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Sample records for adversely affect aquatic

  1. The synthetic progestin megestrol acetate adversely affects zebrafish reproduction.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian; Wang, Qiangwei; Wang, Xianfeng; Li, Yonggang; Wen, Sheng; Liu, Shan; Ying, Guangguo; Guo, Yongyong; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2014-05-01

    Synthetic progestins contaminate the aquatic ecosystem, and may cause adverse health effects on aquatic organisms. Megestrol acetate (MTA) is present in the aquatic environment, but its possible effects on fish reproduction are unknown. In the present study, we investigated the endocrine disruption and impact of MTA on fish reproduction. After a pre-exposure period of 14 days, reproductively mature zebrafish (Danio rerio) (F0) were exposed to MTA at environmental concentrations (33, 100, 333, and 666 ng/L) for 21 days. Egg production was decreased in F0 fish exposed to MTA, with a significant decrease at 666 ng/L. The exposure significantly decreased the circulating concentrations of estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) in female fish or 11-keto testosterone (11-KT) in male fish. MTA exposure significantly downregulated the transcription of certain genes along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. MTA did not affect early embryonic development or hatching success in the F1 generation. The present study showed that MTA is a potent endocrine disruptor in fish, and short-term exposure to MTA could significantly affect reproduction in fish and negatively impact the fish population. PMID:24647012

  2. The synthetic progestin megestrol acetate adversely affects zebrafish reproduction.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian; Wang, Qiangwei; Wang, Xianfeng; Li, Yonggang; Wen, Sheng; Liu, Shan; Ying, Guangguo; Guo, Yongyong; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2014-05-01

    Synthetic progestins contaminate the aquatic ecosystem, and may cause adverse health effects on aquatic organisms. Megestrol acetate (MTA) is present in the aquatic environment, but its possible effects on fish reproduction are unknown. In the present study, we investigated the endocrine disruption and impact of MTA on fish reproduction. After a pre-exposure period of 14 days, reproductively mature zebrafish (Danio rerio) (F0) were exposed to MTA at environmental concentrations (33, 100, 333, and 666 ng/L) for 21 days. Egg production was decreased in F0 fish exposed to MTA, with a significant decrease at 666 ng/L. The exposure significantly decreased the circulating concentrations of estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) in female fish or 11-keto testosterone (11-KT) in male fish. MTA exposure significantly downregulated the transcription of certain genes along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. MTA did not affect early embryonic development or hatching success in the F1 generation. The present study showed that MTA is a potent endocrine disruptor in fish, and short-term exposure to MTA could significantly affect reproduction in fish and negatively impact the fish population.

  3. FACTORS ADVERSELY AFFECTING AMPHIBIAN POPULATIONS IN THE US

    EPA Science Inventory

    Factors known or suspected to be adversely affecting native amphibian populations in the US were identified using information from species accounts written in a standardized format by multiple authors in a forthcoming book. Specific adverse factors were identified for 53 (58%) of...

  4. Parents' Psychiatric Issues May Adversely Affect Some Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adversely Affect Some Children History of antisocial disorder, suicide attempt or marijuana abuse showed the most effect, ... illness may be at higher risk for attempting suicide and/or engaging in violent behavior, a new ...

  5. Adversity before Conception Will Affect Adult Progeny in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shachar-Dadon, Alice; Schulkin, Jay; Leshem, Micah

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated whether adversity in a female, before she conceives, will influence the affective and social behavior of her progeny. Virgin female rats were either undisturbed (controls) or exposed to varied, unpredictable, stressors for 7 days (preconceptual stress [PCS]) and then either mated immediately after the end of the stress…

  6. Factors affecting the development of adverse drug reactions (Review article)

    PubMed Central

    Alomar, Muaed Jamal

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To discuss the effect of certain factors on the occurrence of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs). Data Sources A systematic review of the literature in the period between 1991 and 2012 was made based on PubMed, the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, EMBASE and IDIS. Key words used were: medication error, adverse drug reaction, iatrogenic disease factors, ambulatory care, primary health care, side effects and treatment hazards. Summary Many factors play a crucial role in the occurrence of ADRs, some of these are patient related, drug related or socially related factors. Age for instance has a very critical impact on the occurrence of ADRs, both very young and very old patients are more vulnerable to these reactions than other age groups. Alcohol intake also has a crucial impact on ADRs. Other factors are gender, race, pregnancy, breast feeding, kidney problems, liver function, drug dose and frequency and many other factors. The effect of these factors on ADRs is well documented in the medical literature. Taking these factors into consideration during medical evaluation enables medical practitioners to choose the best drug regimen. Conclusion Many factors affect the occurrence of ADRs. Some of these factors can be changed like smoking or alcohol intake others cannot be changed like age, presence of other diseases or genetic factors. Understanding the different effects of these factors on ADRs enables healthcare professionals to choose the most appropriate medication for that particular patient. It also helps the healthcare professionals to give the best advice to patients. Pharmacogenomics is the most recent science which emphasizes the genetic predisposition of ADRs. This innovative science provides a new perspective in dealing with the decision making process of drug selection. PMID:24648818

  7. Shrub clearing adversely affects the abundance of Ixodes ricinus ticks.

    PubMed

    Tack, Wesley; Madder, Maxime; Baeten, Lander; Vanhellemont, Margot; Verheyen, Kris

    2013-07-01

    In order to get a better understanding of the importance of vertical forest structure as a component of Ixodes ricinus tick habitat, an experiment was set up in a coniferous forest on sandy soils in northern Belgium. Ticks were sampled in six control and six treatment plots on various sampling occasions in 2008-2010. In the course of the study period, a moderate thinning was carried out in all plots and shrub clearing was performed in the treatment plots. Thinning had no effect on tick abundance, while shrub clearing had an adverse affect on the abundance of all three life stages (larva, nymph, adult) up to 2 years post-clearing. Our findings are especially relevant in the light of the ongoing efforts to improve vertical forest structure in Belgium and many other parts of Europe, which might create suitable habitats for ticks and change the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases. Also, our results indicate that shrub clearing could be applied as a tick control measure in recreational areas where there is a high degree of human-tick contact.

  8. Does Ramadan Fasting Adversely Affect Cognitive Function in Young Females?

    PubMed Central

    Ghayour Najafabadi, Mahboubeh; Rahbar Nikoukar, Laya; Memari, Amir; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Beygi, Sara

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of Ramadan fasting on cognitive function in 17 female athletes. Data were obtained from participants of two fasting (n = 9) and nonfasting (n = 8) groups at three periods of the study (before Ramadan, at the third week in Ramadan, and after Ramadan). Digit span test (DST) and Stroop color test were employed to assess short-term memory and inhibition/cognitive flexibility at each time point. There were no significant changes for DST and Stroop task 1 in both groups, whereas Stroop task 2 and task 3 showed significant improvements in Ramadan condition (p < 0.05). Interference indices did not change significantly across the study except in post-Ramadan period of fasting group (p < 0.05). Group × week interaction was significant only for error numbers (p < 0.05). Athletes in nonfasting showed a significant decrease in number of errors in Ramadan compared to baseline (p < 0.05). The results suggest that Ramadan fasting may not adversely affect cognitive function in female athletes. PMID:26697263

  9. Forest Management Intensity Affects Aquatic Communities in Artificial Tree Holes

    PubMed Central

    Petermann, Jana S.; Rohland, Anja; Sichardt, Nora; Lade, Peggy; Guidetti, Brenda; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Gossner, Martin M.

    2016-01-01

    Forest management could potentially affect organisms in all forest habitats. However, aquatic communities in water-filled tree-holes may be especially sensitive because of small population sizes, the risk of drought and potential dispersal limitation. We set up artificial tree holes in forest stands subject to different management intensities in two regions in Germany and assessed the influence of local environmental properties (tree-hole opening type, tree diameter, water volume and water temperature) as well as regional drivers (forest management intensity, tree-hole density) on tree-hole insect communities (not considering other organisms such as nematodes or rotifers), detritus content, oxygen and nutrient concentrations. In addition, we compared data from artificial tree holes with data from natural tree holes in the same area to evaluate the methodological approach of using tree-hole analogues. We found that forest management had strong effects on communities in artificial tree holes in both regions and across the season. Abundance and species richness declined, community composition shifted and detritus content declined with increasing forest management intensity. Environmental variables, such as tree-hole density and tree diameter partly explained these changes. However, dispersal limitation, indicated by effects of tree-hole density, generally showed rather weak impacts on communities. Artificial tree holes had higher water temperatures (on average 2°C higher) and oxygen concentrations (on average 25% higher) than natural tree holes. The abundance of organisms was higher but species richness was lower in artificial tree holes. Community composition differed between artificial and natural tree holes. Negative management effects were detectable in both tree-hole systems, despite their abiotic and biotic differences. Our results indicate that forest management has substantial and pervasive effects on tree-hole communities and may alter their structure and

  10. Forest Management Intensity Affects Aquatic Communities in Artificial Tree Holes.

    PubMed

    Petermann, Jana S; Rohland, Anja; Sichardt, Nora; Lade, Peggy; Guidetti, Brenda; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Gossner, Martin M

    2016-01-01

    Forest management could potentially affect organisms in all forest habitats. However, aquatic communities in water-filled tree-holes may be especially sensitive because of small population sizes, the risk of drought and potential dispersal limitation. We set up artificial tree holes in forest stands subject to different management intensities in two regions in Germany and assessed the influence of local environmental properties (tree-hole opening type, tree diameter, water volume and water temperature) as well as regional drivers (forest management intensity, tree-hole density) on tree-hole insect communities (not considering other organisms such as nematodes or rotifers), detritus content, oxygen and nutrient concentrations. In addition, we compared data from artificial tree holes with data from natural tree holes in the same area to evaluate the methodological approach of using tree-hole analogues. We found that forest management had strong effects on communities in artificial tree holes in both regions and across the season. Abundance and species richness declined, community composition shifted and detritus content declined with increasing forest management intensity. Environmental variables, such as tree-hole density and tree diameter partly explained these changes. However, dispersal limitation, indicated by effects of tree-hole density, generally showed rather weak impacts on communities. Artificial tree holes had higher water temperatures (on average 2°C higher) and oxygen concentrations (on average 25% higher) than natural tree holes. The abundance of organisms was higher but species richness was lower in artificial tree holes. Community composition differed between artificial and natural tree holes. Negative management effects were detectable in both tree-hole systems, despite their abiotic and biotic differences. Our results indicate that forest management has substantial and pervasive effects on tree-hole communities and may alter their structure and

  11. Forest Management Intensity Affects Aquatic Communities in Artificial Tree Holes.

    PubMed

    Petermann, Jana S; Rohland, Anja; Sichardt, Nora; Lade, Peggy; Guidetti, Brenda; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Gossner, Martin M

    2016-01-01

    Forest management could potentially affect organisms in all forest habitats. However, aquatic communities in water-filled tree-holes may be especially sensitive because of small population sizes, the risk of drought and potential dispersal limitation. We set up artificial tree holes in forest stands subject to different management intensities in two regions in Germany and assessed the influence of local environmental properties (tree-hole opening type, tree diameter, water volume and water temperature) as well as regional drivers (forest management intensity, tree-hole density) on tree-hole insect communities (not considering other organisms such as nematodes or rotifers), detritus content, oxygen and nutrient concentrations. In addition, we compared data from artificial tree holes with data from natural tree holes in the same area to evaluate the methodological approach of using tree-hole analogues. We found that forest management had strong effects on communities in artificial tree holes in both regions and across the season. Abundance and species richness declined, community composition shifted and detritus content declined with increasing forest management intensity. Environmental variables, such as tree-hole density and tree diameter partly explained these changes. However, dispersal limitation, indicated by effects of tree-hole density, generally showed rather weak impacts on communities. Artificial tree holes had higher water temperatures (on average 2°C higher) and oxygen concentrations (on average 25% higher) than natural tree holes. The abundance of organisms was higher but species richness was lower in artificial tree holes. Community composition differed between artificial and natural tree holes. Negative management effects were detectable in both tree-hole systems, despite their abiotic and biotic differences. Our results indicate that forest management has substantial and pervasive effects on tree-hole communities and may alter their structure and

  12. Biogeochemical interactions affecting hepatic trace element levels in aquatic birds

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, G.

    1996-07-01

    Knowledge of elemental interactions is important to the toxicological assessment of wildlife in the geochemical environment. This study determines the concentrations of Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Li, Mg, Mn, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Ag, V, and Zn in aquatic bird liver, fish liver, whole bivalves, insects, and waters in several aquatic ecosystems in northern California. There is evidence of strong in vivo and environmental interactions, including the observation of manganese as a possible cofactor or indicator in selenium bioaccumulation. The nearest neighbor selenium correlation in aquatic bird liver tissue that results from this work is Cd-Mn-Se-Hg-As. The correlation of liver selenium to manganese in vivo and the result that the majority of the variance in liver selenium concentration is contained in the manganese term of the regression model relating Se to Cd, Mn, and Hg is new knowledge in the study of aquatic birds. A linear relationship between liver selenium and environmental manganese (water and sediment) is found in the data, suggesting a water chemistry compartmentalization or activation of toxicants. Alternatively, the hepatic concentrations of selenium, manganese, and iron suggest induction of enzymes in response to oxidative stress.

  13. Why Does Military Combat Experience Adversely Affect Marital Relations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimbel, Cynthia; Booth, Alan

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation of ways in which combat decreases marital quality and stability. Results support three models: (1) factors propelling men into combat also make them poor marriage material; (2) combat causes problems that increase marital adversity; and (3) combat intensifies premilitary stress and antisocial behavior which then negatively…

  14. 47 CFR 73.4157 - Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service. 73.4157 Section 73.4157 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION....4157 Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service. See Public Notice, FCC...

  15. 47 CFR 73.4157 - Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service. 73.4157 Section 73.4157 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION....4157 Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service. See Public Notice, FCC...

  16. Root-Zone Glyphosate Exposure Adversely Affects Two Ditch Species

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Lyndsay E.; Koontz, Melissa B.; Pezeshki, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Glyphosate, one of the most applied herbicides globally, has been extensively studied for its effects on non-target organisms. In the field, following precipitation, glyphosate runs off into agricultural ditches where it infiltrates into the soil and thus may encounter the roots of vegetation. These edge-of-field ditches share many characteristics with wetlands, including the ability to reduce loads of anthropogenic chemicals through uptake, transformation, and retention. Different species within the ditches may have a differential sensitivity to exposure of the root zone to glyphosate, contributing to patterns of abundance of ruderal species. The present laboratory experiment investigated whether two species commonly found in agricultural ditches in southcentral United States were affected by root zone glyphosate in a dose-dependent manner, with the objective of identifying a sublethal concentration threshold. The root zone of individuals of Polygonum hydropiperoides and Panicum hemitomon were exposed to four concentrations of glyphosate. Leaf chlorophyll content was measured, and the ratio of aboveground biomass to belowground biomass and survival were quantified. The findings from this study showed that root zone glyphosate exposure negatively affected both species including dose-dependent reductions in chlorophyll content. P. hydropiperdoides showed the greatest negative response, with decreased belowground biomass allocation and total mortality at the highest concentrations tested. PMID:24833234

  17. Urban sprawl and you: how sprawl adversely affects worker health.

    PubMed

    Pohanka, Mary; Fitzgerald, Sheila

    2004-06-01

    Urban sprawl, once thought of as just an environmental issue, is currently gaining momentum as an emerging public health issue worthy of research and political attention. Characteristics seen in sprawling communities include increasing traffic volumes; inadequate public transportation; pedestrian unfriendly streets; and the division of businesses, shops, and homes. These characteristics can affect health in many ways. Greater air pollution contributes to higher asthma and other lung disorder rates. An increased dependence on the automobile encourages a more sedentary lifestyle and can potentially contribute to obesity. The increased danger and stress of long commutes can lead to more accidents, anxiety, and social isolation. Occupational health nurses can become involved by promoting physical activity in the workplace, creating programs for injury prevention and stress management, becoming involved in political smart growth measures, and educating and encouraging colleagues to become active in addressing this issue.

  18. ABSENCE OF SCLEROSTIN ADVERSELY AFFECTS B CELL SURVIVAL

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Corey J.; Rueda, Randell; McLelland, Bryce; Collette, Nicole M.; Loots, Gabriela G.; Manilay, Jennifer O.

    2012-01-01

    Increased osteoblast activity in sclerostin-knockout (Sost−/−) mice results in generalized hyperostosis and bones with small bone marrow cavities due to hyperactive mineralizing osteoblast populations. Hematopoietic cell fate decisions are dependent on their local microenvironment, which contains osteoblast and stromal cell populations that support both hematopoietic stem cell quiescence and facilitate B cell development. In this study, we investigated whether high bone mass environments affect B cell development via the utilization of Sost−/− mice, a model of sclerosteosis. We found the bone marrow of Sost−/− mice to be specifically depleted of B cells, due to elevated apoptosis at all B cell developmental stages. In contrast, B cell function in the spleen was normal. Sost expression analysis confirmed that Sost is primarily expressed in osteocytes and is not expressed in any hematopoietic lineage, which indicated that the B cell defects in Sost−/− mice are non-cell autonomous and this was confirmed by transplantation of wildtype (WT) bone marrow into lethally irradiated Sost−/− recipients. WT→Sost−/− chimeras displayed a reduction in B cells, whereas reciprocal Sost−/−→WT chimeras did not, supporting the idea that the Sost−/− bone environment cannot fully support normal B cell development. Expression of the pre-B cell growth stimulating factor, Cxcl12, was significantly lower in bone marrow stromal cells of Sost−/− mice while the Wnt target genes Lef-1 and Ccnd1 remained unchanged in B cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate a novel role for Sost in the regulation of bone marrow environments that support B cells. PMID:22434688

  19. Irrigation agriculture affects organic matter decomposition in semi-arid terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Arroita, Maite; Causapé, Jesús; Comín, Francisco A; Díez, Joserra; Jimenez, Juan José; Lacarta, Juan; Lorente, Carmen; Merchán, Daniel; Muñiz, Selene; Navarro, Enrique; Val, Jonatan; Elosegi, Arturo

    2013-12-15

    Many dryland areas are being converted into intensively managed irrigation crops, what can disrupt the hydrological regime, degrade soil and water quality, enhance siltation, erosion and bank instability, and affect biological communities. Still, the impacts of irrigation schemes on the functioning of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are poorly understood. Here we assess the effects of irrigation agriculture on breakdown of coarse organic matter in soil and water. We measured breakdown rates of alder and holm oak leaves, and of poplar sticks in terrestrial and aquatic sites following a gradient of increasing irrigation agriculture in a semi-arid Mediterranean basin transformed into irrigation agriculture in 50% of its surface. Spatial patterns of stick breakdown paralleled those of leaf breakdown. In soil, stick breakdown rates were extremely low in non-irrigated sites (0.0001-0.0003 day(-1)), and increased with the intensity of agriculture (0.0018-0.0044 day(-1)). In water, stick breakdown rates ranged from 0.0005 to 0.001 day(-1), and increased with the area of the basin subject to irrigation agriculture. Results showed that irrigation agriculture affects functioning of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, accelerating decomposition of organic matter, especially in soil. These changes can have important consequences for global carbon budgets.

  20. Irrigation agriculture affects organic matter decomposition in semi-arid terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Arroita, Maite; Causapé, Jesús; Comín, Francisco A; Díez, Joserra; Jimenez, Juan José; Lacarta, Juan; Lorente, Carmen; Merchán, Daniel; Muñiz, Selene; Navarro, Enrique; Val, Jonatan; Elosegi, Arturo

    2013-12-15

    Many dryland areas are being converted into intensively managed irrigation crops, what can disrupt the hydrological regime, degrade soil and water quality, enhance siltation, erosion and bank instability, and affect biological communities. Still, the impacts of irrigation schemes on the functioning of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are poorly understood. Here we assess the effects of irrigation agriculture on breakdown of coarse organic matter in soil and water. We measured breakdown rates of alder and holm oak leaves, and of poplar sticks in terrestrial and aquatic sites following a gradient of increasing irrigation agriculture in a semi-arid Mediterranean basin transformed into irrigation agriculture in 50% of its surface. Spatial patterns of stick breakdown paralleled those of leaf breakdown. In soil, stick breakdown rates were extremely low in non-irrigated sites (0.0001-0.0003 day(-1)), and increased with the intensity of agriculture (0.0018-0.0044 day(-1)). In water, stick breakdown rates ranged from 0.0005 to 0.001 day(-1), and increased with the area of the basin subject to irrigation agriculture. Results showed that irrigation agriculture affects functioning of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, accelerating decomposition of organic matter, especially in soil. These changes can have important consequences for global carbon budgets. PMID:23891536

  1. Genetic polymorphisms affect efficacy and adverse drug reactions of DMARDs in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling Ling; Yang, Sen; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Xue Jun

    2014-11-01

    Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and biological agents are critical in preventing the severe complications of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the outcome of treatment with these drugs in RA patients is quite variable and unpredictable. Drug-metabolizing enzymes (dihydrofolate reductase, cytochrome P450 enzymes, N-acetyltransferases, etc.), drug transporters (ATP-binding cassette transporters), and drug targets (tumor necrosis factor-α receptors) are coded for by variant alleles. These gene polymorphisms may influence the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and side effects of medicines. The cause for differences in efficacy and adverse drug reactions may be genetic variation in drug metabolism among individuals. Polymorphisms in drug transporter genes may change the distribution and excretion of medicines, and the sensitivity of the targets to drugs is strongly influenced by genetic variations. In this article, we review the genetic polymorphisms that affect the efficacy of DMARDs or the occurrence of adverse drug reactions associated with DMARDs in RA.

  2. Family Adversity and Autonomic Reactivity Association With Immune Changes in HIV-Affected School Children

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Melanie; Wara, Diane; Saxton, Katherine; Truskier, Mary; Chesney, Margaret; Boyce, W. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore whether primary school entry is associated with changes in immune system parameters in HIV-affected children. HIV-affected children are vulnerable to psychosocial stressors, regardless of their own HIV serological status. Methods Data from 38 HIV+ and 29 HIV− children born to seropositive women were obtained before and after school entry. Measures included family adversity questionnaires, autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity (based on mean arterial responses to challenge tasks), and enumerative and functional changes in peripheral blood immune parameters. Results In comparison to children who were HIV−, children who were HIV+ at baseline had fewer CD4+ T lymphocytes (M = 916 vs. 1206 cells/mm3 × 103; F = 7.8, p = .007), more CD8+ cells (M = 1046 vs. 720 cells/mm3 ×103; F = 7.98, p = .006), and diminished NK cell cytotoxicity (M =−.29 vs. .41; F = 8.87, p = .004). School entry was associated with changes in immune parameters, but HIV status was not associated with the magnitude of changes. Changes in immune parameters following school entry were associated with family stress and pre school entry ANS reactivity. Highly ANS reactive children had either the greatest increase in CD8+ cells following school entry or the greatest decrease, depending upon reported levels of family adversity (B = 215.35; t = 3.74, p < .001). Changes in functional immune assays were significantly associated with the interactions between HIV status and ANS reactivity. Conclusions These results suggest that autonomic reactivity is associated with increased immunological sensitivity to adverse or challenging social contexts among children affected by HIV. PMID:23766380

  3. A review on factors affecting microcystins production by algae in aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ruihua; Wang, Pinfei; Jia, Peili; Zhang, Yi; Chu, Xincheng; Wang, Yifei

    2016-03-01

    Microcystins, a toxin produced by Microcystis aeruginosa have become a global environmental issue in recent years. As a consequence of eutrophication, microcystins have become widely disseminated in drinking water sources, seriously impairing drinking water quality. This review focuses on the relationship between microcystins synthesis and physical, chemical, and biological environmental factors that are significant in controlling their production. Light intensity and temperature are the more important physical factors, and in many cases, an optimum level for these two factors has been observed. Nitrogen and phosphorus are the key chemical factors causing frequent occurrence of harmful algal blooms and microcystins production. The absorption of nutrients and metabolic activities of algae are affected by different concentrations and forms of nitrogen and phosphorus, leading to variations in microcystins production Metal ions and emerging pollutants are other significant chemical factors, whose comprehensive impact is still being studied. Algae can also interact with biological agents like predators and competitors in aquatic environments, and such interactions are suggested to promote MCs production and release. This review further highlights areas that require further research in order to gain a better understanding of microcystins production. It provides a theoretical basis for the control of microcystins production and releasing into aquatic environments. PMID:26874538

  4. A review on factors affecting microcystins production by algae in aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ruihua; Wang, Pinfei; Jia, Peili; Zhang, Yi; Chu, Xincheng; Wang, Yifei

    2016-03-01

    Microcystins, a toxin produced by Microcystis aeruginosa have become a global environmental issue in recent years. As a consequence of eutrophication, microcystins have become widely disseminated in drinking water sources, seriously impairing drinking water quality. This review focuses on the relationship between microcystins synthesis and physical, chemical, and biological environmental factors that are significant in controlling their production. Light intensity and temperature are the more important physical factors, and in many cases, an optimum level for these two factors has been observed. Nitrogen and phosphorus are the key chemical factors causing frequent occurrence of harmful algal blooms and microcystins production. The absorption of nutrients and metabolic activities of algae are affected by different concentrations and forms of nitrogen and phosphorus, leading to variations in microcystins production Metal ions and emerging pollutants are other significant chemical factors, whose comprehensive impact is still being studied. Algae can also interact with biological agents like predators and competitors in aquatic environments, and such interactions are suggested to promote MCs production and release. This review further highlights areas that require further research in order to gain a better understanding of microcystins production. It provides a theoretical basis for the control of microcystins production and releasing into aquatic environments.

  5. A cocktail of contaminants: how mixtures of pesticides at low concentrations affect aquatic communities.

    PubMed

    Relyea, Rick A

    2009-03-01

    The ubiquity of anthropogenic chemicals in nature poses a challenge to understanding how ecological communities are impacted by them. While we are rapidly gaining an understanding of how individual contaminants affect communities, communities are exposed to suites of contaminants yet investigations of the effects of diverse contaminant mixtures in aquatic communities are rare. I examined how a single application of five insecticides (malathion, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and endosulfan) and five herbicides (glyphosate, atrazine, acetochlor, metolachlor, and 2,4-D) at low concentrations (2-16 p.p.b.) affected aquatic communities composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, periphyton, and larval amphibians (gray tree frogs, Hyla versicolor, and leopard frogs, Rana pipiens). Using outdoor mesocosms, I examined each pesticide alone, a mix of insecticides, a mix of herbicides, and a mix of all ten pesticides. Individual pesticides had a wide range of direct and indirect effects on all trophic groups. For some taxa (i.e., zooplankton and algae), the impact of pesticide mixtures could largely be predicted from the impacts of individual pesticides; for other taxa (i.e., amphibians) it could not. For amphibians, there was an apparent direct toxic effect of endosulfan that caused 84% mortality of leopard frogs and an indirect effect induced by diazinon that caused 24% mortality of leopard frogs. When pesticides were combined, the mix of herbicides had no negative effects on the survival and metamorphosis of amphibians, but the mix of insecticides and the mix of all ten pesticides eliminated 99% of leopard frogs. Interestingly, these mixtures did not cause mortality in the gray tree frogs and, as a result, the gray tree frogs grew nearly twice as large due to reduced competition with leopard frogs. In short, wetland communities can be dramatically impacted by low concentrations of pesticides (both separate and combined) and these results offer important insights for the

  6. 42 CFR 137.435 - Will an appeal adversely affect the Indian Tribe's rights in other compact, funding negotiations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... rights in other compact, funding negotiations, or construction project agreement? 137.435 Section 137.435... another compact, funding agreement, or construction project agreement. ... appeal adversely affect the Indian Tribe's rights in other compact, funding negotiations, or...

  7. 42 CFR 137.435 - Will an appeal adversely affect the Indian Tribe's rights in other compact, funding negotiations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... rights in other compact, funding negotiations, or construction project agreement? 137.435 Section 137.435... another compact, funding agreement, or construction project agreement. ... appeal adversely affect the Indian Tribe's rights in other compact, funding negotiations, or...

  8. 42 CFR 137.435 - Will an appeal adversely affect the Indian Tribe's rights in other compact, funding negotiations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... rights in other compact, funding negotiations, or construction project agreement? 137.435 Section 137.435... another compact, funding agreement, or construction project agreement. ... appeal adversely affect the Indian Tribe's rights in other compact, funding negotiations, or...

  9. 42 CFR 137.435 - Will an appeal adversely affect the Indian Tribe's rights in other compact, funding negotiations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... rights in other compact, funding negotiations, or construction project agreement? 137.435 Section 137.435... another compact, funding agreement, or construction project agreement. ... appeal adversely affect the Indian Tribe's rights in other compact, funding negotiations, or...

  10. 42 CFR 137.435 - Will an appeal adversely affect the Indian Tribe's rights in other compact, funding negotiations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... rights in other compact, funding negotiations, or construction project agreement? 137.435 Section 137.435... another compact, funding agreement, or construction project agreement. ... appeal adversely affect the Indian Tribe's rights in other compact, funding negotiations, or...

  11. Depressing Antidepressant: Fluoxetine Affects Serotonin Neurons Causing Adverse Reproductive Responses in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Campos, Bruno; Rivetti, Claudia; Kress, Timm; Barata, Carlos; Dircksen, Heinrich

    2016-06-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely used antidepressants. As endocrine disruptive contaminants in the environment, SSRIs affect reproduction in aquatic organisms. In the water flea Daphnia magna, SSRIs increase offspring production in a food ration-dependent manner. At limiting food conditions, females exposed to SSRIs produce more but smaller offspring, which is a maladaptive life-history strategy. We asked whether increased serotonin levels in newly identified serotonin-neurons in the Daphnia brain mediate these effects. We provide strong evidence that exogenous SSRI fluoxetine selectively increases serotonin-immunoreactivity in identified brain neurons under limiting food conditions thereby leading to maladaptive offspring production. Fluoxetine increases serotonin-immunoreactivity at low food conditions to similar maximal levels as observed under high food conditions and concomitantly enhances offspring production. Sublethal amounts of the neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine known to specifically ablate serotonin-neurons markedly decrease serotonin-immunoreactivity and offspring production, strongly supporting the effect to be serotonin-specific by reversing the reproductive phenotype attained under fluoxetine. Thus, SSRIs impair serotonin-regulation of reproductive investment in a planktonic key organism causing inappropriately increased reproduction with potentially severe ecological impact. PMID:27128505

  12. Dietary restriction does not adversely affect bone geometry and mechanics in rapidly growing male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Jennifer; Lamothe, Jeremy M; Zernicke, Ronald F; Auer, Roland N; Reimer, Raylene A

    2005-02-01

    The present study assessed the effects of dietary restriction on tibial and vertebral mechanical and geometrical properties in 2-mo-old male Wistar rats. Two-month-old male Wistar rats were randomized to the ad libitum (n=8) or the 35% diet-restricted (DR) feeding group (n=9) for 5 mo. Tibiae and L6 vertebrae were dissected out for microcomputed tomography (microCT) scanning and subsequently fractured in biomechanical testing to determine geometrical and mechanical properties. The DR group had significantly lower mean tibial length, mass, area, and cross-sectional moment of inertia, as well as vertebral energy to maximal load. After adjustment for body mass, however, DR tibial mean maximal load and stiffness, and DR vertebral area, height, volume, and maximal load were significantly greater, relative to ad libitum means. No significant differences were found between the DR and ad libitum mineral ash fractions. Because the material properties of the tibiae between the two groups were not significantly different, presumably the material integrity of the bones was not adversely affected as a consequence of DR. The similar material characteristics were consistent with mineral ash fractions that were not different between the two groups. Vertebral maximal load and stiffness were not significant between the DR and ad libitum animals. Importantly, we show that a level of dietary restriction (35%) that is less severe than many studies (40%), and without micronutrient compensation does not adversely affect tibial and vertebral mechanical properties in young growing male rats when normalized for body mass. PMID:15585686

  13. Factors Affecting the Timing of Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reactions.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Masayuki; Imai, Shungo; Uehara, Keiko; Maruyama, Junya; Shimizu, Mikiko; Mochizuki, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated factors affecting the timing of signal detection by comparing variations in reporting time of known and unknown ADRs after initial drug release in the USA. Data on adverse event reactions (AERs) submitted to U.S. FDA was used. Six ADRs associated with 6 drugs (rosuvastatin, aripiprazole, teriparatide, telithromycin, exenatide, varenicline) were investigated: Changes in the proportional reporting ratio, reporting odds ratio, and information component as indexes of signal detection were followed every 3 months after each drugs release, and the time for detection of signals was investigated. The time for the detection of signal to be detected after drug release in the USA was 2-10 months for known ADRs and 19-44 months for unknown ones. The median lag time for known and unknown ADRs was 99.0-122.5 days and 185.5-306.0 days, respectively. When the FDA released advisory information on rare but potentially serious health risks of an unknown ADR, the time lag to report from the onset of ADRs to the FDA was shorter. This study suggested that one factor affecting signal detection time is whether an ADR was known or unknown at release. PMID:26641634

  14. Sexually Dimorphic Responses to Early Adversity: Implications for Affective Problems and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Pfaff, Donald

    2014-01-01

    During gestation, development proceeds at a pace that is unmatched by any other stage of the lifecycle. For these reason the human fetus is particularly susceptible not only to organizing influences, but also to pathogenic disorganizing influences. Growing evidence suggests that exposure to prenatal adversity leads to neurological changes that underlie lifetime risks for mental illness. Beginning early in gestation, males and females show differential developmental trajectories and responses to stress. It is likely that sex-dependent organization of neural circuits during the fetal period influences differential vulnerability to mental health problems. We consider in this review evidence that sexually dimorphic responses to early life stress are linked to two developmental disorders: affective problems (greater female prevalence) and autism spectrum disorder (greater male prevalence). Recent prospective studies illustrating the neurodevelopmental consequences of fetal exposure to stress and stress hormones for males and females are considered here. Plausible biological mechanisms including the role of the sexually differentiated placenta are discussed. We consider in this review evidence that sexually dimorphic responses to early life stress are linked to two sets of developmental disorders: affective problems (greater female prevalence) and autism spectrum disorders (greater male prevalence). PMID:25038479

  15. Does nitrate co-pollution affect biological responses of an aquatic plant to two common herbicides?

    PubMed

    Nuttens, A; Chatellier, S; Devin, S; Guignard, C; Lenouvel, A; Gross, E M

    2016-08-01

    Aquatic systems in agricultural landscapes are subjected to multiple stressors, among them pesticide and nitrate run-off, but effects of both together have rarely been studied. We investigated possible stress-specific and interaction effects using the new OECD test organism, Myriophyllum spicatum, a widespread aquatic plant. In a fully factorial design, we used two widely applied herbicides, isoproturon and mesosulfuron-methyl, in concentration-response curves at two nitrate levels (219.63 and 878.52mg N-NO3). We applied different endpoints reflecting plant performance such as growth, pigment content, content in phenolic compounds, and plant stoichiometry. Relative growth rates based on length (RGR-L) were affected strongly by both herbicides, while effects on relative growth rate based on dry weight (RGR-DW) were apparent for isoproturon but hardly visible for mesosulfuron-methyl due to an increase in dry matter content. The higher nitrate level further reduced growth rates, specifically with mesosulfuron-methyl. Effects were visible between 50 and 500μgL(-1) for isoproturon and 0.5-5μgL(-1) for mesosulfuron-methyl, with some differences between endpoints. The two herbicides had opposite effects on chlorophyll, carotenoid and nitrogen contents in plants, with values increasing with increasing concentrations of isoproturon and decreasing for mesosulfuron-methyl. Herbicides and nitrate level exhibited distinct effects on the content in phenolic compounds, with higher nitrate levels reducing total phenolic compounds in controls and with isoproturon, but not with mesosulfuron-methyl. Increasing concentrations of mesosulfuron-methyl lead to a decline of total phenolic compounds, while isoproturon had little effect. Contents of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus changed depending on the stressor combination. We observed higher phosphorus levels in plants exposed to certain concentrations of herbicides, potentially indicating a metabolic response. The C:N molar ratio

  16. Does nitrate co-pollution affect biological responses of an aquatic plant to two common herbicides?

    PubMed

    Nuttens, A; Chatellier, S; Devin, S; Guignard, C; Lenouvel, A; Gross, E M

    2016-08-01

    Aquatic systems in agricultural landscapes are subjected to multiple stressors, among them pesticide and nitrate run-off, but effects of both together have rarely been studied. We investigated possible stress-specific and interaction effects using the new OECD test organism, Myriophyllum spicatum, a widespread aquatic plant. In a fully factorial design, we used two widely applied herbicides, isoproturon and mesosulfuron-methyl, in concentration-response curves at two nitrate levels (219.63 and 878.52mg N-NO3). We applied different endpoints reflecting plant performance such as growth, pigment content, content in phenolic compounds, and plant stoichiometry. Relative growth rates based on length (RGR-L) were affected strongly by both herbicides, while effects on relative growth rate based on dry weight (RGR-DW) were apparent for isoproturon but hardly visible for mesosulfuron-methyl due to an increase in dry matter content. The higher nitrate level further reduced growth rates, specifically with mesosulfuron-methyl. Effects were visible between 50 and 500μgL(-1) for isoproturon and 0.5-5μgL(-1) for mesosulfuron-methyl, with some differences between endpoints. The two herbicides had opposite effects on chlorophyll, carotenoid and nitrogen contents in plants, with values increasing with increasing concentrations of isoproturon and decreasing for mesosulfuron-methyl. Herbicides and nitrate level exhibited distinct effects on the content in phenolic compounds, with higher nitrate levels reducing total phenolic compounds in controls and with isoproturon, but not with mesosulfuron-methyl. Increasing concentrations of mesosulfuron-methyl lead to a decline of total phenolic compounds, while isoproturon had little effect. Contents of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus changed depending on the stressor combination. We observed higher phosphorus levels in plants exposed to certain concentrations of herbicides, potentially indicating a metabolic response. The C:N molar ratio

  17. 30 CFR 285.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 285.816 Section 285.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU... other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? If environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility so as to endanger the safety or the environment, you...

  18. 42 CFR 137.445 - Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in other self-governance negotiations? 137.445 Section 137.445..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Appeals Appeals of An Immediate Reassumption of A Self-Governance Program § 137.445 Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect...

  19. 42 CFR 137.445 - Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in other self-governance negotiations? 137.445 Section 137.445..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Appeals Appeals of An Immediate Reassumption of A Self-Governance Program § 137.445 Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect...

  20. 42 CFR 137.445 - Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in other self-governance negotiations? 137.445 Section 137.445..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Appeals Appeals of An Immediate Reassumption of A Self-Governance Program § 137.445 Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect...

  1. 42 CFR 137.445 - Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in other self-governance negotiations? 137.445 Section 137.445..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Appeals Appeals of An Immediate Reassumption of A Self-Governance Program § 137.445 Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect...

  2. 42 CFR 137.445 - Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in other self-governance negotiations? 137.445 Section 137.445..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Appeals Appeals of An Immediate Reassumption of A Self-Governance Program § 137.445 Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect...

  3. Microbial interactions affecting the natural transformation of Bacillus subtilis in a model aquatic ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Kazuaki; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Kawabata, Zen'ichiro

    2003-08-01

    The involvement of microbial interactions in natural transformation of bacteria was evaluated using an aquatic model system. For this purpose, the naturally transformable Bacillus subtilis was used as the model bacterium which was co-cultivated with the protist Tetrahymena thermophila (a consumer) and/or the photosynthetic alga Euglena gracilis (a producer). Co-cultivation with as few as 10(2) individuals ml(-1) of T. thermophila lowered the number of transformants to less than the detectable level (<1x10(0) ml(-1)), while co-cultivation with E. gracilis did not. Metabolites from co-cultures of T. thermophila and B. subtilis also decreased the number of transformants to less than the detectable level, while metabolites from co-culture of T. thermophila and B. subtilis with E. gracilis did not. Thus, the introduction of transformation inhibitory factor(s) by the grazing of T. thermophila and the attenuation of this inhibitory factor(s) by E. gracilis is indicated. These observations suggest that biological components do affect the natural transformation of B. subtilis. The study described is the first to suggest that ecological interactions are responsible not only for the carbon and energy cycles, but also for the processes governing horizontal transfer of genes, in microbial ecosystems.

  4. Early Life in a Barren Environment Adversely Affects Spatial Cognition in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Tahamtani, Fernanda M; Nordgreen, Janicke; Nordquist, Rebecca E; Janczak, Andrew M

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition in vertebrates is adversely affected by a lack of environmental complexity during early life. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies have tested the effect of early exposure to varying degrees of environmental complexity on specific components of spatial cognition in chickens. There are two main rearing systems for laying hens in the EU: aviaries and cages. These two systems differ from one another in environmental complexity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that rearing in a barren cage environment relative to a complex aviary environment causes long-lasting deficits in the ability to perform spatial tasks. For this purpose, 24 white Dekalb laying hens, half of which had been reared in an aviary system and the other half in a conventional cage system, were tested in a holeboard task. Birds from both treatment groups learnt the task; however, the cage-reared hens required more time to locate rewards and had poorer levels of working memory. The latter finding supports the hypothesis that rearing in a barren environment causes long-term impairment of short-term memory in chickens. PMID:26664932

  5. Exposing physicians to reduced residency work hours did not adversely affect patient outcomes after residency.

    PubMed

    Jena, Anupam B; Schoemaker, Lena; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2014-10-01

    In 2003, work hours for physicians-in-training (residents) were capped by regulation at eighty hours per week, leading to the hotly debated but unexplored issue of whether physicians today are less well trained as a result of these work-hour reforms. Using a unique database of nearly all hospitalizations in Florida during 2000-09 that were linked to detailed information on the medical training history of the physician of record for each hospitalization, we studied whether hospital mortality and patients' length-of-stay varied according to the number of years a physician was exposed to the 2003 duty-hour regulations during his or her residency. We examined this database of practicing Florida physicians, using a difference-in-differences analysis that compared trends in outcomes of junior physicians (those with one-year post-residency experience) pre- and post-2003 to a control group of senior physicians (those with ten or more years of post-residency experience) who were not exposed to these reforms during their residency. We found that the duty-hour reforms did not adversely affect hospital mortality and length-of-stay of patients cared for by new attending physicians who were partly or fully exposed to reduced duty hours during their own residency. However, assessment of the impact of the duty-hour reforms on other clinical outcomes is needed.

  6. Early Life in a Barren Environment Adversely Affects Spatial Cognition in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Nordgreen, Janicke; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition in vertebrates is adversely affected by a lack of environmental complexity during early life. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies have tested the effect of early exposure to varying degrees of environmental complexity on specific components of spatial cognition in chickens. There are two main rearing systems for laying hens in the EU: aviaries and cages. These two systems differ from one another in environmental complexity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that rearing in a barren cage environment relative to a complex aviary environment causes long-lasting deficits in the ability to perform spatial tasks. For this purpose, 24 white Dekalb laying hens, half of which had been reared in an aviary system and the other half in a conventional cage system, were tested in a holeboard task. Birds from both treatment groups learnt the task; however, the cage-reared hens required more time to locate rewards and had poorer levels of working memory. The latter finding supports the hypothesis that rearing in a barren environment causes long-term impairment of short-term memory in chickens. PMID:26664932

  7. Neonicotinoid clothianidin adversely affects insect immunity and promotes replication of a viral pathogen in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Di Prisco, Gennaro; Cavaliere, Valeria; Annoscia, Desiderato; Varricchio, Paola; Caprio, Emilio; Nazzi, Francesco; Gargiulo, Giuseppe; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2013-11-12

    Large-scale losses of honey bee colonies represent a poorly understood problem of global importance. Both biotic and abiotic factors are involved in this phenomenon that is often associated with high loads of parasites and pathogens. A stronger impact of pathogens in honey bees exposed to neonicotinoid insecticides has been reported, but the causal link between insecticide exposure and the possible immune alteration of honey bees remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin negatively modulates NF-κB immune signaling in insects and adversely affects honey bee antiviral defenses controlled by this transcription factor. We have identified in insects a negative modulator of NF-κB activation, which is a leucine-rich repeat protein. Exposure to clothianidin, by enhancing the transcription of the gene encoding this inhibitor, reduces immune defenses and promotes the replication of the deformed wing virus in honey bees bearing covert infections. This honey bee immunosuppression is similarly induced by a different neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, but not by the organophosphate chlorpyriphos, which does not affect NF-κB signaling. The occurrence at sublethal doses of this insecticide-induced viral proliferation suggests that the studied neonicotinoids might have a negative effect at the field level. Our experiments uncover a further level of regulation of the immune response in insects and set the stage for studies on neural modulation of immunity in animals. Furthermore, this study has implications for the conservation of bees, as it will contribute to the definition of more appropriate guidelines for testing chronic or sublethal effects of pesticides used in agriculture.

  8. Neonicotinoid clothianidin adversely affects insect immunity and promotes replication of a viral pathogen in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Di Prisco, Gennaro; Cavaliere, Valeria; Annoscia, Desiderato; Varricchio, Paola; Caprio, Emilio; Nazzi, Francesco; Gargiulo, Giuseppe; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2013-11-12

    Large-scale losses of honey bee colonies represent a poorly understood problem of global importance. Both biotic and abiotic factors are involved in this phenomenon that is often associated with high loads of parasites and pathogens. A stronger impact of pathogens in honey bees exposed to neonicotinoid insecticides has been reported, but the causal link between insecticide exposure and the possible immune alteration of honey bees remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin negatively modulates NF-κB immune signaling in insects and adversely affects honey bee antiviral defenses controlled by this transcription factor. We have identified in insects a negative modulator of NF-κB activation, which is a leucine-rich repeat protein. Exposure to clothianidin, by enhancing the transcription of the gene encoding this inhibitor, reduces immune defenses and promotes the replication of the deformed wing virus in honey bees bearing covert infections. This honey bee immunosuppression is similarly induced by a different neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, but not by the organophosphate chlorpyriphos, which does not affect NF-κB signaling. The occurrence at sublethal doses of this insecticide-induced viral proliferation suggests that the studied neonicotinoids might have a negative effect at the field level. Our experiments uncover a further level of regulation of the immune response in insects and set the stage for studies on neural modulation of immunity in animals. Furthermore, this study has implications for the conservation of bees, as it will contribute to the definition of more appropriate guidelines for testing chronic or sublethal effects of pesticides used in agriculture. PMID:24145453

  9. Neonicotinoid clothianidin adversely affects insect immunity and promotes replication of a viral pathogen in honey bees

    PubMed Central

    Di Prisco, Gennaro; Cavaliere, Valeria; Annoscia, Desiderato; Varricchio, Paola; Caprio, Emilio; Nazzi, Francesco; Gargiulo, Giuseppe; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale losses of honey bee colonies represent a poorly understood problem of global importance. Both biotic and abiotic factors are involved in this phenomenon that is often associated with high loads of parasites and pathogens. A stronger impact of pathogens in honey bees exposed to neonicotinoid insecticides has been reported, but the causal link between insecticide exposure and the possible immune alteration of honey bees remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin negatively modulates NF-κB immune signaling in insects and adversely affects honey bee antiviral defenses controlled by this transcription factor. We have identified in insects a negative modulator of NF-κB activation, which is a leucine-rich repeat protein. Exposure to clothianidin, by enhancing the transcription of the gene encoding this inhibitor, reduces immune defenses and promotes the replication of the deformed wing virus in honey bees bearing covert infections. This honey bee immunosuppression is similarly induced by a different neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, but not by the organophosphate chlorpyriphos, which does not affect NF-κB signaling. The occurrence at sublethal doses of this insecticide-induced viral proliferation suggests that the studied neonicotinoids might have a negative effect at the field level. Our experiments uncover a further level of regulation of the immune response in insects and set the stage for studies on neural modulation of immunity in animals. Furthermore, this study has implications for the conservation of bees, as it will contribute to the definition of more appropriate guidelines for testing chronic or sublethal effects of pesticides used in agriculture. PMID:24145453

  10. Sunlight affects aggregation and deposition of graphene oxide in the aquatic environment.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we investigate the role of simulated sunlight on the physicochemical properties, aggregation, and deposition of graphene oxide (GO) in aquatic environments. Results show that light exposure under varied environmental conditions significantly impacts the physicochem...

  11. Probabilities of adverse weather affecting transport in Europe: climatology and scenarios up to the 2050s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajda, A.; Tuomenvirta, H.; Jokinen, P.; Luomaranta, A.; Makkonen, L.; Tikanmäki, M.; Groenemeijer, P.; Saarikivi, P.; Michaelides, S.; Papadakis, M.; Tymvios, F.; Athanasatos, S.

    2012-04-01

    This paper provides the first comprehensive climatology of the adverse and extreme weather events affecting the European transport system by estimating the frequency (or probability) of phenomena for the present climate (1971-2000) and an overview of the projected changes in some of these extremes in the future climate until the 2050s. The research was carried out within the framework of the EWENT Project that addresses the European Union (EU) policies and strategies related to climate change, with a particular focus on extreme weather impacts on the EU transportation system. This project is funded by the Seventh Framework Programme (Transports, call ID FPT7-TPT-2008-RTD-1). The analyzed phenomena are wind, snow, blizzards, heavy precipitation, cold spells and heat waves. In addition, reduced visibility conditions determined by fog and dust events, small-scale phenomena affecting the transport system, such as thunderstorms, lightning, large hail and tornadoes and events damaging infrastructure of the transport system, have been considered. Frequency and probability analysis of past and present ex¬tremes were performed using observational and atmospheric reanalysis data. Future changes in the probability of severe events were assessed based on six regional climate model simulations produced in the FP6 ENSEMBLES project (http://www.ensembles-eu.org/). To facilitate the assessment of impacts and consequences of extreme phenomena on a continental level, the WP2 Deliverable introduces a regionalization of the European extreme phenomena, defining the climate zones with similarities in extreme phenomena. The projected changes as well as large natural variability in weather extremes on the transportation network will have impacts of both signs. The decline of extreme cold and snowfall over most of the continent implies a positive impact on road, rail, inland water and air transportation, e.g., by reducing snow removal. However, even with a general decreasing trend in

  12. Factors affecting metal toxicity to (and accumulation by) aquatic organisms - overview

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wuncheng )

    1987-01-01

    This literature review encompasses aquatic environmental toxicities of metals and metalloids. The emphasis is on the influencing factors on metal toxicity to aquatic organisms. The effects of environmental factors on metal uptake are also discussed. The factors can be divided into biotic and abiotic. The biotic factors include tolerance, size and life stages, species, and nutrition related to the test organisms. The abiotic factors include organic substances, pH, temperature, alkalinity and hardness, inorganic ligands, interactions, sediments, and others. These factors can alter metal toxicity in the aquatic environment substantially, mostly causing attenuating effect. The literature shows divergent results. For example, the interactions between Cd and Zn were reported to be synergistic by some researchers and antagonistic by others. It is recommended that environmental hazard assessment takes into consideration the results of standard toxicity tests and site-specific conditions which can moderate metal toxicity considerably. 238 refs.

  13. 41 CFR 102-78.40 - What responsibilities do Federal agencies have when an undertaking adversely affects a historic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal agencies have when an undertaking adversely affects a historic or cultural property? 102-78.40... or cultural property? Federal agencies must not perform an undertaking that could alter, destroy, or modify an historic or cultural property until they have consulted with the SHPO and the Advisory...

  14. 41 CFR 102-78.40 - What responsibilities do Federal agencies have when an undertaking adversely affects a historic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... guidance on the protection of historic and cultural properties in 36 CFR part 800. ... Federal agencies have when an undertaking adversely affects a historic or cultural property? 102-78.40... (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 78-HISTORIC PRESERVATION Historic Preservation §...

  15. 50 CFR 402.45 - Alternative consultation on FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Counterpart Regulations Governing Actions by the U.S... that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat. 402.45 Section...

  16. 50 CFR 402.45 - Alternative consultation on FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Counterpart Regulations Governing Actions by the U.S... that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat. 402.45 Section...

  17. 50 CFR 402.45 - Alternative consultation on FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Counterpart Regulations Governing Actions by the U.S... that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat. 402.45 Section...

  18. Exposure to serotonin adversely affects oligodendrocyte development and myelination in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lir-Wan; Bhatt, Abhay; Tien, Lu-Tai; Zheng, Baoying; Simpson, Kimberly L; Lin, Rick C S; Cai, Zhengwei; Kumar, Praveen; Pang, Yi

    2015-05-01

    patterns of contactin-associated protein (Caspr) clustering were observed at the sites of Node of Ranvier, suggesting that 5-HT exposure may affect other axon-derived factors for myelination. In summary, this is the first study to demonstrate that manipulation of serotonin levels affects OL development and myelination, which may contribute to altered neural connectivity noted in SSRIs-treated animals. The current in vitro study demonstrated that exposure to high level of serotonin (5-HT) led to aberrant oligodendrocyte (OL) development, cell injury, and myelination deficit. We propose that elevated extracellular serotonin levels in the fetal brain, such as upon the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy, may adversely affect OL development and/or myelination, thus contributing to altered neural connectivity seen in Autism Spectrum Disorders. OPC = oligodendrocyte progenitor cell.

  19. FACTORS AFFECTING COLORED DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS OF THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sunlight-absorbing (colored) component of dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in aquatic environments is widely distributed in freshwaters and coastal regions where it influences the fate and transport of toxic organic substances and biologically-important metals such as mercury,...

  20. 29 CFR 784.138 - Perishable state of the aquatic product as affecting exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... such nonperishable products as fish oil and fish meal, or canned seafood, are not within the exemption... exemption. 784.138 Section 784.138 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT APPLICABLE TO FISHING AND OPERATIONS ON AQUATIC...

  1. Correlation of adverse effects of cisplatin administration in patients affected by solid tumours: A retrospective evaluation

    PubMed Central

    ASTOLFI, LAURA; GHISELLI, SARA; GUARAN, VALERIA; CHICCA, MILVIA; SIMONI, EDI; OLIVETTO, ELENA; LELLI, GIORGIO; MARTINI, ALESSANDRO

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatin is the most common antineoplastic drug used for the therapy of solid tumours. To date, researchers have focused on the dosage to be administered for each specific tumour, mainly considering the local adverse effects. The aim of this study was to correlate the severity of the adverse effects with: i) the dosage of cisplatin; ii) the specific site of the tumour; iii) the association with other drugs; and iv) the symptoms. We analysed data from 123 patients with 11 different tumour classes undergoing therapy from 2007 to 2008 at St. Anna Hospital (Ferrara, Italy), using the Spearman non-parametric correlation index. Even though significant correlations were found among the variables, the overall results showed that the main factor influencing the severity of the adverse effects was the dosage of cisplatin administered. PMID:23404427

  2. Severe Affective and Behavioural Dysregulation Is Associated with Significant Psychosocial Adversity and Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jucksch, Viola; Salbach-Andrae, Harriet; Lenz, Klaus; Goth, Kirstin; Dopfner, Manfred; Poustka, Fritz; Freitag, Christine M.; Lehmkuhl, Gerd; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Holtmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Recently, a highly heritable behavioral phenotype of simultaneous deviance on the Anxious/Depressed, Attention Problems, and Aggressive Behavior syndrome scales has been identified on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL-Dysregulation Profile, CBCL-DP). This study aims to investigate psychosocial adversity and impairment of the CBCL-DP.…

  3. 30 CFR 585.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 585.816 Section 585.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU... affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? If environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility so as to endanger the safety or the environment, you must: (a) Submit a plan...

  4. 30 CFR 585.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 585.816 Section 585.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU... affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? If environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility so as to endanger the safety or the environment, you must: (a) Submit a plan...

  5. 30 CFR 585.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 585.816 Section 585.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU... affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? If environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility so as to endanger the safety or the environment, you must: (a) Submit a plan...

  6. The binary mixtures of megestrol acetate and 17α-ethynylestradiol adversely affect zebrafish reproduction.

    PubMed

    Hua, Jianghuan; Han, Jian; Wang, Xianfeng; Guo, Yongyong; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2016-06-01

    Synthetic progesterones and estrogens are broadly used bioactive pharmaceutical agents and have been detected in aquatic environments. In the present study, we investigated the combined reproductive effects of megestrol acetate (MTA) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) on zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were exposed to MTA (33, 100 or 333 ng/L), EE2 (10 ng/L) or a mixture of both (MTA + EE2: 33 + 10, 100 + 10 or 333 + 10 ng/L) for 21 days. Results demonstrated that egg production was significantly reduced by exposure to 10 ng/L EE2, but not MTA. However, a combined exposure to MTA and EE2 caused further reduction of fish fecundity compared to EE2 exposure alone, suggesting an additive effect on egg production when EE2 is supplemented with MTA. Plasma concentrations of 17β-estradiol and testosterone in the females and 11-ketotestosterone in the males were significantly decreased in the groups exposed to EE2 or MTA alone compared with the solvent control, and the plasma concentrations of the three hormones were further reduced in the co-exposure groups relative to the MTA exposure group, but not the EE2 exposure group. These data indicate that the inhibitory effects on plasma concentrations in the co-exposures were predominantly caused by EE2. Furthermore, exposure to MTA and EE2 (alone or in combination) led to histological alterations in the ovaries (decreased vitellogenic/mature oocytes), but not in the testes. This study has important implications for environmental risk assessment of synthetic hormones that are concurrently present in aquatic systems. PMID:27038209

  7. Enantiomer specific measurements of current-use pesticides in aquatic systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contrary to predictions, current-use pesticides are adversely affecting aquatic systems in both urban and agricultural watersheds, particularly in California. One possible divergence from fate and effect predictions is that some current-use pesticides are chiral molecules. Increa...

  8. Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutteling, Barbara M.; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50…

  9. 30 CFR 285.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 285.816 Section 285.816 Mineral Resources..., pipeline, or facility? If environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or...

  10. Can aircraft noise less than or equal 115 to dBA adversely affect reproductive outcome in USAF women?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brubaker, P. A.

    1985-06-01

    It has been suggested, mainly through animal studies, that exposure to high noise levels may be associated with lower birth weight, reduced gestational length and other adverse reproductive outcomes. Few studies have been done on humans to show this association. The Air Force employs pregnant women in areas where there is a high potential for exposure to high noise levels. This study proposes a method to determine if there is an association between high frequency noise levels or = 115 dBA and adverse reproductive outcomes through a review of records and self-administered questionnaires in a case-comparison design. Prevelance rates will be calculated and a multiple logistic regression analysis computed for the independent variables that can affect reproduction.

  11. Elevated depressive affect is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes among African Americans with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Michael J.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Greene, Tom; Gassman, Jennifer J.; Wang, Xuelei; Brooks, Deborah H.; Charleston, Jeanne; Dowie, Donna; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Cooper, Lisa A.; Bruce, Marino A.; Kusek, John W.; Norris, Keith C.; Lash, James P.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the impact of elevated depressive affect on health outcomes among participants with hypertensive chronic kidney disease in the African-American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) Cohort Study. Elevated depressive affect was defined by Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) thresholds of 11 or more, above 14, and by 5-Unit increments in the score. Cox regression analyses were used to relate cardiovascular death/hospitalization, doubling of serum creatinine/end-stage renal disease, overall hospitalization, and all-cause death to depressive affect evaluated at baseline, the most recent annual visit (time-varying), or average from baseline to the most recent visit (cumulative). Among 628 participants at baseline, 42% had BDI-II scores of 11 or more and 26% had a score above 14. During a 5-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of cardiovascular death/hospitalization was significantly greater for participants with baseline BDI-II scores of 11 or more compared with those with scores <11. The baseline, time-varying, and cumulative elevated depressive affect were each associated with a significant higher risk of cardiovascular death/hospitalization, especially with a time-varying BDI-II score over 14 (adjusted HR 1.63) but not with the other outcomes. Thus, elevated depressive affect is associated with unfavorable cardiovascular outcomes in African Americans with hypertensive chronic kidney disease. PMID:21633409

  12. Adverse childhood experiences associate to reduced glutamate levels in the hippocampus of patients affected by mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Sara; Locatelli, Clara; Falini, Andrea; Colombo, Cristina; Benedetti, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) can possibly permanently alter the stress response system, affect the glutamatergic system and influence hippocampal volume in mood disorders. The aim of the study is to investigate the association between glutamate levels in the hippocampus, measured through single proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), and ACE in patients affected by mood disorders and healthy controls. Higher levels of early stress associate to reduced levels of Glx/Cr in the hippocampus in depressed patients but not in healthy controls. Exposure to stress during early life could lead to a hypofunctionality of the glutamatergic system in the hippocampus of depressed patients. Abnormalities of glutamatergic signaling could then possibly underpin the structural and functional abnormalities observed in patients affected by mood disorders.

  13. Coralline algal physiology is more adversely affected by elevated temperature than reduced pH.

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Elizondo, Román Manuel; Enríquez, Susana

    2016-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the physiological responses of coralline algae to ocean acidification (OA) and global warming, by exposing algal thalli of three species with contrasting photobiology and growth-form to reduced pH and elevated temperature. The analysis aimed to discern between direct and combined effects, while elucidating the role of light and photosynthesis inhibition in this response. We demonstrate the high sensitivity of coralline algae to photodamage under elevated temperature and its severe consequences on thallus photosynthesis and calcification rates. Moderate levels of light-stress, however, were maintained under reduced pH, resulting in no impact on algal photosynthesis, although moderate adverse effects on calcification rates were still observed. Accordingly, our results support the conclusion that global warming is a stronger threat to algal performance than OA, in particular in highly illuminated habitats such as coral reefs. We provide in this study a quantitative physiological model for the estimation of the impact of thermal-stress on coralline carbonate production, useful to foresee the impact of global warming on coralline contribution to reef carbon budgets, reef cementation, coral recruitment and the maintenance of reef biodiversity. This model, however, cannot yet account for the moderate physiological impact of low pH on coralline calcification. PMID:26740396

  14. Coralline algal physiology is more adversely affected by elevated temperature than reduced pH.

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Elizondo, Román Manuel; Enríquez, Susana

    2016-01-07

    In this study we analyzed the physiological responses of coralline algae to ocean acidification (OA) and global warming, by exposing algal thalli of three species with contrasting photobiology and growth-form to reduced pH and elevated temperature. The analysis aimed to discern between direct and combined effects, while elucidating the role of light and photosynthesis inhibition in this response. We demonstrate the high sensitivity of coralline algae to photodamage under elevated temperature and its severe consequences on thallus photosynthesis and calcification rates. Moderate levels of light-stress, however, were maintained under reduced pH, resulting in no impact on algal photosynthesis, although moderate adverse effects on calcification rates were still observed. Accordingly, our results support the conclusion that global warming is a stronger threat to algal performance than OA, in particular in highly illuminated habitats such as coral reefs. We provide in this study a quantitative physiological model for the estimation of the impact of thermal-stress on coralline carbonate production, useful to foresee the impact of global warming on coralline contribution to reef carbon budgets, reef cementation, coral recruitment and the maintenance of reef biodiversity. This model, however, cannot yet account for the moderate physiological impact of low pH on coralline calcification.

