for chemical analyses in 1998. Avian species occupying the higher trophic levels-black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), white-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi), and American avocet (Recurvirostra americana)-generally bioaccumulated higher concentrations of contaminants in their eggs. Reproductive success and egg hatchability of night-herons and white-faced ibises in the Piute Ponds were similar to results observed at other western colonies. Deformities were observed in only one embryo in this study, but concentrations of contaminants evaluated in this ibis embryo were considered insufficient to have caused the deformities. Because clawed frogs, a primary prey item for night-herons at Piute Ponds, had no detectable levels of any OCs, it is likely that OCs found in night-heron eggs were acquired from the wintering grounds rather than from EAFB. The presence of isomers of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in ibis eggs indicated recent exposure, but invertebrates used for food by ibises were not sampled at Piute Ponds, and conclusions about the source of OCs in ibis eggs could not be made. Concentrations of contaminants in random and failed eggs of individual species were not different, and we concluded

  3. Impact of Terminalia chebula Retz. against Aedes aegypti L. and non-target aquatic predatory insects.

    PubMed

    Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Edwin, Edward-Sam; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Chellappandian, Muthiah; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Lija-Escaline, Jalasteen; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy

    2017-03-01

    Aedes aegypti Linn is one of the most important mosquito species. The vectors are responsible for causing deadly diseases like dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Several chemical pesticides used to control these dengue vectors caused severe toxic significances on human health and other non-target beneficial insects. Therefore the current investigation has been made to access the bio-efficacy of the crude seed extracts of T. chebula against the dengue vector Ae. aegypti. The GC-MS analysis of crude seed extracts of T. chebula identified nine chemical compounds with major peak area in the 1,2,3-Benzenetriol (61.96%), followed by Tridecanoic acid (09.55%). Ae. aegypti larvae showed dose dependent mortality rate was observed between the treatments. Prominent protection rate at greater concentrations of 100ppm and moderate protection at 75 and 50ppm was observed in the repellent assay. Lethal concentration (LC50 and LC90) of fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti was observed in 138 and 220ppm concentration respectively. Similarly, the seed extracts showed 100% adulticidal activity at the concentration of 400ppm at 30min of exposure time. Phytochemicals present in the seed extracts of T. chebula significantly affects the major portions of the midgut tissues of Ae. aegypti at the concentration of 100ppm. The toxicological evaluation of seed extracts also proved non-toxic towards the A. bouvieri and Tx. splendens aquatic predatory insects. Hence, the present result suggest that bio-rational plant derived T. chebula could be incorporated in the dengue vector control and have no adverse effects on non-target beneficial insects.

  4. Trophic interactions determine the effects of drought on an aquatic ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Amundrud, Sarah L; Srivastava, Diane S

    2016-06-01

    Species interactions can be important mediators of community and ecosystem responses to environmental stressors. However, we still lack a mechanistic understanding of the indirect ecological effects of stress that arise via altered species interactions. To understand how species interactions will be altered by environmental stressors, we need to know if the species that are vulnerable to such stressors also have large impacts on the ecosystem. As predators often exhibit certain traits that are linked to a high vulnerability to stress (e.g., large body size, long generation time), as well as having large effects on communities (e.g., top-down trophic effects), predators may be particularly likely to mediate ecological effects of environmental stress. Other functional groups, like facilitators, are known to have large impacts on communities, but their vulnerability to perturbations remains undocumented. Here, we use aquatic insect communities in bromeliads to examine the indirect effects of an important stressor (drought) on community and ecosystem responses. In a microcosm experiment, we manipulated predatory and facilitative taxa under a range of experimental droughts, and quantified effects on community structure and ecosystem function. Drought, by adversely affecting the top predator, had indirect cascading effects on the entire food web, altering community composition and decomposition. We identified the likely pathway of how drought cascaded through the food web from the top-down as drought -->predator --> shredder --> decomposition. This stress-induced cascade depended on predators exhibiting both a strong vulnerability to drought and large impacts on prey (especially shredders), as well as shredders exhibiting high functional importance as decomposers.

  5. Selenium in aquatic biota inhabiting agricultural drains in the Salton Sea Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.; May, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Resource managers are concerned that water conservation practices in irrigated farmlands along the southern border of the Salton Sea, Imperial County, California, could increase selenium concentrations in agricultural drainwater and harm the desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius), a federally protected endangered species. As part of a broader attempt to address this concern, we conducted a 3-year investigation to collect baseline information on selenium concentrations in seven agricultural drains inhabited by pupfish. We collected water, sediment, selected aquatic food-chain taxa (particulate organic detritus, filamentous algae, net plankton, and midge [Chironomidae] larvae), and two poeciliid fishes (western mosquitofish Gambusia affinis and sailfin molly Poecilia latipinna) for selenium determinations. The two fish species served as ecological surrogates for pupfish, which we were not permitted to sacrifice. Dissolved selenium ranged from 0.70 to 32.8 μg/L, with selenate as the major constituent. Total selenium concentrations in other environmental matrices varied widely among drains, with one drain (Trifolium 18) exhibiting especially high concentrations in detritus, 5.98–58.0 μg Se/g; midge larvae, 12.7–50.6 μg Se/g; mosquitofish, 13.2–20.2 μg Se/g; and mollies, 12.8–30.4 μg Se/g (all tissue concentrations are based on dry weights). Although toxic thresholds for selenium in fishes from the Salton Sea are still poorly understood, available evidence suggests that ambient concentrations of this element may not be sufficiently elevated to adversely affect reproductive success and survival in selenium-tolerant poeciliids and pupfish.

  6. Selenium in aquatic biota inhabiting agricultural drains in the Salton Sea Basin, California.

    PubMed

    Saiki, Michael K; Martin, Barbara A; May, Thomas W

    2012-09-01

    Resource managers are concerned that water conservation practices in irrigated farmlands along the southern border of the Salton Sea, Imperial County, California, could increase selenium concentrations in agricultural drainwater and harm the desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius), a federally protected endangered species. As part of a broader attempt to address this concern, we conducted a 3-year investigation to collect baseline information on selenium concentrations in seven agricultural drains inhabited by pupfish. We collected water, sediment, selected aquatic food-chain taxa (particulate organic detritus, filamentous algae, net plankton, and midge [Chironomidae] larvae), and two poeciliid fishes (western mosquitofish Gambusia affinis and sailfin molly Poecilia latipinna) for selenium determinations. The two fish species served as ecological surrogates for pupfish, which we were not permitted to sacrifice. Dissolved selenium ranged from 0.70 to 32.8 μg/L, with selenate as the major constituent. Total selenium concentrations in other environmental matrices varied widely among drains, with one drain (Trifolium 18) exhibiting especially high concentrations in detritus, 5.98-58.0 μg Se/g; midge larvae, 12.7-50.6 μg Se/g; mosquitofish, 13.2-20.2 μg Se/g; and mollies, 12.8-30.4 μg Se/g (all tissue concentrations are based on dry weights). Although toxic thresholds for selenium in fishes from the Salton Sea are still poorly understood, available evidence suggests that ambient concentrations of this element may not be sufficiently elevated to adversely affect reproductive success and survival in selenium-tolerant poeciliids and pupfish.

  7. Effects of contaminants on reproductive success of aquatic birds nesting at Edwards Air Force Base, California.

    PubMed

    Hothem, R L; Crayon, J J; Law, M A

    2006-11-01

    Contamination by organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and trace elements at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), located in the Mojave Desert, could adversely affect nesting aquatic birds, especially at the sewage lagoons that comprise Piute Ponds. Estimates of avian reproduction, in conjunction with analyses of eggs and avian foods for contaminant residues, may indicate the potential for negative effects on avian populations. From 1996 to 1999, we conducted studies at the Piute Ponds area of EAFB to evaluate the impacts of contaminants on nesting birds. Avian reproduction was evaluated in 1999. Eggs were collected for chemical analyses in 1996 and 1999, and African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis), a likely food source, were collected for chemical analyses in 1998. Avian species occupying the higher trophic levels--black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), white-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi), and American avocet (Recurvirostra americana)--generally bioaccumulated higher concentrations of contaminants in their eggs. Reproductive success and egg hatchability of night-herons and white-faced ibises in the Piute Ponds were similar to results observed at other western colonies. Deformities were observed in only one embryo in this study, but concentrations of contaminants evaluated in this ibis embryo were considered insufficient to have caused the deformities. Because clawed frogs, a primary prey item for night-herons at Piute Ponds, had no detectable levels of any OCs, it is likely that OCs found in night-heron eggs were acquired from the wintering grounds rather than from EAFB. The presence of isomers of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in ibis eggs indicated recent exposure, but invertebrates used for food by ibises were not sampled at Piute Ponds, and conclusions about the source of OCs in ibis eggs could not be made. Concentrations of contaminants in random and failed eggs of individual species were not different, and we concluded

  8. Use of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing to Evaluate Efficacy of Aquatic Plant Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive aquatic weeds negatively affect biodiversity, fluvial dynamics, water quality, and water storage and conveyance for a variety of human resource demands. In California’s Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta one submersed species - Brazilian waterweed (Egeria densa) - and one floating species ...

  9. SOLAR ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION AND AQUATIC CARBON, NITROGEN, SULFUR AND METALS CYCLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (290-400 nm) has a wide-ranging impact on biological and chemical processes that affect the cycling of elements in aquatic environments. This chapter uses recent field and laboratory observations along with models to assess these impacts on carbon, nit...

  10. GLOBAL CLIMATE AND LARGE-SCALE INFLUENCES ON AQUATIC ANIMAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The last 3 decades have witnessed numerous large-scale mortality events of aquatic organisms in North America. Affected species range from ecologically-important sea urchins to commercially-valuable American lobsters and protected marine mammals. Short-term forensic investigation...

  11. INTERACTIONS OF LIGHT AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS IN THE AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT: KINETIC AND MECHANISTIC ASPECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in the ozone layer over the past two decades have resulted in increases in solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation that reaches the surface of aquatic environments. Recent studies have demonstrated that these UV increases cause changes in photochemical reactions that affect the...

  12. INTERACTIONS OF SOLAR UV RADIATION AND DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in the ozone layer over the past two decades have resulted in increases in solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation that reaches the surface of aquatic environments. Recent studies have demonstrated that these UV increases cause changes in photochemical reactions that affect the...

  13. AN OVERVIEW OF THE AQUATIC ECOLOGICAL RISKS POSED BY DIOXIN-LIKE CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This seminar will provide a basic overview of how 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (a.k.a. TCDD or "dioxin") and dioxin-like chemicals (e.g., certain PCBs) bioaccumulate and affect non-human receptors in aquatic food webs; the latest on applications of the toxicity equivalence...

