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Sample records for adversely affect aquatic

  1. The synthetic progestin megestrol acetate adversely affects zebrafish reproduction.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian; Wang, Qiangwei; Wang, Xianfeng; Li, Yonggang; Wen, Sheng; Liu, Shan; Ying, Guangguo; Guo, Yongyong; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2014-05-01

    Synthetic progestins contaminate the aquatic ecosystem, and may cause adverse health effects on aquatic organisms. Megestrol acetate (MTA) is present in the aquatic environment, but its possible effects on fish reproduction are unknown. In the present study, we investigated the endocrine disruption and impact of MTA on fish reproduction. After a pre-exposure period of 14 days, reproductively mature zebrafish (Danio rerio) (F0) were exposed to MTA at environmental concentrations (33, 100, 333, and 666 ng/L) for 21 days. Egg production was decreased in F0 fish exposed to MTA, with a significant decrease at 666 ng/L. The exposure significantly decreased the circulating concentrations of estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) in female fish or 11-keto testosterone (11-KT) in male fish. MTA exposure significantly downregulated the transcription of certain genes along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. MTA did not affect early embryonic development or hatching success in the F1 generation. The present study showed that MTA is a potent endocrine disruptor in fish, and short-term exposure to MTA could significantly affect reproduction in fish and negatively impact the fish population. PMID:24647012

  2. Hyperinsulinemia adversely affects lung structure and function.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suchita; Bodas, Manish; Bhatraju, Naveen K; Pattnaik, Bijay; Gheware, Atish; Parameswaran, Praveen Kolumam; Thompson, Michael; Freeman, Michelle; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Gosens, Reinoud; Ghosh, Balaram; Pabelick, Christina; Linneberg, Allan; Prakash, Y S; Agrawal, Anurag

    2016-05-01

    There is limited knowledge regarding the consequences of hyperinsulinemia on the lung. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, and epidemiological associations with asthma, this is a critical lacuna, more so with inhaled insulin on the horizon. Here, we demonstrate that insulin can adversely affect respiratory health. Insulin treatment (1 μg/ml) significantly (P < 0.05) increased the proliferation of primary human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells and induced collagen release. Additionally, ASM cells showed a significant increase in calcium response and mitochondrial respiration upon insulin exposure. Mice administered intranasal insulin showed increased collagen deposition in the lungs as well as a significant increase in airway hyperresponsiveness. PI3K/Akt mediated activation of β-catenin, a positive regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibrosis, was observed in the lungs of insulin-treated mice and lung cells. Our data suggests that hyperinsulinemia may have adverse effects on airway structure and function. Insulin-induced activation of β-catenin in lung tissue and the contractile effects on ASM cells may be causally related to the development of asthma-like phenotype. PMID:26919895

  3. FACTORS ADVERSELY AFFECTING AMPHIBIAN POPULATIONS IN THE US

    EPA Science Inventory

    Factors known or suspected to be adversely affecting native amphibian populations in the US were identified using information from species accounts written in a standardized format by multiple authors in a forthcoming book. Specific adverse factors were identified for 53 (58%) of...

  4. Adversity before Conception Will Affect Adult Progeny in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shachar-Dadon, Alice; Schulkin, Jay; Leshem, Micah

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated whether adversity in a female, before she conceives, will influence the affective and social behavior of her progeny. Virgin female rats were either undisturbed (controls) or exposed to varied, unpredictable, stressors for 7 days (preconceptual stress [PCS]) and then either mated immediately after the end of the stress…

  5. Adversity before conception will affect adult progeny in rats.

    PubMed

    Shachar-Dadon, Alice; Schulkin, Jay; Leshem, Micah

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated whether adversity in a female, before she conceives, will influence the affective and social behavior of her progeny. Virgin female rats were either undisturbed (controls) or exposed to varied, unpredictable, stressors for 7 days (preconceptual stress [PCS]) and then either mated immediately after the end of the stress (PCS0) or 2 weeks after the stress ended (PCS2). Their offspring were raised undisturbed until tested in adulthood. PCS offspring showed reduced social interaction; in the acoustic startle test, PCS males were less fearful, whereas PCS females were more fearful; in the shuttle task, PCS0 males avoided shock better; and in the elevated maze, PCS0 females were more active and anxious. The 2-week interval between stress and mating assuaged the effects on offspring activity and shock avoidance but not the changes in social behavior and fear in male and female offspring. Hence, PCS to the dam, even well before pregnancy, influences affective and social behavior in her adult offspring, depending on how long before conception it occurred, the behavior tested, and sex. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19209986

  6. Factors affecting the development of adverse drug reactions (Review article)

    PubMed Central

    Alomar, Muaed Jamal

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To discuss the effect of certain factors on the occurrence of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs). Data Sources A systematic review of the literature in the period between 1991 and 2012 was made based on PubMed, the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, EMBASE and IDIS. Key words used were: medication error, adverse drug reaction, iatrogenic disease factors, ambulatory care, primary health care, side effects and treatment hazards. Summary Many factors play a crucial role in the occurrence of ADRs, some of these are patient related, drug related or socially related factors. Age for instance has a very critical impact on the occurrence of ADRs, both very young and very old patients are more vulnerable to these reactions than other age groups. Alcohol intake also has a crucial impact on ADRs. Other factors are gender, race, pregnancy, breast feeding, kidney problems, liver function, drug dose and frequency and many other factors. The effect of these factors on ADRs is well documented in the medical literature. Taking these factors into consideration during medical evaluation enables medical practitioners to choose the best drug regimen. Conclusion Many factors affect the occurrence of ADRs. Some of these factors can be changed like smoking or alcohol intake others cannot be changed like age, presence of other diseases or genetic factors. Understanding the different effects of these factors on ADRs enables healthcare professionals to choose the most appropriate medication for that particular patient. It also helps the healthcare professionals to give the best advice to patients. Pharmacogenomics is the most recent science which emphasizes the genetic predisposition of ADRs. This innovative science provides a new perspective in dealing with the decision making process of drug selection. PMID:24648818

  7. MOSQUITO CONTROL PESTICIDES: ADVERSE IMPACTS TO FRESHWATER AQUATIC AND MARINE ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most of the toxicity information available for evaluating potential effects of mosquito control chemicals on non-target aquatic biota comes from acute lethality tests of 24- to 96-hr duration. These studies generally show that insecticides are more toxic to aquatic invertebrates ...

  8. Does Ramadan Fasting Adversely Affect Cognitive Function in Young Females?

    PubMed Central

    Ghayour Najafabadi, Mahboubeh; Rahbar Nikoukar, Laya; Memari, Amir; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Beygi, Sara

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of Ramadan fasting on cognitive function in 17 female athletes. Data were obtained from participants of two fasting (n = 9) and nonfasting (n = 8) groups at three periods of the study (before Ramadan, at the third week in Ramadan, and after Ramadan). Digit span test (DST) and Stroop color test were employed to assess short-term memory and inhibition/cognitive flexibility at each time point. There were no significant changes for DST and Stroop task 1 in both groups, whereas Stroop task 2 and task 3 showed significant improvements in Ramadan condition (p < 0.05). Interference indices did not change significantly across the study except in post-Ramadan period of fasting group (p < 0.05). Group × week interaction was significant only for error numbers (p < 0.05). Athletes in nonfasting showed a significant decrease in number of errors in Ramadan compared to baseline (p < 0.05). The results suggest that Ramadan fasting may not adversely affect cognitive function in female athletes. PMID:26697263

  9. Forest Management Intensity Affects Aquatic Communities in Artificial Tree Holes

    PubMed Central

    Petermann, Jana S.; Rohland, Anja; Sichardt, Nora; Lade, Peggy; Guidetti, Brenda; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Gossner, Martin M.

    2016-01-01

    Forest management could potentially affect organisms in all forest habitats. However, aquatic communities in water-filled tree-holes may be especially sensitive because of small population sizes, the risk of drought and potential dispersal limitation. We set up artificial tree holes in forest stands subject to different management intensities in two regions in Germany and assessed the influence of local environmental properties (tree-hole opening type, tree diameter, water volume and water temperature) as well as regional drivers (forest management intensity, tree-hole density) on tree-hole insect communities (not considering other organisms such as nematodes or rotifers), detritus content, oxygen and nutrient concentrations. In addition, we compared data from artificial tree holes with data from natural tree holes in the same area to evaluate the methodological approach of using tree-hole analogues. We found that forest management had strong effects on communities in artificial tree holes in both regions and across the season. Abundance and species richness declined, community composition shifted and detritus content declined with increasing forest management intensity. Environmental variables, such as tree-hole density and tree diameter partly explained these changes. However, dispersal limitation, indicated by effects of tree-hole density, generally showed rather weak impacts on communities. Artificial tree holes had higher water temperatures (on average 2°C higher) and oxygen concentrations (on average 25% higher) than natural tree holes. The abundance of organisms was higher but species richness was lower in artificial tree holes. Community composition differed between artificial and natural tree holes. Negative management effects were detectable in both tree-hole systems, despite their abiotic and biotic differences. Our results indicate that forest management has substantial and pervasive effects on tree-hole communities and may alter their structure and

  10. Forest Management Intensity Affects Aquatic Communities in Artificial Tree Holes.

    PubMed

    Petermann, Jana S; Rohland, Anja; Sichardt, Nora; Lade, Peggy; Guidetti, Brenda; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Gossner, Martin M

    2016-01-01

    Forest management could potentially affect organisms in all forest habitats. However, aquatic communities in water-filled tree-holes may be especially sensitive because of small population sizes, the risk of drought and potential dispersal limitation. We set up artificial tree holes in forest stands subject to different management intensities in two regions in Germany and assessed the influence of local environmental properties (tree-hole opening type, tree diameter, water volume and water temperature) as well as regional drivers (forest management intensity, tree-hole density) on tree-hole insect communities (not considering other organisms such as nematodes or rotifers), detritus content, oxygen and nutrient concentrations. In addition, we compared data from artificial tree holes with data from natural tree holes in the same area to evaluate the methodological approach of using tree-hole analogues. We found that forest management had strong effects on communities in artificial tree holes in both regions and across the season. Abundance and species richness declined, community composition shifted and detritus content declined with increasing forest management intensity. Environmental variables, such as tree-hole density and tree diameter partly explained these changes. However, dispersal limitation, indicated by effects of tree-hole density, generally showed rather weak impacts on communities. Artificial tree holes had higher water temperatures (on average 2°C higher) and oxygen concentrations (on average 25% higher) than natural tree holes. The abundance of organisms was higher but species richness was lower in artificial tree holes. Community composition differed between artificial and natural tree holes. Negative management effects were detectable in both tree-hole systems, despite their abiotic and biotic differences. Our results indicate that forest management has substantial and pervasive effects on tree-hole communities and may alter their structure and

  11. Biogeochemical interactions affecting hepatic trace element levels in aquatic birds

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, G.

    1996-07-01

    Knowledge of elemental interactions is important to the toxicological assessment of wildlife in the geochemical environment. This study determines the concentrations of Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Li, Mg, Mn, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Ag, V, and Zn in aquatic bird liver, fish liver, whole bivalves, insects, and waters in several aquatic ecosystems in northern California. There is evidence of strong in vivo and environmental interactions, including the observation of manganese as a possible cofactor or indicator in selenium bioaccumulation. The nearest neighbor selenium correlation in aquatic bird liver tissue that results from this work is Cd-Mn-Se-Hg-As. The correlation of liver selenium to manganese in vivo and the result that the majority of the variance in liver selenium concentration is contained in the manganese term of the regression model relating Se to Cd, Mn, and Hg is new knowledge in the study of aquatic birds. A linear relationship between liver selenium and environmental manganese (water and sediment) is found in the data, suggesting a water chemistry compartmentalization or activation of toxicants. Alternatively, the hepatic concentrations of selenium, manganese, and iron suggest induction of enzymes in response to oxidative stress.

  12. 47 CFR 73.4157 - Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service. 73.4157 Section 73.4157 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION....4157 Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service. See Public Notice, FCC...

  13. 47 CFR 73.4157 - Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service. 73.4157 Section 73.4157 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION....4157 Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service. See Public Notice, FCC...

  14. 47 CFR 73.4157 - Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service. 73.4157 Section 73.4157 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION....4157 Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service. See Public Notice, FCC...

  15. 47 CFR 73.4157 - Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service. 73.4157 Section 73.4157 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION....4157 Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service. See Public Notice, FCC...

  16. 47 CFR 73.4157 - Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service. 73.4157 Section 73.4157 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION....4157 Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service. See Public Notice, FCC...

  17. Missing Out: Excessive Absenteeism Adversely Affects Elementary Reading Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockert, Christine; Harrington, Sonja; Vaughn, Debra; Kelly, Kirk; Gooden, John

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to answer the question "Does excessive absenteeism affect student academic achievement?" During the 2002-2003 academic year, 188 students attending grades 3 through 5 at an urban Tennessee elementary school with a high poverty level participated in the study. Demographic data were gathered to provide descriptive statistics…

  18. Root-Zone Glyphosate Exposure Adversely Affects Two Ditch Species

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Lyndsay E.; Koontz, Melissa B.; Pezeshki, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Glyphosate, one of the most applied herbicides globally, has been extensively studied for its effects on non-target organisms. In the field, following precipitation, glyphosate runs off into agricultural ditches where it infiltrates into the soil and thus may encounter the roots of vegetation. These edge-of-field ditches share many characteristics with wetlands, including the ability to reduce loads of anthropogenic chemicals through uptake, transformation, and retention. Different species within the ditches may have a differential sensitivity to exposure of the root zone to glyphosate, contributing to patterns of abundance of ruderal species. The present laboratory experiment investigated whether two species commonly found in agricultural ditches in southcentral United States were affected by root zone glyphosate in a dose-dependent manner, with the objective of identifying a sublethal concentration threshold. The root zone of individuals of Polygonum hydropiperoides and Panicum hemitomon were exposed to four concentrations of glyphosate. Leaf chlorophyll content was measured, and the ratio of aboveground biomass to belowground biomass and survival were quantified. The findings from this study showed that root zone glyphosate exposure negatively affected both species including dose-dependent reductions in chlorophyll content. P. hydropiperdoides showed the greatest negative response, with decreased belowground biomass allocation and total mortality at the highest concentrations tested. PMID:24833234

  19. Urban sprawl and you: how sprawl adversely affects worker health.

    PubMed

    Pohanka, Mary; Fitzgerald, Sheila

    2004-06-01

    Urban sprawl, once thought of as just an environmental issue, is currently gaining momentum as an emerging public health issue worthy of research and political attention. Characteristics seen in sprawling communities include increasing traffic volumes; inadequate public transportation; pedestrian unfriendly streets; and the division of businesses, shops, and homes. These characteristics can affect health in many ways. Greater air pollution contributes to higher asthma and other lung disorder rates. An increased dependence on the automobile encourages a more sedentary lifestyle and can potentially contribute to obesity. The increased danger and stress of long commutes can lead to more accidents, anxiety, and social isolation. Occupational health nurses can become involved by promoting physical activity in the workplace, creating programs for injury prevention and stress management, becoming involved in political smart growth measures, and educating and encouraging colleagues to become active in addressing this issue. PMID:15219110

  20. Obesity Adversely Affects Survival in Pancreatic Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams, Robert R.; Matsumoto, Martha E.; Burch, Patrick A.; Kim, George P.; Halfdanarson, Thorvardur R.; de Andrade, Mariza; Reid-Lombardo, Kaye; Bamlet, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Higher body-mass index (BMI) has been implicated as a risk factor for developing pancreatic cancer, but its effect on survival has not been thoroughly investigated. We assessed the association of BMI with survival in a sample of pancreatic cancer patients and utilized epidemiologic and clinical information to understand the contribution of diabetes and hyperglycemia. Methods A survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards by usual adult BMI was performed on 1,861 unselected patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma; analyses were adjusted for covariates that included clinical stage, age, and sex. Secondary analyses incorporated self reported diabetes and fasting blood glucose in the survival model. Results BMI as a continuous variable was inversely associated with survival from pancreatic adenocarcinoma [hazard ratio 1.019 for each increased unit of BMI (kg/m2), p < 0.001] after adjustment for age, stage, and sex. In analysis by National Institutes of Health BMI category, BMI of 30–34.99 kg/m2 (HR 1.14, 95% confidence interval 0.98–1.33), 35–39.99 kg/m2 (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.08–1.62), and ≥40 (HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.26–2.04) were associated with decreased survival compared to normal BMI of 18,5–24.99 kg/m2 (overall trend test p<0.001). Fasting blood glucose and diabetes did not affect the results. Conclusions Higher BMI is associated with decreased survival in pancreatic cancer. Although the mechanism of this association remains undetermined, diabetes and hyperglycemia do not appear to account for the observed association. PMID:20665496

  1. 41 CFR 102-78.40 - What responsibilities do Federal agencies have when an undertaking adversely affects a historic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... guidance on the protection of historic and cultural properties in 36 CFR part 800. ... Federal agencies have when an undertaking adversely affects a historic or cultural property? 102-78.40...-78.40 What responsibilities do Federal agencies have when an undertaking adversely affects a...

  2. 50 CFR 402.45 - Alternative consultation on FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat. 402.45 Section 402.45... habitat. (a) Consultation obligations for FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat when alternative consultation agreement is in effect. If EPA and the...

  3. 50 CFR 402.45 - Alternative consultation on FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat. 402.45 Section 402.45... habitat. (a) Consultation obligations for FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat when alternative consultation agreement is in effect. If EPA and the...

  4. 50 CFR 402.45 - Alternative consultation on FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat. 402.45 Section 402.45... habitat. (a) Consultation obligations for FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat when alternative consultation agreement is in effect. If EPA and the...

  5. Water pollution by Cu and Pb can adversely affect mallard embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Kertész, Virág; Bakonyi, Gábor; Farkas, Beáta

    2006-09-01

    The effects of heavy metal pollutants on aquatic birds have been widely studied in ecotoxicological investigations; however, the predominant focus has been on the postnatal period of life. Limited information on the adverse effects of metals to bird eggs is available. The possible toxic effects of lead and copper were studied in mallard eggs. After the accidental severe heavy metal pollution of the Tisa river (Hungary) in March 2000, these metals were detected in the highest concentration in both the water and the sediment, reaching far beyond acceptable concentrations. Pb treatment (2.9 mg/L) significantly increased the rate of mortality after a single immersion of the eggs into polluted water for 30 min. The rate of dead embryos significantly increased after the combined exposure to Cu and Pb (0.86 and 2.9 mg/L, respectively) both in the single- (once for 30 min) and in the multiple- (10s daily during first trimester of incubation) immersion groups. It was concluded that elevated metal concentrations similar to those found in the Tisa river after the tailing dam failure may cause toxic effects (mortality and teratogenicity) upon exposure of mallard eggs. PMID:16678261

  6. Genetic polymorphisms affect efficacy and adverse drug reactions of DMARDs in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling Ling; Yang, Sen; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Xue Jun

    2014-11-01

    Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and biological agents are critical in preventing the severe complications of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the outcome of treatment with these drugs in RA patients is quite variable and unpredictable. Drug-metabolizing enzymes (dihydrofolate reductase, cytochrome P450 enzymes, N-acetyltransferases, etc.), drug transporters (ATP-binding cassette transporters), and drug targets (tumor necrosis factor-α receptors) are coded for by variant alleles. These gene polymorphisms may influence the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and side effects of medicines. The cause for differences in efficacy and adverse drug reactions may be genetic variation in drug metabolism among individuals. Polymorphisms in drug transporter genes may change the distribution and excretion of medicines, and the sensitivity of the targets to drugs is strongly influenced by genetic variations. In this article, we review the genetic polymorphisms that affect the efficacy of DMARDs or the occurrence of adverse drug reactions associated with DMARDs in RA. PMID:25144752

  7. Family Adversity and Autonomic Reactivity Association With Immune Changes in HIV-Affected School Children

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Melanie; Wara, Diane; Saxton, Katherine; Truskier, Mary; Chesney, Margaret; Boyce, W. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore whether primary school entry is associated with changes in immune system parameters in HIV-affected children. HIV-affected children are vulnerable to psychosocial stressors, regardless of their own HIV serological status. Methods Data from 38 HIV+ and 29 HIV− children born to seropositive women were obtained before and after school entry. Measures included family adversity questionnaires, autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity (based on mean arterial responses to challenge tasks), and enumerative and functional changes in peripheral blood immune parameters. Results In comparison to children who were HIV−, children who were HIV+ at baseline had fewer CD4+ T lymphocytes (M = 916 vs. 1206 cells/mm3 × 103; F = 7.8, p = .007), more CD8+ cells (M = 1046 vs. 720 cells/mm3 ×103; F = 7.98, p = .006), and diminished NK cell cytotoxicity (M =−.29 vs. .41; F = 8.87, p = .004). School entry was associated with changes in immune parameters, but HIV status was not associated with the magnitude of changes. Changes in immune parameters following school entry were associated with family stress and pre school entry ANS reactivity. Highly ANS reactive children had either the greatest increase in CD8+ cells following school entry or the greatest decrease, depending upon reported levels of family adversity (B = 215.35; t = 3.74, p < .001). Changes in functional immune assays were significantly associated with the interactions between HIV status and ANS reactivity. Conclusions These results suggest that autonomic reactivity is associated with increased immunological sensitivity to adverse or challenging social contexts among children affected by HIV. PMID:23766380

  8. A review on factors affecting microcystins production by algae in aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ruihua; Wang, Pinfei; Jia, Peili; Zhang, Yi; Chu, Xincheng; Wang, Yifei

    2016-03-01

    Microcystins, a toxin produced by Microcystis aeruginosa have become a global environmental issue in recent years. As a consequence of eutrophication, microcystins have become widely disseminated in drinking water sources, seriously impairing drinking water quality. This review focuses on the relationship between microcystins synthesis and physical, chemical, and biological environmental factors that are significant in controlling their production. Light intensity and temperature are the more important physical factors, and in many cases, an optimum level for these two factors has been observed. Nitrogen and phosphorus are the key chemical factors causing frequent occurrence of harmful algal blooms and microcystins production. The absorption of nutrients and metabolic activities of algae are affected by different concentrations and forms of nitrogen and phosphorus, leading to variations in microcystins production Metal ions and emerging pollutants are other significant chemical factors, whose comprehensive impact is still being studied. Algae can also interact with biological agents like predators and competitors in aquatic environments, and such interactions are suggested to promote MCs production and release. This review further highlights areas that require further research in order to gain a better understanding of microcystins production. It provides a theoretical basis for the control of microcystins production and releasing into aquatic environments. PMID:26874538

  9. A cocktail of contaminants: how mixtures of pesticides at low concentrations affect aquatic communities.

    PubMed

    Relyea, Rick A

    2009-03-01

    The ubiquity of anthropogenic chemicals in nature poses a challenge to understanding how ecological communities are impacted by them. While we are rapidly gaining an understanding of how individual contaminants affect communities, communities are exposed to suites of contaminants yet investigations of the effects of diverse contaminant mixtures in aquatic communities are rare. I examined how a single application of five insecticides (malathion, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and endosulfan) and five herbicides (glyphosate, atrazine, acetochlor, metolachlor, and 2,4-D) at low concentrations (2-16 p.p.b.) affected aquatic communities composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, periphyton, and larval amphibians (gray tree frogs, Hyla versicolor, and leopard frogs, Rana pipiens). Using outdoor mesocosms, I examined each pesticide alone, a mix of insecticides, a mix of herbicides, and a mix of all ten pesticides. Individual pesticides had a wide range of direct and indirect effects on all trophic groups. For some taxa (i.e., zooplankton and algae), the impact of pesticide mixtures could largely be predicted from the impacts of individual pesticides; for other taxa (i.e., amphibians) it could not. For amphibians, there was an apparent direct toxic effect of endosulfan that caused 84% mortality of leopard frogs and an indirect effect induced by diazinon that caused 24% mortality of leopard frogs. When pesticides were combined, the mix of herbicides had no negative effects on the survival and metamorphosis of amphibians, but the mix of insecticides and the mix of all ten pesticides eliminated 99% of leopard frogs. Interestingly, these mixtures did not cause mortality in the gray tree frogs and, as a result, the gray tree frogs grew nearly twice as large due to reduced competition with leopard frogs. In short, wetland communities can be dramatically impacted by low concentrations of pesticides (both separate and combined) and these results offer important insights for the

  10. 42 CFR 137.435 - Will an appeal adversely affect the Indian Tribe's rights in other compact, funding negotiations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... rights in other compact, funding negotiations, or construction project agreement? 137.435 Section 137.435... another compact, funding agreement, or construction project agreement. ... appeal adversely affect the Indian Tribe's rights in other compact, funding negotiations, or...