  15. Coral and mollusc resistance to ocean acidification adversely affected by warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodolfo-Metalpa, R.; Houlbrèque, F.; Tambutté, É.; Boisson, F.; Baggini, C.; Patti, F. P.; Jeffree, R.; Fine, M.; Foggo, A.; Gattuso, J.-P.; Hall-Spencer, J. M.

    2011-09-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are expectedto decrease surface ocean pH by 0.3-0.5 units by 2100 (refs , ), lowering the carbonate ion concentration of surfacewaters. This rapid acidification is predicted to dramatically decrease calcification in many marine organisms. Reduced skeletal growth under increased CO2 levels has already been shown for corals, molluscs and many other marine organisms. The impact of acidification on the ability of individual species to calcify has remained elusive, however, as measuring net calcification fails to disentangle the relative contributions of gross calcification and dissolution rates on growth. Here, we show that corals and molluscs transplanted along gradients of carbonate saturation state at Mediterranean CO2 vents are able to calcify and grow at even faster than normal rates when exposed to the high CO2 levels projected for the next 300 years. Calcifiers remain at risk, however, owing to the dissolution of exposed shells and skeletons that occurs as pH levels fall. Our results show that tissues and external organic layers play a major role in protecting shells and skeletons from corrosive sea water, limiting dissolution and allowing organisms to calcify. Our combined field and laboratory results demonstrate that the adverse effects of global warming are exacerbated when high temperatures coincide with acidification.

  16. Coralline algal physiology is more adversely affected by elevated temperature than reduced pH

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez-Elizondo, Román Manuel; Enríquez, Susana

    2016-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the physiological responses of coralline algae to ocean acidification (OA) and global warming, by exposing algal thalli of three species with contrasting photobiology and growth-form to reduced pH and elevated temperature. The analysis aimed to discern between direct and combined effects, while elucidating the role of light and photosynthesis inhibition in this response. We demonstrate the high sensitivity of coralline algae to photodamage under elevated temperature and its severe consequences on thallus photosynthesis and calcification rates. Moderate levels of light-stress, however, were maintained under reduced pH, resulting in no impact on algal photosynthesis, although moderate adverse effects on calcification rates were still observed. Accordingly, our results support the conclusion that global warming is a stronger threat to algal performance than OA, in particular in highly illuminated habitats such as coral reefs. We provide in this study a quantitative physiological model for the estimation of the impact of thermal-stress on coralline carbonate production, useful to foresee the impact of global warming on coralline contribution to reef carbon budgets, reef cementation, coral recruitment and the maintenance of reef biodiversity. This model, however, cannot yet account for the moderate physiological impact of low pH on coralline calcification. PMID:26740396

  17. Weight Reduction in Athletes May Adversely Affect the Phagocytic Function of Monocytes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kono, Ichiro; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Study of the monocyte phagocytic function in nine competitive athletes before and after a two-week weight reduction (through calorie restriction) program revealed that their pre-program phagocytic activity was higher than in sedentary controls but decreased significantly after the program. This suggests calorie restriction may affect the human…

  18. A dietary assessment of selenium risk to aquatic birds on a coal mine affected stream in Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Wayland, M.; Casey, R.; Woodsworth, E.

    2007-07-15

    In this article, we present the results of a dietary-based assessment of the risk that selenium may pose to two aquatic bird species, the American Dipper (Cinclus mexicanus) and the Harlequin Duck (Histrionicus histrionicus), on one of the coal mine-affected streams, the Gregg River. The study consisted of (1) a literature-based toxicity assessment, (2) simulation of selenium exposure in the diets and eggs of the two species, and (3) a risk assessment that coupled information on toxicity and exposure. Diet and egg selenium concentrations associated with a 20% hatch failure rate were 6.4 and 17 {mu} g {center_dot} g{sup -1} dry wt, respectively. Simulated dietary selenium concentrations were about 2.0-2.5 {mu} g {center_dot} g{sup -1} higher on the Gregg River than on reference streams for both species. When simulated dietary concentrations were considered, hatch failure rates on the Gregg River were predicted to average 12% higher in American Dippers and 8% higher in Harlequin Ducks than at reference streams. Corresponding values were only 3% for both species when predicted egg concentrations were used. Elevated levels of selenium in insects in some of the reference streams were unexpected and raised a question as to whether aquatic birds have evolved a higher tolerance level for dietary selenium in these areas.

  19. Sunlight affects aggregation and deposition of graphene oxide in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Indranil; Hou, Wen-Che; Goodwin, David; Henderson, Matthew; Zepp, Richard G; Bouchard, Dermont

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we investigate the role of simulated sunlight on the physicochemical properties, aggregation, and deposition of graphene oxide (GO) in aquatic environments. Results show that light exposure under varied environmental conditions significantly impacts the physicochemical properties and aggregation/deposition behaviors of GO. Photo-transformation has negligible effects on GO surface charge, however, GO aggregation rates increase with irradiation time for direct photo-transformation under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Under anaerobic conditions, photo-reduced GO has a greater tendency to form aggregates than under aerobic conditions. Aggregation of photo-transformed GO is notably influenced by ion valence, with higher aggregation found in the presence of divalent ions versus monovalent, but adding natural organic matter (NOM) reduces it. QCM-D studies show that deposition of GO on surfaces coated with organic matter decreases with increased GO irradiation time, indicating a potential increase in GO mobility due to photo-transformation. General deposition trends on Suwannee River Humic Acid (SRHA)-coated surfaces are control GO > aerobically photo-transformed GO ≈ anaerobically photo-transformed GO. The release of deposited GO from SRHA-coated surfaces decreases with increased irradiation time, indicating that photo-transformed GO is strongly attached to the NOM-coated surface.

  20. Hydrologic alteration affects aquatic plant assemblages in an arid-land river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vinson, Mark; Hestmark, Bennett; Barkworth, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of long-term flow alteration on primary-producer assemblages. In 1962, Flaming Gorge Dam was constructed on the Green River. The Yampa River has remained an unregulated hydrologically variable river that joins the Green River 100 km downstream from Flaming Gorge Dam. In the 1960s before dam construction only sparse occurrences of two macroalgae, Cladophora and Chara, and no submerged vascular plants were recorded in the Green and Yampa rivers. In 2009–2010, aquatic plants were abundant and widespread in the Green River from the dam downstream to the confluence with the Yampa River. The assemblage consisted of six vascular species, Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum sibiricum, Nasturtium officinale,Potamogeton crispus, Potamogeton pectinatus, and Ranunculus aquatilis, the macroalgae Chara and Cladophora, and the bryophyte, Amblystegium riparium. In the Green River downstream from the Yampa River, and in the Yampa River, only sparse patches of Chara and Cladophora growing in the splash zone on boulders were collected. We attribute the observed changes in the Green River to an increase in water transparency and a reduction in suspended and bed-load sediment and high flow disturbances. The lack of hydrophyte colonization downstream from the confluence with the Yampa River has implications for understanding tributary amelioration of dam effects and for designing more natural flow-regime schedules downstream from large dams.

  1. [Examination of factors affecting efficacy and adverse effect, for the retrospective study of vancomycin hydrochloride (VCM)].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, M; Orii, T; Kobayashi, H; Hirono, S

    2001-08-01

    Vancomycin hydrochloride (VCM) is widely used for treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. However, this drug can cause sever adverse reactions, such as red neck syndrome, nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. Thus, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) was bringing into effect for well effectiveness and to prevent side effects. In Kanto Medical Center NTT EC, TDM of VCM has been brought into effect since 1994. The date were accumulated from 200 patients. In this study, the retrospective research was carried out based on 117 cases selected from the above accumulated data, and then several factors such as VCM inducing side effect, a therapeutic effect, and the forecast of pharmacokinetic parameter using laboratory data were examined. Consequently, the high blood concentration trough level, the high value after 1 to 2 hours infusion, and the extension of t1/2 were brought forward as a nephrotoxicity causing factor, and more over each laboratory data (BUN, Cr, GOT, GPT, gamma-GTP, T-BiL, ALP, LDH) was high before infusion of VCM in patients with renal dysfunction. High value T-Bil and lower value TP were brought forward in patients with hepatic dysfunction, and high eosinophils and high blood concentration were brought forward after 1 or 2 hours infusion. In relation to side effects, it was found that the outbreak rate of side effects is high in patients with a complication of hypertension or diabetes. The administration term was considered as a factor which influences the therapeutic effects. The unchanged effect was 10.9 +/- 7.9 days, the improved effect was 14.6 +/- 9.3 days, the remarkably improved effect was 17.7 +/- 14.1 days. As the administration term gets longer, the improvement rate was recognized to be an upward tendency. The difference in significant effects was recognized between unchanged and remarkably unchanged (p < 0.05) effects. As the forecast of pharmacokinetic parameter using the laboratory data, VCMt1/2 showed a

  2. Do particle size and surface functionality affect uptake and depuration of gold nanoparticles by aquatic invertebrates?

    PubMed

    Park, Sujung; Woodhall, James; Ma, Guibin; Veinot, Jonathan G C; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2015-04-01

    Because of the widespread use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in consumer and industrial products, it is inevitable that these materials will enter the environment. It is often stated that the uptake of ENPs into organisms in the environment is related to the particle size and surface functionality. To test this assumption, the present study investigated the uptake and depuration of gold nanoparticle (Au NPs) coated with either citrate (Au-citrate NPs), mercaptoundecanoic acid (Au-MUDA NPs), amino polyethylene glycol (PEG) thiol (Au-NH2 NPs), or PEG (Au-PEG NP) by the aquatic invertebrate Gammarus pulex. The studies were performed using a range of standard ecotoxicity media and natural waters, resulting in varying degrees of aggregation of the different NPs. Uptake of gold by G. pulex varied depending on the surface coatings, with Au-MUDA and Au-citrate NPs being taken up to a greater extent than Au-NH2 and Au-PEG NPs in all test media and natural waters. In all test media evaluated, higher amounts of amino and PEG-coated ENPs were eliminated compared with MUDA- and citrate-coated ENPs. No obvious relationships were seen between the aggregation state of the different Au NPs in treatment and uptake, suggesting that the widely accepted assumption that Au NP uptake is related to particle size does not hold for the range of aggregation states studied (67.1-178.8 nm). Positive correlations between particle number concentration in the media and uptake were observed, indicating that this factor might partly explain the differences in uptake of a particle from different media types.

  3. Combining S-cone and luminance signals adversely affects discrimination of objects within backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Ben J.; Tsattalios, Konstantinos; Chakravarthi, Ramakrishna; Martinovic, Jasna

    2016-01-01

    The visual system processes objects embedded in complex scenes that vary in both luminance and colour. In such scenes, colour contributes to the segmentation of objects from backgrounds, but does it also affect perceptual organisation of object contours which are already defined by luminance signals, or are these processes unaffected by colour’s presence? We investigated if luminance and chromatic signals comparably sustain processing of objects embedded in backgrounds, by varying contrast along the luminance dimension and along the two cone-opponent colour directions. In the first experiment thresholds for object/non-object discrimination of Gaborised shapes were obtained in the presence and absence of background clutter. Contrast of the component Gabors was modulated along single colour/luminance dimensions or co-modulated along multiple dimensions simultaneously. Background clutter elevated discrimination thresholds only for combined S-(L + M) and L + M signals. The second experiment replicated and extended this finding by demonstrating that the effect was dependent on the presence of relatively high S-(L + M) contrast. These results indicate that S-(L + M) signals impair spatial vision when combined with luminance. Since S-(L + M) signals are characterised by relatively large receptive fields, this is likely to be due to an increase in the size of the integration field over which contour-defining information is summed. PMID:26856308

  4. Secreted biofilm factors adversely affect cellular wound healing responses in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jeffery Marano, Robert; Jane Wallace, Hilary; Wijeratne, Dulharie; William Fear, Mark; San Wong, Hui; O'Handley, Ryan

    2015-08-17

    Although most chronic wounds possess an underlying pathology, infectious agents also contribute. In many instances, pathogens exist as biofilms forming clusters surrounded by a secreted extracellular substance. We hypothesized that compounds secreted by biofilm bacteria may inhibit normal wound healing events including cell proliferation and migration. Conditioned media from two common bacterial species associated with chronic skin wounds and chronic tympanic membrane perforations, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were evaluated for their capacity to affect keratinocyte proliferation and migration. Additionally, proteomic analysis was performed to identify proteins within the biofilm conditioned media that may contribute to these observed effects. Biofilm conditioned media from both species inhibited proliferation in human tympanic membrane derived keratinocytes, whereas only biofilm conditioned media from S. aureus inhibited migration. Human epidermal keratinocytes were found to be more sensitive to the effects of the conditioned media resulting in high levels of cell death. Heat treatment and microfiltration suggested that S. aureus activity was due to a protein, while P. aeruginosa activity was more likely due to a small molecule. Proteomic analysis identified several proteins with putative links to delayed wound healing. These include alpha hemolysin, alcohol dehydrogenase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, lactate dehydrogenase and epidermal cell differentiation inhibitor.

  5. Secreted biofilm factors adversely affect cellular wound healing responses in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jeffery Marano, Robert; Jane Wallace, Hilary; Wijeratne, Dulharie; William Fear, Mark; San Wong, Hui; O'Handley, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Although most chronic wounds possess an underlying pathology, infectious agents also contribute. In many instances, pathogens exist as biofilms forming clusters surrounded by a secreted extracellular substance. We hypothesized that compounds secreted by biofilm bacteria may inhibit normal wound healing events including cell proliferation and migration. Conditioned media from two common bacterial species associated with chronic skin wounds and chronic tympanic membrane perforations, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were evaluated for their capacity to affect keratinocyte proliferation and migration. Additionally, proteomic analysis was performed to identify proteins within the biofilm conditioned media that may contribute to these observed effects. Biofilm conditioned media from both species inhibited proliferation in human tympanic membrane derived keratinocytes, whereas only biofilm conditioned media from S. aureus inhibited migration. Human epidermal keratinocytes were found to be more sensitive to the effects of the conditioned media resulting in high levels of cell death. Heat treatment and microfiltration suggested that S. aureus activity was due to a protein, while P. aeruginosa activity was more likely due to a small molecule. Proteomic analysis identified several proteins with putative links to delayed wound healing. These include alpha hemolysin, alcohol dehydrogenase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, lactate dehydrogenase and epidermal cell differentiation inhibitor. PMID:26278131

  6. Nutrient supplementation may adversely affect maternal oral health--a randomised controlled trial in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Harjunmaa, Ulla; Järnstedt, Jorma; Dewey, Kathryn G; Ashorn, Ulla; Maleta, Kenneth; Vosti, Stephen A; Ashorn, Per

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional supplementation during pregnancy is increasingly recommended especially in low-resource settings, but its oral health impacts have not been studied. Our aim was to examine whether supplementation with multiple micronutrients (MMN) or small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements affects dental caries development or periodontal health in a rural Malawian population. The study was embedded in a controlled iLiNS-DYAD trial that enrolled 1391 pregnant women <20 gestation weeks. Women were provided with one daily iron-folic acid capsule (IFA), one capsule with 18 micronutrients (MMN) or one sachet of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) containing protein, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids and 21 micronutrients. Oral examination of 1024 participants was conducted and panoramic X-ray taken within 6 weeks after delivery. The supplement groups were similar at baseline in average socio-economic, nutritional and health status. At the end of the intervention, the prevalence of caries was 56.7%, 69.1% and 63.3% (P = 0.004), and periodontitis 34.9%, 29.8% and 31.2% (P = 0.338) in the IFA, MMN and LNS groups, respectively. Compared with the IFA group, women in the MMN group had 0.60 (0.18-1.02) and in the LNS group 0.59 (0.17-1.01) higher mean number of caries lesions. In the absence of baseline oral health data, firm conclusions on causality cannot be drawn. However, although not confirmatory, the findings are consistent with a possibility that provision of MMN or LNS may have increased the caries incidence in this target population. Because of the potential public health impacts, further research on the association between gestational nutrient interventions and oral health in low-income settings is needed.

  7. Metal toxicity differently affects the Iris pseudacorus-arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi symbiosis in terrestrial and semi-aquatic habitats.

    PubMed

    Wężowicz, K; Turnau, K; Anielska, T; Zhebrak, I; Gołuszka, K; Błaszkowski, J; Rozpądek, P

    2015-12-01

    Phytoremediation offers an environmental friendly alternative to conventional cleanup techniques. In this study, mycorrhizal fungi isolated from the roots of Mentha longifolia grown in the basin of the Centuria River (S Poland) were used. Iris pseudacorus was grown in substratum from an industrial waste, enriched in Pb, Fe, Zn, and Cd in a terrestrial and water-logged habitat. Plant yield and photosynthetic performance was the highest in the aquatic environment; however, the presence of toxic metals (TM) negatively affected photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry as shown by the JIP test. Fungi colonization and Cd accumulation within plant tissues was decreased. In the terrestrial habitat, neither arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) nor metal toxicity affected plant growth, although metal uptake, Cd in particular, as well as photosynthesis were affected. Inoculated plants accumulated significantly more Cd, and photosynthesis was downregulated. The results presented in this study clearly indicate that the I. pseudacorus-AMF symbiosis adapts itself to the presence of toxic metals in the environment, optimizing resource supply, energy fluxes, and possibly stress tolerance mechanisms. Plant/AMF consortia grown in terrestrial and water-logged habitats utilize different strategies to cope with metal toxicity. The use of AMF in improving the phytoremediation potential of I. pseudacorus needs, however, further research.

  8. Metal toxicity differently affects the Iris pseudacorus-arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi symbiosis in terrestrial and semi-aquatic habitats.

    PubMed

    Wężowicz, K; Turnau, K; Anielska, T; Zhebrak, I; Gołuszka, K; Błaszkowski, J; Rozpądek, P

    2015-12-01

    Phytoremediation offers an environmental friendly alternative to conventional cleanup techniques. In this study, mycorrhizal fungi isolated from the roots of Mentha longifolia grown in the basin of the Centuria River (S Poland) were used. Iris pseudacorus was grown in substratum from an industrial waste, enriched in Pb, Fe, Zn, and Cd in a terrestrial and water-logged habitat. Plant yield and photosynthetic performance was the highest in the aquatic environment; however, the presence of toxic metals (TM) negatively affected photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry as shown by the JIP test. Fungi colonization and Cd accumulation within plant tissues was decreased. In the terrestrial habitat, neither arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) nor metal toxicity affected plant growth, although metal uptake, Cd in particular, as well as photosynthesis were affected. Inoculated plants accumulated significantly more Cd, and photosynthesis was downregulated. The results presented in this study clearly indicate that the I. pseudacorus-AMF symbiosis adapts itself to the presence of toxic metals in the environment, optimizing resource supply, energy fluxes, and possibly stress tolerance mechanisms. Plant/AMF consortia grown in terrestrial and water-logged habitats utilize different strategies to cope with metal toxicity. The use of AMF in improving the phytoremediation potential of I. pseudacorus needs, however, further research. PMID:26585452

  9. Degradation and aquatic toxicity of naphthenic acids in oil sands process-affected waters using simulated wetlands.

    PubMed

    Toor, Navdeep S; Franz, Eric D; Fedorak, Phillip M; MacKinnon, Michael D; Liber, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Oil sands process-affected waters (OSPWs) produced during the extraction of bitumen at the Athabasca Oil Sands (AOS) located in northeastern Alberta, Canada, are toxic to many aquatic organisms. Much of this toxicity is related to a group of dissolved organic acids known as naphthenic acids (NAs). Naphthenic acids are a natural component of bitumen and are released into process water during the separation of bitumen from the oil sand ore by a caustic hot water extraction process. Using laboratory microcosms as an analogue of a proposed constructed wetland reclamation strategy for OSPW, we evaluated the effectiveness of these microcosms in degrading NAs and reducing the aquatic toxicity of OSPW over a 52-week test period. Experimental manipulations included two sources of OSPW (one from Syncrude Canada Ltd. and one from Suncor Energy Inc.), two different hydraulic retention times (HRTs; 40 and 400 d), and increased nutrient availability (added nitrate and phosphate). Microcosms with a longer HRT (for both OSPWs) showed higher reductions in total NAs concentrations (64-74% NAs reduction, p<0.05) over the test period, while nutrient enrichment appeared to have little effect. A 96 h static acute rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) bioassay showed that the initial acute toxicity of Syncrude OSPW (LC50=67% v/v) was reduced (LC50>100% v/v) independent of HRT. However, EC20s from separate Microtox® bioassays were relatively unchanged when comparing the input and microcosm waters at both HRTs over the 52-week study period (p>0.05), indicating that some sub-lethal toxicity persisted under these experimental conditions. The present study demonstrated that given sufficiently long HRTs, simulated wetland microcosms containing OSPW significantly reduced total NAs concentrations and acute toxicity, but left behind a persistent component of the NAs mixture that appeared to be associated with residual chronic toxicity.

  10. Biotic interactions affect the colonization behavior of aquatic detritivorous macroinvertebrates in a heterogeneous environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschut, Thomas A.; Meineri, Eric; Basset, Alberto

    2015-05-01

    It has previously been suggested that macroinvertebrates actively search for suitable patches to colonize. However, it is not well understood how the spatial arrangement of patches can affect colonization rates. In this study, we determined the importance of the environmental factors (distance, connectivity and resource availability) for patch colonization in an experimental system using Gammarus aequicauda (Amphipoda), Lekanesphaera hookeri (Isopoda) and Ecrobia ventrosa (Gastropoda). Furthermore, we also assessed how the relative importance of each of these environmental factors differed in interactions between the three species. The single species experiments showed that distance was the most important factor for G. aequicauda and E. ventrosa. However, while E. ventrosa preferred patches close to the release point, G. aequicauda strongly preferred patches further from the release point. High resource availability was a strong determinant for the patch colonization of G. aequicauda and L. hookeri. Connectivity was only of moderate importance in the study system for L. hookeri and E. ventrosa. The effects of the environmental factors were strongly affected by interspecific interactions in the multispecies experiments. For G. aequicauda, the distance preference was lowered in the presence of E. ventrosa. Moreover, while for L. hookeri the effect of resource availability was ruled out by the species interactions, resource availability gained importance for E. ventrosa in the presence of any of the other species. Our results suggest a strong link between environmental factors and biotic interactions in the colonization of habitat patches and indicate that the effect of biotic interactions is especially important for species sharing similar traits.

  11. Endozoochorous dispersal of aquatic plants: does seed gut passage affect plant performance?

    PubMed

    Figuerola, Jordi; Santamaría, Luis; Green, Andy J; Luque, Isabel; Alvarez, Raquel; Charalambidou, Iris

    2005-04-01

    The ingestion of seeds by vertebrates can affect the germinability and/or germination rate of seeds. It is, however, unclear if an earlier germination as a result of ingestion affects later plant performance. For sago pondweed, Potamogeton pectinatus, the effects of seed ingestion by ducks on both germinability and germination rate have been previously reported from laboratory experiments. We performed an experiment to determine the effects of seed ingestion by ducks on germination, seedling survival, plant growth and asexual multiplication. Both at the start and end of the winter, seeds were fed to three captive shovelers (Anas clypeata) and planted outdoors in water-filled containers. Plant biomass and its allocation to vegetative parts (shoot and roots), tubers, and seeds were determined in autumn. More duck-ingested seeds than control (uningested) seeds germinated in early winter, but this difference disappeared for seeds planted in late winter, when the treatments were first stratified for 3 mo. None of the variables for measuring seedling survival and plant performance varied between treatments. Under our experimental conditions (no herbivory or competition), ingestion by ducks in early winter resulted in increased performance for seeds surviving gut passage due to enhanced seed germinability, without other costs or benefits for the seedlings.

  12. The cultivation of Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect non-target arthropods.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanyan; Feng, Yanjie; Ge, Yang; Tetreau, Guillaume; Chen, Xiaowen; Dong, Xuehui; Shi, Wangpeng

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic corn producing Cry1Ac toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provides effective control of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), and thus reduces insecticide applications. However, whether Bt corn exerts undesirable effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs) is still controversial. We conducted a 2-yr study in Shangzhuang Agricultural Experiment Station to assess the potential impact of Bt corn on field population density, biodiversity, community composition and structure of NTAs. On each sampling date, the total abundance, Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness index and Simpson's diversity index were not significantly affected by Bt corn as compared to non-Bt corn. The "sampling dates" had a significant effect on these indices, but no clear tendencies related to "Bt corn" or "sampling dates X corn variety" interaction were recorded. Principal response curve analysis of variance indicated that Bt corn did not alter the distribution of NTAs communities. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and distance analysis showed that Cry1Ac toxin exposure did not increase community dissimilarities between Bt and non-Bt corn plots and that the evolution of non-target arthropod community was similar on the two corn varieties. The cultivation of Bt corn failed to show any detrimental evidence on the density of non-target herbivores, predators and parasitoids. The composition of herbivores, predators and parasitoids was identical in Bt and non-Bt corn plots. Taken together, results from the present work support that Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect NTAs.

  13. A Screening-Level Approach for Comparing Risks Affecting Aquatic Ecosystem Services over Socio-Environmental Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, T. C.; Conde, D.; Villamizar, S. R.; Reid, B.; Escobar, J.; Rusak, J.; Hoyos, N.; Scordo, F.; Perillo, G. M.; Piccolo, M. C.; Zilio, M.; Velez, M.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing risks to aquatic ecosystems services (ES) is challenging and time-consuming, and effective strategies for prioritizing more detailed assessment efforts are needed. We propose a screening-level risk analysis (SRA) approach that scales ES risk using socioeconomic and environmental indices to capture anthropic and climatic pressures, as well as the capacity for institutional responses to those pressures. The method considers ES within a watershed context, and uses expert input to prioritize key services and the associated pressures that threaten them. The SRA approach focuses on estimating ES risk affect factors, which are the sum of the intensity factors for all hazards or pressures affecting the ES. We estimate the pressure intensity factors in a novel manner, basing them on the nation's (i) human development (proxied by Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, IHDI), (ii) environmental regulatory and monitoring state (Environmental Performance Index, EPI) and (iii) the current level of water stress in the watershed (baseline water stress, BWS). Anthropic intensity factors for future conditions are derived from the baseline values based on the nation's 10-year trend in IHDI and EPI; ES risks in nations with stronger records of change are rewarded more/penalized less in estimates for good/poor future management scenarios. Future climatic intensity factors are tied to water stress estimates based on two general circulation model (GCM) outcomes. We demonstrate the method for an international array of six sites representing a wide range of socio-environmental settings. The outcomes illustrate novel consequences of the scaling scheme. Risk affect factors may be greater in a highly developed region under intense climatic pressure, or in less well-developed regions due to human factors (e.g., poor environmental records). As a screening-level tool, the SRA approach offers considerable promise for ES risk comparisons among watersheds and regions so that

  14. The cultivation of Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect non-target arthropods.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanyan; Feng, Yanjie; Ge, Yang; Tetreau, Guillaume; Chen, Xiaowen; Dong, Xuehui; Shi, Wangpeng

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic corn producing Cry1Ac toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provides effective control of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), and thus reduces insecticide applications. However, whether Bt corn exerts undesirable effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs) is still controversial. We conducted a 2-yr study in Shangzhuang Agricultural Experiment Station to assess the potential impact of Bt corn on field population density, biodiversity, community composition and structure of NTAs. On each sampling date, the total abundance, Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness index and Simpson's diversity index were not significantly affected by Bt corn as compared to non-Bt corn. The "sampling dates" had a significant effect on these indices, but no clear tendencies related to "Bt corn" or "sampling dates X corn variety" interaction were recorded. Principal response curve analysis of variance indicated that Bt corn did not alter the distribution of NTAs communities. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and distance analysis showed that Cry1Ac toxin exposure did not increase community dissimilarities between Bt and non-Bt corn plots and that the evolution of non-target arthropod community was similar on the two corn varieties. The cultivation of Bt corn failed to show any detrimental evidence on the density of non-target herbivores, predators and parasitoids. The composition of herbivores, predators and parasitoids was identical in Bt and non-Bt corn plots. Taken together, results from the present work support that Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect NTAs. PMID:25437213

  15. The Cultivation of Bt Corn Producing Cry1Ac Toxins Does Not Adversely Affect Non-Target Arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanyan; Feng, Yanjie; Ge, Yang; Tetreau, Guillaume; Chen, Xiaowen; Dong, Xuehui; Shi, Wangpeng

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic corn producing Cry1Ac toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provides effective control of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), and thus reduces insecticide applications. However, whether Bt corn exerts undesirable effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs) is still controversial. We conducted a 2-yr study in Shangzhuang Agricultural Experiment Station to assess the potential impact of Bt corn on field population density, biodiversity, community composition and structure of NTAs. On each sampling date, the total abundance, Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness index and Simpson's diversity index were not significantly affected by Bt corn as compared to non-Bt corn. The “sampling dates” had a significant effect on these indices, but no clear tendencies related to “Bt corn” or “sampling dates X corn variety” interaction were recorded. Principal response curve analysis of variance indicated that Bt corn did not alter the distribution of NTAs communities. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and distance analysis showed that Cry1Ac toxin exposure did not increase community dissimilarities between Bt and non-Bt corn plots and that the evolution of non-target arthropod community was similar on the two corn varieties. The cultivation of Bt corn failed to show any detrimental evidence on the density of non-target herbivores, predators and parasitoids. The composition of herbivores, predators and parasitoids was identical in Bt and non-Bt corn plots. Taken together, results from the present work support that Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect NTAs. PMID:25437213

  16. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  17. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  18. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  19. Endocrine disruption in aquatic vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Kloas, Werner; Urbatzka, Ralph; Opitz, Robert; Würtz, Sven; Behrends, Thomas; Hermelink, Björn; Hofmann, Frauke; Jagnytsch, Oana; Kroupova, Hana; Lorenz, Claudia; Neumann, Nadja; Pietsch, Constanze; Trubiroha, Achim; Van Ballegooy, Christoph; Wiedemann, Caterina; Lutz, Ilka

    2009-04-01

    Environmental compounds can interfere with endocrine systems of wildlife and humans. The main sink of such substances, called endocrine disrupters (ED), are surface waters. Thus, aquatic vertebrates, such as fish and amphibians, are most endangered. ED can adversely affect reproductive biology and the thyroid system. ED act by (anti)estrogenic and (anti)androgenic modes of action, resulting in abnormal sexual differentiation and impaired reproduction. These effects are mainly driven by direct interferences of ED with sex steroid receptors rather than indirectly by impacting synthesis and bioavailability of sex steroids, which in turn might affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Recent findings reveal that, in addition to the human-produced waste of ED, natural sources, such as parasites and decomposition of leaves, also might act as ED, markedly affecting sexual differentiation and reproduction in fish and amphibians. Although the thyroid system has essential functions in both fish and amphibians, amphibian metamorphosis has been introduced as the most sensitive model to detect thyroidal ED; no suitable fish model exists. Whereas ED may act primarily on only one specific endocrine target, all endocrine systems will eventually be deregulated as they are intimately connected to each other. The recent ecotoxicological issue of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) present in the aquatic environment indicates a high potential for further endocrine modes of action on aquatic vertebrates by ED derived from PhACs, such as glucocorticoids, progestins, and beta-agonists.

  20. Extreme Air Pollution Conditions Adversely Affect Blood Pressure and Insulin Resistance: The Air Pollution and Cardiometabolic Disease Study.

    PubMed

    Brook, Robert D; Sun, Zhichao; Brook, Jeffrey R; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Ruan, Yanping; Yan, Jianhua; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Rao, Xiaoquan; Duan, Fengkui; Sun, Lixian; Liang, Ruijuan; Lian, Hui; Zhang, Shuyang; Fang, Quan; Gu, Dongfeng; Sun, Qinghua; Fan, Zhongjie; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports that fine particulate matter adversely affects cardiometabolic diseases particularly in susceptible individuals; however, health effects induced by the extreme concentrations within megacities in Asia are not well described. We enrolled 65 nonsmoking adults with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the Beijing metropolitan area into a panel study of 4 repeated visits across 4 seasons since 2012. Daily ambient fine particulate matter and personal black carbon levels ranged from 9.0 to 552.5 µg/m(3) and 0.2 to 24.5 µg/m(3), respectively, with extreme levels observed during January 2013. Cumulative fine particulate matter exposure windows across the prior 1 to 7 days were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure elevations ranging from 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.7) to 2.7 (0.6-4.8) mm Hg per SD increase (67.2 µg/m(3)), whereas cumulative black carbon exposure during the previous 2 to 5 days were significantly associated with ranges in elevations in diastolic blood pressure from 1.3 (0.0-2.5) to 1.7 (0.3-3.2) mm Hg per SD increase (3.6 µg/m(3)). Both black carbon and fine particulate matter were significantly associated with worsening insulin resistance (0.18 [0.01-0.36] and 0.22 [0.04-0.39] unit increase per SD increase of personal-level black carbon and 0.18 [0.02-0.34] and 0.22 [0.08-0.36] unit increase per SD increase of ambient fine particulate matter on lag days 4 and 5). These results provide important global public health warnings that air pollution may pose a risk to cardiometabolic health even at the extremely high concentrations faced by billions of people in the developing world today. PMID:26573709

  1. Increased Fracture Collapse after Intertrochanteric Fractures Treated by the Dynamic Hip Screw Adversely Affects Walking Ability but Not Survival

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Christian; Gudushauri, Paata; Wong, Tak-Man; Lau, Tak-Wing; Pun, Terence; Leung, Frankie

    2016-01-01

    In osteoporotic hip fractures, fracture collapse is deliberately allowed by commonly used implants to improve dynamic contact and healing. The muscle lever arm is, however, compromised by shortening. We evaluated a cohort of 361 patients with AO/OTA 31.A1 or 31.A2 intertrochanteric fracture treated by the dynamic hip screw (DHS) who had a minimal follow-up of 3 months and an average follow-up of 14.6 months and long term survival data. The amount of fracture collapse and shortening due to sliding of the DHS was determined at the latest follow-up and graded as minimal (<1 cm), moderate (1-2 cm), or severe (>2 cm). With increased severity of collapse, more patients were unable to maintain their premorbid walking function (minimal collapse = 34.2%, moderate = 33.3%, severe = 62.8%, and p = 0.028). Based on ordinal regression of risk factors, increased fracture collapse was significantly and independently related to increasing age (p = 0.037), female sex (p = 0.024), A2 fracture class (p = 0.010), increased operative duration (p = 0.011), poor reduction quality (p = 0.000), and suboptimal tip-apex distance of >25 mm (p = 0.050). Patients who had better outcome in terms of walking function were independently predicted by younger age (p = 0.036), higher MMSE marks (p = 0.000), higher MBI marks (p = 0.010), better premorbid walking status (p = 0.000), less fracture collapse (p = 0.011), and optimal lag screw position in centre-centre or centre-inferior position (p = 0.020). According to Kaplan-Meier analysis, fracture collapse had no association with mortality from 2.4 to 7.6 years after surgery. In conclusion, increased fracture collapse after fixation of geriatric intertrochanteric fractures adversely affected walking but not survival. PMID:26955637

  2. Extreme Air Pollution Conditions Adversely Affect Blood Pressure and Insulin Resistance: The Air Pollution and Cardiometabolic Disease Study.

    PubMed

    Brook, Robert D; Sun, Zhichao; Brook, Jeffrey R; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Ruan, Yanping; Yan, Jianhua; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Rao, Xiaoquan; Duan, Fengkui; Sun, Lixian; Liang, Ruijuan; Lian, Hui; Zhang, Shuyang; Fang, Quan; Gu, Dongfeng; Sun, Qinghua; Fan, Zhongjie; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports that fine particulate matter adversely affects cardiometabolic diseases particularly in susceptible individuals; however, health effects induced by the extreme concentrations within megacities in Asia are not well described. We enrolled 65 nonsmoking adults with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the Beijing metropolitan area into a panel study of 4 repeated visits across 4 seasons since 2012. Daily ambient fine particulate matter and personal black carbon levels ranged from 9.0 to 552.5 µg/m(3) and 0.2 to 24.5 µg/m(3), respectively, with extreme levels observed during January 2013. Cumulative fine particulate matter exposure windows across the prior 1 to 7 days were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure elevations ranging from 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.7) to 2.7 (0.6-4.8) mm Hg per SD increase (67.2 µg/m(3)), whereas cumulative black carbon exposure during the previous 2 to 5 days were significantly associated with ranges in elevations in diastolic blood pressure from 1.3 (0.0-2.5) to 1.7 (0.3-3.2) mm Hg per SD increase (3.6 µg/m(3)). Both black carbon and fine particulate matter were significantly associated with worsening insulin resistance (0.18 [0.01-0.36] and 0.22 [0.04-0.39] unit increase per SD increase of personal-level black carbon and 0.18 [0.02-0.34] and 0.22 [0.08-0.36] unit increase per SD increase of ambient fine particulate matter on lag days 4 and 5). These results provide important global public health warnings that air pollution may pose a risk to cardiometabolic health even at the extremely high concentrations faced by billions of people in the developing world today.

  3. Endocrine disrupters and human health: could oestrogenic chemicals in body care cosmetics adversely affect breast cancer incidence in women?

    PubMed

    Harvey, Philip W; Darbre, Philippa

    2004-01-01

    In the decade that has elapsed since the suggestion that exposure of the foetal/developing male to environmental oestrogens could be the cause of subsequent reproductive and developmental effects in men, there has been little definitive research to provide conclusions to the hypothesis. Issues of exposure and low potency of environmental oestrogens may have reduced concerns. However, the hypothesis that chemicals applied in body care cosmetics (including moisturizers, creams, sprays or lotions applied to axilla or chest or breast areas) may be affecting breast cancer incidence in women presents a different case scenario, not least in the consideration of the exposure issues. The specific cosmetic type is not relevant but the chemical ingredients in the formulations and the application to the skin is important. The most common group of body care cosmetic formulation excipients, namely p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters or parabens, have been shown recently to be oestrogenic in vitro and in vivo and now have been detected in human breast tumour tissue, indicating absorption (route and causal associations have yet to be confirmed). The hypothesis for a link between oestrogenic ingredients in underarm and body care cosmetics and breast cancer is forwarded and reviewed here in terms of: data on exposure to body care cosmetics and parabens, including dermal absorption; paraben oestrogenicity; the role of oestrogen in breast cancer; detection of parabens in breast tumours; recent epidemiology studies of underarm cosmetics use and breast cancer; the toxicology database; the current regulatory status of parabens and regulatory toxicology data uncertainties. Notwithstanding the major public health issue of the causes of the rising incidence of breast cancer in women, this call for further research may provide the first evidence that environmental factors may be adversely affecting human health by endocrine disruption, because exposure to oestrogenic chemicals through application

  4. How Are Changing Solar Ultraviolet Radiation and Climate Affecting Light-induced Chemical Processes in Aquatic Environments?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in the ozone layer over the past three decades have resulted in increases in solar UV-B radiation (280-315 nm) that reach the surface of aquatic environments. These changes have been accompanied by unprecedented changes in temperature and precipitation patterns around the...

  5. Do social disadvantage and early family adversity affect the diurnal cortisol rhythm in infants? The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Saridjan, Nathalie S; Huizink, Anja C; Koetsier, Jitske A; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Mackenbach, Johan P; Hofman, Albert; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2010-02-01

    Dysregulation of diurnal cortisol secretion patterns may explain the link between adversities early in life and later mental health problems. However, few studies have investigated the influence of social disadvantage and family adversity on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis early in life. In 366 infants aged 12-20 months from the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort from fetal life onwards, parents collected saliva samples from their infant at 5 moments over the course of 1 day. The area under the curve (AUC), the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and the diurnal cortisol slope were calculated as different composite measures of the diurnal cortisol rhythm. Information about social disadvantage and early adversity was collected using prenatal and postnatal questionnaires. We found that older infants showed lower AUC levels; moreover, infants with a positive CAR were significantly older. Both the AUC and the CAR were related to indicators of social disadvantage and early adversity. Infants of low income families, in comparison to high income families, showed higher AUC levels and a positive CAR. Infants of mothers who smoked during pregnancy were also significantly more likely to show a positive CAR. Furthermore, infants of mothers experiencing parenting stress showed higher AUC levels. The results of our study show that effects of social disadvantage and early adversity on the diurnal cortisol rhythm are already observable in infants. This may reflect the influence of early negative life events on early maturation of the HPA axis. PMID:20006614

  6. Benefits of adversity?! How life history affects the behavioral profile of mice varying in serotonin transporter genotype

    PubMed Central

    Bodden, Carina; Richter, S. Helene; Schreiber, Rebecca S.; Kloke, Vanessa; Gerß, Joachim; Palme, Rupert; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Lewejohann, Lars; Kaiser, Sylvia; Sachser, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral profiles are influenced by both positive and negative experiences as well as the genetic disposition. Traditionally, accumulating adversity over lifetime is considered to predict increased anxiety-like behavior (“allostatic load”). The alternative “mismatch hypothesis” suggests increased levels of anxiety if the early environment differs from the later-life environment. Thus, there is a need for a whole-life history approach to gain a deeper understanding of how behavioral profiles are shaped. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of life history on the behavioral profile of mice varying in serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype, an established mouse model of increased anxiety-like behavior. For this purpose, mice grew up under either adverse or beneficial conditions during early phases of life. In adulthood, they were further subdivided so as to face a situation that either matched or mismatched the condition experienced so far, resulting in four different life histories. Subsequently, mice were tested for their anxiety-like and exploratory behavior. The main results were: (1) Life history profoundly modulated the behavioral profile. Surprisingly, mice that experienced early beneficial and later escapable adverse conditions showed less anxiety-like and more exploratory behavior compared to mice of other life histories. (2) Genotype significantly influenced the behavioral profile, with homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice displaying highest levels of anxiety-like and lowest levels of exploratory behavior. Our findings concerning life history indicate that the absence of adversity does not necessarily cause lower levels of anxiety than accumulating adversity. Rather, some adversity may be beneficial, particularly when following positive events. Altogether, we conclude that for an understanding of behavioral profiles, it is not sufficient to look at experiences during single phases of life, but the whole life history has to be considered

  7. CT and MR imaging findings of systemic complications occurring during pregnancy and puerperal period, adversely affected by natural changes

    PubMed Central

    Himoto, Yuki; Kido, Aki; Moribata, Yusaku; Yamaoka, Toshihide; Okumura, Ryosuke; Togashi, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic physiological and anatomical changes for delivery may adversely induce various specific non-obstetric complications during pregnancy and puerperal period. These complications can be fatal to both the mother and the fetus, thus a precise and early diagnosis ensued by an early treatment is essential. Along with ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have assumed an increasing role in the diagnosis. This article aims to discuss the pathophysiology of these complications, the indications for CT and MRI, and the imaging findings. PMID:26937442

  8. Factors affecting the development of adverse drug reactions to β-blockers in hospitalized cardiac patient population

    PubMed Central

    Mugoša, Snežana; Djordjević, Nataša; Djukanović, Nina; Protić, Dragana; Bukumirić, Zoran; Radosavljević, Ivan; Bošković, Aneta; Todorović, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to undertake a study on the prevalence of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) poor metabolizer alleles (*3, *4, *5, and *6) on a Montenegrin population and its impact on developing adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of β-blockers in a hospitalized cardiac patient population. A prospective study was conducted in the Cardiology Center of the Clinical Center of Montenegro and included 138 patients who had received any β-blocker in their therapy. ADRs were collected using a specially designed questionnaire, based on the symptom list and any signs that could point to eventual ADRs. Data from patients’ medical charts, laboratory tests, and other available parameters were observed and combined with the data from the questionnaire. ADRs to β-blockers were observed in 15 (10.9%) patients. There was a statistically significant difference in the frequency of ADRs in relation to genetically determined enzymatic activity (P<0.001), with ADRs’ occurrence significantly correlating with slower CYP2D6 metabolism. Our study showed that the adverse reactions to β-blockers could be predicted by the length of hospitalization, CYP2D6 poor metabolizer phenotype, and the concomitant use of other CYP2D6-metabolizing drugs. Therefore, in hospitalized patients with polypharmacy CYP2D6 genotyping might be useful in detecting those at risk of ADRs. PMID:27536078

  9. Impaired Glucose Tolerance or Newly Diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus Diagnosed during Admission Adversely Affects Prognosis after Myocardial Infarction: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    George, Anish; Bhatia, Raghav T.; Buchanan, Gill L.; Whiteside, Anne; Moisey, Robert S.; Beer, Stephen F.; Chattopadhyay, Sudipta; Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; John, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prognostic effect of newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus (NDM) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) post myocardial infarction (MI). Research Design and Methods Retrospective cohort study of 768 patients without preexisting diabetes mellitus post-MI at one centre in Yorkshire between November 2005 and October 2008. Patients were categorised as normal glucose tolerance (NGT n = 337), IGT (n = 279) and NDM (n = 152) on pre- discharge oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Primary end-point was the first occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) including cardiovascular death, non-fatal MI, severe heart failure (HF) or non-haemorrhagic stroke. Secondary end-points were all cause mortality and individual components of MACE. Results Prevalence of NGT, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), IGT and NDM changed from 90%, 6%, 0% and 4% on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) to 43%, 1%, 36% and 20% respectively after OGTT. 102 deaths from all causes (79 as first events of which 46 were cardiovascular), 95 non fatal MI, 18 HF and 9 non haemorrhagic strokes occurred during 47.2 ± 9.4 months follow up. Event free survival was lower in IGT and NDM groups. IGT (HR 1.54, 95% CI: 1.06–2.24, p = 0.024) and NDM (HR 2.15, 95% CI: 1.42–3.24, p = 0.003) independently predicted MACE free survival. IGT and NDM also independently predicted incidence of MACE. NDM but not IGT increased the risk of secondary end-points. Conclusion Presence of IGT and NDM in patients presenting post-MI, identified using OGTT, is associated with increased incidence of MACE and is associated with adverse outcomes despite adequate secondary prevention. PMID:26571120

  10. Synthetic progestins medroxyprogesterone acetate and dydrogesterone and their binary mixtures adversely affect reproduction and lead to histological and transcriptional alterations in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanbin; Castiglioni, Sara; Fent, Karl

    2015-04-01

    Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and dydrogesterone (DDG) are synthetic progestins widely used in human and veterinary medicine. Although aquatic organisms are exposed to them through wastewater and animal farm runoff, very little is known about their effects in the environment. Here we provide a comprehensive analysis of the responses of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to MPA, DDG, and their binary mixtures at measured concentrations between 4.5 and 1663 ng/L. DDG and both mixtures impaired reproductive capacities (egg production) of breeding pairs and led to histological alterations of ovaries and testes and increased gonadosomatic index. Transcriptional analysis of up to 28 genes belonging to different pathways demonstrated alterations in steroid hormone receptors, steroidogenesis enzymes, and specifically, the circadian rhythm genes, in different organs of adult zebrafish and eleuthero-embryos. Alterations occurred even at environmentally relevant concentrations of 4.5-4.8 ng/L MPA, DDG and the mixture in eleuthero-embryos and at 43-89 ng/L in adult zebrafish. Additionally, the mixtures displayed additive effects in most but not all parameters in adults and eleuthero-embryos, suggesting concentration addition. Our data suggest that MPA and DDG and their mixtures induce multiple transcriptional responses at environmentally relevant concentrations and adverse effects on reproduction and gonad histology at higher levels.

  11. Selenium and other trace elements in aquatic insects in coal mine-affected streams in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Wayland, Mark; Crosley, Robert

    2006-05-01

    We determined levels of Se, As, Cd, Pb, and Zn in aquatic insects at coal mine-impacted and reference sites in streams in the Rocky Mountain foothills of west central Alberta from 2001-2003. Selenium levels were greater at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in caddisflies but not in mayflies or stoneflies. Arsenic levels were greater at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in caddisflies and stoneflies but not in mayflies. Zn levels were higher at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in all three groups of insects. At coal mine-impacted sites, Se levels in mayflies and caddisflies were greater than those in stoneflies while at reference sites mayflies contained greater concentrations of Se than either caddisflies or stoneflies. Arsenic levels in mayflies were greater than those in caddisflies at reference and coal mine-impacted sites and were greater than those in stoneflies at reference sites. At both types of sites Cd differed amongst insect taxa in the order of mayflies > caddisflies > stoneflies. The same was true of Zn at coal mine-affected sites. At reference sites, stoneflies had greater concentrations of Zn than both mayflies and caddisflies. At both types of sites, Pb levels were greater in mayflies and caddisflies than they were in stoneflies. Of the five trace elements considered in this study, only Se was sufficiently elevated in aquatic invertebrates to be of potential concern for consumers such as fish and aquatic birds. Such was the case at both coal mine-impacted and reference sites. PMID:16446991

  12. Selenium and other trace elements in aquatic insects in coal mine-affected streams in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Wayland, M.; Crosley, R.

    2006-05-15

    We determined levels of Se, As, Cd, Pb, and Zn in aquatic insects at coal mine-impacted and reference sites in streams in the Rocky Mountain foothills of west central Alberta from 2001-2003. Selenium levels were greater at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in caddisflies but not in mayflies or stoneflies. Arsenic levels were greater at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in caddisflies and stoneflies but not in mayflies. Zn levels were higher at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in all three groups of insects. At coal mine-impacted sites, Se levels in mayflies and caddisflies were greater than those in stoneflies while at reference sites mayflies contained greater concentrations of Se than either caddisflies or stoneflies. Arsenic levels in mayflies were greater than those in caddisflies at reference and coal mine-impacted sites and were greater than those in stoneflies at reference sites. At both types of sites Cd differed amongst insect taxa in the order of mayflies < caddisflies < stoneflies. The same was true of Zn at coal mine-affected sites. At reference sites, stoneflies had greater concentrations of Zn than both mayflies and caddisflies. At both types of sites, Pb levels were greater in mayflies and caddisflies than they were in stoneflies. Of the five trace elements considered in this study, only Se was sufficiently elevated in aquatic invertebrates to be of potential concern for consumers such as fish and aquatic birds. Such was the case at both coal mine-impacted and reference sites.

  13. Enantiomer Specific Measurements of Current-Use Pesticides in Aquatic Systems.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that current-use pesticides can enter urban and agricultural watersheds and adversely affect aquatic organisms. A potential cause may be higher concentrations of the more toxic pesticide enantiomer present in the pesticide mixture. The presence of pesticide ena...

  14. #2) Enantiomer Specific Measurements of Current-use Pesticides in Aquatic Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that current-use pesticides can enter urban and agricultural watersheds and adversely affect aquatic organisms. A potential cause may be higher concentrations of the more toxic pesticide enantiomer present in the pesticide mixture. The presence of pesticide ena...

  15. Enantiomer Specific Measurements of Current-use Pesticides in Aquatic Systems (#2)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that current-use pesticides can enter urban and agricultural watersheds and adversely affect aquatic organisms. A potential cause may be higher concentrations of the more toxic pesticide enantiomer present in the pesticide mixture. The presence of pesticide ena...

  16. Does the antibiotic amoxicillin affect haemocyte parameters in non-target aquatic invertebrates? The clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis as model organisms.

    PubMed

    Matozzo, Valerio; Bertin, Valeria; Battistara, Margherita; Guidolin, Angelica; Masiero, Luciano; Marisa, Ilaria; Orsetti, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Amoxicillin (AMX) is one of the most widely used antibiotics worldwide, and its levels in aquatic ecosystems are expected to be detectable. At present, information concerning the toxic effects of AMX on non-target aquatic organisms, such as bivalves, is scarce. Consequently, in this study, we investigated for the first time the effects of AMX on the haemocyte parameters of two bivalve species, the clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, which share the same habitat in the Lagoon of Venice, in order to compare the relative sensitivity of the two species. The bivalves were exposed to 100, 200 and 400 μg AMX/L for 1, 3 and 7 days, and the effects on the total haemocyte count (THC), the diameter and volume of the haemocytes, haemocyte proliferation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in cell-free haemolymph, the haemolymph pH, and the formation of micronuclei were evaluated. The actual concentrations of AMX in the seawater samples from the experimental tanks were also measured. Overall, the obtained results demonstrated that AMX affected slightly the haemocyte parameters of bivalves. In addition, no clear differences in terms of sensitivity to AMX exposure were recorded between the two bivalve species.

  17. Does the antibiotic amoxicillin affect haemocyte parameters in non-target aquatic invertebrates? The clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis as model organisms.

    PubMed

    Matozzo, Valerio; Bertin, Valeria; Battistara, Margherita; Guidolin, Angelica; Masiero, Luciano; Marisa, Ilaria; Orsetti, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Amoxicillin (AMX) is one of the most widely used antibiotics worldwide, and its levels in aquatic ecosystems are expected to be detectable. At present, information concerning the toxic effects of AMX on non-target aquatic organisms, such as bivalves, is scarce. Consequently, in this study, we investigated for the first time the effects of AMX on the haemocyte parameters of two bivalve species, the clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, which share the same habitat in the Lagoon of Venice, in order to compare the relative sensitivity of the two species. The bivalves were exposed to 100, 200 and 400 μg AMX/L for 1, 3 and 7 days, and the effects on the total haemocyte count (THC), the diameter and volume of the haemocytes, haemocyte proliferation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in cell-free haemolymph, the haemolymph pH, and the formation of micronuclei were evaluated. The actual concentrations of AMX in the seawater samples from the experimental tanks were also measured. Overall, the obtained results demonstrated that AMX affected slightly the haemocyte parameters of bivalves. In addition, no clear differences in terms of sensitivity to AMX exposure were recorded between the two bivalve species. PMID:27219711

  18. A Computational Study on the Effects of Dynamic Roughness Application to Separated Transitional Flows Affected by Adverse Pressure Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campitelli, Gennaro

    The study of transitional flows is considered crucial for many practical engineering applications. In fact, a comprehensive understanding of the laminar-turbulent transition phenomenon often helps to improve the overall performance of apparatuses such as airfoils, wind turbines, hulls and turbomachinery blades. In addition to understanding and prediction of transitional flows, active research continues in the area of boundary layer control, which includes control of phenomena such as flow separation and transition. For instance, optimum geometrical shaping may be followed by the adoption on the wall-surface of riblets to adjust pressure gradient and reduce drag. Further "flow control" may also be acquired by introducing active devices able to modify the flow field in order to accomplish a desired aerodynamic task. Such flow manipulation is often achieved by using time-dependent forcing mechanisms which promote natural instabilities amplifying the control effectiveness. Localized energy inputs such as Lorentz-force actuator, piezoelectric flaps and synthetic jets all produce a consistent boundary layer mixing enhancement with lift increase and drag abatement. The current numerical study attempts to demonstrate the efficacy of dynamic roughness (DR) on altering separated-reattached transitional flows under adverse pressure gradient. It has already been proven how DR, acting on the boundary sublayer perturbation, is able to suppress (partially or completely) the typical leading edge separation for an airfoil at different angles of attack. This makes DR particularly suitable for separated flow control applications where the shear layer reattaches presenting the characteristic laminar separation bubble. A numerical sensitivity study has been conducted with an efficient orthogonal design taking into account four different control parameters on three levels (actuation frequency, humps height, rows displacement, synchronization) to provide an optimum DR setup which limits

  19. The type B brevetoxin (PbTx-3) adversely affects development, cardiovascular function, and survival in Medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Colman, Jamie R; Ramsdell, John S

    2003-01-01

    Brevetoxins are produced by the red tide dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. The toxins are lipophilic polyether toxins that elicit a myriad of effects depending on the route of exposure and the target organism. Brevetoxins are therefore broadly toxic to marine and estuarine animals. By mimicking the maternal route of exposure to the oocytes in finfish, we characterized the adverse effects of the type B brevetoxin brevetoxin-3 (PbTx-3) on embryonic fish development and survival. The Japanese rice fish, medaka (Oryzias latipes), was used as the experimental model in which individual eggs were exposed via microinjection to various known concentrations of PbTx-3 dissolved in an oil vehicle. Embryos injected with doses exceeding 1.0 ng/egg displayed tachycardia, hyperkinetic twitches in the form of sustained convulsions, spinal curvature, clumping of the erythrocytes, and decreased hatching success. Furthermore, fish dosed with toxin were often unable to hatch in the classic tail-first fashion and emerged head first, which resulted in partial hatches and death. We determined that the LD(50) (dose that is lethal to 50% of the fish) for an injected dose of PbTx-3 is 4.0 ng/egg. The results of this study complement previous studies of the developmental toxicity of the type A brevetoxin brevetoxin-1 (PbTx-1), by illustrating in vivo the differing affinities of the two congeners for cardiac sodium channels. Consequently, we observed differing cardiovascular responses in the embryos, wherein embryos exposed to PbTx-3 exhibited persistent tachycardia, whereas embryos exposed to PbTx-1 displayed bradycardia, the onset of which was delayed. PMID:14644667

  20. The skin tissue is adversely affected by TNF-alpha blockers in patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis: a 5-year prospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Natalia P.; dos Reis Neto, Edgard Torres; Soares, Maria Roberta M. P.; Freitas, Daniele S.; Porro, Adriana; Ciconelli, Rozana M.; Pinheiro, Marcelo M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the incidence of and the main risk factors associated with cutaneous adverse events in patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis following anti-TNF-α therapy. METHODS: A total of 257 patients with active arthritis who were taking TNF-α blockers, including 158 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 87 with ankylosing spondylitis and 12 with psoriatic arthritis, were enrolled in a 5-year prospective analysis. Patients with overlapping or other rheumatic diseases were excluded. Anthropometric, socioeconomic, demographic and clinical data were evaluated, including the Disease Activity Score-28, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index and Psoriasis Area Severity Index. Skin conditions were evaluated by two dermatology experts, and in doubtful cases, skin lesion biopsies were performed. Associations between adverse cutaneous events and clinical, demographic and epidemiological variables were determined using the chi-square test, and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors. The significance level was set at p<0.05. RESULTS: After 60 months of follow-up, 71 adverse events (73.85/1000 patient-years) were observed, of which allergic and immune-mediated phenomena were the most frequent events, followed by infectious conditions involving bacterial (47.1%), parasitic (23.5%), fungal (20.6%) and viral (8.8%) agents. CONCLUSION: The skin is significantly affected by adverse reactions resulting from the use of TNF-α blockers, and the main risk factors for cutaneous events were advanced age, female sex, a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, disease activity and the use of infliximab. PMID:24141833

  1. Do sedentary motives adversely affect physical activity? Adding cross-behavioural cognitions to the theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Blanchard, Chris M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether sedentary behavior cognitions explain physical activity (PA) intention and behavior when integrated within the theory of planned behavior framework (TPB). A random community sample of 206 adults and a sample of 174 undergraduate students completed measures of the TPB pertaining to PA and four popular leisure-time behaviors (TV viewing, computer use, sedentary hobbies, and sedentary socializing) and an adapted Godin Leisure-Time Exercize Questionnaire (community sample = cross-sectional, undergraduate sample = 2-week prospective). Results using ordinary least squares regression provided evidence that TV viewing intention explains additional variance in PA behavior, and affective attitude (community sample) and perceived behavioral control (undergraduate sample) towards TV viewing explains additional variance in PA intention even after controlling for PA-related TPB constructs. These results underscore the potential value of adding sedentary control interventions in concert with PA promotion.

  2. Diabetes in Pregnancy Adversely Affects the Expression of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β in the Hippocampus of Rat Neonates.

    PubMed

    Hami, Javad; Karimi, Razieh; Haghir, Hossein; Gholamin, Mehran; Sadr-Nabavi, Ariane

    2015-10-01

    Diabetes during pregnancy causes a wide range of neurodevelopmental and neurocognitive abnormalities in offspring. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is widely expressed during brain development and regulates multiple cellular processes, and its dysregulation is implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse neurodegenerative and psychological diseases. This study was designed to examine the effects of maternal diabetes on GSK-3β messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and phosphorylation in the developing rat hippocampus. Female rats were maintained diabetic from a week before pregnancy through parturition, and male offspring was killed immediately after birth. We found a significant bilateral upregulation of GSK-3β mRNA expression in the hippocampus of pups born to diabetic mothers at P0, compared to controls. Moreover, at the same time point, there was a marked bilateral increase in the phosphorylation level of GSK-3β in the diabetic group. Unlike phosphorylation levels, there was a significant upregulation in hippocampal GSK-3β mRNA expression in the insulin-treated group, when compared to controls. The present study revealed that diabetes during pregnancy strongly influences the regulation of GSK-3β in the right/left developing hippocampi. These dysregulations may be part of the cascade of events through which diabetes during pregnancy affects the newborn's hippocampal structure and function.

  3. Aquatic Environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquatic microbiology can be defined as the study of microorganisms and microbial communities in water environments. Aquatic environments occupy more than 70% of the earth’s surface including oceans, estuaries, rivers, lakes, wetlands, streams, springs, and aquifers. Water is essential for life and m...

  4. AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS,

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic ecosystems are a vital part of the urban water cycle (and of urban areas more broadly), and, if healthy, provide a range of goods and services valued by humans (Meyer 1997). For example, aquatic ecosystems (e.g., rivers, lakes, wetlands) provide potable water, food resou...

  5. Warmer winters modulate life history and energy storage but do not affect sensitivity to a widespread pesticide in an aquatic insect.

    PubMed

    Arambourou, Hélène; Stoks, Robby

    2015-10-01

    Despite the increased attention for the effects of pesticides under global warming no studies tested how winter warming affects subsequent sensitivity to pesticides. Winter warming is expected to cause delayed negative effects when it increases metabolic rates and thereby depletes energy reserves. Using a common-garden experiment, we investigated the combined effect of a 4 °C increase in winter temperature and subsequent exposure to chlorpyrifos in the aquatic larvae of replicated low- and high-latitude European populations of the damselfly Ischnura elegans. The warmer winter (8 °C) resulted in a higher winter survival and higher growth rates compared to the cold winter (4 °C) commonly experienced by European high-latitude populations. Low-latitude populations were better at coping with the warmer winter, indicating thermal adaptation to the local winter temperatures. Subsequent chlorpyrifos exposure at 20 °C induced strong negative effects on survival, growth rate, lipid content and acetylcholinesterase activity while phenoloxidase activity increased. These pesticide effects were not affected by winter warming. Our results suggest that for species where winter warming has positive effects on life history, no delayed effects on the sensitivity to subsequent pesticide exposure should be expected. PMID:26261878

  6. Technical issues affecting the implementation of US Environmental Protection Agency's proposed fish tissue-based aquatic criterion for selenium.