  14. Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Kiff, Cara J; Cortes, Rebecca; Lengua, Lilana; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J David; Mason, W Alex

    2012-06-01

    Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment Abstract Exposure to adversity during childhood and adolescence predicts adjustment across development. Further, adolescent adjustment problems persist into young adulthood. This study examined relations of contextual adversity with concurrent adolescent adjustment and prospective mental health and health outcomes in young adulthood. A longitudinal sample (N = 808) was followed from age 10 through 27. Perceptions of neighborhood in childhood predicted depression, alcohol use disorders, and HIV risk in young adulthood. Further, the timing of adversity was important in determining the type of problem experienced in adulthood. Youth adjustment predicted adult outcomes, and in some cases, mediated the relation between adversity and outcomes. These findings support the importance of adversity in predicting adjustment and elucidate factors that affect outcomes into young adulthood.

  15. Thiacloprid affects trophic interaction between gammarids and mayflies.

    PubMed

    Englert, D; Bundschuh, M; Schulz, R

    2012-08-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides like thiacloprid enter agricultural surface waters, where they may affect predator-prey-interactions, which are of central importance for ecosystems as well as the functions these systems provide. The effects of field relevant thiacloprid concentrations on the leaf consumption of Gammarus fossarum (Amphipoda) were assessed over 96 h (n = 13-17) in conjunction with its predation on Baetis rhodani (Ephemeroptera) nymphs. The predation by Gammarus increased significantly at 0.50-1.00 μg/L. Simultaneously, its leaf consumption decreased with increasing thiacloprid concentration. As a consequence of the increased predation at 1.00 μg/L, gammarids' dry weight rose significantly by 15% compared to the control. At 4.00 μg/L, the reduced leaf consumption was not compensated by an increase in predation causing a significantly reduced dry weight of Gammarus (∼20%). These results may finally suggest that thiacloprid adversely affects trophic interactions, potentially translating into alterations in ecosystem functions, like leaf litter breakdown and aquatic-terrestrial subsidies.

  16. Effects of recent volcanic eruptions on aquatic habitat in the Drift River, Alaska, USA: Implications at other Cook Inlet region volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorava, J.M.; Milner, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Numerous drainages supporting productive salmon habitat are surrounded by active volcanoes on the west side of Cook Inlet in south-central Alaska. Eruptions have caused massive quantities of flowing water and sediment to enter the river channels emanating from glaciers and snowfields on these volcanoes. Extensive damage to riparian and aquatic habitat has commonly resulted, and benthic macroinvertebrate and salmonid communities can be affected. Because of the economic importance of Alaska's fisheries, detrimental effects on salmonid habitat can have significant economic implications. The Drift River drains glaciers on the northern and eastern flanks of Redoubt Volcano: During and following eruptions in 1989-1990, severe physical disturbances to the habitat features of the river adversely affected the fishery. Frequent eruptions at other Cook Inlet region volcanoes exemplify the potential effects of volcanic activity on Alaska's important commercial, sport, and subsistence fisheries. Few studies have documented the recovery of aquatic habitat following volcanic eruptions. The eruptions of Redoubt Volcano in 1989-1990 offered an opportunity to examine the recovery of the macroinvertebrate community. Macroinvertebrate community composition and structure in the Drift River were similar in both undisturbed and recently disturbed sites. Additionally, macroinvertebrate samples from sites in nearby undisturbed streams were highly similar to those from some Drift River sites. This similarity and the agreement between the Drift River macroinvertebrate community composition and that predicted by a qualitative model of typical macroinvertebrate communities in glacier-fed rivers indicate that the Drift River macroinvertebrate community is recovering five years after the disturbances associated with the most recent eruptions of Redoubt Volcano.

  17. Solid lipid nanoparticles affect microbial colonization and enzymatic activity throughout the decomposition of alder leaves in freshwater microcosms.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, A C; Mendes, R J; Castro, P G; Silva, A M

    2017-01-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are used as carriers for drug delivery, and are high biocompatible and designed to endure in the host organism. Despite its current industrial production is low, many of these substances are available on the market, and much more are in the production pipeline. As a result, many of them will end in aquatic systems raising the question whether they can pose a risk to aquatic biota and the associated ecological processes. Microbial decomposers of plant litter, play a key role in forested streams being responsible for the energy flow between terrestrial and aquatic environments. Here, we investigated the effects of SLNs on alder leaf litter decomposition by aquatic microbes. Alder leaves were immersed in a stream of Northeast Portugal to allow microbial colonization before being exposed in microcosms of two types of SLNs at two concentrations for 42 days. Results showed that rates of leaf decomposition decreased with exposure to SLNs. Bacterial biomass was not inhibited by SLNs, and cultivable fungi densities remained constant (SLN-A) or increased (SLN-C) compared with control microcosms. The type and concentration of SLNs influenced differently the leaf colonization by fungi as well as fungal sporulation rate. These effects were accompanied by changes in the community extraenzymatic profile: the activities of alkaline phosphatase, acidic phosphatase, Naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase (P cycle) and lipases increased in the SLNs microcosms. This study provided the first evidence of the adverse effects of the release of SLNs to streams on leaf litter decomposition. Those effects seem to depend on the composition and concentration of SLNs, as well on the microbial target group, or enzyme. Thus, prior to massive industrial production of these nanomaterials, some measures should be taken to avoid environmental impact affecting the microbial communities responsible for detritus decomposition.

  18. AQUATIC ASSESSMENT OF THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR ACCIDENT AND ITS REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Yasuo; Kivva, Sergey L.; Zheleznyak, Mark J.; Voitsekhovitch, Oleg V.

    2007-11-01

    This modeling study evaluated aquatic environment affected by the Chernobyl nuclear accident and the effectiveness of remediation efforts. Study results indicate that radionuclide concentrations in the Pripyat and Dnieper rivers were well above the drinking water limits immediately after the Chernobyl accident, but have decreased significantly in subsequent years due to flashing, burying, and decay. Because high concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs, the major radionuclides affecting human health through aquatic pathways, are associated with flooding, an earthen dike was constructed along the Pripyat River in its most contaminated floodplain. The dike was successful in reducing the 90Sr influx to the river by half. A 100-m-high movable dome called the New Safe Confinement is planned to cover the Chernobyl Shelter (formally called the sarcophagus) that was erected shortly after the accident. The NSC will reduce radionuclide contamination further in these rivers and nearby groundwater; however, even if the Chernobyl Shelter collapses before the NSC is built, the resulting peak concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in the Dnieper River would still be below the drinking water limits.

  19. Understanding adverse events: human factors.

    PubMed Central

    Reason, J

    1995-01-01

    (1) Human rather than technical failures now represent the greatest threat to complex and potentially hazardous systems. This includes healthcare systems. (2) Managing the human risks will never be 100% effective. Human fallibility can be moderated, but it cannot be eliminated. (3) Different error types have different underlying mechanisms, occur in different parts of the organisation, and require different methods of risk management. The basic distinctions are between: Slips, lapses, trips, and fumbles (execution failures) and mistakes (planning or problem solving failures). Mistakes are divided into rule based mistakes and knowledge based mistakes. Errors (information-handling problems) and violations (motivational problems) Active versus latent failures. Active failures are committed by those in direct contact with the patient, latent failures arise in organisational and managerial spheres and their adverse effects may take a long time to become evident. (4) Safety significant errors occur at all levels of the system, not just at the sharp end. Decisions made in the upper echelons of the organisation create the conditions in the workplace that subsequently promote individual errors and violations. Latent failures are present long before an accident and are hence prime candidates for principled risk management. (5) Measures that involve sanctions and exhortations (that is, moralistic measures directed to those at the sharp end) have only very limited effectiveness, especially so in the case of highly trained professionals. (6) Human factors problems are a product of a chain of causes in which the individual psychological factors (that is, momentary inattention, forgetting, etc) are the last and least manageable links. Attentional "capture" (preoccupation or distraction) is a necessary condition for the commission of slips and lapses. Yet, its occurrence is almost impossible to predict or control effectively. The same is true of the factors associated with

  20. Strategic approaches to adverse outcome pathway development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are conceptual frameworks for organizing biological and toxicological knowledge in a manner that supports extrapolation of data pertaining to the initiation or early progression of toxicity to an apical adverse outcome that occurs at a level of org...

  1. Standing crops and ecology of aquatic invertebrates in agricultural drainwater ponds in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Euliss, N.H.; Jarvis, R.L.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    We examined standing crops and ecology of aquatic invertebrates in agricultural drainwater evaporation ponds in California from October 1982 to March 1983 and September 1983 to March 1984. Evaporation ponds supported low diversities but high standing crops of aquatic invertebrates. A water boatman (Trichocorixa reticulata) and a midge (Tanypus grodhausi) were the most abundant invertebrates, constituting 44.9% and 51.4% of total macroinvertebrate biomass. Regression models indicated that of 6 environmental variables measured, only electrical conductivity (EC) and Julian date affected biomass and density of water boatmen. EC was the only significant correlate of midge biomass in evaporation ponds.

  2. Abiotic variability among different aquatic systems of the central Amazon floodplain during drought and flood events.

    PubMed

    Affonso, A G; Queiroz, H L; Novo, E M L M

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines water properties from lakes, (depression lakes, sensu Junk et al., 2012), channels (scroll lakes with high connectivity, sensu Junk et al., 2012) and paleo-channels (scroll lakes with low connectivity-sensu Junk et al., 2012, locally called ressacas) located in Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, in Central Amazon floodplain, Amazonas, Brazil. We analysed surface temperature, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, transparency, suspended inorganic and organic matter, chlorophyll-a, pheophytin, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, organic and inorganic carbon in 2009 high water phase, 2009 and 2010 low water phases. Multivariate statistical analyses of 24 aquatic systems (6 ressacas, 12 lakes and 6 channels, 142 samples) were applied to the variables in order to: 1) quantify differences among aquatic system types; 2) assess how those differences are affected in the different phases of the hydrological year. First, we analysed the entire set of variables to test for differences among phases of the hydrological year and types of aquatic systems using a PERMANOVA two-way crossed design. The results showed that the all measured limnological variables are distinct regarding both factors: types of aquatic systems and hydrological phases. In general, the magnitude and amplitude of all variables were higher in the low water phase than in the high water phase, except for water transparency in all aquatic system's types. PERMANOVA showed that the differences between aquatic system's types and hydrological phases of all variables were highly significant for both main factors (type and phase) and for the type x phase interaction. Limnological patterns of Amazon floodplain aquatic systems are highly dynamic, dependent on the surrounding environment, flood pulse, main river input and system type. These patterns show how undisturbed systems respond to natural variability in such a diverse environment, and how distinct are those aquatic systems

  3. Aquatic synthesis for Voyageurs National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kallemeyn, Larry A.; Holmberg, Kerry L.; Perry, Jim A.; Odde, Beth Y.