  11. Cannula implantation into the lateral ventricle does not adversely affect recognition or spatial working memory.

    PubMed

    Seyer, Benjamin; Pham, Vi; Albiston, Anthony L; Chai, Siew Yeen

    2016-08-15

    Indwelling cannulas are often used to deliver pharmacological agents into the lateral ventricles of the brain to study their effects on memory and learning, yet little is known about the possible adverse effects of the cannulation itself. In this study, the effect of implanting an indwelling cannula into the right lateral ventricle was examined with respect to cognitive function and tissue damage in rats. Specifically, the cannula passed through sections of the primary motor (M1) and somatosensory hind limb (S1HL) cortices. One week following implantation, rats were impaired on the rotarod task, implying a deficit in fine motor control, likely caused by the passage of the cannula through the aforementioned cortical regions. Importantly, neither spatial working nor recognition memory was adversely affected. Histological examination showed immune cell activation only in the area immediately surrounding the cannulation site and not spreading to other brain regions. Both GFAP and CD-11b mRNA expression was elevated in the area immediately surrounding the cannulation site, but not in the contralateral hemisphere or the hippocampus. Neither of the inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α or IL-6, were upregulated in any region. These results show that cannulation into the lateral ventricle does not impair cognition and indicates that nootropic agents delivered via this method are enhancing normal memory rather than rescuing deficits caused by the surgery procedure. PMID:27345383

  12. Depressing Antidepressant: Fluoxetine Affects Serotonin Neurons Causing Adverse Reproductive Responses in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Campos, Bruno; Rivetti, Claudia; Kress, Timm; Barata, Carlos; Dircksen, Heinrich

    2016-06-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely used antidepressants. As endocrine disruptive contaminants in the environment, SSRIs affect reproduction in aquatic organisms. In the water flea Daphnia magna, SSRIs increase offspring production in a food ration-dependent manner. At limiting food conditions, females exposed to SSRIs produce more but smaller offspring, which is a maladaptive life-history strategy. We asked whether increased serotonin levels in newly identified serotonin-neurons in the Daphnia brain mediate these effects. We provide strong evidence that exogenous SSRI fluoxetine selectively increases serotonin-immunoreactivity in identified brain neurons under limiting food conditions thereby leading to maladaptive offspring production. Fluoxetine increases serotonin-immunoreactivity at low food conditions to similar maximal levels as observed under high food conditions and concomitantly enhances offspring production. Sublethal amounts of the neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine known to specifically ablate serotonin-neurons markedly decrease serotonin-immunoreactivity and offspring production, strongly supporting the effect to be serotonin-specific by reversing the reproductive phenotype attained under fluoxetine. Thus, SSRIs impair serotonin-regulation of reproductive investment in a planktonic key organism causing inappropriately increased reproduction with potentially severe ecological impact. PMID:27128505

  13. Dietary restriction does not adversely affect bone geometry and mechanics in rapidly growing male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Jennifer; Lamothe, Jeremy M; Zernicke, Ronald F; Auer, Roland N; Reimer, Raylene A

    2005-02-01

    The present study assessed the effects of dietary restriction on tibial and vertebral mechanical and geometrical properties in 2-mo-old male Wistar rats. Two-month-old male Wistar rats were randomized to the ad libitum (n=8) or the 35% diet-restricted (DR) feeding group (n=9) for 5 mo. Tibiae and L6 vertebrae were dissected out for microcomputed tomography (microCT) scanning and subsequently fractured in biomechanical testing to determine geometrical and mechanical properties. The DR group had significantly lower mean tibial length, mass, area, and cross-sectional moment of inertia, as well as vertebral energy to maximal load. After adjustment for body mass, however, DR tibial mean maximal load and stiffness, and DR vertebral area, height, volume, and maximal load were significantly greater, relative to ad libitum means. No significant differences were found between the DR and ad libitum mineral ash fractions. Because the material properties of the tibiae between the two groups were not significantly different, presumably the material integrity of the bones was not adversely affected as a consequence of DR. The similar material characteristics were consistent with mineral ash fractions that were not different between the two groups. Vertebral maximal load and stiffness were not significant between the DR and ad libitum animals. Importantly, we show that a level of dietary restriction (35%) that is less severe than many studies (40%), and without micronutrient compensation does not adversely affect tibial and vertebral mechanical properties in young growing male rats when normalized for body mass. PMID:15585686

  14. Does nitrate co-pollution affect biological responses of an aquatic plant to two common herbicides?

    PubMed

    Nuttens, A; Chatellier, S; Devin, S; Guignard, C; Lenouvel, A; Gross, E M

    2016-08-01

    Aquatic systems in agricultural landscapes are subjected to multiple stressors, among them pesticide and nitrate run-off, but effects of both together have rarely been studied. We investigated possible stress-specific and interaction effects using the new OECD test organism, Myriophyllum spicatum, a widespread aquatic plant. In a fully factorial design, we used two widely applied herbicides, isoproturon and mesosulfuron-methyl, in concentration-response curves at two nitrate levels (219.63 and 878.52mg N-NO3). We applied different endpoints reflecting plant performance such as growth, pigment content, content in phenolic compounds, and plant stoichiometry. Relative growth rates based on length (RGR-L) were affected strongly by both herbicides, while effects on relative growth rate based on dry weight (RGR-DW) were apparent for isoproturon but hardly visible for mesosulfuron-methyl due to an increase in dry matter content. The higher nitrate level further reduced growth rates, specifically with mesosulfuron-methyl. Effects were visible between 50 and 500μgL(-1) for isoproturon and 0.5-5μgL(-1) for mesosulfuron-methyl, with some differences between endpoints. The two herbicides had opposite effects on chlorophyll, carotenoid and nitrogen contents in plants, with values increasing with increasing concentrations of isoproturon and decreasing for mesosulfuron-methyl. Herbicides and nitrate level exhibited distinct effects on the content in phenolic compounds, with higher nitrate levels reducing total phenolic compounds in controls and with isoproturon, but not with mesosulfuron-methyl. Increasing concentrations of mesosulfuron-methyl lead to a decline of total phenolic compounds, while isoproturon had little effect. Contents of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus changed depending on the stressor combination. We observed higher phosphorus levels in plants exposed to certain concentrations of herbicides, potentially indicating a metabolic response. The C:N molar ratio

  15. Factors Affecting the Timing of Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reactions.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Masayuki; Imai, Shungo; Uehara, Keiko; Maruyama, Junya; Shimizu, Mikiko; Mochizuki, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated factors affecting the timing of signal detection by comparing variations in reporting time of known and unknown ADRs after initial drug release in the USA. Data on adverse event reactions (AERs) submitted to U.S. FDA was used. Six ADRs associated with 6 drugs (rosuvastatin, aripiprazole, teriparatide, telithromycin, exenatide, varenicline) were investigated: Changes in the proportional reporting ratio, reporting odds ratio, and information component as indexes of signal detection were followed every 3 months after each drugs release, and the time for detection of signals was investigated. The time for the detection of signal to be detected after drug release in the USA was 2-10 months for known ADRs and 19-44 months for unknown ones. The median lag time for known and unknown ADRs was 99.0-122.5 days and 185.5-306.0 days, respectively. When the FDA released advisory information on rare but potentially serious health risks of an unknown ADR, the time lag to report from the onset of ADRs to the FDA was shorter. This study suggested that one factor affecting signal detection time is whether an ADR was known or unknown at release. PMID:26641634

  16. Sexually Dimorphic Responses to Early Adversity: Implications for Affective Problems and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Pfaff, Donald

    2014-01-01

    During gestation, development proceeds at a pace that is unmatched by any other stage of the lifecycle. For these reason the human fetus is particularly susceptible not only to organizing influences, but also to pathogenic disorganizing influences. Growing evidence suggests that exposure to prenatal adversity leads to neurological changes that underlie lifetime risks for mental illness. Beginning early in gestation, males and females show differential developmental trajectories and responses to stress. It is likely that sex-dependent organization of neural circuits during the fetal period influences differential vulnerability to mental health problems. We consider in this review evidence that sexually dimorphic responses to early life stress are linked to two developmental disorders: affective problems (greater female prevalence) and autism spectrum disorder (greater male prevalence). Recent prospective studies illustrating the neurodevelopmental consequences of fetal exposure to stress and stress hormones for males and females are considered here. Plausible biological mechanisms including the role of the sexually differentiated placenta are discussed. We consider in this review evidence that sexually dimorphic responses to early life stress are linked to two sets of developmental disorders: affective problems (greater female prevalence) and autism spectrum disorders (greater male prevalence). PMID:25038479

  17. 42 CFR 137.445 - Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in other self-governance negotiations? 137.445 Section 137.445..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Appeals Appeals of An Immediate Reassumption of A Self-Governance Program § 137.445 Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect...

  18. 42 CFR 137.445 - Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in other self-governance negotiations? 137.445 Section 137.445..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Appeals Appeals of An Immediate Reassumption of A Self-Governance Program § 137.445 Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect...

  19. 42 CFR 137.445 - Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in other self-governance negotiations? 137.445 Section 137.445..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Appeals Appeals of An Immediate Reassumption of A Self-Governance Program § 137.445 Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect...

  20. 42 CFR 137.445 - Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in other self-governance negotiations? 137.445 Section 137.445..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Appeals Appeals of An Immediate Reassumption of A Self-Governance Program § 137.445 Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect...

  1. 42 CFR 137.445 - Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in other self-governance negotiations? 137.445 Section 137.445..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Appeals Appeals of An Immediate Reassumption of A Self-Governance Program § 137.445 Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect...

  2. Sunlight affects aggregation and deposition of graphene oxide in the aquatic environment.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we investigate the role of simulated sunlight on the physicochemical properties, aggregation, and deposition of graphene oxide (GO) in aquatic environments. Results show that light exposure under varied environmental conditions significantly impacts the physicochem...

  3. Early Life in a Barren Environment Adversely Affects Spatial Cognition in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Nordgreen, Janicke; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition in vertebrates is adversely affected by a lack of environmental complexity during early life. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies have tested the effect of early exposure to varying degrees of environmental complexity on specific components of spatial cognition in chickens. There are two main rearing systems for laying hens in the EU: aviaries and cages. These two systems differ from one another in environmental complexity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that rearing in a barren cage environment relative to a complex aviary environment causes long-lasting deficits in the ability to perform spatial tasks. For this purpose, 24 white Dekalb laying hens, half of which had been reared in an aviary system and the other half in a conventional cage system, were tested in a holeboard task. Birds from both treatment groups learnt the task; however, the cage-reared hens required more time to locate rewards and had poorer levels of working memory. The latter finding supports the hypothesis that rearing in a barren environment causes long-term impairment of short-term memory in chickens. PMID:26664932

  4. Exposing physicians to reduced residency work hours did not adversely affect patient outcomes after residency.

    PubMed

    Jena, Anupam B; Schoemaker, Lena; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2014-10-01

    In 2003, work hours for physicians-in-training (residents) were capped by regulation at eighty hours per week, leading to the hotly debated but unexplored issue of whether physicians today are less well trained as a result of these work-hour reforms. Using a unique database of nearly all hospitalizations in Florida during 2000-09 that were linked to detailed information on the medical training history of the physician of record for each hospitalization, we studied whether hospital mortality and patients' length-of-stay varied according to the number of years a physician was exposed to the 2003 duty-hour regulations during his or her residency. We examined this database of practicing Florida physicians, using a difference-in-differences analysis that compared trends in outcomes of junior physicians (those with one-year post-residency experience) pre- and post-2003 to a control group of senior physicians (those with ten or more years of post-residency experience) who were not exposed to these reforms during their residency. We found that the duty-hour reforms did not adversely affect hospital mortality and length-of-stay of patients cared for by new attending physicians who were partly or fully exposed to reduced duty hours during their own residency. However, assessment of the impact of the duty-hour reforms on other clinical outcomes is needed. PMID:25288430

  5. Delay of Treatment Initiation Does Not Adversely Affect Survival Outcome in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Tae-Kyung; Han, Wonshik; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Kim, Jisun; Lee, Jun Woo; Kim, Min Kyoon; Lee, Eunshin; Kim, Jongjin; Noh, Dong-Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies examining the relationship between time to treatment and survival outcome in breast cancer have shown inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to analyze the overall impact of delay of treatment initiation on patient survival and to determine whether certain subgroups require more prompt initiation of treatment. Materials and Methods This study is a retrospective analysis of stage I-III patients who were treated in a single tertiary institution between 2005 and 2008. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression model were used to evaluate the impact of interval between diagnosis and treatment initiation in breast cancer and various subgroups. Results A total of 1,702 patients were included. Factors associated with longer delay of treatment initiation were diagnosis at another hospital, medical comorbidities, and procedures performed before admission for surgery. An interval between diagnosis and treatment initiation as a continuous variable or with a cutoff value of 15, 30, 45, and 60 days had no impact on disease-free survival (DFS). Subgroup analyses for hormone-responsiveness, triple-negative breast cancer, young age, clinical stage, and type of initial treatment showed no significant association between longer delay of treatment initiation and DFS. Conclusion Our results show that an interval between diagnosis and treatment initiation of 60 days or shorter does not appear to adversely affect DFS in breast cancer. PMID:26511801

  6. Neonicotinoid clothianidin adversely affects insect immunity and promotes replication of a viral pathogen in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Di Prisco, Gennaro; Cavaliere, Valeria; Annoscia, Desiderato; Varricchio, Paola; Caprio, Emilio; Nazzi, Francesco; Gargiulo, Giuseppe; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2013-11-12

    Large-scale losses of honey bee colonies represent a poorly understood problem of global importance. Both biotic and abiotic factors are involved in this phenomenon that is often associated with high loads of parasites and pathogens. A stronger impact of pathogens in honey bees exposed to neonicotinoid insecticides has been reported, but the causal link between insecticide exposure and the possible immune alteration of honey bees remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin negatively modulates NF-κB immune signaling in insects and adversely affects honey bee antiviral defenses controlled by this transcription factor. We have identified in insects a negative modulator of NF-κB activation, which is a leucine-rich repeat protein. Exposure to clothianidin, by enhancing the transcription of the gene encoding this inhibitor, reduces immune defenses and promotes the replication of the deformed wing virus in honey bees bearing covert infections. This honey bee immunosuppression is similarly induced by a different neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, but not by the organophosphate chlorpyriphos, which does not affect NF-κB signaling. The occurrence at sublethal doses of this insecticide-induced viral proliferation suggests that the studied neonicotinoids might have a negative effect at the field level. Our experiments uncover a further level of regulation of the immune response in insects and set the stage for studies on neural modulation of immunity in animals. Furthermore, this study has implications for the conservation of bees, as it will contribute to the definition of more appropriate guidelines for testing chronic or sublethal effects of pesticides used in agriculture. PMID:24145453

  7. Probabilities of adverse weather affecting transport in Europe: climatology and scenarios up to the 2050s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajda, A.; Tuomenvirta, H.; Jokinen, P.; Luomaranta, A.; Makkonen, L.; Tikanmäki, M.; Groenemeijer, P.; Saarikivi, P.; Michaelides, S.; Papadakis, M.; Tymvios, F.; Athanasatos, S.

    2012-04-01

    This paper provides the first comprehensive climatology of the adverse and extreme weather events affecting the European transport system by estimating the frequency (or probability) of phenomena for the present climate (1971-2000) and an overview of the projected changes in some of these extremes in the future climate until the 2050s. The research was carried out within the framework of the EWENT Project that addresses the European Union (EU) policies and strategies related to climate change, with a particular focus on extreme weather impacts on the EU transportation system. This project is funded by the Seventh Framework Programme (Transports, call ID FPT7-TPT-2008-RTD-1). The analyzed phenomena are wind, snow, blizzards, heavy precipitation, cold spells and heat waves. In addition, reduced visibility conditions determined by fog and dust events, small-scale phenomena affecting the transport system, such as thunderstorms, lightning, large hail and tornadoes and events damaging infrastructure of the transport system, have been considered. Frequency and probability analysis of past and present ex¬tremes were performed using observational and atmospheric reanalysis data. Future changes in the probability of severe events were assessed based on six regional climate model simulations produced in the FP6 ENSEMBLES project (http://www.ensembles-eu.org/). To facilitate the assessment of impacts and consequences of extreme phenomena on a continental level, the WP2 Deliverable introduces a regionalization of the European extreme phenomena, defining the climate zones with similarities in extreme phenomena. The projected changes as well as large natural variability in weather extremes on the transportation network will have impacts of both signs. The decline of extreme cold and snowfall over most of the continent implies a positive impact on road, rail, inland water and air transportation, e.g., by reducing snow removal. However, even with a general decreasing trend in

  8. 41 CFR 102-78.40 - What responsibilities do Federal agencies have when an undertaking adversely affects a historic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... guidance on the protection of historic and cultural properties in 36 CFR part 800. ... Federal agencies have when an undertaking adversely affects a historic or cultural property? 102-78.40... (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 78-HISTORIC PRESERVATION Historic Preservation §...

  9. 25 CFR 900.244 - Will an Indian tribe or tribal organization's retrocession adversely affect funding available for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Will an Indian tribe or tribal organization's retrocession adversely affect funding available for the retroceded program? 900.244 Section 900.244 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, AND INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTS UNDER THE...

  10. 50 CFR 402.45 - Alternative consultation on FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Counterpart Regulations Governing Actions by the U.S... that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat. 402.45 Section...

  11. 50 CFR 402.45 - Alternative consultation on FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Counterpart Regulations Governing Actions by the U.S... that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat. 402.45 Section...

  12. FACTORS AFFECTING COLORED DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS OF THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sunlight-absorbing (colored) component of dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in aquatic environments is widely distributed in freshwaters and coastal regions where it influences the fate and transport of toxic organic substances and biologically-important metals such as mercury,...

  13. 29 CFR 784.138 - Perishable state of the aquatic product as affecting exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... such nonperishable products as fish oil and fish meal, or canned seafood, are not within the exemption... exemption. 784.138 Section 784.138 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT APPLICABLE TO FISHING AND OPERATIONS ON AQUATIC...

  14. Exposure to serotonin adversely affects oligodendrocyte development and myelination in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lir-Wan; Bhatt, Abhay; Tien, Lu-Tai; Zheng, Baoying; Simpson, Kimberly L; Lin, Rick C S; Cai, Zhengwei; Kumar, Praveen; Pang, Yi

    2015-05-01

    patterns of contactin-associated protein (Caspr) clustering were observed at the sites of Node of Ranvier, suggesting that 5-HT exposure may affect other axon-derived factors for myelination. In summary, this is the first study to demonstrate that manipulation of serotonin levels affects OL development and myelination, which may contribute to altered neural connectivity noted in SSRIs-treated animals. The current in vitro study demonstrated that exposure to high level of serotonin (5-HT) led to aberrant oligodendrocyte (OL) development, cell injury, and myelination deficit. We propose that elevated extracellular serotonin levels in the fetal brain, such as upon the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy, may adversely affect OL development and/or myelination, thus contributing to altered neural connectivity seen in Autism Spectrum Disorders. OPC = oligodendrocyte progenitor cell. PMID:25382136

  15. Correlation of adverse effects of cisplatin administration in patients affected by solid tumours: A retrospective evaluation

    PubMed Central

    ASTOLFI, LAURA; GHISELLI, SARA; GUARAN, VALERIA; CHICCA, MILVIA; SIMONI, EDI; OLIVETTO, ELENA; LELLI, GIORGIO; MARTINI, ALESSANDRO

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatin is the most common antineoplastic drug used for the therapy of solid tumours. To date, researchers have focused on the dosage to be administered for each specific tumour, mainly considering the local adverse effects. The aim of this study was to correlate the severity of the adverse effects with: i) the dosage of cisplatin; ii) the specific site of the tumour; iii) the association with other drugs; and iv) the symptoms. We analysed data from 123 patients with 11 different tumour classes undergoing therapy from 2007 to 2008 at St. Anna Hospital (Ferrara, Italy), using the Spearman non-parametric correlation index. Even though significant correlations were found among the variables, the overall results showed that the main factor influencing the severity of the adverse effects was the dosage of cisplatin administered. PMID:23404427

  16. Enantiomer specific measurements of current-use pesticides in aquatic systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contrary to predictions, current-use pesticides are adversely affecting aquatic systems in both urban and agricultural watersheds, particularly in California. One possible divergence from fate and effect predictions is that some current-use pesticides are chiral molecules. Increa...

  17. Severe Affective and Behavioural Dysregulation Is Associated with Significant Psychosocial Adversity and Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jucksch, Viola; Salbach-Andrae, Harriet; Lenz, Klaus; Goth, Kirstin; Dopfner, Manfred; Poustka, Fritz; Freitag, Christine M.; Lehmkuhl, Gerd; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Holtmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Recently, a highly heritable behavioral phenotype of simultaneous deviance on the Anxious/Depressed, Attention Problems, and Aggressive Behavior syndrome scales has been identified on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL-Dysregulation Profile, CBCL-DP). This study aims to investigate psychosocial adversity and impairment of the CBCL-DP.…

  18. The binary mixtures of megestrol acetate and 17α-ethynylestradiol adversely affect zebrafish reproduction.

    PubMed

    Hua, Jianghuan; Han, Jian; Wang, Xianfeng; Guo, Yongyong; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2016-06-01

    Synthetic progesterones and estrogens are broadly used bioactive pharmaceutical agents and have been detected in aquatic environments. In the present study, we investigated the combined reproductive effects of megestrol acetate (MTA) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) on zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were exposed to MTA (33, 100 or 333 ng/L), EE2 (10 ng/L) or a mixture of both (MTA + EE2: 33 + 10, 100 + 10 or 333 + 10 ng/L) for 21 days. Results demonstrated that egg production was significantly reduced by exposure to 10 ng/L EE2, but not MTA. However, a combined exposure to MTA and EE2 caused further reduction of fish fecundity compared to EE2 exposure alone, suggesting an additive effect on egg production when EE2 is supplemented with MTA. Plasma concentrations of 17β-estradiol and testosterone in the females and 11-ketotestosterone in the males were significantly decreased in the groups exposed to EE2 or MTA alone compared with the solvent control, and the plasma concentrations of the three hormones were further reduced in the co-exposure groups relative to the MTA exposure group, but not the EE2 exposure group. These data indicate that the inhibitory effects on plasma concentrations in the co-exposures were predominantly caused by EE2. Furthermore, exposure to MTA and EE2 (alone or in combination) led to histological alterations in the ovaries (decreased vitellogenic/mature oocytes), but not in the testes. This study has important implications for environmental risk assessment of synthetic hormones that are concurrently present in aquatic systems. PMID:27038209

  19. Leaf litter quality affects aquatic insect emergence: contrasting patterns from two foundation trees.

    PubMed

    Compson, Zacchaeus G; Adams, Kenneth J; Edwards, Joeseph A; Maestas, Jesse M; Whitham, Thomas G; Marks, Jane C

    2013-10-01

    Reciprocal subsidies between rivers and terrestrial habitats are common where terrestrial leaf litter provides energy to aquatic invertebrates while emerging aquatic insects provide energy to terrestrial predators (e.g., birds, lizards, spiders). We examined how aquatic insect emergence changed seasonally with litter from two foundation riparian trees, whose litter often dominates riparian streams of the southwestern United States: Fremont (Populus fremontii) and narrowleaf (Populus angustifolia) cottonwood. P. fremontii litter is fast-decomposing and lower in defensive phytochemicals (i.e., condensed tannins, lignin) relative to P. angustifolia. We experimentally manipulated leaf litter from these two species by placing them in leaf enclosures with emergence traps attached in order to determine how leaf type influenced insect emergence. Contrary to our initial predictions, we found that packs with slow-decomposing leaves tended to support more emergent insects relative to packs with fast-decomposing leaves. Three findings emerged. Firstly, abundance (number of emerging insects m(-2) day(-1)) was 25% higher on narrowleaf compared to Fremont leaves for the spring but did not differ in the fall, demonstrating that leaf quality from two dominant trees of the same genus yielded different emergence patterns and that these patterns changed seasonally. Secondly, functional feeding groups of emerging insects differed between treatments and seasons. Specifically, in the spring collector-gatherer abundance and biomass were higher on narrowleaf leaves, whereas collector-filterer abundance and biomass were higher on Fremont leaves. Shredder abundance and biomass were higher on narrowleaf leaves in the fall. Thirdly, diversity (Shannon's H') was higher on Fremont leaves in the spring, but no differences were found in the fall, showing that fast-decomposing leaves can support a more diverse, complex emergent insect assemblage during certain times of the year. Collectively, these

  20. 30 CFR 285.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 285.816 Section 285.816 Mineral Resources..., pipeline, or facility? If environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or...

  1. Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutteling, Barbara M.; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50…

  2. Factors affecting bioabsorption, metabolism, and storage of organic compounds by aquatic biota

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, R.M.; Dauble, D.D.; Thomas, B.L.; Hanf, R.W.; Chess, E.K.

    1985-12-01

    Biological concentration and transfer of organic chemicals through aquatic food webs can be influenced by a variety of environmental, biological, and biochemical factors. Bioaccumulation can be significantly altered by the presence of suspended matter or complex organic mixtures in the water column. In addition, the bioaccumulation factor of a compound is dependent on the species of an organism, its life stage, and the available food supply. Metabolic changes in structure of absorbed organics can alter both the rate and the mechanism of absorption and elimination of organics. In the case of quinoline absorption by trout, both the rate of absorption and the metabolic disposition depended upon whether exposure was through ingestion or through direct water column exposure. All of these factors can be used to explain why the physical properties of organic compounds (most notably octanol/water partition coefficients) are unreliable predictors of bioaccumulation potential. 24 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Can aircraft noise less than or equal 115 to dBA adversely affect reproductive outcome in USAF women?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brubaker, P. A.

    1985-06-01

    It has been suggested, mainly through animal studies, that exposure to high noise levels may be associated with lower birth weight, reduced gestational length and other adverse reproductive outcomes. Few studies have been done on humans to show this association. The Air Force employs pregnant women in areas where there is a high potential for exposure to high noise levels. This study proposes a method to determine if there is an association between high frequency noise levels or = 115 dBA and adverse reproductive outcomes through a review of records and self-administered questionnaires in a case-comparison design. Prevelance rates will be calculated and a multiple logistic regression analysis computed for the independent variables that can affect reproduction.

  4. Adverse childhood experiences associate to reduced glutamate levels in the hippocampus of patients affected by mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Sara; Locatelli, Clara; Falini, Andrea; Colombo, Cristina; Benedetti, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) can possibly permanently alter the stress response system, affect the glutamatergic system and influence hippocampal volume in mood disorders. The aim of the study is to investigate the association between glutamate levels in the hippocampus, measured through single proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), and ACE in patients affected by mood disorders and healthy controls. Higher levels of early stress associate to reduced levels of Glx/Cr in the hippocampus in depressed patients but not in healthy controls. Exposure to stress during early life could lead to a hypofunctionality of the glutamatergic system in the hippocampus of depressed patients. Abnormalities of glutamatergic signaling could then possibly underpin the structural and functional abnormalities observed in patients affected by mood disorders. PMID:27449360

  5. Elevated depressive affect is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes among African Americans with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Michael J.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Greene, Tom; Gassman, Jennifer J.; Wang, Xuelei; Brooks, Deborah H.; Charleston, Jeanne; Dowie, Donna; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Cooper, Lisa A.; Bruce, Marino A.; Kusek, John W.; Norris, Keith C.; Lash, James P.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the impact of elevated depressive affect on health outcomes among participants with hypertensive chronic kidney disease in the African-American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) Cohort Study. Elevated depressive affect was defined by Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) thresholds of 11 or more, above 14, and by 5-Unit increments in the score. Cox regression analyses were used to relate cardiovascular death/hospitalization, doubling of serum creatinine/end-stage renal disease, overall hospitalization, and all-cause death to depressive affect evaluated at baseline, the most recent annual visit (time-varying), or average from baseline to the most recent visit (cumulative). Among 628 participants at baseline, 42% had BDI-II scores of 11 or more and 26% had a score above 14. During a 5-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of cardiovascular death/hospitalization was significantly greater for participants with baseline BDI-II scores of 11 or more compared with those with scores <11. The baseline, time-varying, and cumulative elevated depressive affect were each associated with a significant higher risk of cardiovascular death/hospitalization, especially with a time-varying BDI-II score over 14 (adjusted HR 1.63) but not with the other outcomes. Thus, elevated depressive affect is associated with unfavorable cardiovascular outcomes in African Americans with hypertensive chronic kidney disease. PMID:21633409

  6. A dietary assessment of selenium risk to aquatic birds on a coal mine affected stream in Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Wayland, M.; Casey, R.; Woodsworth, E.

    2007-07-15

    In this article, we present the results of a dietary-based assessment of the risk that selenium may pose to two aquatic bird species, the American Dipper (Cinclus mexicanus) and the Harlequin Duck (Histrionicus histrionicus), on one of the coal mine-affected streams, the Gregg River. The study consisted of (1) a literature-based toxicity assessment, (2) simulation of selenium exposure in the diets and eggs of the two species, and (3) a risk assessment that coupled information on toxicity and exposure. Diet and egg selenium concentrations associated with a 20% hatch failure rate were 6.4 and 17 {mu} g {center_dot} g{sup -1} dry wt, respectively. Simulated dietary selenium concentrations were about 2.0-2.5 {mu} g {center_dot} g{sup -1} higher on the Gregg River than on reference streams for both species. When simulated dietary concentrations were considered, hatch failure rates on the Gregg River were predicted to average 12% higher in American Dippers and 8% higher in Harlequin Ducks than at reference streams. Corresponding values were only 3% for both species when predicted egg concentrations were used. Elevated levels of selenium in insects in some of the reference streams were unexpected and raised a question as to whether aquatic birds have evolved a higher tolerance level for dietary selenium in these areas.