    PubMed

    Lemly, A Dennis; Skorupa, Joseph P

    2007-10-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency is developing a national water quality criterion for selenium that is based on concentrations of the element in fish tissue. Although this approach offers advantages over the current water-based regulations, it also presents new challenges with respect to implementation. A comprehensive protocol that answers the "what, where, and when" is essential with the new tissue-based approach in order to ensure proper acquisition of data that apply to the criterion. Dischargers will need to understand selenium transport, cycling, and bioaccumulation in order to effectively monitor for the criterion and, if necessary, develop site-specific standards. This paper discusses 11 key issues that affect the implementation of a tissue-based criterion, ranging from the selection of fish species to the importance of hydrological units in the sampling design. It also outlines a strategy that incorporates both water column and tissue-based approaches. A national generic safety-net water criterion could be combined with a fish tissue-based criterion for site-specific implementation. For the majority of waters nationwide, National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permitting and other activities associated with the Clean Water Act could continue without the increased expense of sampling and interpreting biological materials. Dischargers would do biotic sampling intermittently (not a routine monitoring burden) on fish tissue relative to the fish tissue criterion. Only when the fish tissue criterion is exceeded would a full site-specific analysis including development of intermedia translation factors be necessary. PMID:18046804

  7. Absence of heat treatment of serum for culture medium supplementation does not adversely affect the outcome of in-vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Imoedemhe, D A; Sigue, A B; Pacpaco, E L; Olazo, A B; Luciano, E C

    1994-09-01

    This study was carried out to determine if not heat-treating serum prior to use for medium supplementation adversely affected in-vitro fertilization (IVF) of human oocytes. Morphologically mature human oocytes derived from 135 patients undergoing IVF treatment were studied. A total of 504 oocytes were incubated, inseminated and the resulting pronuclear oocytes cultured further in Earle's balanced salt solution (EBSS) supplemented with 10% non-heat-treated serum. Comparisons of fertilization rate and embryonic development were made between these and 687 control oocytes derived from the same patients but incubated, inseminated and resulting pronuclear oocytes cultured further in EBSS supplemented with 10% heat-treated serum. The fertilization rate of 74.4% (375/504) of oocytes handled in serum-supplemented medium that had not been heat-treated was significantly better than the rate of 67.7% (465/687) for controls (P < 0.0125). The proportion of pronucleate oocytes that cleaved was also significantly better in the non-heat-treated serum group: 270/300 (90%) versus 307/375 (81.8%) (P < 0.0025). There was no significant difference in the proportion of embryos with four or more cells at the time of embryo transfer. The results show that the absence of heat treatment of serum used to supplement culture medium has no adverse effect on the fertilization rate and short-term embryo development in vitro; hence we suggest that serum heat treatment is an unnecessary procedure and could be abandoned. PMID:7836531

  8. Aquatic Sediments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanville, W. D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of aquatic sediments and its effect upon water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) sediment water interchange; (2) chemical and physical characterization; and (3) heavy water in sediments. A list of 129 references is also presented. (HM)

  9. Effects of the antihistamine diphenhydramine on selected aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Berninger, Jason P; Du, Bowen; Connors, Kristin A; Eytcheson, Stephanie A; Kolkmeier, Mark A; Prosser, Krista N; Valenti, Theodore W; Chambliss, C Kevin; Brooks, Bryan W

    2011-09-01

    In recent years pharmaceuticals have been detected in aquatic systems receiving discharges of municipal and industrial effluents. Although diphenhydramine (DPH) has been reported in water, sediment, and fish tissue, an understanding of its impacts on aquatic organisms is lacking. Diphenhydramine has multiple modes of action (MOA) targeting the histamine H1, acetylcholine (ACh), and 5-HT reuptake transporter receptors, and as such is used in hundreds of pharmaceutical formulations. The primary objective of this study was to develop a baseline aquatic toxicological understanding of DPH using standard acute and subchronic methodologies with common aquatic plant, invertebrate, and fish models. A secondary objective was to test the utility of leveraging mammalian pharmacology information to predict aquatic toxicity thresholds. The plant model, Lemna gibba, was not adversely affected at exposures as high as 10 mg/L. In the fish model, Pimephales promelas, pH affected acute toxicity thresholds and feeding behavior was more sensitive (no-observed-effect concentration = 2.8 µg/L) than standardized survival or growth endpoints. This response threshold was slightly underpredicted using a novel plasma partitioning approach and a mammalian pharmacological potency model. Interestingly, results from both acute mortality and subchronic reproduction studies indicated that the model aquatic invertebrate, Daphnia magna, was more sensitive to DPH than the fish model. These responses suggest that DPH may exert toxicity in Daphnia through ACh and histamine MOAs. The D. magna reproduction no-observed-effect concentration of 0.8 µg/L is environmentally relevant and suggests that additional studies of more potent antihistamines and antihistamine mixtures are warranted. PMID:21647947

  10. An Investigation into the Physico-chemical Factors Affecting the Abundance and Diversity of Aquatic Insects in Organically Manured Aquadams and Their Utilization by Oreochromis mossambicus (Perciformes: Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Rapatsa, M M; Moyo, N A G

    2015-08-01

    The interaction between the fish Oreochromis mossambicus (Percifomes: Cichlidae) and aquatic insects after application of chicken, cow, and pig manure was studied in 7,000-liter plastic aquadams. Principal component analysis showed that most of the variation in water quality after application of manure was accounted for by potassium, nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, and alkalinity. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that Gyrinidae, Elminidae, Hydrophilidae, Hydraenidae, and Athericidae were associated with high nutrient levels (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) characteristic of the chicken manure. However, the most abundant aquatic insects Gerridae, Notonectidae, and Culicidae were close to the centre of the ordination and not defined by any nutrient gradient. The Shannon-Wiener diversity was highest in the aquadams treated with chicken manure. The most frequently occurring aquatic insects in the diet of O. mossambicus were culicid mosquitoes in all the treatments. However, in the laboratory, Chironomidae were the most preferred because they lacked refuge. Notonectidae and Gerridae were not recorded in the diet of O. mossambicus despite their abundance. This may be because of their anti-predation strategies. Laboratory experiments showed that Notonectidae, Gyrinidae, and Gerridae fed on Chironomidae and Culicidae. This implies that aquatic predatory insects competed for food with O. mossambicus. PMID:26314044

  11. An Investigation into the Physico-chemical Factors Affecting the Abundance and Diversity of Aquatic Insects in Organically Manured Aquadams and Their Utilization by Oreochromis mossambicus (Perciformes: Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Rapatsa, M M; Moyo, N A G

    2015-08-01

    The interaction between the fish Oreochromis mossambicus (Percifomes: Cichlidae) and aquatic insects after application of chicken, cow, and pig manure was studied in 7,000-liter plastic aquadams. Principal component analysis showed that most of the variation in water quality after application of manure was accounted for by potassium, nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, and alkalinity. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that Gyrinidae, Elminidae, Hydrophilidae, Hydraenidae, and Athericidae were associated with high nutrient levels (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) characteristic of the chicken manure. However, the most abundant aquatic insects Gerridae, Notonectidae, and Culicidae were close to the centre of the ordination and not defined by any nutrient gradient. The Shannon-Wiener diversity was highest in the aquadams treated with chicken manure. The most frequently occurring aquatic insects in the diet of O. mossambicus were culicid mosquitoes in all the treatments. However, in the laboratory, Chironomidae were the most preferred because they lacked refuge. Notonectidae and Gerridae were not recorded in the diet of O. mossambicus despite their abundance. This may be because of their anti-predation strategies. Laboratory experiments showed that Notonectidae, Gyrinidae, and Gerridae fed on Chironomidae and Culicidae. This implies that aquatic predatory insects competed for food with O. mossambicus.

  12. Effects of Fungicides on Aquatic Fungi and Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conners, D. E.; Rosemond, A. D.; Black, M. C.

    2005-05-01

    Aquatic microorganisms play an important role in conditioning leaf litter that enters streams and serves as an important base of production for consumers. Contamination of streams by fungicides may adversely affect microorganisms and alter leaf litter processing rates. Unfortunately, microorganisms are rarely used in acute toxicity tests for fungicide evaluation and registration. We adapted the resazurin reduction assay, which is used in medical microbiology, to assess the acute toxicity of four fungicides (azoxystrobin, trifloxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl and chlorothalonil) to aquatic fungi (Articulospora tetracladia) and bacteria (Cytophaga spp.), and investigated the ability of the toxicants to inhibit leaf breakdown in microcosms. Fungi were more sensitive to fungicides than many standard test organisms (cladocerans, green algae, trout), while bacteria were often the least sensitive. All of the fungicides except kresoxim-methyl, when added to microcosms at concentrations that inhibited the fungi by 90 percent in acute tests, reduced leaf breakdown rates by an average of 14.7 percent. Thus, aquatic fungi and their associated functions in streams may be relatively sensitive to fungicides applied terrestrially that enter streams through non-point sources. These data highlight the importance of including aquatic fungi in safety assessments of pesticides for protection of microbial function.

  13. Vaccenic acid and trans fatty acid isomers from partially hydrogenated oil both adversely affect LDL cholesterol: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence of the adverse effects of industrially-produced trans fatty acids (iTFA) on risk of cardiovascular disease is consistent and well documented in the scientific literature; however, the cardiovascular effects of naturally-occurring TFA synthesized in ruminant animals (rTFA), such as vaccenic ...

  14. Survey of aquatic macroinvertebrates and amphibians at Wupatki National Monument, Arizona, USA: An evaluation of selected factors affecting species richness in ephemeral pools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, T.B.

    2002-01-01

    Ephemeral aquatic habitats in Wupatki National Monument vary from naturally formed pools in arroyos over 5000 years old, to constructed catchment basins with ages estimated at 60-1000+ years old, and borrow pits and stock ponds 30-60 years old. The different ages of these pools provide different histories of colonization by amphibians and aquatic invertebrates, especially temporary pool specialists such as spadefoot toads and branchiopod crustaceans. Ten pools of five different origins and ages were surveyed in August and/or September 1997 for aquatic organisms; a total of 13 surveys were conducted. Twenty-two taxa were found, with the number of species in a pool during any survey ranging from one to 10. Species composition of the communities changed from one sampling date to the next within individual pools. Community structure is an amalgam of species with different dispersal mechanisms that are influenced by different pool characteristics. Age appears to have little effect overall, but may have influenced branchiopod presence/absence. Distance to permanent water, frequency of disturbance, and current pool size were correlated with presence/absence of some species.

  15. Hydro-climatic Changes: Potential Non-linear Responses of Phosphorus Dynamic in Aquatic/Semi-aquatic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, H. K.

    2007-12-01

    Depending on resilience, threshold and lag times, hydro-climatic changes can cause nonlinear and/or irreversible changes in phosphorus (P) dynamic, and instigate P enrichment in aquatic/semi-aquatic systems. Thus, studying direct/indirect effects of expected global climate change on bioavailability of organic P in aquatic systems are in critical need, to help manage or increase the resilience of the ecosystem. The central hypothesis of this study is that P dynamic in aquatic, especially freshwater, ecosystem is likely to behave nonlinearly due to expected changes in sediment and water acidity, redox status, etc., because of potential hydro-climatic changes in the decades to come, thus, could face irreversible adverse changes. Devising possible biological and chemical treatments for the removal of P from eutrophic lakes, estuaries, etc, as well as helping in predicting the movement and fate of P under changing hydro-climatic conditions would be crucial to manage aquatic ecosystem in the near future. The critical question is not how much P is stored in any given aquatic/semi-aquatic system, but how the resilience and nonlinearity relate to the stability of stored P are affected due to the levels of environmental stressors, which are expected to fluctuate due to global change in the decades to come. Studies related to 31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy analysis, and multiple hydraulic retention cycles showed that, in general, frequent drying and reflooding of a semi-aquatic system such as wetland could significantly increase the bioavailability of P due to degradation of relatively less stable organic P, e.g., glycerophosphate and nucleoside monophosphate. Moreover, nutrients flux from sediments to the water column depended on the concentration gradients of the sediment-water interface and redox status. Shift in equilibrium P concentration of the water column as the water level rises, may cause release of adsorbed P from the sediments. Restoration of a

  16. Aquatic risk assessment of 2-sulfonato fatty acid methyl ester sodium salt (MES).

    PubMed

    Miura, Kazuaki

    2007-01-01

    The aquatic risk of 2-sulfonato fatty acid methyl ester sodium salt (MES) used in household detergents was assessed. The environmental exposure assessment expressed as predicted environmental concentration (PEC) was determined on the basis of monitoring results from the seven sites of four rivers in the urban area in Tokyo and Osaka. The 95 percentile as well as geometric mean of the MES concentration was found to exhibit a good correlation with the geometric mean of the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD; the latter's regression was greater than 0.99). The predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) for the aquatic environment was estimated by performing chronic assays of algae and daphnia. The risk characterization ratio (RCR: PEC/PNEC) was less than 1. Therefore, it is concluded that MES will not adversely affect the aquatic environment in Japan.

  17. High d(+)-fructose diet adversely affects testicular weight gain in weaning rats─protection by moderate d(+)-glucose diet.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    The use of high D(+)-fructose corn syrup has increased over the past several decades in the developed countries, while overweight and obesity rates and the related diseases have risen dramatically. However, we found that feeding a high D(+)-fructose diet (80% D(+)-fructose as part of the diet) to weaning rats for 21 days led to reduced food intake (50% less, P < 0.0001) and thus delayed the weight gains in the body (40% less, P < 0.0001) and testes (40% less, P < 0.0001) compared to the no D(+)-fructose diet. We also challenged a minimum requirement of dietary D(+)-glucose for preventing the adverse effects of D(+)-fructose, such as lower food intake and reduction of body weight and testicular weight; the minimum requirement of D(+)-glucose was ≈23% of the diet. This glucose amount may be the minimum requirement of exogenous glucose for reducing weight gain. PMID:23935370

  18. Migration, neighborhoods, and networks: approaches to understanding how urban environmental conditions affect syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Egan, James E; Frye, Victoria; Kurtz, Steven P; Latkin, Carl; Chen, Minxing; Tobin, Karin; Yang, Cui; Koblin, Beryl A

    2011-04-01

    Adopting socioecological, intersectionality, and lifecourse theoretical frameworks may enhance our understanding of the production of syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM). From this perspective, we present preliminary data from three related studies that suggest ways in which social contexts may influence the health of MSM. The first study, using cross-sectional data, looked at migration of MSM to the gay resort area of South Florida, and found that amount of time lived in the area was associated with risk behaviors and HIV infection. The second study, using qualitative interviews, observed complex interactions between neighborhood-level social environments and individual-level racial and sexual identity among MSM in New York City. The third study, using egocentric network analysis with a sample of African American MSM in Baltimore, found that sexual partners were more likely to be found through face-to-face means than the Internet. They also observed that those who co-resided with a sex partner had larger networks of people to depend on for social and financial support, but had the same size sexual networks as those who did not live with a partner. Overall, these findings suggest the need for further investigation into the role of macro-level social forces on the emotional, behavioral, and physical health of urban MSM.

  19. Migration, Neighborhoods, and Networks: Approaches to Understanding How Urban Environmental Conditions Affect Syndemic Adverse Health Outcomes Among Gay, Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Egan, James E.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Latkin, Carl; Chen, Minxing; Tobin, Karin; Yang, Cui; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2011-01-01

    Adopting socioecological, intersectionality, and lifecourse theoretical frameworks may enhance our understanding of the production of syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM). From this perspective, we present preliminary data from three related studies that suggest ways in which social contexts may influence the health of MSM. The first study, using cross-sectional data, looked at migration of MSM to the gay resort area of South Florida, and found that amount of time lived in the area was associated with risk behaviors and HIV infection. The second study, using qualitative interviews, observed complex interactions between neighborhood-level social environments and individual-level racial and sexual identity among MSM in New York City. The third study, using egocentric network analysis with a sample of African American MSM in Baltimore, found that sexual partners were more likely to be found through face-to-face means than the Internet. They also observed that those who co-resided with a sex partner had larger networks of people to depend on for social and financial support, but had the same size sexual networks as those who did not live with a partner. Overall, these findings suggest the need for further investigation into the role of macro-level social forces on the emotional, behavioral, and physical health of urban MSM. PMID:21369730

  20. Rock glacier outflows may adversely affect lakes: lessons from the past and present of two neighboring water bodies in a crystalline-rock watershed.

    PubMed

    Ilyashuk, Boris P; Ilyashuk, Elena A; Psenner, Roland; Tessadri, Richard; Koinig, Karin A

    2014-06-01

    Despite the fact that rock glaciers are one of the most common geomorphological expressions of mountain permafrost, the impacts of their solute fluxes on lakes still remain largely obscure. We examined water and sediment chemistry, and biota of two neighboring water bodies with and without a rock glacier in their catchments in the European Alps. Paleolimnological techniques were applied to track long-term temporal trends in the ecotoxicological state of the water bodies and to establish their baseline conditions. We show that the active rock glacier in the mineralized catchment of Lake Rasass (RAS) represents a potent source of acid rock drainage that results in enormous concentrations of metals in water, sediment, and biota of RAS. The incidence of morphological abnormalities in the RAS population of Pseudodiamesa nivosa, a chironomid midge, is as high as that recorded in chironomid populations inhabiting sites heavily contaminated by trace metals of anthropogenic origin. The incidence of morphological deformities in P. nivosa of ∼70% persisted in RAS during the last 2.5 millennia and was ∼40% in the early Holocene. The formation of RAS at the toe of the rock glacier most probably began at the onset of acidic drainage in the freshly deglaciated area. The present adverse conditions are not unprecedented in the lake's history and cannot be associated exclusively with enhanced thawing of the rock glacier in recent years.

  1. Migration, neighborhoods, and networks: approaches to understanding how urban environmental conditions affect syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Egan, James E; Frye, Victoria; Kurtz, Steven P; Latkin, Carl; Chen, Minxing; Tobin, Karin; Yang, Cui; Koblin, Beryl A

    2011-04-01

    Adopting socioecological, intersectionality, and lifecourse theoretical frameworks may enhance our understanding of the production of syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM). From this perspective, we present preliminary data from three related studies that suggest ways in which social contexts may influence the health of MSM. The first study, using cross-sectional data, looked at migration of MSM to the gay resort area of South Florida, and found that amount of time lived in the area was associated with risk behaviors and HIV infection. The second study, using qualitative interviews, observed complex interactions between neighborhood-level social environments and individual-level racial and sexual identity among MSM in New York City. The third study, using egocentric network analysis with a sample of African American MSM in Baltimore, found that sexual partners were more likely to be found through face-to-face means than the Internet. They also observed that those who co-resided with a sex partner had larger networks of people to depend on for social and financial support, but had the same size sexual networks as those who did not live with a partner. Overall, these findings suggest the need for further investigation into the role of macro-level social forces on the emotional, behavioral, and physical health of urban MSM. PMID:21369730

  2. Rock Glacier Outflows May Adversely Affect Lakes: Lessons from the Past and Present of Two Neighboring Water Bodies in a Crystalline-Rock Watershed

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that rock glaciers are one of the most common geomorphological expressions of mountain permafrost, the impacts of their solute fluxes on lakes still remain largely obscure. We examined water and sediment chemistry, and biota of two neighboring water bodies with and without a rock glacier in their catchments in the European Alps. Paleolimnological techniques were applied to track long-term temporal trends in the ecotoxicological state of the water bodies and to establish their baseline conditions. We show that the active rock glacier in the mineralized catchment of Lake Rasass (RAS) represents a potent source of acid rock drainage that results in enormous concentrations of metals in water, sediment, and biota of RAS. The incidence of morphological abnormalities in the RAS population of Pseudodiamesa nivosa, a chironomid midge, is as high as that recorded in chironomid populations inhabiting sites heavily contaminated by trace metals of anthropogenic origin. The incidence of morphological deformities in P. nivosa of ∼70% persisted in RAS during the last 2.5 millennia and was ∼40% in the early Holocene. The formation of RAS at the toe of the rock glacier most probably began at the onset of acidic drainage in the freshly deglaciated area. The present adverse conditions are not unprecedented in the lake’s history and cannot be associated exclusively with enhanced thawing of the rock glacier in recent years. PMID:24804777

  3. Comprehensive review on phytotechnology: Heavy metals removal by diverse aquatic plants species from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Rezania, Shahabaldin; Taib, Shazwin Mat; Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Kamyab, Hesam

    2016-11-15

    Environmental pollution specifically water pollution is alarming both in the developed and developing countries. Heavy metal contamination of water resources is a critical issue which adversely affects humans, plants and animals. Phytoremediation is a cost-effective remediation technology which able to treat heavy metal polluted sites. This environmental friendly method has been successfully implemented in constructed wetland (CWs) which is able to restore the aquatic biosystem naturally. Nowadays, many aquatic plant species are being investigated to determine their potential and effectiveness for phytoremediation application, especially high growth rate plants i.e. macrophytes. Based on the findings, phytofiltration (rhizofiltration) is the sole method which defined as heavy metals removal from water by aquatic plants. Due to specific morphology and higher growth rate, free-floating plants were more efficient to uptake heavy metals in comparison with submerged and emergent plants. In this review, the potential of wide range of aquatic plant species with main focus on four well known species (hyper-accumulators): Pistia stratiotes, Eicchornia spp., Lemna spp. and Salvinia spp. was investigated. Moreover, we discussed about the history, methods and future prospects in phytoremediation of heavy metals by aquatic plants comprehensively.

  4. Comprehensive review on phytotechnology: Heavy metals removal by diverse aquatic plants species from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Rezania, Shahabaldin; Taib, Shazwin Mat; Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Kamyab, Hesam

    2016-11-15

    Environmental pollution specifically water pollution is alarming both in the developed and developing countries. Heavy metal contamination of water resources is a critical issue which adversely affects humans, plants and animals. Phytoremediation is a cost-effective remediation technology which able to treat heavy metal polluted sites. This environmental friendly method has been successfully implemented in constructed wetland (CWs) which is able to restore the aquatic biosystem naturally. Nowadays, many aquatic plant species are being investigated to determine their potential and effectiveness for phytoremediation application, especially high growth rate plants i.e. macrophytes. Based on the findings, phytofiltration (rhizofiltration) is the sole method which defined as heavy metals removal from water by aquatic plants. Due to specific morphology and higher growth rate, free-floating plants were more efficient to uptake heavy metals in comparison with submerged and emergent plants. In this review, the potential of wide range of aquatic plant species with main focus on four well known species (hyper-accumulators): Pistia stratiotes, Eicchornia spp., Lemna spp. and Salvinia spp. was investigated. Moreover, we discussed about the history, methods and future prospects in phytoremediation of heavy metals by aquatic plants comprehensively. PMID:27474848

  5. 2.45-GHz microwave irradiation adversely affects reproductive function in male mouse, Mus musculus by inducing oxidative and nitrosative stress.

    PubMed

    Shahin, S; Mishra, V; Singh, S P; Chaturvedi, C M

    2014-05-01

    Electromagnetic radiations are reported to produce long-term and short-term biological effects, which are of great concern to human health due to increasing use of devices emitting EMR especially microwave (MW) radiation in our daily life. In view of the unavoidable use of MW emitting devices (microwaves oven, mobile phones, Wi-Fi, etc.) and their harmful effects on biological system, it was thought worthwhile to investigate the long-term effects of low-level MW irradiation on the reproductive function of male Swiss strain mice and its mechanism of action. Twelve-week-old mice were exposed to non-thermal low-level 2.45-GHz MW radiation (CW for 2 h/day for 30 days, power density = 0.029812 mW/cm(2) and SAR = 0.018 W/Kg). Sperm count and sperm viability test were done as well as vital organs were processed to study different stress parameters. Plasma was used for testosterone and testis for 3β HSD assay. Immunohistochemistry of 3β HSD and nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) was also performed in testis. We observed that MW irradiation induced a significant decrease in sperm count and sperm viability along with the decrease in seminiferous tubule diameter and degeneration of seminiferous tubules. Reduction in testicular 3β HSD activity and plasma testosterone levels was also noted in the exposed group of mice. Increased expression of testicular i-NOS was observed in the MW-irradiated group of mice. Further, these adverse reproductive effects suggest that chronic exposure to nonionizing MW radiation may lead to infertility via free radical species-mediated pathway. PMID:24490664

  6. 2.45-GHz microwave irradiation adversely affects reproductive function in male mouse, Mus musculus by inducing oxidative and nitrosative stress.

    PubMed

    Shahin, S; Mishra, V; Singh, S P; Chaturvedi, C M

    2014-05-01

    Electromagnetic radiations are reported to produce long-term and short-term biological effects, which are of great concern to human health due to increasing use of devices emitting EMR especially microwave (MW) radiation in our daily life. In view of the unavoidable use of MW emitting devices (microwaves oven, mobile phones, Wi-Fi, etc.) and their harmful effects on biological system, it was thought worthwhile to investigate the long-term effects of low-level MW irradiation on the reproductive function of male Swiss strain mice and its mechanism of action. Twelve-week-old mice were exposed to non-thermal low-level 2.45-GHz MW radiation (CW for 2 h/day for 30 days, power density = 0.029812 mW/cm(2) and SAR = 0.018 W/Kg). Sperm count and sperm viability test were done as well as vital organs were processed to study different stress parameters. Plasma was used for testosterone and testis for 3β HSD assay. Immunohistochemistry of 3β HSD and nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) was also performed in testis. We observed that MW irradiation induced a significant decrease in sperm count and sperm viability along with the decrease in seminiferous tubule diameter and degeneration of seminiferous tubules. Reduction in testicular 3β HSD activity and plasma testosterone levels was also noted in the exposed group of mice. Increased expression of testicular i-NOS was observed in the MW-irradiated group of mice. Further, these adverse reproductive effects suggest that chronic exposure to nonionizing MW radiation may lead to infertility via free radical species-mediated pathway.

  7. Aquatic Therapy for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucher, Greta; Moore, Kelsey; Rodia, Rachel; Moser, Christy Szczech

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic therapy has long been highlighted in the literature as a potentially powerful therapeutic intervention. This review will highlight basic definitions of aquatic therapy, review salient research, and identify specific diagnoses that may benefit from aquatic therapy. Online resources, blogs, and books that occupational therapists may find…

  8. Effects of acidification on metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 2. Wetlands, ponds and small lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Camardese, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    High concentrations of trace metals in the water of low-pH lakes and streams could result in elevated amounts of metals within or adsorbed to aquatic plants and, possibly, invertebrates. Concentrations of Al, Cd, Ca, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mg, Mn, Hg, Ni, P, and Zn were compared in water, plants, and aquatic invertebrates of wetlands, ponds, and small lakes in Maryland and Maine. The accumulation of metals by aquatic plants and insects and the concentrations of metals in water were not greatly affected by pH. None of the metal concentrations significantly correlated with metals in insects. Plant metal concentrations poorly correlated with metal concentrations in water. Concentrations of metals exceeded acceptable dietary levels more frequently in plants than in invertebrates. Concerns about metal toxicity in birds that feed on invertebrates and plants from acidified waters seem to be unwarranted. Positive correlations among pH, Ca in water, Ca in insects, and Ca in plants imply that acidification can reduce the Ca content of aquatic biota. Aquatic insects were low in Ca, but crayfishes and snails, which are adversely affected by low pH, were very high. A concern for waterfowl is Ca deprivation from decreased Ca availability in low-pH wetlands, ponds, and small lakes.

  9. Offering a forage crop at pasture did not adversely affect voluntary cow traffic or milking visits in a pasture-based automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Scott, V E; Kerrisk, K L; Garcia, S C

    2016-03-01

    Feed is a strong incentive for encouraging cows in automatic milking systems (AMS) to voluntarily move around the farm and achieve milkings distributed across the 24 h day. It has been reported that cows show preferences for some forages over others, and it is possible that offering preferred forages may increase cow traffic. A preliminary investigation was conducted to determine the effect of offering a forage crop for grazing on premilking voluntary waiting times in a pasture-based robotic rotary system. Cows were offered one of two treatments (SOYBEAN or GRASS) in a cross-over design. A restricted maximum likelihood procedure was used to model voluntary waiting times. Mean voluntary waiting time was 45.5±6.0 min, with no difference detected between treatments. High and mid-production cows spent 55 min/milking for low-production cows, whereas waiting time increased as queue length increased. Voluntary waiting time was 23% and 80% longer when cows were fetched from the paddock or had a period of forced waiting before volunteering for milking, respectively. The time it took cows to return to the dairy since last exiting was not affected by treatment, with a mean return time of 13.7±0.6 h. Although offering SOYBEAN did not encourage cows to traffic more readily through the premilking yard, the concept of incorporating forage crops in AMS still remains encouraging if the aim is to increase the volume or quantity of home-grown feed rather than improving cow traffic.

  10. Cigarette smoking adversely affects disease activity and disease-specific quality of life in patients with Crohn’s disease at a tertiary referral center

    PubMed Central

    Quezada, Sandra M; Langenberg, Patricia; Cross, Raymond K

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Smoking has a negative impact on disease activity in Crohn’s disease (CD). Smoking may also affect the quality of life, but this has not been evaluated using validated measures over time. We assessed the relationship between smoking and disease-specific quality of life over time in a tertiary referral inflammatory bowel disease cohort. Patients and methods Retrospective cohort study from July 2004 to July 2009 in patients with CD identified from the University of Maryland, Baltimore, Institutional Review Board-approved University of Maryland School of Medicine Inflammatory Bowel Disease Program database. Smoking status was classified as current, former, and never. Age was categorized as <40 years, 40–59 years, and ≥60 years. Index visit disease activity and quality of life was measured with the Harvey–Bradshaw index, and the Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (SIBDQ). Repeated measures linear regression was used to assess the association between smoking and quality of life over time after adjustment for confounding variables. Results A total of 608 patients were included, of whom 42% were male; 80% were Caucasian; 22% were current smokers; 24% were former smokers; and 54% were never smokers. Over time, adjusted Harvey–Bradshaw index scores declined in all patients, but current smokers had consistently higher scores. After adjustment for sex, age, and disease duration, never smokers had higher mean SIBDQ scores at index visit compared to former and current smokers (P<0.0001); all increased over time but SIBDQ scores for never smokers remained consistently highest. Conclusion Smoking has a negative impact on disease activity and quality of life in patients with CD. Prospects of improved disease activity and quality of life should be proposed as an additional incentive to encourage smoking cessation in patients with CD. PMID:27703391

  11. Aquatic environmental nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wigginton, Nicholas S; Haus, Kelly L; Hochella, Michael F

    2007-12-01

    Researchers are now discovering that naturally occurring environmental nanoparticles can play a key role in important chemical characteristics and the overall quality of natural and engineered waters. The detection of nanoparticles in virtually all water domains, including the oceans, surface waters, groundwater, atmospheric water, and even treated drinking water, demonstrates a distribution near ubiquity. Moreover, aquatic nanoparticles have the ability to influence environmental and engineered water chemistry and processes in a much different way than similar materials of larger sizes. This review covers recent advances made in identifying nanoparticles within water from a variety of sources, and advances in understanding their very interesting properties and reactivity that affect the chemical characteristics and behaviour of water. In the future, this science will be important in our vital, continuing efforts in water safety, treatment, and remediation.

  12. Adverse ocular reactions to drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Spiteri, M. A.; James, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    Drugs acting on various parts of the body may also affect the eye insidiously. Increased awareness of such drug toxicity by the prescribing doctor should encourage him to consider effects on the cornea, lens, retina, optic nerve and elsewhere when checking the patient's progress. The following review concerns adverse ocular effects of systemic drug administration. PMID:6356101

  13. Sirtuin Inhibition Adversely Affects Porcine Oocyte Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Ma, Rujun; Hu, Jin; Ding, Xiaolin; Xu, Yinxue

    2015-01-01

    Sirtuins have been implicated in diverse biological processes, including oxidative stress, energy metabolism, cell migration, and aging. Here, we employed Sirtuin inhibitors, nicotinamide (NAM) and Sirtinol, to investigate their effects on porcine oocyte maturation respectively. The rate of polar body extrusion in porcine oocytes decreased after treatment with NAM and Sirtinol, accompanied with the failure of cumulus cell expansion. We further found that NAM and Sirtinol significantly disrupted oocyte polarity, and inhibited the formation of actin cap and cortical granule-free domain (CGFD). Moreover, the abnormal spindles and misaligned chromosomes were readily detected during porcine oocyte maturation after treatment with NAM and Sirtinol. Together, these results suggest that Sirtuins are involved in cortical polarity and spindle organization in porcine oocytes. PMID:26176547

  14. Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM)‐New Functionality for Predicting Changes in Distribution of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation in Response to Sea Level Rise.Version 1.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) is an ecologically important habitat world-wide. In Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries, SAV in the lower intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats are dominated by the native seagrass, Zostera marina also referred to as submerged aquatic vegetati...

  15. Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) ‐ New functionality for predicting changes in distribution of submerged aquatic vegetation in response to sea level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee II, Henry; Reusser, Deborah A.; Frazier, Melanie R; McCoy, Lee M; Clinton, Patrick J.; Clough, Jonathan S.

    2014-01-01

    The “Sea‐Level Affecting Marshes Model” (SLAMM) is a moderate resolution model used to predict the effects of sea level rise on marsh habitats (Craft et al. 2009). SLAMM has been used extensively on both the west coast (e.g., Glick et al., 2007) and east coast (e.g., Geselbracht et al., 2011) of the United States to evaluate potential changes in the distribution and extent of tidal marsh habitats. However, a limitation of the current version of SLAMM, (Version 6.2) is that it lacks the ability to model distribution changes in seagrass habitat resulting from sea level rise. Because of the ecological importance of SAV habitats, U.S. EPA, USGS, and USDA partnered with Warren Pinnacle Consulting to enhance the SLAMM modeling software to include new functionality in order to predict changes in Zostera marina distribution within Pacific Northwest estuaries in response to sea level rise. Specifically, the objective was to develop a SAV model that used generally available GIS data and parameters that were predictive and that could be customized for other estuaries that have GIS layers of existing SAV distribution. This report describes the procedure used to develop the SAV model for the Yaquina Bay Estuary, Oregon, appends a statistical script based on the open source R software to generate a similar SAV model for other estuaries that have data layers of existing SAV, and describes how to incorporate the model coefficients from the site‐specific SAV model into SLAMM to predict the effects of sea level rise on Zostera marina distributions. To demonstrate the applicability of the R tools, we utilize them to develop model coefficients for Willapa Bay, Washington using site‐specific SAV data.

  16. Photographing Aquatic Organisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Sigurd

    1977-01-01

    Techniques for effective photography of aquatic organisms in the field and laboratory are described. Photography of microscopic organisms and construction techniques of photoaquaria are described. (CS)

  17. Vaccine Adverse Events

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability ( ... Center for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  18. Impacts of atrazine in aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Graymore, M; Stagnitti, F; Allinson, G

    2001-06-01

    A portion of all herbicides applied to forests, croplands, road sides, and gardens are inevitably lost to water bodies either directly through runoff or indirectly by leaching through groundwater into ephemeral streams and lakes. Once in the aquatic environment, herbicides may cause stress within aquatic communities and radically alter community structure. Atrazine is one of the most effective and inexpensive herbicides in the world and is consequently used more frequently than any other herbicide. Atrazine is frequently detected in aquatic waters, and has been known to affect reproduction of aquatic flora and fauna, which in turn impacts on the community structure as a whole. This paper presents a summary of the reported direct and indirect impacts of atrazine on aquatic organisms and community structure. The information can be used for developing improved management guidelines and legislation. It is concluded that a single universal maximum limit on the atrazine application in catchments, as suggested by many regulatory authorities, does not provide adequate protection of the aquatic environment. Rather, it is advocated that flexible limits on the application of atrazine be developed in line with the potential risk of contamination to surface and subsurface water and fragility of the aquatic environment.

  19. Impacts of atrazine in aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Graymore, M; Stagnitti, F; Allinson, G

    2001-06-01

    A portion of all herbicides applied to forests, croplands, road sides, and gardens are inevitably lost to water bodies either directly through runoff or indirectly by leaching through groundwater into ephemeral streams and lakes. Once in the aquatic environment, herbicides may cause stress within aquatic communities and radically alter community structure. Atrazine is one of the most effective and inexpensive herbicides in the world and is consequently used more frequently than any other herbicide. Atrazine is frequently detected in aquatic waters, and has been known to affect reproduction of aquatic flora and fauna, which in turn impacts on the community structure as a whole. This paper presents a summary of the reported direct and indirect impacts of atrazine on aquatic organisms and community structure. The information can be used for developing improved management guidelines and legislation. It is concluded that a single universal maximum limit on the atrazine application in catchments, as suggested by many regulatory authorities, does not provide adequate protection of the aquatic environment. Rather, it is advocated that flexible limits on the application of atrazine be developed in line with the potential risk of contamination to surface and subsurface water and fragility of the aquatic environment. PMID:11485216

  20. Evaluation of graphite for environmental toxicity using the standard aquatic microcosm. Technical report, June 1986-March 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Landis, W.G.; Chester, N.A.; Haley, M.V.; Johnson, D.W.; Tauber, R.M.

    1988-08-01

    The impact of a graphite dust on an aquatic ecosystem model, the Standard Aquatic microcosm (SAM), was investigated. Graphite dust produced effects that resembled eutrophication in that a diversity decreased, ammonia increased, and a photosynthesis/respiration ratio of less than one was observed in the highest concentration. Compared to brass dust, graphite has much less potential to adversely impact aquatic ecosystems.

  1. Aquatic Activities for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, H. David; And Others

    Designed to meet the diverse educational needs of youth groups, this aquatic program consists of eight individual lesson units, each devoted to one aspect of the aquatic world. Unit topics include: fish aquariums; raising earthworms; simulation of coastal planning; entomology and water; rope; calculating stream flow; saltwater aquariums; and fish…

  2. E-waste disposal effects on the aquatic environment: Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingyu; Nkrumah, Philip Nti; Anim, Desmond Ofosu; Mensah, Ebenezer

    2014-01-01

    , the need for actions to be taken to reduce entry of e-waste pollutants into Ghana's aquatic environment is real and is immediate.Heavy metals (e.g., lead, cadmium, copper and zinc) and organic pollutants (e.g.,PCDD/Fs and PBDEs) have been detected in the sediments of local water bodies in quantities that greatly exceed background levels. This fact alone suggests that aquatic organisms that live in the affected water bodies are highly exposed to these toxic, bio-accumulative, and persistent contaminants. These contaminants have been confirmed to result from the primitive methods used to recycle and process e-waste within the local environment.Only limited local data exist on the threats posed by these e-waste-related contaminants on nearby natural resources, especially aquatic organisms. In this review,we have addressed the potential toxicity of selected heavy metals and organic pollutants on aquatic organisms. Since there are no data on concentrations of contaminants in the water column, we have based our predictions of effects on pollutant release rates from sediments. Pollutants that are attached to sediments are routinely released into the water column from diffusion and advection, the rate of which depends on pH and Eh of the sediments. E-waste contaminants have the potential to produce deleterious effects on the behavior, physiology, metabolism, reproduction,development and growth of many aquatic organisms. Because it is confirmed that both heavy metal and organic contaminants are reaching the biota of Ghana's local waterways, we presume that they are producing adverse effects. Because local data on the aquatic toxicity of these contaminants are as yet unavailable, we strongly recommend that future research be undertaken to examine, on a large scale and long-term basis, both contamination levels in biota, and adverse effects on biota of the nearby water bodies.

  3. Effects of acidification of metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 2. Wetlands, ponds and small lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Albers, P.H.; Camardese, M.B. . Patuxent Wildlife Research Center)

    1993-06-01

    Compared were concentrations of Al,Cd,Ca,Cu,Fe,Pb,Mg,Mn,Hg,Ni,P, and Zn in water, plants, and aquatic invertebrates of wetlands, ponds, and small lakes in Maryland and Maine. The accumulation of metals by aquatic plants and insects and the concentration of metals in water were not greatly affected by pH. None of the metal concentrations in water significantly correlated with metals in insects. Plant metal concentrations poorly correlated with metal concentrations in water. Concentrations of metals exceeded acceptable dietary levels more frequently in plants than in invertebrates. Concerns about metal toxicity in birds that feed on invertebrates and plants from acidified waters seems to be unwarranted. Positive correlations among pH, Ca in water, Ca in insects, and Ca in plants imply that acidification can reduce the Ca content of aquatic biota. Aquatic insects were low in Ca, but crayfishes and snails, which are adversely affected by low pH, were very high. A concern for waterfowl is Ca deprivation from decreased Ca availability in low-pH wetlands, ponds, and small lakes..

  4. Bottom-up nutrient and top-down fish impacts on insect-mediated mercury flux from aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Jones, Taylor A; Chumchal, Matthew M; Drenner, Ray W; Timmins, Gabrielle N; Nowlin, Weston H

    2013-03-01

    Methyl mercury (MeHg) is one of the most hazardous contaminants in the environment, adversely affecting the health of wildlife and humans. Recent studies have demonstrated that aquatic insects biotransport MeHg and other contaminants to terrestrial consumers, but the factors that regulate the flux of MeHg out of aquatic ecosystems via emergent insects have not been studied. The authors used experimental mesocosms to test the hypothesis that insect emergence and the associated flux of MeHg from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems is affected by both bottom-up nutrient effects and top-down fish consumer effects. In the present study, nutrient addition led to an increase in MeHg flux primarily by enhancing the biomass of emerging insects whose tissues were contaminated with MeHg, whereas fish decreased MeHg flux primarily by reducing the biomass of emerging insects. Furthermore, the authors found that these factors are interdependent such that the effects of nutrients are more pronounced when fish are absent, and the effects of fish are more pronounced when nutrient concentrations are high. The present study is the first to demonstrate that the flux of MeHg from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems is strongly enhanced by bottom-up nutrient effects and diminished by top-down consumer effects. PMID:23180684

  5. Toxicity of the herbicides bromacil and simazine to the aquatic macrophyte, Vallisneria americana Michx.

    PubMed

    Wilson, P Chris; Wilson, Sandra B

    2010-01-01

    Vallisneria americana Michx. (tapegrass) is an ecologically important submersed, vascular aquatic plant that provides food and shelter for many aquatic and waterfowl species. This plant often occurs close to land areas where herbicides are used. Nontarget exposure of these plants to herbicides may compromise ecological structure and function. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the suitability of several endpoint measurements for determining no-observable-adverse effect concentrations (NOAECs), lowest-observable-adverse effect concentrations (LOAECs), and median effective concentration values (EC50s) for tapegrass exposed to the herbicides bromacil (0-0.092 mg/L) and simazine (0-0.592 mg/L) following a 13-d single-pulse exposure and 15-d (bromacil) or 14-d (simazine) postexposure periods. The NOAEC/LOAEC/EC50 for fresh weight gains, new leaf production, and total leaf growth after 13-d exposure to bromacil were 0.020/0.036/0.032, 0.036/0.054/0.036, and 0.036/0.054/0.043 mg/L, respectively. The same respective NOAEC/LOAEC/EC50s for simazine were <0.058/0.058/0.067, 0.229/0.344/0.154, and 0.058/0.116/0.081 mg/L. Reductions in quantity and fresh weight of daughter plants produced and stolon fresh weights occurred at bromacil concentrations > or = 77, 0.020, and 0.036 mg/L, respectively; and simazine concentrations > or = 0.344, >0.592, and > or = 0.116 mg/L, respectively. Neither herbicide affected leaf greenness, total chlorophyll concentrations, or carbohydrate allocation. Although toxicity was shown for many endpoints, most EC50 values were greater than aquatic life benchmark values for algae used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), but less than for aquatic plants, indicating that V. americana would likely be protected by use of the algal benchmark criteria. PMID:20821436

  6. The effects of a fungicide and chytrid fungus on anuran larvae in aquatic mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Shane M; Lynch, Kyle J; Kerby, Jacob L; Parris, Matthew J

    2015-09-01

    The amphibian disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has been linked to significant amphibian declines over the past three decades. The most severe effects of the pathogen have been primarily observed in relatively pristine areas that are not affected by many anthropogenic factors.One hypothesis concerning improved amphibian persistence with Bd in disturbed landscapes is that contaminants may abate the effects of Bd on amphibians. Recent laboratory studies have shown that pesticides, specifically the fungicide thiophanate-methyl (TM), can kill Bd outside of hosts and clear Bd infections within hosts. Using aquatic mesocosms, we tested the hypothesis that TM (0.43 mg/L) would alter growth and development of Lithobates sphenocephalus (southern leopard frog) tadpoles and Bd-infection loads in infected individuals. We hypothesized that the scope of such alterations and infection clearing would be affected by aquatic community variables, specifically zooplankton. TM altered zooplankton diversity (reduced cladoceran and increased copepod and ostracod abundances) and caused mortality to all tadpoles in TM-exposed tanks. In TM-free tanks, Bd-exposed tadpoles in high-density treatments metamorphosed smaller than Bd-unexposed, effects that were reversed in low-density treatments. Our study demonstrates the potential adverse effects of a fungicide and Bd on tadpoles and aquatic systems. PMID:25913318

  7. Methane bubble ascent within muddy aquatic sediments under different ambient methane source strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarboush Sirhan, Shahrazad; Katsman, Regina; Ten Brink, Uri

    2016-04-01

    Methane (CH4) is the simplest and, the most common hydrocarbon in nature. It is considered as one of the most adverse greenhouse gases, at least 25 times more potent than carbon dioxide. When concentration of the dissolved methane in pore waters exceeds the solubility of the gas (affected in turn by temperature, pressure, salinity and by other factors) methane bubbles nucleate. Gas migration in fine-grained cohesive muddy aquatic sediments is accompanied by sediment fracturing. When gas pressure is high enough to overcome compression, friction, and cohesion at grain contacts, gas migrates by pushing the grains apart. These sub-vertical fractures provide lowered-resistance conduits for migration of other bubbles that can destabilize sediment structure resulting even in slope failure. Therefore, understanding the processes governing bubble propagation within fine-grained aquatic sediment is important. Previous models showed that bubbles propagation within fine-grained muddy aquatic sediments can be modeled using principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics. Mass transfer between the bubble rising with high velocity and the surrounding sediments was mostly ignored. We use a coupled macroscopic mechanical/reaction-transport numerical model under a variable source strength profile associated with bio-chemical processes of methane production and consumption within the sediment, as it occurs in nature. The model shows that changes in the dissolved methane concentrations strongly affect bubble ascent velocity, sometimes leading to its retardation below the sediment-water interface

  8. Non-target effects on aquatic decomposer organisms of imidacloprid as a systemic insecticide to control emerald ash borer in riparian trees.

    PubMed

    Kreutzweiser, David; Good, Kevin; Chartrand, Derek; Scarr, Taylor; Thompson, Dean

    2007-11-01

    Imidacloprid is effective against emerald ash borer when applied as a systemic insecticide. Following stem or soil injections to trees in riparian areas, imidacloprid residues could be indirectly introduced to aquatic systems via leaf fall or leaching. Either route of exposure may affect non-target, aquatic decomposer organisms. Leaves from ash trees treated with imidacloprid at two field rates and an intentionally-high concentration were added to aquatic microcosms. Leaves from trees treated at the two field rates contained imidacloprid concentrations of 0.8-1.3 ppm, and did not significantly affect leaf-shredding insect survival, microbial respiration or microbial decomposition rates. Insect feeding rates were significantly inhibited at foliar concentrations of 1.3 ppm but not at 0.8 ppm. Leaves from intentionally high-dose trees contained concentrations of about 80 ppm, and resulted in 89-91% mortality of leaf-shredding insects, but no adverse effects on microbial respiration and decomposition rates. Imidacloprid applied directly to aquatic microcosms to simulate leaching from soils was at least 10 times more toxic to aquatic insects than the foliar concentrations, with high mortality at 0.13 ppm and significant feeding inhibition at 0.012 ppm. PMID:17512054

  9. Non-target effects on aquatic decomposer organisms of imidacloprid as a systemic insecticide to control emerald ash borer in riparian trees.

    PubMed

    Kreutzweiser, David; Good, Kevin; Chartrand, Derek; Scarr, Taylor; Thompson, Dean

    2007-11-01

    Imidacloprid is effective against emerald ash borer when applied as a systemic insecticide. Following stem or soil injections to trees in riparian areas, imidacloprid residues could be indirectly introduced to aquatic systems via leaf fall or leaching. Either route of exposure may affect non-target, aquatic decomposer organisms. Leaves from ash trees treated with imidacloprid at two field rates and an intentionally-high concentration were added to aquatic microcosms. Leaves from trees treated at the two field rates contained imidacloprid concentrations of 0.8-1.3 ppm, and did not significantly affect leaf-shredding insect survival, microbial respiration or microbial decomposition rates. Insect feeding rates were significantly inhibited at foliar concentrations of 1.3 ppm but not at 0.8 ppm. Leaves from intentionally high-dose trees contained concentrations of about 80 ppm, and resulted in 89-91% mortality of leaf-shredding insects, but no adverse effects on microbial respiration and decomposition rates. Imidacloprid applied directly to aquatic microcosms to simulate leaching from soils was at least 10 times more toxic to aquatic insects than the foliar concentrations, with high mortality at 0.13 ppm and significant feeding inhibition at 0.012 ppm.

  10. B-cell depletion inhibits arthritis in a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model, but does not adversely affect humoral responses in a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccination model.

    PubMed

    Dunussi-Joannopoulos, Kyri; Hancock, Gerald E; Kunz, Arthur; Hegen, Martin; Zhou, Xiaochuan X; Sheppard, Barbara J; Lamothe, Jennifer; Li, Evelyn; Ma, Hak-Ling; Hamann, Philip R; Damle, Nitin K; Collins, Mary

    2005-10-01

    We report the development of a mouse B cell-depleting immunoconjugate (anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody [mAb] conjugated to calicheamicin) and its in vivo use to characterize the kinetics of CD22+ B-cell depletion and reconstitution in murine primary and secondary lymphoid tissues. The effect of B-cell depletion was further studied in a murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model and a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccination model. Our results show that (1) the immunoconjugate has B-cell-specific in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity; (2) B-cell reconstitution starts in the bone marrow and spleen around day 30 after depletion and is completed in all tissues tested by day 50; (3) B-cell depletion inhibits the development of clinical and histologic arthritis in the CIA model; (4) depletion of type II collagen antibody levels is not necessary for clinical and histologic prevention of CIA; and (5) B-cell depletion does not adversely affect memory antibody responses after challenge nor clearance of infectious virus from lungs in the RSV vaccination model. These results demonstrate for the first time that only B-cell reduction but not type II collagen antibody levels correlate with the prevention of arthritis and represent key insights into the role of CD22-targeted B-cell depletion in mouse autoimmunity and vaccination models.

  11. Pharmacogenomics of adverse drug reactions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in identifying genetic risk factors for idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions in the past 30 years. These reactions can affect various tissues and organs, including liver, skin, muscle and heart, in a drug-dependent manner. Using both candidate gene and genome-wide association studies, various genes that make contributions of varying extents to each of these forms of reactions have been identified. Many of the associations identified for reactions affecting the liver and skin involve human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes and for reactions relating to the drugs abacavir and carbamazepine, HLA genotyping is now in routine use prior to drug prescription. Other HLA associations are not sufficiently specific for translation but are still of interest in relation to underlying mechanisms for the reactions. Progress on non-HLA genes affecting adverse drug reactions has been less, but some important associations, such as those of SLCO1B1 and statin myopathy, KCNE1 and drug-induced QT prolongation and NAT2 and isoniazid-induced liver injury, are considered. Future prospects for identification of additional genetic risk factors for the various adverse drug reactions are discussed. PMID:23360680

  12. Respiration in Aquatic Insects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarland, John

    1985-01-01

    This article: (1) explains the respiratory patterns of several freshwater insects; (2) describes the differences and mechanisms of spiracular cutaneous, and gill respiration; and (3) discusses behavioral aspects of selected aquatic insects. (ML)

  13. The Aquatic Systems Continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, T. C.

    2004-12-01

    The Aquatic Systems Continuum is a proposed framework for interrelating the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of aquatic ecosystems. The continuum can be represented by a three-dimensional matrix that relates aquatic ecosystems to their position within hydrologic flow paths (x-axis, a spatial dimension) and their response to climate variability (y-axis). The z-axis describes the structure of biological communities as they relate to the hydrological conditions defined by the x and y axes. The concept is an extension of the Wetland Continuum that was derived from field studies of a prairie pothole wetland complex in North Dakota. At that site, the hydrologic continuum in space is defined by ground-water flow systems. The wetlands are surface-water expressions of larger ground-water watersheds, in which wetlands serve recharge, flow-through, and discharge functions with respect to ground water. The water balance of the wetlands is dominated by precipitation and evaporation. However, the interaction of the wetlands with ground water, although a small part of their water budget, provides the primary control on delivery of major solutes to and from the wetlands. Having monitored these wetlands for more than 25 years, during which time the site had a complete range of climate conditions from drought to deluge, the response of the aquatic communities to a wide variety of climate conditions has been well documented. The Aquatic Systems Continuum extends the model provided by the Wetland Continuum to include rivers and their interaction with ground water. As a result, both ground water and surface water are used to describe terrestrial water flows for all types of aquatic ecosystems. By using the Aquatic Systems Continuum to describe the hydrologic flow paths in all types of terrain, including exchange with atmospheric water, it is possible to design studies, monitoring programs, and management plans for nearly any type of aquatic ecosystem.

  14. Land-use proxies for aquatic species invasions in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic invasive species adversely impact ecosystems, human health, and the economy of the Laurentian Great Lakes region. Targeted preventative and eradication efforts in response to early detection of invasive species can be both cost advantageous and effective. But where should...

  15. Molecular ecology of aquatic microbes

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    Abstracts of reports are presented from a meeting on Molecular Ecology of Aquatic Microbes. Topics included: opportunities offered to aquatic ecology by molecular biology; the role of aquatic microbes in biogeochemical cycles; characterization of the microbial community; the effect of the environment on aquatic microbes; and the targeting of specific biological processes.

  16. Aquatic toxicology: fact or fiction

    SciTech Connect

    Macek, K.J.

    1980-02-01

    The science of aquatic toxicology is a relatively new science. The development of the field of aquatic toxicology since 1930 is traced. The state of the art of aquatic toxicology compared with that of classical toxicology is evaluated. The science of aquatic toxicology is expected to undergo a significant period of rapid growth and development, leading ultimately to the formation of a mature science.

  17. Urbanicity, social adversity and psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, Andreas; Deserno, Lorenz; Reininghaus, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in research on geographical variation in the incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses. In this paper, we review the evidence on variation in incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in terms of place, as well as the individual- and area-level factors that account for this variation. We further review findings on potential mechanisms that link adverse urban environment and psychosis. There is evidence from earlier and more recent studies that urbanicity is associated with an increased incidence of schizophrenia and non-affective psychosis. In addition, considerable variation in incidence across neighbourhoods has been observed for these disorders. Findings suggest it is unlikely that social drift alone can fully account for geographical variation in incidence. Evidence further suggests that the impact of adverse social contexts – indexed by area-level exposures such as population density, social fragmentation and deprivation – on risk of psychosis is explained (confounding) or modified (interaction) by environmental exposures at the individual level (i.e., cannabis use, social adversity, exclusion and discrimination). On a neurobiological level, several studies suggest a close link between social adversity, isolation and stress on the one hand, and monoamine dysfunction on the other, which resembles findings in schizophrenia patients. However, studies directly assessing correlations between urban stress or discrimination and neurobiological alterations in schizophrenia are lacking to date. PMID:24096775

  18. The Fish Kill Mystery: Learning about Aquatic Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosal, Erica F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a case where students can learn about aquatic communities. In this case, students speculate on what may have caused a major fish kill in an estuary in North Carolina. In the process, they explore how land runoff and excess nutrients affect aquatic communities. They also learn about the complex life cycle of the dinoflagellate…

  19. VASCULAR PLANTS AS ENGINEERS OF OXYGEN IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of organisms on oxygen is one of the most dramatic examples of ecosystem engineering on Earth. In aquatic systems, which have much lower oxygen concentrations than the atmosphere, vascular aquatic plants can affect oxygen concentrations significantly not only on long t...

  20. Improving the quality of aquatic toxicity tests: Lessons learned and proficiency needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic toxicity testing methodologies have been widely used to assess potential adverse effects of chemicals and wastewater discharges on aquatic life in the United States since the 1970’s. Over the years, continued method modifications, increased training, and technical r...

  1. The interactive effects of excess reactive nitrogen and climate change on aquatic ecosystems and water resources of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, J.S.; Hall, E.K.; Nolan, B.T.; Finlay, J.C.; Bernhardt, E.S.; Harrison, J.A.; Chan, F.; Boyer, E.W.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly all freshwaters and coastal zones of the US are degraded from inputs of excess reactive nitrogen (Nr), sources of which are runoff, atmospheric N deposition, and imported food and feed. Some major adverse effects include harmful algal blooms, hypoxia of fresh and coastal waters, ocean acidification, long-term harm to human health, and increased emissions of greenhouse gases. Nitrogen fluxes to coastal areas and emissions of nitrous oxide from waters have increased in response to N inputs. Denitrification and sedimentation of organic N to sediments are important processes that divert N from downstream transport. Aquatic ecosystems are particularly important denitrification hotspots. Carbon storage in sediments is enhanced by Nr, but whether carbon is permanently buried is unknown. The effect of climate change on N transport and processing in fresh and coastal waters will be felt most strongly through changes to the hydrologic cycle, whereas N loading is mostly climate-independent. Alterations in precipitation amount and dynamics will alter runoff, thereby influencing both rates of Nr inputs to aquatic ecosystems and groundwater and the water residence times that affect Nr removal within aquatic systems. Both infrastructure and climate change alter the landscape connectivity and hydrologic residence time that are essential to denitrification. While Nr inputs to and removal rates from aquatic systems are influenced by climate and management, reduction of N inputs from their source will be the most effective means to prevent or to minimize environmental and economic impacts of excess Nr to the nation’s water resources.

  2. Effects of Carbon Nanotube Environmental Dispersion on an Aquatic Invertebrate, Hirudo medicinalis.

    PubMed

    Girardello, Rossana; Tasselli, Stefano; Baranzini, Nicolò; Valvassori, Roberto; de Eguileor, Magda; Grimaldi, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    The recent widespread applications of nanomaterials, because of their properties, opens new scenarios that affect their dispersal in the environment. In particular multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), despite their qualities, seem to be harmful for animals and humans. To evaluate possible toxic effects caused by carbon nanotube environmental dispersion, with regard to aquatic compartment, we proposed as experimental model a freshwater invertebrate: Hirudo medicinalis. In the present study we analyse acute and chronic immune responses over a short (1, 3, 6 and 12 hours) and long time (from 1 to 5 weeks) exposure to MWCNTs by optical, electron and immunohistochemical approaches. In the exposed leeches angiogenesis and fibroplasia accompanied by massive cellular migration occur. Immunocytochemical characterization using specific markers shows that in these inflammatory processes the monocyte-macrophages (CD45+, CD68+) are the most involved cells. These immunocompetent cells are characterized by sequence of events starting from the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (in particular IL-18), and amyloidogenensis. Our combined experimental approaches, basing on high sensitive inflammatory response can highlight adverse effects of nanomaterials on aquatic organisms and could be useful to assess the MWCNTs impact on aquatic, terrestrial animal and human health. PMID:26636582

  3. Effects of Carbon Nanotube Environmental Dispersion on an Aquatic Invertebrate, Hirudo medicinalis

    PubMed Central

    Girardello, Rossana; Tasselli, Stefano; Baranzini, Nicolò; Valvassori, Roberto; de Eguileor, Magda; Grimaldi, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    The recent widespread applications of nanomaterials, because of their properties, opens new scenarios that affect their dispersal in the environment. In particular multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), despite their qualities, seem to be harmful for animals and humans. To evaluate possible toxic effects caused by carbon nanotube environmental dispersion, with regard to aquatic compartment, we proposed as experimental model a freshwater invertebrate: Hirudo medicinalis. In the present study we analyse acute and chronic immune responses over a short (1, 3, 6 and 12 hours) and long time (from 1 to 5 weeks) exposure to MWCNTs by optical, electron and immunohistochemical approaches. In the exposed leeches angiogenesis and fibroplasia accompanied by massive cellular migration occur. Immunocytochemical characterization using specific markers shows that in these inflammatory processes the monocyte-macrophages (CD45+, CD68+) are the most involved cells. These immunocompetent cells are characterized by sequence of events starting from the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (in particular IL-18), and amyloidogenensis. Our combined experimental approaches, basing on high sensitive inflammatory response can highlight adverse effects of nanomaterials on aquatic organisms and could be useful to assess the MWCNTs impact on aquatic, terrestrial animal and human health. PMID:26636582

  4. Phytotoxicity and accumulation of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the aquatic plants Hydrilla verticillata and Phragmites Australis: leaf-type-dependent responses.

    PubMed

    Song, Uhram; Lee, Sunryung

    2016-05-01

    The phytotoxicity and accumulation of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on aquatic plant Hydrilla verticillata and Phragmites australis were investigated using mesocosms. The percentage of dissolved Zn in the ZnO NP treatment solutions was measured along with plant shoot growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, chlorophyll content, and Zn content. The dissolution rate of ZnO NPs in Hoagland solution was inversely related to the concentration. The submerged aquatic plant H. verticillata, growth was reduced during the early stages of the experiment when exposed to the highest ZnO NP concentration (1000 mg/L), whereas the emerged aquatic plant P. australis began to show significantly reduced growth after a few weeks. The measurements of chlorophyll content, antioxidant enzyme activity, and Zn accumulation showed that P. australis was adversely affected by NPs and absorbed more Zn than H. verticillata. The results indicated that physiological differences among aquatic plants, such as whether they use leaves or roots for nutrient and water uptake, led to differences in nanoparticle toxicity. Overall, High ZnO NP concentrations caused significant phytotoxicity on aquatic plants, and low concentrations caused unpredictable phytotoxicity. Therefore, the use and disposal of zinc oxide nanoparticles should be carefully monitored. PMID:26797943

  5. Phytotoxicity and accumulation of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the aquatic plants Hydrilla verticillata and Phragmites Australis: leaf-type-dependent responses.