    2003-01-01

    Voyageurs National Park (VOYA), which was established in 1975, contains significant aquatic resources with about 50% of its total area of 883 km2 (341 mi2) consisting of aquatic habitats.  In addition to the Park's 30 named lakes, there are numerous wetlands including hundreds of beaver ponds.  Due to the Park's size and location in the drainage basin, aquatic resources within the Park are particularly susceptible to activities and developments that occur outside its' boundary.  This is particularly true in regard to the water quality and aquatic communities in the four large lakes that comprise 96% of the Park's total lake area of 34,400 ha (133 mi2).  Because most Park activities center on the lakes, particularly the large lakes, resource managers need to have knowledge and understanding of VOYA's aquatic resources to effectively preserve, in an unimpaired condition, the ecological processed, biological and cultural diversity, and history of the northwoods, lakecountry border shared with Canada.

  4. A Source of Terrestrial Organic Carbon to Investigate the Browning of Aquatic Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Lennon, Jay T.; Hamilton, Stephen K.; Muscarella, Mario E.; Grandy, A. Stuart; Wickings, Kyle; Jones, Stuart E.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence that terrestrial ecosystems are exporting more dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to aquatic ecosystems than they did just a few decades ago. This “browning” phenomenon will alter the chemistry, physics, and biology of inland water bodies in complex and difficult-to-predict ways. Experiments provide an opportunity to elucidate how browning will affect the stability and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. However, it is challenging to obtain sources of DOC that can be used for manipulations at ecologically relevant scales. In this study, we evaluated a commercially available source of humic substances (“Super Hume”) as an analog for natural sources of terrestrial DOC. Based on chemical characterizations, comparative surveys, and whole-ecosystem manipulations, we found that the physical and chemical properties of Super Hume are similar to those of natural DOC in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. For example, Super Hume attenuated solar radiation in ways that will not only influence the physiology of aquatic taxa but also the metabolism of entire ecosystems. Based on its chemical properties (high lignin content, high quinone content, and low C:N and C:P ratios), Super Hume is a fairly recalcitrant, low-quality resource for aquatic consumers. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that Super Hume can subsidize aquatic food webs through 1) the uptake of dissolved organic constituents by microorganisms, and 2) the consumption of particulate fractions by larger organisms (i.e., Daphnia). After discussing some of the caveats of Super Hume, we conclude that commercial sources of humic substances can be used to help address pressing ecological questions concerning the increased export of terrestrial DOC to aquatic ecosystems. PMID:24124511

  5. Meta-Analysis of the Copper, Zinc, and Cadmium Absorption Capacities of Aquatic Plants in Heavy Metal-Polluted Water.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Yu, Haixin; Luan, Yaning

    2015-11-26

    The use of aquatic plants for phytoremediation is an important method for restoring polluted ecosystems. We sought to analyze the capacity of different aquatic plant species to absorb heavy metals and to summarize available relevant scientific data on this topic. We present a meta-analysis of Cu, Zn, and Cd absorption capacities of aquatic plants to provide a scientific basis for the selection of aquatic plants suitable for remediation of heavy-metal pollution. Plants from the Gramineae, Pontederiaceae, Ceratophyllaceae, Typhaceae and Haloragaceae showed relatively strong abilities to absorb these metals. The ability of a particular plant species to absorb a given metal was strongly correlated with its ability to absorb the other metals. However, the absorption abilities varied with the plant organ, with the following trend: roots > stems > leaves. The pH of the water and the life habits of aquatic plants (submerged and emerged) also affect the plant's ability to absorb elements. Acidic water aids the uptake of heavy metals by plants. The correlation observed between element concentrations in plants with different aquatic life habits suggested that the enrichment mechanism is related to the surface area of the plant exposed to water. We argue that this meta-analysis would aid the selection of aquatic plants suitable for heavy-metal absorption from polluted waters.

  6. Meta-Analysis of the Copper, Zinc, and Cadmium Absorption Capacities of Aquatic Plants in Heavy Metal-Polluted Water

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Yu, Haixin; Luan, Yaning

    2015-01-01

    The use of aquatic plants for phytoremediation is an important method for restoring polluted ecosystems. We sought to analyze the capacity of different aquatic plant species to absorb heavy metals and to summarize available relevant scientific data on this topic. We present a meta-analysis of Cu, Zn, and Cd absorption capacities of aquatic plants to provide a scientific basis for the selection of aquatic plants suitable for remediation of heavy-metal pollution. Plants from the Gramineae, Pontederiaceae, Ceratophyllaceae, Typhaceae and Haloragaceae showed relatively strong abilities to absorb these metals. The ability of a particular plant species to absorb a given metal was strongly correlated with its ability to absorb the other metals. However, the absorption abilities varied with the plant organ, with the following trend: roots > stems > leaves. The pH of the water and the life habits of aquatic plants (submerged and emerged) also affect the plant’s ability to absorb elements. Acidic water aids the uptake of heavy metals by plants. The correlation observed between element concentrations in plants with different aquatic life habits suggested that the enrichment mechanism is related to the surface area of the plant exposed to water. We argue that this meta-analysis would aid the selection of aquatic plants suitable for heavy-metal absorption from polluted waters. PMID:26703632

  7. Ballast Blockade: Stopping Aquatic Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sara

    2003-01-01

    Presents students with six ballast water treatment methods to evaluate. Allows students to acquaint themselves with current Great Lakes topics while simultaneously partaking in decision-making processes that could affect them. Emphasizes not only an important environmental issue for the Great Lakes, but also the importance of decision-making…

  8. Gradual adaptation of bone structure to aquatic lifestyle in extinct sloths from Peru.

    PubMed

    Amson, Eli; de Muizon, Christian; Laurin, Michel; Argot, Christine; de Buffrénil, Vivian

    2014-05-07

    Non-pathological densification (osteosclerosis) and swelling (pachyostosis) of bones are the main modifications affecting the skeleton of land vertebrates (tetrapods) that returned to water. However, a precise temporal calibration of the acquisition of such adaptations is still wanting. Here, we assess the timing of such acquisition using the aquatic sloth Thalassocnus, from the Neogene of the Pisco Formation, Peru. This genus is represented by five species occurring in successive vertebrate-bearing horizons of distinct ages. It yields the most detailed data about the gradual acquisition of aquatic adaptations among tetrapods, in displaying increasing osteosclerosis and pachyostosis through time. Such modifications, reflecting a shift in the habitat from terrestrial to aquatic, occurred over a short geological time span (ca 4 Myr). Otherwise, the bones of terrestrial pilosans (sloths and anteaters) are much more compact than the mean mammalian condition, which suggests that the osteosclerosis of Thalassocnus may represent an exaptation.

  9. RhizoFlowCell system reveals early effects of micropollutants on aquatic plant rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Mynampati, Kalyan Chakravarthy; Lee, Yong Jian; Wijdeveld, Arjan; Reuben, Sheela; Samavedham, Lakshminarayanan; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Swarup, Sanjay

    2015-12-01

    In aquatic systems, one of the non-destructive ways to quantify toxicity of contaminants to plants is to monitor changes in root exudation patterns. In aquatic conditions, monitoring and quantifying such changes are currently challenging because of dilution of root exudates in water phase and lack of suitable instrumentation to measure them. Exposure to pollutants would not only change the plant exudation, but also affect the microbial communities that surround the root zone, thereby changing the metabolic profiles of the rhizosphere. This study aims at developing a device, the RhizoFlowCell, which can quantify metabolic response of plants, as well as changes in the microbial communities, to give an estimate of the stress to which the rhizosphere is exposed. The usefulness of RhizoFlowCell is demonstrated using naphthalene as a test pollutant. Results show that RhizoFlowCell system is useful in quantifying the dynamic metabolic response of aquatic rhizosphere to determine ecosystem health.

  10. Global warming and environmental contaminants in aquatic organisms: the need of the etho-toxicology approach.

    PubMed

    Manciocco, Arianna; Calamandrei, Gemma; Alleva, Enrico

    2014-04-01

    Environmental contaminants are associated with a wide spectrum of pathological effects. Temperature increase affects ambient distribution and toxicity of these chemicals in the water environment, representing a potentially emerging problem for aquatic species with short-, medium- and long-term repercussions on human health through the food chain. We assessed peer-reviewed literature, including primary studies, review articles and organizational reports available. We focused on studies concerning toxicity of environmental pollutants within a global warming scenario. Existing knowledge on the effects that the increase of water temperature in a contaminated situation has on physiological mechanisms of aquatic organisms is presented. Altogether we consider the potential consequences for the human beings due to fish and shellfish consumption. Finally, we propose an etho-toxicological approach to study the effects of toxicants in conditions of thermal increase, using aquatic organisms as experimental models under laboratory controlled conditions.

  11. Gradual adaptation of bone structure to aquatic lifestyle in extinct sloths from Peru

    PubMed Central

    Amson, Eli; de Muizon, Christian; Laurin, Michel; Argot, Christine; de Buffrénil, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    Non-pathological densification (osteosclerosis) and swelling (pachyostosis) of bones are the main modifications affecting the skeleton of land vertebrates (tetrapods) that returned to water. However, a precise temporal calibration of the acquisition of such adaptations is still wanting. Here, we assess the timing of such acquisition using the aquatic sloth Thalassocnus, from the Neogene of the Pisco Formation, Peru. This genus is represented by five species occurring in successive vertebrate-bearing horizons of distinct ages. It yields the most detailed data about the gradual acquisition of aquatic adaptations among tetrapods, in displaying increasing osteosclerosis and pachyostosis through time. Such modifications, reflecting a shift in the habitat from terrestrial to aquatic, occurred over a short geological time span (ca 4 Myr). Otherwise, the bones of terrestrial pilosans (sloths and anteaters) are much more compact than the mean mammalian condition, which suggests that the osteosclerosis of Thalassocnus may represent an exaptation. PMID:24621950

  12. Nutrition, illness, and injury in aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Pyne, David B; Verhagen, Evert A; Mountjoy, Margo

    2014-08-01

    In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of illness and injury. Aquatic athletes are encouraged to consume a well-planned diet with sufficient calories, macronutrients (particularly carbohydrate and protein), and micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6, and B12) to maintain health and performance. Ingesting carbohydrate via sports drinks, gels, or sports foods during prolonged training sessions is beneficial in maintaining energy availability. Studies of foods or supplements containing plant polyphenols and selected strains of probiotic species are promising, but further research is required. In terms of injury, intake of vitamin D, protein, and total caloric intake, in combination with treatment and resistance training, promotes recovery back to full health and training.