  7. Orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 affects cardiomyocyte calcium homeostasis and adverse cardiac remodelling

    PubMed Central

    Medzikovic, Lejla; Schumacher, Cees A.; Verkerk, Arie O.; van Deel, Elza D.; Wolswinkel, Rianne; van der Made, Ingeborg; Bleeker, Natascha; Cakici, Daniella; van den Hoogenhof, Maarten M. G.; Meggouh, Farid; Creemers, Esther E.; Ann Remme, Carol; Baartscheer, Antonius; de Winter, Robbert J.; de Vries, Carlie J. M.; Arkenbout, E. Karin; de Waard, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    Distinct stressors may induce heart failure. As compensation, β-adrenergic stimulation enhances myocardial contractility by elevating cardiomyocyte intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i). However, chronic β-adrenergic stimulation promotes adverse cardiac remodelling. Cardiac expression of nuclear receptor Nur77 is enhanced by β-adrenergic stimulation, but its role in cardiac remodelling is still unclear. We show high and rapid Nur77 upregulation in cardiomyocytes stimulated with β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. Nur77 knockdown in culture resulted in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes. Ventricular cardiomyocytes from Nur77-deficient (Nur77-KO) mice exhibited elevated diastolic and systolic [Ca2+]i and prolonged action potentials compared to wild type (WT). In vivo, these differences resulted in larger cardiomyocytes, increased expression of hypertrophic genes, and more cardiac fibrosis in Nur77-KO mice upon chronic isoproterenol stimulation. In line with the observed elevated [Ca2+]i, Ca2+-activated phosphatase calcineurin was more active in Nur77-KO mice compared to WT. In contrast, after cardiac pressure overload by aortic constriction, Nur77-KO mice exhibited attenuated remodelling compared to WT. Concluding, Nur77-deficiency results in significantly altered cardiac Ca2+ homeostasis and distinct remodelling outcome depending on the type of insult. Detailed knowledge on the role of Nur77 in maintaining cardiomyocyte Ca2+ homeostasis and the dual role Nur77 plays in cardiac remodelling will aid in developing personalized therapies against heart failure. PMID:26486271

  8. Coralline algal physiology is more adversely affected by elevated temperature than reduced pH.

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Elizondo, Román Manuel; Enríquez, Susana

    2016-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the physiological responses of coralline algae to ocean acidification (OA) and global warming, by exposing algal thalli of three species with contrasting photobiology and growth-form to reduced pH and elevated temperature. The analysis aimed to discern between direct and combined effects, while elucidating the role of light and photosynthesis inhibition in this response. We demonstrate the high sensitivity of coralline algae to photodamage under elevated temperature and its severe consequences on thallus photosynthesis and calcification rates. Moderate levels of light-stress, however, were maintained under reduced pH, resulting in no impact on algal photosynthesis, although moderate adverse effects on calcification rates were still observed. Accordingly, our results support the conclusion that global warming is a stronger threat to algal performance than OA, in particular in highly illuminated habitats such as coral reefs. We provide in this study a quantitative physiological model for the estimation of the impact of thermal-stress on coralline carbonate production, useful to foresee the impact of global warming on coralline contribution to reef carbon budgets, reef cementation, coral recruitment and the maintenance of reef biodiversity. This model, however, cannot yet account for the moderate physiological impact of low pH on coralline calcification. PMID:26740396

  9. Coralline algal physiology is more adversely affected by elevated temperature than reduced pH

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez-Elizondo, Román Manuel; Enríquez, Susana

    2016-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the physiological responses of coralline algae to ocean acidification (OA) and global warming, by exposing algal thalli of three species with contrasting photobiology and growth-form to reduced pH and elevated temperature. The analysis aimed to discern between direct and combined effects, while elucidating the role of light and photosynthesis inhibition in this response. We demonstrate the high sensitivity of coralline algae to photodamage under elevated temperature and its severe consequences on thallus photosynthesis and calcification rates. Moderate levels of light-stress, however, were maintained under reduced pH, resulting in no impact on algal photosynthesis, although moderate adverse effects on calcification rates were still observed. Accordingly, our results support the conclusion that global warming is a stronger threat to algal performance than OA, in particular in highly illuminated habitats such as coral reefs. We provide in this study a quantitative physiological model for the estimation of the impact of thermal-stress on coralline carbonate production, useful to foresee the impact of global warming on coralline contribution to reef carbon budgets, reef cementation, coral recruitment and the maintenance of reef biodiversity. This model, however, cannot yet account for the moderate physiological impact of low pH on coralline calcification. PMID:26740396

  10. Weight Reduction in Athletes May Adversely Affect the Phagocytic Function of Monocytes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kono, Ichiro; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Study of the monocyte phagocytic function in nine competitive athletes before and after a two-week weight reduction (through calorie restriction) program revealed that their pre-program phagocytic activity was higher than in sedentary controls but decreased significantly after the program. This suggests calorie restriction may affect the human…

  11. Microscopic aquatic predators strongly affect infection dynamics of a globally emerged pathogen.

    PubMed

    Schmeller, Dirk S; Blooi, Mark; Martel, An; Garner, Trenton W J; Fisher, Matthew C; Azemar, Frédéric; Clare, Frances C; Leclerc, Camille; Jäger, Lea; Guevara-Nieto, Michelle; Loyau, Adeline; Pasmans, Frank

    2014-01-20

    Research on emerging infectious wildlife diseases has placed particular emphasis on host-derived barriers to infection and disease. This focus neglects important extrinsic determinants of the host/pathogen dynamic, where all barriers to infection should be considered when ascertaining the determinants of infectivity and pathogenicity of wildlife pathogens. Those pathogens with free-living stages, such as fungi causing catastrophic wildlife declines on a global scale, must confront lengthy exposure to environmental barriers before contact with an uninfected host. Hostile environmental conditions therefore have the ability to decrease the density of infectious particles, reducing the force of infection and ameliorating the impact as well as the probability of establishing an infection. Here we show that, in nature, the risk of infection and infectious burden of amphibians infected by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) have a significant, site-specific component, and that these correlate with the microfauna present at a site. Experimental infections show that aquatic microfauna can rapidly lower the abundance and density of infectious stages by consuming Bd zoospores, resulting in a significantly reduced probability of infection in anuran tadpoles. Our findings offer new perspectives for explaining the divergent impacts of Bd infection in amphibian assemblages and contribute to our understanding of ecosystem resilience to colonization by novel pathogens. PMID:24374305

  12. 30 CFR 585.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 585.816 Section 585.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU... corrective action to BOEM within 30 days of the discovery of the adverse effect. (b) Take remedial action...

  13. 30 CFR 285.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 285.816 Section 285.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU...: (a) Submit a plan of corrective action to MMS within 30 days of the discovery of the adverse...

  14. 30 CFR 585.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 585.816 Section 585.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU... corrective action to BOEM within 30 days of the discovery of the adverse effect. (b) Take remedial action...

  15. 30 CFR 585.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 585.816 Section 585.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU... corrective action to BOEM within 30 days of the discovery of the adverse effect. (b) Take remedial action...

  16. Metal toxicity differently affects the Iris pseudacorus-arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi symbiosis in terrestrial and semi-aquatic habitats.

    PubMed

    Wężowicz, K; Turnau, K; Anielska, T; Zhebrak, I; Gołuszka, K; Błaszkowski, J; Rozpądek, P

    2015-12-01

    Phytoremediation offers an environmental friendly alternative to conventional cleanup techniques. In this study, mycorrhizal fungi isolated from the roots of Mentha longifolia grown in the basin of the Centuria River (S Poland) were used. Iris pseudacorus was grown in substratum from an industrial waste, enriched in Pb, Fe, Zn, and Cd in a terrestrial and water-logged habitat. Plant yield and photosynthetic performance was the highest in the aquatic environment; however, the presence of toxic metals (TM) negatively affected photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry as shown by the JIP test. Fungi colonization and Cd accumulation within plant tissues was decreased. In the terrestrial habitat, neither arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) nor metal toxicity affected plant growth, although metal uptake, Cd in particular, as well as photosynthesis were affected. Inoculated plants accumulated significantly more Cd, and photosynthesis was downregulated. The results presented in this study clearly indicate that the I. pseudacorus-AMF symbiosis adapts itself to the presence of toxic metals in the environment, optimizing resource supply, energy fluxes, and possibly stress tolerance mechanisms. Plant/AMF consortia grown in terrestrial and water-logged habitats utilize different strategies to cope with metal toxicity. The use of AMF in improving the phytoremediation potential of I. pseudacorus needs, however, further research. PMID:26585452

  17. Combining S-cone and luminance signals adversely affects discrimination of objects within backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Ben J.; Tsattalios, Konstantinos; Chakravarthi, Ramakrishna; Martinovic, Jasna

    2016-01-01

    The visual system processes objects embedded in complex scenes that vary in both luminance and colour. In such scenes, colour contributes to the segmentation of objects from backgrounds, but does it also affect perceptual organisation of object contours which are already defined by luminance signals, or are these processes unaffected by colour’s presence? We investigated if luminance and chromatic signals comparably sustain processing of objects embedded in backgrounds, by varying contrast along the luminance dimension and along the two cone-opponent colour directions. In the first experiment thresholds for object/non-object discrimination of Gaborised shapes were obtained in the presence and absence of background clutter. Contrast of the component Gabors was modulated along single colour/luminance dimensions or co-modulated along multiple dimensions simultaneously. Background clutter elevated discrimination thresholds only for combined S-(L + M) and L + M signals. The second experiment replicated and extended this finding by demonstrating that the effect was dependent on the presence of relatively high S-(L + M) contrast. These results indicate that S-(L + M) signals impair spatial vision when combined with luminance. Since S-(L + M) signals are characterised by relatively large receptive fields, this is likely to be due to an increase in the size of the integration field over which contour-defining information is summed. PMID:26856308

  18. Nutrient supplementation may adversely affect maternal oral health--a randomised controlled trial in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Harjunmaa, Ulla; Järnstedt, Jorma; Dewey, Kathryn G; Ashorn, Ulla; Maleta, Kenneth; Vosti, Stephen A; Ashorn, Per

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional supplementation during pregnancy is increasingly recommended especially in low-resource settings, but its oral health impacts have not been studied. Our aim was to examine whether supplementation with multiple micronutrients (MMN) or small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements affects dental caries development or periodontal health in a rural Malawian population. The study was embedded in a controlled iLiNS-DYAD trial that enrolled 1391 pregnant women <20 gestation weeks. Women were provided with one daily iron-folic acid capsule (IFA), one capsule with 18 micronutrients (MMN) or one sachet of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) containing protein, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids and 21 micronutrients. Oral examination of 1024 participants was conducted and panoramic X-ray taken within 6 weeks after delivery. The supplement groups were similar at baseline in average socio-economic, nutritional and health status. At the end of the intervention, the prevalence of caries was 56.7%, 69.1% and 63.3% (P = 0.004), and periodontitis 34.9%, 29.8% and 31.2% (P = 0.338) in the IFA, MMN and LNS groups, respectively. Compared with the IFA group, women in the MMN group had 0.60 (0.18-1.02) and in the LNS group 0.59 (0.17-1.01) higher mean number of caries lesions. In the absence of baseline oral health data, firm conclusions on causality cannot be drawn. However, although not confirmatory, the findings are consistent with a possibility that provision of MMN or LNS may have increased the caries incidence in this target population. Because of the potential public health impacts, further research on the association between gestational nutrient interventions and oral health in low-income settings is needed. PMID:26194850

  19. Obesity/hyperleptinemic phenotype adversely affects hippocampal plasticity: effects of dietary restriction.

    PubMed

    Grillo, Claudia A; Piroli, Gerardo G; Evans, Ashlie N; Macht, Victoria A; Wilson, Steven P; Scott, Karen A; Sakai, Randall R; Mott, David D; Reagan, Lawrence P

    2011-08-01

    Epidemiological studies estimate that greater than 60% of the adult US population may be categorized as either overweight or obese and there is a growing appreciation that obesity affects the functional integrity of the central nervous system (CNS). We recently developed a lentivirus (LV) vector that produces an insulin receptor (IR) antisense RNA sequence (IRAS) that when injected into the hypothalamus selectively decreases IR signaling in hypothalamus, resulting in increased body weight, peripheral adiposity and plasma leptin levels. To test the hypothesis that this obesity/hyperleptinemic phenotype would impair hippocampal synaptic transmission, we examined short term potentiation (STP) and long term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus of rats that received the LV-IRAS construct or the LV-Control construct in the hypothalamus (hypo-IRAS and hypo-Con, respectively). Stimulation of the Schaffer collaterals elicits STP that develops into LTP in the CA1 region of hypo-Con rats; conversely, hypo-IRAS rats exhibit STP that fails to develop into LTP. To more closely examine the potential role of hyperleptinemia in these electrophysiological deficits, hypo-IRAS were subjected to mild food restriction paradigms that would either: 1) prevent the development of the obesity phenotype; or 2) reverse an established obesity phenotype in hypo-IRAS rats. Both of these paradigms restored LTP in the CA1 region and reversed the decreases in the phosphorylated/total ratio of GluA1 Ser845 AMPA receptor subunit expression observed in the hippocampus of hypo-IRAS rats. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that obesity impairs hippocampal synaptic transmission and support the hypothesis that these deficits are mediated through the impairment of hippocampal leptin activity. PMID:21036186

  20. Degradation and aquatic toxicity of naphthenic acids in oil sands process-affected waters using simulated wetlands.

    PubMed

    Toor, Navdeep S; Franz, Eric D; Fedorak, Phillip M; MacKinnon, Michael D; Liber, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Oil sands process-affected waters (OSPWs) produced during the extraction of bitumen at the Athabasca Oil Sands (AOS) located in northeastern Alberta, Canada, are toxic to many aquatic organisms. Much of this toxicity is related to a group of dissolved organic acids known as naphthenic acids (NAs). Naphthenic acids are a natural component of bitumen and are released into process water during the separation of bitumen from the oil sand ore by a caustic hot water extraction process. Using laboratory microcosms as an analogue of a proposed constructed wetland reclamation strategy for OSPW, we evaluated the effectiveness of these microcosms in degrading NAs and reducing the aquatic toxicity of OSPW over a 52-week test period. Experimental manipulations included two sources of OSPW (one from Syncrude Canada Ltd. and one from Suncor Energy Inc.), two different hydraulic retention times (HRTs; 40 and 400 d), and increased nutrient availability (added nitrate and phosphate). Microcosms with a longer HRT (for both OSPWs) showed higher reductions in total NAs concentrations (64-74% NAs reduction, p<0.05) over the test period, while nutrient enrichment appeared to have little effect. A 96 h static acute rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) bioassay showed that the initial acute toxicity of Syncrude OSPW (LC50=67% v/v) was reduced (LC50>100% v/v) independent of HRT. However, EC20s from separate Microtox® bioassays were relatively unchanged when comparing the input and microcosm waters at both HRTs over the 52-week study period (p>0.05), indicating that some sub-lethal toxicity persisted under these experimental conditions. The present study demonstrated that given sufficiently long HRTs, simulated wetland microcosms containing OSPW significantly reduced total NAs concentrations and acute toxicity, but left behind a persistent component of the NAs mixture that appeared to be associated with residual chronic toxicity. PMID:23000048

  1. Biotic interactions affect the colonization behavior of aquatic detritivorous macroinvertebrates in a heterogeneous environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschut, Thomas A.; Meineri, Eric; Basset, Alberto

    2015-05-01

    It has previously been suggested that macroinvertebrates actively search for suitable patches to colonize. However, it is not well understood how the spatial arrangement of patches can affect colonization rates. In this study, we determined the importance of the environmental factors (distance, connectivity and resource availability) for patch colonization in an experimental system using Gammarus aequicauda (Amphipoda), Lekanesphaera hookeri (Isopoda) and Ecrobia ventrosa (Gastropoda). Furthermore, we also assessed how the relative importance of each of these environmental factors differed in interactions between the three species. The single species experiments showed that distance was the most important factor for G. aequicauda and E. ventrosa. However, while E. ventrosa preferred patches close to the release point, G. aequicauda strongly preferred patches further from the release point. High resource availability was a strong determinant for the patch colonization of G. aequicauda and L. hookeri. Connectivity was only of moderate importance in the study system for L. hookeri and E. ventrosa. The effects of the environmental factors were strongly affected by interspecific interactions in the multispecies experiments. For G. aequicauda, the distance preference was lowered in the presence of E. ventrosa. Moreover, while for L. hookeri the effect of resource availability was ruled out by the species interactions, resource availability gained importance for E. ventrosa in the presence of any of the other species. Our results suggest a strong link between environmental factors and biotic interactions in the colonization of habitat patches and indicate that the effect of biotic interactions is especially important for species sharing similar traits.

  2. A Screening-Level Approach for Comparing Risks Affecting Aquatic Ecosystem Services over Socio-Environmental Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, T. C.; Conde, D.; Villamizar, S. R.; Reid, B.; Escobar, J.; Rusak, J.; Hoyos, N.; Scordo, F.; Perillo, G. M.; Piccolo, M. C.; Zilio, M.; Velez, M.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing risks to aquatic ecosystems services (ES) is challenging and time-consuming, and effective strategies for prioritizing more detailed assessment efforts are needed. We propose a screening-level risk analysis (SRA) approach that scales ES risk using socioeconomic and environmental indices to capture anthropic and climatic pressures, as well as the capacity for institutional responses to those pressures. The method considers ES within a watershed context, and uses expert input to prioritize key services and the associated pressures that threaten them. The SRA approach focuses on estimating ES risk affect factors, which are the sum of the intensity factors for all hazards or pressures affecting the ES. We estimate the pressure intensity factors in a novel manner, basing them on the nation's (i) human development (proxied by Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, IHDI), (ii) environmental regulatory and monitoring state (Environmental Performance Index, EPI) and (iii) the current level of water stress in the watershed (baseline water stress, BWS). Anthropic intensity factors for future conditions are derived from the baseline values based on the nation's 10-year trend in IHDI and EPI; ES risks in nations with stronger records of change are rewarded more/penalized less in estimates for good/poor future management scenarios. Future climatic intensity factors are tied to water stress estimates based on two general circulation model (GCM) outcomes. We demonstrate the method for an international array of six sites representing a wide range of socio-environmental settings. The outcomes illustrate novel consequences of the scaling scheme. Risk affect factors may be greater in a highly developed region under intense climatic pressure, or in less well-developed regions due to human factors (e.g., poor environmental records). As a screening-level tool, the SRA approach offers considerable promise for ES risk comparisons among watersheds and regions so that

  3. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  4. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  5. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  6. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  7. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  8. The Cultivation of Bt Corn Producing Cry1Ac Toxins Does Not Adversely Affect Non-Target Arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanyan; Feng, Yanjie; Ge, Yang; Tetreau, Guillaume; Chen, Xiaowen; Dong, Xuehui; Shi, Wangpeng

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic corn producing Cry1Ac toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provides effective control of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), and thus reduces insecticide applications. However, whether Bt corn exerts undesirable effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs) is still controversial. We conducted a 2-yr study in Shangzhuang Agricultural Experiment Station to assess the potential impact of Bt corn on field population density, biodiversity, community composition and structure of NTAs. On each sampling date, the total abundance, Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness index and Simpson's diversity index were not significantly affected by Bt corn as compared to non-Bt corn. The “sampling dates” had a significant effect on these indices, but no clear tendencies related to “Bt corn” or “sampling dates X corn variety” interaction were recorded. Principal response curve analysis of variance indicated that Bt corn did not alter the distribution of NTAs communities. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and distance analysis showed that Cry1Ac toxin exposure did not increase community dissimilarities between Bt and non-Bt corn plots and that the evolution of non-target arthropod community was similar on the two corn varieties. The cultivation of Bt corn failed to show any detrimental evidence on the density of non-target herbivores, predators and parasitoids. The composition of herbivores, predators and parasitoids was identical in Bt and non-Bt corn plots. Taken together, results from the present work support that Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect NTAs. PMID:25437213

  9. Increased Fracture Collapse after Intertrochanteric Fractures Treated by the Dynamic Hip Screw Adversely Affects Walking Ability but Not Survival

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Christian; Gudushauri, Paata; Wong, Tak-Man; Lau, Tak-Wing; Pun, Terence; Leung, Frankie

    2016-01-01

    In osteoporotic hip fractures, fracture collapse is deliberately allowed by commonly used implants to improve dynamic contact and healing. The muscle lever arm is, however, compromised by shortening. We evaluated a cohort of 361 patients with AO/OTA 31.A1 or 31.A2 intertrochanteric fracture treated by the dynamic hip screw (DHS) who had a minimal follow-up of 3 months and an average follow-up of 14.6 months and long term survival data. The amount of fracture collapse and shortening due to sliding of the DHS was determined at the latest follow-up and graded as minimal (<1 cm), moderate (1-2 cm), or severe (>2 cm). With increased severity of collapse, more patients were unable to maintain their premorbid walking function (minimal collapse = 34.2%, moderate = 33.3%, severe = 62.8%, and p = 0.028). Based on ordinal regression of risk factors, increased fracture collapse was significantly and independently related to increasing age (p = 0.037), female sex (p = 0.024), A2 fracture class (p = 0.010), increased operative duration (p = 0.011), poor reduction quality (p = 0.000), and suboptimal tip-apex distance of >25 mm (p = 0.050). Patients who had better outcome in terms of walking function were independently predicted by younger age (p = 0.036), higher MMSE marks (p = 0.000), higher MBI marks (p = 0.010), better premorbid walking status (p = 0.000), less fracture collapse (p = 0.011), and optimal lag screw position in centre-centre or centre-inferior position (p = 0.020). According to Kaplan-Meier analysis, fracture collapse had no association with mortality from 2.4 to 7.6 years after surgery. In conclusion, increased fracture collapse after fixation of geriatric intertrochanteric fractures adversely affected walking but not survival. PMID:26955637

  10. Increased Fracture Collapse after Intertrochanteric Fractures Treated by the Dynamic Hip Screw Adversely Affects Walking Ability but Not Survival.

    PubMed

    Fang, Christian; Gudushauri, Paata; Wong, Tak-Man; Lau, Tak-Wing; Pun, Terence; Leung, Frankie

    2016-01-01

    In osteoporotic hip fractures, fracture collapse is deliberately allowed by commonly used implants to improve dynamic contact and healing. The muscle lever arm is, however, compromised by shortening. We evaluated a cohort of 361 patients with AO/OTA 31.A1 or 31.A2 intertrochanteric fracture treated by the dynamic hip screw (DHS) who had a minimal follow-up of 3 months and an average follow-up of 14.6 months and long term survival data. The amount of fracture collapse and shortening due to sliding of the DHS was determined at the latest follow-up and graded as minimal (<1 cm), moderate (1-2 cm), or severe (>2 cm). With increased severity of collapse, more patients were unable to maintain their premorbid walking function (minimal collapse = 34.2%, moderate = 33.3%, severe = 62.8%, and p = 0.028). Based on ordinal regression of risk factors, increased fracture collapse was significantly and independently related to increasing age (p = 0.037), female sex (p = 0.024), A2 fracture class (p = 0.010), increased operative duration (p = 0.011), poor reduction quality (p = 0.000), and suboptimal tip-apex distance of >25 mm (p = 0.050). Patients who had better outcome in terms of walking function were independently predicted by younger age (p = 0.036), higher MMSE marks (p = 0.000), higher MBI marks (p = 0.010), better premorbid walking status (p = 0.000), less fracture collapse (p = 0.011), and optimal lag screw position in centre-centre or centre-inferior position (p = 0.020). According to Kaplan-Meier analysis, fracture collapse had no association with mortality from 2.4 to 7.6 years after surgery. In conclusion, increased fracture collapse after fixation of geriatric intertrochanteric fractures adversely affected walking but not survival. PMID:26955637

  11. Neonatal and fetal exposure to trans-fatty acid retards early growth and adiposity while adversely affecting glucose in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, Kylie; Sajadian, Soraya; Jenkins, Kurt A.; Wilson, Martha D.; Carr, J. Jeffery; Wagner, Janice D.; Rudel, Lawrence L.

    2010-01-01

    Industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFAs) consumed in western diets are incorporated into maternal and fetal tissues, and are passed linearly to offspring via breast milk. We hypothesized that TFA exposure in utero and during lactation in infants would promote obesity and poor glycemic control as compared to unmodified fatty acids. We further hypothesized that in utero exposure alone may program for these outcomes in adulthood. To test this hypothesis we fed female C57/BL6 mice identical western diets that differed only in cis- or trans-isomers of C18:1 and then aimed to determine whether maternal transfer of TFAs through pregnancy and lactation alters growth, body composition and glucose metabolism. Mice were unexposed, exposed during pregnancy, during lactation, or throughout pregnancy and lactation to TFA. Body weight and composition (by computed tomography), and glucose metabolism we assessed at weaning and adulthood. TFA exposure through breast milk caused significant early growth retardation (p<0.001) and higher fasting glucose (p=0.01) but insulin sensitivity was not different. Elevated plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 in mice consuming TFA-enriched milk (p=0.02) may contribute to later catch-up growth, leanness and preserved peripheral insulin sensitivity observed in these mice. Mice exposed to TFA in utero underwent rapid early neonatal growth with TFA-free breast milk and had significantly impaired insulin sensitivity (p<0.05) and greater abdominal fat (p=0.01). We conclude that very early catch-up growth resulted in impaired peripheral insulin sensitivity in this model of diet-related fetal and neonatal programming. TFA surprisingly retarded growth and adiposity while still adversely affecting glucose metabolism. PMID:20650350

  12. Extreme Air Pollution Conditions Adversely Affect Blood Pressure and Insulin Resistance: The Air Pollution and Cardiometabolic Disease Study.

    PubMed

    Brook, Robert D; Sun, Zhichao; Brook, Jeffrey R; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Ruan, Yanping; Yan, Jianhua; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Rao, Xiaoquan; Duan, Fengkui; Sun, Lixian; Liang, Ruijuan; Lian, Hui; Zhang, Shuyang; Fang, Quan; Gu, Dongfeng; Sun, Qinghua; Fan, Zhongjie; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports that fine particulate matter adversely affects cardiometabolic diseases particularly in susceptible individuals; however, health effects induced by the extreme concentrations within megacities in Asia are not well described. We enrolled 65 nonsmoking adults with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the Beijing metropolitan area into a panel study of 4 repeated visits across 4 seasons since 2012. Daily ambient fine particulate matter and personal black carbon levels ranged from 9.0 to 552.5 µg/m(3) and 0.2 to 24.5 µg/m(3), respectively, with extreme levels observed during January 2013. Cumulative fine particulate matter exposure windows across the prior 1 to 7 days were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure elevations ranging from 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.7) to 2.7 (0.6-4.8) mm Hg per SD increase (67.2 µg/m(3)), whereas cumulative black carbon exposure during the previous 2 to 5 days were significantly associated with ranges in elevations in diastolic blood pressure from 1.3 (0.0-2.5) to 1.7 (0.3-3.2) mm Hg per SD increase (3.6 µg/m(3)). Both black carbon and fine particulate matter were significantly associated with worsening insulin resistance (0.18 [0.01-0.36] and 0.22 [0.04-0.39] unit increase per SD increase of personal-level black carbon and 0.18 [0.02-0.34] and 0.22 [0.08-0.36] unit increase per SD increase of ambient fine particulate matter on lag days 4 and 5). These results provide important global public health warnings that air pollution may pose a risk to cardiometabolic health even at the extremely high concentrations faced by billions of people in the developing world today. PMID:26573709

  13. How Are Changing Solar Ultraviolet Radiation and Climate Affecting Light-induced Chemical Processes in Aquatic Environments?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in the ozone layer over the past three decades have resulted in increases in solar UV-B radiation (280-315 nm) that reach the surface of aquatic environments. These changes have been accompanied by unprecedented changes in temperature and precipitation patterns around the...