    PubMed

    Song, Uhram; Lee, Sunryung

    2016-05-01

    The phytotoxicity and accumulation of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on aquatic plant Hydrilla verticillata and Phragmites australis were investigated using mesocosms. The percentage of dissolved Zn in the ZnO NP treatment solutions was measured along with plant shoot growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, chlorophyll content, and Zn content. The dissolution rate of ZnO NPs in Hoagland solution was inversely related to the concentration. The submerged aquatic plant H. verticillata, growth was reduced during the early stages of the experiment when exposed to the highest ZnO NP concentration (1000 mg/L), whereas the emerged aquatic plant P. australis began to show significantly reduced growth after a few weeks. The measurements of chlorophyll content, antioxidant enzyme activity, and Zn accumulation showed that P. australis was adversely affected by NPs and absorbed more Zn than H. verticillata. The results indicated that physiological differences among aquatic plants, such as whether they use leaves or roots for nutrient and water uptake, led to differences in nanoparticle toxicity. Overall, High ZnO NP concentrations caused significant phytotoxicity on aquatic plants, and low concentrations caused unpredictable phytotoxicity. Therefore, the use and disposal of zinc oxide nanoparticles should be carefully monitored.

  6. Managing adverse effects of glaucoma medications

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma is a chronic, progressive disease in which retinal ganglion cells disappear and subsequent, gradual reductions in the visual field ensues. Glaucoma eye drops have hypotensive effects and like all other medications are associated with adverse effects. Adverse reactions may either result from the main agent or from preservatives used in the drug vehicle. The preservative benzalkonium chloride, is one such compound that causes frequent adverse reactions such as superficial punctate keratitis, corneal erosion, conjunctival allergy, and conjunctival injection. Adverse reactions related to main hypotensive agents have been divided into those affecting the eye and those affecting the entire body. In particular, β-blockers frequently cause systematic adverse reactions, including bradycardia, decrease in blood pressure, irregular pulse and asthma attacks. Prostaglandin analogs have distinctive local adverse reactions, including eyelash bristling/lengthening, eyelid pigmentation, iris pigmentation, and upper eyelid deepening. No systemic adverse reactions have been linked to prostaglandin analog eye drop usage. These adverse reactions may be minimized when they are detected early and prevented by reducing the number of different eye drops used (via fixed combination eye drops), reducing the number of times eye drops are administered, using benzalkonium chloride-free eye drops, using lower concentration eye drops, and providing proper drop instillation training. Additionally, a one-time topical medication can be given to patients to allow observation of any adverse reactions, thereafter the preparation of a topical medication with the fewest known adverse reactions can be prescribed. This does require precise patient monitoring and inquiries about patient symptoms following medication use. PMID:24872675

  7. Aquatic toxicity of two Corexit dispersants.

    PubMed

    George-Ares, A; Clark, J R

    2000-04-01

    The oil spill dispersants, Corexit 9500 and Corexit 9527 have low to moderate toxicity to most aquatic species in laboratory tests. Toxicity estimates are significantly affected by test variables such as species, lifestage, exposure duration, and temperature. Aquatic toxicity data generated from spiked, declining exposures (107 min half-life) are more reflective of actual dispersant use conditions. Decisions to use oil spill response chemicals should not be based solely on aquatic toxicity. Factors to consider include product effectiveness, toxicity of dispersed oil, species/habitats requiring priority protection, and recovery potential of sensitive habitats and populations. An environmental risk assessment approach is recommended where dispersant toxicity data generated under environmentally relevant exposures are compared to estimated environmental concentrations of dispersants. PMID:10718584

  8. Aquatic toxicity of two Corexit dispersants.

    PubMed

    George-Ares, A; Clark, J R

    2000-04-01

    The oil spill dispersants, Corexit 9500 and Corexit 9527 have low to moderate toxicity to most aquatic species in laboratory tests. Toxicity estimates are significantly affected by test variables such as species, lifestage, exposure duration, and temperature. Aquatic toxicity data generated from spiked, declining exposures (107 min half-life) are more reflective of actual dispersant use conditions. Decisions to use oil spill response chemicals should not be based solely on aquatic toxicity. Factors to consider include product effectiveness, toxicity of dispersed oil, species/habitats requiring priority protection, and recovery potential of sensitive habitats and populations. An environmental risk assessment approach is recommended where dispersant toxicity data generated under environmentally relevant exposures are compared to estimated environmental concentrations of dispersants.

  9. Development of resource shed delineation in aquatic ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental issues in aquatic ecosystems of high management priority involve spatially explicit phenomena that occur over vast areas. A "landscape" perspective is thus necessary, including an understanding of how ecological phenomena at a local scale are affected by physical fo...

  10. Aquatic Microbiology Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Robert C.; And Others

    This laboratory manual presents information and techniques dealing with aquatic microbiology as it relates to environmental health science, sanitary engineering, and environmental microbiology. The contents are divided into three categories: (1) ecological and physiological considerations; (2) public health aspects; and (3)microbiology of water…

  11. Aquatic Resources Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, C. Boyd; Sosin, Mark

    Fishing is one of the oldest and most popular outdoor activities. Like most activities, fishing requires basic knowledge and skill for success. The Aquatic Resources Education Curriculum is designed to assist beginning anglers in learning the basic concepts of how, when, and where to fish as well as what tackle to use. The manual is designed to be…

  12. Investigating Aquatic Dead Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Jeremy; Gurbisz, Cassie; Murray, Laura; Gray, William; Bosch, Jennifer; Burrell, Chris; Kemp, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article features two engaging high school activities that include current scientific information, data, and authentic case studies. The activities address the physical, biological, and chemical processes that are associated with oxygen-depleted areas, or "dead zones," in aquatic systems. Students can explore these dead zones through both…

  13. Aquatic Equipment Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sova, Ruth

    Equipment usually used in water exercise programs is designed for variety, intensity, and program necessity. This guide discusses aquatic equipment under the following headings: (1) equipment design; (2) equipment principles; (3) precautions and contraindications; (4) population contraindications; and (5) choosing equipment. Equipment is used…

  14. Aquatic plant management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Twelve fact sheets are presented which cover different forms of aquatic plant management in Guntersville Reservoir. These cover the introduction of grass carp and other biological controls, drawdown of reservoir water, herbicide use, harvesting, impacts on recreational uses, and other issues of concern. (SM)

  15. Contaminated Aquatic Sediments.

    PubMed

    Jaglal, Kendrick

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 relating to the assessment, evaluation and remediation of contaminated aquatic sediments is presented. The review is divided into the following main sections: policy and guidance, methodology, distribution, fate and transport, risk, toxicity and remediation. PMID:27620103

  16. Occurrence, fate and effects of azoxystrobin in aquatic ecosystems: a review.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Elsa Teresa; Lopes, Isabel; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo

    2013-03-01

    The use of pesticides for crop protection may result in the presence of toxic residues in environmental matrices. In the aquatic environment, pesticides might freely dissolve in the water or bind to suspended matter and to the sediments, and might be transferred to the organisms' tissues during bioaccumulation processes, resulting in adverse consequences to non-target species. One such group of synthetic organic pesticides widely used worldwide to combat pathogenic fungi affecting plants is the strobilurin chemical group. Whereas they are designed to control fungal pathogens, their general modes of action are not specific to fungi. Consequently, they can be potentially toxic to a wide range of non-target organisms. The present work had the intent to conduct an extensive literature review to find relevant research on the occurrence, fate and effects of azoxystrobin, the first patent of the strobilurin compounds, in aquatic ecosystems in order to identify strengths and gaps in the scientific database. Analytical procedures and existing legislation and regulations were also assessed. Data gathered in the present review revealed that analytical reference standards for the most relevant environmental metabolites of azoxystrobin are needed. Validated confirmatory methods for complex matrices, like sediment and aquatic organisms' tissues, are very limited. Important knowledge of base-line values of azoxystrobin and its metabolites in natural tropical and estuarine/marine ecosystems is lacking. Moreover, some environmental concentrations of azoxystrobin found in the present review are above the Regulatory Acceptable Concentration (RAC) in what concerns risk to aquatic invertebrates and the No Observed Ecologically Adverse Effect Concentration (NOEAEC) reported for freshwater communities. The present review also showed that there are very few data on azoxystrobin toxicity to different aquatic organisms, especially in what concerns estuarine/marine organisms. Besides

  17. Biomonitoring of aquatic systems.

    PubMed

    Kurelec, B; Gupta, R C

    1993-01-01

    The 32P-postlabelling analysis provides a sensitive means for detecting pollution-related DNA adducts in aquatic organisms exposed to environmental carcinogens. However, the following factors need to be taken into consideration during the data interpretation: (1) species-specific, naturally occurring DNA modifications (or I-compounds) are found in aquatic organisms at levels which are highly season-dependent; and (2) many aquatic organisms, particularly lower invertebrates, cannot form DNA adducts from common pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The level of natural adducts is especially high in lower invertebrates, such as sponges and sea-urchins during their reproductive phase in the spring time (March/April): in subsequent months adducts were either undetectable or present at only trace levels. These invertebrates do not metabolize PAHs such as benzo[a]pyrene but readily biotransform aromatic amines such as 2-acetylaminofluorene to DNA-reactive forms. Pollution-related DNA adducts have been found in fish living in highly polluted rivers and marine sites and in carp exposed to an artificial Diesel-2/crude oil slick. In certain fish (English sole, brown bullheads, etc.) living in polluted environments, the formation of pollution-related DNA adducts has been correlated with an increased incidence of tumours. It is concluded that, while DNA adducts detected in aquatic organisms can be used for biomonitoring and detecting pollutants, there are several confounding factors that should be taken into consideration before one attempts to determine the type and concentration of carcinogenic pollutants present in aquatic environments.

  18. Methods for Aquatic Resource Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Methods for Aquatic Resource Assessment (MARA) project consists of three main activities in support of assessing the conditions of the nation’s aquatic resources: 1) scientific support for EPA Office of Water’s national aquatic resource surveys; 2) spatial predications of riv...

  19. Aquatic Plants and their Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Natural Resources, Lansing.

    Aquatic plants can be divided into two types: algae and macrophytes. The goal of aquatic plant management is to maintain a proper balance of plants within a lake and still retain the lake's recreational and economic importance. Aquatic plant management programs have two phases: long-term management (nutrient control), and short-term management…

  20. Aquatic Pest Control. Manual 99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the aquatic pest control category. The text discusses various water use situations; aquatic weed identification; herbicide use and effects; and aquatic insects and their control. (CS)

  1. Effects of impervious cover on the surface water quality and aquatic ecosystem of the Kyeongan stream in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bum-Yeon; Park, Shin-Jeong; Paule, Ma Cristina; Jun, Woosong; Lee, Chang-Hee

    2012-08-01

    The extent of impervious cover in a watershed has been linked to the quality of an urban aquatic environment. The Kyeongan watershed in South Korea was investigated to evaluate the relationship between the total impervious area (TIA) and the aquatic ecosystem of the watershed, including water quality and aquatic life using a relatively high-resolution (0.4 m) image. The TIA was found to be approximately 12% of the watershed, which indicates that the quality of its environment was being adversely affected by it. For water quality, Pearson correlation analyses showed that all water quality parameters studied were found to be positively correlated with TIA at p < 0.01, except for nitrate (NO3-). In addition, the zone with a higher TIA was found to have worse water quality. Some water quality parameters, such as nitrite (NO2-), total phosphorus, and phosphate (PO4(3-)) were highly affected by discharges from wastewater treatment plants. Water quality data suggest that TIA could be used to predict the water quality of streams. For ecological parameters, the diatom index for organic pollution and trophic diatom index were found to be highly correlated with TIA, whereas physical habitat and benthic macroinvertebrates were poorly correlated with TIA. However, the results indicate that the extent of impervious cover can be a useful indicator for predicting the status of specific ecosystem of streams.

  2. Adverse reactions to cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Gendler, E

    1987-06-01

    Adverse reactions to cosmetics can be irritant or allergic and are most often caused by fragrances or preservatives. Preservatives include formaldehyde, formaldehyde releasers, and parabens. Other agents that cause allergy are paraphenylenediamine in hair dyes and toluene sulfonamide formaldehyde resin in nail polishes.

  3. Scientists Trace Adversity's Toll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    The stress of a spelling bee or a challenging science project can enhance a student's focus and promote learning. But the stress of a dysfunctional or unstable home life can poison a child's cognitive ability for a lifetime, according to new research. Those studies show that stress forms the link between childhood adversity and poor academic…

  4. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Médéric; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-10-01

    Inertial aquatic swimmers that use undulatory gaits range in length L from a few millimetres to 30 metres, across a wide array of biological taxa. Using elementary hydrodynamic arguments, we uncover a unifying mechanistic principle characterizing their locomotion by deriving a scaling relation that links swimming speed U to body kinematics (tail beat amplitude A and frequency ω) and fluid properties (kinematic viscosity ν). This principle can be simply couched as the power law Re ~ Swα, where Re = UL/ν >> 1 and Sw = ωAL/ν, with α = 4/3 for laminar flows, and α = 1 for turbulent flows. Existing data from over 1,000 measurements on fish, amphibians, larvae, reptiles, mammals and birds, as well as direct numerical simulations are consistent with our scaling. We interpret our results as the consequence of the convergence of aquatic gaits to the performance limits imposed by hydrodynamics.

  5. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Mederic; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

    2014-11-01

    Inertial aquatic swimmers that use undulatory gaits range in length L from a few millimeters to 30 meters, across a wide array of biological taxa. Using elementary hydrodynamic arguments, we uncover a unifying mechanistic principle characterizing their locomotion by deriving a scaling relation that links swimming speed U to body kinematics (tail beat amplitude A and frequency ω) and fluid properties (kinematic viscosity ν). This principle can be simply couched as the power law Re ~ Swα , where Re = UL / ν >> 1 and Sw = ωAL / ν , with α = 4 / 3 for laminar flows, and α = 1 for turbulent flows. Existing data from over 1000 measurements on fish, amphibians, larvae, reptiles, mammals and birds, as well as direct numerical simulations are consistent with our scaling. We interpret our results as the consequence of the convergence of aquatic gaits to the performance limits imposed by hydrodynamics.

  6. Dam removal, connectivity, and aquatic resources in the St. Regis River Watershed, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenna, James E.; Hanak, Kaitlin; DeVilbiss, Katharine; David, Anthony; Johnson, James H.

    2015-10-09

    The decommissioning and planned removal of the Hogansburg Dam on the St. Regis River in New York has stimulated interest in the potential effects of that barrier removal on the St. Regis watershed. There will be immediate and systemic effects of the Hogansburg Dam removal, which may include inundation of habitats below the dam or dewatering of habitats above the dam, possibly affecting local fish assemblages and (or) local native mussel assemblages; and expansion of stream network connectivity, which has the potential to open a large area of the watershed to migratory aquatic species. Information was collected about biota, water quality, sediment distribution, riverbed dimensions in the vicinity of the dam, and habitat characteristics of headwater sample sites. Complete fish assemblages were collected, but species of special concern associated with the connectivity changes included, American Eel, Atlantic Salmon, Brook Trout, Eastern Sand Darter, and Lake Sturgeon. Freshwater mussels in the vicinity of the dam also were examined and may be at risk of exposure (without a rescue plan) after dam removal. Reservoir sediment will be transported downstream and will alter aquatic habitat as it moves through the system. The dam removal will open more than 440 kilometers of stream habitat to migratory species, allowing them to more easily complete their life cycles. Fish assemblages above the dam may be altered by migrating fishes, but resident Brook Trout are not expected to be adversely affected.

  7. Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-18

    Fishes and marine mammals may suffer a range of potential effects from exposure to intense underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities such as pile driving, shipping, sonars, and underwater blasting. Several underwater sound recording (USR) devices have been built to acquire samples of the underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities. Software becomes indispensable for processing and analyzing the audio files recorded by these USRs. The new Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface Utility Software (AAMI) is specifically designed for analysis of underwater sound recordings to provide data in metrics that facilitate evaluation of the potential impacts of the sound on aquatic animals. In addition to the basic functions, such as loading and editing audio files recorded by USRs and batch processing of sound files, the software utilizes recording system calibration data to compute important parameters in physical units. The software also facilitates comparison of the noise sound sample metrics with biological measures such as audiograms of the sensitivity of aquatic animals to the sound, integrating various components into a single analytical frame.

  8. Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface

    2012-12-18

    Fishes and marine mammals may suffer a range of potential effects from exposure to intense underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities such as pile driving, shipping, sonars, and underwater blasting. Several underwater sound recording (USR) devices have been built to acquire samples of the underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities. Software becomes indispensable for processing and analyzing the audio files recorded by these USRs. The new Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface Utility Software (AAMI) is specificallymore » designed for analysis of underwater sound recordings to provide data in metrics that facilitate evaluation of the potential impacts of the sound on aquatic animals. In addition to the basic functions, such as loading and editing audio files recorded by USRs and batch processing of sound files, the software utilizes recording system calibration data to compute important parameters in physical units. The software also facilitates comparison of the noise sound sample metrics with biological measures such as audiograms of the sensitivity of aquatic animals to the sound, integrating various components into a single analytical frame.« less

  9. Adverse reactions to cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Dogra, A; Minocha, Y C; Kaur, S

    2003-01-01

    Adverse reaction to cosmetics constitute a small but significant number of cases of contact dermatitis with varied appearances. These can present as contact allergic dermatitis, photodermatitis, contact irritant dermatitis, contact urticaria, hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentation or depigmentation, hair and nail breakage. Fifty patients were included for the study to assess the role of commonly used cosmetics in causing adverse reactions. It was found that hair dyes, lipsticks and surprisingly shaving creams caused more reaction as compared to other cosmetics. Overall incidence of contact allergic dermatitis seen was 3.3% with patients own cosmetics. Patch testing was also done with the basic ingredients and showed positive results in few cases where casual link could be established. It is recommended that labeling of the cosmetics should be done to help the dermatologists and the patients to identify the causative allergen in cosmetic preparation.

  10. Fisheries and aquatic resources--fish health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panek, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Fish health research at Leetown had its origin in the 1930’s when the Leetown Fish Hatchery and Experiment Station was constructed. In 1978, the National Fish Health Research Laboratory, now a component of the Leetown Science Center, was established to solve emerging and known disease problems affecting fish and other aquatic organisms critical to species restoration programs. Center scientists develop methods for the isolation, detection, and identification of fish pathogens and for prevention and control of fish diseases.

  11. Adverse effects of cannabis.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis, Cannabis sativa L., is used to produce a resin that contains high levels of cannabinoids, particularly delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are psychoactive substances. Although cannabis use is illegal in France and in many other countries, it is widely used for its relaxing or euphoric effects, especially by adolescents and young adults. What are the adverse effects of cannabis on health? During consumption? And in the long term? Does cannabis predispose users to the development of psychotic disorders? To answer these questions, we reviewed the available evidence using the standard Prescrire methodology. The long-term adverse effects of cannabis are difficult to evaluate. Since and associated substances, with or without the user's knowledge. Tobacco and alcohol consumption, and particular lifestyles and behaviours are often associated with cannabis use. Some traits predispose individuals to the use of psychoactive substances in general. The effects of cannabis are dosedependent.The most frequently report-ed adverse effects are mental slowness, impaired reaction times, and sometimes accentuation of anxiety. Serious psychological disorders have been reported with high levels of intoxication. The relationship between poor school performance and early, regular, and frequent cannabis use seems to be a vicious circle, in which each sustains the other. Many studies have focused on the long-term effects of cannabis on memory, but their results have been inconclusive. There do not * About fifteen longitudinal cohort studies that examined the influence of cannabis on depressive thoughts or suicidal ideation have yielded conflicting results and are inconclusive. Several longitudinal cohort studies have shown a statistical association between psychotic illness and self-reported cannabis use. However, the results are difficult to interpret due to methodological problems, particularly the unknown reliability of self-reported data. It has not been possible to

  12. Adverse effects of cannabis.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis, Cannabis sativa L., is used to produce a resin that contains high levels of cannabinoids, particularly delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are psychoactive substances. Although cannabis use is illegal in France and in many other countries, it is widely used for its relaxing or euphoric effects, especially by adolescents and young adults. What are the adverse effects of cannabis on health? During consumption? And in the long term? Does cannabis predispose users to the development of psychotic disorders? To answer these questions, we reviewed the available evidence using the standard Prescrire methodology. The long-term adverse effects of cannabis are difficult to evaluate. Since and associated substances, with or without the user's knowledge. Tobacco and alcohol consumption, and particular lifestyles and behaviours are often associated with cannabis use. Some traits predispose individuals to the use of psychoactive substances in general. The effects of cannabis are dosedependent.The most frequently report-ed adverse effects are mental slowness, impaired reaction times, and sometimes accentuation of anxiety. Serious psychological disorders have been reported with high levels of intoxication. The relationship between poor school performance and early, regular, and frequent cannabis use seems to be a vicious circle, in which each sustains the other. Many studies have focused on the long-term effects of cannabis on memory, but their results have been inconclusive. There do not * About fifteen longitudinal cohort studies that examined the influence of cannabis on depressive thoughts or suicidal ideation have yielded conflicting results and are inconclusive. Several longitudinal cohort studies have shown a statistical association between psychotic illness and self-reported cannabis use. However, the results are difficult to interpret due to methodological problems, particularly the unknown reliability of self-reported data. It has not been possible to

  13. Pain in aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Sneddon, Lynne U

    2015-04-01

    Recent developments in the study of pain in animals have demonstrated the potential for pain perception in a variety of wholly aquatic species such as molluscs, crustaceans and fish. This allows us to gain insight into how the ecological pressures and differential life history of living in a watery medium can yield novel data that inform the comparative physiology and evolution of pain. Nociception is the simple detection of potentially painful stimuli usually accompanied by a reflex withdrawal response, and nociceptors have been found in aquatic invertebrates such as the sea slug Aplysia. It would seem adaptive to have a warning system that allows animals to avoid life-threatening injury, yet debate does still continue over the capacity for non-mammalian species to experience the discomfort or suffering that is a key component of pain rather than a nociceptive reflex. Contemporary studies over the last 10 years have demonstrated that bony fish possess nociceptors that are similar to those in mammals; that they demonstrate pain-related changes in physiology and behaviour that are reduced by painkillers; that they exhibit higher brain activity when painfully stimulated; and that pain is more important than showing fear or anti-predator behaviour in bony fish. The neurophysiological basis of nociception or pain in fish is demonstrably similar to that in mammals. Pain perception in invertebrates is more controversial as they lack the vertebrate brain, yet recent research evidence confirms that there are behavioural changes in response to potentially painful events. This review will assess the field of pain perception in aquatic species, focusing on fish and selected invertebrate groups to interpret how research findings can inform our understanding of the physiology and evolution of pain. Further, if we accept these animals may be capable of experiencing the negative experience of pain, then the wider implications of human use of these animals should be considered.

  14. Vaccine adverse events.

    PubMed

    Follows, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Millions of adults are vaccinated annually against the seasonal influenza virus. An undetermined number of individuals will develop adverse events to the influenza vaccination. Those who suffer substantiated vaccine injuries, disabilities, and aggravated conditions may file a timely, no-fault and no-cost petition for financial compensation under the National Vaccine Act in the Vaccine Court. The elements of a successful vaccine injury claim are described in the context of a claim showing the seasonal influenza vaccination was the cause of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

  15. [Adverse events prevention ability].

    PubMed

    Aparo, Ugo Luigi; Aparo, Andrea

    2007-03-01

    The issue of how to address medical errors is the key to improve the health care system performances. Operational evidence collected in the last five years shows that the solution is only partially linked to future technological developments. Cultural and organisational changes are mandatory to help to manage and drastically reduce the adverse events in health care organisations. Classical management, merely based on coordination and control, is inadequate. Proactive, self-organising network based structures must be put in place and managed using adaptive, fast evolving management tools. PMID:17484160

  16. [Adverse events prevention ability].

    PubMed

    Aparo, Ugo Luigi; Aparo, Andrea

    2007-03-01

    The issue of how to address medical errors is the key to improve the health care system performances. Operational evidence collected in the last five years shows that the solution is only partially linked to future technological developments. Cultural and organisational changes are mandatory to help to manage and drastically reduce the adverse events in health care organisations. Classical management, merely based on coordination and control, is inadequate. Proactive, self-organising network based structures must be put in place and managed using adaptive, fast evolving management tools.

  17. Conceptual Framework for Aquatic Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, J.; Krause, S.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic interfaces are generally characterized by steep gradients of physical, chemical and biological properties due to the contrast between the two adjacent environments. Innovative measurement techniques are required to study the spatially heterogeneous and temporally variable processes. Especially the different spatial and temporal scales are a large challenge. Due to the steep biogeochemical gradients and the intensive structural and compositional heterogeneity, enhanced biogeochemical processing rates are inherent to aquatic interfaces. Nevertheless, the effective turnover depends strongly on the residence time distribution along the flow paths and in sections with particular biogeochemical milieus and reaction kinetics. Thus, identification and characterization of the highly complex flow patterns in and across aquatic interfaces are crucial to understand biogeochemical processing along exchange flow paths and to quantify transport across aquatic interfaces. Hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes are closely coupled at aquatic interfaces. However, interface processing rates are not only enhanced compared to the adjacent compartments that they connect; also completely different reactions might occur if certain thresholds are exceeded or the biogeochemical milieu differs significantly from the adjacent environments. Single events, temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity might increase overall processing rates of aquatic interfaces and thus, should not be neglected when studying aquatic interfaces. Aquatic interfaces are key zones relevant for the ecological state of the entire ecosystem and thus, understanding interface functioning and controls is paramount for ecosystem management. The overall aim of this contribution is a general conceptual framework for aquatic interfaces that is applicable to a wide range of systems, scales and processes.

  18. Screening for adverse events.

    PubMed

    Karson, A S; Bates, D W

    1999-02-01

    Adverse events (AEs) in medical patients are common, costly, and often preventable. Development of quality improvement programs to decrease the number and impact of AEs demands effective methods for screening for AEs on a routine basis. Here we describe the impact, types, and potential causes of AEs and review various techniques for identifying AEs. We evaluate the use of generic screening criteria in detail and describe a recent study of the sensitivity and specificity of individual generic screening criteria and combinations of these criteria. In general, the most sensitive screens were the least specific and no small sub-set of screens identified a large percentage of adverse events. Combinations of screens that were limited to administrative data were the least expensive, but none were particularly sensitive, although in practice they might be effective since routine screening is currently rarely done. As computer systems increase in sophistication sensitivity will improve. We also discuss recent studies that suggest that programs that screen for and identify AEs can be useful in reducing AE rates. While tools for identifying AEs have strengths and weaknesses, they can play an important role in organizations' quality improvement portfolios. PMID:10468381

  19. Adapted Aquatics Programming: A Professional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepore, Monica; Gayle, G. William; Stevens, Shawn F.

    This book is designed to help aquatic instructors in meeting the needs of individuals with disabilities in general or adapted aquatics programs. Part 1, "Foundations of Adapted Aquatics," introduces various philosophies and issues having to do with initiating adapted aquatics programs. Chapters address the benefits of aquatic activity, models for…

  20. ISMP Adverse Drug Reactions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this feature is to heighten awareness of specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discuss methods of prevention, and promote reporting of ADRs to the US Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) MedWatch program (800-FDA-1088). If you have reported an interesting, preventable ADR to MedWatch, please consider sharing the account with our readers. Write to Dr. Mancano at ISMP, 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite 200, Horsham, PA 19044 (phone: 215-707-4936; e-mail: mmancano@temple.edu). Your report will be published anonymously unless otherwise requested. This feature is provided by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) in cooperation with the FDA’s MedWatch program and Temple University School of Pharmacy. ISMP is an FDA MedWatch partner. PMID:24421544

  1. Medical Care of the Aquatics Athlete.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    Competitive swimmers are affected by several musculoskeletal and medical complaints that are unique to the sport. 'Swimmer's shoulder,' the most common overuse injury, is usually caused by some combination of impingement, rotator cuff tendinopathy, scapular dyskinesis, and instability. The condition may be treated with training modifications, stroke error correction, and strengthening exercises targeting the rotator cuff, scapular stabilizers, and core. Implementation of prevention programs to reduce the prevalence of shoulder pathology is crucial. Knee pain usually results from the breaststroke kick in swimmers, and the 'egg beater' kick in water polo players and synchronized swimmers. Lumbar back pain also is common in aquatics athletes. Among the medical conditions of particular importance in swimmers are exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, respiratory illnesses, and ear problems. Participants in other aquatics sports (water polo, diving, synchronized swimming, and open water swimming) may experience medical ailments specific to the sport. PMID:26359841

  2. Aquatic sources and sinks for nitrous oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkins, J. W.; Wofsy, S. C.; Mcelroy, M. B.; Kaplan, W. A.; Kolb, C. E.

    1978-01-01

    Data are presented which suggest the complexity of the aquatic nitrogen cycle as it affects N2O. The data are from studies made in the central and south-east tropical regions of the Pacific Ocean and in Chesapeake Bay. The data indicate that oxidation of ammonium and amino nitrogen and nitrification form the principle source for marine N2O. It is estimated that the yearly global yield for oceanic N2O is less than about 10 to the 7th power tons. The consumption of atmospheric N2O by the open ocean has not been evidenced, although data from the south-east tropical Pacific and Chesapeake Bay show the consumption of dissolved N2O in low-oxygen conditions. Preliminary observations have also indicated the consumption of atmospheric N2O by aquatic systems such as freshwater pond and a tidal saltmarsh.

  3. Colonization pattern of aquatic hyphomycetes on leaf packs in subtropical stream.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Raheem, A M

    1997-01-01

    Steralized leaf pieces of eight plants (Eucalyptus rostrata, Phoenix dactylifera, Phragmites australis, Musa nana, Salix subserrata, Cyperus alopecuroides, Ricinus communis and Eichhornia crassipes) were submerged in the Nile stream. Thirty-nine species of aquatic hyphomycetes were colonized on the plant leaves. Eucalyptus was the best substratum (30 species) for colonization by aquatic hyphomycetes. Phoenix (14 species), Phragmites (11 species), Salix (9 species), Musa (8 species), Ricinus and Cyperus (6 species) were also good substrata for aquatic hyphomycetes colonization. Echhornia (aquatic plant) was not suitable for aquatic hyphomycetes colonization. Alatospora acuminata, Triscelophorus monosporus and Tetracladium marchalianum were found to be the major colonizers on all leaf materials. Temperature and dissolved oxygen were the highest physico-chemical parameters affecting the aquatic hyphomycetes colonization. These results indicate that aquatic hyphomycetes have been shown to be successful colonizers on plants leaf in river Nile in Egypt as subtropical region.

  4. Protection Goals for Aquatic Plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Someone once said plants are the ugly stepchildren of the toxicological world. This was not out of lack of respect for plants, but rather reflected the common assumption that aquatic plants were less sensitive than aquatic fauna to chemicals. We now know this is not a valid gener...

  5. Tool use by aquatic animals

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Janet; Patterson, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Tool-use research has focused primarily on land-based animals, with less consideration given to aquatic animals and the environmental challenges and conditions they face. Here, we review aquatic tool use and examine the contributing ecological, physiological, cognitive and social factors. Tool use among aquatic animals is rare but taxonomically diverse, occurring in fish, cephalopods, mammals, crabs, urchins and possibly gastropods. While additional research is required, the scarcity of tool use can likely be attributable to the characteristics of aquatic habitats, which are generally not conducive to tool use. Nonetheless, studying tool use by aquatic animals provides insights into the conditions that promote and inhibit tool-use behaviour across biomes. Like land-based tool users, aquatic animals tend to find tools on the substrate and use tools during foraging. However, unlike on land, tool users in water often use other animals (and their products) and water itself as a tool. Among sea otters and dolphins, the two aquatic tool users studied in greatest detail, some individuals specialize in tool use, which is vertically socially transmitted possibly because of their long dependency periods. In all, the contrasts between aquatic- and land-based tool users enlighten our understanding of the adaptive value of tool-use behaviour. PMID:24101631

  6. The direct and interactive effects of physical abuse severity and negative affectivity on length of psychiatric hospitalization: evidence of differential reactivity to adverse environments in psychiatrically high-risk youth.

    PubMed

    Comas, Michelle; Valentino, Kristin; Bridgett, David J; Hayden, Lisa C

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the interactive influence of multiple factors (i.e., physical abuse severity and negative affectivity) in predicting youth's inpatient psychiatric length of stay (LOS), extending previous research focused on identification of only single LOS predictors. Elevated physical abuse severity was hypothesized to predict longer youth LOS, and negative affectivity was anticipated to exacerbate this relationship. This study included 42 youth. Clinicians rated youth temperament, whereas physical abuse severity and LOS were coded from youth medical records. Controlling for other previously determined predictors of LOS (i.e., age, gender, and GAF), moderation analyses confirmed hypotheses, revealing a temperament by environment interaction. Specifically, physical abuse severity was positively associated with LOS only in the context of high negative affectivity. Findings highlighted the importance of disentangling the interactive effects of multiple factors in predicting LOS. Moreover, critical clinical implications involving prioritized trauma assessment and treatment for inpatient youth are discussed.

  7. Insar of Aquatic Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarikhi, P.

    2012-07-01

    Radar remote sensing is a new earth observation technology with promising results and future. InSAR is a sophisticated radar remote sensing technique for combining synthetic aperture radar (SAR) single look complex images to form interferogram and utilizing its phase contribution to land topography, surface movement and target velocity. In recent years considerable applications of Interferometric SAR technique have been developed. It is an established technique for precise assessment of land surface movements, and generating high quality digital elevation models (DEM) from space-borne and airborne data. InSAR is able to produce DEMs with the precision of a couple of ten meters whereas its movement map results have sub-centimeter precision. The technique has many applications in the context of earth sciences such as topographic mapping, environmental modelling, rainfall-runoff studies, landslide hazard zonation, and seismic source modelling. Nevertheless new developments are taking place in the application of InSAR for aquatic bodies. We have observed that using SAR Interferometry technique for aquatic bodies with the maximum temporal baseline of 16 seconds for image pairs shows considerable results enabling us to determine the direction of sea surface motion in a large area, estimate the sea surface fluctuations in the direction of sensor line-of-the-sight, detect wave pattern and the sea surface disturbance and whether the water motion is bulk and smooth or otherwise. This paper presents our experience and achievements on this new topic through discussing the facts and conditions for the use of InSAR technique. The method has been examined for Haiti, Dominican Republic, Western Chile and Western Turkey coast areas and inland lakes however ground truth data is needed for final verification. This technique scheduled to be applied in some other sites for which the proper data is available.

  8. Rubber tire leachates in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Evans, J J

    1997-01-01

    Tires have a deleterious effect on the environment. This review discusses the background of scrap tires discarded in the environment, including tire composition, adverse environmental effects, threats to public health and safety, and solid waste management. Despite the widespread use of scrap tires in environmental applications, both land-based and aquatic, data on the indicators of environmental degradation are extremely scarce. Indicators of environmental degradation include analysis of chemicals within the water and sediment, analysis of contaminants within organisms, and analysis of the biological effects of these compounds on plants, animals, microbes, and organelles. Although these indicators are most useful when used in parallel, a review of the available information on chemical characterization of tire leachate from tire storage facilities, manufacturing, usage in recycling applications, and toxicity exposure studies, of vegetation surveys from waste tire areas and reviews of mammalian tire product toxicity, and of toxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity of tire exposure in experimental aquatic animals, microbes, and organelles is presented. The major characteristics of these studies are discussed in specific sections. The "Discussion and Conclusions" section discusses and summarizes the biological effects and chemical characterization of tire leachates. A global environmental perspective is included to improve our understanding of the deficiency of the current knowledge of tire leachate toxicity from various sources and to encourage interdisciplinary studies to establish the pattern of pollution associated with waste tire management.

  9. ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS IN THE ORAL CAVITY.

    PubMed

    Boras, Vanja Vučićević; Andabak-Rogulj, Ana; Brailo, Vlaho; Šimunković, Sonja Kraljević; Gabrić, Dragana; Vrdoljak, Danko Velimir

    2015-06-01

    Every medication may lead to adverse effects, even when used in standard doses and mode of application. In the oral cavity, adverse effects may affect every part of oral mucosa and are the result of medications taken either locally or systemically. Oral adverse reactions to drugs are not typical and therefore sometimes not easy to recognize. On diagnosing adverse side effects in the oral cavity, experienced clinician will usually diagnose the condition on the basis of detailed medical history and clinical finding. However, the only objective evidence for the offending drug is 're-challenge', i.e. exposure to the drug after its discontinuation. It carries a huge risk of anaphylactic reaction; therefore it has to be performed in a controlled hospital setting. Therapy is based on immediate exclusion of the offending drug and, if lesions are present in the oral cavity, topical or systemic corticosteroid therapy is prescribed. This article gives a review of patients with oral adverse drug reactions referred to the Department of Oral Medicine in Zagreb.

  10. Adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Reiser, Sarah J; McMillan, Katherine A; Wright, Kristi D; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2014-03-01

    Childhood experiences are thought to predispose a person to the development of health anxiety later in life. However, there is a lack of research investigating the influence of specific adverse experiences (e.g., childhood abuse, household dysfunction) on this condition. The current study examined the cumulative influence of multiple types of childhood adversities on health anxiety in adulthood. Adults 18-59 years of age (N=264) completed a battery of measures to assess adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs (i.e., negative affect and trait anxiety). Significant associations were observed between adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicted that adverse childhood experiences were predictive of health anxiety in adulthood; however, the unique contribution of these experience were no longer significant following the inclusion of the other variables of interest. Subsequently, mediation analyses indicated that both negative affect and trait anxiety independently mediated the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood. Increased exposure to adverse childhood experiences is associated with higher levels of health anxiety in adulthood; this relationship is mediated through negative affect and trait anxiety. Findings support the long-term negative impact of cumulative adverse childhood experiences and emphasize the importance of addressing negative affect and trait anxiety in efforts to prevent and treat health anxiety. PMID:24011493

  11. The B-3 ethylene response factor MtERF1-1 mediates resistance to a subset of root pathogens in Medicago truncatula without adversely affecting symbiosis with rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jonathan P; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Gleason, Cynthia; Oliver, Richard P; Singh, Karam B

    2010-10-01

    The fungal necrotrophic pathogen Rhizoctonia solani is a significant constraint to a range of crops as diverse as cereals, canola, and legumes. Despite wide-ranging germplasm screens in many of these crops, no strong genetic resistance has been identified, suggesting that alternative strategies to improve resistance are required. In this study, we characterize moderate resistance to R. solani anastomosis group 8 identified in Medicago truncatula. The activity of the ethylene- and jasmonate-responsive GCC box promoter element was associated with moderate resistance, as was the induction of the B-3 subgroup of ethylene response transcription factors (ERFs). Genes of the B-1 subgroup showed no significant response to R. solani infection. Overexpression of a B-3 ERF, MtERF1-1, in Medicago roots increased resistance to R. solani as well as an oomycete root pathogen, Phytophthora medicaginis, but not root knot nematode. These results indicate that targeting specific regulators of ethylene defense may enhance resistance to an important subset of root pathogens. We also demonstrate that overexpression of MtERF1-1 enhances disease resistance without apparent impact on nodulation in the A17 background, while overexpression in sickle reduced the hypernodulation phenotype. This suggests that under normal regulation of nodulation, enhanced resistance to root diseases can be uncoupled from symbiotic plant-microbe interactions in the same tissue and that ethylene/ERF regulation of nodule number is distinct from the defenses regulated by B-3 ERFs. Furthermore, unlike the stunted phenotype previously described for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ubiquitously overexpressing B-3 ERFs, overexpression of MtERF1-1 in M. truncatula roots did not show adverse effects on plant development.

  12. Environmental enrichment for aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Mike

    2015-05-01

    Aquatic animals are the most popular pets in the United States based on the number of owned pets. They are popular display animals and are increasingly used in research settings. Enrichment of captive animals is an important element of zoo and laboratory medicine. The importance of enrichment for aquatic animals has been slower in implementation. For a long time, there was debate over whether or not fish were able to experience pain or form long-term memories. As that debate has reduced and the consciousness of more aquatic animals is accepted, the need to discuss enrichment for these animals has increased.

  13. Aquatic toxicology: fact or fiction?

    PubMed Central

    Macek, K J

    1980-01-01

    A brief history of the development of the field of aquatic toxicology is provided. In order to provide a perspective on the state-of-the-art in aquatic toxicology relative to classical toxicology, the two fields are compared from the standpoint of the type of scientist practicing each field, the respective objectives of each, the forces which drive the activity in each field, and the major advantages and disadvantages accruing to the practitioner of aquatic toxicology as a result of the differences in objectives and driving forces. PMID:6993200

  14. Aquatic Invertebrate Development Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, D.

    1985-01-01

    Little definitive evidence exists to show that gravity plays a major role in embyrogenesis of aquatic invertebrates. Two reasons for this may be: (1) few studies have been done that emphasize the role of gravity; and (2) there simply may not be any gravity effect. The buoyant nature of the aquatic environment could have obscured any evolutionary effect of gravity. The small size of most eggs and their apparent lack of orientation suggests reduced gravitational influence. Therefore, it is recommended that the term development, as applied to aquatic invertebrates, be loosely defined to encompass behavioral and morphological parameters for which baseline data already exist.

  15. Solar aquatic treatment of septage

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, R.

    1990-05-01

    This article describes a pilot project for solar aquatic treatment of septage. The system is housed in a 42 ft by 128 ft greenhouse and consists of four parallel trains of aerated transparent tanks and constructed marshes. Each treatment tank is seeded with a mixture of bacteria, snails, algae and aquatic and woody plants that remove nitrates and pollutants such as heavy metals. Critics of solar aquatic systems point out that the heavy metals and other pollutants then become a solid waste disposal problem. Among the solutions offered are the use of hyperaccumulators of metals that produce ore-grade concentrations that can be efficiently recycled.

  16. E-waste disposal effects on the aquatic environment: Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingyu; Nkrumah, Philip Nti; Anim, Desmond Ofosu; Mensah, Ebenezer

    2014-01-01

    , the need for actions to be taken to reduce entry of e-waste pollutants into Ghana's aquatic environment is real and is immediate.Heavy metals (e.g., lead, cadmium, copper and zinc) and organic pollutants (e.g.,PCDD/Fs and PBDEs) have been detected in the sediments of local water bodies in quantities that greatly exceed background levels. This fact alone suggests that aquatic organisms that live in the affected water bodies are highly exposed to these toxic, bio-accumulative, and persistent contaminants. These contaminants have been confirmed to result from the primitive methods used to recycle and process e-waste within the local environment.Only limited local data exist on the threats posed by these e-waste-related contaminants on nearby natural resources, especially aquatic organisms. In this review,we have addressed the potential toxicity of selected heavy metals and organic pollutants on aquatic organisms. Since there are no data on concentrations of contaminants in the water column, we have based our predictions of effects on pollutant release rates from sediments. Pollutants that are attached to sediments are routinely released into the water column from diffusion and advection, the rate of which depends on pH and Eh of the sediments. E-waste contaminants have the potential to produce deleterious effects on the behavior, physiology, metabolism, reproduction,development and growth of many aquatic organisms. Because it is confirmed that both heavy metal and organic contaminants are reaching the biota of Ghana's local waterways, we presume that they are producing adverse effects. Because local data on the aquatic toxicity of these contaminants are as yet unavailable, we strongly recommend that future research be undertaken to examine, on a large scale and long-term basis, both contamination levels in biota, and adverse effects on biota of the nearby water bodies. PMID:24515808

  17. The adverse health effects of chronic cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Hall, Wayne; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the most probable of the adverse health effects of regular cannabis use sustained over years, as indicated by epidemiological studies that have established an association between cannabis use and adverse outcomes; ruled out reverse causation; and controlled for plausible alternative explanations. We have also focused on adverse outcomes for which there is good evidence of biological plausibility. The focus is on those adverse health effects of greatest potential public health significance--those that are most likely to occur and to affect a substantial proportion of regular cannabis users. These most probable adverse effects of regular use include a dependence syndrome, impaired respiratory function, cardiovascular disease, adverse effects on adolescent psychosocial development and mental health, and residual cognitive impairment.

  18. Children's Aquatics: Managing the Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langendorfer, Stephen; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This article identifies the major risks faced by young children in aquatic programs, outlines several methods for managing risk factors, and discusses the steps involved in implementing a risk-management system. (IAH)

  19. Aquatic Plants Aid Sewage Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1985-01-01

    Method of wastewater treatment combines micro-organisms and aquatic plant roots in filter bed. Treatment occurs as liquid flows up through system. Micro-organisms, attached themselves to rocky base material of filter, act in several steps to decompose organic matter in wastewater. Vascular aquatic plants (typically, reeds, rushes, cattails, or water hyacinths) absorb nitrogen, phosphorus, other nutrients, and heavy metals from water through finely divided roots.

  20. Public Lakes, Private Lakeshore: Modeling Protection of Native Aquatic Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.

    2013-07-01

    Protection of native aquatic plants is an important proenvironmental behavior, because plant loss coupled with nutrient loading can produce changes in lake ecosystems. Removal of aquatic plants by lakeshore property owners is a diffuse behavior that may lead to cumulative impacts on lake ecosystems. This class of behavior is challenging to manage because collective impacts are not obvious to the actors. This paper distinguishes positive and negative beliefs about aquatic plants, in models derived from norm activation theory (Schwartz, Adv Exp Soc Psychol 10:221-279, 1977) and the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research, Addison-Wesley, Boston 1975), to examine protection of native aquatic plants by Minnesota lakeshore property owners. We clarify how positive and negative evaluations of native aquatic plants affect protection or removal of these plants. Results are based on a mail survey ( n = 3,115). Results suggest that positive evaluations of aquatic plants (i.e., as valuable to lake ecology) may not connect with the global attitudes and behavioral intentions that direct plant protection or removal. Lakeshore property owners' behavior related to aquatic plants may be driven more by tangible personal benefits derived from accessible, carefully managed lakeshore than intentional action taken to sustain lake ecosystems. The limited connection of positive evaluations of aquatic plants to global attitudes and behavioral intentions may reflect either lack of knowledge of what actions are needed to protect lake health and/or unwillingness to lose perceived benefits derived from lakeshore property.

  1. Public lakes, private lakeshore: modeling protection of native aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Susan A; Fulton, David C

    2013-07-01

    Protection of native aquatic plants is an important proenvironmental behavior, because plant loss coupled with nutrient loading can produce changes in lake ecosystems. Removal of aquatic plants by lakeshore property owners is a diffuse behavior that may lead to cumulative impacts on lake ecosystems. This class of behavior is challenging to manage because collective impacts are not obvious to the actors. This paper distinguishes positive and negative beliefs about aquatic plants, in models derived from norm activation theory (Schwartz, Adv Exp Soc Psychol 10:221-279, 1977) and the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research, Addison-Wesley, Boston 1975), to examine protection of native aquatic plants by Minnesota lakeshore property owners. We clarify how positive and negative evaluations of native aquatic plants affect protection or removal of these plants. Results are based on a mail survey (n = 3,115). Results suggest that positive evaluations of aquatic plants (i.e., as valuable to lake ecology) may not connect with the global attitudes and behavioral intentions that direct plant protection or removal. Lakeshore property owners' behavior related to aquatic plants may be driven more by tangible personal benefits derived from accessible, carefully managed lakeshore than intentional action taken to sustain lake ecosystems. The limited connection of positive evaluations of aquatic plants to global attitudes and behavioral intentions may reflect either lack of knowledge of what actions are needed to protect lake health and/or unwillingness to lose perceived benefits derived from lakeshore property. PMID:23609308

  2. Science: Aquatic Toxicology Matures, Gains Importance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagani, Ron

    1980-01-01

    Reviews recent advances in aquatic toxicology, whose major goal is to protect diverse aquatic organisms and whole ecological communities from the dire effects of man-made chemicals. Current legislation is reviewed. Differences in mammalian and aquatic toxicology are listed, and examples of research in aquatic toxicology are discussed. (CS)

  3. Montsechia, an ancient aquatic angiosperm.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Bernard; Daviero-Gomez, Véronique; Coiffard, Clément; Martín-Closas, Carles; Dilcher, David L

    2015-09-01

    The early diversification of angiosperms in diverse ecological niches is poorly understood. Some have proposed an origin in a darkened forest habitat and others an open aquatic or near aquatic habitat. The research presented here centers on Montsechia vidalii, first recovered from lithographic limestone deposits in the Pyrenees of Spain more than 100 y ago. This fossil material has been poorly understood and misinterpreted in the past. Now, based upon the study of more than 1,000 carefully prepared specimens, a detailed analysis of Montsechia is presented. The morphology and anatomy of the plant, including aspects of its reproduction, suggest that Montsechia is sister to Ceratophyllum (whenever cladistic analyses are made with or without a backbone). Montsechia was an aquatic angiosperm living and reproducing below the surface of the water, similar to Ceratophyllum. Montsechia is Barremian in age, raising questions about the very early divergence of the Ceratophyllum clade compared with its position as sister to eudicots in many cladistic analyses. Lower Cretaceous aquatic angiosperms, such as Archaefructus and Montsechia, open the possibility that aquatic plants were locally common at a very early stage of angiosperm evolution and that aquatic habitats may have played a major role in the diversification of some early angiosperm lineages. PMID:26283347

  4. Montsechia, an ancient aquatic angiosperm

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Bernard; Daviero-Gomez, Véronique; Coiffard, Clément; Martín-Closas, Carles; Dilcher, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The early diversification of angiosperms in diverse ecological niches is poorly understood. Some have proposed an origin in a darkened forest habitat and others an open aquatic or near aquatic habitat. The research presented here centers on Montsechia vidalii, first recovered from lithographic limestone deposits in the Pyrenees of Spain more than 100 y ago. This fossil material has been poorly understood and misinterpreted in the past. Now, based upon the study of more than 1,000 carefully prepared specimens, a detailed analysis of Montsechia is presented. The morphology and anatomy of the plant, including aspects of its reproduction, suggest that Montsechia is sister to Ceratophyllum (whenever cladistic analyses are made with or without a backbone). Montsechia was an aquatic angiosperm living and reproducing below the surface of the water, similar to Ceratophyllum. Montsechia is Barremian in age, raising questions about the very early divergence of the Ceratophyllum clade compared with its position as sister to eudicots in many cladistic analyses. Lower Cretaceous aquatic angiosperms, such as Archaefructus and Montsechia, open the possibility that aquatic plants were locally common at a very early stage of angiosperm evolution and that aquatic habitats may have played a major role in the diversification of some early angiosperm lineages. PMID:26283347

  5. Adverse Reactions to Hallucinogenic Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Roger E. , Ed.

    This reports a conference of psychologists, psychiatrists, geneticists and others concerned with the biological and psychological effects of lysergic acid diethylamide and other hallucinogenic drugs. Clinical data are presented on adverse drug reactions. The difficulty of determining the causes of adverse reactions is discussed, as are different…

  6. The Use of Fish Oil with Warfarin Does Not Significantly Affect either the International Normalised Ratio or Incidence of Adverse Events in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and Deep Vein Thrombosis: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Pryce, Rebecca; Bernaitis, Nijole; Davey, Andrew K.; Badrick, Tony; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Warfarin is a leading anticoagulant in the management of atrial fibrillation (AF) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Drug interactions influence the safety of warfarin use and while extensive literature exists regarding the effect on warfarin control and bleeding incidence with many medicines, there is little evidence on the influence of complementary medicines. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of fish and krill oil supplementation on warfarin control and bleeding incidence in AF and DVT patients. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted utilising patient information from a large private pathology clinic. AF and DVT patients receiving long-term warfarin therapy (>30 days) at the clinic and taking fish and krill oil supplements were eligible for study inclusion. Results: Of the 2081 patients assessed, a total of 573 warfarin users met the inclusion criteria with 145 patients in the fish and krill oil group (supplement group) and 428 patients in the control group. Overall, it was found that fish and krill oils did not significantly alter warfarin time in therapeutic range (TTR) or bleeding incidence, even when compared by gender. Conclusion: Omega-3 supplementation with fish and krill oil does not significantly affect long-term warfarin control and bleeding and thromboembolic events when consumed concurrently in patients managed at an anticoagulation clinic. PMID:27657121

  7. Linezolid Induced Adverse Drug Reactions - An Update.

    PubMed

    Kishor, Kamal; Dhasmana, Neha; Kamble, Shashank Shivaji; Sahu, Roshan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Treatment regimen recommended for resistant tuberculosis consists of various drugs and these drugs are prescribed for at least 12-15 months. Such a long duration therapy and high dose of antibiotics result in adverse drug reactions (ADRs). ADRs may lead to various complications in disease management like replacement of drugs, dose increment, therapy withdrawal, etc. Linezolid is one of those drugs, practiced as an anti-mycobacterial agent and it is an important member of drug regimen for MDR and XDR tuberculosis. Linezolid is a broad spectrum antibiotic known for its unique mechanism of inhibition of resistant pathogenic strains. However, it causes serious adverse effects like thrombocytopenia, optic neuropathy, peripheral neuropathy, lactic acidosis, etc. Literature suggests that Linezolid can cause severe ADRs which affect patient compliance and hinder in therapy to a larger extent. Recent studies confirm the possibility of ADRs to be predicted with genetic make-up of individuals. To effectively deliver the available treatment regimen and ensure patient compliance, it is important to manage ADRs more efficiently. The role of pharmacogenomics in reducing adverse drug effects has been recently explored. In the present review, we discussed about Linezolid induced adverse drug reactions, mechanisms and genetic associations. PMID:26424176

  8. Adverse Stress, Hippocampal Networks, and Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Sarah M.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2009-01-01

    Recent clinical data have implicated chronic adverse stress as a potential risk factor in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and data also suggest that normal, physiological stress responses may be impaired in AD. It is possible that pathology associated with AD causes aberrant responses to chronic stress, due to potential alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Recent work in rodent models of AD suggests that chronic adverse stress exacerbates the cognitive deficits and hippocampal pathology that are present in the AD brain. This review summarizes recent findings obtained in experimental AD models regarding the influence of chronic adverse stress on the underlying cellular and molecular disease processes including the potential role of glucocorticoids. Emerging findings suggest that both AD and chronic adverse stress affect hippocampal neural networks in a similar fashion. We describe alterations in hippocampal plasticity that occur in both chronic stress and AD including dendritic remodeling, neurogenesis and long-term potentiation. Finally, we outline potential roles for oxidative stress and neurotrophic factor signaling as key determinants of the impact of chronic stress on the plasticity of neural networks and AD pathogenesis. PMID:19943124

  9. Watershed geomorphology modifies the temperature sensitivity of aquatic ecosystem metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankowski, K. J.; Schindler, D.

    2015-12-01

    How carbon cycles are regulated by temperature remains a substantial uncertainty in our understanding of how watersheds will respond to ongoing climate change. Aquatic ecosystems are significant components of carbon flux to the atmosphere and ocean, yet we have limited understanding of how changing thermal regimes will alter rates of ecosystem metabolic processes, and, therefore, aquatic contributions to carbon cycles at watershed to global scales. Watershed geomorphology controls the landscape-scale distribution of organic material that can form the metabolic base of aquatic ecosystems, which will likely affect the temperature sensitivity of aquatic ecosystem metabolism. Across 23 streams in a boreal river basin, we estimated how temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration (ER), an important component of the aquatic C cycle, varied among streams with different watershed characteristics. We found that geomorphic conditions imposed strong ultimate controls on temperature sensitivity: ER in streams draining flat watersheds was much more sensitive to temperature than streams draining steeper watersheds. Further, we show that the link between watershed geomorphology and temperature sensitivity was related to changes in the quality of carbon substrates across the gradient in watershed slope. These results suggest that geomorphic conditions will ultimately control how carbon processing responds to warming climate, thereby affecting carbon transport and storage, and likely food web responses, in river networks.

  10. Environmental fate and aquatic toxicology studies on phthalate esters.

    PubMed Central

    Group, E F

    1986-01-01

    A comprehensive environmental fate and effects testing program, sponsored by the Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA) Phthalate Esters Program Panel, has been completed. Based on the results, a preliminary safety assessment has shown that all of the 14 commercially important phthalates tested have sufficiently high safety factors to demonstrate low potential for adverse environmental effects. This program comprised acute toxicity studies on nine representative species of aquatic life, chronic reproduction studies on Daphnia magna, biodegradation (fate) testing, and physicochemical property (mobility) determinations on 14 phthalate esters. The objectives of this program were to determine for each test compound: The concentration at which effects on aquatic life might occur, the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic life, and the relative persistence in the environment. These data would provide the basis for an environmental safety assessment and would identify potential effects that might require further investigation. A total of 195 individual studies were carried out. Tests on a wide variety of aquatic organisms representing different food chain levels in both fresh and salt water environments showed that no single test species was unusually sensitive to the test materials. The higher molecular weight (longer side-chain) phthalates exhibited no toxic effects up to their limits of water solubility in the test systems. Even though the lower molecular weight, more water-soluble phthalates produced toxic effects below their limits of water solubility, no product exhibited unusually severe effects of concern.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3709460

  11. Environmental fate and aquatic toxicology studies on phthalate esters

    SciTech Connect

    Group, E.F. Jr.

    1986-03-01

    A comprehensive environmental fate and effects testing program, sponsored by the Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA) Phthalate Esters Program Panel, has been completed. Based on the results, a preliminary safety assessment has shown that all of the 14 commercially important phthalates tested have sufficiently high safety factors to demonstrate low potential for adverse environmental effects. This program comprised acute toxicity studies on nine representative species of aquatic life, chronic reproduction studies on Daphnia magna, biodegradation (fate) testing, and physicochemical property (mobility) determinations on 14 phthalate esters. The objectives of this program were to determine for each test compound: The concentration at which effects on aquatic life might occur, the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic life, and the relative persistence in the environment. These data would provide the basis for an environmental safety assessment and would identify potential effects that might require further investigation. A total of 195 individual studies were carried out. Tests on a wide variety of aquatic organisms representing different food chain levels in both fresh and salt water environments showed that no single test species was unusually sensitive to the test materials. The higher molecular weight (longer side-chain) phthalates exhibited no toxic effects up to their limits of water solubility in the test systems. Even though the lower molecular weight, more water-soluble phthalates produced toxic effects below their limits of water solubility, no product exhibited unusually severe effects of concern.

  12. Large-Scale Environmental Influences on Aquatic Animal Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the latter portion of the 20th century, North America experienced numerous large-scale mortality events affecting a broad diversity of aquatic animals. Short-term forensic investigations of these events have sometimes characterized a causative agent or condition, but have rare...

  13. Stoneflies and Campers: Teaching Campers about Aquatic Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelstein, Karen

    1994-01-01

    Summer camps can implement a biomonitoring program that determines water quality through study of aquatic insects. Such a program requires a minimum of equipment and allows campers to explore the natural world and absorb information that will affect their views of science and the environment. (LP)

  14. Adverse effects of general anaesthetics.

    PubMed

    Berthoud, M C; Reilly, C S

    1992-01-01

    This review deals with the adverse reactions associated with general anaesthetic agents in current use. These reactions fall into 2 categories; those which are more common, predictable and often closely related, and those which are rare, unpredictable and carry a high mortality. Both inhalational and intravenous anaesthetic agents affect the central nervous and cardio-respiratory systems in a dose-related manner. Neuronal inhibition results in decreasing levels of consciousness and depression of the medullary vital centres which can lead to cardiorespiratory failure. Both groups of agents have some depressant effect on the myocardium and vascular smooth muscle leading to a fall in cardiac output and hypotension. Centrally-mediated respiratory depression is common to both groups and the inhalational agents have a direct effect on lung physiology. The most important idiosyncratic reactions to the volatile agents are malignant hyperpyrexia and 'halothane hepatitis'. Malignant hyperpyrexia has an incidence of 1:12,000 with a mortality of about 24%. It is triggered most often by halothane together with suxamethonium. Post halothane hepatic necrosis is rare. Evidence points to 2 distinct syndromes; direct toxicity from the products of reductive metabolism, and a more serious illness, immunologically mediated via haptens formed by liver proteins and the products of oxidative metabolism. Prolonged nitrous oxide exposure can cause bone marrow depression and life-threatening pressure effects by expansion of air-filled spaces within the body. The idiosyncratic reactions to the intravenous agents include anaphylactoid reactions (which are rare) and triggering of acute porphyria. Etomidate is immunologically 'clean', but it inhibits cortisol synthesis. PMID:1418699

  15. Aquatic invasive species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorsteinson, Lyman

    2005-01-01

    Invasive species are plants or animals that are present in an ecosystem beyond their native range. They may have few natural controls in their new environment and proliferate. They can threaten native species and interfere with human activities. The Western Fisheries Research Center (WFRC) has been conducting research to understand how non-native species invade and affect ecosystems, thus aiding management efforts.

  16. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Frank, M.L.

    1986-02-01

    Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products.

  17. Aquatic plants for removal of mevinphos from the aquatic environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1975-01-01

    Fragrant waterlily (Nymphaea odorata, Ait.), joint-grass (Paspalum distichum L.), and rush (Juncus repens, Michx.) were used to evaluate the effectiveness of vascular aquatic plants in removing the insecticide mevinphos (dimethyl-1-carbomethoxy-1propen-2-yl phosphate) from waters contaminated with this chemical. The emersed aquatic plants fragrant waterlily and joint-grass removed 87 and 93 ppm of mevinphos from water test systems in less than 2 weeks without apparent damage to the plants; whereas rush, a submersed plant, removed less insecticide than the water-soil controls. Water-soil control still contained toxic levels of this insecticide, as demonstrated by fish bioassay studies, after 35 days.