  13. Aquatic exercise & balneotherapy in musculoskeletal conditions.

    PubMed

    Verhagen, Arianne P; Cardoso, Jefferson R; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A

    2012-06-01

    This is a best-evidence synthesis providing an evidence-based summary on the effectiveness of aquatic exercises and balneotherapy in the treatment of musculoskeletal conditions. The most prevalent musculoskeletal conditions addressed in this review include: low back pain, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis. Over 30 years of research demonstrates that exercises in general, and specifically aquatic exercises, are beneficial for reducing pain and disability in many musculoskeletal conditions demonstrating small to moderate effect sizes ranging between 0.19 and 0.32. Balneotherapy might be beneficial, but the evidence is yet insufficient to make a definitive statement about its use. High-quality trials are needed on balneotherapy and aquatic exercises research especially in specific patient categories that might benefit most.

  14. Synergistic childhood adversities and complex adult psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Putnam, Karen T; Harris, William W; Putnam, Frank W

    2013-08-01

    Numerous studies find a cumulative effect of different types of childhood adversities on increasing risk for serious adult mental and medical outcomes. This study uses the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication sample to investigate the cumulative impact of 8 childhood adversities on complex adult psychopathology as indexed by (a) number of lifetime diagnoses according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994); (b) number of 4 DSM-IV disorder categories (mood, anxiety, impulse control, and substance abuse disorders); and (c) coexistence of internalizing and externalizing disorders. Seven of the 8 childhood adversities were significantly associated with complex adult psychopathology. Individuals with 4 or more childhood adversities had an odds ratio of 7.3, 95% confidence interval [4.7, 11.7] for 4 disorder categories. Additive and multiplicative synergistic effects increasing adult psychopathology were found for specific pairwise combinations of childhood adversities. Synergistic patterns differed by gender suggesting that women are more impacted by sexual abuse and men by economic hardship. The absence of childhood adversities was protective, in that it significantly decreased an individual's risk for subsequent adult mental illness. The results support the clinical impression that increased childhood adversity is associated with more complex adult psychopathology.

  15. Adaptive features of aquatic mammals' eye.

    PubMed

    Mass, Alla M; Supin, Alexander Ya

    2007-06-01

    The eye of aquatic mammals demonstrates several adaptations to both underwater and aerial vision. This study offers a review of eye anatomy in four groups of aquatic animals: cetaceans (toothed and baleen whales), pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses), sirenians (manatees and dugongs), and sea otters. Eye anatomy and optics, retinal laminar morphology, and topography of ganglion cell distribution are discussed with particular reference to aquatic specializations for underwater versus aerial vision. Aquatic mammals display emmetropia (i.e., refraction of light to focus on the retina) while submerged, and most have mechanisms to achieve emmetropia above water to counter the resulting aerial myopia. As underwater vision necessitates adjusting to wide variations in luminosity, iris muscle contractions create species-specific pupil shapes that regulate the amount of light entering the pupil and, in pinnipeds, work in conjunction with a reflective optic tapetum. The retina of aquatic mammals is similar to that of nocturnal terrestrial mammals in containing mainly rod photoreceptors and a minor number of cones (however, residual color vision may take place). A characteristic feature of the cetacean and pinniped retina is the large size of ganglion cells separated by wide intercellular spaces. Studies of topographic distribution of ganglion cells in the retina of cetaceans revealed two areas of ganglion cell concentration (the best-vision areas) located in the temporal and nasal quadrants; pinnipeds, sirenians, and sea otters have only one such area. In general, the visual system of marine mammals demonstrates a high degree of development and several specific features associated with adaptation for vision in both the aquatic and aerial environments.

  16. Seasonal comparison of aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in a flooded coastal freshwater marsh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kang, Sung-Ryong; King, Sammy L.

    2013-01-01

    Marsh flooding and drying may be important factors affecting aquatic macroinvertebrate density and distribution in coastal freshwater marshes. Limited availability of water as a result of drying in emergent marsh may decrease density, taxonomic diversity, and taxa richness. The principal objectives of this study are to characterize the seasonal aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblage in a freshwater emergent marsh and compare aquatic macroinvertebrate species composition, density, and taxonomic diversity to that of freshwater marsh ponds. We hypothesize that 1) freshwater emergent marsh has lower seasonal density and taxonomic diversity compared to that of freshwater marsh ponds; and 2) freshwater emergent marsh has lower taxa richness than freshwater marsh ponds. Seasonal aquatic macroinvertebrate density in freshwater emergent marsh ranged from 0 organisms/m2 (summer 2009) to 91.1 ± 20.53 organisms/m2 (mean ± SE; spring 2009). Density in spring was higher than in all other seasons. Taxonomic diversity did not differ and there were no unique species in the freshwater emergent marsh. Our data only partially support our first hypothesis as aquatic macroinvertebrate density and taxonomic diversity between freshwater emergent marsh and ponds did not differ in spring, fall, and winter but ponds supported higher macroinvertebrate densities than freshwater emergent marsh during summer. However, our data did not support our second hypothesis as taxa richness between freshwater emergent marsh and ponds did not statistically differ.

  17. Ecosystem-phase interactions: aquatic eutrophication decreases terrestrial plant diversity in California vernal pools.

    PubMed

    Kneitel, Jamie M; Lessin, Carrie L

    2010-06-01

    Eutrophication has long been known to negatively affect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. In freshwater ecosystems, excessive nutrient input results in a shift from vascular plant dominance to algal dominance, while the nutrient-species richness relationship is found to be unimodal. Eutrophication studies are usually conducted in continuously aquatic or terrestrial habitats, but it is unclear how these patterns may be altered by temporal heterogeneity driven by precipitation and temperature variation. The California vernal pool (CVP) ecosystem consists of three distinct phases (aquatic, terrestrial, and dry) caused by variation in climatic conditions. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that resource addition during the aquatic phase results in increased algal abundance, which reduces vascular plant cover and richness of the terrestrial phase upon desiccation. We used mesocosms layered with CVP soil, in which treatments consisted of five levels of nitrogen and phosphorous added every 2 weeks. Resource addition increased available phosphorus levels and algae cover during the aquatic phase. Increased algal crusts resulted in decreased vascular plant percent cover and species richness. Few significant patterns were observed with individual plant species and total biomass. The phosphorus-plant richness relationship was not significant, but species composition was significantly different among the low and high treatment comparisons. These results highlight a neglected effect of eutrophication in seasonal habitats. Interactions among ecosystem phases clearly require more attention empirically and theoretically. Management and restoration of temporally heterogeneous habitat, such as the endemic-rich CVP, need to consider the extensive effects of increased nutrient input.

  18. Application of adverse outcome pathway-based tools to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Increasing numbers and diversity of chemical contaminants are being detected in ambient surface waters. States, regions, and communities across the US are faced with the issue of understanding which chemicals may warrant concern and at what concentrations. Integrating new scientific data streams and predictive approaches into the process of numeric water aquatic life criteria development offers the potential to develop more criteria, for more chemicals, more rapidly. For example, well established models of non-polar narcosis provide an effective estimate of “baseline” toxicity. Emerging data streams from high throughput, pathway-based, toxicity testing programs provide broad spectrum screening for more specific modes of action that may result in deviations from “baseline” toxicity predictions (i.e., excess toxicity). The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework provides a scientifically credible basis for linking specific pathway-perturbations to predicted hazard and facilitates systematic consideration of taxa and life stages likely to be sensitive. Application of this information can facilitate more targeted and hypothesis-driven approaches to the collection of data for use in numeric criteria development. It can also support interim application of appropriate AOP-based prediction models in cases where empirical data are lacking. While these approaches will be subject to error and uncertainty, they offer the ability to provide a scientifically-based pre

  19. Adverse Effects of Wheat Gluten.

    PubMed

    Koning, Frits

    2015-01-01

    Man began to consume cereals approximately 10,000 years ago when hunter-gatherers settled in the fertile golden crescent in the Middle East. Gluten has been an integral part of the Western type of diet ever since, and wheat consumption is also common in the Middle East, parts of India and China as well as Australia and Africa. In fact, the food supply in the world heavily depends on the availability of cereal-based food products, with wheat being one of the largest crops in the world. Part of this is due to the unique properties of wheat gluten, which has a high nutritional value and is crucial for the preparation of high-quality dough. In the last 10 years, however, wheat and gluten have received much negative attention. Many believe that it is inherently bad for our health and try to avoid consumption of gluten-containing cereals; a gluten-low lifestyle so to speak. This is fueled by a series of popular publications like Wheat Belly; Lose the Wheat, Lose the Weight, and Find Your Path Back to Health. However, in reality, there is only one condition where gluten is definitively the culprit: celiac disease (CD), affecting approximately 1% of the population in the Western world. Here, I describe the complexity of the cereals from which gluten is derived, the special properties of gluten which make it so widely used in the food industry, the basis for its toxicity in CD patients and the potential for the development of safe gluten and alternatives to the gluten-free diet.

  20. Mismatch or allostatic load? Timing of life adversity differentially shapes gray matter volume and anxious temperament.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Manuel; Scharfenort, Robert; Schümann, Dirk; Schiele, Miriam A; Münsterkötter, Anna L; Deckert, Jürgen; Domschke, Katharina; Haaker, Jan; Kalisch, Raffael; Pauli, Paul; Reif, Andreas; Romanos, Marcel; Zwanzger, Peter; Lonsdorf, Tina B

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally, adversity was defined as the accumulation of environmental events (allostatic load). Recently however, a mismatch between the early and the later (adult) environment (mismatch) has been hypothesized to be critical for disease development, a hypothesis that has not yet been tested explicitly in humans. We explored the impact of timing of life adversity (childhood and past year) on anxiety and depression levels (N = 833) and brain morphology (N = 129). Both remote (childhood) and proximal (recent) adversities were differentially mirrored in morphometric changes in areas critically involved in emotional processing (i.e. amygdala/hippocampus, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, respectively). The effect of adversity on affect acted in an additive way with no evidence for interactions (mismatch). Structural equation modeling demonstrated a direct effect of adversity on morphometric estimates and anxiety/depression without evidence of brain morphology functioning as a mediator. Our results highlight that adversity manifests as pronounced changes in brain morphometric and affective temperament even though these seem to represent distinct mechanistic pathways. A major goal of future studies should be to define critical time periods for the impact of adversity and strategies for intervening to prevent or reverse the effects of adverse childhood life experiences.