  14. Do social disadvantage and early family adversity affect the diurnal cortisol rhythm in infants? The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Saridjan, Nathalie S; Huizink, Anja C; Koetsier, Jitske A; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Mackenbach, Johan P; Hofman, Albert; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2010-02-01

    Dysregulation of diurnal cortisol secretion patterns may explain the link between adversities early in life and later mental health problems. However, few studies have investigated the influence of social disadvantage and family adversity on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis early in life. In 366 infants aged 12-20 months from the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort from fetal life onwards, parents collected saliva samples from their infant at 5 moments over the course of 1 day. The area under the curve (AUC), the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and the diurnal cortisol slope were calculated as different composite measures of the diurnal cortisol rhythm. Information about social disadvantage and early adversity was collected using prenatal and postnatal questionnaires. We found that older infants showed lower AUC levels; moreover, infants with a positive CAR were significantly older. Both the AUC and the CAR were related to indicators of social disadvantage and early adversity. Infants of low income families, in comparison to high income families, showed higher AUC levels and a positive CAR. Infants of mothers who smoked during pregnancy were also significantly more likely to show a positive CAR. Furthermore, infants of mothers experiencing parenting stress showed higher AUC levels. The results of our study show that effects of social disadvantage and early adversity on the diurnal cortisol rhythm are already observable in infants. This may reflect the influence of early negative life events on early maturation of the HPA axis. PMID:20006614

  15. Morbid obesity in liver transplant recipients adversely affects longterm graft and patient survival in a single-institution analysis

    PubMed Central

    Conzen, Kendra D; Vachharajani, Neeta; Collins, Kelly M; Anderson, Christopher D; Lin, Yiing; Wellen, Jason R; Shenoy, Surendra; Lowell, Jeffrey A; Doyle, M B Majella; Chapman, William C

    2015-01-01

    Objective The effects of obesity in liver transplantation remain controversial. Earlier institutional data demonstrated no significant difference in postoperative complications or 1-year mortality. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that obesity alone has minimal effect on longterm graft and overall survival. Methods A retrospective, single-institution analysis of outcomes in patients submitted to primary adult orthotopic liver transplantation was conducted using data for the period from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2012. Recipients were divided into six groups by pre-transplant body mass index (BMI), comprising those with BMIs of <18.0 kg/m2, 18.0–24.9 kg/m2, 25.0–29.9 kg/m2, 30.0–35.0 kg/m2, 35.1–40.0 kg/m2 and >40 kg/m2, respectively. Pre- and post-transplant parameters were compared. A P-value of <0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Independent predictors of patient and graft survival were determined using multivariate analysis. Results A total of 785 patients met the study inclusion criteria. A BMI of >35 kg/m2 was associated with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) cirrhosis (P < 0.0001), higher Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, and longer wait times for transplant (P = 0.002). There were no differences in operative time, intensive care unit or hospital length of stay, or perioperative complications. Graft and patient survival at intervals up to 3 years were similar between groups. Compared with non-obese recipients, recipients with a BMI of >40 kg/m2 showed significantly reduced 5-year graft (49.0% versus 75.8%; P < 0.02) and patient (51.3% versus 78.8%; P < 0.01) survival. Conclusions Obesity increasingly impacts outcomes in liver transplantation. Although the present data are limited by the fact that they were sourced from a single institution, they suggest that morbid obesity adversely affects longterm outcomes despite providing similar short-term results. Further analysis is

  16. Minimum Pricing of Alcohol versus Volumetric Taxation: Which Policy Will Reduce Heavy Consumption without Adversely Affecting Light and Moderate Consumers?

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anurag; Vandenberg, Brian; Hollingsworth, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Background We estimate the effect on light, moderate and heavy consumers of alcohol from implementing a minimum unit price for alcohol (MUP) compared with a uniform volumetric tax. Methods We analyse scanner data from a panel survey of demographically representative households (n = 885) collected over a one-year period (24 Jan 2010–22 Jan 2011) in the state of Victoria, Australia, which includes detailed records of each household's off-trade alcohol purchasing. Findings The heaviest consumers (3% of the sample) currently purchase 20% of the total litres of alcohol (LALs), are more likely to purchase cask wine and full strength beer, and pay significantly less on average per standard drink compared to the lightest consumers (A$1.31 [95% CI 1.20–1.41] compared to $2.21 [95% CI 2.10–2.31]). Applying a MUP of A$1 per standard drink has a greater effect on reducing the mean annual volume of alcohol purchased by the heaviest consumers of wine (15.78 LALs [95% CI 14.86–16.69]) and beer (1.85 LALs [95% CI 1.64–2.05]) compared to a uniform volumetric tax (9.56 LALs [95% CI 9.10–10.01] and 0.49 LALs [95% CI 0.46–0.41], respectively). A MUP results in smaller increases in the annual cost for the heaviest consumers of wine ($393.60 [95% CI 374.19–413.00]) and beer ($108.26 [95% CI 94.76–121.75]), compared to a uniform volumetric tax ($552.46 [95% CI 530.55–574.36] and $163.92 [95% CI 152.79–175.03], respectively). Both a MUP and uniform volumetric tax have little effect on changing the annual cost of wine and beer for light and moderate consumers, and likewise little effect upon their purchasing. Conclusions While both a MUP and a uniform volumetric tax have potential to reduce heavy consumption of wine and beer without adversely affecting light and moderate consumers, a MUP offers the potential to achieve greater reductions in heavy consumption at a lower overall annual cost to consumers. PMID:24465368

  17. Benefits of adversity?! How life history affects the behavioral profile of mice varying in serotonin transporter genotype

    PubMed Central

    Bodden, Carina; Richter, S. Helene; Schreiber, Rebecca S.; Kloke, Vanessa; Gerß, Joachim; Palme, Rupert; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Lewejohann, Lars; Kaiser, Sylvia; Sachser, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral profiles are influenced by both positive and negative experiences as well as the genetic disposition. Traditionally, accumulating adversity over lifetime is considered to predict increased anxiety-like behavior (“allostatic load”). The alternative “mismatch hypothesis” suggests increased levels of anxiety if the early environment differs from the later-life environment. Thus, there is a need for a whole-life history approach to gain a deeper understanding of how behavioral profiles are shaped. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of life history on the behavioral profile of mice varying in serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype, an established mouse model of increased anxiety-like behavior. For this purpose, mice grew up under either adverse or beneficial conditions during early phases of life. In adulthood, they were further subdivided so as to face a situation that either matched or mismatched the condition experienced so far, resulting in four different life histories. Subsequently, mice were tested for their anxiety-like and exploratory behavior. The main results were: (1) Life history profoundly modulated the behavioral profile. Surprisingly, mice that experienced early beneficial and later escapable adverse conditions showed less anxiety-like and more exploratory behavior compared to mice of other life histories. (2) Genotype significantly influenced the behavioral profile, with homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice displaying highest levels of anxiety-like and lowest levels of exploratory behavior. Our findings concerning life history indicate that the absence of adversity does not necessarily cause lower levels of anxiety than accumulating adversity. Rather, some adversity may be beneficial, particularly when following positive events. Altogether, we conclude that for an understanding of behavioral profiles, it is not sufficient to look at experiences during single phases of life, but the whole life history has to be considered

  18. Copper and zinc affect the activity of plasma membrane H+-ATPase and thiol content in aquatic fungi.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, M M; Guimarães-Soares, L; Pascoal, C; Cássio, F

    2016-05-01

    Aquatic hyphomycetes are the major microbial decomposers of plant litter in streams. We selected three aquatic hyphomycete species with different abilities to tolerate, adsorb and accumulate copper and zinc, and we investigated the effects of these metals on H+-ATPase activity as well as on the levels of thiol (SH)-containing compounds. Before metal exposure, the species isolated from a metal-polluted stream (Heliscus submersus and Flagellospora curta) had higher levels of thiol compounds than the species isolated from a clean stream (Varicosporium elodeae). However, V. elodeae rapidly increased the levels of thiols after metal exposure, emphasizing the importance of these compounds in fungal survival under metal stress. The highest amounts of metals adsorbed to fungal mycelia were found in the most tolerant species to each metal, i.e. in H. submersus exposed to copper and in V. elodeae exposed to zinc. Short-term (10 min) exposure to copper completely inhibited the activity of H+-ATPase of H. submersus and V. elodeae, whilst zinc only led to a similar effect on H. submersus. However, at longer exposure times (8 days) the most metal-tolerant species exhibited increased H+-ATPase activities, suggesting that the plasma membrane proton pump may be involved in the acclimation of aquatic hyphomycetes to metals. PMID:26916755

  19. CT and MR imaging findings of systemic complications occurring during pregnancy and puerperal period, adversely affected by natural changes

    PubMed Central

    Himoto, Yuki; Kido, Aki; Moribata, Yusaku; Yamaoka, Toshihide; Okumura, Ryosuke; Togashi, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic physiological and anatomical changes for delivery may adversely induce various specific non-obstetric complications during pregnancy and puerperal period. These complications can be fatal to both the mother and the fetus, thus a precise and early diagnosis ensued by an early treatment is essential. Along with ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have assumed an increasing role in the diagnosis. This article aims to discuss the pathophysiology of these complications, the indications for CT and MRI, and the imaging findings. PMID:26937442

  20. CT and MR imaging findings of systemic complications occurring during pregnancy and puerperal period, adversely affected by natural changes.

    PubMed

    Himoto, Yuki; Kido, Aki; Moribata, Yusaku; Yamaoka, Toshihide; Okumura, Ryosuke; Togashi, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic physiological and anatomical changes for delivery may adversely induce various specific non-obstetric complications during pregnancy and puerperal period. These complications can be fatal to both the mother and the fetus, thus a precise and early diagnosis ensued by an early treatment is essential. Along with ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have assumed an increasing role in the diagnosis. This article aims to discuss the pathophysiology of these complications, the indications for CT and MRI, and the imaging findings. PMID:26937442

  1. Factors affecting the development of adverse drug reactions to β-blockers in hospitalized cardiac patient population

    PubMed Central

    Mugoša, Snežana; Djordjević, Nataša; Djukanović, Nina; Protić, Dragana; Bukumirić, Zoran; Radosavljević, Ivan; Bošković, Aneta; Todorović, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to undertake a study on the prevalence of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) poor metabolizer alleles (*3, *4, *5, and *6) on a Montenegrin population and its impact on developing adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of β-blockers in a hospitalized cardiac patient population. A prospective study was conducted in the Cardiology Center of the Clinical Center of Montenegro and included 138 patients who had received any β-blocker in their therapy. ADRs were collected using a specially designed questionnaire, based on the symptom list and any signs that could point to eventual ADRs. Data from patients’ medical charts, laboratory tests, and other available parameters were observed and combined with the data from the questionnaire. ADRs to β-blockers were observed in 15 (10.9%) patients. There was a statistically significant difference in the frequency of ADRs in relation to genetically determined enzymatic activity (P<0.001), with ADRs’ occurrence significantly correlating with slower CYP2D6 metabolism. Our study showed that the adverse reactions to β-blockers could be predicted by the length of hospitalization, CYP2D6 poor metabolizer phenotype, and the concomitant use of other CYP2D6-metabolizing drugs. Therefore, in hospitalized patients with polypharmacy CYP2D6 genotyping might be useful in detecting those at risk of ADRs. PMID:27536078

  2. Impaired Glucose Tolerance or Newly Diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus Diagnosed during Admission Adversely Affects Prognosis after Myocardial Infarction: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    George, Anish; Bhatia, Raghav T.; Buchanan, Gill L.; Whiteside, Anne; Moisey, Robert S.; Beer, Stephen F.; Chattopadhyay, Sudipta; Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; John, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prognostic effect of newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus (NDM) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) post myocardial infarction (MI). Research Design and Methods Retrospective cohort study of 768 patients without preexisting diabetes mellitus post-MI at one centre in Yorkshire between November 2005 and October 2008. Patients were categorised as normal glucose tolerance (NGT n = 337), IGT (n = 279) and NDM (n = 152) on pre- discharge oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Primary end-point was the first occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) including cardiovascular death, non-fatal MI, severe heart failure (HF) or non-haemorrhagic stroke. Secondary end-points were all cause mortality and individual components of MACE. Results Prevalence of NGT, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), IGT and NDM changed from 90%, 6%, 0% and 4% on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) to 43%, 1%, 36% and 20% respectively after OGTT. 102 deaths from all causes (79 as first events of which 46 were cardiovascular), 95 non fatal MI, 18 HF and 9 non haemorrhagic strokes occurred during 47.2 ± 9.4 months follow up. Event free survival was lower in IGT and NDM groups. IGT (HR 1.54, 95% CI: 1.06–2.24, p = 0.024) and NDM (HR 2.15, 95% CI: 1.42–3.24, p = 0.003) independently predicted MACE free survival. IGT and NDM also independently predicted incidence of MACE. NDM but not IGT increased the risk of secondary end-points. Conclusion Presence of IGT and NDM in patients presenting post-MI, identified using OGTT, is associated with increased incidence of MACE and is associated with adverse outcomes despite adequate secondary prevention. PMID:26571120

  3. Selenium and other trace elements in aquatic insects in coal mine-affected streams in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Wayland, M.; Crosley, R.

    2006-05-15

    We determined levels of Se, As, Cd, Pb, and Zn in aquatic insects at coal mine-impacted and reference sites in streams in the Rocky Mountain foothills of west central Alberta from 2001-2003. Selenium levels were greater at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in caddisflies but not in mayflies or stoneflies. Arsenic levels were greater at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in caddisflies and stoneflies but not in mayflies. Zn levels were higher at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in all three groups of insects. At coal mine-impacted sites, Se levels in mayflies and caddisflies were greater than those in stoneflies while at reference sites mayflies contained greater concentrations of Se than either caddisflies or stoneflies. Arsenic levels in mayflies were greater than those in caddisflies at reference and coal mine-impacted sites and were greater than those in stoneflies at reference sites. At both types of sites Cd differed amongst insect taxa in the order of mayflies < caddisflies < stoneflies. The same was true of Zn at coal mine-affected sites. At reference sites, stoneflies had greater concentrations of Zn than both mayflies and caddisflies. At both types of sites, Pb levels were greater in mayflies and caddisflies than they were in stoneflies. Of the five trace elements considered in this study, only Se was sufficiently elevated in aquatic invertebrates to be of potential concern for consumers such as fish and aquatic birds. Such was the case at both coal mine-impacted and reference sites.

  4. #2) Enantiomer Specific Measurements of Current-use Pesticides in Aquatic Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that current-use pesticides can enter urban and agricultural watersheds and adversely affect aquatic organisms. A potential cause may be higher concentrations of the more toxic pesticide enantiomer present in the pesticide mixture. The presence of pesticide ena...

  5. Enantiomer Specific Measurements of Current-use Pesticides in Aquatic Systems (#2)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that current-use pesticides can enter urban and agricultural watersheds and adversely affect aquatic organisms. A potential cause may be higher concentrations of the more toxic pesticide enantiomer present in the pesticide mixture. The presence of pesticide ena...

  6. Enantiomer Specific Measurements of Current-Use Pesticides in Aquatic Systems.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that current-use pesticides can enter urban and agricultural watersheds and adversely affect aquatic organisms. A potential cause may be higher concentrations of the more toxic pesticide enantiomer present in the pesticide mixture. The presence of pesticide ena...

  7. Does the antibiotic amoxicillin affect haemocyte parameters in non-target aquatic invertebrates? The clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis as model organisms.

    PubMed

    Matozzo, Valerio; Bertin, Valeria; Battistara, Margherita; Guidolin, Angelica; Masiero, Luciano; Marisa, Ilaria; Orsetti, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Amoxicillin (AMX) is one of the most widely used antibiotics worldwide, and its levels in aquatic ecosystems are expected to be detectable. At present, information concerning the toxic effects of AMX on non-target aquatic organisms, such as bivalves, is scarce. Consequently, in this study, we investigated for the first time the effects of AMX on the haemocyte parameters of two bivalve species, the clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, which share the same habitat in the Lagoon of Venice, in order to compare the relative sensitivity of the two species. The bivalves were exposed to 100, 200 and 400 μg AMX/L for 1, 3 and 7 days, and the effects on the total haemocyte count (THC), the diameter and volume of the haemocytes, haemocyte proliferation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in cell-free haemolymph, the haemolymph pH, and the formation of micronuclei were evaluated. The actual concentrations of AMX in the seawater samples from the experimental tanks were also measured. Overall, the obtained results demonstrated that AMX affected slightly the haemocyte parameters of bivalves. In addition, no clear differences in terms of sensitivity to AMX exposure were recorded between the two bivalve species. PMID:27219711

  8. Concentrations of heavy metals and aquatic macrophytes of Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar an anthropogenic lake affected by coal mining effluent.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Virendra Kumar; Upadhyay, Alka Rani; Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Tripathi, B D

    2008-06-01

    Five heavy metals Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb and Hg were found in high concentration from three sampling sites located in Asia's largest anthropogenic lake Govind Ballabh Pant GBP Sagar. Concentrations of these heavy metals were measured in Water, bottom sediment and in different parts of the aquatic macrophytes collected from the reservoir. Plants collected from the lake were Eichhornia crassipes, Azolla pinnata, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrrhiza, Potamogeton pectinatus, Marsilea quadrifolia, Pistia stratiotes, Ipomea aquqtica, Potamogeton crispus, Hydrilla verticillata and Aponogeton natans. These plants have shown the high concentrations of Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb and Hg in their different parts due to bioaccumulation. In general plant roots exhibited higher concentrations of heavy metals than corresponding sediments. A comparison between different morphological tissues of the sampled plants revealed the metal concentration in following order roots > leaves. Analyses of bottom sediment indicated the higher concentrations of Cd, Mn, Cu and Pb. Strong positive correlations were obtained between the metals in water and in plants as well as between metal in sediment and in plants. Indicating the potential of these plants for pollution monitoring of these metals. PMID:17674134

  9. When the serotonin transporter gene meets adversity: the contribution of animal models to understanding epigenetic mechanisms in affective disorders and resilience.

    PubMed

    Lesch, Klaus-Peter

    2011-01-01

    Although converging epidemiological evidence links exposure to stressful life events with increased risk for affective spectrum disorders, there is extraordinary interindividual variability in vulnerability to adversity. The environmentally moderated penetrance of genetic variation is thought to play a major role in determining who will either develop disease or remain resilient. Research on genetic factors in the aetiology of disorders of emotion regulation has, nevertheless, been complicated by a mysterious discrepancy between high heritability estimates and a scarcity of replicable gene-disorder associations. One explanation for this incongruity is that at least some specific gene effects are conditional on environmental cues, i.e. gene-by-environment interaction (G × E) is present. For example, a remarkable number of studies reported an association of variation in the human serotonin (5-HT) transporter gene (SLC6A4, 5-HTT, SERT) with emotional and cognitive traits as well as increased risk for depression in interaction with psychosocial adversity. The results from investigations in non-human primate and mouse support the occurrence of G × E interaction by showing that variation of 5-HTT function is associated with a vulnerability to adversity across the lifespan leading to unfavourable outcomes resembling various neuropsychiatric disorders. The neural and molecular mechanisms by which environmental adversity in early life increases disease risk in adulthood are not known but may include epigenetic programming of gene expression during development. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and chromatin modification, are dynamic and reversible and may also provide targets for intervention strategies (see Bountra et al., Curr Top Behav Neurosci, 2011). Animal models amenable to genetic manipulation are useful in the identification of molecular mechanisms underlying epigenetic programming by adverse environments and individual differences in

  10. The type B brevetoxin (PbTx-3) adversely affects development, cardiovascular function, and survival in Medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Colman, Jamie R; Ramsdell, John S

    2003-01-01

    Brevetoxins are produced by the red tide dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. The toxins are lipophilic polyether toxins that elicit a myriad of effects depending on the route of exposure and the target organism. Brevetoxins are therefore broadly toxic to marine and estuarine animals. By mimicking the maternal route of exposure to the oocytes in finfish, we characterized the adverse effects of the type B brevetoxin brevetoxin-3 (PbTx-3) on embryonic fish development and survival. The Japanese rice fish, medaka (Oryzias latipes), was used as the experimental model in which individual eggs were exposed via microinjection to various known concentrations of PbTx-3 dissolved in an oil vehicle. Embryos injected with doses exceeding 1.0 ng/egg displayed tachycardia, hyperkinetic twitches in the form of sustained convulsions, spinal curvature, clumping of the erythrocytes, and decreased hatching success. Furthermore, fish dosed with toxin were often unable to hatch in the classic tail-first fashion and emerged head first, which resulted in partial hatches and death. We determined that the LD(50) (dose that is lethal to 50% of the fish) for an injected dose of PbTx-3 is 4.0 ng/egg. The results of this study complement previous studies of the developmental toxicity of the type A brevetoxin brevetoxin-1 (PbTx-1), by illustrating in vivo the differing affinities of the two congeners for cardiac sodium channels. Consequently, we observed differing cardiovascular responses in the embryos, wherein embryos exposed to PbTx-3 exhibited persistent tachycardia, whereas embryos exposed to PbTx-1 displayed bradycardia, the onset of which was delayed. PMID:14644667

  11. Lactate adversely affects the in vitro formation of endothelial cell tubular structures through the action of TGF-{beta}1

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Stephan A. . E-mail: leoni.kunz-schughart@oncoray.de; Gaumann, Andreas; Wondrak, Marit; Eckermann, Christoph; Schulte, Stephanie; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang; Wheatley, Denys N.; Kunz-Schughart, Leoni A.

    2007-07-15

    When lactate accumulation in a tumor microenvironment reaches an average concentration of 10-20 mM, it tends to reflect a high degree of malignancy. However, the hypothesis that tumor-derived lactate has a number of partially adverse biological effects on malignant and tumor-associated host cells requires further evidence. The present study attempted to evaluate the impact of lactate on the process of angiogenesis, in particular on the formation of tubular structures. The endothelial cell (EC) network in desmoplastic breast tumors is primarily located in areas of reactive fibroblastic stroma. We employed a fibroblast-endothelial cell co-culture model as in vitro angiogenesis system normally producing florid in vitro tubule formation to analyze this situation. In contrast to previous studies, we found that lactate significantly reduces EC network formation in a dose-dependent manner as quantified by semi-automated morphometric analyses following immunohistochemical staining. The decrease in CD31-positive tubular structures and the number of intersections was independent of VEGF supplementation and became more pronounced in the presence of protons. The number of cells, primarily of the fibroblast population, was reduced but cell loss could not be attributed to a decrease in proliferative activity or pronounced apoptotic cell death. Treatment with 10 mM lactate was accompanied by enhanced mRNA expression and release of TGF-{beta}1, which also shows anti-angiogenic activity in the model. Both TGF-{beta}1 and lactate induced myofibroblastic differentiation adjacent to the EC tubular structures. The lactate response on the EC network was diminished by TGF-{beta}1 neutralization, indicating a causal relationship between lactate and TGF-{beta}1 in the finely tuned processes of vessel formation and maturation which may also occur in vivo within tumor tissue.

  12. A Computational Study on the Effects of Dynamic Roughness Application to Separated Transitional Flows Affected by Adverse Pressure Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campitelli, Gennaro

    The study of transitional flows is considered crucial for many practical engineering applications. In fact, a comprehensive understanding of the laminar-turbulent transition phenomenon often helps to improve the overall performance of apparatuses such as airfoils, wind turbines, hulls and turbomachinery blades. In addition to understanding and prediction of transitional flows, active research continues in the area of boundary layer control, which includes control of phenomena such as flow separation and transition. For instance, optimum geometrical shaping may be followed by the adoption on the wall-surface of riblets to adjust pressure gradient and reduce drag. Further "flow control" may also be acquired by introducing active devices able to modify the flow field in order to accomplish a desired aerodynamic task. Such flow manipulation is often achieved by using time-dependent forcing mechanisms which promote natural instabilities amplifying the control effectiveness. Localized energy inputs such as Lorentz-force actuator, piezoelectric flaps and synthetic jets all produce a consistent boundary layer mixing enhancement with lift increase and drag abatement. The current numerical study attempts to demonstrate the efficacy of dynamic roughness (DR) on altering separated-reattached transitional flows under adverse pressure gradient. It has already been proven how DR, acting on the boundary sublayer perturbation, is able to suppress (partially or completely) the typical leading edge separation for an airfoil at different angles of attack. This makes DR particularly suitable for separated flow control applications where the shear layer reattaches presenting the characteristic laminar separation bubble. A numerical sensitivity study has been conducted with an efficient orthogonal design taking into account four different control parameters on three levels (actuation frequency, humps height, rows displacement, synchronization) to provide an optimum DR setup which limits

  13. The skin tissue is adversely affected by TNF-alpha blockers in patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis: a 5-year prospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Natalia P.; dos Reis Neto, Edgard Torres; Soares, Maria Roberta M. P.; Freitas, Daniele S.; Porro, Adriana; Ciconelli, Rozana M.; Pinheiro, Marcelo M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the incidence of and the main risk factors associated with cutaneous adverse events in patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis following anti-TNF-α therapy. METHODS: A total of 257 patients with active arthritis who were taking TNF-α blockers, including 158 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 87 with ankylosing spondylitis and 12 with psoriatic arthritis, were enrolled in a 5-year prospective analysis. Patients with overlapping or other rheumatic diseases were excluded. Anthropometric, socioeconomic, demographic and clinical data were evaluated, including the Disease Activity Score-28, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index and Psoriasis Area Severity Index. Skin conditions were evaluated by two dermatology experts, and in doubtful cases, skin lesion biopsies were performed. Associations between adverse cutaneous events and clinical, demographic and epidemiological variables were determined using the chi-square test, and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors. The significance level was set at p<0.05. RESULTS: After 60 months of follow-up, 71 adverse events (73.85/1000 patient-years) were observed, of which allergic and immune-mediated phenomena were the most frequent events, followed by infectious conditions involving bacterial (47.1%), parasitic (23.5%), fungal (20.6%) and viral (8.8%) agents. CONCLUSION: The skin is significantly affected by adverse reactions resulting from the use of TNF-α blockers, and the main risk factors for cutaneous events were advanced age, female sex, a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, disease activity and the use of infliximab. PMID:24141833

  14. AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS,

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic ecosystems are a vital part of the urban water cycle (and of urban areas more broadly), and, if healthy, provide a range of goods and services valued by humans (Meyer 1997). For example, aquatic ecosystems (e.g., rivers, lakes, wetlands) provide potable water, food resou...