  18. The occurrence and ecological risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in urban aquatic environments of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lulu; Liu, Jingling; Liu, Huayong; Wan, Guisheng; Zhang, Shaowei

    2015-07-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are widely used in the manufacturing of plastics, and the demand for PAEs has grown rapidly, especially in China. This trend will lead to much more environmental PAE contamination. PAEs are listed as priority substances in the European Union and are therefore subject to ecological risk assessments. This paper reviews the literature concerning the pollution status of PAEs and their ecological risk to aquatic environments. Risk quotients (RQs) based on the predicted no effect concentration and PAE concentrations in aquatic environments demonstrated significant (10 ≤ RQ < 100) or expected (RQ ≥ 100) potential adverse effects for algae, Daphnia, and fish in aquatic environments near PAE-based industrial and urban areas. Thus, the ecological risk of PAEs in Chinese aquatic environments should be considered, especially in areas where commercial plastics are produced. PMID:25847103

  19. An aquatic ecosystem in space.

    PubMed

    Voeste, D; Andriske, M; Paris, F; Levine, H G; Blum, V

    1999-07-01

    The Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (CEBAS) Mini-Module experiment was designed to study aquatic ecosystem performance within a middeck locker on the Space Shuttle. CEBAS was flown aboard STS-89 in January 1998 with a population of four pregnant Xiphophorus helleri female fish and eleven adult Biomphalaria glabrata snails in the first compartment and 200 juvenile X. helleri and 48 adult and juvenile B. glabrata in the second compartment. A plant compartment contained eleven snails and 53 g of the aquatic angiosperm Ceratophyllum demersum. During the flight, Ceratophyllum fresh weight increased from 53 g to 117 g. All adult fish and 65 juveniles survived the flight experiment and 37 adult snails and 40 newly laid snail spawn packs were recovered after the flight. Oxygen production and pH were as expected.

  20. Review on environmental alterations propagating from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco; Gergs, René; Brühl, Carsten A; Diehl, Dörte; Entling, Martin H; Fahse, Lorenz; Frör, Oliver; Jungkunst, Hermann F; Lorke, Andreas; Schäfer, Ralf B; Schaumann, Gabriele E; Schwenk, Klaus

    2015-12-15

    Terrestrial inputs into freshwater ecosystems are a classical field of environmental science. Resource fluxes (subsidy) from aquatic to terrestrial systems have been less studied, although they are of high ecological relevance particularly for the receiving ecosystem. These fluxes may, however, be impacted by anthropogenically driven alterations modifying structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. In this context, we reviewed the peer-reviewed literature for studies addressing the subsidy of terrestrial by aquatic ecosystems with special emphasis on the role that anthropogenic alterations play in this water-land coupling. Our analysis revealed a continuously increasing interest in the coupling of aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems between 1990 and 2014 (total: 661 studies), while the research domains focusing on abiotic (502 studies) and biotic (159 studies) processes are strongly separated. Approximately 35% (abiotic) and 25% (biotic) of the studies focused on the propagation of anthropogenic alterations from the aquatic to the terrestrial system. Among these studies, hydromorphological and hydrological alterations were predominantly assessed, whereas water pollution and invasive species were less frequently investigated. Less than 5% of these studies considered indirect effects in the terrestrial system e.g. via food web responses, as a result of anthropogenic alterations in aquatic ecosystems. Nonetheless, these very few publications indicate far-reaching consequences in the receiving terrestrial ecosystem. For example, bottom-up mediated responses via soil quality can cascade over plant communities up to the level of herbivorous arthropods, while top-down mediated responses via predatory spiders can cascade down to herbivorous arthropods and even plants. Overall, the current state of knowledge calls for an integrated assessment on how these interactions within terrestrial ecosystems are affected by propagation of aquatic ecosystem alterations. To fill

  1. Review on environmental alterations propagating from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco; Gergs, René; Brühl, Carsten A; Diehl, Dörte; Entling, Martin H; Fahse, Lorenz; Frör, Oliver; Jungkunst, Hermann F; Lorke, Andreas; Schäfer, Ralf B; Schaumann, Gabriele E; Schwenk, Klaus

    2015-12-15

    Terrestrial inputs into freshwater ecosystems are a classical field of environmental science. Resource fluxes (subsidy) from aquatic to terrestrial systems have been less studied, although they are of high ecological relevance particularly for the receiving ecosystem. These fluxes may, however, be impacted by anthropogenically driven alterations modifying structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. In this context, we reviewed the peer-reviewed literature for studies addressing the subsidy of terrestrial by aquatic ecosystems with special emphasis on the role that anthropogenic alterations play in this water-land coupling. Our analysis revealed a continuously increasing interest in the coupling of aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems between 1990 and 2014 (total: 661 studies), while the research domains focusing on abiotic (502 studies) and biotic (159 studies) processes are strongly separated. Approximately 35% (abiotic) and 25% (biotic) of the studies focused on the propagation of anthropogenic alterations from the aquatic to the terrestrial system. Among these studies, hydromorphological and hydrological alterations were predominantly assessed, whereas water pollution and invasive species were less frequently investigated. Less than 5% of these studies considered indirect effects in the terrestrial system e.g. via food web responses, as a result of anthropogenic alterations in aquatic ecosystems. Nonetheless, these very few publications indicate far-reaching consequences in the receiving terrestrial ecosystem. For example, bottom-up mediated responses via soil quality can cascade over plant communities up to the level of herbivorous arthropods, while top-down mediated responses via predatory spiders can cascade down to herbivorous arthropods and even plants. Overall, the current state of knowledge calls for an integrated assessment on how these interactions within terrestrial ecosystems are affected by propagation of aquatic ecosystem alterations. To fill

  2. Reverse Engineering Adverse Outcome Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, Edward; Chipman, J.K.; Edwards, Stephen; Habib, Tanwir; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Ronald C.; Van Aggelen, Graham; Vulpe, Chris; Antczak, Philipp; Loguinov, Alexandre

    2011-01-30

    The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or poorly characterized, mechanisms of action. We describe the application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, metabolic, signaling) to characterize adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis in fathead minnows. Gene expression changes in fathead minnow ovaries in response to 7 different chemicals, over different times, doses, and in vivo versus in vitro conditions were captured in a large data set of 868 arrays. We examined potential AOPs of the antiandrogen flutamide using two mutual information theory methods, ARACNE and CLR to infer gene regulatory networks and potential adverse outcome pathways. Representative networks from these studies were used to predict a network path from stressor to adverse outcome as a candidate AOP. The relationship of individual chemicals to an adverse outcome can be determined by following perturbations through the network in response to chemical treatment leading to the nodes associated with the adverse outcome. Identification of candidate pathways allows for formation of testable hypotheses about key biologic processes, biomarkers or alternative endpoints, which could be used to monitor an adverse outcome pathway. Finally, we identify the unique challenges facing the application of this approach in ecotoxicology, and attempt to provide a road map for the utilization of these tools. Key Words: mechanism of action, toxicology, microarray, network inference

  3. Adverse effects of anabolic steroids.

    PubMed

    Hickson, R C; Ball, K L; Falduto, M T

    1989-01-01

    Anabolic steroids are used therapeutically for various disorders and as ergogenic aids by athletes to augment strength, muscular development, and to enhance performance. There is a wide range of concomitant temporary and permanent adverse effects with steroid administration. Several well-documented adverse actions of these hormones may develop rapidly within several weeks or less (i.e. altered reproductive function) or require up to several years of steroid intake (i.e. liver carcinoma). More recent studies indicate that glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, increased cardiovascular disease risk profiles, cerebral dangers, musculoskeletal injuries, prostate cancer, psychosis and schizophrenic episodes, among others, accompany anabolic steroid intake. There is, at present, no evidence to support the claim that athletes are less susceptible to adverse effects than those individuals receiving hormone treatment in a clinical setting. Based on the available information which has accumulated primarily from cross-sectional, short term longitudinal, and case studies, there is a need: (a) to develop a comprehensive battery of specific and sensitive markers of adverse effects, particularly those that would be able to detect the onset of adverse actions; and (b) to conduct controlled long term longitudinal studies in order to fully understand the extensiveness and mechanisms involved in the occurrence of adverse effects.

  4. Interactive effects of infectious diseases and pollution in aquatic molluscs.

    PubMed

    Morley, N J

    2010-01-21

    Aquatic molluscs are ideal invertebrate model systems for environmental monitoring and toxicology. However, like all animals, they are subjected to a wide range of infectious diseases that can have significant effects on host ecology and physiology and are therefore a source of natural stress to populations. Anthropogenic activities, especially involving chemical contaminants that pollute the environment, can also affect molluscan ecological and physiological parameters. In combination, pollution and pathogens represent a serious threat to the health of aquatic communities that has been increasingly recognised. The present article reviews the interactive effects of viral, bacterial, protozoan, and trematode infections with toxic pollutants on aquatic molluscs. The interactions between pollution and other less well studied infectious diseases as well as the differing responses to pathogens and pollution between wild and cultured molluscan populations are also considered.

  5. Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Mirabella, Paula; Waichman, Andrea; Solomon, Keith; Van den Brink, Paul J; Maund, Steve

    2014-10-01

    Latin America is anticipated to be a major growth market for agriculture and production is increasing with use of technologies such as pesticides. Reports of contamination of aquatic ecosystems by pesticides in Latin America have raised concerns about potential for adverse ecological effects. In the registration process of pesticides, all countries require significant data packages on aquatic toxicology and environmental fate. However, there are usually no specific requirements to conduct an aquatic risk assessment. To address this issue, the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry organized a workshop that brought together scientists from academia, government, and industry to review and elaborate on aquatic risk assessment frameworks that can be implemented into regulation of pesticides in Latin America. The workshop concluded that the international framework for risk assessments (protection goals, effects, and exposure assessments, risk characterization, and risk mitigation) is broadly applicable in Latin America but needs further refinement for the use in the region. Some of the challenges associated with these refinements are discussed in the article. It was recognized that there is potential for data sharing both within and outside of the region where conditions are similar. However, there is a need for research to compare local species and environmental conditions to those in other jurisdictions to be able to evaluate the applicability of data used in other countries. Development should also focus on human resources as there is a need to build local capacity and capability, and scientific collaboration and exchange between stakeholders in industry, government, and academia is also important. The meeting also emphasized that, although establishing a regionally relevant risk assessment framework is important, this also needs to be accompanied by enforcement of developed regulations and good management practices to help protect aquatic habitats

  6. Deep and Shallow Water Effects on Developing Preschoolers’ Aquatic Skills

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Aldo M.; Marinho, Daniel A.; Rocha, Helena; Silva, António J.; Barbosa, Tiago M.; Ferreira, Sandra S.; Martins, Marta

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess deep and shallow water teaching methods in swimming lessons for preschool children and identify variations in the basic aquatic skills acquired. The study sample included 32 swimming instructors (16 from deep water programs and 16 from shallow water programs) and 98 preschool children (50 from deep water swimming pool and 48 from shallow water swimming pool). The children were also studied regarding their previous experience in swimming (6, 12 and 18 months or practice). Chi-Square test and Fisher’s exact test were used to compare the teaching methodology. A discriminant analysis was conducted with Λ wilk’s method to predict under what conditions students are better or worse (aquatic competence). Results suggest that regardless of the non-significant variations found in teaching methods, the water depth can affect aquatic skill acquisition - shallow water lessons seem to impose greater water competence particularly after 6 months of practice. The discriminant function revealed a significant association between groups and all predictors for 6 months of swimming practice (p<0.001). Body position in gliding and leg displacements were the main predictors. For 12 and 18 months of practice, the discriminant function do not revealed any significant association between groups. As a conclusion, it seems that the teaching methodology of aquatic readiness based on deep and shallow water programs for preschoolers is not significantly different. However, shallow water lessons could be preferable for the development of basic aquatic skills. PMID:23487406

  7. Does water chemistry affect the dietary uptake and toxicity of silver nanoparticles by the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    López-Serrano Oliver, Ana; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Stoiber, Tasha L.; Tejamaya, Mila; Römer, Isabella; Lead, Jamie R.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in many applications and likely released into the aquatic environment. There is increasing evidence that Ag is efficiently delivered to aquatic organisms from AgNPs after aqueous and dietary exposures. Accumulation of AgNPs through the diet can damage digestion and adversely affect growth. It is well recognized that aspects of water quality, such as hardness, affect the bioavailability and toxicity of waterborne Ag. However, the influence of water chemistry on the bioavailability and toxicity of dietborne AgNPs to aquatic invertebrates is largely unknown. Here we characterize for the first time the effects of water hardness and humic acids on the bioaccumulation and toxicity of AgNPs coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) to the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis after dietary exposures. Our results indicate that bioaccumulation and toxicity of Ag from PVP-AgNPs ingested with food are not affected by water hardness and by humic acids, although both could affect interactions with the biological membrane and trigger nanoparticle transformations. Snails efficiently assimilated Ag from the PVP-AgNPs mixed with diatoms (Ag assimilation efficiencies ranged from 82 to 93%). Rate constants of Ag uptake from food were similar across the entire range of water hardness and humic acid concentrations. These results suggest that correcting regulations for water quality could be irrelevant and ineffective where dietary exposure is important.

  8. Does water chemistry affect the dietary uptake and toxicity of silver nanoparticles by the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis?

    PubMed

    Oliver, Ana López-Serrano; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Stoiber, Tasha L; Tejamaya, Mila; Römer, Isabella; Lead, Jamie R; Luoma, Samuel N

    2014-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in many applications and likely released into the aquatic environment. There is increasing evidence that Ag is efficiently delivered to aquatic organisms from AgNPs after aqueous and dietary exposures. Accumulation of AgNPs through the diet can damage digestion and adversely affect growth. It is well recognized that aspects of water quality, such as hardness, affect the bioavailability and toxicity of waterborne Ag. However, the influence of water chemistry on the bioavailability and toxicity of dietborne AgNPs to aquatic invertebrates is largely unknown. Here we characterize for the first time the effects of water hardness and humic acids on the bioaccumulation and toxicity of AgNPs coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) to the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis after dietary exposures. Our results indicate that bioaccumulation and toxicity of Ag from PVP-AgNPs ingested with food are not affected by water hardness and by humic acids, although both could affect interactions with the biological membrane and trigger nanoparticle transformations. Snails efficiently assimilated Ag from the PVP-AgNPs mixed with diatoms (Ag assimilation efficiencies ranged from 82 to 93%). Rate constants of Ag uptake from food were similar across the entire range of water hardness and humic acid concentrations. These results suggest that correcting regulations for water quality could be irrelevant and ineffective where dietary exposure is important. PMID:24641838

  9. Race, racism, and racial disparities in adverse birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Tyan Parker

    2008-06-01

    While the biologic authenticity of race remains a contentious issue, the social significance of race is indisputable. The chronic stress of racism and the social inequality it engenders may be underlying social determinants of persistent racial disparities in health, including infant mortality, preterm delivery, and low birth weight. This article describes the problem of racial disparities in adverse birth outcomes; outlines the multidimensional nature of racism and the pathways by which it may adversely affect health; and discusses the implications for clinical practice.

  10. Aquatic Recreation for the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordellos, Harry C.

    The sixth in a series of booklets on physical education and recreation for the handicapped describes aquatic activities for blind persons. Written by a partially sighted athlete, the document discusses swimming pool characteristics and special pools for the visually impaired. Qualities of swimming instructors are reviewed, and suggestions for…

  11. Virioplankton: Viruses in Aquatic Ecosystems†

    PubMed Central

    Wommack, K. Eric; Colwell, Rita R.

    2000-01-01

    The discovery that viruses may be the most abundant organisms in natural waters, surpassing the number of bacteria by an order of magnitude, has inspired a resurgence of interest in viruses in the aquatic environment. Surprisingly little was known of the interaction of viruses and their hosts in nature. In the decade since the reports of extraordinarily large virus populations were published, enumeration of viruses in aquatic environments has demonstrated that the virioplankton are dynamic components of the plankton, changing dramatically in number with geographical location and season. The evidence to date suggests that virioplankton communities are composed principally of bacteriophages and, to a lesser extent, eukaryotic algal viruses. The influence of viral infection and lysis on bacterial and phytoplankton host communities was measurable after new methods were developed and prior knowledge of bacteriophage biology was incorporated into concepts of parasite and host community interactions. The new methods have yielded data showing that viral infection can have a significant impact on bacteria and unicellular algae populations and supporting the hypothesis that viruses play a significant role in microbial food webs. Besides predation limiting bacteria and phytoplankton populations, the specific nature of virus-host interaction raises the intriguing possibility that viral infection influences the structure and diversity of aquatic microbial communities. Novel applications of molecular genetic techniques have provided good evidence that viral infection can significantly influence the composition and diversity of aquatic microbial communities. PMID:10704475

  12. Photochemistry of environmental aquatic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zika, R.G.; Cooper, W.F.

    1987-01-01

    This text provides an incisive look at the subject of aquatic photochemistry. It divides this topic into three main areas: fresh water, estuarine, and marine environments and discussions on natural and anthropogenic impacts. In summary it brings together a diverse selection of viewpoints.

  13. Aquatic Pest Control. Bulletin 754.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, James F.

    Four groups of aquatic weeds are described: algae, floating weeds, emersed weeds, and submersed weeds. Specific requirements for pesticide application are given for static water, limited flow, and moving water situations. The secondary effects of improper pesticide application rates are given for static, limited flow, and moving water, and the…

  14. Aquatic Exercise for the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Michael; And Others

    The development and implementation of aquatic exercise programs for the aged are discussed in this paper. Program development includes a discussion of training principles, exercise leadership and the setting up of safe water exercise programs for the participants. The advantages of developing water exercise programs and not swimming programs are…

  15. Aquatics and Persons with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Mary Lou

    1993-01-01

    This bulletin shares information regarding adaptive equipment, recommended interventions, precautions, and fun activities related to aquatic activities and exercise for persons with handicapping conditions. The bulletin begins with a list of 13 safety precautions and then describes instructional aids, adaptive aids, fitness-oriented devices, and…

  16. Aquatic Plant Water Quality Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA, as stated in the Clean Water Act, is tasked with developing numerical Aquatic Life Critiera for various pollutants found in the waters of the United States. These criteria serve as guidance for States and Tribes to use in developing their water quality standards. The G...

  17. Toxicological effects of the aquatic herbicide, fluridone, on male water mites (Hydrachnidiae: Arrenurus: Megaluracarus).

    PubMed

    Yi, Sandra A; Francis, Bettina M; Jarrell, Wesley M; Soucek, David J

    2011-01-01

    The acute toxicities for technical grade fluridone (Sonar™) and the commercial formulation of fluridone (Sonar®AS) were assessed for male water mites (Hydrachnidiae: Arrenurus: Megaluracarus). Signs of toxicity were evaluated by detection of locomotor dysfunction or death after exposure to concentrations of 100,000, 10,000, 1,000, and 100 μg/L of Sonar™ and 10,000, 5,000, 1,000, 100, and 10 μg/L of Sonar®AS in US EPA, moderately hard reconstituted water (MHRW). The median effective concentration (EC50) was 891 and 631 μg/L for Sonar™ at 48 and 96 h and less than 10 μg/L for Sonar®AS at 96 h. Increased duration of exposure to Sonar®AS from 48 to 96 h had a significant effect on increasing the rate of combined morbidity and mortality. At the lowest concentration of Sonar®AS tested, which is half the concentration allowed within 400 m of any functioning potable water intake for human usage, 40% of the mites were adversely affected at 48 h and 70% were affected after 96 h of exposure. This study demonstrates that Sonar®AS is 60-fold more toxic to water mites than the active ingredient alone. At currently acceptable application rates of 90-150 μg/L fluridone, the addition of ingredients classified as inert, as in Sonar®AS, result in an increased risk of adverse effects on populations of male water mites (Arrenurus: Megaluracarus) in aquatic ecosystems.

  18. Same Play, Different Actors: The Aquatic Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanis, Ira B.; Saccente, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    Provided are background information, equipment lists, and procedures for four activities for teaching aquatic ecology. Activities include "The Aquatic Food Chain Game"; "Two-Liter Aqua-Vivariums"; "A Sealed World"; and "Weaving a Web: Evaluation." (CW)

  19. Neuropsychiatric Adverse Effects of Amphetamine and Methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Harro, Jaanus

    2015-01-01

    Administration of amphetamine and methamphetamine can elicit psychiatric adverse effects at acute administration, binge use, withdrawal, and chronic use. Most troublesome of these are psychotic states and aggressive behavior, but a large variety of undesirable changes in cognition and affect can be induced. Adverse effects occur more frequently with higher dosages and long-term use. They can subside over time but some persist long-term. Multiple alterations in the gray and white matter of the brain assessed as changes in tissue volume or metabolism, or at molecular level, have been associated with amphetamine and methamphetamine use and the psychiatric adverse effects, but further studies are required to clarify their causal role, specificity, and relationship with preceding states and traits and comorbidities. The latter include other substance use disorders, mood and anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and antisocial personality disorder. Amphetamine- and methamphetamine-related psychosis is similar to schizophrenia in terms of symptomatology and pathogenesis, and these two disorders share predisposing genetic factors.

  20. Zooming in on aquatic denitrification hot spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-06-01

    Inorganic nitrogen is an important resource for marine and aquatic ecosystems, acting as a fertilizer for phytoplankton and aquatic plants. When nitrogen concentrations soar, algae blooms can occur. Subsequently, when the algae blooms die, their decomposition can consume most of the available dissolved oxygen, negatively affecting the ecosystem as a whole. Creeks and streams act as strong controls, regulating downstream nitrogen concentrations, and researchers have been zooming in on hyporheic zones—zones where water flows through the sediment alongside the surface water—as possible hot spots of activity in the nitrogen cycle. Using a stable isotope tracer, Zarnetske et al. tracked the evolution of a nitrogen addition as it flowed through a heavily instrumented gravel bar in Drift Creek, in Oregon. The researchers found that the gravel bar could act as either a source or a sink of inorganic nitrogen, depending on how long it took for the water to make its way through the bar. When the creek water took longer to pass through the hyporheic zone, nitrogen levels were reduced significantly through denitrification, while any water that traveled quickly could have its inorganic nitrogen concentrations increased by nitrification. The authors note that a context-dependent effect of individual hyporheic zones on inorganic nitrogen concentrations could have important implications for attempts to estimate the effects of a watershed on the nitrogen cycle. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, doi:10.1029/ 2010JG001356, 2011)

  1. Aquatic Plants and Animals as Ecosystem Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wotton, R. S.

    2005-05-01

    Studies on aquatic plants and animals focus on population dynamics, the structure of communities and the part played by organisms in food webs and other ecosystem processes. As Lawton and Jones point out in "Linking Species and Ecosystems", less attention is given to the role of organisms as ecosystem engineers, modifying the environment in which they live. Yet plants can have a profound effect on their surroundings, altering flow patterns and trapping large amounts of organic and inorganic material. Animals also affect aquatic ecosystems in many ways, both in building structures such as tubes and shelters, and in their feeding. For example, detritus feeders often produce large numbers of faecal pellets (and pseudofaeces in bivalves) and these are very different in size to the materials ingested. Pellets are deposited in masses over the bed of streams, lakes and the sea and therefore effect a translocation of nutrients. The action of plants and animals in altering their environment is likely to be a significant process in all water bodies, from both small to large scale.

  2. Persistence of Aquatic Insects across Managed Landscapes: Effects of Landscape Permeability on Re-Colonization and Population Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Galic, Nika; Hengeveld, Geerten M.; Van den Brink, Paul J.; Schmolke, Amelie; Thorbek, Pernille; Bruns, Eric; Baveco, Hans M.

    2013-01-01

    Human practices in managed landscapes may often adversely affect aquatic biota, such as aquatic insects. Dispersal is often the limiting factor for successful re-colonization and recovery of stressed habitats. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the effects of landscape permeability, assuming a combination of riparian vegetation (edge permeability) and other vegetation (landscape matrix permeability), and distance between waterbodies on the colonization and recovery potential of weakly flying insects. For this purpose, we developed two models, a movement and a population model of the non-biting midge, Chironomus riparius, an aquatic insect with weak flying abilities. With the movement model we predicted the outcome of dispersal in a landscape with several linear water bodies (ditches) under different assumptions regarding landscape-dependent movement. Output from the movement model constituted the probabilities of encountering another ditch and of staying in the natal ditch or perishing in the landscape matrix, and was used in the second model. With this individual-based model of midge populations, we assessed the implications for population persistence and for recovery potential after an extreme stress event. We showed that a combination of landscape attributes from the movement model determines the fate of dispersing individuals and, once extrapolated to the population level, has a big impact on the persistence and recovery of populations. Population persistence benefited from low edge permeability as it reduced the dispersal mortality which was the main factor determining population persistence and viability. However, population recovery benefited from higher edge permeability, but this was conditional on the low effective distance that ensured fewer losses in the landscape matrix. We discuss these findings with respect to possible landscape management scenarios. PMID:23365675

  3. Conference on Professional Standards for Aquatic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    This report on the 1970 meeting of the Aquatics Council of the American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation is divided into three sections reflecting the three phases of the Council's interest. Section One is devoted to basic aquatic education for the physical educator. Section Two concerns basic aquatic education for the…

  4. Effects of diquat, an aquatic herbicide, on the development of mallard embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sewalk, C.J.; Brewer, G.L.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    Bipyridylium herbicides produce embryotoxic and teratogenic effects in dipteran, amphibian, avian, and mammalian organisms. Diquat dibromide, a bipyridylium compound, is commonly used as an aquatic herbicide. Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggs were exposed to diquat by immersing the eggs for 10s in solutions of 0.88, 3.5, 7, 14, or 56 g/L on either the fourth or twenty-first day of incubation. Application of diquat on day 4 yielded an estimated LC50 of 19.5 g/L through 18 days of incubation, and 9.6 g/L through hatching. Body and organ weights, and bone lengths of hatchlings did not differ between control and treatment groups with the exception of a slight increase in brain weight in the 14 g/L group. Malformations in diquat-treated embryos included defects of the brain, eye, bill, limb, and pelvis; skeletal scoliosis; and incomplete ossification. Subcutaneous edema was also present. Significant manifestations of oxidative stress were apparent in hatchlings and included increased hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (lipid peroxidation) and decreased brain reduced glutathione (GSH). Brain protein-bound sulfhydryls (PBSH) increased. Diquat applied on day 21 of incubation yielded an estimated LC50 of 12.6 g/L through hatching. Exposure at this late stage of development did not produce deformities. Body and organ weights, and, bone lengths of hatchlings did not differ between control and treatment groups. Significant manifestations of oxidative stress in hatchlings included decreased brain GSH, increased oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and ratio of GSSG:GSH. This study suggests that concentrations of diquat commonly used for aquatic weed control, when based upon the expected dilution effect of average water depth of the application area, would probably have little impact on mallard embryos. However, concentrations applied above ground to weeds and cattails along the edge of waters and ditches could adversely affect the survival and development of mallard

  5. Bioconcentration, bioaccumulation, and metabolism of pesticides in aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    The ecotoxicological assessment of pesticide effects in the aquatic environment should normally be based on a deep knowledge of not only the concentration of pesticides and metabolites found but also on the influence of key abiotic and biotic processes that effect rates of dissipation. Although the bioconcentration and bioaccumulation potentials of pesticides in aquatic organisms are conveniently estimated from their hydrophobicity (represented by log K(ow), it is still indispensable to factor in the effects of key abiotic and biotic processes on such pesticides to gain a more precise understanding of how they may have in the natural environment. Relying only on pesticide hydrophobicity may produce an erroneous environmental impact assessment. Several factors affect rates of pesticide dissipation and accumulation in the aquatic environment. Such factors include the amount and type of sediment present in the water and type of diet available to water-dwelling organisms. The particular physiological behavior profiles of aquatic organisms in water, such as capacity for uptake, metabolism, and elimination, are also compelling factors, as is the chemistry of the water. When evaluating pesticide uptake and bioconcentration processes, it is important to know the amount and nature of bottom sediments present and the propensity that the stuffed aquatic organisms have to absorb and process xenobiotics. Extremely hydrophobic pesticides such as the organochlorines and pyrethroids are susceptible to adsorb strongly to dissolved organic matter associated with bottom sediment. Such absorption reduces the bioavailable fraction of pesticide dissolved in the water column and reduces the probable ecotoxicological impact on aquatic organisms living the water. In contrast, sediment dweller may suffer from higher levels of direct exposure to a pesticide, unless it is rapidly degraded in sediment. Metabolism is important to bioconcentration and bioaccumulation processes, as is

  6. [Problems and outlook for animal production in the aquatic environment].

    PubMed

    Kaushik, S

    1996-11-01

    The major source of aquatic animal production is based on fisheries. Currently, a significant portion of the fishery resources is used for non-food purposes. One of the first steps towards rational exploitation of the natural fishery resources should be to limit such abuse and address the needs of an increasing global population. The challenge for the fishery industry is to develop methods for early and reliable prediction of stock availability and fluctuations in order to maintain a sustainable supply. With the continuing decline in fishery resources, aquaculture is slowly becoming an interesting alternative for the supply of animal protein of high nutritional value. Aquaculture, like any other human activity can have adverse effects on the environment. In this context, the semi-intensive farming systems prevailing in the tropical areas should be encouraged, substantiating them with scientific knowledge on the nutrient flow in such confined ecosystems. In some instances of intensive culture systems, progress has been made in aquaculture waste management by applying adequate nutritional strategies. Such an approach should be extended to other cultured species. Be it production for profit or production for food, sustainable aquatic animal production is intimately connected with all human activities, in as much as all these activities invariably have an effect on water quality. Hence, greater consideration is needed towards a general strategy of protecting the aquatic ecosystem at all levels.

  7. Graphene in the aquatic environment: adsorption, dispersion, toxicity and transformation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Wang, Zhenyu; White, Jason C; Xing, Baoshan

    2014-09-01

    Graphene-family nanomaterials (GFNs) including pristine graphene, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and graphene oxide (GO) offer great application potential, leading to the possibility of their release into aquatic environments. Upon exposure, graphene/rGO and GO exhibit different adsorption properties toward environmental adsorbates, thus the molecular interactions at the GFN-water interface are discussed. After solute adsorption, the dispersion/aggregation behaviors of GFNs can be altered by solution chemistry, as well as by the presence of colloidal particles and biocolloids. GO has different dispersion performance from pristine graphene and rGO, which is further demonstrated from surface properties. Upon exposure in aquatic environments, GFNs have adverse impacts on aquatic organisms (e.g., bacteria, algae, plants, invertebrates, and fish). The mechanisms of GFNs toxicity at the cellular level are reviewed and the remaining unclear points on toxic mechanisms such as membrane damage are presented. Moreover, we highlight the transformation routes of GO to rGO. The degradation of GFNs upon exposure to UV irradiation and/or biota is also reviewed. In view of the unanswered questions, future research should include comprehensive characterization of GFNs, new approaches for explaining GFNs aggregation, environmental behaviors of metastable GO, and the relationship between dispersion of GFNs and the related adsorption properties. PMID:25122195

  8. Biotechnology and DNA vaccines for aquatic animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, G.

    2008-01-01

    Biotechnology has been used extensively in the development of vaccines for aquaculture. Modern molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and microarray analysis have facilitated antigen discovery, construction of novel candidate vaccines, and assessments of vaccine efficacy, mode of action, and host response. This review focuses on DNA vaccines for finfish to illustrate biotechnology applications in this field. Although DNA vaccines for fish rhabdoviruses continue to show the highest efficacy, DNA vaccines for several other viral and bacterial fish pathogens have now been proven to provide significant protection against pathogen challenge. Studies of the fish rhabdovirus DNA vaccines have elucidated factors that affect DNA vaccine efficacy as well as the nature of the fish innate and adaptive immune responses to DNA vaccines. As tools for managing aquatic animal disease emergencies, DNA vaccines have advantages in speed, flexibility, and safety, and one fish DNA vaccine has been licensed.

  9. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Hallucinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, C.L.; Dube, S.R.; Felitti, V.J.; Anda, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: Little information is available about the contribution of multiple adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to the likelihood of reporting hallucinations. We used data from the ACE study to assess this relationship. Methods:: We conducted a survey about childhood abuse and household dysfunction while growing up, with questions about health…

  10. Environmental estrogens in an urban aquatic ecosystem: II. Biological effects.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Melissa M; Minarik, Thomas A; Martinovic-Weigelt, Dalma; Curran, Erin M; Bartell, Stephen E; Schoenfuss, Heiko L

    2013-11-01

    Urban aquatic ecosystems are often overlooked in toxicological studies even though they serve many ecosystem functions and sustain fish populations despite large-scale habitat alterations. However, urban fish populations are likely exposed to a broad range of stressors, including environmental estrogens (EEs) that may affect anatomy, physiology and reproduction of exposed fish. Although significant progress has been made in establishing ecological consequences of EE exposure, these studies have focused largely on hydrologically simple systems that lack the complexity of urban aquatic environments. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the occurrence and biological effects of EEs across a large urbanized aquatic ecosystem. A multi-pronged study design was employed relying on quantitative determination of select EEs by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and repeated biological monitoring of wild-caught and caged fish for indications of endocrine disruption. Over three years, EEs were measured in aqueous samples (n=42 samples) and biological effects assessed in >1200 male fish across the 2000km(2) aquatic ecosystems of the Greater Metropolitan Area of Chicago, IL. Our study demonstrated that in addition to water reclamation plant (WRP) effluents, non-WRP sources contribute significant EE loads to the aquatic ecosystem. While resident and caged male fish responded with the induction of the egg-yolk protein vitellogenin, an indicator of EE exposure, neither resident nor caged sunfish exhibited prevalent histopathological changes to their reproductive organs (i.e., intersex) that have been reported in other studies. Vitellogenin induction was greater in spring than the fall and was not correlated with body condition factor, gonadosomatic index or hepatosomatic index. Exposure effects were not correlated with sites downstream of treated effluent discharge further affirming the complexity of sources and effects of EEs in urban aquatic ecosystems.

  11. Proposed Release Guides to Protect Aquatic Biota

    SciTech Connect

    Marter, W.L.

    2001-03-28

    At the request of South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and the Department of Energy (DOE), the Savannah River Laboratory was assigned the task of developing the release guides to protect aquatic biota. A review of aquatic radioecology literature by two leading experts in the field of radioecology concludes that exposure of aquatic biota at one rad per day or less will not produce detectable deleterious effects on aquatic organisms. On the basis of this report, DOE recommends the use of one rad per day as an interim dose standard to protect aquatic biota.

  12. Human health hazards associated with chemical contamination of aquatic environment.

    PubMed Central

    Stara, J F; Kello, D; Durkin, P

    1980-01-01

    Given the finite supply of water available for human use, continued chemical contamination of the aquatic environment may pose a significant human health hazard. Consequently, an effort must be made to develop ambient water quality criteria to protect human health and preserve the integrity of the aquatic environment. In developing water quality criteria based on human health effects, information on sources of exposure, pharmacokinetics, and adverse effects must be carefully evaluated. Information on sources of exposure is needed to determine the contribution of exposure from water relative to all other sources. Pharmacokinetic data are used in inter- and intraspecies extrapolation and in characterizing the mode of toxic action. Information on toxic effects includes data on acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity, mutagenicity, teratogenicity, and carcinogenicity. In analyzing such information, a distinction is made between threshold and nonthreshold effects. Currently, carcinogenicity and mutagenicity are considered to be nonthreshold effects. For carcinogens and mutagens, criteria are calculated by postulating an "acceptable" increased level of risk and using extrapolation models to estimate the dose which would result in this increased level of risk. For other chemicals, thresholds are assumed and criteria are calculated by deriving "acceptable daily intakes" for man which would presumably result in no observable adverse effects. Neither process is exact, and attempts must be made to improve and verify risk assessment methodologies. PMID:6993199

  13. Differentiating aquatic plant communities in a eutrophic river using hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tian, Y.Q.; Yu, Q.; Zimmerman, M.J.; Flint, S.; Waldron, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of remote sensing technology to monitor species composition, areal extent and density of aquatic plants (macrophytes and filamentous algae) in impoundments where their presence may violate water-quality standards. Multispectral satellite (IKONOS) images and more than 500 in situ hyperspectral samples were acquired to map aquatic plant distributions. By analyzing field measurements, we created a library of hyperspectral signatures for a variety of aquatic plant species, associations and densities. We also used three vegetation indices. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), near-infrared (NIR)-Green Angle Index (NGAI) and normalized water absorption depth (DH), at wavelengths 554, 680, 820 and 977 nm to differentiate among aquatic plant species composition, areal density and thickness in cases where hyperspectral analysis yielded potentially ambiguous interpretations. We compared the NDVI derived from IKONOS imagery with the in situ, hyperspectral-derived NDVI. The IKONOS-based images were also compared to data obtained through routine visual observations. Our results confirmed that aquatic species composition alters spectral signatures and affects the accuracy of remote sensing of aquatic plant density. The results also demonstrated that the NGAI has apparent advantages in estimating density over the NDVI and the DH. In the feature space of the three indices, 3D scatter plot analysis revealed that hyperspectral data can differentiate several aquatic plant associations. High-resolution multispectral imagery provided useful information to distinguish among biophysical aquatic plant characteristics. Classification analysis indicated that using satellite imagery to assess Lemna coverage yielded an overall agreement of 79% with visual observations and >90% agreement for the densest aquatic plant coverages. Interpretation of biophysical parameters derived from high-resolution satellite or airborne imagery should prove to be a

  14. Identifying How Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices Affect Aquatic Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G. F.; Copping, Andrea E.; Roberts, Jesse

    2011-04-24

    Significant research is under way to determine the potential environmental effects of marine and hydrokinetic energy systems. This research, being guided and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, is intended to address knowledge gaps and facilitate installation and operation of these systems.

  15. LIGHT-INDUCED PROCESSES AFFECTING ENTEROCOCCI IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal indicator bacteria such as enterococci have been used to assess contamination of freshwater and marine environments by pathogenic microorganisms. Various past studies have shown that sunlight plays an important role in reducing concentrations of culturable enterococci and ...

  16. Nutrient enrichment affects the mechanical resistance of aquatic plants

    PubMed Central

    Puijalon, Sara

    2012-01-01

    For many plant species, nutrient availability induces important anatomical responses, particularly the production of low-density tissues to the detriment of supporting tissues. Due to the contrasting biomechanical properties of plant tissues, these anatomical responses may induce important modifications in the biomechanical properties of plant organs. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of nutrient enrichment on the anatomical traits of two freshwater plant species and its consequences on plant biomechanical performance. Two plant species were grown under controlled conditions in low versus high nutrient levels. The anatomical and biomechanical traits of the plant stems were measured. Both species produced tissues with lower densities under nutrient-rich conditions, accompanied by modifications in the structure of the aerenchyma for one species. As expected, nutrient enrichment also led to important modifications in the biomechanical properties of the stem for both species. In particular, mechanical resistance (breaking force and strength) and stiffness of stems were significantly reduced under nutrient rich conditions. The production of weaker stem tissues as a result of nutrient enrichment may increase the risk of plants to mechanical failure, thus challenging plant maintenance in mechanically stressful or disturbed habitats. PMID:23028018

  17. Nutrient enrichment affects the mechanical resistance of aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Lamberti-Raverot, Barbara; Puijalon, Sara

    2012-10-01

    For many plant species, nutrient availability induces important anatomical responses, particularly the production of low-density tissues to the detriment of supporting tissues. Due to the contrasting biomechanical properties of plant tissues, these anatomical responses may induce important modifications in the biomechanical properties of plant organs. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of nutrient enrichment on the anatomical traits of two freshwater plant species and its consequences on plant biomechanical performance. Two plant species were grown under controlled conditions in low versus high nutrient levels. The anatomical and biomechanical traits of the plant stems were measured. Both species produced tissues with lower densities under nutrient-rich conditions, accompanied by modifications in the structure of the aerenchyma for one species. As expected, nutrient enrichment also led to important modifications in the biomechanical properties of the stem for both species. In particular, mechanical resistance (breaking force and strength) and stiffness of stems were significantly reduced under nutrient rich conditions. The production of weaker stem tissues as a result of nutrient enrichment may increase the risk of plants to mechanical failure, thus challenging plant maintenance in mechanically stressful or disturbed habitats. PMID:23028018

  18. Morbillivirus infections in aquatic mammals.

    PubMed

    Visser, I K; van Bressem, M F; Barrett, T; Osterhaus, A D

    1993-01-01

    Infections with morbilliviruses have caused heavy losses among different populations of aquatic mammals during the last 5 years. Two different morbilliviruses were isolated from disease outbreaks among seals in Europe and Siberia: phocid distemper virus-1 (PDV-1) and phocid distemper virus-2 (PDV-2) respectively. PDV-1 was characterized as a newly identified morbillivirus, most related to canine distemper virus (CDV), whereas PDV-2 most probably is a strain of CDV. Morbilliviruses were also isolated from porpoises--porpoise morbillivirus (PMV)--and dolphins--dolphin morbillivirus (DMV)--which had stranded on the coasts of Europe. PMV and DMV proved to be closely related to, but distinct from 2 ruminant morbilliviruses, rinderpest virus (RPV) and peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV). Serological surveys carried out among pinniped and cetacean species in the seas of Europe and North America indicated that infections with these newly discovered morbilliviruses or closely related viruses commonly occur among aquatic mammal species. PMID:8343804

  19. Spectroscopic studies on aquatic angiosperm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Atsumi; Oomizo, Nana; Fujinami, Rieko; Imaichi, Ryoko; Imai, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    Reflectance, transmittance and absorbance spectra were observed of Hydrobryum japonicum, a kind of Aquatic angiosperm, over the wavelength range from 300 to 780 nm. Three remarkable peaks were observed at 380, 430, and at 680 nm in the absorbance curve, which were assigned to the two pigments flavonoid and chlorophyll. The functions of these pigments of making photosynthesis inevitable for the botanical activity and of protecting the plant from the heat given by the sunlight were discussed.

  20. Psychiatric adverse effects of pediatric corticosteroid use.

    PubMed

    Drozdowicz, Linda B; Bostwick, J Michael

    2014-06-01

    Corticosteroids, highly effective drugs for myriad disease states, have considerable neuropsychiatric adverse effects that can manifest in cognitive disorders, behavioral changes, and frank psychiatric disease. Recent reviews have summarized these effects in adults, but a comprehensive review on corticosteroid effects in children has not been published since 2005. Here, we systematically review articles published since then that, we find, naturally divide into 3 main areas: (1) chronic effects of acute prenatal and neonatal exposure associated with prematurity and congenital conditions; (2) immediate behavioral effects of acute exposure via oncological protocols; and (3) acute behavioral effects of sporadic use in children and adolescents with other conditions. PsycInfo, MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus were queried to identify articles reporting psychiatric adverse effects of corticosteroids in pediatric patients. Search terms included corticosteroids, adrenal cortex hormones, steroid psychosis, substance-induced psychoses, glucocorticoids, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, prednisone, adverse effects, mood disorders, mental disorders, psychosis, psychotic, psychoses, side effect, chemically induced, emotions, affective symptoms, toxicity, behavior, behavioral symptoms, infant, child, adolescent, pediatric, paediatric, neonatal, children, teen, and teenager. Following guidelines for systematic reviews from the Potsdam Consultation on Meta-Analysis, we have found it difficult to draw specific conclusions that are more than general impressions owing to the quality of the available studies. We find a mixed picture with neonates exposed to dexamethasone, with some articles reporting eventual deficits in neuropsychiatric functioning and others reporting no effect. In pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, corticosteroid use appears to correlate with negative psychiatric and behavioral effects. In children treated with corticosteroids for noncancer conditions

  1. Anatomical adaptations of aquatic mammals.

    PubMed

    Reidenberg, Joy S

    2007-06-01

    This special issue of the Anatomical Record explores many of the anatomical adaptations exhibited by aquatic mammals that enable life in the water. Anatomical observations on a range of fossil and living marine and freshwater mammals are presented, including sirenians (manatees and dugongs), cetaceans (both baleen whales and toothed whales, including dolphins and porpoises), pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses), the sea otter, and the pygmy hippopotamus. A range of anatomical systems are covered in this issue, including the external form (integument, tail shape), nervous system (eye, ear, brain), musculoskeletal systems (cranium, mandible, hyoid, vertebral column, flipper/forelimb), digestive tract (teeth/tusks/baleen, tongue, stomach), and respiratory tract (larynx). Emphasis is placed on exploring anatomical function in the context of aquatic life. The following topics are addressed: evolution, sound production, sound reception, feeding, locomotion, buoyancy control, thermoregulation, cognition, and behavior. A variety of approaches and techniques are used to examine and characterize these adaptations, ranging from dissection, to histology, to electron microscopy, to two-dimensional (2D) and 3D computerized tomography, to experimental field tests of function. The articles in this issue are a blend of literature review and new, hypothesis-driven anatomical research, which highlight the special nature of anatomical form and function in aquatic mammals that enables their exquisite adaptation for life in such a challenging environment. PMID:17516440

  2. Pesticides in stream sediment and aquatic biota: distribution, trends, and governing factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Capel, Peter D.

    1999-01-01

    More than 20 years after the ban of DDT and other organochlorine pesticides, pesticides continue to be detected in air, rain, soil, surface water, bed sediment, and aquatic and terrestrial biota throughout the world. Recent research suggests that low levels of some of these pesticides may have the potential to affect the development, reproduction, and behavior of fish and wildlife, and possibly humans. Pesticides in Stream Sediment and Aquatic Biota: Distribution, Trends, and Governing Factors assesses the occurrence and behavior of pesticides in bed sediment and aquatic biota-the two major compartments of the hydrologic system where organochlorine pesticides are most likely to accumulate. This book collects, for the first time, results from several hundred monitoring studies and field experiments, ranging in scope from individual sites to the entire nation. Comprehensive tables provide concise summaries of study locations, pesticides analyzed, and study outcomes. Comprehensive and extensively illustrated, Pesticides in Stream Sediment and Aquatic Biota: Distribution, Trends, and Governing Factors evaluates the sources, environmental fate, geographic distribution, and long-term trends of pesticides in bed sediment and aquatic biota. The book focuses on organochlorine pesticides, but also assesses the potential for currently used pesticides to be found in bed sediment and aquatic biota. Topics covered in depth include the effect of land use on pesticide occurrence, mechanisms of pesticide uptake and accumulation by aquatic biota, and the environmental significance of observed levels of pesticides in stream sediment and aquatic biota.

  3. Fire and aquatic ecosystems of the western USA: Current knowledge and key questions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bisson, P.A.; Rieman, B.; Luce, C.; Hessburg, Paul F.; Lee, D.; Kershner, J.; Reeves, G.H.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    Understanding of the effects of wildland fire and fire management on aquatic and riparian ecosystems is an evolving field, with many questions still to be resolved. Limitations of current knowledge, and the certainty that fire management will continue, underscore the need to summarize available information. Integrating fire and fuels management with aquatic ecosystem conservation begins with recognizing that terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are linked and dynamic, and that fire can play a critical role in maintaining aquatic ecological diversity. To protect aquatic ecosystems we argue that it will be important to: (1) accommodate fire-related and other ecological processes that maintain aquatic habitats and biodiversity, and not simply control fires or fuels; (2) prioritize projects according to risks and opportunities for fire control and the protection of aquatic ecosystems; and (3) develop new consistency in the management and regulatory process. Ultimately, all natural resource management is uncertain; the role of science is to apply experimental design and hypothesis testing to management applications that affect fire and aquatic ecosystems. Policy-makers and the public will benefit from an expanded appreciation of fire ecology that enables them to implement watershed management projects as experiments with hypothesized outcomes, adequate controls, and replication.

  4. Antihistamines and aquatic insects: bioconcentration and impacts on behavior in damselfly larvae (Zygoptera).

    PubMed

    Jonsson, M; Fick, J; Klaminder, J; Brodin, T

    2014-02-15

    Because aquatic insects use histamines as neurotransmitters, adverse impacts on aquatic insects living in aquatic environments that receive antihistamines with wastewater effluent are plausible. In this study, we exposed damselfly larvae to low concentrations of two commonly used antihistamines (Hydroxyzine and Fexofenadine, 360 ± 42 and 2,200 ± 43 ng l(-1), respectively), and recorded damselfly larvae behavior before and after exposure. Further, after the second set of behavioral assays was performed, we quantified bioconcentration of the antihistamines in the damselfly bodies. Our results showed significant changes in damselfly behavior following antihistamine exposure. After Hydroxyzine exposure, the damselfly larvae became less active, and they showed reduced fleeing response (i.e. increased boldness) after being exposed to Fexofenadine, the latter also being significantly different from the non-exposed (control) individuals. Further, we found high levels of bioconcentration in the damselflies; Hydroxyzine showed an average bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 2000. As such, our results indicate that low concentrations of antihistamines can have sub-lethal effects on aquatic insects manifested as behavioral changes, and that bioconcentration of these substances can be high. Therefore, the need to investigate the impact of emergent aquatic contaminants also on aquatic insects, and on behaviors that are of ecological importance, is further highlighted. PMID:24291135

  5. The presence of microcystins and other cyanobacterial bioactive peptides in aquatic fauna collected from Greek freshwaters.

    PubMed

    Gkelis, S; Lanaras, T; Sivonen, K

    2006-06-10

    Toxic bloom-forming cyanobacteria can cause animal death and adversely affect human health. Blooms may contain microcystins (MCs), cyanobacterial heptapeptide hepatotoxins and other peptides such as anabaenopeptins and anabaenopeptilides. MCs have been shown to occur in various aquatic organisms including mussels, water snails, crustaceans and fish. Muscle and viscera samples from eight species of fish (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, Carassius auratus, Carassius gibelio, Cyprinus carpio, Perca fluviatilis, Rutilus rubilio, Silurus aristotelis and Silurus glanis), a frog (Rana eperotica), a mussel (Anodonta sp.) and a water snail (Viviparus contectus) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) inhibition assay (PP1IA) and ELISA. MC(s) was detected in all fish, frog, mussel and water snail samples tested by PP1IA and ELISA, including the frog R. eperotica and the freshwater snail V. contectus, in which the occurrence of MCs was not previously known. MC concentration ranged from 20 to 1500 ng g(-1)dw and from 25 to 5400 ng g(-1)dw in muscle and visceral tissue of fishes and frogs, respectively. In mussel and water snail tissue MC concentration ranged from 1650 to 3495 ng g(-1)dw. HPLC analysis revealed peaks having the same UV spectrum as anabaenopeptin- or anabaenopeptilide-like compounds, not previously known to occur in aquatic fauna tissue. The concentrations of the compounds detected ranged from 1.5 to 230 microg g(-1)dw. Comparison of the PP1IA and ELISA showed that values obtained with PP1IA where higher than those obtained with ELISA. Anabaenopeptins and/or anabaenopeptilides occurring in faunal tissue may account for the higher PP1IA values as we found that PP1 activity was inhibited by the purified anabaenopeptins A (45-60% inhibition) and B (5-75% inhibition). Purified anabaenopeptilides 90A and 90B exhibited weaker PP1 inhibition activity (5-35 and 5-23% inhibition, respectively). This is the first report of MC

  6. Selenium toxicity: cause and effects in aquatic birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spallholz, J.E.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    There are several manners in which selenium may express its toxicity: (1) an important mechanism appears to involve the formation of CH3Se- which either enters a redox cycle and generates superoxide and oxidative stress, or forms free radicals that bind to and inhibit important enzymes and proteins. (2) Excess selenium as selenocysteine results in inhibition of selenium methylation metabolism. As a consequence, concentrations of hydrogen selenide, an intermediate metabolite, accumulate in animals and are hepatotoxic, possibly causing other selenium-related adverse effects. (3) It is also possible that the presence of excess selenium analogs of sulfur-containing enzymes and structural proteins play a role in avian teratogenesis. l-selenomethionine is the most likely major dietary form of selenium encountered by aquatic birds, with lesser amounts of l-selenocysteine ingested from aquatic animal foods. The literature is suggestive that l-selenomethionine is not any more toxic to adult birds than other animals. l-Selenomethionine accumulates in tissue protein of adult birds and in the protein of egg white as would be expected to occur in animals. There is no suggestion from the literature that the levels of l-selenomethionine that would be expected to accumulate in eggs in the absence of environmental concentration of selenium pose harm to the developing embryo. For several species of aquatic birds, levels of Se as selenomethionine in the egg above 3 ppm on a wet weight basis result in reduced hatchability and deformed embryos. The toxicity of l-selenomethionine injected directly into eggs is greater than that found from the entry of l-selenomethionine into the egg from the normal adult diet. This suggests that there is unusual if not abnormal metabolism of l-selenomethionine in the embryo not seen when l-selenomethionine is present in egg white protein where it likely serves as a source of selenium for glutathione peroxidase synthesis in the developing aquatic chick.

  7. Pesticide runoff from energy crops: A threat to aquatic invertebrates?

    PubMed

    Bunzel, Katja; Schäfer, Ralf B; Thrän, Daniela; Kattwinkel, Mira

    2015-12-15

    The European Union aims to reach a 10% share of biofuels in the transport sector by 2020. The major burden is most likely to fall on already established annual energy crops such as rapeseed and cereals for the production of biodiesel and bioethanol, respectively. Annual energy crops are typically cultivated in intensive agricultural production systems, which require the application of pesticides. Agricultural pesticides can have adverse effects on aquatic invertebrates in adjacent streams. We assessed the relative ecological risk to aquatic invertebrates associated with the chemical pest management from six energy crops (maize, potato, sugar beet, winter barley, winter rapeseed, and winter wheat) as well as from mixed cultivation scenarios. The pesticide exposure related to energy crops and cultivation scenarios was estimated as surface runoff for 253 small stream sites in Central Germany using a GIS-based runoff potential model. The ecological risk for aquatic invertebrates, an important organism group for the functioning of stream ecosystems, was assessed using acute toxicity data (48-h LC50 values) of the crustacean Daphnia magna. We calculated the Ecological Risk from potential Pesticide Runoff (ERPR) for all three main groups of pesticides (herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides). Our findings suggest that the crops potato, sugar beet, and rapeseed pose a higher ecological risk to aquatic invertebrates than maize, barley, and wheat. As maize had by far the lowest ERPR values, from the perspective of pesticide pollution, its cultivation as substrate for the production of the gaseous biofuel biomethane may be preferable compared to the production of, for example, biodiesel from rapeseed.

  8. Pesticide runoff from energy crops: A threat to aquatic invertebrates?

    PubMed

    Bunzel, Katja; Schäfer, Ralf B; Thrän, Daniela; Kattwinkel, Mira

    2015-12-15

    The European Union aims to reach a 10% share of biofuels in the transport sector by 2020. The major burden is most likely to fall on already established annual energy crops such as rapeseed and cereals for the production of biodiesel and bioethanol, respectively. Annual energy crops are typically cultivated in intensive agricultural production systems, which require the application of pesticides. Agricultural pesticides can have adverse effects on aquatic invertebrates in adjacent streams. We assessed the relative ecological risk to aquatic invertebrates associated with the chemical pest management from six energy crops (maize, potato, sugar beet, winter barley, winter rapeseed, and winter wheat) as well as from mixed cultivation scenarios. The pesticide exposure related to energy crops and cultivation scenarios was estimated as surface runoff for 253 small stream sites in Central Germany using a GIS-based runoff potential model. The ecological risk for aquatic invertebrates, an important organism group for the functioning of stream ecosystems, was assessed using acute toxicity data (48-h LC50 values) of the crustacean Daphnia magna. We calculated the Ecological Risk from potential Pesticide Runoff (ERPR) for all three main groups of pesticides (herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides). Our findings suggest that the crops potato, sugar beet, and rapeseed pose a higher ecological risk to aquatic invertebrates than maize, barley, and wheat. As maize had by far the lowest ERPR values, from the perspective of pesticide pollution, its cultivation as substrate for the production of the gaseous biofuel biomethane may be preferable compared to the production of, for example, biodiesel from rapeseed. PMID:26282752

  9. What is "Normative" at Cooling Water Intakes? Defining Normalcy Before Judging Adverse

    SciTech Connect

    Coutant, C.C.

    1998-09-23

    Judgments of adverse environmental impact from cooling water intake structures need to be preceded by an appreciation of what is normal. In its repo~ Return to the River, the Independent Scientd5c Group (now called the Independent Scientfilc Advisory Board) --the scientific peer review arm of the Northwest Power Planning Council-- advanced the notion of a "normative river ecosystem" as a new conceptual foundation for salrnonid recovery in the Columbia River basin. With this perspective, the sum of the best scientific understanding of how organisms and aquatic ecosystems function should be the norm or standard of measure for how we judge the effects of human activities on aquatic systems. ,For the best likelihood of recovery, key aspects of altered systems should be brought back toward nonnative (although not necessarily fully back to the historical or pristine state); new alterations should be judged for adversity by how much they move key attributes away from normative or what might be considered normal. In this presentation, I ask what "normative" is for the setting of cooling water intake structures and how this concept could help resolve long-standing disputes between groups interested in avoiding darnage to all organisms that might be entrained or impinged and those who take a more population or community perspective for judging adverse environmental impact. In essence, I suggest that if a water intake does not move the aquatic ecosystem outside the "normative" range, based on expressions of norrrdcy such as those discussed, then no adverse impact has occurred. Having an explicit baseline in normal or normative would place 316(b) analyses on the same conceptual foundation as 316(a) analyses, which strive to demonstrate the continuation of a balanced, indigenous community of aquatic organisms at the power station Iocation.

  10. Why do cervids feed on aquatic vegetation?

    PubMed

    Ceacero, Francisco; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Miranda, María; García, Andrés J; Martínez, Alberto; Gallego, Laureano

    2014-03-01

    Consumption of aquatic plants is rare among cervids, despite the common occurrence of this form of vegetation. However, the paucity of literature reporting on this feeding behaviour suggests that Na (but also other minerals), protein, and the ubiquitous availability of aquatic vegetation may play a role in its consumption. We present results quantifying those factors that regulate the consumption of aquatic plants in the Iberian red deer. We focussed our study primarily on two questions: (i) what nutritional values are red deer seeking in the aquatic plants?; and (ii) why do red deer primarily use aquatic plants during the summer? A comparison of the seasonal variations in Na content between terrestrial vs. aquatic vegetation did not fully support the hypothesis that aquatic plants are being consumed more in summer because of any seasonal variation in Na availability. The Na content in the aquatic vegetation was adequate all the year-round; whereas, the Na content in the terrestrial vegetation was consistently deficient. However, a greater summer content of essential minerals and protein in the aquatic vegetation may be the cause for their consumption exclusively during the summer. We suggest that seasonal variations in the consumption of aquatic vegetation by cervids is primarily driven by temporal variations in the nutrient content, combined with seasonal variations in the physiological demands for these nutrients. PMID:24220797

  11. Why do cervids feed on aquatic vegetation?

    PubMed

    Ceacero, Francisco; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Miranda, María; García, Andrés J; Martínez, Alberto; Gallego, Laureano

    2014-03-01

    Consumption of aquatic plants is rare among cervids, despite the common occurrence of this form of vegetation. However, the paucity of literature reporting on this feeding behaviour suggests that Na (but also other minerals), protein, and the ubiquitous availability of aquatic vegetation may play a role in its consumption. We present results quantifying those factors that regulate the consumption of aquatic plants in the Iberian red deer. We focussed our study primarily on two questions: (i) what nutritional values are red deer seeking in the aquatic plants?; and (ii) why do red deer primarily use aquatic plants during the summer? A comparison of the seasonal variations in Na content between terrestrial vs. aquatic vegetation did not fully support the hypothesis that aquatic plants are being consumed more in summer because of any seasonal variation in Na availability. The Na content in the aquatic vegetation was adequate all the year-round; whereas, the Na content in the terrestrial vegetation was consistently deficient. However, a greater summer content of essential minerals and protein in the aquatic vegetation may be the cause for their consumption exclusively during the summer. We suggest that seasonal variations in the consumption of aquatic vegetation by cervids is primarily driven by temporal variations in the nutrient content, combined with seasonal variations in the physiological demands for these nutrients.

  12. Diversity of Aquatic Pseudomonas Species and Their Activity against the Fish Pathogenic Oomycete Saprolegnia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiying; Rzeszutek, Elzbieta; van der Voort, Menno; Wu, Cheng-Hsuan; Thoen, Even; Skaar, Ida; Bulone, Vincent; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Raaijmakers, Jos M.; de Bruijn, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Emerging fungal and oomycete pathogens are increasingly threatening animals and plants globally. Amongst oomycetes, Saprolegnia species adversely affect wild and cultivated populations of amphibians and fish, leading to substantial reductions in biodiversity and food productivity. With the ban of several chemical control measures, new sustainable methods are needed to mitigate Saprolegnia infections in aquaculture. Here, PhyloChip-based community analyses showed that the Pseudomonadales, particularly Pseudomonas species, represent one of the largest bacterial orders associated with salmon eggs from a commercial hatchery. Among the Pseudomonas species isolated from salmon eggs, significantly more biosurfactant producers were retrieved from healthy salmon eggs than from Saprolegnia-infected eggs. Subsequent in vivo activity bioassays showed that Pseudomonas isolate H6 significantly reduced salmon egg mortality caused by Saprolegnia diclina. Live colony mass spectrometry showed that strain H6 produces a viscosin-like lipopeptide surfactant. This biosurfactant inhibited growth of Saprolegnia in vitro, but no significant protection of salmon eggs against Saprolegniosis was observed. These results indicate that live inocula of aquatic Pseudomonas strains, instead of their bioactive compound, can provide new (micro)biological and sustainable means to mitigate oomycete diseases in aquaculture. PMID:26317985

  13. Plasticizer endocrine disruption: Highlighting developmental and reproductive effects in mammals and non-mammalian aquatic species.

    PubMed

    Mathieu-Denoncourt, Justine; Wallace, Sarah J; de Solla, Shane R; Langlois, Valerie S

    2015-08-01

    Due to their versatility, robustness, and low production costs, plastics are used in a wide variety of applications. Plasticizers are mixed with polymers to increase flexibility of plastics. However, plasticizers are not covalently bound to plastics, and thus leach from products into the environment. Several studies have reported that two common plasticizers, bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates, induce adverse health effects in vertebrates; however few studies have addressed their toxicity to non-mammalian species. The aim of this review is to compare the effects of plasticizers in animals, with a focus on aquatic species. In summary, we identified three main chains of events that occur in animals exposed to BPA and phthalates. Firstly, plasticizers affect development by altering both the thyroid hormone and growth hormone axes. Secondly, these chemicals interfere with reproduction by decreasing cholesterol transport through the mitochondrial membrane, leading to reduced steroidogenesis. Lastly, exposure to plasticizers leads to the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, the increase of fatty acid oxidation, and the reduction in the ability to cope with the augmented oxidative stress leading to reproductive organ malformations, reproductive defects, and decreased fertility.