  1. Mismatch or allostatic load? Timing of life adversity differentially shapes gray matter volume and anxious temperament

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Manuel; Scharfenort, Robert; Schümann, Dirk; Schiele, Miriam A.; Münsterkötter, Anna L.; Deckert, Jürgen; Domschke, Katharina; Haaker, Jan; Kalisch, Raffael; Pauli, Paul; Reif, Andreas; Romanos, Marcel; Zwanzger, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, adversity was defined as the accumulation of environmental events (allostatic load). Recently however, a mismatch between the early and the later (adult) environment (mismatch) has been hypothesized to be critical for disease development, a hypothesis that has not yet been tested explicitly in humans. We explored the impact of timing of life adversity (childhood and past year) on anxiety and depression levels (N = 833) and brain morphology (N = 129). Both remote (childhood) and proximal (recent) adversities were differentially mirrored in morphometric changes in areas critically involved in emotional processing (i.e. amygdala/hippocampus, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, respectively). The effect of adversity on affect acted in an additive way with no evidence for interactions (mismatch). Structural equation modeling demonstrated a direct effect of adversity on morphometric estimates and anxiety/depression without evidence of brain morphology functioning as a mediator. Our results highlight that adversity manifests as pronounced changes in brain morphometric and affective temperament even though these seem to represent distinct mechanistic pathways. A major goal of future studies should be to define critical time periods for the impact of adversity and strategies for intervening to prevent or reverse the effects of adverse childhood life experiences. PMID:26568620

  2. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Field methods to measure aquatic plant treatment method efficacy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Killgore, K.J.; Payne, B.S.

    1984-04-01

    The Aquatic Plant Control Research Program (APCRP) of the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) is developing field techniques to measure treatment efficacy and to determine site characteristics that influence the treatment efficacy. Treatment efficacy is considered a quantitative determination of the extent and duration of changes in problem aquatic plant populations attributable to the use of a treatment method (i.e., chemical, mechanical, biological, environmental). Depending on the plant species, efficacy can be determined or indicated by changes in biomass, areal distribution, or height of an aquatic plant in response to treatment. Aquatic plant biomass is sampled with a WES aquatic biomass sampler; areal distribution of aquatic plants is determined by aerial photography or with an electronic positioning system; and submersed aquatic plant height is measured with a fathometer (depth recorder) used with an electronic positioning and repositioning system (AGNAV). The APCRP has also developed field techniques to determine site characteristics that influence efficacy using commercially available instrumentation. This instrumentation can be used to measure treatment efficacy and to determine site characteristics simultaneously.

  3. Characterizing Geohydrologic Linkages using Process Domains for Monitoring Aquatic Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weekes, A.; Torgersen, C.; Montgomery, D. R.; Woodward, A.; Bolton, S.

    2009-12-01

    Aquatic habitats in glaciated headwater basins can differ widely within a mountain region and are often more complex than those found in lowland river systems. Current legislative mandates for ecosystem monitoring often require the ability to relate geomorphic and hydrologic stream attributes to ecological response. The capacity to define meaningful references states against which to evaluate current status and trends is particularly challenging in mountain aquatic ecosystems. To aid in the implementation of the National Park Service (NPS) Vital Signs Monitoring Program in the mountainous North Coast and Cascades Network (NCCN) parks, this project sought a systematic way to characterize both the spatial distribution of geomorphic controls within the stream hierarchy and to integrate hydrologic response. These controls comprise the physical context that supports biotic “vital signs” in park ecosystems and have consequences that directly affect the life history strategies and persistence of biota living in mountain streams and other aquatic habitats. However, there are currently no monitoring protocols that provide a precedent for incorporating the geomorphic spatial characteristics or diverse types of hydrologic response at the spatial and temporal scales unique to these headwater systems. To address this issue, we investigated relationships between valley-scale glacial macroforms and hydrologic indices (e.g. streamflow gauging, stable isotope analysis and water temperature measurements) in small (1 - 20 km2) headwater basins on the east side of Mount Rainier National Park. The linkage between geomorphic and hydrologic response was found to be best expressed in process domains defined as colluvial, alluvial and bedrock systems. Study results show a correlation between the percentage of colluvial process domains within a headwater catchment and the characteristic hydrologic regime of the basin. These relationships offer a framework that can account for the innate

  4. Aquatic exercise for children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Michelle; Darrah, Johanna

    2005-12-01

    Exercise for children with cerebral palsy (CP) is gaining popularity among pediatric physical therapists as an intervention choice. Exercise in water appeals to children with CP because of the unique quality of buoyancy of water that reduces joint loading and impact, and decreases the negative influences of poor balance and poor postural control. In this paper, research of land-based exercise and aquatic exercise for children with CP is reviewed. Clinically relevant considerations for aquatic exercise programming for children with CP are discussed.

  5. Aquatic ape theory and fossil hominids.

    PubMed

    Verhaegen, M J

    1991-06-01

    While most older palaeo-anthropological studies emphasise the similarities of the fossil hominids with modern man, recent studies often stress the unique and the apelike features of the australopithecine dentitions, skulls and postcranial bones. It is worth reconsidering the features of Australopithecus, Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis in the light of the so-called Aquatic Ape Theory (AAT) of Hardy and Morgan, and to compare the skeletal parts of our fossil relatives with those of (semi)aquatic animals. Possible convergences are observed with proboscis monkeys, beavers, sea-otters, hippopotamuses, seals, sea-lions, walruses, sea-cows, whales, dolphins, porpoises, penguins and crocodiles.

  6. Aquatic snails, passive hosts of Mycobacterium ulcerans.

    PubMed

    Marsollier, Laurent; Sévérin, Tchibozo; Aubry, Jacques; Merritt, Richard W; Saint André, Jean-Paul; Legras, Pierre; Manceau, Anne-Lise; Chauty, Annick; Carbonnelle, Bernard; Cole, Stewart T

    2004-10-01

    Accumulative indirect evidence of the epidemiology of Mycobacterium ulcerans infections causing chronic skin ulcers (i.e., Buruli ulcer disease) suggests that the development of this pathogen and its transmission to humans are related predominantly to aquatic environments. We report that snails could transitorily harbor M. ulcerans without offering favorable conditions for its growth and replication. A novel intermediate link in the transmission chain of M. ulcerans becomes likely with predator aquatic insects in addition to phytophage insects. Water bugs, such as Naucoris cimicoides, a potential vector of M. ulcerans, were shown to be infected specifically by this bacterium after feeding on snails experimentally exposed to M. ulcerans.

  7. Uncertainty Comparison of Visual Sensing in Adverse Weather Conditions†

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Chen, Lun-Chi; Tseng, Chien-Hao; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on flood-region detection using monitoring images. However, adverse weather affects the outcome of image segmentation methods. In this paper, we present an experimental comparison of an outdoor visual sensing system using region-growing methods with two different growing rules—namely, GrowCut and RegGro. For each growing rule, several tests on adverse weather and lens-stained scenes were performed, taking into account and analyzing different weather conditions with the outdoor visual sensing system. The influence of several weather conditions was analyzed, highlighting their effect on the outdoor visual sensing system with different growing rules. Furthermore, experimental errors and uncertainties obtained with the growing rules were compared. The segmentation accuracy of flood regions yielded by the GrowCut, RegGro, and hybrid methods was 75%, 85%, and 87.7%, respectively. PMID:27447642

  8. Mechanisms and assessment of statin-related muscular adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Moßhammer, Dirk; Schaeffeler, Elke; Schwab, Matthias; Mörike, Klaus

    2014-09-01

    Statin-associated muscular adverse effects cover a wide range of symptoms, including asymptomatic increase of creatine kinase serum activity and life-threatening rhabdomyolysis. Different underlying pathomechanisms have been proposed. However, a unifying concept of the pathogenesis of statin-related muscular adverse effects has not emerged so far. In this review, we attempt to categorize these mechanisms along three levels. Firstly, among pharmacokinetic factors, it has been shown for some statins that inhibition of cytochrome P450-mediated hepatic biotransformation and hepatic uptake by transporter proteins contribute to an increase of systemic statin concentrations. Secondly, at the myocyte membrane level, cell membrane uptake transporters affect intracellular statin concentrations. Thirdly, at the intracellular level, inhibition of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase results in decreased intracellular concentrations of downstream metabolites (e.g. selenoproteins, ubiquinone, cholesterol) and alteration of gene expression (e.g. ryanodine receptor 3, glycine amidinotransferase). We also review current recommendations for prescribers.

  9. Chemical research on red pigments after adverse reactions to tattoo.

    PubMed

    Tammaro, A; Toniolo, C; Giulianelli, V; Serafini, M; Persechino, S

    2016-03-01

    Currently, the incidence of tattooing is on the rise compared to the past, especially among adolescents, and it leads to the urgency of monitoring the security status of tattooing centers, as well as to inform people about the risks of tattoo practice. In our clinical experience, 20% of tattooed patients presented adverse reactions, like allergic contact dermatitis, psoriasis with Koebner's phenomena and granulomatous reactions, with the latter most prevalent and most often related to red pigment. Adverse reactions to tattoo pigments, especially the red one, are well known and described in literature. Great attention has to be focused on the pigments used, especially for the presence of new substances, often not well known. For this reason, we decided to perform a study on 12 samples of red tattoo ink, obtained by patients affected by different cutaneous reactions in the site of tattoo, to analyze their chemical composition.

  10. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program: The Rhizosphere Microbiology of Rooted Aquatic Plants.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    AD-A94 93 *T: I ZSH~z:UI inI UNCASIFI H4.5fo’AOC) I’l W4,F/G 8/1 HL IWE. ,.n~SP1.4 AQUATIC PLANT CONTROLFILE C ~~RESEARCH PROGRAM US~ ~ AryCop of...Egns MISCELLANEOUS PAPER A-88-4 THE RHIZOSPHERE MICROBIOLOGY OF ROOTED AQUATIC PLANTS A 4 &L-Aby MA) Douglas Gunnison, John W. Barko o ~ ’.Environmental...Washington, DC 20314-1000 ELEMENT NO NO NO ACCESSION NO 11 TITLE (Include Security Classification) The Rhizosphere Microbiology of Rooted Aquatic Plants

  11. The role of "the aquatic" in human evolution: constraining the aquatic ape hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Foley, Robert; Lahr, Marta Mirazón

    2014-01-01

    Few things show the distinctiveness of human evolution research better than the Aquatic Ape Hypothesis (AAH). On one hand, we have "orthodox" research into human evolution, firmly based on land; on the other, we have the aquatic ape community, convinced not only that our ancestors went through an aquatic phase, but that the professional scientific community ignores their work and keeps it out of the mainstream. How many fields of science have two entirely parallel communities that essentially are hermetically sealed from each other?