  15. Aquatic Environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquatic microbiology can be defined as the study of microorganisms and microbial communities in water environments. Aquatic environments occupy more than 70% of the earth’s surface including oceans, estuaries, rivers, lakes, wetlands, streams, springs, and aquifers. Water is essential for life and m...

  16. Task-Oriented and Bottle Feeding Adversely Affect the Quality of Mother-Infant Interactions Following Abnormal Newborn Screens

    PubMed Central

    Tluczek, Audrey; Clark, Roseanne; McKechnie, Anne Chevalier; Orland, Kate Murphy; Brown, Roger L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Examine effects of newborn screening (NBS) and neonatal diagnosis on the quality of mother-infant interactions in the context of feeding. Methods Study compared the quality of mother-infant feeding interactions among four groups of infants classified by severity of NBS and diagnostic results: cystic fibrosis (CF), congenital hypothyroidism, heterozygote CF carrier, and healthy with normal NBS. The Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment and a task-oriented item measured the quality of feeding interactions for 130 dyads, infant ages 3–19 weeks (M=9.19, SD=3.28). The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory measured maternal depression and anxiety. Results Composite Indicator Structure Equation Modeling showed that infant diagnostic status and, to a lesser extent, maternal education predicted feeding method. Mothers of infants with CF were most likely to bottle feed, which was associated with more task-oriented maternal behavior than breastfeeding. Mothers with low task-oriented behavior showed more sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues, as well as less negative affect and behavior in their interactions with their infants than mothers with high task-oriented scores. Mothers of infants with CF were significantly more likely to have clinically significant anxiety and depression than the other groups. However, maternal psychological profile did not predict feeding method or interaction quality. Conclusions Mothers in the CF group were the least likely to breastfeed. Research is needed to explicate long-term effects of feeding methods on quality of mother-child relationship and ways to promote continued breastfeeding following a neonatal CF diagnosis. PMID:20495477

  17. Warmer winters modulate life history and energy storage but do not affect sensitivity to a widespread pesticide in an aquatic insect.

    PubMed

    Arambourou, Hélène; Stoks, Robby

    2015-10-01

    Despite the increased attention for the effects of pesticides under global warming no studies tested how winter warming affects subsequent sensitivity to pesticides. Winter warming is expected to cause delayed negative effects when it increases metabolic rates and thereby depletes energy reserves. Using a common-garden experiment, we investigated the combined effect of a 4 °C increase in winter temperature and subsequent exposure to chlorpyrifos in the aquatic larvae of replicated low- and high-latitude European populations of the damselfly Ischnura elegans. The warmer winter (8 °C) resulted in a higher winter survival and higher growth rates compared to the cold winter (4 °C) commonly experienced by European high-latitude populations. Low-latitude populations were better at coping with the warmer winter, indicating thermal adaptation to the local winter temperatures. Subsequent chlorpyrifos exposure at 20 °C induced strong negative effects on survival, growth rate, lipid content and acetylcholinesterase activity while phenoloxidase activity increased. These pesticide effects were not affected by winter warming. Our results suggest that for species where winter warming has positive effects on life history, no delayed effects on the sensitivity to subsequent pesticide exposure should be expected. PMID:26261878

  18. Aquatic passive sampling of perfluorinated chemicals with polar organic chemical integrative sampler and environmental factors affecting sampling rate.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Yang, Cunman; Bao, Yijun; Ma, Xueru; Lu, Guanghua; Li, Yi

    2016-08-01

    A modified polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) could provide a convenient way of monitoring perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in water. In the present study, the modified POCIS was calibrated to monitor PFCs. The effects of water temperature, pH, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the sampling rate (R s) of PFCs were evaluated with a static renewal system. During laboratory validation over a 14-day period, the uptake kinetics of PFCs was linear with the POCIS. DOM and water temperature slightly influenced POCIS uptake rates, which is in consistent with the theory for uptake into POCIS. Therefore, within a narrow span of DOM and water temperatures, it was unnecessary to adjust the R s value for POCIS. Laboratory experiments were conducted with water over pH ranges of 3, 7, and 9. The R s values declined significantly with pH increase for PFCs. Although pH affected the uptake of PFCs, the effect was less than twofold. Application of the R s value to analyze PFCs with POCIS deployed in the field provided similar concentrations obtained from grab samples. PMID:27146548

  19. Genetically-induced Estrogen Receptor Alpha mRNA (Esr1) Overexpression Does Not Adversely Affect Fertility or Penile Development in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Heath, John; Abdelmageed, Yazeed; Braden, Tim D.; Williams, Carol S.; Williams, John W.; Paulose, Tessie; Hernandez-Ochoa, Isabel; Gupta, Rupesh; Flaws, Jodi A.; Goyal, Hari O.

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we reported that estrogen receptor alpha mRNA (Esr1) or protein (ESR1) overexpression resulting from neonatal exposure to estrogens in rats was associated with infertility and mal-developed penis characterized by reduced length and weight and abnormal accumulation of fat cells. The objective of this study was to determine if mutant male mice overexpressing Esr1 are naturally infertile or have reduced fertility and/or develop abnormal penis. The fertility parameters, including fertility and fecundity indices, numbers of days from the day of cohabitation to the day of delivery, and numbers of pups per female, were not altered from controls, as a result of Esr1 overexpression. Likewise, penile morphology, including the length, weight, and diameter and os penis development, was not altered from controls. Conversely, weights of the seminal vesicles and bulbospongiosus and levator ani (BS/LA) muscles were significantly (P < 0.05) lower as compared to controls; however, the weight of the testis, the morphology of the testis and epididymis, and the plasma and testicular testosterone concentration were not different from controls. Hence, the genetically-induced Esr1 overexpression alone, without an exogenous estrogen exposure during the neonatal period, is unable to adversely affect the development of the penis as well as other male reproductive organs, except limited, but significant, reductions in weights of the seminal vesicles and BS/LA muscles. PMID:20930192

  20. Aquatic Sediments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanville, W. D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of aquatic sediments and its effect upon water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) sediment water interchange; (2) chemical and physical characterization; and (3) heavy water in sediments. A list of 129 references is also presented. (HM)

  1. High fat diet enriched with saturated, but not monounsaturated fatty acids adversely affects femur, and both diets increase calcium absorption in older female mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Dellatore, Peter; Douard, Veronique; Qin, Ling; Watford, Malcolm; Ferraris, Ronaldo P; Lin, Tiao; Shapses, Sue A

    2016-07-01

    Diet induced obesity has been shown to reduce bone mineral density (BMD) and Ca absorption. However, previous experiments have not examined the effect of high fat diet (HFD) in the absence of obesity or addressed the type of dietary fatty acids. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effects of different types of high fat feeding, without obesity, on fractional calcium absorption (FCA) and bone health. It was hypothesized that dietary fat would increase FCA and reduce BMD. Mature 8-month-old female C57BL/6J mice were fed one of three diets: a HFD (45% fat) enriched either with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or with saturated fatty acids (SFAs), and a normal fat diet (NFD; 10% fat). Food consumption was controlled to achieve a similar body weight gain in all groups. After 8wk, total body bone mineral content and BMD as well as femur total and cortical volumetric BMD were lower in SFA compared with NFD groups (P<.05). In contrast, femoral trabecular bone was not affected by the SFAs, whereas MUFAs increased trabecular volume fraction and thickness. The rise over time in FCA was greater in mice fed HFD than NFD and final FCA was higher with HFD (P<.05). Intestinal calbindin-D9k gene and hepatic cytochrome P450 2r1 protein levels were higher with the MUFA than the NFD diet (P<.05). In conclusion, HFDs elevated FCA overtime; however, an adverse effect of HFD on bone was only observed in the SFA group, while MUFAs show neutral or beneficial effects. PMID:27262536

  2. An Investigation into the Physico-chemical Factors Affecting the Abundance and Diversity of Aquatic Insects in Organically Manured Aquadams and Their Utilization by Oreochromis mossambicus (Perciformes: Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Rapatsa, M M; Moyo, N A G

    2015-08-01

    The interaction between the fish Oreochromis mossambicus (Percifomes: Cichlidae) and aquatic insects after application of chicken, cow, and pig manure was studied in 7,000-liter plastic aquadams. Principal component analysis showed that most of the variation in water quality after application of manure was accounted for by potassium, nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, and alkalinity. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that Gyrinidae, Elminidae, Hydrophilidae, Hydraenidae, and Athericidae were associated with high nutrient levels (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) characteristic of the chicken manure. However, the most abundant aquatic insects Gerridae, Notonectidae, and Culicidae were close to the centre of the ordination and not defined by any nutrient gradient. The Shannon-Wiener diversity was highest in the aquadams treated with chicken manure. The most frequently occurring aquatic insects in the diet of O. mossambicus were culicid mosquitoes in all the treatments. However, in the laboratory, Chironomidae were the most preferred because they lacked refuge. Notonectidae and Gerridae were not recorded in the diet of O. mossambicus despite their abundance. This may be because of their anti-predation strategies. Laboratory experiments showed that Notonectidae, Gyrinidae, and Gerridae fed on Chironomidae and Culicidae. This implies that aquatic predatory insects competed for food with O. mossambicus. PMID:26314044

  3. Effects of Fungicides on Aquatic Fungi and Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conners, D. E.; Rosemond, A. D.; Black, M. C.

    2005-05-01

    Aquatic microorganisms play an important role in conditioning leaf litter that enters streams and serves as an important base of production for consumers. Contamination of streams by fungicides may adversely affect microorganisms and alter leaf litter processing rates. Unfortunately, microorganisms are rarely used in acute toxicity tests for fungicide evaluation and registration. We adapted the resazurin reduction assay, which is used in medical microbiology, to assess the acute toxicity of four fungicides (azoxystrobin, trifloxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl and chlorothalonil) to aquatic fungi (Articulospora tetracladia) and bacteria (Cytophaga spp.), and investigated the ability of the toxicants to inhibit leaf breakdown in microcosms. Fungi were more sensitive to fungicides than many standard test organisms (cladocerans, green algae, trout), while bacteria were often the least sensitive. All of the fungicides except kresoxim-methyl, when added to microcosms at concentrations that inhibited the fungi by 90 percent in acute tests, reduced leaf breakdown rates by an average of 14.7 percent. Thus, aquatic fungi and their associated functions in streams may be relatively sensitive to fungicides applied terrestrially that enter streams through non-point sources. These data highlight the importance of including aquatic fungi in safety assessments of pesticides for protection of microbial function.

  4. Hydro-climatic Changes: Potential Non-linear Responses of Phosphorus Dynamic in Aquatic/Semi-aquatic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, H. K.

    2007-12-01

    Depending on resilience, threshold and lag times, hydro-climatic changes can cause nonlinear and/or irreversible changes in phosphorus (P) dynamic, and instigate P enrichment in aquatic/semi-aquatic systems. Thus, studying direct/indirect effects of expected global climate change on bioavailability of organic P in aquatic systems are in critical need, to help manage or increase the resilience of the ecosystem. The central hypothesis of this study is that P dynamic in aquatic, especially freshwater, ecosystem is likely to behave nonlinearly due to expected changes in sediment and water acidity, redox status, etc., because of potential hydro-climatic changes in the decades to come, thus, could face irreversible adverse changes. Devising possible biological and chemical treatments for the removal of P from eutrophic lakes, estuaries, etc, as well as helping in predicting the movement and fate of P under changing hydro-climatic conditions would be crucial to manage aquatic ecosystem in the near future. The critical question is not how much P is stored in any given aquatic/semi-aquatic system, but how the resilience and nonlinearity relate to the stability of stored P are affected due to the levels of environmental stressors, which are expected to fluctuate due to global change in the decades to come. Studies related to 31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy analysis, and multiple hydraulic retention cycles showed that, in general, frequent drying and reflooding of a semi-aquatic system such as wetland could significantly increase the bioavailability of P due to degradation of relatively less stable organic P, e.g., glycerophosphate and nucleoside monophosphate. Moreover, nutrients flux from sediments to the water column depended on the concentration gradients of the sediment-water interface and redox status. Shift in equilibrium P concentration of the water column as the water level rises, may cause release of adsorbed P from the sediments. Restoration of a

  5. Survey of aquatic macroinvertebrates and amphibians at Wupatki National Monument, Arizona, USA: An evaluation of selected factors affecting species richness in ephemeral pools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, T.B.

    2002-01-01

    Ephemeral aquatic habitats in Wupatki National Monument vary from naturally formed pools in arroyos over 5000 years old, to constructed catchment basins with ages estimated at 60-1000+ years old, and borrow pits and stock ponds 30-60 years old. The different ages of these pools provide different histories of colonization by amphibians and aquatic invertebrates, especially temporary pool specialists such as spadefoot toads and branchiopod crustaceans. Ten pools of five different origins and ages were surveyed in August and/or September 1997 for aquatic organisms; a total of 13 surveys were conducted. Twenty-two taxa were found, with the number of species in a pool during any survey ranging from one to 10. Species composition of the communities changed from one sampling date to the next within individual pools. Community structure is an amalgam of species with different dispersal mechanisms that are influenced by different pool characteristics. Age appears to have little effect overall, but may have influenced branchiopod presence/absence. Distance to permanent water, frequency of disturbance, and current pool size were correlated with presence/absence of some species.

  6. Vaccenic acid and trans fatty acid isomers from partially hydrogenated oil both adversely affect LDL cholesterol: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence of the adverse effects of industrially-produced trans fatty acids (iTFA) on risk of cardiovascular disease is consistent and well documented in the scientific literature; however, the cardiovascular effects of naturally-occurring TFA synthesized in ruminant animals (rTFA), such as vaccenic ...

  7. High d(+)-fructose diet adversely affects testicular weight gain in weaning rats─protection by moderate d(+)-glucose diet.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    The use of high D(+)-fructose corn syrup has increased over the past several decades in the developed countries, while overweight and obesity rates and the related diseases have risen dramatically. However, we found that feeding a high D(+)-fructose diet (80% D(+)-fructose as part of the diet) to weaning rats for 21 days led to reduced food intake (50% less, P < 0.0001) and thus delayed the weight gains in the body (40% less, P < 0.0001) and testes (40% less, P < 0.0001) compared to the no D(+)-fructose diet. We also challenged a minimum requirement of dietary D(+)-glucose for preventing the adverse effects of D(+)-fructose, such as lower food intake and reduction of body weight and testicular weight; the minimum requirement of D(+)-glucose was ≈23% of the diet. This glucose amount may be the minimum requirement of exogenous glucose for reducing weight gain. PMID:23935370

  8. Comprehensive review on phytotechnology: Heavy metals removal by diverse aquatic plants species from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Rezania, Shahabaldin; Taib, Shazwin Mat; Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Kamyab, Hesam

    2016-11-15

    Environmental pollution specifically water pollution is alarming both in the developed and developing countries. Heavy metal contamination of water resources is a critical issue which adversely affects humans, plants and animals. Phytoremediation is a cost-effective remediation technology which able to treat heavy metal polluted sites. This environmental friendly method has been successfully implemented in constructed wetland (CWs) which is able to restore the aquatic biosystem naturally. Nowadays, many aquatic plant species are being investigated to determine their potential and effectiveness for phytoremediation application, especially high growth rate plants i.e. macrophytes. Based on the findings, phytofiltration (rhizofiltration) is the sole method which defined as heavy metals removal from water by aquatic plants. Due to specific morphology and higher growth rate, free-floating plants were more efficient to uptake heavy metals in comparison with submerged and emergent plants. In this review, the potential of wide range of aquatic plant species with main focus on four well known species (hyper-accumulators): Pistia stratiotes, Eicchornia spp., Lemna spp. and Salvinia spp. was investigated. Moreover, we discussed about the history, methods and future prospects in phytoremediation of heavy metals by aquatic plants comprehensively. PMID:27474848

  9. Migration, neighborhoods, and networks: approaches to understanding how urban environmental conditions affect syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Egan, James E; Frye, Victoria; Kurtz, Steven P; Latkin, Carl; Chen, Minxing; Tobin, Karin; Yang, Cui; Koblin, Beryl A

    2011-04-01

    Adopting socioecological, intersectionality, and lifecourse theoretical frameworks may enhance our understanding of the production of syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM). From this perspective, we present preliminary data from three related studies that suggest ways in which social contexts may influence the health of MSM. The first study, using cross-sectional data, looked at migration of MSM to the gay resort area of South Florida, and found that amount of time lived in the area was associated with risk behaviors and HIV infection. The second study, using qualitative interviews, observed complex interactions between neighborhood-level social environments and individual-level racial and sexual identity among MSM in New York City. The third study, using egocentric network analysis with a sample of African American MSM in Baltimore, found that sexual partners were more likely to be found through face-to-face means than the Internet. They also observed that those who co-resided with a sex partner had larger networks of people to depend on for social and financial support, but had the same size sexual networks as those who did not live with a partner. Overall, these findings suggest the need for further investigation into the role of macro-level social forces on the emotional, behavioral, and physical health of urban MSM. PMID:21369730

  10. Trans-generational exposure to low levels of rhodamine B does not adversely affect litter size or liver function in murine mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Ainslie L K; Fletcher, Janice M; Moore, Lynette; Byers, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    MPS IIIA is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the sulphamidase gene, resulting in the accumulation of heparan sulphate glycosaminoglycans (HS GAGs). Symptoms predominantly manifest in the CNS and there is no current therapy that effectively addresses neuropathology in MPS IIIA patients. Recent studies in MPS IIIA mice have shown that rhodamine B substrate deprivation therapy (SDT) (also termed substrate reduction therapy/SRT) inhibits GAG biosynthesis and, improves both somatic and CNS disease pathology. Acute overexposure to high doses of rhodamine B results in liver toxicity and is detrimental to reproductive ability. However, the long-term effects of decreasing GAG synthesis, at the low dose sufficient to alter neurological function are unknown. A trans-generational study was therefore initiated to evaluate the continuous exposure of rhodamine B treatment in MPS IIIA mice over 4 generations, including treatment during pregnancy. No alterations in litter size, liver histology or liver function were observed. Overall, there are no long-term issues with the administration of rhodamine B at the low dose tested and no adverse effects were noted during pregnancy in mice. PMID:20650670

  11. Rock Glacier Outflows May Adversely Affect Lakes: Lessons from the Past and Present of Two Neighboring Water Bodies in a Crystalline-Rock Watershed

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that rock glaciers are one of the most common geomorphological expressions of mountain permafrost, the impacts of their solute fluxes on lakes still remain largely obscure. We examined water and sediment chemistry, and biota of two neighboring water bodies with and without a rock glacier in their catchments in the European Alps. Paleolimnological techniques were applied to track long-term temporal trends in the ecotoxicological state of the water bodies and to establish their baseline conditions. We show that the active rock glacier in the mineralized catchment of Lake Rasass (RAS) represents a potent source of acid rock drainage that results in enormous concentrations of metals in water, sediment, and biota of RAS. The incidence of morphological abnormalities in the RAS population of Pseudodiamesa nivosa, a chironomid midge, is as high as that recorded in chironomid populations inhabiting sites heavily contaminated by trace metals of anthropogenic origin. The incidence of morphological deformities in P. nivosa of ∼70% persisted in RAS during the last 2.5 millennia and was ∼40% in the early Holocene. The formation of RAS at the toe of the rock glacier most probably began at the onset of acidic drainage in the freshly deglaciated area. The present adverse conditions are not unprecedented in the lake’s history and cannot be associated exclusively with enhanced thawing of the rock glacier in recent years. PMID:24804777

  12. Rock glacier outflows may adversely affect lakes: lessons from the past and present of two neighboring water bodies in a crystalline-rock watershed.

    PubMed

    Ilyashuk, Boris P; Ilyashuk, Elena A; Psenner, Roland; Tessadri, Richard; Koinig, Karin A

    2014-06-01

    Despite the fact that rock glaciers are one of the most common geomorphological expressions of mountain permafrost, the impacts of their solute fluxes on lakes still remain largely obscure. We examined water and sediment chemistry, and biota of two neighboring water bodies with and without a rock glacier in their catchments in the European Alps. Paleolimnological techniques were applied to track long-term temporal trends in the ecotoxicological state of the water bodies and to establish their baseline conditions. We show that the active rock glacier in the mineralized catchment of Lake Rasass (RAS) represents a potent source of acid rock drainage that results in enormous concentrations of metals in water, sediment, and biota of RAS. The incidence of morphological abnormalities in the RAS population of Pseudodiamesa nivosa, a chironomid midge, is as high as that recorded in chironomid populations inhabiting sites heavily contaminated by trace metals of anthropogenic origin. The incidence of morphological deformities in P. nivosa of ∼70% persisted in RAS during the last 2.5 millennia and was ∼40% in the early Holocene. The formation of RAS at the toe of the rock glacier most probably began at the onset of acidic drainage in the freshly deglaciated area. The present adverse conditions are not unprecedented in the lake's history and cannot be associated exclusively with enhanced thawing of the rock glacier in recent years. PMID:24804777

  13. Plasmid load adversely affects growth and gluconic acid secretion ability of mineral phosphate-solubilizing rhizospheric bacterium Enterobacter asburiae PSI3 under P limited conditions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vikas; Archana, G; Naresh Kumar, G

    2011-01-20

    Effect of the metabolic load caused by the presence of plasmids on mineral phosphate-solubilizing (MPS) Enterobacter asburiae PSI3, was monitored with four plasmid cloning vectors and one native plasmid, varying in size, nature of the replicon, copy number and antibiotic resistance genes. Except for one plasmid, the presence of all other plasmids in E. asburiae PSI3 resulted in the loss of the MPS phenotype as reflected by the failure to bring about a drop in pH and release soluble P when grown in media containing rock phosphate (RP) as the sole P source. When 100 μM soluble P was supplemented along with RP, the adverse effects of plasmids on MPS phenotype and on growth parameters was reduced for some plasmid bearing derivatives, as monitored in terms of specific growth rates, glucose consumed, gluconic acids yields and P released. When 10 mM of soluble P as the only P source, was added to the medium all transformants showed growth and pH drop comparable with native strain. It may be concluded that different plasmids impose, to varying extents, a metabolic load in the phosphate-solubilizing bacterium E. asburiae PSI3 and results in diminishing its growth and P-solubilizing ability in P deficient conditions. PMID:20171856

  14. Migration, Neighborhoods, and Networks: Approaches to Understanding How Urban Environmental Conditions Affect Syndemic Adverse Health Outcomes Among Gay, Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Egan, James E.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Latkin, Carl; Chen, Minxing; Tobin, Karin; Yang, Cui; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2011-01-01

    Adopting socioecological, intersectionality, and lifecourse theoretical frameworks may enhance our understanding of the production of syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM). From this perspective, we present preliminary data from three related studies that suggest ways in which social contexts may influence the health of MSM. The first study, using cross-sectional data, looked at migration of MSM to the gay resort area of South Florida, and found that amount of time lived in the area was associated with risk behaviors and HIV infection. The second study, using qualitative interviews, observed complex interactions between neighborhood-level social environments and individual-level racial and sexual identity among MSM in New York City. The third study, using egocentric network analysis with a sample of African American MSM in Baltimore, found that sexual partners were more likely to be found through face-to-face means than the Internet. They also observed that those who co-resided with a sex partner had larger networks of people to depend on for social and financial support, but had the same size sexual networks as those who did not live with a partner. Overall, these findings suggest the need for further investigation into the role of macro-level social forces on the emotional, behavioral, and physical health of urban MSM. PMID:21369730

  15. Effects of acidification on metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 2. Wetlands, ponds and small lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Camardese, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    High concentrations of trace metals in the water of low-pH lakes and streams could result in elevated amounts of metals within or adsorbed to aquatic plants and, possibly, invertebrates. Concentrations of Al, Cd, Ca, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mg, Mn, Hg, Ni, P, and Zn were compared in water, plants, and aquatic invertebrates of wetlands, ponds, and small lakes in Maryland and Maine. The accumulation of metals by aquatic plants and insects and the concentrations of metals in water were not greatly affected by pH. None of the metal concentrations significantly correlated with metals in insects. Plant metal concentrations poorly correlated with metal concentrations in water. Concentrations of metals exceeded acceptable dietary levels more frequently in plants than in invertebrates. Concerns about metal toxicity in birds that feed on invertebrates and plants from acidified waters seem to be unwarranted. Positive correlations among pH, Ca in water, Ca in insects, and Ca in plants imply that acidification can reduce the Ca content of aquatic biota. Aquatic insects were low in Ca, but crayfishes and snails, which are adversely affected by low pH, were very high. A concern for waterfowl is Ca deprivation from decreased Ca availability in low-pH wetlands, ponds, and small lakes.

  16. Aquatic Therapy for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucher, Greta; Moore, Kelsey; Rodia, Rachel; Moser, Christy Szczech

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic therapy has long been highlighted in the literature as a potentially powerful therapeutic intervention. This review will highlight basic definitions of aquatic therapy, review salient research, and identify specific diagnoses that may benefit from aquatic therapy. Online resources, blogs, and books that occupational therapists may find…

  17. Acute over-the-counter pharmacological intervention does not adversely affect behavioral outcome following diffuse traumatic brain injury in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Jordan L; Rowe, Rachel K; O'Hara, Bruce F; Adelson, P David; Lifshitz, Jonathan

    2014-09-01

    Following mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), patients may self-treat symptoms of concussion, including post-traumatic headache, taking over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics. Administering one dose of OTC analgesics immediately following experimental brain injury mimics the at-home treated population of concussed patients and may accelerate the understanding of the relationship between brain injury and OTC pharmacological intervention. In the current study, we investigate the effect of acute administration of OTC analgesics on neurological function and cortical cytokine levels after experimental diffuse TBI in the mouse. Adult, male C57BL/6 mice were injured using a midline fluid percussion (mFPI) injury model of concussion (6-10 min righting reflex time for brain-injured mice). Experimental groups included mFPI paired with either ibuprofen (60 mg/kg, i.p.; n = 16), acetaminophen (40 mg/kg, i.p.; n = 9), or vehicle (15% ethanol (v/v) in 0.9% saline; n = 13) and sham injury paired OTC medicine or vehicle (n = 7-10 per group). At 24 h after injury, functional outcome was assessed using the rotarod task and a modified neurological severity score. Following behavior assessment, cortical cytokine levels were measured by multiplex ELISA at 24 h post-injury. To evaluate efficacy on acute inflammation, cortical cytokine levels were measured also at 6 h post-injury. In the diffuse brain-injured mouse, immediate pharmacological intervention did not attenuate or exacerbate TBI-induced functional deficits. Cortical cytokine levels were affected by injury, time, or their interaction. However, levels were not affected by treatment at 6 or 24 h post-injury. These data indicate that acute administration of OTC analgesics did not exacerbate or attenuate brain-injury deficits which may inform clinical recommendations for the at-home treated mildly concussed patient. PMID:24760409

  18. Effects of municipal wastewater discharges on aquatic communities, Boise River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frenzel, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Aquatic communities in the Boise River were examined from October 1987 to March 1988 to determine whether they were adversely affected by trace elements in effluents from two Boise wastewater treatment facilities. Trace-element concentrations in the Boise River were less than or near analytical-detection levels and were less than chronic toxicity criteria when detectable. Insect communities colonizing artificial substrates upstream and downstream from the wastewater treatment facilities were strongly associated, and coefficients of community loss indicated that effluents had benign enriching effects. The distributions of trace-element-intolerant mayflies indicated that trace-element concentrations in effluents did not adversely affect intolerant organisms in the Boise River. Condition factor of whitefish was significantly increased downstream from the Lander Street wastewater treatment facility and was significantly decreased downstream from the West Boise wastewater treatment facility.