  14. Diversity of Aquatic Pseudomonas Species and Their Activity against the Fish Pathogenic Oomycete Saprolegnia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiying; Rzeszutek, Elzbieta; van der Voort, Menno; Wu, Cheng-Hsuan; Thoen, Even; Skaar, Ida; Bulone, Vincent; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Raaijmakers, Jos M; de Bruijn, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Emerging fungal and oomycete pathogens are increasingly threatening animals and plants globally. Amongst oomycetes, Saprolegnia species adversely affect wild and cultivated populations of amphibians and fish, leading to substantial reductions in biodiversity and food productivity. With the ban of several chemical control measures, new sustainable methods are needed to mitigate Saprolegnia infections in aquaculture. Here, PhyloChip-based community analyses showed that the Pseudomonadales, particularly Pseudomonas species, represent one of the largest bacterial orders associated with salmon eggs from a commercial hatchery. Among the Pseudomonas species isolated from salmon eggs, significantly more biosurfactant producers were retrieved from healthy salmon eggs than from Saprolegnia-infected eggs. Subsequent in vivo activity bioassays showed that Pseudomonas isolate H6 significantly reduced salmon egg mortality caused by Saprolegnia diclina. Live colony mass spectrometry showed that strain H6 produces a viscosin-like lipopeptide surfactant. This biosurfactant inhibited growth of Saprolegnia in vitro, but no significant protection of salmon eggs against Saprolegniosis was observed. These results indicate that live inocula of aquatic Pseudomonas strains, instead of their bioactive compound, can provide new (micro)biological and sustainable means to mitigate oomycete diseases in aquaculture. PMID:26317985

  15. The challenges of good governance in the aquatic animal health sector.

    PubMed

    Kahn, S; Mylrea, G; Yaacov, K Bar

    2012-08-01

    Animal health is fundamental to efficient animal production and, therefore, to food security and human health. This holds true for both terrestrial and aquatic animals. Although partnership between producers and governmental services is vital for effective animal health programmes, many key activities are directly carried out by governmental services. Noting the need to improve the governance of such services in many developing countries, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), using the OIE Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services, conducts assessments of Veterinary Services and Aquatic Animal Health Services (AAHS) to help strengthen governance and support more effective delivery of animal health programmes. While good governance and the tools to improve governance in the aquatic animal sector are largely based on the same principles as those that apply in the terrestrial animal sector, there are some specific challenges in the aquatic sector that have a bearing on the governance of services in this area. For example, the aquaculture industry has experienced rapid growth and the use of novel species is increasing; there are important gaps in scientific knowledge on diseases of aquatic animals; there is a need for more information on sustainable production; the level of participation of the veterinary profession in aquatic animal health is low; and there is a lack of standardisation in the training of aquatic animal health professionals. Aquaculture development can be a means of alleviating poverty and hunger in developing countries. However, animal diseases, adverse environmental impacts and food safety risks threaten to limit this development. Strengthening AAHS governance and, in consequence, aquatic animal health programmes, is the best way to ensure a dynamic and sustainable aquaculture sector in future. This paper discusses the specific challenges to AAHS governance and some OIE initiatives to help Member Countries to address

  16. The challenges of good governance in the aquatic animal health sector.

    PubMed

    Kahn, S; Mylrea, G; Yaacov, K Bar

    2012-08-01

    Animal health is fundamental to efficient animal production and, therefore, to food security and human health. This holds true for both terrestrial and aquatic animals. Although partnership between producers and governmental services is vital for effective animal health programmes, many key activities are directly carried out by governmental services. Noting the need to improve the governance of such services in many developing countries, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), using the OIE Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services, conducts assessments of Veterinary Services and Aquatic Animal Health Services (AAHS) to help strengthen governance and support more effective delivery of animal health programmes. While good governance and the tools to improve governance in the aquatic animal sector are largely based on the same principles as those that apply in the terrestrial animal sector, there are some specific challenges in the aquatic sector that have a bearing on the governance of services in this area. For example, the aquaculture industry has experienced rapid growth and the use of novel species is increasing; there are important gaps in scientific knowledge on diseases of aquatic animals; there is a need for more information on sustainable production; the level of participation of the veterinary profession in aquatic animal health is low; and there is a lack of standardisation in the training of aquatic animal health professionals. Aquaculture development can be a means of alleviating poverty and hunger in developing countries. However, animal diseases, adverse environmental impacts and food safety risks threaten to limit this development. Strengthening AAHS governance and, in consequence, aquatic animal health programmes, is the best way to ensure a dynamic and sustainable aquaculture sector in future. This paper discusses the specific challenges to AAHS governance and some OIE initiatives to help Member Countries to address

  17. Adverse reactions to fragrances. A clinical review.

    PubMed

    de Groot, A C; Frosch, P J

    1997-02-01

    This article reviews side-effects of fragrance materials present in cosmetics with emphasis on clinical aspects: epidemiology, types of adverse reactions, clinical picture, diagnostic procedures, and the sensitizers. Considering the ubiquitous occurrence of fragrance materials, the risk of side-effects is small. In absolute numbers, however, fragrance allergy is common, affecting approximately 1% of the general population. Although a detailed profile of patients sensitized to fragrances needs to be elucidated, common features of contact allergy are: axillary dermatitis, dermatitis of the face (including the eyelids) and neck, well-circumscribed patches in areas of "dabbing-on" perfumes (wrists, behind the ears) and (aggravation of) hand eczema. Depending on the degree of sensitivity, the severity of dermatitis may range from mild to severe with dissemination and even erythroderma. Airborne or "connubial" contact dermatitis should always be suspected. Other less frequent adverse reactions to fragrances are photocontact dermatitis, immediate contact reactions and pigmentary changes. The fragrance mix, although very useful for the detection of sensitive patients, both causes false-positive and false-negative reactions, and detects only 70% of perfume-allergic patients. Therefore, future research should be directed at increasing the sensitivity and the specificity of the mix. Relevance is said to be established in 50-65% of positive reactions, but accurate criteria are needed. Suggestions are made for large-scale investigation of several fragrances on the basis of literature data and frequency of use in cosmetics. The literature on adverse reactions to balsam of Peru (an indicator for fragrance sensitivity), essential oils (which currently appear to be used more in aromatherapy than in perfumery) and on fragrances used as flavours and spices in foods and beverages is not discussed in detail, but pertinent side-effects data are tabulated and relevant literature is

  18. ORAL ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS TO CARDIOVASCULAR DRUGS.

    PubMed

    Torpet, Lis Andersen; Kragelund, Camilla; Reibel, Jesper; Nauntofte, Birgitte

    2004-01-01

    A great many cardiovascular drugs (CVDs) have the potential to induce adverse reactions in the mouth. The prevalence of such reactions is not known, however, since many are asymptomatic and therefore are believed to go unreported. As more drugs are marketed and the population includes an increasing number of elderly, the number of drug prescriptions is also expected to increase. Accordingly, it can be predicted that the occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), including the oral ones (ODRs), will continue to increase. ODRs affect the oral mucous membrane, saliva production, and taste. The pathogenesis of these reactions, especially the mucosal ones, is largely unknown and appears to involve complex interactions among the drug in question, other medications, the patient's underlying disease, genetics, and life-style factors. Along this line, there is a growing interest in the association between pharmacogenetic polymorphism and ADRs. Research focusing on polymorphism of the cytochrome P450 system (CYPs) has become increasingly important and has highlighted the intra- and inter-individual responses to drug exposure. This system has recently been suggested to be an underlying candidate regarding the pathogenesis of ADRs in the oral mucous membrane. This review focuses on those CVDs reported to induce ODRs. In addition, it will provide data on specific drugs or drug classes, and outline and discuss recent research on possible mechanisms linking ADRs to drug metabolism patterns. Abbreviations used will be as follows: ACEI, ACE inhibitor; ADR, adverse drug reaction; ANA, antinuclear antigen; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blocker; BAB, beta-adrenergic blocker; CCB, calcium-channel blocker; CDR, cutaneous drug reaction; CVD, cardiovascular drug; CYP, cytochrome P450 enzyme; EM, erythema multiforme; FDE, fixed drug eruption; I, inhibitor of CYP isoform activity; HMG-CoA, hydroxymethyl-glutaryl coenzyme A; NAT, N-acetyltransferase; ODR, oral drug reaction; RDM, reactive

  19. RESEARCH: Effects of Recent Volcanic Eruptions on Aquatic Habitat in the Drift River, Alaska, USA: Implications at Other Cook Inlet Region Volcanoes.

    PubMed

    DORAVA; MILNER

    1999-02-01

    / Numerous drainages supporting productive salmon habitat are surrounded by active volcanoes on the west side of Cook Inlet in south-central Alaska. Eruptions have caused massive quantities of flowing water and sediment to enter the river channels emanating from glaciers and snowfields on these volcanoes. Extensive damage to riparian and aquatic habitat has commonly resulted, and benthic macroinvertebrate and salmonid communities can be affected. Because of the economic importance of Alaska's fisheries, detrimental effects on salmonid habitat can have significant economic implications. The Drift River drains glaciers on the northern and eastern flanks of Redoubt Volcano. During and following eruptions in 1989-1990, severe physical disturbances to the habitat features of the river adversely affected the fishery. Frequent eruptions at other Cook Inlet region volcanoes exemplify the potential effects of volcanic activity on Alaska's important commercial, sport, and subsistence fisheries. Few studies have documented the recovery of aquatic habitat following volcanic eruptions. The eruptions of Redoubt Volcano in 1989-1990 offered an opportunity to examine the recovery of the macroinvertebrate community. Macroinvertebrate community composition and structure in the Drift River were similar in both undisturbed and recently disturbed sites. Additionally, macroinvertebrate samples from sites in nearby undisturbed streams were highly similar to those from some Drift River sites. This similarity and the agreement between the Drift River macroinvertebrate community composition and that predicted by a qualitative model of typical macroinvertebrate communities in glacier-fed rivers indicate that the Drift River macroinvertebrate community is recovering five years after the disturbances associated with the most recent eruptions of Redoubt Volcano. KEY WORDS: Aquatic habitat; Volcanoes; Lahars; Lahar-runout flows; Macroinvertebrates; Community structure; Community composition

  20. Successful aquatic animal disease emergency programmes.

    PubMed

    Håstein, T; Hill, B J; Winton, J R

    1999-04-01

    The authors provide examples of emergency programmes which have been successful in eradicating or controlling certain diseases of aquatic animals. The paper is divided into four parts. The first part describes the initial isolation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) virus in North America in the autumn of 1988 from feral adult chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) returning for spawning. The fish disease control policies at both State and Federal levels in the United States of America required quarantine and emergency eradication measures upon the finding of certain exotic fish pathogens, including VHS virus. The procedures for emergency plans, destruction of stocks and disinfection of facilities are described, as well as challenge experiments with the North American strains of VHS virus and the detection of the virus in marine fish species (cod [Gadus macrocephalus] and herring [Clupea harengus pallasi]) in the Pacific Ocean. The second part of the paper outlines the aquatic animal legislation in Great Britain and within the European Union, in regard to contingency plans, initial investigations, action on the suspicion of notifiable disease and action on confirmation of infection. The legal description is followed by an account of an outbreak of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) in Great Britain, including the stamping-out process at the affected farm and investigations conducted to screen other farms in the vicinity for possible infection. The third part provides a historical review of the build-up of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) in Norway and the attempts to control the disease using legal measures in the absence of detailed knowledge of the aetiology, epizootiology, pathogenesis, etc. of the disease. The measures taken show that the spread of ISA can be controlled using restrictions on the movement of fish, disinfection procedures, etc. However, acceptance and understanding of the chosen strategy

  1. Pollutants as developmental toxicants in aquatic organisms.

    PubMed Central

    Weis, J S; Weis, P

    1987-01-01

    Pollutants, by disrupting metabolic processes, can interfere with development, and, at critical periods of development, can act as teratogens. Such interference with normal development can be used as a bioassay. Some screening tests are based on this phenomenon. As teratogens, pollutants are fairly nonspecific. Many different classes may elicit the same developmental responses. Mechanisms of teratogenicity include disruption of mitosis, interference with transcription and translation, metabolic disturbances in energy utilization, and nutritional deficits. These in turn interfere with cell interactions, migration, and growth. In aquatic organisms, environmental conditions can be critical. Interactions of pollutant effects with salinity and with temperature have been reported. Interactions between toxicants have also been studied; both synergism and antagonism have been reported. Most reports of teratogenesis have been qualitative. Quantitation has usually been in the form of percentages of embryos affected, but when severity of effect is indexed, more critical analysis is allowed. When effects of other developmental processes such as growth are analyzed, quantitation is readily achieved. Regeneration is an especially useful model of both differentiation and growth. These two components of regeneration can be separately analyzed. Dose-response relationships are readily apparent. In comparison to mammalian embryos, the use of embryos of many aquatic species for testing toxicants has certain advantages, including lower cost and maintenance and shorter development times. They respond to many of the same teratogens. A special advantage is availability for continual examination during development so that abnormalities can be observed and recorded as they arise. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. PMID:3297667

  2. Six-year trajectories of post-traumatic stress and severe psychological distress symptoms and associations with timing of trauma exposure, ongoing adversity and sense of injustice: a latent transition analysis of a community cohort in conflict-affected Timor-Leste

    PubMed Central

    Rees, S; Steel, Z; Tam, N; Soares, Z; Soares, C; Silove, DM

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify the 6-year trajectories of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and psychological distress symptoms, and examine for associations with timing of trauma exposure, ongoing adversity and with the sense of injustice in conflict-affected Timor-Leste. Setting A whole-of-household survey was conducted in 2004 and 2010 in Dili, the capital of Timor-Leste. Participants 1022 adults were followed up over 6 years (retention rate 84.5%). Interviews were conducted by field workers applying measures of traumatic events (TEs), ongoing adversity, a sense of injustice, PTS symptoms and psychological distress. Results Latent transition analysis supported a 3-class longitudinal model (psychological distress, comorbid symptoms and low symptoms). We derived 4 composite trajectories comprising recovery (20.8%), a persisting morbidity trajectory (7.2%), an incident trajectory (37.2%) and a low-symptom trajectory (34.7%). Compared with the low-symptom trajectory, the persistent and incident trajectories reported greater stress arising from poverty and family conflict, higher TE exposure for 2 historical periods, and a sense of injustice for 2 historical periods. The persistent trajectory was unique in reporting greater TE exposure in the Indonesian occupation, whereas the incident trajectory reported greater TE exposure during the later internal conflict that occurred between baseline and follow-up. Compared with the low-symptom trajectory, the incident trajectory reported a greater sense of injustice relating to the periods of the Indonesian occupation and independence. The persistent trajectory was characterised by a sense of injustice relating to the internal conflict and contemporary times. The recovery trajectory was characterised by the absence of these risk factors, the only difference from the low-symptom trajectory being that the former reported a sense of injustice for the period surrounding independence. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the timing

  3. Aquatic Debris Detection Using Embedded Camera Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Wang, Dianhong; Lu, Qian; Luo, Dapeng; Fang, Wu

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic debris monitoring is of great importance to human health, aquatic habitats and water transport. In this paper, we first introduce the prototype of an aquatic sensor node equipped with an embedded camera sensor. Based on this sensing platform, we propose a fast and accurate debris detection algorithm. Our method is specifically designed based on compressive sensing theory to give full consideration to the unique challenges in aquatic environments, such as waves, swaying reflections, and tight energy budget. To upload debris images, we use an efficient sparse recovery algorithm in which only a few linear measurements need to be transmitted for image reconstruction. Besides, we implement the host software and test the debris detection algorithm on realistically deployed aquatic sensor nodes. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach is reliable and feasible for debris detection using camera sensors in aquatic environments. PMID:25647741

  4. Beaver herbivory on aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Parker, John D; Caudill, Christopher C; Hay, Mark E

    2007-04-01

    Herbivores have strong impacts on marine and terrestrial plant communities, but their impact is less well studied in benthic freshwater systems. For example, North American beavers (Castor canadensis) eat both woody and non-woody plants and focus almost exclusively on the latter in summer months, yet their impacts on non-woody plants are generally attributed to ecosystem engineering rather than herbivory. Here, we excluded beavers from areas of two beaver wetlands for over 2 years and demonstrated that beaver herbivory reduced aquatic plant biomass by 60%, plant litter by 75%, and dramatically shifted plant species composition. The perennial forb lizard's tail (Saururus cernuus) comprised less than 5% of plant biomass in areas open to beaver grazing but greater than 50% of plant biomass in beaver exclusions. This shift was likely due to direct herbivory, as beavers preferentially consumed lizard's tail over other plants in a field feeding assay. Beaver herbivory also reduced the abundance of the invasive aquatic plant Myriophyllum aquaticum by nearly 90%, consistent with recent evidence that native generalist herbivores provide biotic resistance against exotic plant invasions. Beaver herbivory also had indirect effects on plant interactions in this community. The palatable plant lizard's tail was 3 times more frequent and 10 times more abundant inside woolgrass (Scirpus cyperinus) tussocks than in spatially paired locations lacking tussocks. When the protective foliage of the woolgrass was removed without exclusion cages, beavers consumed nearly half of the lizard's tail leaves within 2 weeks. In contrast, leaf abundance increased by 73-93% in the treatments retaining woolgrass or protected by a cage. Thus, woolgrass tussocks were as effective as cages at excluding beaver foraging and provided lizard's tail plants an associational refuge from beaver herbivory. These results suggest that beaver herbivory has strong direct and indirect impacts on populations and

  5. Marine envenomations and aquatic dermatology.

    PubMed

    Soppe, G G

    1989-08-01

    Jellyfish stings are usually mild except those caused by species in the South Pacific. The box jellyfish can produce a severe cardiorespiratory insult. The sting of the Portuguese man-of-war is more potent than that of the common jellyfish. The Indo-Pacific area is the source of the most venomous bony fish. Many injuries can be avoided by wearing shoes when walking in shallow water or tide pools. Aquatic-related skin infections may involve unusual organisms. Swimmer's itch, a disease of freshwater bathing, is caused by cercariae. Seabather's eruption produces a rash in swimsuit-covered areas; the etiology is not clear. PMID:2569260

  6. Population approaches to aquatic toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, M.B.

    1981-10-01

    Field studies in which age-specific survivorship and fecundity are measured can provide data for the validation of laboratory studies conducted to assess the effects of toxic materials on aquatic species. Comparison of the variability of age-specific survivorship and fecundity in polluted versus nonpolluted areas would provide insight into the consequences of pollution at the population level. Techniques which permit prediction of population structure and growth from age-specific survivorship and fecundity schedules are described. These techniques include the life table and the Leslie matrix. Examples of population studies in which these techniques may be applied are given.

  7. Dicer Functions in Aquatic Species

    PubMed Central

    Kitagishi, Yasuko; Okumura, Naoko; Yoshida, Hitomi; Tateishi, Chika; Nishimura, Yuri; Matsuda, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    Dicer is an RNase III enzyme with two catalytic subunits, which catalyzes the cleavage of double-stranded RNA to small interfering RNAs and micro-RNAs, which are mainly involved in invasive nucleic acid defense and endogenous genes regulation. Dicer is abundantly expressed in embryos, indicating the importance of the protein in early embryonic development. In addition, Dicer is thought to be involved in defense mechanism against foreign nucleic acids such as viruses. This paper will mainly focus on the recent progress of Dicer-related research and discuss potential RNA interference pathways in aquatic species. PMID:22312469

  8. The NEON Aquatic Network: Expanding the Availability of Biogeochemical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, J. M.; Bohall, C.; Fitzgerald, M.; Utz, R.; Parker, S. M.; Roehm, C. L.; Goodman, K. J.; McLaughlin, B.

    2013-12-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are facing unprecedented pressure from climate change and land-use practices. Invasive species, whether plant, animal, insect or microbe present additional threat to aquatic ecosystem services. There are significant scientific challenges to understanding how these forces will interact to affect aquatic ecosystems, as the flow of energy and materials in the environment is driven by multivariate and non-linear biogeochemical cycles. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will collect and provide observational data across multiple scales. Sites were selected to maximize representation of major North American ecosystems using a multivariate geographic clustering method that partitioned the continental US, AK, HI, and Puerto Rico into 20 eco-climatic domains. The NEON data collection systems and methods are designed to yield standardized, near real-time data subjected to rigorous quality controls prior to public dissemination through an online data portal. NEON will collect data for 30 years to facilitate spatial-temporal analysis of environmental responses and drivers of ecosystem change, ranging from local through continental scales. Here we present the NEON Aquatic Network, a multi-parameter network consisting of a combination of in situ sensor and observational data. This network will provide data to examine biogeochemical, biological, hydrologic and geomorphic metrics at 36 sites, which are a combination of small 1st/2nd order wadeable streams, large rivers and lakes. A typical NEON Aquatic site will host up to two in-stream sensor sets designed to collect near-continuous water quality data (e.g. pH/ORP, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, CDOM) along with up to 8 shallow groundwater monitoring wells (level, temp., cond.), and a local meteorological station (e.g. 2D wind speed, PAR, barometric pressure, temperature, net radiation). These coupled sensor suites will be complemented by observational data (e.g. water

  9. Hazard identification and risk characterization of bisphenols A, F and AF to aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Tišler, Tatjana; Krel, Alja; Gerželj, Urška; Erjavec, Boštjan; Dolenc, Marija Sollner; Pintar, Albin

    2016-05-01

    Production of bisphenol A (BPA) analogues such as bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol AF (BPAF) has recently increased, due to clear evidence of adverse effects of BPA on humans and wildlife. Bisphenols (BPs) have already been released into aquatic environment without previous available information about potential adverse effects of BPs and their potential risk to aquatic ecosystems. In this study, lethal and sublethal effects of BPF and BPAF to bacteria, algae, crustacea and fish embryos were investigated and the results were compared to the adverse effects obtained for BPA. We found that BPAF was the most toxic compound to Daphnia magna, Danio rerio and Desmodesmus subspicatus; the lowest 72 h EC50 (median effective concentration) and 21 d NOEC (no observed effect concentration) values were determined at 2.2 mg/L regarding zebrafish hatching success and 0.23 mg/L of BPAF obtained for growth and reproduction of water fleas, respectively. In most cases, BPA was more toxic to D. magna, D. rerio and D. subspicatus in comparison to BPF, but pigmentation of zebrafish embryos after 48 h of exposure and reproduction of water fleas after 21-day D. magna reproductive test exposure to BPF were much more impaired. Risk quotients (measured environmental concentration/21 d NOEC) showed that BPA, BPF and BPAF are recently not chronically hazardous to the survival, reproduction and growth of water fleas in surface waters. On the other hand, we importantly show that currently present BPAF concentrations in surface waters could cause a potential ecological risk to aquatic organisms. In the near future, higher concentrations of BPF and BPAF in surface waters are anticipated and for this reason further testing using test systems with various aquatic species and endpoints are needed to provide additional information about toxic impacts of BPF and BPAF on aquatic biota.

  10. Hazard identification and risk characterization of bisphenols A, F and AF to aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Tišler, Tatjana; Krel, Alja; Gerželj, Urška; Erjavec, Boštjan; Dolenc, Marija Sollner; Pintar, Albin

    2016-05-01

    Production of bisphenol A (BPA) analogues such as bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol AF (BPAF) has recently increased, due to clear evidence of adverse effects of BPA on humans and wildlife. Bisphenols (BPs) have already been released into aquatic environment without previous available information about potential adverse effects of BPs and their potential risk to aquatic ecosystems. In this study, lethal and sublethal effects of BPF and BPAF to bacteria, algae, crustacea and fish embryos were investigated and the results were compared to the adverse effects obtained for BPA. We found that BPAF was the most toxic compound to Daphnia magna, Danio rerio and Desmodesmus subspicatus; the lowest 72 h EC50 (median effective concentration) and 21 d NOEC (no observed effect concentration) values were determined at 2.2 mg/L regarding zebrafish hatching success and 0.23 mg/L of BPAF obtained for growth and reproduction of water fleas, respectively. In most cases, BPA was more toxic to D. magna, D. rerio and D. subspicatus in comparison to BPF, but pigmentation of zebrafish embryos after 48 h of exposure and reproduction of water fleas after 21-day D. magna reproductive test exposure to BPF were much more impaired. Risk quotients (measured environmental concentration/21 d NOEC) showed that BPA, BPF and BPAF are recently not chronically hazardous to the survival, reproduction and growth of water fleas in surface waters. On the other hand, we importantly show that currently present BPAF concentrations in surface waters could cause a potential ecological risk to aquatic organisms. In the near future, higher concentrations of BPF and BPAF in surface waters are anticipated and for this reason further testing using test systems with various aquatic species and endpoints are needed to provide additional information about toxic impacts of BPF and BPAF on aquatic biota. PMID:26957022

  11. Lysosomes and autophagy in aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Moore, Michael N; Kohler, Angela; Lowe, David; Viarengo, Aldo

    2008-01-01

    The lysosomal-autophagic system appears to be a common target for many environmental pollutants, as lysosomes accumulate many toxic metals and organic xenobiotics, which perturb normal function and damage the lysosomal membrane. In fact, autophagic reactions frequently involving reduced lysosomal membrane integrity or stability appear to be effective generic indicators of cellular well-being in eukaryotes: in social amoebae (slime mold), mollusks and fish, autophagy/membrane destabilization is correlated with many stress and toxicological responses and pathological reactions. Prognostic use of adverse lysosomal and autophagic reactions to environmental pollutants can be used for predicting cellular dysfunction and health in aquatic animals, such as shellfish and fish, which are extensively used as sensitive bioindicators in monitoring ecosystem health; and also represent a significant food resource for at least 20% of the global human population. Explanatory frameworks for prediction of pollutant impact on health have been derived encompassing a conceptual mechanistic model linking lysosomal damage and autophagic dysfunction with injury to cells and tissues. Methods are described for tracking in vivo autophagy of fluorescently labeled cytoplasmic proteins, measuring degradation of radiolabeled intracellular proteins and morphometric measurement of lysosomal/cytoplasmic volume ratio. Additional methods for the determination of lysosomal membrane stability in lower animals are also described, which can be applied to frozen tissue sections, protozoans and isolated cells in vivo. Experimental and simulated results have also indicated that nutritional deprivation (analogous in marine mussels to caloric restriction)-induced autophagy has a protective function against toxic effects mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Finally, coupled measurement of lysosomal-autophagic reactions and simulation modelling is proposed as a practical toolbox for predicting toxic

  12. [Adverse ocular effects of vaccinations].

    PubMed

    Ness, T; Hengel, H

    2016-07-01

    Vaccinations are very effective measures for prevention of infections but are also associated with a long list of possible side effects. Adverse ocular effects following vaccination have been rarely reported or considered to be related to vaccinations. Conjunctivitis is a frequent sequel of various vaccinations. Oculorespiratory syndrome and serum sickness syndrome are considered to be related to influenza vaccinations. The risk of reactivation or initiation of autoimmune diseases (e. g. uveitis) cannot be excluded but has not yet been proven. Overall the benefit of vaccination outweighs the possible but very low risk of ocular side effects.

  13. [Adverse ocular effects of vaccinations].

    PubMed

    Ness, T; Hengel, H

    2016-07-01

    Vaccinations are very effective measures for prevention of infections but are also associated with a long list of possible side effects. Adverse ocular effects following vaccination have been rarely reported or considered to be related to vaccinations. Conjunctivitis is a frequent sequel of various vaccinations. Oculorespiratory syndrome and serum sickness syndrome are considered to be related to influenza vaccinations. The risk of reactivation or initiation of autoimmune diseases (e. g. uveitis) cannot be excluded but has not yet been proven. Overall the benefit of vaccination outweighs the possible but very low risk of ocular side effects. PMID:27357302

  14. Adverse Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan; Arumugham, Shyam Sundar; Thirthalli, Jagadisha

    2016-09-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment commonly used for depression and other major psychiatric disorders. We discuss potential adverse effects (AEs) associated with ECT and strategies for their prevention and management. Common acute AEs include headache, nausea, myalgia, and confusion; these are self-limiting and are managed symptomatically. Serious but uncommon AEs include cardiovascular, pulmonary, and cerebrovascular events; these may be minimized with screening for risk factors and by physiologic monitoring. Although most cognitive AEs of ECT are short-lasting, troublesome retrograde amnesia may rarely persist. Modifications of and improvements in treatment techniques minimize cognitive and other AEs. PMID:27514303

  15. Aquatic ecotoxicity effect of engineered aminoclay nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Choi, Moon-Hee; Hwang, Yuhoon; Lee, Hyun Uk; Kim, Bohwa; Lee, Go-Woon; Oh, You-Kwan; Andersen, Henrik R; Lee, Young-Chul; Huh, Yun Suk

    2014-04-01

    In the present study the short term aquatic ecotoxicity of water-solubilized aminoclay nanoparticles (ANPs) of ~51±31 nm average hydrodynamic diameter was characterized. An ecotoxicological evaluation was carried out utilizing standard test organisms of different phyla and trophic levels namely the eukaryotic microalga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the crustacean Daphnia magna and the bioluminescent marine bacteria Vibrio fisheri. The effective inhibitory concentration (EC50) with 95% confidence limits for the microalga was 1.29 mg/L (0.72-1.82) for the average growth rate and 0.26 mg/L (0.23-0.31) for the cell yield. The entrapping of algal cells in aggregates of ANP may play a major role in the growth inhibition of algae P. subcapitata. No inhibition was observed for V. fisheri up to 25,000 mg/L (no observed effect concentration; NOEC). For D. magna no immobilization was observed in a limit test with 100 mg/L in 24 h while in 48 h a single animal was immobilized (5% inhibition). Correspondingly, the NOEC of ANP in 24 h was 100 mg/L and the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) for 48 h was 100 mg/L. Therefore it can be considered to use ANP as an algal-inhibition agent at concentrations <100 mg/L without affecting or only mildly affecting other organisms including zooplanktons, but further studies on the environmental fate and chronic toxicity of ANP is needed to confirm this. PMID:24580819

  16. Aquatic versus terrestrial attachment: Water makes a difference

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Adam P

    2014-01-01

    Summary Animal attachment to a substrate is very different in terrestrial and aquatic environments. We discuss variations in both the forces acting to detach animals and forces of attachment. While in a terrestrial environment gravity is commonly understood as the most important detachment force, under submerged conditions gravity is nearly balanced out by buoyancy and therefore matters little. In contrast, flow forces such as drag and lift are of higher importance in an aquatic environment. Depending on the flow conditions, flow forces can reach much higher values than gravity and vary in magnitude and direction. For many of the attachment mechanisms (adhesion including glue, friction, suction and mechanical principles such as hook, lock, clamp and spacer) significant differences have to be considered under water. For example, the main principles of dry adhesion, van der Waals forces and chemical bonding, which make a gecko stick to the ceiling, are weak under submerged conditions. Capillary forces are very important for wet adhesion, e.g., in terrestrial beetles or flies, but usually do not occur under water. Viscous forces are likely an important contributor to adhesion under water in some mobile animals such as torrent frogs and mayflies, but there are still many open questions to be answered. Glue is the dominant attachment mechanism of sessile aquatic animals and the aquatic realm presents many challenges to this mode of attachment. Viscous forces and the lack of surface tension under submerged conditions also affect frictional interactions in the aquatic environment. Moreover, the limitation of suction to the pressure difference at vacuum conditions can be ameliorated under water, due to the increasing pressure with water depth. PMID:25671138

  17. Global ecological impacts of invasive species in aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Belinda; Clavero, Miguel; Sánchez, Marta I; Vilà, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of invasive species, which often differ functionally from the components of the recipient community, generates ecological impacts that propagate along the food web. This review aims to determine how consistent the impacts of aquatic invasions are across taxa and habitats. To that end, we present a global meta-analysis from 151 publications (733 cases), covering a wide range of invaders (primary producers, filter collectors, omnivores and predators), resident aquatic community components (macrophytes, phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic invertebrates and fish) and habitats (rivers, lakes and estuaries). Our synthesis suggests a strong negative influence of invasive species on the abundance of aquatic communities, particularly macrophytes, zooplankton and fish. In contrast, there was no general evidence for a decrease in species diversity in invaded habitats, suggesting a time lag between rapid abundance changes and local extinctions. Invaded habitats showed increased water turbidity, nitrogen and organic matter concentration, which are related to the capacity of invaders to transform habitats and increase eutrophication. The expansion of invasive macrophytes caused the largest decrease in fish abundance, the filtering activity of filter collectors depleted planktonic communities, omnivores (including both facultative and obligate herbivores) were responsible for the greatest decline in macrophyte abundance, and benthic invertebrates were most negatively affected by the introduction of new predators. These impacts were relatively consistent across habitats and experimental approaches. Based on our results, we propose a framework of positive and negative links between invasive species at four trophic positions and the five different components of recipient communities. This framework incorporates both direct biotic interactions (predation, competition, grazing) and indirect changes to the water physicochemical conditions mediated by invaders (habitat

  18. Global ecological impacts of invasive species in aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Belinda; Clavero, Miguel; Sánchez, Marta I; Vilà, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of invasive species, which often differ functionally from the components of the recipient community, generates ecological impacts that propagate along the food web. This review aims to determine how consistent the impacts of aquatic invasions are across taxa and habitats. To that end, we present a global meta-analysis from 151 publications (733 cases), covering a wide range of invaders (primary producers, filter collectors, omnivores and predators), resident aquatic community components (macrophytes, phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic invertebrates and fish) and habitats (rivers, lakes and estuaries). Our synthesis suggests a strong negative influence of invasive species on the abundance of aquatic communities, particularly macrophytes, zooplankton and fish. In contrast, there was no general evidence for a decrease in species diversity in invaded habitats, suggesting a time lag between rapid abundance changes and local extinctions. Invaded habitats showed increased water turbidity, nitrogen and organic matter concentration, which are related to the capacity of invaders to transform habitats and increase eutrophication. The expansion of invasive macrophytes caused the largest decrease in fish abundance, the filtering activity of filter collectors depleted planktonic communities, omnivores (including both facultative and obligate herbivores) were responsible for the greatest decline in macrophyte abundance, and benthic invertebrates were most negatively affected by the introduction of new predators. These impacts were relatively consistent across habitats and experimental approaches. Based on our results, we propose a framework of positive and negative links between invasive species at four trophic positions and the five different components of recipient communities. This framework incorporates both direct biotic interactions (predation, competition, grazing) and indirect changes to the water physicochemical conditions mediated by invaders (habitat

  19. Aquatic pathways model to predict the fate of phenolic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Aaberg, R.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Mellinger, P.J.

    1983-04-01

    Organic materials released from energy-related activities could affect human health and the environment. To better assess possible impacts, we developed a model to predict the fate of spills or discharges of pollutants into flowing or static bodies of fresh water. A computer code, Aquatic Pathways Model (APM), was written to implement the model. The computer programs use compartmental analysis to simulate aquatic ecosystems. The APM estimates the concentrations of chemicals in fish tissue, water and sediment, and is therefore useful for assessing exposure to humans through aquatic pathways. The APM will consider any aquatic pathway for which the user has transport data. Additionally, APM will estimate transport rates from physical and chemical properties of chemicals between several key compartments. The major pathways considered are biodegradation, fish and sediment uptake, photolysis, and evaporation. The model has been implemented with parameters for distribution of phenols, an important class of compounds found in the water-soluble fractions of coal liquids. Current modeling efforts show that, in comparison with many pesticides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), the lighter phenolics (the cresols) are not persistent in the environment. The properties of heavier molecular weight phenolics (indanols, naphthols) are not well enough understood at this time to make similar judgements. For the twelve phenolics studied, biodegradation appears to be the major pathway for elimination from aquatic environments. A pond system simulation (using APM) of a spill of solvent refined coal (SRC-II) materials indicates that phenol, cresols, and other single cyclic phenolics are degraded to 16 to 25 percent of their original concentrations within 30 hours. Adsorption of these compounds into sediments and accumulation by fish was minor.

  20. Aquatic versus terrestrial attachment: Water makes a difference.

    PubMed

    Ditsche, Petra; Summers, Adam P

    2014-01-01

    Animal attachment to a substrate is very different in terrestrial and aquatic environments. We discuss variations in both the forces acting to detach animals and forces of attachment. While in a terrestrial environment gravity is commonly understood as the most important detachment force, under submerged conditions gravity is nearly balanced out by buoyancy and therefore matters little. In contrast, flow forces such as drag and lift are of higher importance in an aquatic environment. Depending on the flow conditions, flow forces can reach much higher values than gravity and vary in magnitude and direction. For many of the attachment mechanisms (adhesion including glue, friction, suction and mechanical principles such as hook, lock, clamp and spacer) significant differences have to be considered under water. For example, the main principles of dry adhesion, van der Waals forces and chemical bonding, which make a gecko stick to the ceiling, are weak under submerged conditions. Capillary forces are very important for wet adhesion, e.g., in terrestrial beetles or flies, but usually do not occur under water. Viscous forces are likely an important contributor to adhesion under water in some mobile animals such as torrent frogs and mayflies, but there are still many open questions to be answered. Glue is the dominant attachment mechanism of sessile aquatic animals and the aquatic realm presents many challenges to this mode of attachment. Viscous forces and the lack of surface tension under submerged conditions also affect frictional interactions in the aquatic environment. Moreover, the limitation of suction to the pressure difference at vacuum conditions can be ameliorated under water, due to the increasing pressure with water depth. PMID:25671138

  1. Cutaneous Adverse Effects of Neurologic Medications.

    PubMed

    Bahrani, Eman; Nunneley, Chloe E; Hsu, Sylvia; Kass, Joseph S

    2016-03-01

    Life-threatening and benign drug reactions occur frequently in the skin, affecting 8 % of the general population and 2-3 % of all hospitalized patients, emphasizing the need for physicians to effectively recognize and manage patients with drug-induced eruptions. Neurologic medications represent a vast array of drug classes with cutaneous side effects. Approximately 7 % of the United States (US) adult population is affected by adult-onset neurological disorders, reflecting a large number of patients on neurologic drug therapies. This review elucidates the cutaneous reactions associated with medications approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat the following neurologic pathologies: Alzheimer disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, epilepsy, Huntington disease, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson disease, and pseudobulbar affect. A search of the literature was performed using the specific FDA-approved drug or drug classes in combination with the terms 'dermatologic,' 'cutaneous,' 'skin,' or 'rash.' Both PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were utilized, with side effects ranging from those cited in randomized controlled trials to case reports. It behooves neurologists, dermatologists, and primary care physicians to be aware of the recorded cutaneous adverse reactions and their severity for proper management and potential need to withdraw the offending medication.

  2. Passive electroreception in aquatic mammals.

    PubMed

    Czech-Damal, Nicole U; Dehnhardt, Guido; Manger, Paul; Hanke, Wolf

    2013-06-01

    Passive electroreception is a sensory modality in many aquatic vertebrates, predominantly fishes. Using passive electroreception, the animal can detect and analyze electric fields in its environment. Most electric fields in the environment are of biogenic origin, often produced by prey items. These electric fields can be relatively strong and can be a highly valuable source of information for a predator, as underlined by the fact that electroreception has evolved multiple times independently. The only mammals that possess electroreception are the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and the echidnas (Tachyglossidae) from the monotreme order, and, recently discovered, the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) from the cetacean order. Here we review the morphology, function and origin of the electroreceptors in the two aquatic species, the platypus and the Guiana dolphin. The morphology shows certain similarities, also similar to ampullary electroreceptors in fishes, that provide cues for the search for electroreceptors in more vertebrate and invertebrate species. The function of these organs appears to be very similar. Both species search for prey animals in low-visibility conditions or while digging in the substrate, and sensory thresholds are within one order of magnitude. The electroreceptors in both species are innervated by the trigeminal nerve. The origin of the accessory structures, however, is completely different; electroreceptors in the platypus have developed from skin glands, in the Guiana dolphin, from the vibrissal system. PMID:23187861

  3. Effects of metals on growth and sporulation of aquatic fungi.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Maria M; Cássio, Fernanda

    2010-07-01

    Aquatic hyphomycetes are a relevant group of fungi that play a crucial role as intermediaries between plant detritus and invertebrates in clean or metal-polluted streams. In this study, we investigated the effects of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd on the growth and sporulation of several aquatic hyphomycete species. Effects of these metals on growth were assessed in solid and liquid media with different compositions [1% malt extract (ME) and a mineral medium supplemented with vitamins and 2% glucose (MK)], and fungal sensitivity to metals was compared. The exposure to Zn or Cd inhibited the sporulation of Heliscus submersus and Tricladium chaetocladium, with these effects being stronger in the latter species. In solid medium, mydelial growth was linear, and, in most cases, metals negatively affected fungal growth. The sensitivity of aquatic hyphomycetes to metals, assessed as the metal concentration inhibiting biomass production in 50% (EC(50)), showed that Ypsilina graminea and Varicosporium elodeae were the most resistant species to Zn, while Alatospora acuminata, H. submersus, and Flagellospora curta appeared to be the most resistant fungus to Cu. Generally, lower toxicity of Zn or Cu than Ni or Cd was found. However, EC(50) values were about 20 times higher in solid than in liquid medium. Changes in nutrient supplies to fungi affected metal toxicity, as shown by higher EC(50) values in MK than ME. Complementarily, fungal tolerance to metals varied with fungal species as well as metal type. PMID:20429804

  4. Influence of salinity and prey presence on the survival of aquatic macroinvertebrates of a freshwater marsh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kang, Sung-Ryong; King, Sammy L.

    2012-01-01

    Salinization of coastal freshwater environments is a global issue. Increased salinity from sea level rise, storm surges, or other mechanisms is common in coastal freshwater marshes of Louisiana, USA. The effects of salinity increases on aquatic macroinvertebrates in these systems have received little attention, despite the importance of aquatic macroinvertebrates for nutrient cycling, biodiversity, and as a food source for vertebrate species. We used microcosm experiments to evaluate the effects of salinity, duration of exposure, and prey availability on the relative survival of dominant aquatic macroinvertebrates (i.e., Procambarus clarkii Girard, Cambarellus puer Hobbs, Libellulidae, Dytiscidae cybister) in a freshwater marsh of southwestern Louisiana. We hypothesized that increased salinity, absence of prey, and increased duration of exposure would decrease survival of aquatic macroinvertebrates and that crustaceans would have higher survival than aquatic insect taxon. Our first hypothesis was only partially supported as only salinity increases combined with prolonged exposure duration affected aquatic macroinvertebrate survival. Furthermore, crustaceans had higher survival than aquatic insects. Salinity stress may cause mortality when acting together with other stressful conditions.

  5. Development of aquatic animal experiment facility, Aquatic Habitat (AQH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, S.; Kono, Y.; Sakimura, T.; Nishikawa, W.; Fujimoto, N.; Murakami, K.; Nakamura, T.

    We have been performing technical studies to develop aquatic animal experiment facility, Aquatic Habitat (AQH), for both of short-term experiments in the Space Shuttle middeck and long-term experiments in the Space Station including the Centrifuge Accommodation Module (CAM). The AQH will have the capabilities to accommodate three-generations of small freshwater fish (medaka and zebrafish) and egg through metamorphosis of amphibian (African clawed frog). For these purposes, the AQH will have the following brand-new capabilities that the previous facilities have never had; 90days experiment duration, automatic feeding according to specimen types and their developmental stages, separation of generations for fish, specimen sample collection in various developmental stages, air/water interface control for amphibian, continuous monitoring of specimen behavior even in dark condition, and so on. We have already performed preliminary breeding tests for medaka and zebrafish with a breeding system prototype. Their mating behavior was performed successfully in the small closed chamber and the hatched larvae grew and started spawning on the 45-47th day after hatching. These results demonstrated that three generational breeding of medaka and zebrafish within 90days would be possible based on this breeding system prototype. Also, we have developed almost of the above new mechanisms, that is, an automatic feeding system, an egg separation mechanism for fish, an air stabilizer to control air/water interface, and a continuous specimen monitoring system through light/dark cycle. Based on these results, we have manufactured a BBM of AQH water circulation system and performed biological compatibility tests as a next step. For African clawed frog breeding, some problems have been revealed through the preliminary tests with the breeding system prototype. Currently, we are performing the investigations to resolve the problems and preparing to proceed to the next step.

  6. SUBMERSED AQUATIC VEGETATION MAPPING USING HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) beds are an important resources for aquatic life and
    wildfowl in the Potomac River and Chesapeake Bay region. SAV habitat is threatened in part by nitrogen loadings from human activities. Monitoring and assessing this resource using field bas...

  7. GULF OF MEXICO AQUATIC MORTALITY NETWORK (GMNET)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five U.S. states share the northern coast of the Gulf, and each has a program to monitor mortalities of aquatic organisms (fish, shellfish, birds). However, each state has different standards, procedures, and documentation of mortality events. The Gulf of Mexico Aquatic Mortality...

  8. Control of Fish and Aquatic Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesser, R. B.; And Others

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University is a handbook for the water body manager. The bulk of the contents deals with aquatic plant control. The different types of aquatic plants, their reproduction and growth, and their role in the ecology of the water body are introduced in this main section. Also, the…

  9. Estimating Aquatic Insect Populations. Introduction to Sampling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chihuahuan Desert Research Inst., Alpine, TX.

    This booklet introduces high school and junior high school students to the major groups of aquatic insects and to population sampling techniques. Chapter 1 consists of a short field guide which can be used to identify five separate orders of aquatic insects: odonata (dragonflies and damselflies); ephemeroptera (mayflies); diptera (true flies);…

  10. Aquatic Therapy: A Viable Therapeutic Recreation Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broach, Ellen; Dattilo, John

    1996-01-01

    Reviews literature on the effects of aquatic therapy (swimming and exercise) to improve function. Research shows that aquatic therapy has numerous psychological and physical benefits, and it supports the belief that participation can provide a realistic solution to maintaining physical fitness and rehabilitation goals while engaging in enjoyable…

  11. Chapter 6: Selenium Toxicity to Aquatic Organisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter addresses the characteristics and nature of organic selenium (Se) toxicity to aquatic organisms, based on the most current state of scientific knowledge. As such, the information contained in this chapter relates to the 'toxicity assessment' phase of aquatic ecologi...

  12. Adverse reactions to food additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1986-01-01

    There are thousands of agents that are intentionally added to the food that we consume. These include preservatives, stabilizers, conditioners, thickeners, colorings, flavorings, sweeteners, antioxidants, etc. etc. Yet only a surprisingly small number have been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Amongst all the additives, FD&C dyes have been most frequently associated with adverse reactions. Tartrazine is the most notorious of them all; however, critical review of the medical literature and current Scripps Clinic studies would indicate that tartrazine has been confirmed to be at best only occasionally associated with flares of urticaria or asthma. There is no convincing evidence in the literature of reactivity to the other azo or nonazo dyes. This can also be said of BHA/BHT, nitrites/nitrates and sorbates. Parabens have been shown to elicit IgE mediated hypersensitivity reactions when used as pharmaceutical preservatives; however, as with the other additives noted above, ingested parabens have only occasionally been associated with adverse reactions. MSG, the cause of the 'Chinese restaurant syndrome' has only been linked to asthma in one report. Sulfiting agents used primarily as food fresheners and to control microbial growth in fermented beverages have been established as the cause of any where from mild to severe and even fatal reactions in at least 5% of the asthmatic population. Other reactions reported to follow sulfite ingestion include anaphylaxis, gastro intestinal complaints and dermatological eruptions. The prevalence of these non asthmatic reactions is unknown. The mechanism of sulfite sensitive asthma is also unknown but most likely involves hyperreactivity to inhale SO2 in the great majority of cases; however, there are reports of IgE mediated reactions and other sulfite sensitive asthmatics have been found with low levels of sulfite oxidase; necessary to oxidize endogenous sulfite to sulfate.

  13. Role of selenium toxicity and oxidative stress in aquatic birds.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, David J

    2002-04-01

    Adverse effects of selenium (Se) in wild aquatic birds have been documented as a consequence of pollution of the aquatic environment by subsurface agricultural drainwater and other sources. These effects include mortality, impaired reproduction with teratogenesis, reduced growth, histopathological lesions and alterations in hepatic glutathione metabolism. A review is provided, relating adverse biological effects of Se in aquatic birds to altered glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress. Laboratory studies, mainly with an organic form of Se, selenomethionine, have revealed oxidative stress in different stages of the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) life cycle. As dietary and tissue concentrations of Se increase, increases in plasma and hepatic GSH peroxidase activities occur, followed by dose-dependent increases in the ratio of hepatic oxidized to reduced glutathione (GSSG:GSH) and ultimately hepatic lipid peroxidation measured as an increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). One or more of these oxidative effects were associated with teratogenesis (4.6 ppm wet weight Se in eggs), reduced growth in ducklings (15 ppm Se in liver), diminished immune function (5 ppm Se in liver) and histopathological lesions (29 ppm Se in liver) in adults. Manifestations of Se-related effects on glutathione metabolism were also apparent in field studies in seven species of aquatic birds. Reduced growth and possibly immune function but increased liver:body weight and hepatic GSSG:GSH ratios were apparent in american avocet (Recurvirostra americana) hatchlings from eggs containing 9 ppm Se. In black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), which contained somewhat lower Se concentrations, a decrease in hepatic GSH was apparent with few other effects. In adult American coots (Fulica americana), signs of Se toxicosis included emaciation, abnormal feather loss and histopathological lesions. Mean liver concentrations of 28 ppm Se (ww) in the coots were associated with elevated

  14. Role of selenium toxicity and oxidative stress in aquatic birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    Adverse effects of selenium (Se) in wild aquatic birds have been documented as a consequence of pollution of the aquatic environment by subsurface agricultural drainwater and other sources. These effects include mortality, impaired reproduction with teratogenesis, reduced growth, histopathological lesions and alterations in hepatic glutathione metabolism. A review is provided, relating adverse biological effects of Se in aquatic birds to altered glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress. Laboratory studies, mainly with an organic form of Se, selenomethionine, have revealed oxidative stress in different stages of the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) life cycle. As dietary and tissue concentrations of Se increase, increases in plasma and hepatic GSH peroxidase activities occur, followed by dose-dependent increases in the ratio of hepatic oxidized to reduced glutathione (GSSG:GSH) and ultimately hepatic lipid peroxidation measured as an increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). One or more of these oxidative effects were associated with teratogenesis (4.6 ppm wet weight Se in eggs), reduced growth in ducklings (15 ppm Se in liver), diminished immune function (5 ppm Se in liver) and histopathological lesions (29 ppm Se in liver) in adults. Manifestations of Serelated effects on glutathione metabolism were also apparent in field studies in seven species of aquatic birds. Reduced growth and possibly immune function but increased liver:body weight and hepatic GSSG:GSH ratios were apparent in American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) hatchlings from eggs containing 9 ppm Se. In blacknecked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), which contained somewhat lower Se concentrations, a decrease in hepatic GSH was apparent with few other effects. In adult American coots (Fulica americana), signs of Se toxicosis included emaciation, abnormal feather loss and histopathological lesions. Mean liver concentrations of 28 ppm Se (ww) in the coots were associated with elevated

  15. Phytoremediation potential of aquatic macrophyte, Azolla.

    PubMed

    Sood, Anjuli; Uniyal, Perm L; Prasanna, Radha; Ahluwalia, Amrik S

    2012-03-01

    Aquatic macrophytes play an important role in the structural and functional aspects of aquatic ecosystems by altering water movement regimes, providing shelter to fish and aquatic invertebrates, serving as a food source, and altering water quality by regulating oxygen balance, nutrient cycles, and accumulating heavy metals. The ability to hyperaccumulate heavy metals makes them interesting research candidates, especially for the treatment of industrial effluents and sewage waste water. The use of aquatic macrophytes, such as Azolla with hyper accumulating ability is known to be an environmentally friendly option to restore polluted aquatic resources. The present review highlights the phytoaccumulation potential of macrophytes with emphasis on utilization of Azolla as a promising candidate for phytoremediation. The impact of uptake of heavy metals on morphology and metabolic processes of Azolla has also been discussed for a better understanding and utilization of this symbiotic association in the field of phytoremediation. PMID:22396093

  16. The National Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pawlitz, Rachel J.; David, Kayla D.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Nonindigenous Aquatic Species (NAS) Program monitors, analyzes, and records sightings of non-native (introduced) aquatic species throughout the United States. The program is based at the USGS Southeast Ecological Science Center in Gainesville, Florida. The initiative to maintain scientific information on nationwide occurrences of non-native aquatic species began with the Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force, a group created by Congress in 1990 to address the need for this type of information by natural resource managers. Since then, the NAS program has maintained the database as a clearinghouse of information for confirmed sightings of non-native aquatic species throughout the Nation. The program also produces email alerts, maps, summary graphs, publications, and other information products to support natural resource managers.

  17. The aquatic ecotoxicology of triazine herbicides

    SciTech Connect

    Giddings, J.M.

    1996-10-01

    Triazine herbicides control plant growth by inhibiting photophosphorylation, but typically do not cause permanent cell damage or death. Effects on aquatic plants are reversible; photosynthesis resumes when the herbicide disappears from the water, and sometimes even while it is still present. Effects on aquatic plant communities are further ameliorated by species replacements, so the communities as a whole are less sensitive than their most sensitive species. Atrazine, a representative triazine herbicide, is toxic to aquatic plants (algae and macrophytes) at concentrations in the range of 20 to 200 {mu}g/L or less. Aquatic invertebrates and fish are much less sensitive than plants, with acute toxicity occurring at 1000 {mu}g/L or higher. Ecologically significant effects in aquatic ecosystems are likely only if plant communities are severely damaged by prolonged exposure to high atrazine concentrations.

  18. Arsenic and mercury bioaccumulation in the aquatic plant, Vallisneria neotropicalis.

    PubMed

    Lafabrie, C; Major, K M; Major, C S; Cebrián, J

    2011-03-01

    Arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) are among the most toxic metals/metalloids. The overall goal of this study was to investigate the bioaccumulation of these trace elements in Vallisneria neotropicalis, a key trophic species in aquatic environments. For this purpose, As and Hg concentrations were determined in sediments and natural populations of V. neotropicalis in sub-estuaries of Mobile Bay (Alabama, USA), differing with respect to past and present anthropogenic impact. Analyses indicate that the Fish River is the most contaminated among the sub-estuaries investigated; levels of As found in Fish River sediments fall within a range that could potentially cause adverse effects in biota. Sediment As concentrations were only moderately correlated with those in V. neotropicalis; no correlation was found between sediment and plant Hg levels. However, several parameters could have masked such potential relationships (e.g., differences in sediment characteristics and "biological dilution" phenomena). Results presented herein highlight the numerous parameters that can influence metal/metalloids accumulation in aquatic plants as well as species-specific responses to trace element contamination. Finally, this study underscores the need for further investigation into contaminant bioaccumulation in ecologically and economically important coastal environments. PMID:21168896

  19. Identifying and designing chemicals with minimal acute aquatic toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kostal, Jakub; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina; Anastas, Paul T.; Zimmerman, Julie Beth

    2015-01-01

    Industrial ecology has revolutionized our understanding of material stocks and flows in our economy and society. For this important discipline to have even deeper impact, we must understand the inherent nature of these materials in terms of human health and the environment. This paper focuses on methods to design synthetic chemicals to reduce their intrinsic ability to cause adverse consequence to the biosphere. Advances in the fields of computational chemistry and molecular toxicology in recent decades allow the development of predictive models that inform the design of molecules with reduced potential to be toxic to humans or the environment. The approach presented herein builds on the important work in quantitative structure–activity relationships by linking toxicological and chemical mechanistic insights to the identification of critical physical–chemical properties needed to be modified. This in silico approach yields design guidelines using boundary values for physiochemical properties. Acute aquatic toxicity serves as a model endpoint in this study. Defining value ranges for properties related to bioavailability and reactivity eliminates 99% of the chemicals in the highest concern for acute aquatic toxicity category. This approach and its future implementations are expected to yield very powerful tools for life cycle assessment practitioners and molecular designers that allow rapid assessment of multiple environmental and human health endpoints and inform modifications to minimize hazard. PMID:24639521

  20. Identifying and designing chemicals with minimal acute aquatic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kostal, Jakub; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina; Anastas, Paul T; Zimmerman, Julie Beth

    2015-05-19

    Industrial ecology has revolutionized our understanding of material stocks and flows in our economy and society. For this important discipline to have even deeper impact, we must understand the inherent nature of these materials in terms of human health and the environment. This paper focuses on methods to design synthetic chemicals to reduce their intrinsic ability to cause adverse consequence to the biosphere. Advances in the fields of computational chemistry and molecular toxicology in recent decades allow the development of predictive models that inform the design of molecules with reduced potential to be toxic to humans or the environment. The approach presented herein builds on the important work in quantitative structure-activity relationships by linking toxicological and chemical mechanistic insights to the identification of critical physical-chemical properties needed to be modified. This in silico approach yields design guidelines using boundary values for physiochemical properties. Acute aquatic toxicity serves as a model endpoint in this study. Defining value ranges for properties related to bioavailability and reactivity eliminates 99% of the chemicals in the highest concern for acute aquatic toxicity category. This approach and its future implementations are expected to yield very powerful tools for life cycle assessment practitioners and molecular designers that allow rapid assessment of multiple environmental and human health endpoints and inform modifications to minimize hazard.

  1. Adverse events in healthcare: learning from mistakes.

    PubMed

    Rafter, N; Hickey, A; Condell, S; Conroy, R; O'Connor, P; Vaughan, D; Williams, D

    2015-04-01

    Large national reviews of patient charts estimate that approximately 10% of hospital admissions are associated with an adverse event (defined as an injury resulting in prolonged hospitalization, disability or death, caused by healthcare management). Apart from having a significant impact on patient morbidity and mortality, adverse events also result in increased healthcare costs due to longer hospital stays. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of adverse events are preventable. Through identifying the nature and rate of adverse events, initiatives to improve care can be developed. A variety of methods exist to gather adverse event data both retrospectively and prospectively but these do not necessarily capture the same events and there is variability in the definition of an adverse event. For example, hospital incident reporting collects only a very small fraction of the adverse events found in retrospective chart reviews. Until there are systematic methods to identify adverse events, progress in patient safety cannot be reliably measured. This review aims to discuss the need for a safety culture that can learn from adverse events, describe ways to measure adverse events, and comment on why current adverse event monitoring is unable to demonstrate trends in patient safety.

  2. A microcosm study to support aquatic risk assessment of nickel: Community-level effects and comparison with bioavailability-normalized species sensitivity distributions.

    PubMed

    Hommen, Udo; Knopf, Burkhard; Rüdel, Heinz; Schäfers, Christoph; De Schamphelaere, Karel; Schlekat, Chris; Garman, Emily Rogevich

    2016-05-01

    The aquatic risk assessment for nickel (Ni) in the European Union is based on chronic species sensitivity distributions and the use of bioavailability models. To test whether a bioavailability-based safe threshold of Ni (the hazardous concentration for 5% of species [HC5]) is protective for aquatic communities, microcosms were exposed to 5 stable Ni treatments (6-96 μg/L) and a control for 4 mo to assess bioaccumulation and effects on phytoplankton, periphyton, zooplankton, and snails. Concentrations of Ni in the periphyton, macrophytes, and snails measured at the end of the exposure period increased in a dose-dependent manner but did not indicate biomagnification. Abundance of phytoplankton and snails decreased in 48 μg Ni/L and 96 μg Ni/L treatments, which may have indirectly affected the abundance of zooplankton and periphyton. Exposure up to 24 μg Ni/L had no adverse effects on algae and zooplankton, whereas the rate of population decline of the snails at 24 μg Ni/L was significantly higher than in the controls. Therefore, the study-specific overall no-observed-adverse-effect concentration (NOAEC) is 12 μg Ni/L. This NOAEC is approximately twice the HC5 derived from a chronic species sensitivity distribution considering the specific water chemistry of the microcosm by means of bioavailability models. Thus, the present study provides support to the protectiveness of the bioavailability-normalized HC5 for freshwater communities.