  12. [Cardiovascular pharmacotherapy. Risks and adverse effects].

    PubMed

    Voigt, N; Heijman, J; Dobrev, D

    2014-03-01

    Adverse side effects of drugs are a significantly underestimated problem in modern medicine. In this review article, we summarize common adverse side effects of cardiovascular drugs. In particular, we highlight the factors promoting these adverse side effects in patients, including reduced hepatic or renal clearance in elderly patients that often requires dosage adjustment. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between drugs (e.g. through the cytochrome P450 system or P-glycoproteins) can modify the plasma concentration of many compounds, thereby also increasing the likelihood of unwanted side effects. The most prominent cardiac side effects include arrhythmias, e.g. atrioventricular (AV) block, drug-induced long-QT syndrome and torsade de pointes and altered inotropy. Non-cardiac side effects are subsequently discussed grouped by drug class. A better understanding of the risks and side effects of cardiovascular drugs is expected to reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with adverse side effects.

  13. Childhood adversities and psychosis: evidence, challenges, implications

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Craig; Gayer‐Anderson, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    There is a substantial body of research reporting evidence of associations between various forms of childhood adversity and psychosis, across the spectrum from experiences to disorder. This has been extended, more recently, to include studies of cumulative effects, of interactions with other factors, of specific effects, and of putative biological and psychological mechanisms. In this paper we evaluate this research and highlight the remaining methodological issues and gaps that temper, but do not dismiss, conclusions about the causal role of childhood adversity. We also consider the emerging work on cumulative, synergistic, and specific effects and on mechanisms; and discuss the broader implications of this line of research for our understanding of psychosis. We conclude that the current balance of evidence is that childhood adversities – particularly exposure to multiple adversities involving hostility and threat – do, in some people, contribute to the onset of psychotic experiences and psychotic disorders. PMID:27265690

  14. Childhood adversity: a review of measurement instruments.

    PubMed

    Burgermeister, Diane

    2007-01-01

    Measurement instruments are needed to stimulate research on the long-term outcomes of childhood adversity. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to locate, describe, and assess instruments to measure retrospective perceptions of childhood adversity. An electronic search of instruments was conducted using a combination of keywords that included child maltreatment, child trauma, and childhood stressful events. Nine instruments were located and described according to format, definition of childhood adversity as measured by the instrument, characteristics of the sample used in development and testing, reliability and validity evidence, and feasibility for use. Six out of the nine instruments were suitable for investigators who require a comprehensive measure of childhood adversity. Corroboration with independent sources and use of randomized samples are needed to improve upon reports of validity.

  15. RACIAL RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    INTRODUCTION. The disparity between black and white women's adverse birth outcomes has been subject to much investigation, yet the factors underlying its persistence remain elusive, which has encouraged research on neighborhood-level influences, including racial residential segr...

  16. Adverse Outcome Pathways: From Definition to Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    A challenge for both human health and ecological toxicologists is the transparent application of mechanistic (e.g., molecular, biochemical, histological) data to risk assessments. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) is a conceptual framework designed to meet this need. Specifical...

  17. Design of Adverse Drug Events-Scorecards.

    PubMed

    Marcilly, Romaric; Chazard, Emmanuel; Beuscart-Zéphir, Marie-Catherine; Hackl, Werner; Băceanu, Adrian; Kushniruk, Andre; Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design of Adverse Drug Event-Scorecards. The scorecards described are innovative and novel, not having previously been reported in the literature. The Scorecards provide organizations (e.g. hospitals) with summary information about Adverse Drug Events (ADEs) using a Web-based platform. The data used in the Scorecards are routinely updated and report on ADEs detected through data mining processes. The development of the ADE Scorecards is ongoing and they are currently undergoing clinical testing.

  18. [Allergies and adverse events associated with fluoroquinolones].

    PubMed

    Muller, Y; Andrey, D; Emonet, S; Harr, T; Spoerl, D

    2015-04-08

    The prescription ot fluoroquinolones has been constantly increasing over the past decade. consequently, an increasing number of hyper-sensitivity reactions and adverse events have been reported. The aim of the review is to discuss the incidence of hypersensitivity reactions either IgE (immediate) or T cells mediated (delayed). We will make an overview ofthe diagnostic tools available to detect such hypersensitivity reactions. Finally, the specific adverse events associated with fluoroquinolones, including tendinopathy, chondrotoxicity, peripheral neuropathy or retinal detachment will be discussed.

  19. Childhood adversity and frequent medical consultations.

    PubMed

    Fiddler, Maggie; Jackson, Judy; Kapur, Navneet; Wells, Adrian; Creed, Francis

    2004-01-01

    We assessed possible psychological mediators of the relationship between childhood adversity and frequent medical consultations among new outpatients at neurology, cardiology, and gastroenterology clinics. We assessed whether these differed in patients with and without organic disease that explained their symptoms. At first clinic visit we recorded Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS--anxiety and depression subscale scores), Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ--four subscales: consequences, cure, identity, timeline), Health Anxiety Questionnaire (total score), and Symptom Amplification Scale (total score). Subjects were divided into two groups according to whether they had experienced any type of childhood adversity using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Schedule. Outcome was the (log) number of medical consultations for 12 months before and 6 months after the index clinic visits. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine mediators; this was performed separately for patients with symptoms explained and not explained by organic disease. One-hundred and twenty-nine patients (61% response) were interviewed. Fifty-two (40.3%) had experienced childhood adversity; they made a median of 16 doctor visits compared with 10 for those without adversity (adjusted P=.026). IPQ identity score (number of symptoms attributed to the illness) and HAD depression scores were significantly associated with both childhood adversity and number of medical consultations and these variables acted as mediators between childhood adversity and frequency of consultation in the multiple regression analyses. This association was limited to patients with medically unexplained symptoms and was mediated by IPQ Identity Score (number of symptoms attributed to the patient's illness) and HAD depression score. Sexual abuse and overt neglect were the adversities most closely associated with frequent consultations. In patients with medically unexplained symptoms the association

  20. Adverse drug reactions in hospitalized Colombian children

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Agudelo, Daniela; Burgos-Flórez, Francisco Javier; Vaca, Claudia; Serrano-Meriño, Dolores Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The occurrence of adverse drug reactions is an important issue due to the lack of drug safety data in children. Objective: To describe the Adverse Drug Reactions in inpatient children under 6 years of age in two general pediatrics wards located in Barranquilla, Colombia. Methods: A prospective cohort study based on intensive pharmacovigilance was conducted during six months in order to monitor the emergence of Adverse Drug Reactions in inpatients children under 6 years of age with at least one medication prescribed. The study was conducted in two pediatric wards of two hospitals located in Barranquilla, Colombia. Naranjo´s Algorithm was used to evaluate imputability, the modified Hartwig and Siegel assessment scale to establish severity and the Schumock and Thornton criteria to determine preventability. Results: Of a total of 772 monitored patients, 156 Adverse Drug Reactions were detected on 147 children. The cumulative incidence of Adverse Drug Reactions was 19.0% (147/772); the incidence density was 37.6 Adverse Drug Reactions per 1,000 patients-days (147/3,913). The frequency was higher in children under 2 years of age (12.7%). Emergence of Adverse Drug Reactions was higher in male patients (RR= 1.66; 95% CI= 1.22-2.22, p= 0.001) and in those who used systemic antibiotics (RR= 1.82; 95% CI= 1.17-2.82, p= 0.005). Conclusions: Adverse Drug Reactions are common among hospitalized children and represent an additional burden of morbidity and risk, particularly in those who used several medicines, including antibiotics. PMID:27821893

  1. Chapter 5. Assessing the Aquatic Hazards of Veterinary Medicines

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, there has been increasing awareness of the widespread distribution of low concentrations of veterinary medicine products and other pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. While aquatic hazard for a select group of veterinary medicines has received previous s...

  2. Why Care About Aquatic Insects: Uses, Benefits, and Services

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mayflies and other aquatic insects are common subjects of ecological research, and environmental monitoring and assessment. However, their important role in protecting and restoring aquatic ecosystems is often challenged, because their benefits and services to humans are not obv...

  3. Tracking contaminant flux from aquatic to terrestrial food webs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic insects provide a critical energy subsidy to riparian food webs, yet their role as vectors of contaminants to terrestrial ecosystems is poorly understood. We investigated aquatic resource utilization and contaminant exposure among riparian invertivores (spiders and herpt...

  4. Zebrafish as a model for zoonotic aquatic pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Hannah M.; Withey, Jeffrey H.; Neely, Melody N.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic habitats harbor a multitude of bacterial species. Many of these bacteria can act as pathogens to aquatic species and/or non-aquatic organisms, including humans, that come into contact with contaminated water sources or colonized aquatic organisms. In many instances, the bacteria are not pathogenic to the aquatic species they colonize and are only considered pathogens when they come into contact with humans. There is a general lack of knowledge about how the environmental lifestyle of these pathogens allows them to persist, replicate and produce the necessary pathogenic mechanisms to successfully transmit to the human host and cause disease. Recently, the zebrafish infectious disease model has emerged as an ideal system for examining aquatic pathogens, both in the aquatic environment and during infection of the human host. This review will focus on how the zebrafish has been used successfully to analyze the pathogenesis of aquatic bacterial pathogens. PMID:24607289

  5. Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan is an expression of the best professional judgment of the members of the Lake Superior Task Force as to what is necessary to protect Lake Superior from new aquatic invasive species.

  6. INTEGRATED STATE-FEDERAL PARTNERSHIP FOR AQUATIC RESOURCE MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fifteen federal agencies, 50 states, cities, counties, and 800-1000 volunteer organizations conduct aquatic resource monitoring in the United States. Most aquatic monitoring is project-specific focusing on individual locations or watersheds. The Clean Water Act requires states ...