  19. Effects of municipal wastewater discharges on aquatic communities, Boise River, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Frenzel, S.A. )

    1990-04-01

    Aquatic communities in the Boise River were examined from October 1987 to March 1988 to determine whether they were adversely affected by trace elements in effluents from two Boise wastewater treatment facilities. Trace-element concentrations in the Boise River were less than or near analytical-detection levels and were less than chronic toxicity criteria when detectable. Insect communities colonizing artificial substrates upstream and downstream from the wastewater treatment facilities were strongly associated, and coefficients of community loss indicated that effluents had benign enriching effects. The distributions of trace-element-intolerant mayflies indicated that trace-element concentrations in effluents did not adversely affect intolerant organisms in the Boise River. Condition factor of whitefish was significantly decreased downstream from the West Boise wastewater treatment facility.

  20. Early pregnancy vitamin D status and risk for adverse maternal and infant outcomes in a bi-ethnic cohort: the Behaviors Affecting Baby and You (B.A.B.Y.) Study.

    PubMed

    Nobles, Carrie J; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2015-12-28

    Vitamin D deficiency is common during pregnancy and higher in Hispanic as compared with non-Hispanic white women. However, the association between vitamin D deficiency and adverse pregnancy outcomes remains unclear and may vary across ethnic groups, in part because of genetic variation in the metabolism of vitamin D. Few studies have included Hispanic women. Therefore, we investigated this association among 237 participants in the Behaviors Affecting Baby and You Study, a randomised trial of an exercise intervention among ethnically diverse prenatal care patients in Massachusetts. Baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured at 15·2 (sd 4·7) weeks' gestation. Information on adverse pregnancy outcomes was abstracted from medical records. Mean 25(OH)D was 30·4 (sd 12·0) ng/ml; 53·2 % of participants had insufficient (<30 ng/ml) and 20·7 % had deficient (<20 ng/ml) 25(OH)D levels. After adjusting for month of blood draw, gestational age at blood draw, gestational age at delivery, age, BMI and Hispanic ethnicity, women with insufficient and deficient vitamin D had infants with birth weights 139·74 (se 69·16) g (P=0·045) and 175·52 (se 89·45) g (P=0·051) lower compared with women with sufficient vitamin D levels (≥30 ng/ml). Each 1 ng/ml increase in 25(OH)D was associated with an increased risk for gestational diabetes mellitus among Hispanic women only (relative risk 1·07; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·11) in multivariable analysis. We did not observe statistically significant associations between maternal vitamin D status and other pregnancy outcomes. Our findings provide further support for an adverse impact of vitamin D deficiency on birth weight in Hispanic women. PMID:26507186

  1. Adverse ocular reactions to drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Spiteri, M. A.; James, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    Drugs acting on various parts of the body may also affect the eye insidiously. Increased awareness of such drug toxicity by the prescribing doctor should encourage him to consider effects on the cornea, lens, retina, optic nerve and elsewhere when checking the patient's progress. The following review concerns adverse ocular effects of systemic drug administration. PMID:6356101

  2. Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) ‐ New functionality for predicting changes in distribution of submerged aquatic vegetation in response to sea level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee II, Henry; Reusser, Deborah A.; Frazier, Melanie R; McCoy, Lee M; Clinton, Patrick J.; Clough, Jonathan S.

    2014-01-01

    The “Sea‐Level Affecting Marshes Model” (SLAMM) is a moderate resolution model used to predict the effects of sea level rise on marsh habitats (Craft et al. 2009). SLAMM has been used extensively on both the west coast (e.g., Glick et al., 2007) and east coast (e.g., Geselbracht et al., 2011) of the United States to evaluate potential changes in the distribution and extent of tidal marsh habitats. However, a limitation of the current version of SLAMM, (Version 6.2) is that it lacks the ability to model distribution changes in seagrass habitat resulting from sea level rise. Because of the ecological importance of SAV habitats, U.S. EPA, USGS, and USDA partnered with Warren Pinnacle Consulting to enhance the SLAMM modeling software to include new functionality in order to predict changes in Zostera marina distribution within Pacific Northwest estuaries in response to sea level rise. Specifically, the objective was to develop a SAV model that used generally available GIS data and parameters that were predictive and that could be customized for other estuaries that have GIS layers of existing SAV distribution. This report describes the procedure used to develop the SAV model for the Yaquina Bay Estuary, Oregon, appends a statistical script based on the open source R software to generate a similar SAV model for other estuaries that have data layers of existing SAV, and describes how to incorporate the model coefficients from the site‐specific SAV model into SLAMM to predict the effects of sea level rise on Zostera marina distributions. To demonstrate the applicability of the R tools, we utilize them to develop model coefficients for Willapa Bay, Washington using site‐specific SAV data.

  3. Evaluation of graphite for environmental toxicity using the standard aquatic microcosm. Technical report, June 1986-March 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Landis, W.G.; Chester, N.A.; Haley, M.V.; Johnson, D.W.; Tauber, R.M.

    1988-08-01

    The impact of a graphite dust on an aquatic ecosystem model, the Standard Aquatic microcosm (SAM), was investigated. Graphite dust produced effects that resembled eutrophication in that a diversity decreased, ammonia increased, and a photosynthesis/respiration ratio of less than one was observed in the highest concentration. Compared to brass dust, graphite has much less potential to adversely impact aquatic ecosystems.

  4. Sirtuin Inhibition Adversely Affects Porcine Oocyte Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Ma, Rujun; Hu, Jin; Ding, Xiaolin; Xu, Yinxue

    2015-01-01

    Sirtuins have been implicated in diverse biological processes, including oxidative stress, energy metabolism, cell migration, and aging. Here, we employed Sirtuin inhibitors, nicotinamide (NAM) and Sirtinol, to investigate their effects on porcine oocyte maturation respectively. The rate of polar body extrusion in porcine oocytes decreased after treatment with NAM and Sirtinol, accompanied with the failure of cumulus cell expansion. We further found that NAM and Sirtinol significantly disrupted oocyte polarity, and inhibited the formation of actin cap and cortical granule-free domain (CGFD). Moreover, the abnormal spindles and misaligned chromosomes were readily detected during porcine oocyte maturation after treatment with NAM and Sirtinol. Together, these results suggest that Sirtuins are involved in cortical polarity and spindle organization in porcine oocytes. PMID:26176547

  5. Vaccine Adverse Events

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability ( ... Center for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  6. Aquatic Activities for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, H. David; And Others

    Designed to meet the diverse educational needs of youth groups, this aquatic program consists of eight individual lesson units, each devoted to one aspect of the aquatic world. Unit topics include: fish aquariums; raising earthworms; simulation of coastal planning; entomology and water; rope; calculating stream flow; saltwater aquariums; and fish…

  7. Bottom-up nutrient and top-down fish impacts on insect-mediated mercury flux from aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Jones, Taylor A; Chumchal, Matthew M; Drenner, Ray W; Timmins, Gabrielle N; Nowlin, Weston H

    2013-03-01

    Methyl mercury (MeHg) is one of the most hazardous contaminants in the environment, adversely affecting the health of wildlife and humans. Recent studies have demonstrated that aquatic insects biotransport MeHg and other contaminants to terrestrial consumers, but the factors that regulate the flux of MeHg out of aquatic ecosystems via emergent insects have not been studied. The authors used experimental mesocosms to test the hypothesis that insect emergence and the associated flux of MeHg from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems is affected by both bottom-up nutrient effects and top-down fish consumer effects. In the present study, nutrient addition led to an increase in MeHg flux primarily by enhancing the biomass of emerging insects whose tissues were contaminated with MeHg, whereas fish decreased MeHg flux primarily by reducing the biomass of emerging insects. Furthermore, the authors found that these factors are interdependent such that the effects of nutrients are more pronounced when fish are absent, and the effects of fish are more pronounced when nutrient concentrations are high. The present study is the first to demonstrate that the flux of MeHg from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems is strongly enhanced by bottom-up nutrient effects and diminished by top-down consumer effects. PMID:23180684

  8. Effects of acidification of metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 2. Wetlands, ponds and small lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Albers, P.H.; Camardese, M.B. . Patuxent Wildlife Research Center)

    1993-06-01

    Compared were concentrations of Al,Cd,Ca,Cu,Fe,Pb,Mg,Mn,Hg,Ni,P, and Zn in water, plants, and aquatic invertebrates of wetlands, ponds, and small lakes in Maryland and Maine. The accumulation of metals by aquatic plants and insects and the concentration of metals in water were not greatly affected by pH. None of the metal concentrations in water significantly correlated with metals in insects. Plant metal concentrations poorly correlated with metal concentrations in water. Concentrations of metals exceeded acceptable dietary levels more frequently in plants than in invertebrates. Concerns about metal toxicity in birds that feed on invertebrates and plants from acidified waters seems to be unwarranted. Positive correlations among pH, Ca in water, Ca in insects, and Ca in plants imply that acidification can reduce the Ca content of aquatic biota. Aquatic insects were low in Ca, but crayfishes and snails, which are adversely affected by low pH, were very high. A concern for waterfowl is Ca deprivation from decreased Ca availability in low-pH wetlands, ponds, and small lakes..

  9. Toxicity of the herbicides bromacil and simazine to the aquatic macrophyte, Vallisneria americana Michx.

    PubMed

    Wilson, P Chris; Wilson, Sandra B

    2010-01-01

    Vallisneria americana Michx. (tapegrass) is an ecologically important submersed, vascular aquatic plant that provides food and shelter for many aquatic and waterfowl species. This plant often occurs close to land areas where herbicides are used. Nontarget exposure of these plants to herbicides may compromise ecological structure and function. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the suitability of several endpoint measurements for determining no-observable-adverse effect concentrations (NOAECs), lowest-observable-adverse effect concentrations (LOAECs), and median effective concentration values (EC50s) for tapegrass exposed to the herbicides bromacil (0-0.092 mg/L) and simazine (0-0.592 mg/L) following a 13-d single-pulse exposure and 15-d (bromacil) or 14-d (simazine) postexposure periods. The NOAEC/LOAEC/EC50 for fresh weight gains, new leaf production, and total leaf growth after 13-d exposure to bromacil were 0.020/0.036/0.032, 0.036/0.054/0.036, and 0.036/0.054/0.043 mg/L, respectively. The same respective NOAEC/LOAEC/EC50s for simazine were <0.058/0.058/0.067, 0.229/0.344/0.154, and 0.058/0.116/0.081 mg/L. Reductions in quantity and fresh weight of daughter plants produced and stolon fresh weights occurred at bromacil concentrations > or = 77, 0.020, and 0.036 mg/L, respectively; and simazine concentrations > or = 0.344, >0.592, and > or = 0.116 mg/L, respectively. Neither herbicide affected leaf greenness, total chlorophyll concentrations, or carbohydrate allocation. Although toxicity was shown for many endpoints, most EC50 values were greater than aquatic life benchmark values for algae used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), but less than for aquatic plants, indicating that V. americana would likely be protected by use of the algal benchmark criteria. PMID:20821436

  10. The effects of a fungicide and chytrid fungus on anuran larvae in aquatic mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Shane M; Lynch, Kyle J; Kerby, Jacob L; Parris, Matthew J

    2015-09-01

    The amphibian disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has been linked to significant amphibian declines over the past three decades. The most severe effects of the pathogen have been primarily observed in relatively pristine areas that are not affected by many anthropogenic factors.One hypothesis concerning improved amphibian persistence with Bd in disturbed landscapes is that contaminants may abate the effects of Bd on amphibians. Recent laboratory studies have shown that pesticides, specifically the fungicide thiophanate-methyl (TM), can kill Bd outside of hosts and clear Bd infections within hosts. Using aquatic mesocosms, we tested the hypothesis that TM (0.43 mg/L) would alter growth and development of Lithobates sphenocephalus (southern leopard frog) tadpoles and Bd-infection loads in infected individuals. We hypothesized that the scope of such alterations and infection clearing would be affected by aquatic community variables, specifically zooplankton. TM altered zooplankton diversity (reduced cladoceran and increased copepod and ostracod abundances) and caused mortality to all tadpoles in TM-exposed tanks. In TM-free tanks, Bd-exposed tadpoles in high-density treatments metamorphosed smaller than Bd-unexposed, effects that were reversed in low-density treatments. Our study demonstrates the potential adverse effects of a fungicide and Bd on tadpoles and aquatic systems. PMID:25913318

  11. Methane bubble ascent within muddy aquatic sediments under different ambient methane source strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarboush Sirhan, Shahrazad; Katsman, Regina; Ten Brink, Uri

    2016-04-01

    Methane (CH4) is the simplest and, the most common hydrocarbon in nature. It is considered as one of the most adverse greenhouse gases, at least 25 times more potent than carbon dioxide. When concentration of the dissolved methane in pore waters exceeds the solubility of the gas (affected in turn by temperature, pressure, salinity and by other factors) methane bubbles nucleate. Gas migration in fine-grained cohesive muddy aquatic sediments is accompanied by sediment fracturing. When gas pressure is high enough to overcome compression, friction, and cohesion at grain contacts, gas migrates by pushing the grains apart. These sub-vertical fractures provide lowered-resistance conduits for migration of other bubbles that can destabilize sediment structure resulting even in slope failure. Therefore, understanding the processes governing bubble propagation within fine-grained aquatic sediment is important. Previous models showed that bubbles propagation within fine-grained muddy aquatic sediments can be modeled using principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics. Mass transfer between the bubble rising with high velocity and the surrounding sediments was mostly ignored. We use a coupled macroscopic mechanical/reaction-transport numerical model under a variable source strength profile associated with bio-chemical processes of methane production and consumption within the sediment, as it occurs in nature. The model shows that changes in the dissolved methane concentrations strongly affect bubble ascent velocity, sometimes leading to its retardation below the sediment-water interface

  12. Biologics in dermatology: adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Pandhi, Deepika; Khurana, Ananta

    2015-12-01

    Biologics are a group of drugs that precisely affect certain specific steps in the immune response and are an extremely useful group when used in an appropriate setting. However, their use can often be a double-edged sword. Careful patient selection and thorough knowledge of adverse effects is a key to their successful use in various disorders. The initial enthusiasm has gradually given way to a more cautious approach wherein a balance is sought between clinical usefulness and expected side effects. The adverse effects of the biologics most commonly used in dermatology have been carefully listed for ready reference. The plausible causes of the adverse reactions are succinctly outlined along with their incriminating factor(s). Besides, in brief, the attention has been focused on their management. The content should provide an essential didactic content for educating the practitioner. PMID:26147909

  13. The Competitive Interplay between Allosteric HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitor BI/D and LEDGF/p75 during the Early Stage of HIV-1 Replication Adversely Affects Inhibitor Potency.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lei; Dharmarajan, Venkatasubramanian; Serrao, Erik; Hoyte, Ashley; Larue, Ross C; Slaughter, Alison; Sharma, Amit; Plumb, Matthew R; Kessl, Jacques J; Fuchs, James R; Bushman, Frederic D; Engelman, Alan N; Griffin, Patrick R; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka

    2016-05-20

    Allosteric HIV-1 integrase inhibitors (ALLINIs) have recently emerged as a promising class of antiretroviral agents and are currently in clinical trials. In infected cells, ALLINIs potently inhibit viral replication by impairing virus particle maturation but surprisingly exhibit a reduced EC50 for inhibiting HIV-1 integration in target cells. To better understand the reduced antiviral activity of ALLINIs during the early stage of HIV-1 replication, we investigated the competitive interplay between a potent representative ALLINI, BI/D, and LEDGF/p75 with HIV-1 integrase. While the principal binding sites of BI/D and LEDGF/p75 overlap at the integrase catalytic core domain dimer interface, we show that the inhibitor and the cellular cofactor induce markedly different multimerization patterns of full-length integrase. LEDGF/p75 stabilizes an integrase tetramer through the additional interactions with the integrase N-terminal domain, whereas BI/D induces protein-protein interactions in C-terminal segments that lead to aberrant, higher-order integrase multimerization. We demonstrate that LEDGF/p75 binds HIV-1 integrase with significantly higher affinity than BI/D and that the cellular protein is able to reverse the inhibitor induced aberrant, higher-order integrase multimerization in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Consistent with these observations, alterations of the cellular levels of LEDGF/p75 markedly affected BI/D EC50 values during the early steps of HIV-1 replication. Furthermore, genome-wide sequencing of HIV-1 integration sites in infected cells demonstrate that LEDGF/p75-dependent integration site selection is adversely affected by BI/D treatment. Taken together, our studies elucidate structural and mechanistic details of the interplay between LEDGF/p75 and BI/D during the early stage of HIV-1 replication. PMID:26910179

  14. FATE AND SURVIVAL OF MICROBIAL PEST CONTROL AGENTS IN NONTARGET AQUATIC ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A fully enclosed test system was developed to both potential adverse effects of microbial pest control agents on nontarget aquatic invertebrates and monitor their fate and survival Eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica, were exposed to various microbial pest control agents inclu...

  15. Land-use proxies for aquatic species invasions in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic invasive species adversely impact ecosystems, human health, and the economy of the Laurentian Great Lakes region. Targeted preventative and eradication efforts in response to early detection of invasive species can be both cost advantageous and effective. But where should...

  16. Respiration in Aquatic Insects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarland, John

    1985-01-01

    This article: (1) explains the respiratory patterns of several freshwater insects; (2) describes the differences and mechanisms of spiracular cutaneous, and gill respiration; and (3) discusses behavioral aspects of selected aquatic insects. (ML)

  17. The Fish Kill Mystery: Learning about Aquatic Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosal, Erica F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a case where students can learn about aquatic communities. In this case, students speculate on what may have caused a major fish kill in an estuary in North Carolina. In the process, they explore how land runoff and excess nutrients affect aquatic communities. They also learn about the complex life cycle of the dinoflagellate…

  18. VASCULAR PLANTS AS ENGINEERS OF OXYGEN IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of organisms on oxygen is one of the most dramatic examples of ecosystem engineering on Earth. In aquatic systems, which have much lower oxygen concentrations than the atmosphere, vascular aquatic plants can affect oxygen concentrations significantly not only on long t...

  19. Developing a Collegiate Aquatics Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Paul A.

    2001-01-01

    Presents suggestions for departments of health, physical education, and recreation that are planning to develop their own aquatics programs, focusing on: the prevalence of collegiate aquatics programs; course offerings in an aquatics minor; practicums and internships; graduate programs in aquatics; cross-disciplinary appeal; marketing the aquatics…

  20. Molecular ecology of aquatic microbes

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    Abstracts of reports are presented from a meeting on Molecular Ecology of Aquatic Microbes. Topics included: opportunities offered to aquatic ecology by molecular biology; the role of aquatic microbes in biogeochemical cycles; characterization of the microbial community; the effect of the environment on aquatic microbes; and the targeting of specific biological processes.

  1. Improving the quality of aquatic toxicity tests: Lessons learned and proficiency needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic toxicity testing methodologies have been widely used to assess potential adverse effects of chemicals and wastewater discharges on aquatic life in the United States since the 1970’s. Over the years, continued method modifications, increased training, and technical r...

  2. The Aquatic Systems Continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, T. C.

    2004-12-01

    The Aquatic Systems Continuum is a proposed framework for interrelating the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of aquatic ecosystems. The continuum can be represented by a three-dimensional matrix that relates aquatic ecosystems to their position within hydrologic flow paths (x-axis, a spatial dimension) and their response to climate variability (y-axis). The z-axis describes the structure of biological communities as they relate to the hydrological conditions defined by the x and y axes. The concept is an extension of the Wetland Continuum that was derived from field studies of a prairie pothole wetland complex in North Dakota. At that site, the hydrologic continuum in space is defined by ground-water flow systems. The wetlands are surface-water expressions of larger ground-water watersheds, in which wetlands serve recharge, flow-through, and discharge functions with respect to ground water. The water balance of the wetlands is dominated by precipitation and evaporation. However, the interaction of the wetlands with ground water, although a small part of their water budget, provides the primary control on delivery of major solutes to and from the wetlands. Having monitored these wetlands for more than 25 years, during which time the site had a complete range of climate conditions from drought to deluge, the response of the aquatic communities to a wide variety of climate conditions has been well documented. The Aquatic Systems Continuum extends the model provided by the Wetland Continuum to include rivers and their interaction with ground water. As a result, both ground water and surface water are used to describe terrestrial water flows for all types of aquatic ecosystems. By using the Aquatic Systems Continuum to describe the hydrologic flow paths in all types of terrain, including exchange with atmospheric water, it is possible to design studies, monitoring programs, and management plans for nearly any type of aquatic ecosystem.

  3. Adverse antibiotic drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Bint, A J; Burtt, I

    1980-07-01

    There is enormous potential for drug interactions in patients who, today, often receive many drugs. Antibiotics are prominent amongst the groups of drugs commonly prescribed. Many interactions take place at the absorption stage. Antacids and antidiarrhoeal preparations, in particular, can delay and reduce the absorption of antibiotics such as tetracyclines and clindamycin, by combining with them in the gastrointestinal tract to form chelates or complexes. Other drugs can affect gastric motility, which in turn often controls the rate at which antibiotics are absorbed. Some broad spectrum antibiotics can alter the bacterial flora of the gut which may be related to malabsorption states. The potentiation of toxic side effects of one drug by another is a common type of interaction. Antibiotics which are implicated in this type of interaction are those which themselves possess some toxicity such as aminoglycosides, some cephalosporins, tetracyclines and colistin. Some of the most important adverse interactions with antibiotics are those which involve other drugs which have a low toxicity/efficacy ratio. These include anticoagulants such as warfarin, anticonvulsants such as phenytoin and phenobarbitone and oral antidiabetic drugs like tolbutamide. Risk of interaction arises when the metabolism of these drugs is inhibited by liver microsomal enzyme inhibitors such as some sulphonamides and chloramphenicol, or is enhanced by enzyme inducers such as rifampicin. PMID:6995091

  4. The interactive effects of excess reactive nitrogen and climate change on aquatic ecosystems and water resources of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, J.S.; Hall, E.K.; Nolan, B.T.; Finlay, J.C.; Bernhardt, E.S.; Harrison, J.A.; Chan, F.; Boyer, E.W.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly all freshwaters and coastal zones of the US are degraded from inputs of excess reactive nitrogen (Nr), sources of which are runoff, atmospheric N deposition, and imported food and feed. Some major adverse effects include harmful algal blooms, hypoxia of fresh and coastal waters, ocean acidification, long-term harm to human health, and increased emissions of greenhouse gases. Nitrogen fluxes to coastal areas and emissions of nitrous oxide from waters have increased in response to N inputs. Denitrification and sedimentation of organic N to sediments are important processes that divert N from downstream transport. Aquatic ecosystems are particularly important denitrification hotspots. Carbon storage in sediments is enhanced by Nr, but whether carbon is permanently buried is unknown. The effect of climate change on N transport and processing in fresh and coastal waters will be felt most strongly through changes to the hydrologic cycle, whereas N loading is mostly climate-independent. Alterations in precipitation amount and dynamics will alter runoff, thereby influencing both rates of Nr inputs to aquatic ecosystems and groundwater and the water residence times that affect Nr removal within aquatic systems. Both infrastructure and climate change alter the landscape connectivity and hydrologic residence time that are essential to denitrification. While Nr inputs to and removal rates from aquatic systems are influenced by climate and management, reduction of N inputs from their source will be the most effective means to prevent or to minimize environmental and economic impacts of excess Nr to the nation’s water resources.

  5. Urbanicity, social adversity and psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, Andreas; Deserno, Lorenz; Reininghaus, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in research on geographical variation in the incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses. In this paper, we review the evidence on variation in incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in terms of place, as well as the individual- and area-level factors that account for this variation. We further review findings on potential mechanisms that link adverse urban environment and psychosis. There is evidence from earlier and more recent studies that urbanicity is associated with an increased incidence of schizophrenia and non-affective psychosis. In addition, considerable variation in incidence across neighbourhoods has been observed for these disorders. Findings suggest it is unlikely that social drift alone can fully account for geographical variation in incidence. Evidence further suggests that the impact of adverse social contexts – indexed by area-level exposures such as population density, social fragmentation and deprivation – on risk of psychosis is explained (confounding) or modified (interaction) by environmental exposures at the individual level (i.e., cannabis use, social adversity, exclusion and discrimination). On a neurobiological level, several studies suggest a close link between social adversity, isolation and stress on the one hand, and monoamine dysfunction on the other, which resembles findings in schizophrenia patients. However, studies directly assessing correlations between urban stress or discrimination and neurobiological alterations in schizophrenia are lacking to date. PMID:24096775

  6. Effects of Carbon Nanotube Environmental Dispersion on an Aquatic Invertebrate, Hirudo medicinalis

    PubMed Central

    Girardello, Rossana; Tasselli, Stefano; Baranzini, Nicolò; Valvassori, Roberto; de Eguileor, Magda; Grimaldi, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    The recent widespread applications of nanomaterials, because of their properties, opens new scenarios that affect their dispersal in the environment. In particular multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), despite their qualities, seem to be harmful for animals and humans. To evaluate possible toxic effects caused by carbon nanotube environmental dispersion, with regard to aquatic compartment, we proposed as experimental model a freshwater invertebrate: Hirudo medicinalis. In the present study we analyse acute and chronic immune responses over a short (1, 3, 6 and 12 hours) and long time (from 1 to 5 weeks) exposure to MWCNTs by optical, electron and immunohistochemical approaches. In the exposed leeches angiogenesis and fibroplasia accompanied by massive cellular migration occur. Immunocytochemical characterization using specific markers shows that in these inflammatory processes the monocyte-macrophages (CD45+, CD68+) are the most involved cells. These immunocompetent cells are characterized by sequence of events starting from the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (in particular IL-18), and amyloidogenensis. Our combined experimental approaches, basing on high sensitive inflammatory response can highlight adverse effects of nanomaterials on aquatic organisms and could be useful to assess the MWCNTs impact on aquatic, terrestrial animal and human health. PMID:26636582

  7. Phytotoxicity and accumulation of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the aquatic plants Hydrilla verticillata and Phragmites Australis: leaf-type-dependent responses.