  3. The impact on students of adverse experiences during medical school.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Tim J; Gill, Denzil J; Fitzjohn, Julie; Palmer, Claire L; Mulder, Roger T

    2006-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the consequences for, and coping method used by, medical students who experienced adverse experiences during their training. A nationwide questionnaire based census of all current medical students in New Zealand. The response rate was 83% (1384/1660). Two-thirds of students had at least one adverse experience, with humiliation being the most common and having the greatest adverse impact. Unwanted sexual advances, unfair treatment on the basis of gender or race had a lesser impact for most students. Most students took several hours or several days to get over an adverse episode and most commonly they then avoided that person or department. Around one half sought help. Only one-quarter felt it motivated their learning while one-sixth felt it made them consider leaving medical school. The most common perpetrators were senior doctors or nurses. Unwanted sexual advances were most common from other students or from patients. Humiliation is the experience that affected students the most and had a significant adverse effect on learning. There is a disturbing rate of unacceptable practice within medical schools, not all of which is from doctors. PMID:16707293

  4. Reliability of adverse symptom event reporting by clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuelin; Coffey, Charles W.; Sit, Laura; Shaw, Mary; Lavene, Dawn; Bennett, Antonia V.; Fruscione, Mike; Rogak, Lauren; Hay, Jennifer; Gönen, Mithat; Schrag, Deborah; Basch, Ethan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Adverse symptom event reporting is vital as part of clinical trials and drug labeling to ensure patient safety and inform risk–benefit decision making. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of adverse event reporting of different clinicians for the same patient for the same visit. Methods A retrospective reliability analysis was completed for a sample of 393 cancer patients (42.8% men; age 26–91, M = 62.39) from lung (n = 134), prostate (n = 113), and Ob/Gyn (n = 146) clinics. These patients were each seen by two clinicians who independently rated seven Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) symptoms. Twenty-three percent of patients were enrolled in therapeutic clinical trials. Results The average time between rater evaluations was 68 min. Intraclass correlation coefficients were moderate for constipation (0.50), diarrhea (0.58), dyspnea (0.69), fatigue (0.50), nausea (0.52), neuropathy (0.71), and vomiting (0.46). These values demonstrated stability over follow-up visits. Two-point differences, which would likely affect treatment decisions, were most frequently seen among symptomatic patients for constipation (18%), vomiting (15%), and nausea (8%). Conclusion Agreement between different clinicians when reporting adverse symptom events is moderate at best. Modification of approaches to adverse symptom reporting, such as patient self-reporting, should be considered. PMID:21984468

  5. Establishing aquatic restoration priorities using a watershed approach.

    PubMed

    Bohn, B A; Kershner, J L

    2002-04-01

    Since the passage of the Clean Water Act in 1972, the United States has made great strides to reduce the threats to its rivers, lakes, and wetlands from pollution. However, despite our obvious successes, nearly half of the nation's surface water resources remain incapable of supporting basic aquatic values or maintaining water quality adequate for recreational swimming. The Clean Water Act established a significant federal presence in water quality regulation by controlling point and non-point sources of pollution. Point-sources of pollution were the major emphasis of the Act, but Section 208 specifically addressed non-point sources of pollution and designated silviculture and livestock grazing as sources of non-point pollution. Non-point source pollutants include runoff from agriculture, municipalities, timber harvesting, mining, and livestock grazing. Non-point source pollution now accounts for more than half of the United States water quality impairments. To successfully improve water quality, restoration practitioners must start with an understanding of what ecosystem processes are operating in the watershed and how they have been affected by outside variables. A watershed-based analysis template developed in the Pacific Northwest can be a valuable aid in developing that level of understanding. The watershed analysis technique identifies four ecosystem scales useful to identify stream restoration priorities: region, basin, watershed, and site. The watershed analysis technique is based on a set of technically rigorous and defensible procedures designed to provide information on what processes are active at the watershed scale, how those processes are distributed in time and space. They help describe what the current upland and riparian conditions of the watershed are and how these conditions in turn influence aquatic habitat and other beneficial uses. The analysis is organized as a set of six steps that direct an interdisciplinary team of specialists to examine

  6. Life adversity is associated with smoking relapse after a quit attempt.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Andrine; Olson, Leif; Nakajima, Motohiro; Schulberg, Lauren; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2016-09-01

    Multiple cross-sectional studies have linked adverse childhood events and adult adversities to current smoking, lifetime smoking, and former smoking. To date, however, there have been no direct observational studies assessing the influence of adversities on smoking relapse. We prospectively followed 123 participants, 86 of whom were habitual smokers, from pre-quit ad libitum smoking to four weeks post-quit. Thirty-seven non-smokers were also tested in parallel as a comparison group. Subjects provided biological samples for confirmation of abstinence status and self-report history of adversities such as abuse, neglect, family dysfunction, incarceration, and child-parent separation. They also completed mood and smoking withdrawal symptom measures. The results indicated that within non-smokers and smokers who relapsed within the first month of a quit attempt, but not abstainers, females had significantly higher adversity scores than males. Cigarette craving, which was independent from depressive affect, increased for low adversity participants, but not those with no adversity nor high adversity. These results demonstrate that sex and relapse status interact to predict adversity and that craving for nicotine may be an important additional mediator of relapse. These results add further support to the previous cross-sectional evidence of an adversity and smoking relationship. Further studies to clarify how adversity complicates smoking cessation and impacts smoking behaviors are warranted. PMID:27100471

  7. Exercise hypertension: an adverse prognosis?

    PubMed

    Smith, Ryan G; Rubin, Stanley A; Ellestad, Myrvin H

    2009-01-01

    We sought to clarify the prognostic importance of an "exaggerated" or "hypertensive" systolic blood pressure response to exercise during an exercise test. Studies evaluating the prognosis for cardiovascular events and cardiovascular mortality in those with hypertension during exercise testing were systematically reviewed. Fourteen studies were identified. Six studies were of healthy volunteers or hypertensives. Eight studies were in subjects with known or suspected heart disease. Without established heart disease, exercise hypertension predicted cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death. However, two of the six studies included a multivariate analysis; both demonstrated no independent association. Studies in subjects with known or suspected heart disease demonstrated that exercise hypertension predicted fewer cardiac events and lesser mortality or, after multivariate adjustment, no associated risk. In a healthy population, a higher exercise blood pressure may indicate hypertension or prehypertension, instead of normal vascular function, and an associated long-term adverse prognosis. In a population with a high burden of heart disease, the highest risk subjects with the most extensive cardiac disease may not be capable of generating pressure or workload to allow the manifestation of exercise systolic hypertension. By comparison, therefore, those with exercise hypertension have a better prognosis. PMID:20409979

  8. Adverse effects of antihypertensive drugs.

    PubMed

    Husserl, F E; Messerli, F H

    1981-09-01

    Early essential hypertension is asymptomatic and should remain so throughout treatment. In view of the increasing number of available antihypertensive agents, clinicians need to become familiar with the potential side effects of these drugs. By placing more emphasis on non-pharmacological treatment (sodium restriction, weight loss, exercise) and thoroughly evaluating each case in particular, the pharmacological regimen can be optimally tailored to the patient's needs. Potential side effects should be predicted and can often be avoided; if they become clinically significant they should be rapidly recognised and corrected. These side effects can be easily remembered in most instances, as they fall into 3 broad categories: (a) those caused by an exaggerated therapeutic effect; (b) those due to a non-therapeutic pharmacological effect; and (c) those caused by a non-therapeutic, non-pharmacological effect probably representing idiosyncratic reactions. This review focuses mainly on adverse effects of the second and third kind. Each group of drugs in general shares the common side effects of the first two categories, while each individual drug has its own idiosyncratic side effects.

  9. Aquatic invasive species: Lessons from cancer research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Gross, Jackson A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are disrupting ecosystems with increasing frequency. Successful control of these invasions has been rare: Biologists and managers have few tools for fighting aquatic invaders. In contrast, the medical community has long worked to develop tools for preventing and fighting cancer. Its successes are marked by a coordinated research approach with multiple steps: prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment options and rehabilitation. The authors discuss how these steps can be applied to aquatic invasive species, such as the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), in the Northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States, to expedite tool development and implementation along with achievement of biodiversity conservation goals.

  10. Low concentrations of metal mixture exposures have adverse effects on selected biomarkers of Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Yologlu, Ertan; Ozmen, Murat

    2015-11-01

    Polluted ecosystems may contain mixtures of metals, such that the combinations of metals, even in low concentrations, may cause adverse effects. In the present study, we focused on toxic effects of mixtures of selected metals, the LC50 values, and also their safety limit in aquatic systems imposed by the European legislation using a model organism. Xenopus laevis tadpoles were used as test organisms. They were exposed to metals or their combinations due to 96-h LC50 values. Glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase (CaE), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) levels were evaluated. Metallothionein concentrations were also determined. The LC50s for Cd, Pb, and Cu were calculated as 5.81mg AI/L, 123.05mg AI/L, and 0.85mg AI/L, respectively. Low lethality ratios were observed with unary exposure of each metal in lower concentrations. Double or triple combinations of LC50 and LC50/2 concentrations caused 100% lethality with Cd+Cu and Pb+Cd+Cu mixtures, while the Pb+Cu mixture also caused high lethal ratios. The selected enzyme activities were significantly affected by metals or mixtures, and dose-related effects were determined. The metallothionein levels generally increased as related to concentration in unary metals and mixtures. Acceptable limit values of unary metals and mixtures did not significantly change metallothionein levels. The results suggest that oxidative stress-related mechanisms are involved in the toxicity induced by selected metals with combinations of very low concentrations.

  11. Aquatic hazard assessment of a commercial sample of naphthenic acids.

    PubMed

    Swigert, James P; Lee, Carol; Wong, Diana C L; White, Russell; Scarlett, Alan G; West, Charles E; Rowland, Steven J

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents chemical composition and aquatic toxicity characteristics of a commercial sample of naphthenic acids (NAs). Naphthenic acids are derived from the refining of petroleum middle distillates and can contribute to refinery effluent toxicity. NAs are also present in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), but differences in the NAs compositions from these sources precludes using a common aquatic toxicity dataset to represent the aquatic hazards of NAs from both origins. Our chemical characterization of a commercial sample of NAs showed it to contain in order of abundance, 1-ring>2-ring>acyclic>3-ring acids (∼84%). Also present were monoaromatic acids (7%) and non-acids (9%, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and sulfur heterocyclic compounds). While the acyclic acids were only the third most abundant group, the five most abundant individual compounds were identified as C(10-14) n-acids (n-decanoic acid to n-tetradecanoic acid). Aquatic toxicity testing of fish (Pimephales promelas), invertebrate (Daphnia magna), algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), and bacteria (Vibrio fischeri) showed P. promelas to be the most sensitive species with 96-h LL50=9.0 mg L(-1) (LC50=5.6 mg L(-1)). Acute EL50 values for the other species ranged 24-46 mg L(-1) (EC50 values ranged 20-30 mg L(-1)). Biomimetic extraction via solid-phase-microextraction (BE-SPME) suggested a nonpolar narcosis mode of toxic action for D. magna, P. subcapitata, and V. fischeri. The BE analysis under-predicted fish toxicity, which indicates that a specific mode of action, besides narcosis, may be a factor for fishes. PMID:25434270

  12. Aquatic hazard assessment of a commercial sample of naphthenic acids.

    PubMed

    Swigert, James P; Lee, Carol; Wong, Diana C L; White, Russell; Scarlett, Alan G; West, Charles E; Rowland, Steven J

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents chemical composition and aquatic toxicity characteristics of a commercial sample of naphthenic acids (NAs). Naphthenic acids are derived from the refining of petroleum middle distillates and can contribute to refinery effluent toxicity. NAs are also present in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), but differences in the NAs compositions from these sources precludes using a common aquatic toxicity dataset to represent the aquatic hazards of NAs from both origins. Our chemical characterization of a commercial sample of NAs showed it to contain in order of abundance, 1-ring>2-ring>acyclic>3-ring acids (∼84%). Also present were monoaromatic acids (7%) and non-acids (9%, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and sulfur heterocyclic compounds). While the acyclic acids were only the third most abundant group, the five most abundant individual compounds were identified as C(10-14) n-acids (n-decanoic acid to n-tetradecanoic acid). Aquatic toxicity testing of fish (Pimephales promelas), invertebrate (Daphnia magna), algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), and bacteria (Vibrio fischeri) showed P. promelas to be the most sensitive species with 96-h LL50=9.0 mg L(-1) (LC50=5.6 mg L(-1)). Acute EL50 values for the other species ranged 24-46 mg L(-1) (EC50 values ranged 20-30 mg L(-1)). Biomimetic extraction via solid-phase-microextraction (BE-SPME) suggested a nonpolar narcosis mode of toxic action for D. magna, P. subcapitata, and V. fischeri. The BE analysis under-predicted fish toxicity, which indicates that a specific mode of action, besides narcosis, may be a factor for fishes.

  13. Early adversity, neural development, and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Jessica J; Taylor, Shelley E; Bower, Julienne E

    2015-12-01

    Early adversity is a risk factor for poor mental and physical health. Although altered neural development is believed to be one pathway linking early adversity to psychopathology, it has rarely been considered a pathway linking early adversity to poor physical health. However, this is a viable pathway because the central nervous system is known to interact with the immune system via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and autonomic nervous system (ANS). In support of this pathway, early adversity has been linked to changes in neural development (particularly of the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex), HPA axis and ANS dysregulation, and higher levels of inflammation. Inflammation, in turn, can be detrimental to physical health when prolonged. In this review, we present these studies and consider how altered neural development may be a pathway by which early adversity increases inflammation and thus risk for adverse physical health outcomes.

  14. [Cutaneous adverse effects of TNFalpha antagonists].

    PubMed

    Failla, V; Sabatiello, M; Lebas, E; de Schaetzen, V; Dezfoulian, B; Nikkels, A F

    2012-01-01

    The TNFalpha antagonists, including adalimumab, etanercept and infliximab, represent a class of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs. Although cutaneous adverse effects are uncommon, they are varied. There is no particular risk profile to develop cutaneous adverse effects. The principal acute side effects are injection site reactions and pruritus. The major long term cutaneous side effects are infectious and inflammatory conditions. Neoplastic skin diseases are exceptional. The association with other immunosuppressive agents can increase the risk of developing cutaneous adverse effects. Some adverse effects, such as lupus erythematosus, require immediate withdrawal of the biological treatment, while in other cases temporary withdrawal is sufficient. The majority of the other cutaneous adverse effects can be dealt without interrupting biologic treatment. Preclinical and clinical investigations revealed that the new biologics, aiming IL12/23, IL23 and IL17, present a similar profile of cutaneous adverse effects, although inflammatory skin reactions may be less often encountered compared to TNFalpha antagonists.

  15. Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

    2014-08-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk.

  16. Changing Medicine and Building Community: Maine’s Adverse Childhood Experiences Momentum

    PubMed Central

    Forstadt, Leslie; Cooper, Sally; Andrews, Sue Mackey

    2015-01-01

    Physicians are instrumental in community education, prevention, and intervention for adverse childhood experiences. In Maine, a statewide effort is focusing on education about adverse childhood experiences and ways that communities and physicians can approach childhood adversity. This article describes how education about adversity and resilience can positively change the practice of medicine and related fields. The Maine Resilience Building Network brings together ongoing programs, supports new ventures, and builds on existing resources to increase its impact. It exemplifies the collective impact model by increasing community knowledge, affecting medical practice, and improving lives. PMID:25902346

  17. Biomechanics and energetics in aquatic and semiaquatic mammals: platypus to whale.

    PubMed

    Fish, F E

    2000-01-01

    A variety of mammalian lineages have secondarily invaded the water. To locomote and thermoregulate in the aqueous medium, mammals developed a range of morphological, physiological, and behavioral adaptations. A distinct difference in the suite of adaptations, which affects energetics, is apparent between semiaquatic and fully aquatic mammals. Semiaquatic mammals swim by paddling, which is inefficient compared to the use of oscillating hydrofoils of aquatic mammals. Semiaquatic mammals swim at the water surface and experience a greater resistive force augmented by wave drag than submerged aquatic mammals. A dense, nonwettable fur insulates semiaquatic mammals, whereas aquatic mammals use a layer of blubber. The fur, while providing insulation and positive buoyancy, incurs a high energy demand for maintenance and limits diving depth. Blubber contours the body to reduce drag, is an energy reserve, and suffers no loss in buoyancy with depth. Despite the high energetic costs of a semiaquatic existence, these animals represent modern analogs of evolutionary intermediates between ancestral terrestrial mammals and their fully aquatic descendants. It is these intermediate animals that indicate which potential selection factors and mechanical constraints may have directed the evolution of more derived aquatic forms.

  18. Uptake and concentration factor af Aroclor 1254 in aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Gooch, J.A.; Hamdy, M.K.

    1983-10-01

    There are several factors that affect PCB bioaccumulation. These include: concentration in the surrounding environment; duration of exposure; temperature; solubility of the pollutant; species age, weight, feeding habits and lipid content; trophic level variations; and adsorption. Bioaccumulation can occur either through ingestion of contaminated food organisms or by direct absorption through the integument. Higher concentrations of PCBs have been found in plankton than in fish, indicating that direct absorption is the primary route of accumulation. This investigation was conducted to follow the uptake and concentration factor (CF) of Aroclor 1254 in selected organisms representing a simple aquatic ecosystem.

  19. Natural attenuation of chloroacetinilide herbicides in aquatic systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, D.W.; Graham, W.H.; DeNoyelles, F.; Smith, V.H.; ,

    1999-01-01

    A 4-yr research program that studied the transformation of alachlor and metolachlor in aquatic systems using field microcosms is presented. The field microcosms provided an accurate simulation of natural ecosystems while also permitting the controlled creation of numerous contamination scenarios and sufficient replication to allow statistical evaluation of the results. Different treatments were assessed including conditions as diverse as anaerobic, eutrophic waters typical of nutrient-rich wetland to aerobic, oligotrophic waters typical of the epilimnion of Canadian glacial lake. Herbicide transformation rate was most strongly affected by water temperature, oxygen conditions, nutrient levels within the system, and the specific herbicide assessed.

  20. A Submersible Light Sensor for Aquatic Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatina, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Describes the construction of an inexpensive light sensor that can be used to measure irradiance in aquatic habitats. Includes a list of tools and materials, details of construction, and usage of the light sensor. (DDR)

  1. Nitrous oxide emission by aquatic macrofauna

    PubMed Central

    Stief, Peter; Poulsen, Morten; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Brix, Hans; Schramm, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    A large variety of aquatic animals was found to emit the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide when nitrate was present in the environment. The emission was ascribed to denitrification by ingested bacteria in the anoxic animal gut, and the exceptionally high N2O-to-N2 production ratio suggested delayed induction of the last step of denitrification. Filter- and deposit-feeding animal species showed the highest rates of nitrous oxide emission and predators the lowest, probably reflecting the different amounts of denitrifying bacteria in the diet. We estimate that nitrous oxide emission by aquatic animals is quantitatively important in nitrate-rich aquatic environments like freshwater, coastal marine, and deep-sea ecosystems. The contribution of this source to overall nitrous oxide emission from aquatic environments might further increase because of the projected increase of nitrate availability in tropical regions and the numeric dominance of filter- and deposit-feeders in eutrophic ecosystems. PMID:19255427

  2. Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds in Aquatic Ecosystems.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are a ubiquitous issue of concern in our aquatic systems. Commonly detected EDCs include natural and synthetic hormones, surfactants, plasticizers, disinfectants, herbicides and metals. The potency of these chemicals varies substantially, as ...

  3. Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients and Aquatic Organisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presence of active pharmaceuticals ingredients (APIs) in aquatic systems in recent years has led to a burgeoning literature examining environmental occurrence, fate, effects, risk assessment, and treatability of these compounds. Although APIs have received much attention as ...

  4. SYNOPSIS OF HISTOTECHNIQUES FOR AQUATIC ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This synopsis provides an overview of the necropsy, fixation, trimming, and processing of tissues from aquatic organisms for examination using light microscopy. The handling of animals, their tissues, uses of knives, and processing chemicals will be covered. Understanding the his...

  5. Freshwater aquatic plant biomass production in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.R.; Sutton, D.L.; Bowes, G.

    1983-01-01

    About 8% (1.2 million ha) of the total surface area of Florida is occupied by freshwater. Many of these water bodies are eutrophic. Nutrients present in these water bodies can be potentially used to culture aquatic plants as a possible feedstock for methane production. This paper summarizes the results of known research findings on biomass production potential of freshwater aquatic plants in Florida and identifies key research needs to improve the quality and quantity of biomass yields. Among floating aquatic plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of water-hyacinth > water lettuce > pennywort > salvinia > duckweed > azolla. Pennywort, duckweed, and azolla appear to perform well during the cooler months compared to other aquatic plants. Among emergent plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of southern wild rice > cattails > soft rush > bulrush. Cultural techniques, nutrient management, and environmental factors influencing the biomass yields were discussed. 68 references.

  6. Species-specific sensitivity of aquatic macrophytes towards two herbicides.

    PubMed

    Cedergreen, Nina; Spliid, Niels Henrik; Streibig, Jens C

    2004-07-01

    The s-triazine herbicide terbutylazine, an inhibitor of photosystem II, is often found in surface waters in concentrations < 1 microg L(-1), but concentrations up to 13 microg L(-1) have been measured. To study the effect on the aquatic flora, we tested the sensitivity of 10 aquatic macrophyte species and a natural epiphyte community in a 2-week laboratory multispecies test at constant terbutylazine concentrations and two irradiance regimes. The data were described by a log-logistic concentration-response model and species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) were created from the EC50 and EC10 values. The 5% hazard concentration (HC5) of the EC10-based SSD for terbutylazine was 1 and 3 microg L(-1); hence the low chronic terbutylazine concentrations measured in the environment are not likely to affect the macrophyte community. To compare the species sensitivity between different groups of herbicides, SSDs were constructed from a published study on the sulfonylurea metsulfuron-methyl, an inhibitor of acetolactate synthase. There was no correlation between species-specific sensitivity to the two herbicides; hence, the combined exposure of different herbicides might affect the macrophyte community more broadly rather than seriously affecting a few susceptible species. Evaluating the standard procedure of leaving at least a factor of 100 between the EC50 of standard tests on Lemna sp. and the predicted environmental concentration seems to be protective for at least 95% of the macrophyte species for both terbutylazine and metsulfuron-methyl. PMID:15223257

  7. Epidemiological approach to aquatic animal health management: opportunities and challenges for developing countries to increase aquatic production through aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Subasinghe, Rohana P

    2005-02-01

    Aquaculture appears to have strongest potential to meet the increasing demands for aquatic products in most regions of the world. The world population is on the increase, as is the demand for aquatic food products. Production from capture fisheries at a global level is levelling off. Potential contributions from aquaculture to local food security, livelihoods and nutrition can be highly significant, especially in many remote and resource-poor rural areas. One of the major constraints to aquaculture production is the losses due to diseases. Over the decades, the sector has faced significant problems with disease outbreaks and epidemics which caused significant economic losses. The use of sound epidemiological principles and logical and science-based approach to identify and manage risks comprise two of the most important components of an effective biosecurity program. The maintenance of effective biosecurity in aquaculture is becoming more and more essential. There will be more demand for aquatic animal epidemiologists as well as epidemiological tools/resources in the region. The use of epidemiology will significantly improve health management, risk analysis and disease control. Although there are clear limitations and complications in the use of epidemiology for controlling aquatic animal pathogens, some positive results have recently emerged from a series of studies and trials to control diseases affecting the small-scale shrimp farming sector in southern India. This paper summarises the results of one such study which emphasizes the significant benefit of close collaboration with farmers, both individually and as groups, and capacity and awareness building among them and the importance of understanding the risk factors and implementing better management practices.

  8. Aquatic biodiversity and the electric utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Olmsted, L.L.; Bolin, J.W.

    1996-11-01

    Results for a 1995 survey of utility company biologists indicate that aquatic biodiversity is an emerging and poorly understood issue. As a result, there is some confusion about what aquatic biodiversity actually is, and how we can best conserve it. Only one fourth (24%) of the respondents said their company has a stated environmental policy that addresses biodiversity. Many respondents indicate that over the years they have not specially managed for biodiversity, but have been doing that through their efforts to assure balanced indigenous populations. While regulations are still the major driver for biological work, an increasing number of companies are involved in voluntary partnerships in managing water resources. Of these voluntary partnerships, 70% have biodiversity as a goal. Biodiversity is becoming an increasingly common subject of study, and a vast majority (75%) of the respondents suggested is should be a goal for utility for resource management. Conservation of aquatic biodiversity is a complex task, and to date most aquatic efforts have been directed toward fish and macroinvertebrates. Ecological research and technological development performed by the utility industry have resulted in a number of successful biopreservation and biorestoration success stories. A common theme to preserving or enhancing aquatic biodiversity is preserving aquatic habitat. Increasingly, ecosystem management is touted as the most likely approach to achieve success in preserving aquatic biodiversity. Several utilities are conducting progressive work in implementing ecosystem management. This paper presents the potential interactions between power plants and biodiversity, and overview of aquatic biodiversity preservations efforts within the electric utility industry, more detail on the results of the survey, and recent initiatives in ecosystem management. 17 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Project WILD Aquatic K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Environmental Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "Project WILD Aquatic K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide" emphasizes aquatic wildlife and aquatic ecosystems. It is organized in topic units and is based on the Project WILD conceptual framework. Because these activities are designed for integration into existing courses of study, instructors may use one or many Project WILD Aquatic activities…

  10. Nutrition and training adaptations in aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Mujika, Iñigo; Stellingwerff, Trent; Tipton, Kevin

    2014-08-01

    The adaptive response to training is determined by the combination of the intensity, volume, and frequency of the training. Various periodized approaches to training are used by aquatic sports athletes to achieve performance peaks. Nutritional support to optimize training adaptations should take periodization into consideration; that is, nutrition should also be periodized to optimally support training and facilitate adaptations. Moreover, other aspects of training (e.g., overload training, tapering and detraining) should be considered when making nutrition recommendations for aquatic athletes. There is evidence, albeit not in aquatic sports, that restricting carbohydrate availability may enhance some training adaptations. More research needs to be performed, particularly in aquatic sports, to determine the optimal strategy for periodizing carbohydrate intake to optimize adaptations. Protein nutrition is an important consideration for optimal training adaptations. Factors other than the total amount of daily protein intake should be considered. For instance, the type of protein, timing and pattern of protein intake and the amount of protein ingested at any one time influence the metabolic response to protein ingestion. Body mass and composition are important for aquatic sport athletes in relation to power-to-mass and for aesthetic reasons. Protein may be particularly important for athletes desiring to maintain muscle while losing body mass. Nutritional supplements, such as b-alanine and sodium bicarbonate, may have particular usefulness for aquatic athletes' training adaptation.

  11. Aquatic arsenic: phytoremediation using floating macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H

    2011-04-01

    Phytoremediation, a plant based green technology, has received increasing attention after the discovery of hyperaccumulating plants which are able to accumulate, translocate, and concentrate high amount of certain toxic elements in their above-ground/harvestable parts. Phytoremediation includes several processes namely, phytoextraction, phytodegradation, rhizofiltration, phytostabilization and phytovolatilization. Both terrestrial and aquatic plants have been tested to remediate contaminated soils and waters, respectively. A number of aquatic plant species have been investigated for the remediation of toxic contaminants such as As, Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Hg, etc. Arsenic, one of the deadly toxic elements, is widely distributed in the aquatic systems as a result of mineral dissolution from volcanic or sedimentary rocks as well as from the dilution of geothermal waters. In addition, the agricultural and industrial effluent discharges are also considered for arsenic contamination in natural waters. Some aquatic plants have been reported to accumulate high level of arsenic from contaminated water. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweeds (Lemna gibba, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza), water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), water ferns (Azolla caroliniana, Azolla filiculoides, and Azolla pinnata), water cabbage (Pistia stratiotes), hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) and watercress (Lepidium sativum) have been studied to investigate their arsenic uptake ability and mechanisms, and to evaluate their potential in phytoremediation technology. It has been suggested that the aquatic macrophytes would be potential for arsenic phytoremediation, and this paper reviews up to date knowledge on arsenic phytoremediation by common aquatic macrophytes. PMID:21435676

  12. Aquatic arsenic: phytoremediation using floating macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H

    2011-04-01

    Phytoremediation, a plant based green technology, has received increasing attention after the discovery of hyperaccumulating plants which are able to accumulate, translocate, and concentrate high amount of certain toxic elements in their above-ground/harvestable parts. Phytoremediation includes several processes namely, phytoextraction, phytodegradation, rhizofiltration, phytostabilization and phytovolatilization. Both terrestrial and aquatic plants have been tested to remediate contaminated soils and waters, respectively. A number of aquatic plant species have been investigated for the remediation of toxic contaminants such as As, Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Hg, etc. Arsenic, one of the deadly toxic elements, is widely distributed in the aquatic systems as a result of mineral dissolution from volcanic or sedimentary rocks as well as from the dilution of geothermal waters. In addition, the agricultural and industrial effluent discharges are also considered for arsenic contamination in natural waters. Some aquatic plants have been reported to accumulate high level of arsenic from contaminated water. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweeds (Lemna gibba, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza), water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), water ferns (Azolla caroliniana, Azolla filiculoides, and Azolla pinnata), water cabbage (Pistia stratiotes), hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) and watercress (Lepidium sativum) have been studied to investigate their arsenic uptake ability and mechanisms, and to evaluate their potential in phytoremediation technology. It has been suggested that the aquatic macrophytes would be potential for arsenic phytoremediation, and this paper reviews up to date knowledge on arsenic phytoremediation by common aquatic macrophytes.

  13. Early adversity and mental health: linking extremely low birth weight, emotion regulation, and internalizing disorders.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Jordana; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Schmidt, Louis A

    2014-01-01

    The experience of early adversity can increase one's risk of psychopathology later in life. Extremely low birth weight (ELBW) provides a unique model of early adversity that affords us the opportunity to understand how prenatal and early postnatal stressors can affect the development of emotional, biological, and behavioural systems. Since the neuroendocrine system and emotion regulation can both be negatively affected by exposure to early adversity, and dysregulation in these regulatory systems has been linked to various forms of psychopathology, it is possible that these systems could mediate and/or moderate associations between early adversity, specifically ELBW, and later internalizing disorders. In this review, we discuss evidence of an early programming hypothesis underlying psychopathology and the identification of neuroendocrine markers of early adversity that may mediate/moderate the development of psychopathology.

  14. Strategic approaches to adverse outcome pathway development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are conceptual frameworks for organizing biological and toxicological knowledge in a manner that supports extrapolation of data pertaining to the initiation or early progression of toxicity to an apical adverse outcome that occurs at a level of org...

  15. Integration of geographic information systems and logistic multiple regression for aquatic macrophyte modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Narumalani, S.; Jensen, J.R.; Althausen, J.D.; Burkhalter, S.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1994-06-01

    Since aquatic macrophytes have an important influence on the physical and chemical processes of an ecosystem while simultaneously affecting human activity, it is imperative that they be inventoried and managed wisely. However, mapping wetlands can be a major challenge because they are found in diverse geographic areas ranging from small tributary streams, to shrub or scrub and marsh communities, to open water lacustrian environments. In addition, the type and spatial distribution of wetlands can change dramatically from season to season, especially when nonpersistent species are present. This research, focuses on developing a model for predicting the future growth and distribution of aquatic macrophytes. This model will use a geographic information system (GIS) to analyze some of the biophysical variables that affect aquatic macrophyte growth and distribution. The data will provide scientists information on the future spatial growth and distribution of aquatic macrophytes. This study focuses on the Savannah River Site Par Pond (1,000 ha) and L Lake (400 ha) these are two cooling ponds that have received thermal effluent from nuclear reactor operations. Par Pond was constructed in 1958, and natural invasion of wetland has occurred over its 35-year history, with much of the shoreline having developed extensive beds of persistent and non-persistent aquatic macrophytes.

  16. Toxicity on aquatic organisms exposed to secondary effluent disinfected with chlorine, peracetic acid, ozone and UV radiation.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Juliana Berninger; Rodgher, Suzelei; Daniel, Luiz Antonio; Espíndola, Evaldo Luiz Gaeta

    2014-11-01

    The toxic potential of four disinfectant agents (chlorine, ozone, peracetic acid and UV radiation), used in the disinfection of urban wastewater, was evaluated with respect to four aquatic organisms. Disinfection assays were carried out with wastewater from the city of Araraquara (São Paulo State, Brazil), and subsequently, toxicity bioassays were applied in order to verify possible adverse effects to the cladocerans (Ceriodaphnia silvestrii and Daphnia similis), midge larvae Chironomus xanthus and fish (Danio rerio). Under the experimental conditions tested, all the disinfectants were capable of producing harmful effects on the test organisms, except for C. xanthus. The toxicity of the effluent to C. silvestrii was observed to increase significantly as a result of disinfection using 2.5 mg L(-1) chlorine and 29.9 mg L(-1) ozone. Ozonation and chlorination significantly affected the survival of D. similis and D. rerio, causing mortality of 60 to 100 % in comparison to the non-disinfected effluent. In experiments with effluent treated with peracetic acid (PAA) and UV radiation, a statistically significant decrease in survival was only detected for D. rerio. This investigation suggested that the study of the ideal concentrations of disinfectants is a research need for ecologically safe options for the treatment of wastewater.

  17. Toxicity on aquatic organisms exposed to secondary effluent disinfected with chlorine, peracetic acid, ozone and UV radiation.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Juliana Berninger; Rodgher, Suzelei; Daniel, Luiz Antonio; Espíndola, Evaldo Luiz Gaeta

    2014-11-01

    The toxic potential of four disinfectant agents (chlorine, ozone, peracetic acid and UV radiation), used in the disinfection of urban wastewater, was evaluated with respect to four aquatic organisms. Disinfection assays were carried out with wastewater from the city of Araraquara (São Paulo State, Brazil), and subsequently, toxicity bioassays were applied in order to verify possible adverse effects to the cladocerans (Ceriodaphnia silvestrii and Daphnia similis), midge larvae Chironomus xanthus and fish (Danio rerio). Under the experimental conditions tested, all the disinfectants were capable of producing harmful effects on the test organisms, except for C. xanthus. The toxicity of the effluent to C. silvestrii was observed to increase significantly as a result of disinfection using 2.5 mg L(-1) chlorine and 29.9 mg L(-1) ozone. Ozonation and chlorination significantly affected the survival of D. similis and D. rerio, causing mortality of 60 to 100 % in comparison to the non-disinfected effluent. In experiments with effluent treated with peracetic acid (PAA) and UV radiation, a statistically significant decrease in survival was only detected for D. rerio. This investigation suggested that the study of the ideal concentrations of disinfectants is a research need for ecologically safe options for the treatment of wastewater. PMID:25213288

  18. Transplanted aquatic mosses for monitoring trace metal mobilization in acidified streams of the Vosges Mountains, France

    SciTech Connect

    Mersch, J.; Guerold, F.; Rousselle, P.; Pihan, J.C. )

    1993-08-01

    As a result of acid depositions, trace metals are mobilized from the soils to the aquatic environment. Especially in poorly mineralized waters, elevated metal concentrations may rapidly have adverse effects on aquatic organisms. In particular, it has been shown that aluminium, a key element in the acidification process, is a toxic cofactor for fish and other biota. An accurate assessment of this specific form of water pollution may not be possible when only based on analyses of single water samples. On the one hand, water metal concentrations are often close to the detection limit of usual analytical techniques, and on the other hand, levels in acidified streams undergo strong temporal variations caused by acid pulses following meteorological events such as heavy rainfall and snowmelt. Compared to water analyses, indirect monitoring methods provide undeniable advantages for assessing water contamination. Aquatic bryophytes, in particular, have been regarded as interesting indicator organisms for trace metal pollution. However, their use has mainly been restricted to the lower course of streams for evaluating the impact of industrial discharges. The purpose of this study was to test the suitability of transplanted aquatic mosses for monitoring aluminium and four other trace metals (copper, iron, lead and zinc) in the particular context of acidifed streams draining a forested headwater catchment. 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Ecotoxicogenomic Approaches for Understanding Molecular Mechanisms of Environmental Chemical Toxicity Using Aquatic Invertebrate, Daphnia Model Organism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo Jeong; Koedrith, Preeyaporn; Seo, Young Rok

    2015-01-01

    Due to the rapid advent in genomics technologies and attention to ecological risk assessment, the term “ecotoxicogenomics” has recently emerged to describe integration of omics studies (i.e., transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and epigenomics) into ecotoxicological fields. Ecotoxicogenomics is defined as study of an entire set of genes or proteins expression in ecological organisms to provide insight on environmental toxicity, offering benefit in ecological risk assessment. Indeed, Daphnia is a model species to study aquatic environmental toxicity designated in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development’s toxicity test guideline and to investigate expression patterns using ecotoxicology-oriented genomics tools. Our main purpose is to demonstrate the potential utility of gene expression profiling in ecotoxicology by identifying novel biomarkers and relevant modes of toxicity in Daphnia magna. These approaches enable us to address adverse phenotypic outcomes linked to particular gene function(s) and mechanistic understanding of aquatic ecotoxicology as well as exploration of useful biomarkers. Furthermore, key challenges that currently face aquatic ecotoxicology (e.g., predicting toxicant responses among a broad spectrum of phytogenetic groups, predicting impact of temporal exposure on toxicant responses) necessitate the parallel use of other model organisms, both aquatic and terrestrial. By investigating gene expression profiling in an environmentally important organism, this provides viable support for the utility of ecotoxicogenomics. PMID:26035755

  20. Understanding adverse events: human factors.

    PubMed Central

    Reason, J

    1995-01-01

    (1) Human rather than technical failures now represent the greatest threat to complex and potentially hazardous systems. This includes healthcare systems. (2) Managing the human risks will never be 100% effective. Human fallibility can be moderated, but it cannot be eliminated. (3) Different error types have different underlying mechanisms, occur in different parts of the organisation, and require different methods of risk management. The basic distinctions are between: Slips, lapses, trips, and fumbles (execution failures) and mistakes (planning or problem solving failures). Mistakes are divided into rule based mistakes and knowledge based mistakes. Errors (information-handling problems) and violations (motivational problems) Active versus latent failures. Active failures are committed by those in direct contact with the patient, latent failures arise in organisational and managerial spheres and their adverse effects may take a long time to become evident. (4) Safety significant errors occur at all levels of the system, not just at the sharp end. Decisions made in the upper echelons of the organisation create the conditions in the workplace that subsequently promote individual errors and violations. Latent failures are present long before an accident and are hence prime candidates for principled risk management. (5) Measures that involve sanctions and exhortations (that is, moralistic measures directed to those at the sharp end) have only very limited effectiveness, especially so in the case of highly trained professionals. (6) Human factors problems are a product of a chain of causes in which the individual psychological factors (that is, momentary inattention, forgetting, etc) are the last and least manageable links. Attentional "capture" (preoccupation or distraction) is a necessary condition for the commission of slips and lapses. Yet, its occurrence is almost impossible to predict or control effectively. The same is true of the factors associated with

  1. Understanding adverse events: human factors.

    PubMed

    Reason, J

    1995-06-01

    (1) Human rather than technical failures now represent the greatest threat to complex and potentially hazardous systems. This includes healthcare systems. (2) Managing the human risks will never be 100% effective. Human fallibility can be moderated, but it cannot be eliminated. (3) Different error types have different underlying mechanisms, occur in different parts of the organisation, and require different methods of risk management. The basic distinctions are between: Slips, lapses, trips, and fumbles (execution failures) and mistakes (planning or problem solving failures). Mistakes are divided into rule based mistakes and knowledge based mistakes. Errors (information-handling problems) and violations (motivational problems) Active versus latent failures. Active failures are committed by those in direct contact with the patient, latent failures arise in organisational and managerial spheres and their adverse effects may take a long time to become evident. (4) Safety significant errors occur at all levels of the system, not just at the sharp end. Decisions made in the upper echelons of the organisation create the conditions in the workplace that subsequently promote individual errors and violations. Latent failures are present long before an accident and are hence prime candidates for principled risk management. (5) Measures that involve sanctions and exhortations (that is, moralistic measures directed to those at the sharp end) have only very limited effectiveness, especially so in the case of highly trained professionals. (6) Human factors problems are a product of a chain of causes in which the individual psychological factors (that is, momentary inattention, forgetting, etc) are the last and least manageable links. Attentional "capture" (preoccupation or distraction) is a necessary condition for the commission of slips and lapses. Yet, its occurrence is almost impossible to predict or control effectively. The same is true of the factors associated with

  2. Structural and functional effects of herbicides on non-target organisms in aquatic ecosystems with an emphasis on atrazine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fairchild, James; Kortekamp, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural production accounts for approximately 90% of herbicide use in the U.S. (Kiely et al., 2004). Gianessi and Reigner (2007) indicated that herbicides are routinely used on more than 90% of the area designated for large commercial crops including corn, soybeans, cotton, sugar beets, peanuts, and rice. Increased farm mechanization, technological advancements in production of inexpensive sources of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer (e.g., anhydrous ammonia), and conversion of forest, grassland, and wetland habitats to cropland has led to a tremendous increase in global food production over the past half-century. Herbicides have augmented advances in large-scale agricultural systems and have largely replaced mechanical and hand-weeding control mechanisms (Gianessi and Reigner, 2007). The wide-spread use of herbicides in agriculture has resulted in frequent chemical detections in surface and groundwaters (Gilliom, 2007). The majority of herbicides used are highly water soluble and are therefore prone to runoff from terrestrial environments. In additon, spray drift and atmospheric deposition can contribute to herbicide contamination of aquatic environments. Lastly, selected herbicides are deliberately applied to aquatic environments for controlling nuisance aquatic vegetation. Although aquatic herbicide exposure has been widely documented, these exposures are not necessarily related to adverse non-target ecological effects on natural communities in aquatic environments. This chapter evaluates the potential for effects of herbicides on the structure and function of aquatic envrionments at the population, community, and ecosystem levels of biological organization. In this manuscript I examine several critical aspects of the subject matter area: primary herbicides in use and chemical modes of action; the regulatory process used for registration and risk assessment of herbicides; data regarding non-target risks and the relative sensitivity of aquatic plants

  3. Selenium in aquatic biota inhabiting agricultural drains in the Salton Sea Basin, California.

    PubMed

    Saiki, Michael K; Martin, Barbara A; May, Thomas W

    2012-09-01

    Resource managers are concerned that water conservation practices in irrigated farmlands along the southern border of the Salton Sea, Imperial County, California, could increase selenium concentrations in agricultural drainwater and harm the desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius), a federally protected endangered species. As part of a broader attempt to address this concern, we conducted a 3-year investigation to collect baseline information on selenium concentrations in seven agricultural drains inhabited by pupfish. We collected water, sediment, selected aquatic food-chain taxa (particulate organic detritus, filamentous algae, net plankton, and midge [Chironomidae] larvae), and two poeciliid fishes (western mosquitofish Gambusia affinis and sailfin molly Poecilia latipinna) for selenium determinations. The two fish species served as ecological surrogates for pupfish, which we were not permitted to sacrifice. Dissolved selenium ranged from 0.70 to 32.8 μg/L, with selenate as the major constituent. Total selenium concentrations in other environmental matrices varied widely among drains, with one drain (Trifolium 18) exhibiting especially high concentrations in detritus, 5.98-58.0 μg Se/g; midge larvae, 12.7-50.6 μg Se/g; mosquitofish, 13.2-20.2 μg Se/g; and mollies, 12.8-30.4 μg Se/g (all tissue concentrations are based on dry weights). Although toxic thresholds for selenium in fishes from the Salton Sea are still poorly understood, available evidence suggests that ambient concentrations of this element may not be sufficiently elevated to adversely affect reproductive success and survival in selenium-tolerant poeciliids and pupfish. PMID:21915593

  4. Effects of contaminants on reproductive success of aquatic birds nesting at Edwards Air Force Base, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hothem, R.L.; Crayon, J.J.; Law, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Contamination by organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and trace elements at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), located in the Mojave Desert, could adversely affect nesting aquatic birds, especially at the sewage lagoons that comprise Piute Ponds. Estimates of avian reproduction, in conjunction with analyses of eggs and avian foods for contaminant residues, may indicate the potential for negative effects on avian populations. From 1996 to 1999, we conducted studies at the Piute Ponds area of EAFB to evaluate the impacts of contaminants on nesting birds. Avian reproduction was evaluated in 1999. Eggs were collected for chemical analyses in 1996 and 1999, and African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis), a likely food source, were collected for chemical analyses in 1998. Avian species occupying the higher trophic levels-black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), white-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi), and American avocet (Recurvirostra americana)-generally bioaccumulated higher concentrations of contaminants in their eggs. Reproductive success and egg hatchability of night-herons and white-faced ibises in the Piute Ponds were similar to results observed at other western colonies. Deformities were observed in only one embryo in this study, but concentrations of contaminants evaluated in this ibis embryo were considered insufficient to have caused the deformities. Because clawed frogs, a primary prey item for night-herons at Piute Ponds, had no detectable levels of any OCs, it is likely that OCs found in night-heron eggs were acquired from the wintering grounds rather than from EAFB. The presence of isomers of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in ibis eggs indicated recent exposure, but invertebrates used for food by ibises were not sampled at Piute Ponds, and conclusions about the source of OCs in ibis eggs could not be made. Concentrations of contaminants in random and failed eggs of individual species were not different, and we concluded

  5. Trophic interactions determine the effects of drought on an aquatic ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Amundrud, Sarah L; Srivastava, Diane S

    2016-06-01

    Species interactions can be important mediators of community and ecosystem responses to environmental stressors. However, we still lack a mechanistic understanding of the indirect ecological effects of stress that arise via altered species interactions. To understand how species interactions will be altered by environmental stressors, we need to know if the species that are vulnerable to such stressors also have large impacts on the ecosystem. As predators often exhibit certain traits that are linked to a high vulnerability to stress (e.g., large body size, long generation time), as well as having large effects on communities (e.g., top-down trophic effects), predators may be particularly likely to mediate ecological effects of environmental stress. Other functional groups, like facilitators, are known to have large impacts on communities, but their vulnerability to perturbations remains undocumented. Here, we use aquatic insect communities in bromeliads to examine the indirect effects of an important stressor (drought) on community and ecosystem responses. In a microcosm experiment, we manipulated predatory and facilitative taxa under a range of experimental droughts, and quantified effects on community structure and ecosystem function. Drought, by adversely affecting the top predator, had indirect cascading effects on the entire food web, altering community composition and decomposition. We identified the likely pathway of how drought cascaded through the food web from the top-down as drought -->predator --> shredder --> decomposition. This stress-induced cascade depended on predators exhibiting both a strong vulnerability to drought and large impacts on prey (especially shredders), as well as shredders exhibiting high functional importance as decomposers. PMID:27459778

  6. Effects of contaminants on reproductive success of aquatic birds nesting at Edwards Air Force Base, California.

    PubMed

    Hothem, R L; Crayon, J J; Law, M A

    2006-11-01

    Contamination by organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and trace elements at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), located in the Mojave Desert, could adversely affect nesting aquatic birds, especially at the sewage lagoons that comprise Piute Ponds. Estimates of avian reproduction, in conjunction with analyses of eggs and avian foods for contaminant residues, may indicate the potential for negative effects on avian populations. From 1996 to 1999, we conducted studies at the Piute Ponds area of EAFB to evaluate the impacts of contaminants on nesting birds. Avian reproduction was evaluated in 1999. Eggs were collected for chemical analyses in 1996 and 1999, and African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis), a likely food source, were collected for chemical analyses in 1998. Avian species occupying the higher trophic levels--black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), white-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi), and American avocet (Recurvirostra americana)--generally bioaccumulated higher concentrations of contaminants in their eggs. Reproductive success and egg hatchability of night-herons and white-faced ibises in the Piute Ponds were similar to results observed at other western colonies. Deformities were observed in only one embryo in this study, but concentrations of contaminants evaluated in this ibis embryo were considered insufficient to have caused the deformities. Because clawed frogs, a primary prey item for night-herons at Piute Ponds, had no detectable levels of any OCs, it is likely that OCs found in night-heron eggs were acquired from the wintering grounds rather than from EAFB. The presence of isomers of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in ibis eggs indicated recent exposure, but invertebrates used for food by ibises were not sampled at Piute Ponds, and conclusions about the source of OCs in ibis eggs could not be made. Concentrations of contaminants in random and failed eggs of individual species were not different, and we concluded

  7. Trophic interactions determine the effects of drought on an aquatic ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Amundrud, Sarah L; Srivastava, Diane S

    2016-06-01

    Species interactions can be important mediators of community and ecosystem responses to environmental stressors. However, we still lack a mechanistic understanding of the indirect ecological effects of stress that arise via altered species interactions. To understand how species interactions will be altered by environmental stressors, we need to know if the species that are vulnerable to such stressors also have large impacts on the ecosystem. As predators often exhibit certain traits that are linked to a high vulnerability to stress (e.g., large body size, long generation time), as well as having large effects on communities (e.g., top-down trophic effects), predators may be particularly likely to mediate ecological effects of environmental stress. Other functional groups, like facilitators, are known to have large impacts on communities, but their vulnerability to perturbations remains undocumented. Here, we use aquatic insect communities in bromeliads to examine the indirect effects of an important stressor (drought) on community and ecosystem responses. In a microcosm experiment, we manipulated predatory and facilitative taxa under a range of experimental droughts, and quantified effects on community structure and ecosystem function. Drought, by adversely affecting the top predator, had indirect cascading effects on the entire food web, altering community composition and decomposition. We identified the likely pathway of how drought cascaded through the food web from the top-down as drought -->predator --> shredder --> decomposition. This stress-induced cascade depended on predators exhibiting both a strong vulnerability to drought and large impacts on prey (especially shredders), as well as shredders exhibiting high functional importance as decomposers.

  8. Effects of contaminants on reproductive success of aquatic birds nesting at Edwards Air Force Base, California.

    PubMed

    Hothem, R L; Crayon, J J; Law, M A

    2006-11-01

    Contamination by organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and trace elements at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), located in the Mojave Desert, could adversely affect nesting aquatic birds, especially at the sewage lagoons that comprise Piute Ponds. Estimates of avian reproduction, in conjunction with analyses of eggs and avian foods for contaminant residues, may indicate the potential for negative effects on avian populations. From 1996 to 1999, we conducted studies at the Piute Ponds area of EAFB to evaluate the impacts of contaminants on nesting birds. Avian reproduction was evaluated in 1999. Eggs were collected for chemical analyses in 1996 and 1999, and African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis), a likely food source, were collected for chemical analyses in 1998. Avian species occupying the higher trophic levels--black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), white-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi), and American avocet (Recurvirostra americana)--generally bioaccumulated higher concentrations of contaminants in their eggs. Reproductive success and egg hatchability of night-herons and white-faced ibises in the Piute Ponds were similar to results observed at other western colonies. Deformities were observed in only one embryo in this study, but concentrations of contaminants evaluated in this ibis embryo were considered insufficient to have caused the deformities. Because clawed frogs, a primary prey item for night-herons at Piute Ponds, had no detectable levels of any OCs, it is likely that OCs found in night-heron eggs were acquired from the wintering grounds rather than from EAFB. The presence of isomers of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in ibis eggs indicated recent exposure, but invertebrates used for food by ibises were not sampled at Piute Ponds, and conclusions about the source of OCs in ibis eggs could not be made. Concentrations of contaminants in random and failed eggs of individual species were not different, and we concluded

  9. Selenium in aquatic biota inhabiting agricultural drains in the Salton Sea Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.; May, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Resource managers are concerned that water conservation practices in irrigated farmlands along the southern border of the Salton Sea, Imperial County, California, could increase selenium concentrations in agricultural drainwater and harm the desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius), a federally protected endangered species. As part of a broader attempt to address this concern, we conducted a 3-year investigation to collect baseline information on selenium concentrations in seven agricultural drains inhabited by pupfish. We collected water, sediment, selected aquatic food-chain taxa (particulate organic detritus, filamentous algae, net plankton, and midge [Chironomidae] larvae), and two poeciliid fishes (western mosquitofish Gambusia affinis and sailfin molly Poecilia latipinna) for selenium determinations. The two fish species served as ecological surrogates for pupfish, which we were not permitted to sacrifice. Dissolved selenium ranged from 0.70 to 32.8 μg/L, with selenate as the major constituent. Total selenium concentrations in other environmental matrices varied widely among drains, with one drain (Trifolium 18) exhibiting especially high concentrations in detritus, 5.98–58.0 μg Se/g; midge larvae, 12.7–50.6 μg Se/g; mosquitofish, 13.2–20.2 μg Se/g; and mollies, 12.8–30.4 μg Se/g (all tissue concentrations are based on dry weights). Although toxic thresholds for selenium in fishes from the Salton Sea are still poorly understood, available evidence suggests that ambient concentrations of this element may not be sufficiently elevated to adversely affect reproductive success and survival in selenium-tolerant poeciliids and pupfish.

  10. Multiple adverse experiences and child cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Guinosso, Stephanie A; Johnson, Sara B; Riley, Anne W

    2016-01-01

    During childhood and adolescence, children's social environments shape their cognitive development. Children exposed to multiple adversities in their social environment are more likely to have poorer cognitive outcomes. These findings have prompted interest among pediatric and public health communities to screen and connect youth to appropriate interventions that ameliorate the detrimental effects of adverse exposures. Such intervention efforts can be improved with a stronger conceptual understanding of the relationship between multiple adverse exposures and child cognitive development. This includes disentangling adverse exposures from other risk factors or underlying mechanisms, specifying mechanisms of action, and determining when adverse exposures are most detrimental. This review summarizes findings from the literature on each of these areas and proposes a conceptual model to guide further research and intervention.

  11. Adverse effects of anabolic steroids in athletes.

    PubMed

    Kibble, M W; Ross, M B

    1987-09-01

    The effects of anabolic steroid use on athletic performance and the adverse effects associated with the use of anabolic steroids are reviewed. Anabolic steroids increase protein synthesis in skeletal muscles and reverse catabolic processes. Because of these properties, some athletes use anabolic steroids in an attempt to improve their athletic performance. However, studies indicate that increases in muscle mass and strength during anabolic steroid administration are observed only in athletes who already are weight-trained and who continue intensive training while maintaining high-protein, high-calorie diets. Adverse effects attributed to anabolic steroid use occur frequently. Serious adverse effects include hepatic and endocrine dysfunction; cardiovascular and behavioral changes also are reported. Some of the adverse effects associated with the use of these agents are irreversible, particularly in women. The use of anabolic steroids to improve athletic performance has become prevalent. However, the reported benefits are tempered by numerous adverse reactions.

  12. Adulthood personality correlates of childhood adversity

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Charles S.; Johnson, Sheri L.; McCullough, Michael E.; Forster, Daniel E.; Joormann, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Childhood adversity has been linked to internalizing and externalizing disorders and personality disorders in adulthood. This study extends that research by examining several personality measures as correlates of childhood adversity. Method: In a college sample self-reports were collected of childhood adversity, several scales relating to personality, and current depression symptoms as a control variable. The personality-related scales were reduced to four latent variables, which we termed anger/aggression, extrinsic focus, agreeableness, and engagement. Results: Controlling for concurrent depressive symptoms and gender, higher levels of reported childhood adversity related to lower agreeableness and to higher anger/aggression and extrinsic focus. Conclusions: Findings suggest that early adversity is linked to personality variables relevant to the building of social connection. PMID:25484874

  13. INTERACTIONS OF LIGHT AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS IN THE AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT: KINETIC AND MECHANISTIC ASPECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in the ozone layer over the past two decades have resulted in increases in solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation that reaches the surface of aquatic environments. Recent studies have demonstrated that these UV increases cause changes in photochemical reactions that affect the...

  14. INTERACTIONS OF SOLAR UV RADIATION AND DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in the ozone layer over the past two decades have resulted in increases in solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation that reaches the surface of aquatic environments. Recent studies have demonstrated that these UV increases cause changes in photochemical reactions that affect the...

  15. SOLAR ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION AND AQUATIC CARBON, NITROGEN, SULFUR AND METALS CYCLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (290-400 nm) has a wide-ranging impact on biological and chemical processes that affect the cycling of elements in aquatic environments. This chapter uses recent field and laboratory observations along with models to assess these impacts on carbon, nit...

  16. GLOBAL CLIMATE AND LARGE-SCALE INFLUENCES ON AQUATIC ANIMAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The last 3 decades have witnessed numerous large-scale mortality events of aquatic organisms in North America. Affected species range from ecologically-important sea urchins to commercially-valuable American lobsters and protected marine mammals. Short-term forensic investigation...

  17. Use of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing to Evaluate Efficacy of Aquatic Plant Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive aquatic weeds negatively affect biodiversity, fluvial dynamics, water quality, and water storage and conveyance for a variety of human resource demands. In California’s Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta one submersed species - Brazilian waterweed (Egeria densa) - and one floating species ...

  18. Aquatic chemistry of flood events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klavins, Maris; Rodinov, Valery

    2015-04-01

    During flood events a major discharge of water and dissolved substances happens. However flood waters very much differs from water composition during low-water events. Aquatic chemistry of flood waters also is of importance at the calculation of loadings as well as they might have major impact on water quality in receiving water bodies (lakes, coastal waters and seas). Further flood regime of rivers is subjected to changes due to climate change and growing impact of human activities. The aim of this study is to analyse water chemical composition changes during flood events in respect to low water periods, character of high-water events and characteristics of the corresponding basin. Within this study, the concentrations of major dissolved substances in the major rivers of Latvia have been studied using monitoring data as well as field studies during high water/ low water events. As territories of studies flows of substances in river basins/subbasins with different land-use character and different anthropogenic impacts has been studied to calculate export values depending on the land-use character. Impact of relations between dissolved substances and relations in respect to budgets has been calculated. The dynamics of DOC, nutrient and major dissolved substance flows depending on landuse pattern and soil properties in Latvia has been described, including emissions by industrial and agricultural production. In these changes evidently climate change signals can be identified. The water chemistry of a large number of rivers during flood events has been determined and the possible impact of water chemical composition on DOC and nutrient flows has been evaluated. Long-term changes (1977-2013) of concentrations of dissolved substances do not follow linear trends but rather show oscillating patterns, indicating impact of natural factors, e.g. changing hydrological and climatic conditions. There is a positive correlation between content of inert dissolved substances and

  19. Effects of recent volcanic eruptions on aquatic habitat in the Drift River, Alaska, USA: Implications at other Cook Inlet region volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorava, J.M.; Milner, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Numerous drainages supporting productive salmon habitat are surrounded by active volcanoes on the west side of Cook Inlet in south-central Alaska. Eruptions have caused massive quantities of flowing water and sediment to enter the river channels emanating from glaciers and snowfields on these volcanoes. Extensive damage to riparian and aquatic habitat has commonly resulted, and benthic macroinvertebrate and salmonid communities can be affected. Because of the economic importance of Alaska's fisheries, detrimental effects on salmonid habitat can have significant economic implications. The Drift River drains glaciers on the northern and eastern flanks of Redoubt Volcano: During and following eruptions in 1989-1990, severe physical disturbances to the habitat features of the river adversely affected the fishery. Frequent eruptions at other Cook Inlet region volcanoes exemplify the potential effects of volcanic activity on Alaska's important commercial, sport, and subsistence fisheries. Few studies have documented the recovery of aquatic habitat following volcanic eruptions. The eruptions of Redoubt Volcano in 1989-1990 offered an opportunity to examine the recovery of the macroinvertebrate community. Macroinvertebrate community composition and structure in the Drift River were similar in both undisturbed and recently disturbed sites. Additionally, macroinvertebrate samples from sites in nearby undisturbed streams were highly similar to those from some Drift River sites. This similarity and the agreement between the Drift River macroinvertebrate community composition and that predicted by a qualitative model of typical macroinvertebrate communities in glacier-fed rivers indicate that the Drift River macroinvertebrate community is recovering five years after the disturbances associated with the most recent eruptions of Redoubt Volcano.

  20. Pesticide alters habitat selection and aquatic community composition.

    PubMed

    Vonesh, James R; Kraus, Johanna M

    2009-05-01

    Anthropogenic chemical contamination is an important issue for conservation of aquatic ecosystems. While recent research highlights that community context can mediate the consequences of contaminant exposure, little is known about how contaminants themselves might determine this context by altering habitat selection and thus initial community composition. Here we show that the insecticide carbaryl and its commercial counterpart Sevin can affect aquatic community composition by differentially altering oviposition and colonization of experimental pools by amphibians and insects. On average, contaminated pools received 20-fold more adult beetle and heteropteran colonists and 12-fold more Culex mosquito and chironomid midge egg masses. On the other hand, ovipositing Anopheles mosquitoes and cricket frogs showed no preference and we have shown previously that gray treefrogs strongly avoid contaminated pools. Overall, initial richness doubled in contaminated pools compared with controls. By affecting colonizing taxa differently and increasing richness, the contaminant may alter the ecological context under which subsequent effects of exposure will unfold. Given that community context is important for evaluating toxicity effects, understanding the net effects of contaminants in natural systems requires an understanding of their effects on community assembly via shifts in habitat selection.

  1. AQUATIC ASSESSMENT OF THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR ACCIDENT AND ITS REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Yasuo; Kivva, Sergey L.; Zheleznyak, Mark J.; Voitsekhovitch, Oleg V.

    2007-11-01

    This modeling study evaluated aquatic environment affected by the Chernobyl nuclear accident and the effectiveness of remediation efforts. Study results indicate that radionuclide concentrations in the Pripyat and Dnieper rivers were well above the drinking water limits immediately after the Chernobyl accident, but have decreased significantly in subsequent years due to flashing, burying, and decay. Because high concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs, the major radionuclides affecting human health through aquatic pathways, are associated with flooding, an earthen dike was constructed along the Pripyat River in its most contaminated floodplain. The dike was successful in reducing the 90Sr influx to the river by half. A 100-m-high movable dome called the New Safe Confinement is planned to cover the Chernobyl Shelter (formally called the sarcophagus) that was erected shortly after the accident. The NSC will reduce radionuclide contamination further in these rivers and nearby groundwater; however, even if the Chernobyl Shelter collapses before the NSC is built, the resulting peak concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in the Dnieper River would still be below the drinking water limits.

  2. Collateral Adverse Outcomes After Lumbar Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Alan H; Gundle, Kenneth; Hart, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Collateral adverse outcomes are the expected or unavoidable results of a procedure that is performed in a standard manner and typically experienced by the patient. Collateral adverse outcomes do not result from errors, nor are they rare. Collateral adverse outcomes occur as the direct result of a surgical procedure and must be accepted as a trade-off to attain the intended benefits of the surgical procedure. As such, collateral adverse outcomes do not fit into the traditional definition of a complication or adverse event. Examples of collateral adverse outcomes after lumbar spine arthrodesis include lumbar stiffness, postoperative psychological stress, postoperative pain, peri-incisional numbness, paraspinal muscle denervation, and adjacent-level degeneration. Ideally, a comparison of interventions for the treatment of a clinical condition should include information on both the negative consequences (expected and unexpected) and potential benefits of the treatment options. The objective evaluation and reporting of collateral adverse outcomes will provide surgeons with a more complete picture of invasive interventions and, thus, the improved ability to assess alternative treatment options. PMID:27049197

  3. Ballast Blockade: Stopping Aquatic Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sara

    2003-01-01

    Presents students with six ballast water treatment methods to evaluate. Allows students to acquaint themselves with current Great Lakes topics while simultaneously partaking in decision-making processes that could affect them. Emphasizes not only an important environmental issue for the Great Lakes, but also the importance of decision-making…

  4. Ecological and toxicological effects of inorganic nitrogen pollution in aquatic ecosystems: A global assessment.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Julio A; Alonso, Alvaro

    2006-08-01

    We provide a global assessment, with detailed multi-scale data, of the ecological and toxicological effects generated by inorganic nitrogen pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Our synthesis of the published scientific literature shows three major environmental problems: (1) it can increase the concentration of hydrogen ions in freshwater ecosystems without much acid-neutralizing capacity, resulting in acidification of those systems; (2) it can stimulate or enhance the development, maintenance and proliferation of primary producers, resulting in eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems; (3) it can reach toxic levels that impair the ability of aquatic animals to survive, grow and reproduce. Inorganic nitrogen pollution of ground and surface waters can also induce adverse effects on human health and economy. Because reductions in SO2 emissions have reduced the atmospheric deposition of H2SO4 across large portions of North America and Europe, while emissions of NOx have gone unchecked, HNO3 is now playing an increasing role in the acidification of freshwater ecosystems. This acidification process has caused several adverse effects on primary and secondary producers, with significant biotic impoverishments, particularly concerning invertebrates and fishes, in many atmospherically acidified lakes and streams. The cultural eutrophication of freshwater, estuarine, and coastal marine ecosystems can cause ecological and toxicological effects that are either directly or indirectly related to the proliferation of primary producers. Extensive kills of both invertebrates and fishes are probably the most dramatic manifestation of hypoxia (or anoxia) in eutrophic and hypereutrophic aquatic ecosystems with low water turnover rates. The decline in dissolved oxygen concentrations can also promote the formation of reduced compounds, such as hydrogen sulphide, resulting in higher adverse (toxic) effects on aquatic animals. Additionally, the occurrence of toxic algae can significantly

  5. Mismatch or allostatic load? Timing of life adversity differentially shapes gray matter volume and anxious temperament.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Manuel; Scharfenort, Robert; Schümann, Dirk; Schiele, Miriam A; Münsterkötter, Anna L; Deckert, Jürgen; Domschke, Katharina; Haaker, Jan; Kalisch, Raffael; Pauli, Paul; Reif, Andreas; Romanos, Marcel; Zwanzger, Peter; Lonsdorf, Tina B

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally, adversity was defined as the accumulation of environmental events (allostatic load). Recently however, a mismatch between the early and the later (adult) environment (mismatch) has been hypothesized to be critical for disease development, a hypothesis that has not yet been tested explicitly in humans. We explored the impact of timing of life adversity (childhood and past year) on anxiety and depression levels (N = 833) and brain morphology (N = 129). Both remote (childhood) and proximal (recent) adversities were differentially mirrored in morphometric changes in areas critically involved in emotional processing (i.e. amygdala/hippocampus, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, respectively). The effect of adversity on affect acted in an additive way with no evidence for interactions (mismatch). Structural equation modeling demonstrated a direct effect of adversity on morphometric estimates and anxiety/depression without evidence of brain morphology functioning as a mediator. Our results highlight that adversity manifests as pronounced changes in brain morphometric and affective temperament even though these seem to represent distinct mechanistic pathways. A major goal of future studies should be to define critical time periods for the impact of adversity and strategies for intervening to prevent or reverse the effects of adverse childhood life experiences.