  7. Recognizing and reporting adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, L. M.; Colley, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    Although physicians in practice are most likely to see patients with adverse drug reactions, they may fail to recognize an adverse effect or to attribute it to a drug effect and, when recognized, they may fail to report serious reactions to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). To recognize and attribute an adverse event to a drug effect, physicians should review the patient's clinical course, looking at patient risk factors, the known adverse reactions to the suspected drug, and the likelihood of a causal relationship between the drug and the adverse event-based on the temporal relationship, response to stopping or restarting the drug, and whether other factors could explain the reaction. Once an adverse drug reaction has been identified, the patient should be informed and appropriate documentation made in the patient's medical record. Serious known reactions and all reactions to newly released drugs or those not previously known to occur (even if the certainty is low) should be reported to the FDA. PMID:1536067

  8. The mode of bioturbation triggers pesticide remobilization from aquatic sediments.

    PubMed

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Schletz, Marco; Goedkoop, Willem

    2016-08-01

    After their release into the aquatic environment, contaminants may - depending on the physicochemical properties - adsorb to sediments. From there these contaminants can either be buried or remobilised by abiotic factors (e.g., resuspension) as well as by the bioturbating activity of sediment dwelling invertebrates. Little is, however, know about the effects of bioturbation on the fate of pesticides. Therefore, the present study quantified the impact of the bioturbation mode of benthic invertebrate species (bio-diffusor vs. bio-irrigation), the invertebrate density (i.e. 0-8 individuals per replicate), and the substance-inherent properties (i.e. hydrophobicity, water solubility) on the remobilization of sediment-associated pesticides in a laboratory-based set-up over 13 days. We found that both the bioturbation mode (i.e., species identity) and species density, as well as pesticide properties (i.e., hydrophobicity) affected the direction and magnitude of remobilisation of sediment-bound pesticides. The oligochaeta Lumbriculus variegatus showed a density-dependent effect on the remobilization of lindane to the water phase, whereas those with the amphipod Monoporeia affinis and larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius did not. Although these findings show that sediments not per definition are a sink for pesticides, the rates of pesticide remobilization are limited. This observation, thus, suggests that the risk for aquatic communities posed by the remobilization of pesticides from the sediment due to bioturbation is low.

  9. Aquatic noise pollution: implications for individuals, populations, and ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Kunc, Hansjoerg P.; McLaughlin, Kirsty Elizabeth; Schmidt, Rouven

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenically driven environmental changes affect our planet at an unprecedented scale and are considered to be a key threat to biodiversity. According to the World Health Organization, anthropogenic noise is one of the most hazardous forms of anthropogenically driven environmental change and is recognized as a major global pollutant. However, crucial advances in the rapidly emerging research on noise pollution focus exclusively on single aspects of noise pollution, e.g. on behaviour, physiology, terrestrial ecosystems, or on certain taxa. Given that more than two-thirds of our planet is covered with water, there is a pressing need to get a holistic understanding of the effects of anthropogenic noise in aquatic ecosystems. We found experimental evidence for negative effects of anthropogenic noise on an individual's development, physiology, and/or behaviour in both invertebrates and vertebrates. We also found that species differ in their response to noise, and highlight the potential underlying mechanisms for these differences. Finally, we point out challenges in the study of aquatic noise pollution and provide directions for future research, which will enhance our understanding of this globally present pollutant. PMID:27534952

  10. Bioaccumulation in aquatic systems: methodological approaches, monitoring and assessment.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Sabine; Buchmeier, Georgia; Claus, Evelyn; Duester, Lars; Heininger, Peter; Körner, Andrea; Mayer, Philipp; Paschke, Albrecht; Rauert, Caren; Reifferscheid, Georg; Rüdel, Heinz; Schlechtriem, Christian; Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Schudoma, Dieter; Smedes, Foppe; Steffen, Dieter; Vietoris, Friederike

    2015-01-01

    Bioaccumulation, the accumulation of a chemical in an organism relative to its level in the ambient medium, is of major environmental concern. Thus, monitoring chemical concentrations in biota are widely and increasingly used for assessing the chemical status of aquatic ecosystems. In this paper, various scientific and regulatory aspects of bioaccumulation in aquatic systems and the relevant critical issues are discussed. Monitoring chemical concentrations in biota can be used for compliance checking with regulatory directives, for identification of chemical sources or event-related environmental risk assessment. Assessing bioaccumulation in the field is challenging since many factors have to be considered that can affect the accumulation of a chemical in an organism. Passive sampling can complement biota monitoring since samplers with standardised partition properties can be used over a wide temporal and geographical range. Bioaccumulation is also assessed for regulation of chemicals of environmental concern whereby mainly data from laboratory studies on fish bioaccumulation are used. Field data can, however, provide additional important information for regulators. Strategies for bioaccumulation assessment still need to be harmonised for different regulations and groups of chemicals. To create awareness for critical issues and to mutually benefit from technical expertise and scientific findings, communication between risk assessment and monitoring communities needs to be improved. Scientists can support the establishment of new monitoring programs for bioaccumulation, e.g. in the frame of the amended European Environmental Quality Standard Directive.

  11. Aquatic noise pollution: implications for individuals, populations, and ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Kunc, Hansjoerg P; McLaughlin, Kirsty Elizabeth; Schmidt, Rouven

    2016-08-17

    Anthropogenically driven environmental changes affect our planet at an unprecedented scale and are considered to be a key threat to biodiversity. According to the World Health Organization, anthropogenic noise is one of the most hazardous forms of anthropogenically driven environmental change and is recognized as a major global pollutant. However, crucial advances in the rapidly emerging research on noise pollution focus exclusively on single aspects of noise pollution, e.g. on behaviour, physiology, terrestrial ecosystems, or on certain taxa. Given that more than two-thirds of our planet is covered with water, there is a pressing need to get a holistic understanding of the effects of anthropogenic noise in aquatic ecosystems. We found experimental evidence for negative effects of anthropogenic noise on an individual's development, physiology, and/or behaviour in both invertebrates and vertebrates. We also found that species differ in their response to noise, and highlight the potential underlying mechanisms for these differences. Finally, we point out challenges in the study of aquatic noise pollution and provide directions for future research, which will enhance our understanding of this globally present pollutant.

  12. ELF communications system ecological monitoring program: Aquatic ecosystem studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Thomas M.; Stout, R. J.; Winterstein, Scott; Coon, Thomas; Novinger, Doug

    1994-11-01

    The U.S. Navy has completed a program that monitored biota and ecological miationships for possible effects from electromagnetic (EM) fields produced by its Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communications System. This report documents the results and conclusions of aquatic studies conducted near its transmitting antenna in Michigan. From 1982 through 1993 researchers from the Michigan State University (MSU) monitored aquatic flora and fauna on matched reaches of the Ford River. A treatment site was located immediately adjacent to the antenna, whereas a control site was situated at a distance downstream. Functional and structural components of the periphyton, insect, and fish communities were monitored. The research team also measured ambient factors such as temperature, discharge, and water quality indicators. Data were analyzed using a variety of statistical tests; however, BACI techniques were emphasized. Results indicated a relative increase in algal biomass at the treatment site after the antenna became fully operational, but no changes in any other parameter or organism. MSU concludes that algal biomass was affected by ELF EM exposure. Since neither the other ecological characteristics of the periphyton nor the insect and fish communities showed any effects, MSU infers little EM impact to riverine habitats.

  13. Systems and Cycles: Learning about Aquatic Ecosystems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Jordan, Rebecca; Eberbach, Catherine; Rugaber, Spencer; Goel, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    In this research, the authors present both the design and preliminary testing of a technology-intensive classroom intervention designed to support middle schools students' understanding of an aquatic ecosystem. The goals of their intervention are to help learners develop deep understanding of ecosystems and to use tools that make the relationships…

  14. Science to support aquatic animal health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Harris, M. Camille

    2016-10-18

    Healthy aquatic ecosystems are home to a diversity of plants, invertebrates, fish and wildlife. Aquatic animal populations face unprecedented threats to their health and survival from climate change, water shortages, habitat alteration, invasive species and environmental contaminants. These environmental stressors can directly impact the prevalence and severity of disease in aquatic populations. For example, periodic fish kills in the upper Chesapeake Bay Watershed are associated with many different opportunistic pathogens that proliferate in stressed fish populations. An estimated 80 percent of endangered juvenile Puget Sound steelhead trout die within two weeks of entering the marine environment, and a role for disease in these losses is being investigated. The introduction of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) into the Great Lakes—a fishery worth an estimated 7 billion dollars annually—resulted in widespread fish die-offs and virus detections in 28 different fish species. Millions of dying sea stars along the west coast of North America have led to investigations into sea star wasting disease. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are assisting managers with these issues through ecological investigations of aquatic animal diseases, field surveillance, and research to promote the development of mitigation strategies.

  15. PAHS IN THE LAKE MICHIGAN AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    PAHs in the Lake Michigan Aquatic Ecosystem. Fernandez, JD*, Burkhard, LP, Cook, PM, Nichols, JW, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, U.S. EPA, Duluth MN. In this study, we are investigating the accumulation of PAHs in the Lake Michigan food web. Focusing on EPA's 16 "Priority Po...

  16. Toxicity of Ordnance Wastes in Aquatic Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-30

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Corvallis, Ore. 82 pp. Crosby, D.G., R.K. Tucker, and N. Aharonson. 1966. The detection of acute toxicity with Daphnia ... magna . Fd. Cosmet. Toxicol. 4:503-514. Dacre, 1. and R.W. Tew. 1973. Mammalian toxicology and toxicity to aquatic organisms of nitroglycerine, a

  17. Basic Fishing. Aquatic Skills Series. Instructor Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staton, Robert D., Jr.

    Part of a series of self-contained instructional units to teach Missourians how to use outdoor resources wisely and skillfully, this module of the Aquatic Skills Series introduces the basics of sport fishing using spin-casting equipment. The instructor may modify the module to meet the individual needs of class members based on age, experience…

  18. Art in Aquatic Education: Materials and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whann, Maryann Smeyda

    1983-01-01

    Described are activities which utilize marine science subjects. These include: assemblage, bas-relief, batik, collage, mobile, montage, paper-mache, and play-dough activities. Includes a list of general suggestions for teachers using aquatic art activities in the classroom. (JN)

  19. Applicator Training Manual for: Aquatic Weed Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herron, James W.

    The aquatic weeds discussed in this manual include algae, floating weeds, emersed weeds, and submerged weeds. Specific requirements for pesticide application are given for static water, limited flow, and moving water situations. Secondary effects of improper application rates and faulty application are described. Finally, techniques of limited…

  20. Aquatic Habitats, Level 4-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigel, Margaret

    Designed to acquaint students in grades 4-9 with aquatic plants and animals, this guide provides materials which can be used in preparation for field trips or laboratory work, for individual projects, as supplemental activities for a unit, or for learning center projects. Teacher background notes and an answer key for the student activites are…

  1. Aquatics Therapy and the Halliwick Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Alison; Thomson, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Aquatic therapy is the use of the properties of water for the therapeutic benefit of people of all ages and abilities. This article illustrates how people with disabilities may maximize the benefits of activities in water, including individual and group work and swimming. The overall aim is to encourage family activity and social interaction. The…

  2. Nano-plastics in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, K; Hansson, L-A; Cedervall, T

    2015-10-01

    The amount of plastics released to the environment in modern days has increased substantially since the development of modern plastics in the early 1900s. As a result, concerns have been raised by the public about the impact of plastics on nature and on, specifically, aquatic wildlife. Lately, much attention has been paid to macro- and micro-sized plastics and their impact on aquatic organisms. However, micro-sized plastics degrade subsequently into nano-sizes whereas nano-sized particles may be released directly into nature. Such particles have a different impact on aquatic organisms than larger pieces of plastic due to their small size, high surface curvature, and large surface area. This review describes the possible sources of nano-sized plastic, its distribution and behavior in nature, the impact of nano-sized plastic on the well-being of aquatic organisms, and the difference of impact between nano- and micro-sized particles. We also identify research areas which urgently need more attention and suggest experimental methods to obtain useful data.