    PubMed

    Song, Uhram; Lee, Sunryung

    2016-05-01

    The phytotoxicity and accumulation of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on aquatic plant Hydrilla verticillata and Phragmites australis were investigated using mesocosms. The percentage of dissolved Zn in the ZnO NP treatment solutions was measured along with plant shoot growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, chlorophyll content, and Zn content. The dissolution rate of ZnO NPs in Hoagland solution was inversely related to the concentration. The submerged aquatic plant H. verticillata, growth was reduced during the early stages of the experiment when exposed to the highest ZnO NP concentration (1000 mg/L), whereas the emerged aquatic plant P. australis began to show significantly reduced growth after a few weeks. The measurements of chlorophyll content, antioxidant enzyme activity, and Zn accumulation showed that P. australis was adversely affected by NPs and absorbed more Zn than H. verticillata. The results indicated that physiological differences among aquatic plants, such as whether they use leaves or roots for nutrient and water uptake, led to differences in nanoparticle toxicity. Overall, High ZnO NP concentrations caused significant phytotoxicity on aquatic plants, and low concentrations caused unpredictable phytotoxicity. Therefore, the use and disposal of zinc oxide nanoparticles should be carefully monitored. PMID:26797943

  8. Development of resource shed delineation in aquatic ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental issues in aquatic ecosystems of high management priority involve spatially explicit phenomena that occur over vast areas. A "landscape" perspective is thus necessary, including an understanding of how ecological phenomena at a local scale are affected by physical fo...

  9. Pesticidal copper (I) oxide: environmental fate and aquatic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kiaune, Lina; Singhasemanon, Nan

    2011-01-01

    Besides being a naturally occurring element and an essential micronutrient, copper is used as a pesticide, but at generally higher concentrations. Copper, unlike organic pesticides, does not degrade, but rather enters a complex biogeochemical cycle. In the water column, copper can exist bound to both organic and inorganic species and as free or hydrated copper ions. Water column chemistry affects copper speciation and bioavailability. In all water types (saltwater, brackish water, and freshwater), organic ligands in the water column can sequester the majority of dissolved copper, and therefore, organic ligands play the largest role in copper bioavailability. In freshwater, however, the geochemistry of a particular location, including water column characteristics such as water hardness and pH, is a significant factor that can increase copper bioavailability and toxicity. In most cases, organic ligand concentrations greatly exceed copper ion concentrations in the water column and therefore provide a large buffering capacity. Hence, copper bioavailability can be grossly overestimated if it is based on total dissolved copper (TDCu) concentrations alone. Other factors that influence copper concentrations include location in the water column, season, temperature, depth, and level of dissolved oxygen. For example, concentrations of bioavailable copper may be significantly higher in the bottom waters and sediment pore waters, where organic ligands degrade much faster and dissolved copper is constantly resuspended and recycled into the aquatic system. Aquatic species differ greatly in their sensitivity to copper. Some animals, like mollusks, can tolerate high concentrations of the metal, while others are adversely affected by very low concentrations of copper. Emerging evidence shows that very low, sublethal copper levels can adversely affect the sense of smell and behavior of fish. The developmental stage of the fish at the time of copper exposure is critical to the

  10. Managing adverse effects of glaucoma medications

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma is a chronic, progressive disease in which retinal ganglion cells disappear and subsequent, gradual reductions in the visual field ensues. Glaucoma eye drops have hypotensive effects and like all other medications are associated with adverse effects. Adverse reactions may either result from the main agent or from preservatives used in the drug vehicle. The preservative benzalkonium chloride, is one such compound that causes frequent adverse reactions such as superficial punctate keratitis, corneal erosion, conjunctival allergy, and conjunctival injection. Adverse reactions related to main hypotensive agents have been divided into those affecting the eye and those affecting the entire body. In particular, β-blockers frequently cause systematic adverse reactions, including bradycardia, decrease in blood pressure, irregular pulse and asthma attacks. Prostaglandin analogs have distinctive local adverse reactions, including eyelash bristling/lengthening, eyelid pigmentation, iris pigmentation, and upper eyelid deepening. No systemic adverse reactions have been linked to prostaglandin analog eye drop usage. These adverse reactions may be minimized when they are detected early and prevented by reducing the number of different eye drops used (via fixed combination eye drops), reducing the number of times eye drops are administered, using benzalkonium chloride-free eye drops, using lower concentration eye drops, and providing proper drop instillation training. Additionally, a one-time topical medication can be given to patients to allow observation of any adverse reactions, thereafter the preparation of a topical medication with the fewest known adverse reactions can be prescribed. This does require precise patient monitoring and inquiries about patient symptoms following medication use. PMID:24872675

  11. Aquatic Microbiology Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Robert C.; And Others

    This laboratory manual presents information and techniques dealing with aquatic microbiology as it relates to environmental health science, sanitary engineering, and environmental microbiology. The contents are divided into three categories: (1) ecological and physiological considerations; (2) public health aspects; and (3)microbiology of water…

  12. Investigating Aquatic Dead Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Jeremy; Gurbisz, Cassie; Murray, Laura; Gray, William; Bosch, Jennifer; Burrell, Chris; Kemp, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article features two engaging high school activities that include current scientific information, data, and authentic case studies. The activities address the physical, biological, and chemical processes that are associated with oxygen-depleted areas, or "dead zones," in aquatic systems. Students can explore these dead zones through both…

  13. Aquatic plant management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Twelve fact sheets are presented which cover different forms of aquatic plant management in Guntersville Reservoir. These cover the introduction of grass carp and other biological controls, drawdown of reservoir water, herbicide use, harvesting, impacts on recreational uses, and other issues of concern. (SM)

  14. Contaminated Aquatic Sediments.

    PubMed

    Jaglal, Kendrick

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 relating to the assessment, evaluation and remediation of contaminated aquatic sediments is presented. The review is divided into the following main sections: policy and guidance, methodology, distribution, fate and transport, risk, toxicity and remediation. PMID:27620103

  15. VITELLOGENESIS IN AQUATIC ANIMALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitellogenin (Vg) is the main precursor to egg yolk proteins (YPs) accumulated as nutrients for developing embryos of oviparous aquatic species. Recent gene cloning and immuno-biochemical analyses verified the presence of multiple Vgs in teleost fishes, similar to the case in chickens and Xenopus. ...

  16. INTRODUCED AQUATIC SPECIES (FUTURE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    These data represent predicted future potential distributions of aquatic plants and animals non-native to the Middle-Atlantic region. These data are available for 8-digit HUCs. The data are a weighted proportion of appropriate habitat overlapped by the potential distribution of...

  17. CHOLINESTERASE OF AQUATIC ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to increases organophosphate (OP) pesticide applications it has become necessary to evaluate their hazards and develop biological indicators of aquatic contamination. t has been hypothesized that suppression of ChE activity could be used as an indicator of contaminant stress ...

  18. Aquatic Resources Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, C. Boyd; Sosin, Mark

    Fishing is one of the oldest and most popular outdoor activities. Like most activities, fishing requires basic knowledge and skill for success. The Aquatic Resources Education Curriculum is designed to assist beginning anglers in learning the basic concepts of how, when, and where to fish as well as what tackle to use. The manual is designed to be…

  19. Aquatic Plants and their Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Natural Resources, Lansing.

    Aquatic plants can be divided into two types: algae and macrophytes. The goal of aquatic plant management is to maintain a proper balance of plants within a lake and still retain the lake's recreational and economic importance. Aquatic plant management programs have two phases: long-term management (nutrient control), and short-term management…

  20. Aquatic Pest Control. Manual 99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the aquatic pest control category. The text discusses various water use situations; aquatic weed identification; herbicide use and effects; and aquatic insects and their control. (CS)

  1. Introduced aquatic plants and algae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-native aquatic plants such as waterhyacinth and hydrilla severely impair the uses of aquatic resources including recreational faculties (lakes, reservoirs, rivers) as well as timely delivery of irrigation water for agriculture. Costs associated with impacts and management of all types of aquatic...

  2. Adverse reactions to sulfites

    PubMed Central

    Yang, William H.; Purchase, Emerson C.R.

    1985-01-01

    Sulfites are widely used as preservatives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In the United States more than 250 cases of sulfite-related adverse reactions, including anaphylactic shock, asthmatic attacks, urticaria and angioedema, nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhea, seizures and death, have been reported, including 6 deaths allegedly associated with restaurant food containing sulfites. In Canada 10 sulfite-related adverse reactions have been documented, and 1 death suspected to be sulfite-related has occurred. The exact mechanism of sulfite-induced reactions is unknown. Practising physicians should be aware of the clinical manifestations of sulfite-related adverse reactions as well as which foods and pharmaceuticals contain sulfites. Cases should be reported to health officials and proper advice given to the victims to prevent further exposure to sulfites. The food industry, including beer and wine manufacturers, and the pharmaceutical industry should consider using alternative preservatives. In the interim, they should list any sulfites in their products. PMID:4052897

  3. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Mederic; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

    2014-11-01

    Inertial aquatic swimmers that use undulatory gaits range in length L from a few millimeters to 30 meters, across a wide array of biological taxa. Using elementary hydrodynamic arguments, we uncover a unifying mechanistic principle characterizing their locomotion by deriving a scaling relation that links swimming speed U to body kinematics (tail beat amplitude A and frequency ω) and fluid properties (kinematic viscosity ν). This principle can be simply couched as the power law Re ~ Swα , where Re = UL / ν >> 1 and Sw = ωAL / ν , with α = 4 / 3 for laminar flows, and α = 1 for turbulent flows. Existing data from over 1000 measurements on fish, amphibians, larvae, reptiles, mammals and birds, as well as direct numerical simulations are consistent with our scaling. We interpret our results as the consequence of the convergence of aquatic gaits to the performance limits imposed by hydrodynamics.

  4. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Médéric; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-10-01

    Inertial aquatic swimmers that use undulatory gaits range in length L from a few millimetres to 30 metres, across a wide array of biological taxa. Using elementary hydrodynamic arguments, we uncover a unifying mechanistic principle characterizing their locomotion by deriving a scaling relation that links swimming speed U to body kinematics (tail beat amplitude A and frequency ω) and fluid properties (kinematic viscosity ν). This principle can be simply couched as the power law Re ~ Swα, where Re = UL/ν >> 1 and Sw = ωAL/ν, with α = 4/3 for laminar flows, and α = 1 for turbulent flows. Existing data from over 1,000 measurements on fish, amphibians, larvae, reptiles, mammals and birds, as well as direct numerical simulations are consistent with our scaling. We interpret our results as the consequence of the convergence of aquatic gaits to the performance limits imposed by hydrodynamics.

  5. Scientists Trace Adversity's Toll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    The stress of a spelling bee or a challenging science project can enhance a student's focus and promote learning. But the stress of a dysfunctional or unstable home life can poison a child's cognitive ability for a lifetime, according to new research. Those studies show that stress forms the link between childhood adversity and poor academic…

  6. Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface

    2012-12-18

    Fishes and marine mammals may suffer a range of potential effects from exposure to intense underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities such as pile driving, shipping, sonars, and underwater blasting. Several underwater sound recording (USR) devices have been built to acquire samples of the underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities. Software becomes indispensable for processing and analyzing the audio files recorded by these USRs. The new Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface Utility Software (AAMI) is specificallymore » designed for analysis of underwater sound recordings to provide data in metrics that facilitate evaluation of the potential impacts of the sound on aquatic animals. In addition to the basic functions, such as loading and editing audio files recorded by USRs and batch processing of sound files, the software utilizes recording system calibration data to compute important parameters in physical units. The software also facilitates comparison of the noise sound sample metrics with biological measures such as audiograms of the sensitivity of aquatic animals to the sound, integrating various components into a single analytical frame.« less

  7. Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-18

    Fishes and marine mammals may suffer a range of potential effects from exposure to intense underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities such as pile driving, shipping, sonars, and underwater blasting. Several underwater sound recording (USR) devices have been built to acquire samples of the underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities. Software becomes indispensable for processing and analyzing the audio files recorded by these USRs. The new Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface Utility Software (AAMI) is specifically designed for analysis of underwater sound recordings to provide data in metrics that facilitate evaluation of the potential impacts of the sound on aquatic animals. In addition to the basic functions, such as loading and editing audio files recorded by USRs and batch processing of sound files, the software utilizes recording system calibration data to compute important parameters in physical units. The software also facilitates comparison of the noise sound sample metrics with biological measures such as audiograms of the sensitivity of aquatic animals to the sound, integrating various components into a single analytical frame.

  8. Acute toxicity screening of Hanford Site waste grouts using aquatic invertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Rebagay, T.V.; Dodd, D.A.; Lockrem, L.L.; Powell, W.J.; Voogd, J.A.

    1993-11-01

    Waste grouts prepared by mixing a simulated nonradioactive liquid waste with a dry solids blend consisting of cement, fly ash, and clay were screened for their acute toxicity using aquatic invertebrates (D. magna, D. pulex, and C. dubia) as test organisms and a fluorogenic substrate (4-methylumbelliferyl b-d galactoside) as the toxic stress indicator. After one hour of exposing juvenile daphnids to grout extracts of varying concentrations, followed by a 15-minute reaction with the fluorogenic substrate, the degree of in vivo enzymatic inhibition was measured by the number of resulting fluorescent daphnids. The effective concentration at which 50% of the daphnids were adversely affected (EC50) values calculated by probit analysis were 2,877 mg/L, 2,983 mg/L, and 3,174 mg/L for D. pulex, D. magna, and C. dubia, respectively. The results indicated that the grout extracts studied are nonhazardous and not dangerous to daphnids.

  9. [Adverse reaction of pseudoephedrine].

    PubMed

    López Lois, G; Gómez Carrasco, J A; García de Frías, E

    2005-04-01

    We present a case of a 7 years old girl who developed an episode of myoclonic movements and tremors after being medicated with a not well quantified amount of a pseudoephedrine/antihistamine combination. We want to highlight the potential toxicity of pseudoephedrine, usually administered as part of cold-syrup preparations which are used for symptomatic treatment of upper respiratory tract cough and congestion associated with the common cold and allergic rhinitis. Although these products are generally considered to be safe either by physicians and parents, we can't underestimate the potential adverse events and toxic effects that can occur when administering these medications. PMID:15826569

  10. Actual versus predicted impacts of three ethanol plants on aquatic and terrestrial resources

    SciTech Connect

    Eddlemon, G.K.; Webb, J.W.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Miller, R.L. )

    1993-01-01

    In this follow-up study, the authors compared the actual effects of the three complete ethanol plants on aquatic and terrestrial resources with the effects predicted in the NEPA environmental assessments (EAs). They based their comparative evaluations on reviews and analyses of existing data and information, interviews with plant, state, and local government personnel, and site and facility inspections. They found that (1) the plants as completed differed considerably in important respects from the proposed designs considerably in important respects from the proposed designs evaluated in the EAs; (2) several key source terms provided by the applicants were inaccurate; (3) most, but significantly, not all, mitigation measures described in the EAs were implemented; (4) external environmental changes independent of the plants affected the nature and degree of some impacts; and (5) although impacts to aquatic and terrestrial resources for which data were adequate for analysis generally occurred as predicted, a few impacts not anticipated in the EAs were identified. These included adverse effects of wastewaters on a municipal treatment plant with resulting temporary effects on the receiving stream, and unforeseen habitat loss due to vegetation removal (failure to implement planned mitigation) and barge terminal construction.

  11. Aquatic sources and sinks for nitrous oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkins, J. W.; Wofsy, S. C.; Mcelroy, M. B.; Kaplan, W. A.; Kolb, C. E.

    1978-01-01

    Data are presented which suggest the complexity of the aquatic nitrogen cycle as it affects N2O. The data are from studies made in the central and south-east tropical regions of the Pacific Ocean and in Chesapeake Bay. The data indicate that oxidation of ammonium and amino nitrogen and nitrification form the principle source for marine N2O. It is estimated that the yearly global yield for oceanic N2O is less than about 10 to the 7th power tons. The consumption of atmospheric N2O by the open ocean has not been evidenced, although data from the south-east tropical Pacific and Chesapeake Bay show the consumption of dissolved N2O in low-oxygen conditions. Preliminary observations have also indicated the consumption of atmospheric N2O by aquatic systems such as freshwater pond and a tidal saltmarsh.

  12. Freshwater biodiversity and aquatic insect diversification.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Klaas-Douwe B; Monaghan, Michael T; Pauls, Steffen U

    2014-01-01

    Inland waters cover less than 1% of Earth's surface but harbor more than 6% of all insect species: Nearly 100,000 species from 12 orders spend one or more life stages in freshwater. Little is known about how this remarkable diversity arose, although allopatric speciation and ecological adaptation are thought to be primary mechanisms. Freshwater habitats are highly susceptible to environmental change and exhibit marked ecological gradients. Standing waters appear to harbor more dispersive species than running waters, but there is little understanding of how this fundamental ecological difference has affected diversification. In contrast to the lack of evolutionary studies, the ecology and habitat preferences of aquatic insects have been intensively studied, in part because of their widespread use as bioindicators. The combination of phylogenetics with the extensive ecological data provides a promising avenue for future research, making aquatic insects highly suitable models for the study of ecological diversification. PMID:24160433

  13. Medical Care of the Aquatics Athlete.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    Competitive swimmers are affected by several musculoskeletal and medical complaints that are unique to the sport. 'Swimmer's shoulder,' the most common overuse injury, is usually caused by some combination of impingement, rotator cuff tendinopathy, scapular dyskinesis, and instability. The condition may be treated with training modifications, stroke error correction, and strengthening exercises targeting the rotator cuff, scapular stabilizers, and core. Implementation of prevention programs to reduce the prevalence of shoulder pathology is crucial. Knee pain usually results from the breaststroke kick in swimmers, and the 'egg beater' kick in water polo players and synchronized swimmers. Lumbar back pain also is common in aquatics athletes. Among the medical conditions of particular importance in swimmers are exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, respiratory illnesses, and ear problems. Participants in other aquatics sports (water polo, diving, synchronized swimming, and open water swimming) may experience medical ailments specific to the sport. PMID:26359841

  14. Screening for adverse events.

    PubMed

    Karson, A S; Bates, D W

    1999-02-01

    Adverse events (AEs) in medical patients are common, costly, and often preventable. Development of quality improvement programs to decrease the number and impact of AEs demands effective methods for screening for AEs on a routine basis. Here we describe the impact, types, and potential causes of AEs and review various techniques for identifying AEs. We evaluate the use of generic screening criteria in detail and describe a recent study of the sensitivity and specificity of individual generic screening criteria and combinations of these criteria. In general, the most sensitive screens were the least specific and no small sub-set of screens identified a large percentage of adverse events. Combinations of screens that were limited to administrative data were the least expensive, but none were particularly sensitive, although in practice they might be effective since routine screening is currently rarely done. As computer systems increase in sophistication sensitivity will improve. We also discuss recent studies that suggest that programs that screen for and identify AEs can be useful in reducing AE rates. While tools for identifying AEs have strengths and weaknesses, they can play an important role in organizations' quality improvement portfolios. PMID:10468381

  15. Adverse Drug Reactions of the Lower Extremities.

    PubMed

    Adigun, Chris G

    2016-07-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a common cause of dermatologic consultation, involving 2 to 3 per 100 medical inpatients in the United States. Female patients are 1.3 to 1.5 times more likely to develop ADRs, except in children less than 3 years of age, among whom boys are more often affected. Certain drugs are more frequent causes, including aminopenicillins, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Chemotherapeutic agents commonly cause adverse reactions to the skin and nails, with certain agents causing particular patterns of reactions. ADRs can involve any area of the skin; the appendages, including hair and nails; as well as mucosa. PMID:27215159

  16. Tool use by aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Mann, Janet; Patterson, Eric M

    2013-11-19

    Tool-use research has focused primarily on land-based animals, with less consideration given to aquatic animals and the environmental challenges and conditions they face. Here, we review aquatic tool use and examine the contributing ecological, physiological, cognitive and social factors. Tool use among aquatic animals is rare but taxonomically diverse, occurring in fish, cephalopods, mammals, crabs, urchins and possibly gastropods. While additional research is required, the scarcity of tool use can likely be attributable to the characteristics of aquatic habitats, which are generally not conducive to tool use. Nonetheless, studying tool use by aquatic animals provides insights into the conditions that promote and inhibit tool-use behaviour across biomes. Like land-based tool users, aquatic animals tend to find tools on the substrate and use tools during foraging. However, unlike on land, tool users in water often use other animals (and their products) and water itself as a tool. Among sea otters and dolphins, the two aquatic tool users studied in greatest detail, some individuals specialize in tool use, which is vertically socially transmitted possibly because of their long dependency periods. In all, the contrasts between aquatic- and land-based tool users enlighten our understanding of the adaptive value of tool-use behaviour. PMID:24101631

  17. Protection Goals for Aquatic Plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Someone once said plants are the ugly stepchildren of the toxicological world. This was not out of lack of respect for plants, but rather reflected the common assumption that aquatic plants were less sensitive than aquatic fauna to chemicals. We now know this is not a valid gener...

  18. Tool use by aquatic animals

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Janet; Patterson, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Tool-use research has focused primarily on land-based animals, with less consideration given to aquatic animals and the environmental challenges and conditions they face. Here, we review aquatic tool use and examine the contributing ecological, physiological, cognitive and social factors. Tool use among aquatic animals is rare but taxonomically diverse, occurring in fish, cephalopods, mammals, crabs, urchins and possibly gastropods. While additional research is required, the scarcity of tool use can likely be attributable to the characteristics of aquatic habitats, which are generally not conducive to tool use. Nonetheless, studying tool use by aquatic animals provides insights into the conditions that promote and inhibit tool-use behaviour across biomes. Like land-based tool users, aquatic animals tend to find tools on the substrate and use tools during foraging. However, unlike on land, tool users in water often use other animals (and their products) and water itself as a tool. Among sea otters and dolphins, the two aquatic tool users studied in greatest detail, some individuals specialize in tool use, which is vertically socially transmitted possibly because of their long dependency periods. In all, the contrasts between aquatic- and land-based tool users enlighten our understanding of the adaptive value of tool-use behaviour. PMID:24101631

  19. Rubber tire leachates in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Evans, J J

    1997-01-01

    Tires have a deleterious effect on the environment. This review discusses the background of scrap tires discarded in the environment, including tire composition, adverse environmental effects, threats to public health and safety, and solid waste management. Despite the widespread use of scrap tires in environmental applications, both land-based and aquatic, data on the indicators of environmental degradation are extremely scarce. Indicators of environmental degradation include analysis of chemicals within the water and sediment, analysis of contaminants within organisms, and analysis of the biological effects of these compounds on plants, animals, microbes, and organelles. Although these indicators are most useful when used in parallel, a review of the available information on chemical characterization of tire leachate from tire storage facilities, manufacturing, usage in recycling applications, and toxicity exposure studies, of vegetation surveys from waste tire areas and reviews of mammalian tire product toxicity, and of toxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity of tire exposure in experimental aquatic animals, microbes, and organelles is presented. The major characteristics of these studies are discussed in specific sections. The "Discussion and Conclusions" section discusses and summarizes the biological effects and chemical characterization of tire leachates. A global environmental perspective is included to improve our understanding of the deficiency of the current knowledge of tire leachate toxicity from various sources and to encourage interdisciplinary studies to establish the pattern of pollution associated with waste tire management. PMID:9216257

  20. ISMP Adverse Drug Reactions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this feature is to heighten awareness of specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discuss methods of prevention, and promote reporting of ADRs to the US Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) MedWatch program (800-FDA-1088). If you have reported an interesting, preventable ADR to MedWatch, please consider sharing the account with our readers. Write to Dr. Mancano at ISMP, 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite 200, Horsham, PA 19044 (phone: 215-707-4936; e-mail: mmancano@temple.edu). Your report will be published anonymously unless otherwise requested. This feature is provided by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) in cooperation with the FDA’s MedWatch program and Temple University School of Pharmacy. ISMP is an FDA MedWatch partner. PMID:24421544

  1. [Cutaneous adverse drug reactions].

    PubMed

    Lebrun-Vignes, B; Valeyrie-Allanore, L

    2015-04-01

    Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR) represent a heterogeneous field including various clinical patterns without specific features suggesting drug causality. Exanthematous eruptions, urticaria and vasculitis are the most common forms of CADR. Fixed eruption is uncommon in western countries. Serious reactions (fatal outcome, sequelae) represent 2% of CADR: bullous reactions (Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis), DRESS (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms or drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome) and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP). These forms must be quickly diagnosed to guide their management. The main risk factors are immunosuppression, autoimmunity and some HLA alleles in bullous reactions and DRESS. Most systemic drugs may induce cutaneous adverse reactions, especially antibiotics, anticonvulsivants, antineoplastic drugs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, allopurinol and contrast media. Pathogenesis includes immediate or delayed immunologic mechanism, usually not related to dose, and pharmacologic/toxic mechanism, commonly dose-dependent or time-dependent. In case of immunologic mechanism, allergologic exploration is possible to clarify drug causality, with a variable sensitivity according to the drug and to the CADR type. It includes epicutaneous patch testing, prick test and intradermal test. However, no in vivo or in vitro test can confirm the drug causality. To determine the cause of the eruption, a logical approach based on clinical characteristics, chronologic factors and elimination of differential diagnosis is required, completed with a literature search. A reporting to pharmacovigilance network is essential in case of a serious CADR whatever the suspected drug and in any case if the involved drug is a newly marketed one or unusually related to cutaneous reactions. PMID:25458866

  2. Adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Reiser, Sarah J; McMillan, Katherine A; Wright, Kristi D; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2014-03-01

    Childhood experiences are thought to predispose a person to the development of health anxiety later in life. However, there is a lack of research investigating the influence of specific adverse experiences (e.g., childhood abuse, household dysfunction) on this condition. The current study examined the cumulative influence of multiple types of childhood adversities on health anxiety in adulthood. Adults 18-59 years of age (N=264) completed a battery of measures to assess adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs (i.e., negative affect and trait anxiety). Significant associations were observed between adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicted that adverse childhood experiences were predictive of health anxiety in adulthood; however, the unique contribution of these experience were no longer significant following the inclusion of the other variables of interest. Subsequently, mediation analyses indicated that both negative affect and trait anxiety independently mediated the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood. Increased exposure to adverse childhood experiences is associated with higher levels of health anxiety in adulthood; this relationship is mediated through negative affect and trait anxiety. Findings support the long-term negative impact of cumulative adverse childhood experiences and emphasize the importance of addressing negative affect and trait anxiety in efforts to prevent and treat health anxiety. PMID:24011493

  3. Protecting aquatic resources: an ecologist's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Giddings, J.M.

    1984-04-17

    Because natural populations are linked by a variety of ecological interactions (e.g., predation and competition), the response of any particular population to chemical exposure depends on how the rest of the ecosystem is affected. Mathematical models and field experiments demonstrate that such interactions can amplify or diminish the impacts of contaminants on populations. When direct toxic effects result in persistent, significant changes in some parts of an ecosystem, other populations in the ecosystem become vulnerable to indirect effects. Protection of aquatic populations, then, requires protection of aquatic ecosystems. The threshold of persistent, significant damage to an ecosystem is a distinct discontinuity in the gradient of ecosystem response to increasing chemical exposure. The safe level of exposure for an aquatic ecosystem can be determined experimentally using microcosms or field enclosures. It is hypothesized that safe exposure levels for ecosystems are usually near the lower end of the chronic toxicity range for single species. Data on chemical effects in ecosystem are needed in order to calibrate standard bioassays and to verify the accuracy of methods for extrapolating from bioassay results to nature. 16 references, 1 figure.