  6. Mismatch or allostatic load? Timing of life adversity differentially shapes gray matter volume and anxious temperament.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Manuel; Scharfenort, Robert; Schümann, Dirk; Schiele, Miriam A; Münsterkötter, Anna L; Deckert, Jürgen; Domschke, Katharina; Haaker, Jan; Kalisch, Raffael; Pauli, Paul; Reif, Andreas; Romanos, Marcel; Zwanzger, Peter; Lonsdorf, Tina B

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally, adversity was defined as the accumulation of environmental events (allostatic load). Recently however, a mismatch between the early and the later (adult) environment (mismatch) has been hypothesized to be critical for disease development, a hypothesis that has not yet been tested explicitly in humans. We explored the impact of timing of life adversity (childhood and past year) on anxiety and depression levels (N = 833) and brain morphology (N = 129). Both remote (childhood) and proximal (recent) adversities were differentially mirrored in morphometric changes in areas critically involved in emotional processing (i.e. amygdala/hippocampus, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, respectively). The effect of adversity on affect acted in an additive way with no evidence for interactions (mismatch). Structural equation modeling demonstrated a direct effect of adversity on morphometric estimates and anxiety/depression without evidence of brain morphology functioning as a mediator. Our results highlight that adversity manifests as pronounced changes in brain morphometric and affective temperament even though these seem to represent distinct mechanistic pathways. A major goal of future studies should be to define critical time periods for the impact of adversity and strategies for intervening to prevent or reverse the effects of adverse childhood life experiences. PMID:26568620

  7. Mismatch or allostatic load? Timing of life adversity differentially shapes gray matter volume and anxious temperament

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Manuel; Scharfenort, Robert; Schümann, Dirk; Schiele, Miriam A.; Münsterkötter, Anna L.; Deckert, Jürgen; Domschke, Katharina; Haaker, Jan; Kalisch, Raffael; Pauli, Paul; Reif, Andreas; Romanos, Marcel; Zwanzger, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, adversity was defined as the accumulation of environmental events (allostatic load). Recently however, a mismatch between the early and the later (adult) environment (mismatch) has been hypothesized to be critical for disease development, a hypothesis that has not yet been tested explicitly in humans. We explored the impact of timing of life adversity (childhood and past year) on anxiety and depression levels (N = 833) and brain morphology (N = 129). Both remote (childhood) and proximal (recent) adversities were differentially mirrored in morphometric changes in areas critically involved in emotional processing (i.e. amygdala/hippocampus, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, respectively). The effect of adversity on affect acted in an additive way with no evidence for interactions (mismatch). Structural equation modeling demonstrated a direct effect of adversity on morphometric estimates and anxiety/depression without evidence of brain morphology functioning as a mediator. Our results highlight that adversity manifests as pronounced changes in brain morphometric and affective temperament even though these seem to represent distinct mechanistic pathways. A major goal of future studies should be to define critical time periods for the impact of adversity and strategies for intervening to prevent or reverse the effects of adverse childhood life experiences. PMID:26568620

  8. Adverse Effects of Wheat Gluten.

    PubMed

    Koning, Frits

    2015-01-01

    Man began to consume cereals approximately 10,000 years ago when hunter-gatherers settled in the fertile golden crescent in the Middle East. Gluten has been an integral part of the Western type of diet ever since, and wheat consumption is also common in the Middle East, parts of India and China as well as Australia and Africa. In fact, the food supply in the world heavily depends on the availability of cereal-based food products, with wheat being one of the largest crops in the world. Part of this is due to the unique properties of wheat gluten, which has a high nutritional value and is crucial for the preparation of high-quality dough. In the last 10 years, however, wheat and gluten have received much negative attention. Many believe that it is inherently bad for our health and try to avoid consumption of gluten-containing cereals; a gluten-low lifestyle so to speak. This is fueled by a series of popular publications like Wheat Belly; Lose the Wheat, Lose the Weight, and Find Your Path Back to Health. However, in reality, there is only one condition where gluten is definitively the culprit: celiac disease (CD), affecting approximately 1% of the population in the Western world. Here, I describe the complexity of the cereals from which gluten is derived, the special properties of gluten which make it so widely used in the food industry, the basis for its toxicity in CD patients and the potential for the development of safe gluten and alternatives to the gluten-free diet.

  9. Adverse Effects of Wheat Gluten.

    PubMed

    Koning, Frits

    2015-01-01

    Man began to consume cereals approximately 10,000 years ago when hunter-gatherers settled in the fertile golden crescent in the Middle East. Gluten has been an integral part of the Western type of diet ever since, and wheat consumption is also common in the Middle East, parts of India and China as well as Australia and Africa. In fact, the food supply in the world heavily depends on the availability of cereal-based food products, with wheat being one of the largest crops in the world. Part of this is due to the unique properties of wheat gluten, which has a high nutritional value and is crucial for the preparation of high-quality dough. In the last 10 years, however, wheat and gluten have received much negative attention. Many believe that it is inherently bad for our health and try to avoid consumption of gluten-containing cereals; a gluten-low lifestyle so to speak. This is fueled by a series of popular publications like Wheat Belly; Lose the Wheat, Lose the Weight, and Find Your Path Back to Health. However, in reality, there is only one condition where gluten is definitively the culprit: celiac disease (CD), affecting approximately 1% of the population in the Western world. Here, I describe the complexity of the cereals from which gluten is derived, the special properties of gluten which make it so widely used in the food industry, the basis for its toxicity in CD patients and the potential for the development of safe gluten and alternatives to the gluten-free diet. PMID:26606684

  10. Can thiol compounds be used as biomarkers of aquatic ecosystem contamination by cadmium?

    PubMed Central

    Kovářová, Jana; Svobodová, Zdeňka

    2009-01-01

    Due to anthropogenic activities, heavy metals still represent a threat for various trophic levels. If aquatic animals are exposed to heavy metals we can obviously observe considerable toxicity. It is well known that an organism affected by cadmium (Cd) synthesize low molecular mass thiol compounds rich in cysteine (Cys), such as metallothioneins (MT) and glutathione (GSH/GSSG). The aim of this study was to summarize the effect of Cd on level of thiol compounds in aquatic organisms, and evaluate that the concentrations of thiol compounds are effective indicators of Cd water pollution and explain their potential use in biomonitoring applications. PMID:21217850

  11. Abiotic variability among different aquatic systems of the central Amazon floodplain during drought and flood events.

    PubMed

    Affonso, A G; Queiroz, H L; Novo, E M L M

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines water properties from lakes, (depression lakes, sensu Junk et al., 2012), channels (scroll lakes with high connectivity, sensu Junk et al., 2012) and paleo-channels (scroll lakes with low connectivity-sensu Junk et al., 2012, locally called ressacas) located in Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, in Central Amazon floodplain, Amazonas, Brazil. We analysed surface temperature, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, transparency, suspended inorganic and organic matter, chlorophyll-a, pheophytin, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, organic and inorganic carbon in 2009 high water phase, 2009 and 2010 low water phases. Multivariate statistical analyses of 24 aquatic systems (6 ressacas, 12 lakes and 6 channels, 142 samples) were applied to the variables in order to: 1) quantify differences among aquatic system types; 2) assess how those differences are affected in the different phases of the hydrological year. First, we analysed the entire set of variables to test for differences among phases of the hydrological year and types of aquatic systems using a PERMANOVA two-way crossed design. The results showed that the all measured limnological variables are distinct regarding both factors: types of aquatic systems and hydrological phases. In general, the magnitude and amplitude of all variables were higher in the low water phase than in the high water phase, except for water transparency in all aquatic system's types. PERMANOVA showed that the differences between aquatic system's types and hydrological phases of all variables were highly significant for both main factors (type and phase) and for the type x phase interaction. Limnological patterns of Amazon floodplain aquatic systems are highly dynamic, dependent on the surrounding environment, flood pulse, main river input and system type. These patterns show how undisturbed systems respond to natural variability in such a diverse environment, and how distinct are those aquatic systems

  12. Abiotic variability among different aquatic systems of the central Amazon floodplain during drought and flood events.

    PubMed

    Affonso, A G; Queiroz, H L; Novo, E M L M

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines water properties from lakes, (depression lakes, sensu Junk et al., 2012), channels (scroll lakes with high connectivity, sensu Junk et al., 2012) and paleo-channels (scroll lakes with low connectivity-sensu Junk et al., 2012, locally called ressacas) located in Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, in Central Amazon floodplain, Amazonas, Brazil. We analysed surface temperature, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, transparency, suspended inorganic and organic matter, chlorophyll-a, pheophytin, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, organic and inorganic carbon in 2009 high water phase, 2009 and 2010 low water phases. Multivariate statistical analyses of 24 aquatic systems (6 ressacas, 12 lakes and 6 channels, 142 samples) were applied to the variables in order to: 1) quantify differences among aquatic system types; 2) assess how those differences are affected in the different phases of the hydrological year. First, we analysed the entire set of variables to test for differences among phases of the hydrological year and types of aquatic systems using a PERMANOVA two-way crossed design. The results showed that the all measured limnological variables are distinct regarding both factors: types of aquatic systems and hydrological phases. In general, the magnitude and amplitude of all variables were higher in the low water phase than in the high water phase, except for water transparency in all aquatic system's types. PERMANOVA showed that the differences between aquatic system's types and hydrological phases of all variables were highly significant for both main factors (type and phase) and for the type x phase interaction. Limnological patterns of Amazon floodplain aquatic systems are highly dynamic, dependent on the surrounding environment, flood pulse, main river input and system type. These patterns show how undisturbed systems respond to natural variability in such a diverse environment, and how distinct are those aquatic systems

  13. Adverse childhood event experiences, fertility difficulties, and menstrual cycle characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Marni B.; Boynton-Jarrett, Renee D.; Harville, Emily W.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Increased childhood adversity may be affect adult fertility, however, the mechanism through which this occurs is unclear. Menstrual cycle abnormalities are predictive of fertility difficulties, and stress influences menstrual cycle characteristics. Here, we assesses whether adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with fertility difficulties and menstrual cycle dysregulation, offering a plausible mechanism for the link between lifetime stress and fertility. Methods From April 2012 – February 2014, 742 pregnant and non-pregnant women aged 18–45 years residing in southeastern Louisiana provided information on childhood adversity and reproductive history. Associations between ACEs and fertility difficulties and menstrual cycle patterns were evaluated. Results As the number of ACEs increased, risk of fertility difficulties and amenorrhea increased (RR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.05 – 1.13 and RR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.04 – 1.10, respectively), while fecundability decreased (FR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.95 – 1.00). Compared to women with no adversity, women in the high adversity group were more likely to experience both infertility and amenorrhea (RR = 2.75, 95% CI 1.45 – 5.21 and RR = 2.54, 95% CI 1.52 – 4.25, respectively), and reduced fecundability (FR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.56 – 1.00). Although similar patterns were seen for menstrual cycle irregularity, associations were diminished. Associations did not materially change following adjustment for age, BMI, race, education, smoking, and income. Results are constrained by the self-report nature of the study and the limited generalizability of the study population. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first study to present evidence of a link between childhood stressors, menstrual cycle disruption, and fertility difficulties. The effect of childhood stress on fertility may be mediated through altered functioning of the HPA axis, acting to suppress fertility in response to less than optimal reproductive

  14. Chemical research on red pigments after adverse reactions to tattoo.

    PubMed

    Tammaro, A; Toniolo, C; Giulianelli, V; Serafini, M; Persechino, S

    2016-03-01

    Currently, the incidence of tattooing is on the rise compared to the past, especially among adolescents, and it leads to the urgency of monitoring the security status of tattooing centers, as well as to inform people about the risks of tattoo practice. In our clinical experience, 20% of tattooed patients presented adverse reactions, like allergic contact dermatitis, psoriasis with Koebner's phenomena and granulomatous reactions, with the latter most prevalent and most often related to red pigment. Adverse reactions to tattoo pigments, especially the red one, are well known and described in literature. Great attention has to be focused on the pigments used, especially for the presence of new substances, often not well known. For this reason, we decided to perform a study on 12 samples of red tattoo ink, obtained by patients affected by different cutaneous reactions in the site of tattoo, to analyze their chemical composition. PMID:26934738

  15. Uncertainty Comparison of Visual Sensing in Adverse Weather Conditions.

    PubMed

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Chen, Lun-Chi; Tseng, Chien-Hao; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on flood-region detection using monitoring images. However, adverse weather affects the outcome of image segmentation methods. In this paper, we present an experimental comparison of an outdoor visual sensing system using region-growing methods with two different growing rules-namely, GrowCut and RegGro. For each growing rule, several tests on adverse weather and lens-stained scenes were performed, taking into account and analyzing different weather conditions with the outdoor visual sensing system. The influence of several weather conditions was analyzed, highlighting their effect on the outdoor visual sensing system with different growing rules. Furthermore, experimental errors and uncertainties obtained with the growing rules were compared. The segmentation accuracy of flood regions yielded by the GrowCut, RegGro, and hybrid methods was 75%, 85%, and 87.7%, respectively. PMID:27447642

  16. Uncertainty Comparison of Visual Sensing in Adverse Weather Conditions†

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Chen, Lun-Chi; Tseng, Chien-Hao; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on flood-region detection using monitoring images. However, adverse weather affects the outcome of image segmentation methods. In this paper, we present an experimental comparison of an outdoor visual sensing system using region-growing methods with two different growing rules—namely, GrowCut and RegGro. For each growing rule, several tests on adverse weather and lens-stained scenes were performed, taking into account and analyzing different weather conditions with the outdoor visual sensing system. The influence of several weather conditions was analyzed, highlighting their effect on the outdoor visual sensing system with different growing rules. Furthermore, experimental errors and uncertainties obtained with the growing rules were compared. The segmentation accuracy of flood regions yielded by the GrowCut, RegGro, and hybrid methods was 75%, 85%, and 87.7%, respectively. PMID:27447642

  17. Mechanisms and assessment of statin-related muscular adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Moßhammer, Dirk; Schaeffeler, Elke; Schwab, Matthias; Mörike, Klaus

    2014-09-01

    Statin-associated muscular adverse effects cover a wide range of symptoms, including asymptomatic increase of creatine kinase serum activity and life-threatening rhabdomyolysis. Different underlying pathomechanisms have been proposed. However, a unifying concept of the pathogenesis of statin-related muscular adverse effects has not emerged so far. In this review, we attempt to categorize these mechanisms along three levels. Firstly, among pharmacokinetic factors, it has been shown for some statins that inhibition of cytochrome P450-mediated hepatic biotransformation and hepatic uptake by transporter proteins contribute to an increase of systemic statin concentrations. Secondly, at the myocyte membrane level, cell membrane uptake transporters affect intracellular statin concentrations. Thirdly, at the intracellular level, inhibition of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase results in decreased intracellular concentrations of downstream metabolites (e.g. selenoproteins, ubiquinone, cholesterol) and alteration of gene expression (e.g. ryanodine receptor 3, glycine amidinotransferase). We also review current recommendations for prescribers.

  18. Chemical research on red pigments after adverse reactions to tattoo.

    PubMed

    Tammaro, A; Toniolo, C; Giulianelli, V; Serafini, M; Persechino, S

    2016-03-01

    Currently, the incidence of tattooing is on the rise compared to the past, especially among adolescents, and it leads to the urgency of monitoring the security status of tattooing centers, as well as to inform people about the risks of tattoo practice. In our clinical experience, 20% of tattooed patients presented adverse reactions, like allergic contact dermatitis, psoriasis with Koebner's phenomena and granulomatous reactions, with the latter most prevalent and most often related to red pigment. Adverse reactions to tattoo pigments, especially the red one, are well known and described in literature. Great attention has to be focused on the pigments used, especially for the presence of new substances, often not well known. For this reason, we decided to perform a study on 12 samples of red tattoo ink, obtained by patients affected by different cutaneous reactions in the site of tattoo, to analyze their chemical composition.

  19. Nutrition, illness, and injury in aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Pyne, David B; Verhagen, Evert A; Mountjoy, Margo

    2014-08-01

    In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of illness and injury. Aquatic athletes are encouraged to consume a well-planned diet with sufficient calories, macronutrients (particularly carbohydrate and protein), and micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6, and B12) to maintain health and performance. Ingesting carbohydrate via sports drinks, gels, or sports foods during prolonged training sessions is beneficial in maintaining energy availability. Studies of foods or supplements containing plant polyphenols and selected strains of probiotic species are promising, but further research is required. In terms of injury, intake of vitamin D, protein, and total caloric intake, in combination with treatment and resistance training, promotes recovery back to full health and training.

  20. Evaluating Ecological Effects in a Semi-arid Aquatic System Using Three Lines of Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardiff, M. F.; Ford-Schmid, R.; Hickmott, D. D.

    2003-12-01

    One mission of Los Alamos National Laboratory has been to develop explosives, machine explosive charges, and test explosive components for the United States nuclear weapons program. Effluents containing high explosives and metals from machining and photographic facilities were discharged to Canon de Valle for forty years at rates up to ten million gallons per year, making up as much as half of the canyon's flow. Discharges to the canyon were discontinued in 1996. Canon de Valle has an interrupted stream that supports an herbaceous ground cover and a multi-layer canopy of conifers, oak and aspen. An ecological screening assessment and problem formulation identified barium, cadmium, copper, manganese and silver as metals of potential ecological concern for the aquatic system in the canyon. Additionally, potential impacts associated with high explosives in the aquatic system are unknown because aquatic community screening values are not available. Two field studies were designed and implemented to assess the adverse effects in the canyon's aquatic system. The first field study consisted of benthic macro-invertebrate surveys that were conducted in Canon de Valle and three reference streams. The survey was then repeated in Canon de Valle four years later to assess trends in the benthic macro-invertebrate community. The second field study consisted of toxicity testing with {it Chironomus tentans} using three locations in the Canon de Valle and one location in a reference canyon. Two rounds of toxicity testing were conducted. Each round was supported with sediment and water sampling at each location for contaminant analysis. The data from the contaminant analysis of water and sediments will be presented along with the results of the benthic macro-invertebrate surveys and the toxicity tests. An example of identifying the contaminants associated with reduced survival in a toxicity test will presented, the utility of benthic macro-invertebrate community metrics as indicators

  1. A Source of Terrestrial Organic Carbon to Investigate the Browning of Aquatic Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Lennon, Jay T.; Hamilton, Stephen K.; Muscarella, Mario E.; Grandy, A. Stuart; Wickings, Kyle; Jones, Stuart E.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence that terrestrial ecosystems are exporting more dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to aquatic ecosystems than they did just a few decades ago. This “browning” phenomenon will alter the chemistry, physics, and biology of inland water bodies in complex and difficult-to-predict ways. Experiments provide an opportunity to elucidate how browning will affect the stability and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. However, it is challenging to obtain sources of DOC that can be used for manipulations at ecologically relevant scales. In this study, we evaluated a commercially available source of humic substances (“Super Hume”) as an analog for natural sources of terrestrial DOC. Based on chemical characterizations, comparative surveys, and whole-ecosystem manipulations, we found that the physical and chemical properties of Super Hume are similar to those of natural DOC in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. For example, Super Hume attenuated solar radiation in ways that will not only influence the physiology of aquatic taxa but also the metabolism of entire ecosystems. Based on its chemical properties (high lignin content, high quinone content, and low C:N and C:P ratios), Super Hume is a fairly recalcitrant, low-quality resource for aquatic consumers. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that Super Hume can subsidize aquatic food webs through 1) the uptake of dissolved organic constituents by microorganisms, and 2) the consumption of particulate fractions by larger organisms (i.e., Daphnia). After discussing some of the caveats of Super Hume, we conclude that commercial sources of humic substances can be used to help address pressing ecological questions concerning the increased export of terrestrial DOC to aquatic ecosystems. PMID:24124511

  2. Childhood adversities and psychosis: evidence, challenges, implications

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Craig; Gayer‐Anderson, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    There is a substantial body of research reporting evidence of associations between various forms of childhood adversity and psychosis, across the spectrum from experiences to disorder. This has been extended, more recently, to include studies of cumulative effects, of interactions with other factors, of specific effects, and of putative biological and psychological mechanisms. In this paper we evaluate this research and highlight the remaining methodological issues and gaps that temper, but do not dismiss, conclusions about the causal role of childhood adversity. We also consider the emerging work on cumulative, synergistic, and specific effects and on mechanisms; and discuss the broader implications of this line of research for our understanding of psychosis. We conclude that the current balance of evidence is that childhood adversities – particularly exposure to multiple adversities involving hostility and threat – do, in some people, contribute to the onset of psychotic experiences and psychotic disorders. PMID:27265690

  3. RACIAL RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    INTRODUCTION. The disparity between black and white women's adverse birth outcomes has been subject to much investigation, yet the factors underlying its persistence remain elusive, which has encouraged research on neighborhood-level influences, including racial residential segr...

  4. Encouraging spontaneous reporting of adverse effects.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    One priority when organising surveillance of health products is to remove barriers to reporting adverse effects. One way to encourage reporting is by providing regular feedback, as practised by the German drug bulletin arznei-telegramm, for example. PMID:25802925

  5. Adverse Outcome Pathways: From Definition to Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    A challenge for both human health and ecological toxicologists is the transparent application of mechanistic (e.g., molecular, biochemical, histological) data to risk assessments. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) is a conceptual framework designed to meet this need. Specifical...

  6. Meta-Analysis of the Copper, Zinc, and Cadmium Absorption Capacities of Aquatic Plants in Heavy Metal-Polluted Water

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Yu, Haixin; Luan, Yaning

    2015-01-01

    The use of aquatic plants for phytoremediation is an important method for restoring polluted ecosystems. We sought to analyze the capacity of different aquatic plant species to absorb heavy metals and to summarize available relevant scientific data on this topic. We present a meta-analysis of Cu, Zn, and Cd absorption capacities of aquatic plants to provide a scientific basis for the selection of aquatic plants suitable for remediation of heavy-metal pollution. Plants from the Gramineae, Pontederiaceae, Ceratophyllaceae, Typhaceae and Haloragaceae showed relatively strong abilities to absorb these metals. The ability of a particular plant species to absorb a given metal was strongly correlated with its ability to absorb the other metals. However, the absorption abilities varied with the plant organ, with the following trend: roots > stems > leaves. The pH of the water and the life habits of aquatic plants (submerged and emerged) also affect the plant’s ability to absorb elements. Acidic water aids the uptake of heavy metals by plants. The correlation observed between element concentrations in plants with different aquatic life habits suggested that the enrichment mechanism is related to the surface area of the plant exposed to water. We argue that this meta-analysis would aid the selection of aquatic plants suitable for heavy-metal absorption from polluted waters. PMID:26703632

  7. Meta-Analysis of the Copper, Zinc, and Cadmium Absorption Capacities of Aquatic Plants in Heavy Metal-Polluted Water.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Yu, Haixin; Luan, Yaning

    2015-12-01

    The use of aquatic plants for phytoremediation is an important method for restoring polluted ecosystems. We sought to analyze the capacity of different aquatic plant species to absorb heavy metals and to summarize available relevant scientific data on this topic. We present a meta-analysis of Cu, Zn, and Cd absorption capacities of aquatic plants to provide a scientific basis for the selection of aquatic plants suitable for remediation of heavy-metal pollution. Plants from the Gramineae, Pontederiaceae, Ceratophyllaceae, Typhaceae and Haloragaceae showed relatively strong abilities to absorb these metals. The ability of a particular plant species to absorb a given metal was strongly correlated with its ability to absorb the other metals. However, the absorption abilities varied with the plant organ, with the following trend: roots > stems > leaves. The pH of the water and the life habits of aquatic plants (submerged and emerged) also affect the plant's ability to absorb elements. Acidic water aids the uptake of heavy metals by plants. The correlation observed between element concentrations in plants with different aquatic life habits suggested that the enrichment mechanism is related to the surface area of the plant exposed to water. We argue that this meta-analysis would aid the selection of aquatic plants suitable for heavy-metal absorption from polluted waters. PMID:26703632

  8. Meta-Analysis of the Copper, Zinc, and Cadmium Absorption Capacities of Aquatic Plants in Heavy Metal-Polluted Water.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Yu, Haixin; Luan, Yaning

    2015-11-26

    The use of aquatic plants for phytoremediation is an important method for restoring polluted ecosystems. We sought to analyze the capacity of different aquatic plant species to absorb heavy metals and to summarize available relevant scientific data on this topic. We present a meta-analysis of Cu, Zn, and Cd absorption capacities of aquatic plants to provide a scientific basis for the selection of aquatic plants suitable for remediation of heavy-metal pollution. Plants from the Gramineae, Pontederiaceae, Ceratophyllaceae, Typhaceae and Haloragaceae showed relatively strong abilities to absorb these metals. The ability of a particular plant species to absorb a given metal was strongly correlated with its ability to absorb the other metals. However, the absorption abilities varied with the plant organ, with the following trend: roots > stems > leaves. The pH of the water and the life habits of aquatic plants (submerged and emerged) also affect the plant's ability to absorb elements. Acidic water aids the uptake of heavy metals by plants. The correlation observed between element concentrations in plants with different aquatic life habits suggested that the enrichment mechanism is related to the surface area of the plant exposed to water. We argue that this meta-analysis would aid the selection of aquatic plants suitable for heavy-metal absorption from polluted waters.

  9. Microbial ecology of Antarctic aquatic systems.

    PubMed

    Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    The Earth's biosphere is dominated by cold environments, and the cold biosphere is dominated by microorganisms. Microorganisms in cold Southern Ocean waters are recognized for having crucial roles in global biogeochemical cycles, including carbon sequestration, whereas microorganisms in other Antarctic aquatic biomes are not as well understood. In this Review, I consider what has been learned about Antarctic aquatic microbial ecology from 'omic' studies. I assess the factors that shape the biogeography of Antarctic microorganisms, reflect on some of the unusual biogeochemical cycles that they are associated with and discuss the important roles that viruses have in controlling ecosystem function. PMID:26456925

  10. Microbial ecology of Antarctic aquatic systems.

    PubMed

    Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    The Earth's biosphere is dominated by cold environments, and the cold biosphere is dominated by microorganisms. Microorganisms in cold Southern Ocean waters are recognized for having crucial roles in global biogeochemical cycles, including carbon sequestration, whereas microorganisms in other Antarctic aquatic biomes are not as well understood. In this Review, I consider what has been learned about Antarctic aquatic microbial ecology from 'omic' studies. I assess the factors that shape the biogeography of Antarctic microorganisms, reflect on some of the unusual biogeochemical cycles that they are associated with and discuss the important roles that viruses have in controlling ecosystem function.

  11. Aquatic ape theory and fossil hominids.

    PubMed

    Verhaegen, M J

    1991-06-01

    While most older palaeo-anthropological studies emphasise the similarities of the fossil hominids with modern man, recent studies often stress the unique and the apelike features of the australopithecine dentitions, skulls and postcranial bones. It is worth reconsidering the features of Australopithecus, Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis in the light of the so-called Aquatic Ape Theory (AAT) of Hardy and Morgan, and to compare the skeletal parts of our fossil relatives with those of (semi)aquatic animals. Possible convergences are observed with proboscis monkeys, beavers, sea-otters, hippopotamuses, seals, sea-lions, walruses, sea-cows, whales, dolphins, porpoises, penguins and crocodiles. PMID:1909768

  12. Gradual adaptation of bone structure to aquatic lifestyle in extinct sloths from Peru

    PubMed Central

    Amson, Eli; de Muizon, Christian; Laurin, Michel; Argot, Christine; de Buffrénil, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    Non-pathological densification (osteosclerosis) and swelling (pachyostosis) of bones are the main modifications affecting the skeleton of land vertebrates (tetrapods) that returned to water. However, a precise temporal calibration of the acquisition of such adaptations is still wanting. Here, we assess the timing of such acquisition using the aquatic sloth Thalassocnus, from the Neogene of the Pisco Formation, Peru. This genus is represented by five species occurring in successive vertebrate-bearing horizons of distinct ages. It yields the most detailed data about the gradual acquisition of aquatic adaptations among tetrapods, in displaying increasing osteosclerosis and pachyostosis through time. Such modifications, reflecting a shift in the habitat from terrestrial to aquatic, occurred over a short geological time span (ca 4 Myr). Otherwise, the bones of terrestrial pilosans (sloths and anteaters) are much more compact than the mean mammalian condition, which suggests that the osteosclerosis of Thalassocnus may represent an exaptation. PMID:24621950

  13. Global warming and environmental contaminants in aquatic organisms: the need of the etho-toxicology approach.

    PubMed

    Manciocco, Arianna; Calamandrei, Gemma; Alleva, Enrico

    2014-04-01

    Environmental contaminants are associated with a wide spectrum of pathological effects. Temperature increase affects ambient distribution and toxicity of these chemicals in the water environment, representing a potentially emerging problem for aquatic species with short-, medium- and long-term repercussions on human health through the food chain. We assessed peer-reviewed literature, including primary studies, review articles and organizational reports available. We focused on studies concerning toxicity of environmental pollutants within a global warming scenario. Existing knowledge on the effects that the increase of water temperature in a contaminated situation has on physiological mechanisms of aquatic organisms is presented. Altogether we consider the potential consequences for the human beings due to fish and shellfish consumption. Finally, we propose an etho-toxicological approach to study the effects of toxicants in conditions of thermal increase, using aquatic organisms as experimental models under laboratory controlled conditions.

  14. Gradual adaptation of bone structure to aquatic lifestyle in extinct sloths from Peru.

    PubMed

    Amson, Eli; de Muizon, Christian; Laurin, Michel; Argot, Christine; de Buffrénil, Vivian

    2014-05-01

    Non-pathological densification (osteosclerosis) and swelling (pachyostosis) of bones are the main modifications affecting the skeleton of land vertebrates (tetrapods) that returned to water. However, a precise temporal calibration of the acquisition of such adaptations is still wanting. Here, we assess the timing of such acquisition using the aquatic sloth Thalassocnus, from the Neogene of the Pisco Formation, Peru. This genus is represented by five species occurring in successive vertebrate-bearing horizons of distinct ages. It yields the most detailed data about the gradual acquisition of aquatic adaptations among tetrapods, in displaying increasing osteosclerosis and pachyostosis through time. Such modifications, reflecting a shift in the habitat from terrestrial to aquatic, occurred over a short geological time span (ca 4 Myr). Otherwise, the bones of terrestrial pilosans (sloths and anteaters) are much more compact than the mean mammalian condition, which suggests that the osteosclerosis of Thalassocnus may represent an exaptation.

  15. RhizoFlowCell system reveals early effects of micropollutants on aquatic plant rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Mynampati, Kalyan Chakravarthy; Lee, Yong Jian; Wijdeveld, Arjan; Reuben, Sheela; Samavedham, Lakshminarayanan; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Swarup, Sanjay

    2015-12-01

    In aquatic systems, one of the non-destructive ways to quantify toxicity of contaminants to plants is to monitor changes in root exudation patterns. In aquatic conditions, monitoring and quantifying such changes are currently challenging because of dilution of root exudates in water phase and lack of suitable instrumentation to measure them. Exposure to pollutants would not only change the plant exudation, but also affect the microbial communities that surround the root zone, thereby changing the metabolic profiles of the rhizosphere. This study aims at developing a device, the RhizoFlowCell, which can quantify metabolic response of plants, as well as changes in the microbial communities, to give an estimate of the stress to which the rhizosphere is exposed. The usefulness of RhizoFlowCell is demonstrated using naphthalene as a test pollutant. Results show that RhizoFlowCell system is useful in quantifying the dynamic metabolic response of aquatic rhizosphere to determine ecosystem health.

  16. RhizoFlowCell system reveals early effects of micropollutants on aquatic plant rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Mynampati, Kalyan Chakravarthy; Lee, Yong Jian; Wijdeveld, Arjan; Reuben, Sheela; Samavedham, Lakshminarayanan; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Swarup, Sanjay

    2015-12-01

    In aquatic systems, one of the non-destructive ways to quantify toxicity of contaminants to plants is to monitor changes in root exudation patterns. In aquatic conditions, monitoring and quantifying such changes are currently challenging because of dilution of root exudates in water phase and lack of suitable instrumentation to measure them. Exposure to pollutants would not only change the plant exudation, but also affect the microbial communities that surround the root zone, thereby changing the metabolic profiles of the rhizosphere. This study aims at developing a device, the RhizoFlowCell, which can quantify metabolic response of plants, as well as changes in the microbial communities, to give an estimate of the stress to which the rhizosphere is exposed. The usefulness of RhizoFlowCell is demonstrated using naphthalene as a test pollutant. Results show that RhizoFlowCell system is useful in quantifying the dynamic metabolic response of aquatic rhizosphere to determine ecosystem health. PMID:26386206

  17. Gradual adaptation of bone structure to aquatic lifestyle in extinct sloths from Peru.

    PubMed

    Amson, Eli; de Muizon, Christian; Laurin, Michel; Argot, Christine; de Buffrénil, Vivian

    2014-05-01

    Non-pathological densification (osteosclerosis) and swelling (pachyostosis) of bones are the main modifications affecting the skeleton of land vertebrates (tetrapods) that returned to water. However, a precise temporal calibration of the acquisition of such adaptations is still wanting. Here, we assess the timing of such acquisition using the aquatic sloth Thalassocnus, from the Neogene of the Pisco Formation, Peru. This genus is represented by five species occurring in successive vertebrate-bearing horizons of distinct ages. It yields the most detailed data about the gradual acquisition of aquatic adaptations among tetrapods, in displaying increasing osteosclerosis and pachyostosis through time. Such modifications, reflecting a shift in the habitat from terrestrial to aquatic, occurred over a short geological time span (ca 4 Myr). Otherwise, the bones of terrestrial pilosans (sloths and anteaters) are much more compact than the mean mammalian condition, which suggests that the osteosclerosis of Thalassocnus may represent an exaptation. PMID:24621950

  18. Methods for assessing watershed-scale aquatic risks for multiple stressors

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhurst, B.R.; Warren-Hicks, W.J.; Creager, C.S.

    1997-09-01

    The authors demonstrate how watershed-scale aquatic ecological risk assessments (ERAs) for multiple stressors are conducted. Most ERAs focus on toxic chemicals, however, many stressors may affect aquatic ecosystems within watersheds. Other watershed-scale aquatic stressors include physical and hydrologic stressors, and physical habitat degradation. They demonstrate a method for quantifying the risks of these other stressors and comparing the resultant non-toxic chemical risks with toxic chemical risks, using habitat models to estimate the effects of non-toxic chemicals on habitat quality. This information is then compared to the risks from chemical toxicity, and the results used to compare the relative risks of chemical toxicity with the risks of other types of stressors, to identify the most limiting factors. With this information, the most beneficial types of ecological restoration can be identified and resources allocated to provide the greatest ecological benefit to the watershed.

  19. Water-borne diclofenac affects kidney and gill integrity and selected immune parameters in brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario).

    PubMed

    Hoeger, Birgit; Köllner, Bernd; Dietrich, Daniel R; Hitzfeld, Bettina

    2005-10-01

    The detection of residues of various pharmaceuticals in surface waters during the last two decades has prompted concerns about possible adverse effects of this kind of pollution on aquatic organisms. The objective of the present study was to investigate effects of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac, one of the pharmaceuticals most prevalent in surface waters, on brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario), a salmonid species native to German rivers. Brown trout were exposed to 0.5, 5 and 50 microg/L diclofenac for 7, 14 and 21 days, whereby the lowest exposure concentration is comparable with concentrations commonly found in the aquatic environment. Fish exposed to diclofenac displayed significantly reduced haematocrit levels after 7 and 14 days of exposure. After 21 days, trout were examined for histopathological alterations, whereby diclofenac exposure resulted in increased monocyte infiltration in the liver, telangiectasis in gills, and the occurrence of interstitial hyaline droplets, interstitial proteinaceous fluid and mild tubular necrosis in trunk kidney. Concurrent immunohistological analysis revealed an increase of granulocyte numbers in primary gill filaments, as well as granulocyte accumulation and increased major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II expression in kidney, suggestive of an inflammatory process in these organs. Moreover, the ability of diclofenac to hinder the stimulation of prostaglandin E2 synthesis was shown in head kidney macrophages of brown trout in vitro. These findings support the hypothesis that environmental exposure of fish to diclofenac provokes the same mechanism of action in these non-target organisms as previously described for mammalian species and can thus lead to similar (possibly adverse) effects. In general, the present study suggests that exposure of brown trout to diclofenac in concentration ranges commonly found in the environment can result in adverse effects in various organs and possibly compromise the

  20. Seasonal comparison of aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in a flooded coastal freshwater marsh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kang, Sung-Ryong; King, Sammy L.

    2013-01-01

    Marsh flooding and drying may be important factors affecting aquatic macroinvertebrate density and distribution in coastal freshwater marshes. Limited availability of water as a result of drying in emergent marsh may decrease density, taxonomic diversity, and taxa richness. The principal objectives of this study are to characterize the seasonal aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblage in a freshwater emergent marsh and compare aquatic macroinvertebrate species composition, density, and taxonomic diversity to that of freshwater marsh ponds. We hypothesize that 1) freshwater emergent marsh has lower seasonal density and taxonomic diversity compared to that of freshwater marsh ponds; and 2) freshwater emergent marsh has lower taxa richness than freshwater marsh ponds. Seasonal aquatic macroinvertebrate density in freshwater emergent marsh ranged from 0 organisms/m2 (summer 2009) to 91.1 ± 20.53 organisms/m2 (mean ± SE; spring 2009). Density in spring was higher than in all other seasons. Taxonomic diversity did not differ and there were no unique species in the freshwater emergent marsh. Our data only partially support our first hypothesis as aquatic macroinvertebrate density and taxonomic diversity between freshwater emergent marsh and ponds did not differ in spring, fall, and winter but ponds supported higher macroinvertebrate densities than freshwater emergent marsh during summer. However, our data did not support our second hypothesis as taxa richness between freshwater emergent marsh and ponds did not statistically differ.

  1. Nutrient stoichiometry and concentrations influence silver toxicity in the aquatic macrophyte Lemna gibba.

    PubMed

    Bian, Jingyi; Berninger, Jason P; Fulton, Barry A; Brooks, Bryan W

    2013-04-01

    Though nutrients and silver often co-occur in aquatic ecosystems, the combined effects of these environmental stressors on aquatic plants are poorly understood. Such coexposures are important because nanosilver is increasingly released to the environment, and recent studies in aquatic systems indicate that nanosilver represents an environmental source of ionic silver (Ag(+)), which exerts relatively high acute toxicity to aquatic life. The primary objective of this study was to understand the effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and N:P ratios on the toxicity of ionic silver to the model aquatic macrophyte Lemna gibba over 7-d study periods. L. gibba were more sensitive to silver (e.g., lower EC50 values) when N and P concentrations were higher. In addition, greater ionic silver toxicity occurred under higher P-availability (e.g., lower N:P ratios). L. gibba frond number and fresh weight were also differentially affected across nutrient×silver treatment combinations. Such observations highlight the importance of considering site-specific nutrient conditions during the prospective and retrospective risk assessments and management of silver impacts to primary producers. PMID:23428753

  2. Nutrient stoichiometry and concentrations influence silver toxicity in the aquatic macrophyte Lemna gibba.

    PubMed

    Bian, Jingyi; Berninger, Jason P; Fulton, Barry A; Brooks, Bryan W

    2013-04-01

    Though nutrients and silver often co-occur in aquatic ecosystems, the combined effects of these environmental stressors on aquatic plants are poorly understood. Such coexposures are important because nanosilver is increasingly released to the environment, and recent studies in aquatic systems indicate that nanosilver represents an environmental source of ionic silver (Ag(+)), which exerts relatively high acute toxicity to aquatic life. The primary objective of this study was to understand the effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and N:P ratios on the toxicity of ionic silver to the model aquatic macrophyte Lemna gibba over 7-d study periods. L. gibba were more sensitive to silver (e.g., lower EC50 values) when N and P concentrations were higher. In addition, greater ionic silver toxicity occurred under higher P-availability (e.g., lower N:P ratios). L. gibba frond number and fresh weight were also differentially affected across nutrient×silver treatment combinations. Such observations highlight the importance of considering site-specific nutrient conditions during the prospective and retrospective risk assessments and management of silver impacts to primary producers.

  3. 40 CFR 125.94 - How will requirements reflecting best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... facility uses cooling water withdrawn from a freshwater river or stream and the design intake flow of your... affect the management of fisheries. In determining whether any such disruption does not adversely affect the management of fisheries, you must consult with Federal, State, or Tribal fish and...

  4. 40 CFR 125.94 - How will requirements reflecting best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... facility uses cooling water withdrawn from a freshwater river or stream and the design intake flow of your... affect the management of fisheries. In determining whether any such disruption does not adversely affect the management of fisheries, you must consult with Federal, State, or Tribal fish and...

  5. 40 CFR 125.94 - How will requirements reflecting best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... facility uses cooling water withdrawn from a freshwater river or stream and the design intake flow of your... affect the management of fisheries. In determining whether any such disruption does not adversely affect the management of fisheries, you must consult with Federal, State, or Tribal fish and...

  6. 40 CFR 125.94 - How will requirements reflecting best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... facility uses cooling water withdrawn from a freshwater river or stream and the design intake flow of your... affect the management of fisheries. In determining whether any such disruption does not adversely affect the management of fisheries, you must consult with Federal, State, or Tribal fish and...

  7. 40 CFR 125.94 - How will requirements reflecting best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... facility uses cooling water withdrawn from a freshwater river or stream and the design intake flow of your... affect the management of fisheries. In determining whether any such disruption does not adversely affect the management of fisheries, you must consult with Federal, State, or Tribal fish and...

  8. Developing robust crop plants for sustaining growth and yield under adverse climatic changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural production and quality are expected to suffer from adverse changes in climatic conditions, including global warming, and this will affect worldwide human and animal food security. Global warming has been shown to negatively impact crop yield and therefore will affect sustainability of a...

  9. Aquatic Pest Control. Sale Publication 4071.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    The information in this manual applies to control of aquatic pests in recreational waters, agricultural reservoirs, ornamental ponds, coastal bays, estuaries and channels, and drinking water reservoirs. Mechanical, cultural, biological, and chemical control methods are discussed. The majority of the material is devoted to weed control in static…

  10. Aquatics Therapy and the Halliwick Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Alison; Thomson, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Aquatic therapy is the use of the properties of water for the therapeutic benefit of people of all ages and abilities. This article illustrates how people with disabilities may maximize the benefits of activities in water, including individual and group work and swimming. The overall aim is to encourage family activity and social interaction. The…

  11. Nano-plastics in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, K; Hansson, L-A; Cedervall, T

    2015-10-01

    The amount of plastics released to the environment in modern days has increased substantially since the development of modern plastics in the early 1900s. As a result, concerns have been raised by the public about the impact of plastics on nature and on, specifically, aquatic wildlife. Lately, much attention has been paid to macro- and micro-sized plastics and their impact on aquatic organisms. However, micro-sized plastics degrade subsequently into nano-sizes whereas nano-sized particles may be released directly into nature. Such particles have a different impact on aquatic organisms than larger pieces of plastic due to their small size, high surface curvature, and large surface area. This review describes the possible sources of nano-sized plastic, its distribution and behavior in nature, the impact of nano-sized plastic on the well-being of aquatic organisms, and the difference of impact between nano- and micro-sized particles. We also identify research areas which urgently need more attention and suggest experimental methods to obtain useful data. PMID:26337600

  12. SEDIMENT ASSOCIATED PHOTOTOXICITY TO AQUATIC ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phototoxicity is a two to greater than 1000-fold increase in chemical toxicity caused by ultraviolet radation (UV), which has been demonstrated in a broad range of marine and freshwater fish, invertebrates, and other aquatic organisms in water column exposures. Field collected s...

  13. Thermal Pollution Impact upon Aquatic Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiomoto, Gail T.; Olson, Betty H.

    1978-01-01

    Conventional and nuclear power plants release waste heat to cooling water which then returns to receiving bodies of surface water. This thermal pollution causes a variety of effects in the aquatic ecosystem. More must be learned about these effects to ensure adequate regulation of thermal discharges. (RE)

  14. Applicator Training Manual for: Aquatic Weed Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herron, James W.

    The aquatic weeds discussed in this manual include algae, floating weeds, emersed weeds, and submerged weeds. Specific requirements for pesticide application are given for static water, limited flow, and moving water situations. Secondary effects of improper application rates and faulty application are described. Finally, techniques of limited…

  15. Nano-plastics in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, K; Hansson, L-A; Cedervall, T

    2015-10-01

    The amount of plastics released to the environment in modern days has increased substantially since the development of modern plastics in the early 1900s. As a result, concerns have been raised by the public about the impact of plastics on nature and on, specifically, aquatic wildlife. Lately, much attention has been paid to macro- and micro-sized plastics and their impact on aquatic organisms. However, micro-sized plastics degrade subsequently into nano-sizes whereas nano-sized particles may be released directly into nature. Such particles have a different impact on aquatic organisms than larger pieces of plastic due to their small size, high surface curvature, and large surface area. This review describes the possible sources of nano-sized plastic, its distribution and behavior in nature, the impact of nano-sized plastic on the well-being of aquatic organisms, and the difference of impact between nano- and micro-sized particles. We also identify research areas which urgently need more attention and suggest experimental methods to obtain useful data.

  16. Apparatus Induces And Fixes Small Aquatic Organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, Christopher

    1992-01-01

    Syringe-and-bag assembly compact, lightweight self-contained, portable apparatus introducing liquids to aquatic organisms. Isolates organisms from toxic substances until time of introduction. Includes plastic syringes, each containing inner, sealed, burstable bag. Adaptable to use in biological tests and experiments at remote locations on Earth.

  17. Science to support aquatic animal health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Harris, M. Camille

    2016-10-18

    Healthy aquatic ecosystems are home to a diversity of plants, invertebrates, fish and wildlife. Aquatic animal populations face unprecedented threats to their health and survival from climate change, water shortages, habitat alteration, invasive species and environmental contaminants. These environmental stressors can directly impact the prevalence and severity of disease in aquatic populations. For example, periodic fish kills in the upper Chesapeake Bay Watershed are associated with many different opportunistic pathogens that proliferate in stressed fish populations. An estimated 80 percent of endangered juvenile Puget Sound steelhead trout die within two weeks of entering the marine environment, and a role for disease in these losses is being investigated. The introduction of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) into the Great Lakes—a fishery worth an estimated 7 billion dollars annually—resulted in widespread fish die-offs and virus detections in 28 different fish species. Millions of dying sea stars along the west coast of North America have led to investigations into sea star wasting disease. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are assisting managers with these issues through ecological investigations of aquatic animal diseases, field surveillance, and research to promote the development of mitigation strategies.

  18. Science to Support Aquatic Animal Health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Harris, M. Camille

    2016-10-18

    Healthy aquatic ecosystems are home to a diversity of plants, invertebrates, fish and wildlife. Aquatic animal populations face unprecedented threats to their health and survival from climate change, water shortages, habitat alteration, invasive species and environmental contaminants. These environmental stressors can directly impact the prevalence and severity of disease in aquatic populations. For example, periodic fish kills in the upper Chesapeake Bay Watershed are associated with many different opportunistic pathogens that proliferate in stressed fish populations. An estimated 80 percent of endangered juvenile Puget Sound steelhead trout die within two weeks of entering the marine environment, and a role for disease in these losses is being investigated. The introduction of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) into the Great Lakes—a fishery worth an estimated 7 billion dollars annually—resulted in widespread fish die-offs and virus detections in 28 different fish species. Millions of dying sea stars along the west coast of North America have led to investigations into sea star wasting disease. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are assisting managers with these issues through ecological investigations of aquatic animal diseases, field surveillance, and research to promote the development of mitigation strategies.

  19. Systems and Cycles: Learning about Aquatic Ecosystems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Jordan, Rebecca; Eberbach, Catherine; Rugaber, Spencer; Goel, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    In this research, the authors present both the design and preliminary testing of a technology-intensive classroom intervention designed to support middle schools students' understanding of an aquatic ecosystem. The goals of their intervention are to help learners develop deep understanding of ecosystems and to use tools that make the relationships…

  20. Recommendations for Implementing an Aquatic Plyometric Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael G.; Berry, David C.; Gilders, Roger; Bullard, Sue

    2001-01-01

    Describes the advantages of using plyometric programs in the water, explaining that they may provide athletes with several benefits (e.g., added resistance, which increases muscle strength, and getting a break from more monotonous drills on land). The paper discusses: the physical properties of water, aquatic rehabilitation that incorporates…

  1. Delineating resource sheds in aquatic ecosystems (presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analysis of spatially-explicit ecological phenomena in aquatic ecosystems is impeded by a lack of knowledge of, and tools to delimit, spatial patterns of material supply to point locations. Here we apply the concept of "resource sheds" to coasts and watersheds. Resource sheds ar...

  2. Focus on Preschool Aquatics: Child Care Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayre, Nancy E.

    This paper proposes state regulations for the training of child care staff members in developmentally appropriate safe aquatic practices, outlines required features of any pools that children visit, and suggests safe practices for water-related activities at child care centers and swimming pools. The staff training regulation suggestions include…

  3. Aquatic Habitats, Level 4-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigel, Margaret

    Designed to acquaint students in grades 4-9 with aquatic plants and animals, this guide provides materials which can be used in preparation for field trips or laboratory work, for individual projects, as supplemental activities for a unit, or for learning center projects. Teacher background notes and an answer key for the student activites are…

  4. Aquatic Exercise and Heat-Related Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sova, Ruth

    1991-01-01

    Heat-related injuries in aquatics classes are possible, though 100 percent preventable. The article discusses heat-related syndromes; how bodies generate and dissipate heat; how elevated heart rates that burn calories differ from those that dissipate heat; and modification of exercise intensity to provide calorie-burning workouts without…

  5. Aquatic Habitats: Exploring Desktop Ponds. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Katharine; Willard, Carolyn

    This book, for grades 2-6, is designed to provide students with a highly motivating and unique opportunity to investigate an aquatic habitat. Students set up, observe, study, and reflect upon their own "desktop ponds." Accessible plants and small animals used in these activities include Elodea, Tubifex worms, snails, mosquito larvae, and fish.…

  6. Aquatic Habitat Bottom Classification Using ADCP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Description of physical aquatic habitat often includes data describing distributions of water depth, velocity and bed material type. Water depth and velocity in streams deeper than about 1 m may be continuously mapped using an acoustic Doppler current profiler from a moving boat. Herein we examine...

  7. Adapted Aquatics for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Coleen A.

    2006-01-01

    This article provides information for physical education teachers to use while teaching their students with autism in an adapted aquatics unit plan. Crollick, Mancil, & Stopka (2006) have found that activities such as running, cycling, or swimming can reduce inappropriate behaviors in children who are autistic. They recommend further that…

  8. Teachers and Aquatic Education--A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.

    The Minnesota Sea Grant Education Sub-program provided funds to the University of Minnesota in 1980 to develop aquatic education materials (dealing with freshwater systems) for grades 5-9. The project resulted in the development and classroom testing of 13 instructional modules. A second grant (1982) funded workshops to introduce Minnesota…

  9. Tracking contaminant flux from aquatic to terrestrial food webs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic insects provide a critical energy subsidy to riparian food webs, yet their role as vectors of contaminants to terrestrial ecosystems is poorly understood. We investigated aquatic resource utilization and contaminant exposure among riparian invertivores (spiders and herpt...

  10. Why Care About Aquatic Insects: Uses, Benefits, and Services

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mayflies and other aquatic insects are common subjects of ecological research, and environmental monitoring and assessment. However, their important role in protecting and restoring aquatic ecosystems is often challenged, because their benefits and services to humans are not obv...

  11. INTEGRATED STATE-FEDERAL PARTNERSHIP FOR AQUATIC RESOURCE MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fifteen federal agencies, 50 states, cities, counties, and 800-1000 volunteer organizations conduct aquatic resource monitoring in the United States. Most aquatic monitoring is project-specific focusing on individual locations or watersheds. The Clean Water Act requires states ...

  12. Zebrafish as a model for zoonotic aquatic pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Hannah M.; Withey, Jeffrey H.; Neely, Melody N.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic habitats harbor a multitude of bacterial species. Many of these bacteria can act as pathogens to aquatic species and/or non-aquatic organisms, including humans, that come into contact with contaminated water sources or colonized aquatic organisms. In many instances, the bacteria are not pathogenic to the aquatic species they colonize and are only considered pathogens when they come into contact with humans. There is a general lack of knowledge about how the environmental lifestyle of these pathogens allows them to persist, replicate and produce the necessary pathogenic mechanisms to successfully transmit to the human host and cause disease. Recently, the zebrafish infectious disease model has emerged as an ideal system for examining aquatic pathogens, both in the aquatic environment and during infection of the human host. This review will focus on how the zebrafish has been used successfully to analyze the pathogenesis of aquatic bacterial pathogens. PMID:24607289

  13. Chapter 5. Assessing the Aquatic Hazards of Veterinary Medicines

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, there has been increasing awareness of the widespread distribution of low concentrations of veterinary medicine products and other pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. While aquatic hazard for a select group of veterinary medicines has received previous s...

  14. Adverse effects of common medications on male fertility.

    PubMed

    Samplaski, Mary K; Nangia, Ajay K

    2015-07-01

    An increasing number of patients require long-term medication regimens at a young age, but the adverse effects of medications on male reproduction are often inadequately considered, recognized and investigated. Medications can affect male reproduction through central hormonal effects, direct gonadotoxic effects, effects on sperm function or on sexual function. For example, exogenous testosterone inhibits spermatogenesis through central suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal hormonal axis. 5α-reductase inhibitors can impair sexual function, decrease semen volume and negatively affect sperm parameters, depending on dose and treatment duration. α-Blockers might decrease seminal emission and cause retrograde ejaculation, depending on the receptor specificity and dose of the agent. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors seem to have variable effects based on the isoform inhibited and evidence is conflicting. Antihypertensive and psychotropic agents can affect sperm, sexual function and hormonal parameters. For antibiotics, the literature on effects on sperm and sperm function is limited and dated. Many chemotherapeutic agents have a direct gonadotoxic effect, depending on agents used, dosing and number of treatment cycles. Overall, many medications commonly used in urology can have effects on male fertility (mostly reversible) but conclusive evidence in humans is often limited. Men should be counselled appropriately about potential drug-related adverse effects on their fertility.

  15. Optical diagnostic test of stress conditions of aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Axenov-Gribanov, Denis V; Gurkov, Anton N; Shakhtanova, Nadezhda S; Bedulina, Daria S; Timofeyev, Maxim A; Meglinski, Igor

    2011-09-01

    Global climate change has become a dire reality and its impact is expected to rise dramatically in the near future. Combined with the day-to-day human activities the climatic changes heavily affect the environment. In particular, a global temperature increase accompanied by a number of anthropogenic chemicals falling within the freshwater ecosystem results in a dramatic enhancement of the overall stress for most aquatic organisms. This leads to a significant shift in the species inventory and potential breakdown of the water ecosystem with severe consequences for local economies and water supply. In order to understand and predict the influence of climatic changes on the physiological and biochemical processes that take place in living aquatic organisms we explore the application of optical spectroscopy for monitoring and quantitative assessment of antioxidant enzymes activity in benthic amphipods of Lake Baikal. We demonstrate that the changes of the enzymes activity in Baikal amphipods undergoing thermal and/or hypoxia stress can be observed and documented by UV and optical spectroscopy both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:21548104

  16. Aquatic noise pollution: implications for individuals, populations, and ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Kunc, Hansjoerg P; McLaughlin, Kirsty Elizabeth; Schmidt, Rouven

    2016-08-17

    Anthropogenically driven environmental changes affect our planet at an unprecedented scale and are considered to be a key threat to biodiversity. According to the World Health Organization, anthropogenic noise is one of the most hazardous forms of anthropogenically driven environmental change and is recognized as a major global pollutant. However, crucial advances in the rapidly emerging research on noise pollution focus exclusively on single aspects of noise pollution, e.g. on behaviour, physiology, terrestrial ecosystems, or on certain taxa. Given that more than two-thirds of our planet is covered with water, there is a pressing need to get a holistic understanding of the effects of anthropogenic noise in aquatic ecosystems. We found experimental evidence for negative effects of anthropogenic noise on an individual's development, physiology, and/or behaviour in both invertebrates and vertebrates. We also found that species differ in their response to noise, and highlight the potential underlying mechanisms for these differences. Finally, we point out challenges in the study of aquatic noise pollution and provide directions for future research, which will enhance our understanding of this globally present pollutant.

  17. Establishing of Simple Closed Aquatic Ecosystem (CAES) in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.

    In order to study the effect of microgravity on the operation of Closed Ecosystem A two-element Closed Aquatic Ecosystem CAES were established by microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa and snail Bulinus australianus By remote sensing to investigate the two-element Closed Aquatic Ecosystem CAES on spacecraft SHENZHOU- the real-time data of operation of CAES in real microgravity was got firstly The 1g centrifuge on board was also designed to be the control at the first time ground 1g and 1 4g centrifuged were set up too It found that microgravity is the major factor to affect the operation of CAES in space The change of biomass of producer during every day in microgravity group is much bigger than that other control groups The meal value of biomass of each day decreased but that of other control groups increased for days and then balanced Microgravity s effect on biomass of producer maybe result from microgravity lead to the increasing of metabolism of consumer and change of that of producer

  18. Aquatic noise pollution: implications for individuals, populations, and ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Kunc, Hansjoerg P.; McLaughlin, Kirsty Elizabeth; Schmidt, Rouven

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenically driven environmental changes affect our planet at an unprecedented scale and are considered to be a key threat to biodiversity. According to the World Health Organization, anthropogenic noise is one of the most hazardous forms of anthropogenically driven environmental change and is recognized as a major global pollutant. However, crucial advances in the rapidly emerging research on noise pollution focus exclusively on single aspects of noise pollution, e.g. on behaviour, physiology, terrestrial ecosystems, or on certain taxa. Given that more than two-thirds of our planet is covered with water, there is a pressing need to get a holistic understanding of the effects of anthropogenic noise in aquatic ecosystems. We found experimental evidence for negative effects of anthropogenic noise on an individual's development, physiology, and/or behaviour in both invertebrates and vertebrates. We also found that species differ in their response to noise, and highlight the potential underlying mechanisms for these differences. Finally, we point out challenges in the study of aquatic noise pollution and provide directions for future research, which will enhance our understanding of this globally present pollutant. PMID:27534952

  19. ELF communications system ecological monitoring program: Aquatic ecosystem studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Thomas M.; Stout, R. J.; Winterstein, Scott; Coon, Thomas; Novinger, Doug

    1994-11-01

    The U.S. Navy has completed a program that monitored biota and ecological miationships for possible effects from electromagnetic (EM) fields produced by its Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communications System. This report documents the results and conclusions of aquatic studies conducted near its transmitting antenna in Michigan. From 1982 through 1993 researchers from the Michigan State University (MSU) monitored aquatic flora and fauna on matched reaches of the Ford River. A treatment site was located immediately adjacent to the antenna, whereas a control site was situated at a distance downstream. Functional and structural components of the periphyton, insect, and fish communities were monitored. The research team also measured ambient factors such as temperature, discharge, and water quality indicators. Data were analyzed using a variety of statistical tests; however, BACI techniques were emphasized. Results indicated a relative increase in algal biomass at the treatment site after the antenna became fully operational, but no changes in any other parameter or organism. MSU concludes that algal biomass was affected by ELF EM exposure. Since neither the other ecological characteristics of the periphyton nor the insect and fish communities showed any effects, MSU infers little EM impact to riverine habitats.

  20. [Species sensitive distribution for aquatic biota exposed to triazophos].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo-Yu; Zheng, Si-Rui; Niu, Xi-Cheng; Zhao, Jin-Song

    2011-04-01

    The increasing pollution of organophosphorus pesticides (OP) in water have been of concerns. Taking the widely used triazophos as the object, a species sensitivity distribution (SSD) model was developed using a log-logistic distribution based on the median effective concentrations (EC50) of triazophos to aquatic species at various trophic levels, and then the model was tested and evaluated using probability plots and good-of-fit tests. The results showed that the SSD for aquatic biota exposed to triazophos was well fitted by a log-logistic distribution, which was totally determined by the two parameters, alpha = -0.4788 and beta = 0.7546, with standard error 0.2381 and 0.1078 respectively. Based on the SSD model, the hazardous concentration for 5% of the species (HC5) and the criteria maximum concentration (CMC) of triazophos were 1.992 x 10(-3) mg/L and 9.96 x 10(-4) mg/L, respectively. Through comparing the HC5 and CMC with the safe concentration for single-species, it could be found that environmental quality criteria derived from the SSD model was more strict, and closed to the real ecological environment. In addition, according to the reported data, the potentially affected fraction (PAF) of species exposed to triazophos in the Laizhou Bay (Bohai Sea, China) area was 0.36% predicted by the SSD model, and the corresponding risk might not be significant. PMID:21717754