  3. Aquatic Exercise and Heat-Related Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sova, Ruth

    1991-01-01

    Heat-related injuries in aquatics classes are possible, though 100 percent preventable. The article discusses heat-related syndromes; how bodies generate and dissipate heat; how elevated heart rates that burn calories differ from those that dissipate heat; and modification of exercise intensity to provide calorie-burning workouts without…

  4. Thermal Pollution Impact upon Aquatic Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiomoto, Gail T.; Olson, Betty H.

    1978-01-01

    Conventional and nuclear power plants release waste heat to cooling water which then returns to receiving bodies of surface water. This thermal pollution causes a variety of effects in the aquatic ecosystem. More must be learned about these effects to ensure adequate regulation of thermal discharges. (RE)

  5. Aquatic Pest Control. Sale Publication 4071.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    The information in this manual applies to control of aquatic pests in recreational waters, agricultural reservoirs, ornamental ponds, coastal bays, estuaries and channels, and drinking water reservoirs. Mechanical, cultural, biological, and chemical control methods are discussed. The majority of the material is devoted to weed control in static…

  6. Aquatic Habitats: Exploring Desktop Ponds. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Katharine; Willard, Carolyn

    This book, for grades 2-6, is designed to provide students with a highly motivating and unique opportunity to investigate an aquatic habitat. Students set up, observe, study, and reflect upon their own "desktop ponds." Accessible plants and small animals used in these activities include Elodea, Tubifex worms, snails, mosquito larvae, and fish.…

  7. Teachers and Aquatic Education--A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.

    The Minnesota Sea Grant Education Sub-program provided funds to the University of Minnesota in 1980 to develop aquatic education materials (dealing with freshwater systems) for grades 5-9. The project resulted in the development and classroom testing of 13 instructional modules. A second grant (1982) funded workshops to introduce Minnesota…

  8. Apparatus Induces And Fixes Small Aquatic Organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, Christopher

    1992-01-01

    Syringe-and-bag assembly compact, lightweight self-contained, portable apparatus introducing liquids to aquatic organisms. Isolates organisms from toxic substances until time of introduction. Includes plastic syringes, each containing inner, sealed, burstable bag. Adaptable to use in biological tests and experiments at remote locations on Earth.

  9. SEDIMENT ASSOCIATED PHOTOTOXICITY TO AQUATIC ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phototoxicity is a two to greater than 1000-fold increase in chemical toxicity caused by ultraviolet radation (UV), which has been demonstrated in a broad range of marine and freshwater fish, invertebrates, and other aquatic organisms in water column exposures. Field collected s...

  10. Adapted Aquatics for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Coleen A.

    2006-01-01

    This article provides information for physical education teachers to use while teaching their students with autism in an adapted aquatics unit plan. Crollick, Mancil, & Stopka (2006) have found that activities such as running, cycling, or swimming can reduce inappropriate behaviors in children who are autistic. They recommend further that…

  11. Focus on Preschool Aquatics: Child Care Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayre, Nancy E.

    This paper proposes state regulations for the training of child care staff members in developmentally appropriate safe aquatic practices, outlines required features of any pools that children visit, and suggests safe practices for water-related activities at child care centers and swimming pools. The staff training regulation suggestions include…

  12. Aquatic Habitat Bottom Classification Using ADCP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Description of physical aquatic habitat often includes data describing distributions of water depth, velocity and bed material type. Water depth and velocity in streams deeper than about 1 m may be continuously mapped using an acoustic Doppler current profiler from a moving boat. Herein we examine...

  13. Adverse selection with a multiple choice among health insurance plans: a simulation analysis.

    PubMed

    Marquis, M S

    1992-08-01

    This study uses simulation methods to quantify the effects of adverse selection. The data used to develop the model provide information about whether families can accurately forecast their risk and whether this forecast affects the purchase of insurance coverage--key conditions for adverse selection to matter. The results suggest that adverse selection is sufficient to eliminate high-option benefit plans in multiple choice markets if insurers charge a single, experience-rated premium. Adverse selection is substantially reduced if premiums are varied according to demographic factors. Adverse selection is also restricted in supplementary insurance markets. In this market, supplementary policies are underpriced because a part of the additional benefits that purchasers can expect is a cost to the base plan and is not reflected in the supplementary premium. As a result, full supplementary coverage is attractive to both low and high risks.

  14. CAM Photosynthesis in Submerged Aquatic Plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a CO2-concentrating mechanism selected in response to aridity in terrestrial habitats, and, in aquatic environments, to ambient limitations of carbon. Evidence is reviewed for its presence in five genera of aquatic vascular plants, including Isoe??tes, Sagittaria, Vallisneria, Crassula, and Littorella. Initially, aquatic CAM was considered by some to be an oxymoron, but some aquatic species have been studied in sufficient detail to say definitively that they possess CAM photosynthesis. CO2-concentrating mechanisms in photosynthetic organs require a barrier to leakage; e.g., terrestrial C4 plants have suberized bundle sheath cells and terrestrial CAM plants high stomatal resistance. In aquatic CAM plants the primary barrier to CO2 leakage is the extremely high diffusional resistance of water. This, coupled with the sink provided by extensive intercellular gas space, generates daytime CO2(Pi) comparable to terrestrial CAM plants. CAM contributes to the carbon budget by both net carbon gain and carbon recycling, and the magnitude of each is environmentally influenced. Aquatic CAM plants inhabit sites where photosynthesis is potentially limited by carbon. Many occupy moderately fertile shallow temporary pools that experience extreme diel fluctuations in carbon availability. CAM plants are able to take advantage of elevated nighttime CO2 levels in these habitats. This gives them a competitive advantage over non-CAM species that are carbon starved during the day and an advantage over species that expend energy in membrane transport of bicarbonate. Some aquatic CAM plants are distributed in highly infertile lakes, where extreme carbon limitation and light are important selective factors. Compilation of reports on diel changes in titratable acidity and malate show 69 out of 180 species have significant overnight accumulation, although evidence is presented discounting CAM in some. It is concluded that similar proportions of the aquatic

  15. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Habitat Value of Aquatic Plants for Fishes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    If larger populations of fish are less sensitive to predator effects (Pitcher, Magurran, Winfield 1982) and to interspecific competitive restraints...9 AQUATIC PLANT CONTROLA D-A239 569 RESEARCH PROGRAM _ __ I I 11111 111111 H 1111 1 il TECHNICAL REPORT A-91-5 S Arm CorpSEi HABITAT VALUE OF...AQUATIC PLANTS FOR FISHES by K. Jack Killgore Environmental Laboratory DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY Waterways Experiment Station, Corps of Engineers 30,,09 Halls

  16. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program: Effects of Water Chemistry on Submersed Aquatic Plants: A Synthesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    plants exhibiting C4 photosynthesis, C is conserved by refixing photorespired CO2. These terres- trial adaptations have counterparts in the aquatic...such as low photorespiration rates and low CO2 compensation points. The advantages of this photosynthetic pathway include conservation of... photorespired C and efficient C assimilation under the high dissolved oxygen and low free CO2 concentrations common in dense submersed aquatic plant populations

  17. Predatory aquatic beetles, suitable trace elements bioindicators.

    PubMed

    Burghelea, Carmen I; Zaharescu, Dragos G; Hooda, Peter S; Palanca-Soler, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Predatory aquatic beetles are common colonizers of natural and managed aquatic environments. While as important components of the aquatic food webs they are prone to accumulate trace elements, they have been largely neglected from metal uptake studies. We aim to test the suitability of three dytiscid species, i.e.Hydroglyphus pusillus, Laccophilus minutus and Rhantus suturalis, as trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) bioindicators. The work was carried out in a case area representing rice paddies and control sites (reservoirs) from an arid region known for its land degradation (Monegros, NE Spain). Categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA) was tested as a nonlinear approach to identify significant relationships between metals, species and habitat conditions so as to examine the ability of these species to reflect differences in metal uptake. Except Se and As, the average concentrations of all other elements in the beetles were higher in the rice fields than in the control habitats. The CATPCA determined that H. pusillus had high capacity to accumulate Fe, Ni and Mn regardless of the habitat type, and hence may not be capable of distinguishing habitat conditions with regards to these metals. On the other hand, L. minutus was found less sensitive for Se in non-managed habitats (i.e. reservoirs), while R. suturalis was good in accumulating Al, Mo and Pb in rice fields. The latter seems to be a promising bioindicator of metal enrichment in rice fields. We conclude that predatory aquatic beetles are good candidates for trace elements bioindication in impacted and non-impacted environments and can be used in environmental monitoring studies. CATPCA proved to be a reliable approach to unveil trends in metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates according to their habitat status.

  18. Safety in Aquatic Activities. Sports Safety Series. Monograph No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borozne, Joseph, Ed.; And Others

    The prevention of injuries and control of hazards in aquatic activities is outlined. Discussions include the causes and prevention of aquatic accidents, aquatic safety in the basic instructional program, the design of public swimming facilities, and safety considerations in pool operation and administration. A chapter is devoted to each of the…

  19. Professional Preparation in Aquatics Education--Curriculum Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    This document contains course outlines for a professional curriculum in aquatics at the college and university level, endorsed by the National Symposium on Professional Preparation in Aquatics Education. The proposed curriculum is divided into four areas of professional standards: (a) the physical educator, (b) the aquatics instructor, (c) the…

  20. The aquatic ape theory and some common diseases.

    PubMed

    Verhaegen, M J

    1987-11-01

    The Aquatic Ape Theory claims that human ancestors once lived in a semi-aquatic habitat. Some human diseases might be explained by our aquatic past. Such problems include hyperventilation, periodic breathing, laryngo- and bronchospasm, vasomotor rhinopathy, seborrhea, dandruff, male pattern alopecia, rhinophyma, osteoarthritis, inguinal hernias, varicose veins, common obesity, myopia, and ear-wax.