  4. Phytoaccumulation of heavy metals by aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Kamal, M; Ghaly, A E; Mahmoud, N; Côté, R

    2004-02-01

    Three aquatic plants were examined for their ability to remove heavy metals from contaminated water: parrot feather (Myriophylhum aquaticum), creeping primrose (Ludwigina palustris), and water mint (Mentha aquatic). The plants were obtained from a Solar Aquatic System treating municipal wastewater. All the three plants were able to remove Fe, Zn, Cu, and Hg from the contaminated water. The average removal efficiency for the three plant species was 99.8%, 76.7%, 41.62%, and 33.9% of Hg, Fe, Cu, and Zn, respectively. The removal rates of zinc and copper were constant (0.48 mg/l/day for Zn and 0.11 mg/l/day for Cu), whereas those of iron and mercury were dependent on the concentration of these elements in the contaminated water and ranged from 7.00 to 0.41 mg/l/day for Fe and 0.0787 to 0.0002 mg/l/day for Hg. Parrot feather showed greater tolerance to toxicity followed by water mint and creeping primrose. The growth of creeping primrose was significantly affected by heavy metal toxicity. The selectivity of heavy metals for the three plant species was the same (Hg>Fe>Cu>Zn). The mass balance preformed on the system showed that about 60.45-82.61% of the zinc and 38.96-60.75% of the copper were removed by precipitation as zinc phosphate and copper phosphate, respectively. PMID:14680885

  5. Micronucleus assay in aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Bolognesi, Claudia; Hayashi, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic pollutants produce multiple consequences at organism, population, community and ecosystem level, affecting organ function, reproductive status, population size, species survival and thus biodiversity. Among these, carcinogenic and mutagenic compounds are the most dangerous as their effects may exert a damage beyond that of individual and may be active through several generations. The application of genotoxicity biomarkers in sentinel organisms allows for the assessment of mutagenic hazards and/or for the identification of the sources and fate of the contaminants. Micronucleus (MN) test as an index of accumulated genetic damage during the lifespan of the cells is one of the most suitable techniques to identify integrated response to the complex mixture of contaminants. MN assay is today widely applied in a large number of wild and transplanted aquatic species. The large majority of studies or programmes on the genotoxic effect of the polluted water environment have been carried out with the use of bivalves and fish. Haemocytes and gill cells are the target tissues most frequently considered for the MN determination in bivalves. The MN test was widely validated and was successfully applied in a large number of field studies using bivalves from the genera Mytilus. MN in fish can be visualised in different cell types: erythrocytes and gill, kidney, hepatic and fin cells. The use of peripheral erythrocytes is more widely used because it avoids the complex cell preparation and the killing of the animals. The MN test in fish erythrocytes was validated in laboratory with different species after exposure to a large number of genotoxic agents. The erythrocyte MN test in fish was also widely and frequently applied for genotoxicity assessment of freshwater and marine environment in situ using native or caged animals following different periods of exposure. Large interspecies differences in sensitivity for MN induction were observed. Further validation studies are

  6. Aquatic Invertebrate Development Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, D.

    1985-01-01

    Little definitive evidence exists to show that gravity plays a major role in embyrogenesis of aquatic invertebrates. Two reasons for this may be: (1) few studies have been done that emphasize the role of gravity; and (2) there simply may not be any gravity effect. The buoyant nature of the aquatic environment could have obscured any evolutionary effect of gravity. The small size of most eggs and their apparent lack of orientation suggests reduced gravitational influence. Therefore, it is recommended that the term development, as applied to aquatic invertebrates, be loosely defined to encompass behavioral and morphological parameters for which baseline data already exist.

  7. Aquatic models, genomics and chemical risk management.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Keith C; Hinton, David E; Mattingly, Carolyn J; Planchart, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The 5th Aquatic Animal Models for Human Disease meeting follows four previous meetings (Nairn et al., 2001; Schmale, 2004; Schmale et al., 2007; Hinton et al., 2009) in which advances in aquatic animal models for human disease research were reported, and community discussion of future direction was pursued. At this meeting, discussion at a workshop entitled Bioinformatics and Computational Biology with Web-based Resources (20 September 2010) led to an important conclusion: Aquatic model research using feral and experimental fish, in combination with web-based access to annotated anatomical atlases and toxicological databases, yields data that advance our understanding of human gene function, and can be used to facilitate environmental management and drug development. We propose here that the effects of genes and environment are best appreciated within an anatomical context - the specifically affected cells and organs in the whole animal. We envision the use of automated, whole-animal imaging at cellular resolution and computational morphometry facilitated by high-performance computing and automated entry into toxicological databases, as anchors for genetic and toxicological data, and as connectors between human and model system data. These principles should be applied to both laboratory and feral fish populations, which have been virtually irreplaceable sentinals for environmental contamination that results in human morbidity and mortality. We conclude that automation, database generation, and web-based accessibility, facilitated by genomic/transcriptomic data and high-performance and cloud computing, will potentiate the unique and potentially key roles that aquatic models play in advancing systems biology, drug development, and environmental risk management. PMID:21763781

  8. E-waste disposal effects on the aquatic environment: Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingyu; Nkrumah, Philip Nti; Anim, Desmond Ofosu; Mensah, Ebenezer

    2014-01-01

    , the need for actions to be taken to reduce entry of e-waste pollutants into Ghana's aquatic environment is real and is immediate.Heavy metals (e.g., lead, cadmium, copper and zinc) and organic pollutants (e.g.,PCDD/Fs and PBDEs) have been detected in the sediments of local water bodies in quantities that greatly exceed background levels. This fact alone suggests that aquatic organisms that live in the affected water bodies are highly exposed to these toxic, bio-accumulative, and persistent contaminants. These contaminants have been confirmed to result from the primitive methods used to recycle and process e-waste within the local environment.Only limited local data exist on the threats posed by these e-waste-related contaminants on nearby natural resources, especially aquatic organisms. In this review,we have addressed the potential toxicity of selected heavy metals and organic pollutants on aquatic organisms. Since there are no data on concentrations of contaminants in the water column, we have based our predictions of effects on pollutant release rates from sediments. Pollutants that are attached to sediments are routinely released into the water column from diffusion and advection, the rate of which depends on pH and Eh of the sediments. E-waste contaminants have the potential to produce deleterious effects on the behavior, physiology, metabolism, reproduction,development and growth of many aquatic organisms. Because it is confirmed that both heavy metal and organic contaminants are reaching the biota of Ghana's local waterways, we presume that they are producing adverse effects. Because local data on the aquatic toxicity of these contaminants are as yet unavailable, we strongly recommend that future research be undertaken to examine, on a large scale and long-term basis, both contamination levels in biota, and adverse effects on biota of the nearby water bodies. PMID:24515808

  9. ADVERSE CUTANEOUS DRUG REACTION

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Surajit; Acharjya, Basanti

    2008-01-01

    In everyday clinical practice, almost all physicians come across many instances of suspected adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDR) in different forms. Although such cutaneous reactions are common, comprehensive information regarding their incidence, severity and ultimate health effects are often not available as many cases go unreported. It is also a fact that in the present world, almost everyday a new drug enters market; therefore, a chance of a new drug reaction manifesting somewhere in some form in any corner of world is unknown or unreported. Although many a times, presentation is too trivial and benign, the early identification of the condition and identifying the culprit drug and omit it at earliest holds the keystone in management and prevention of a more severe drug rash. Therefore, not only the dermatologists, but all practicing physicians should be familiar with these conditions to diagnose them early and to be prepared to handle them adequately. However, we all know it is most challenging and practically difficult when patient is on multiple medicines because of myriad clinical symptoms, poorly understood multiple mechanisms of drug-host interaction, relative paucity of laboratory testing that is available for any definitive and confirmatory drug-specific testing. Therefore, in practice, the diagnosis of ACDR is purely based on clinical judgment. In this discussion, we will be primarily focusing on pathomechanism and approach to reach a diagnosis, which is the vital pillar to manage any case of ACDR. PMID:19967009

  10. Public Lakes, Private Lakeshore: Modeling Protection of Native Aquatic Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.

    2013-07-01

    Protection of native aquatic plants is an important proenvironmental behavior, because plant loss coupled with nutrient loading can produce changes in lake ecosystems. Removal of aquatic plants by lakeshore property owners is a diffuse behavior that may lead to cumulative impacts on lake ecosystems. This class of behavior is challenging to manage because collective impacts are not obvious to the actors. This paper distinguishes positive and negative beliefs about aquatic plants, in models derived from norm activation theory (Schwartz, Adv Exp Soc Psychol 10:221-279, 1977) and the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research, Addison-Wesley, Boston 1975), to examine protection of native aquatic plants by Minnesota lakeshore property owners. We clarify how positive and negative evaluations of native aquatic plants affect protection or removal of these plants. Results are based on a mail survey ( n = 3,115). Results suggest that positive evaluations of aquatic plants (i.e., as valuable to lake ecology) may not connect with the global attitudes and behavioral intentions that direct plant protection or removal. Lakeshore property owners' behavior related to aquatic plants may be driven more by tangible personal benefits derived from accessible, carefully managed lakeshore than intentional action taken to sustain lake ecosystems. The limited connection of positive evaluations of aquatic plants to global attitudes and behavioral intentions may reflect either lack of knowledge of what actions are needed to protect lake health and/or unwillingness to lose perceived benefits derived from lakeshore property.

  11. Public lakes, private lakeshore: modeling protection of native aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Susan A; Fulton, David C

    2013-07-01

    Protection of native aquatic plants is an important proenvironmental behavior, because plant loss coupled with nutrient loading can produce changes in lake ecosystems. Removal of aquatic plants by lakeshore property owners is a diffuse behavior that may lead to cumulative impacts on lake ecosystems. This class of behavior is challenging to manage because collective impacts are not obvious to the actors. This paper distinguishes positive and negative beliefs about aquatic plants, in models derived from norm activation theory (Schwartz, Adv Exp Soc Psychol 10:221-279, 1977) and the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research, Addison-Wesley, Boston 1975), to examine protection of native aquatic plants by Minnesota lakeshore property owners. We clarify how positive and negative evaluations of native aquatic plants affect protection or removal of these plants. Results are based on a mail survey (n = 3,115). Results suggest that positive evaluations of aquatic plants (i.e., as valuable to lake ecology) may not connect with the global attitudes and behavioral intentions that direct plant protection or removal. Lakeshore property owners' behavior related to aquatic plants may be driven more by tangible personal benefits derived from accessible, carefully managed lakeshore than intentional action taken to sustain lake ecosystems. The limited connection of positive evaluations of aquatic plants to global attitudes and behavioral intentions may reflect either lack of knowledge of what actions are needed to protect lake health and/or unwillingness to lose perceived benefits derived from lakeshore property. PMID:23609308

  12. Role Models in Aquatic Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mabel C.

    1982-01-01

    Provided for each of 12 minority group role models in aquatic occupations are job responsibilities, educational requirements, comments on a typical day at the job, salary range, and recommendations for students wishing to enter the field described. (JN)

  13. POLAR NARCOSIS IN AQUATIC ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The majority of industrial organic chemicals lack identifiable structural characteristics that result in specific biological activity. hese nonpolar-nonelectrolytes are acutely toxic to aquatic organisms via a nonspecific mode of action termed narcosis. he toxicity of industrial ...

  14. CHLORINATION OF AQUATIC HUMIC SUBSTANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research program was initiated with the overall objective of increasing our understanding of the chemical structures of aquatic humic material and their behavior during chemical oxidation in particular with chlorine. Experimental methods were devised for the isolation of hum...

  15. Bioaccumulation and Aquatic System Simulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    BASS (Bioaccumulation and Aquatic )System Simulator) is a Fortran 95 simulation program that predicts the population and bioaccumulation dynamics of age-structured fish assemblages that are exposed to hydrophobic organic pollutants and class B and bord...

  16. BIOGEOCHEMICAL INDICATORS IN AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Loadings of excess organic wastes and associated nutrients to aquatic systems has numerous deleterious consequences with respect to the ecosystem services provided by these important ecosystems including perturbation of organic matter and nutrient cycling rates, reduction in diss...

  17. WATER QUALITY CHANGES IN HYPORHEIC FLOW AT THE AQUATIC-TERRESTRIAL INTERFACE OF A LARGER RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exchange between river water and groundwater in hyporheic flow at the aquatic-terrestrial interface can importantly affect water quality and aquatic habitat in the main channel of large rivers and at off-channel sites that include flowing and stagnant side channels. With tracer ...

  18. Science: Aquatic Toxicology Matures, Gains Importance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagani, Ron

    1980-01-01

    Reviews recent advances in aquatic toxicology, whose major goal is to protect diverse aquatic organisms and whole ecological communities from the dire effects of man-made chemicals. Current legislation is reviewed. Differences in mammalian and aquatic toxicology are listed, and examples of research in aquatic toxicology are discussed. (CS)

  19. Aquatic Plants Aid Sewage Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1985-01-01

    Method of wastewater treatment combines micro-organisms and aquatic plant roots in filter bed. Treatment occurs as liquid flows up through system. Micro-organisms, attached themselves to rocky base material of filter, act in several steps to decompose organic matter in wastewater. Vascular aquatic plants (typically, reeds, rushes, cattails, or water hyacinths) absorb nitrogen, phosphorus, other nutrients, and heavy metals from water through finely divided roots.

  20. The adverse health effects of chronic cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Hall, Wayne; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the most probable of the adverse health effects of regular cannabis use sustained over years, as indicated by epidemiological studies that have established an association between cannabis use and adverse outcomes; ruled out reverse causation; and controlled for plausible alternative explanations. We have also focused on adverse outcomes for which there is good evidence of biological plausibility. The focus is on those adverse health effects of greatest potential public health significance--those that are most likely to occur and to affect a substantial proportion of regular cannabis users. These most probable adverse effects of regular use include a dependence syndrome, impaired respiratory function, cardiovascular disease, adverse effects on adolescent psychosocial development and mental health, and residual cognitive impairment. PMID:23836598

  1. Montsechia, an ancient aquatic angiosperm.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Bernard; Daviero-Gomez, Véronique; Coiffard, Clément; Martín-Closas, Carles; Dilcher, David L

    2015-09-01

    The early diversification of angiosperms in diverse ecological niches is poorly understood. Some have proposed an origin in a darkened forest habitat and others an open aquatic or near aquatic habitat. The research presented here centers on Montsechia vidalii, first recovered from lithographic limestone deposits in the Pyrenees of Spain more than 100 y ago. This fossil material has been poorly understood and misinterpreted in the past. Now, based upon the study of more than 1,000 carefully prepared specimens, a detailed analysis of Montsechia is presented. The morphology and anatomy of the plant, including aspects of its reproduction, suggest that Montsechia is sister to Ceratophyllum (whenever cladistic analyses are made with or without a backbone). Montsechia was an aquatic angiosperm living and reproducing below the surface of the water, similar to Ceratophyllum. Montsechia is Barremian in age, raising questions about the very early divergence of the Ceratophyllum clade compared with its position as sister to eudicots in many cladistic analyses. Lower Cretaceous aquatic angiosperms, such as Archaefructus and Montsechia, open the possibility that aquatic plants were locally common at a very early stage of angiosperm evolution and that aquatic habitats may have played a major role in the diversification of some early angiosperm lineages. PMID:26283347

  2. Montsechia, an ancient aquatic angiosperm

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Bernard; Daviero-Gomez, Véronique; Coiffard, Clément; Martín-Closas, Carles; Dilcher, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The early diversification of angiosperms in diverse ecological niches is poorly understood. Some have proposed an origin in a darkened forest habitat and others an open aquatic or near aquatic habitat. The research presented here centers on Montsechia vidalii, first recovered from lithographic limestone deposits in the Pyrenees of Spain more than 100 y ago. This fossil material has been poorly understood and misinterpreted in the past. Now, based upon the study of more than 1,000 carefully prepared specimens, a detailed analysis of Montsechia is presented. The morphology and anatomy of the plant, including aspects of its reproduction, suggest that Montsechia is sister to Ceratophyllum (whenever cladistic analyses are made with or without a backbone). Montsechia was an aquatic angiosperm living and reproducing below the surface of the water, similar to Ceratophyllum. Montsechia is Barremian in age, raising questions about the very early divergence of the Ceratophyllum clade compared with its position as sister to eudicots in many cladistic analyses. Lower Cretaceous aquatic angiosperms, such as Archaefructus and Montsechia, open the possibility that aquatic plants were locally common at a very early stage of angiosperm evolution and that aquatic habitats may have played a major role in the diversification of some early angiosperm lineages. PMID:26283347

  3. Watershed geomorphology modifies the temperature sensitivity of aquatic ecosystem metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankowski, K. J.; Schindler, D.

    2015-12-01

    How carbon cycles are regulated by temperature remains a substantial uncertainty in our understanding of how watersheds will respond to ongoing climate change. Aquatic ecosystems are significant components of carbon flux to the atmosphere and ocean, yet we have limited understanding of how changing thermal regimes will alter rates of ecosystem metabolic processes, and, therefore, aquatic contributions to carbon cycles at watershed to global scales. Watershed geomorphology controls the landscape-scale distribution of organic material that can form the metabolic base of aquatic ecosystems, which will likely affect the temperature sensitivity of aquatic ecosystem metabolism. Across 23 streams in a boreal river basin, we estimated how temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration (ER), an important component of the aquatic C cycle, varied among streams with different watershed characteristics. We found that geomorphic conditions imposed strong ultimate controls on temperature sensitivity: ER in streams draining flat watersheds was much more sensitive to temperature than streams draining steeper watersheds. Further, we show that the link between watershed geomorphology and temperature sensitivity was related to changes in the quality of carbon substrates across the gradient in watershed slope. These results suggest that geomorphic conditions will ultimately control how carbon processing responds to warming climate, thereby affecting carbon transport and storage, and likely food web responses, in river networks.

  4. Large-Scale Environmental Influences on Aquatic Animal Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the latter portion of the 20th century, North America experienced numerous large-scale mortality events affecting a broad diversity of aquatic animals. Short-term forensic investigations of these events have sometimes characterized a causative agent or condition, but have rare...

  5. Stoneflies and Campers: Teaching Campers about Aquatic Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelstein, Karen

    1994-01-01

    Summer camps can implement a biomonitoring program that determines water quality through study of aquatic insects. Such a program requires a minimum of equipment and allows campers to explore the natural world and absorb information that will affect their views of science and the environment. (LP)

  6. ENCLOSED AQUATIC MULTIPSECIES TEST SYSTEM FOR TESTING MIBROBIAL PEST CONTROL AGENTS WITH NON-TARGET SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An enclosed test system was developed in which multiple species of aquatic animals and plants were tested experimentally for adverse non-target effects of wild-type and genetically altered microbial pest control agents (MPCAs). our different types of model MPCAs were tested in th...

  7. Hazard identification for 3,5-dichlorophenol in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Zagorc-Koncan, Jana; Zgajnar Gotvajn, Andreja; Tisler, Tatjana

    2002-01-01

    The risk assessment of substances in various environmental compartments is essential for their proper, safe and environmentally friendly production, handling, use and final deposition or destruction. Hazard identification is an important part of risk assessment. The aim of our research was to present a methodology for the hazard identification of substances dangerous to the aquatic environment according to the 93/21/EEC Directive relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances, from the adverse effect assessment of chemicals in European Union. A battery of toxicity tests and biodegradability studies with 3,5-dichlorophenol were performed. The substance was classified as toxic to aquatic organisms with possible long-term adverse effects. The presented methodology assures reliable data for the classification and labelling of substances according to their harmful effect on aquatic biota, suitable for the competent authorities at the national and EU level. PMID:12097992

  8. Adverse Reactions to Hallucinogenic Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Roger E. , Ed.

    This reports a conference of psychologists, psychiatrists, geneticists and others concerned with the biological and psychological effects of lysergic acid diethylamide and other hallucinogenic drugs. Clinical data are presented on adverse drug reactions. The difficulty of determining the causes of adverse reactions is discussed, as are different…

  9. The occurrence and ecological risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in urban aquatic environments of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lulu; Liu, Jingling; Liu, Huayong; Wan, Guisheng; Zhang, Shaowei

    2015-07-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are widely used in the manufacturing of plastics, and the demand for PAEs has grown rapidly, especially in China. This trend will lead to much more environmental PAE contamination. PAEs are listed as priority substances in the European Union and are therefore subject to ecological risk assessments. This paper reviews the literature concerning the pollution status of PAEs and their ecological risk to aquatic environments. Risk quotients (RQs) based on the predicted no effect concentration and PAE concentrations in aquatic environments demonstrated significant (10 ≤ RQ < 100) or expected (RQ ≥ 100) potential adverse effects for algae, Daphnia, and fish in aquatic environments near PAE-based industrial and urban areas. Thus, the ecological risk of PAEs in Chinese aquatic environments should be considered, especially in areas where commercial plastics are produced. PMID:25847103

  10. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Frank, M.L.

    1986-02-01

    Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products.

  11. Microcystin dynamics in aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Martins, José C; Vasconcelos, Vítor M

    2009-01-01

    Eutrophication of surface water has increased significantly during the past decade, resulting in increased occurrences of toxic blooms. Cyanotoxins have become a global health threat to humans, wild animals, or domestic livestock. Hepatotoxic microcystins (MC) are the predominant cyanotoxins, which accumulate in aquatic organisms and are transferred to higher trophic levels. This is an issue of major concern in aquatic toxicology, as it involves the risk for human exposure through the consumption of contaminated fish and other aquatic organisms. The persistence and detoxification of MC in aquatic organisms are important issues for public health and fishery economics. Bioaccumulation of MC depends on the toxicity of the strains, mode of feeding, and detoxication mechanisms. Although mussels, as sessile filter feeders, seem to be organisms that ingest more MC, other molluscs like gastropods, as well as zooplankton and fish, may also retain average similar levels of toxins. Edible animals such as some species of molluscs, crustaceans, and fish present different risk because toxins accumulate in muscle at low levels. Carnivorous fish seem to accumulate high MC concentrations compared to phytophagous or omnivorous fish. This review summarizes the existing data on the distribution and dynamics of MC in contaminated aquatic organisms. PMID:19117210

  12. Aquatic plants for removal of mevinphos from the aquatic environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1975-01-01

    Fragrant waterlily (Nymphaea odorata, Ait.), joint-grass (Paspalum distichum L.), and rush (Juncus repens, Michx.) were used to evaluate the effectiveness of vascular aquatic plants in removing the insecticide mevinphos (dimethyl-1-carbomethoxy-1propen-2-yl phosphate) from waters contaminated with this chemical. The emersed aquatic plants fragrant waterlily and joint-grass removed 87 and 93 ppm of mevinphos from water test systems in less than 2 weeks without apparent damage to the plants; whereas rush, a submersed plant, removed less insecticide than the water-soil controls. Water-soil control still contained toxic levels of this insecticide, as demonstrated by fish bioassay studies, after 35 days.

  13. Aquatic invasive species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorsteinson, Lyman

    2005-01-01

    Invasive species are plants or animals that are present in an ecosystem beyond their native range. They may have few natural controls in their new environment and proliferate. They can threaten native species and interfere with human activities. The Western Fisheries Research Center (WFRC) has been conducting research to understand how non-native species invade and affect ecosystems, thus aiding management efforts.

  14. Review on environmental alterations propagating from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco; Gergs, René; Brühl, Carsten A; Diehl, Dörte; Entling, Martin H; Fahse, Lorenz; Frör, Oliver; Jungkunst, Hermann F; Lorke, Andreas; Schäfer, Ralf B; Schaumann, Gabriele E; Schwenk, Klaus

    2015-12-15

    Terrestrial inputs into freshwater ecosystems are a classical field of environmental science. Resource fluxes (subsidy) from aquatic to terrestrial systems have been less studied, although they are of high ecological relevance particularly for the receiving ecosystem. These fluxes may, however, be impacted by anthropogenically driven alterations modifying structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. In this context, we reviewed the peer-reviewed literature for studies addressing the subsidy of terrestrial by aquatic ecosystems with special emphasis on the role that anthropogenic alterations play in this water-land coupling. Our analysis revealed a continuously increasing interest in the coupling of aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems between 1990 and 2014 (total: 661 studies), while the research domains focusing on abiotic (502 studies) and biotic (159 studies) processes are strongly separated. Approximately 35% (abiotic) and 25% (biotic) of the studies focused on the propagation of anthropogenic alterations from the aquatic to the terrestrial system. Among these studies, hydromorphological and hydrological alterations were predominantly assessed, whereas water pollution and invasive species were less frequently investigated. Less than 5% of these studies considered indirect effects in the terrestrial system e.g. via food web responses, as a result of anthropogenic alterations in aquatic ecosystems. Nonetheless, these very few publications indicate far-reaching consequences in the receiving terrestrial ecosystem. For example, bottom-up mediated responses via soil quality can cascade over plant communities up to the level of herbivorous arthropods, while top-down mediated responses via predatory spiders can cascade down to herbivorous arthropods and even plants. Overall, the current state of knowledge calls for an integrated assessment on how these interactions within terrestrial ecosystems are affected by propagation of aquatic ecosystem alterations. To fill

  15. Does water chemistry affect the dietary uptake and toxicity of silver nanoparticles by the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis?

    PubMed

    Oliver, Ana López-Serrano; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Stoiber, Tasha L; Tejamaya, Mila; Römer, Isabella; Lead, Jamie R; Luoma, Samuel N

    2014-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in many applications and likely released into the aquatic environment. There is increasing evidence that Ag is efficiently delivered to aquatic organisms from AgNPs after aqueous and dietary exposures. Accumulation of AgNPs through the diet can damage digestion and adversely affect growth. It is well recognized that aspects of water quality, such as hardness, affect the bioavailability and toxicity of waterborne Ag. However, the influence of water chemistry on the bioavailability and toxicity of dietborne AgNPs to aquatic invertebrates is largely unknown. Here we characterize for the first time the effects of water hardness and humic acids on the bioaccumulation and toxicity of AgNPs coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) to the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis after dietary exposures. Our results indicate that bioaccumulation and toxicity of Ag from PVP-AgNPs ingested with food are not affected by water hardness and by humic acids, although both could affect interactions with the biological membrane and trigger nanoparticle transformations. Snails efficiently assimilated Ag from the PVP-AgNPs mixed with diatoms (Ag assimilation efficiencies ranged from 82 to 93%). Rate constants of Ag uptake from food were similar across the entire range of water hardness and humic acid concentrations. These results suggest that correcting regulations for water quality could be irrelevant and ineffective where dietary exposure is important. PMID:24641838

  16. Does water chemistry affect the dietary uptake and toxicity of silver nanoparticles by the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    López-Serrano Oliver, Ana; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Stoiber, Tasha L.; Tejamaya, Mila; Römer, Isabella; Lead, Jamie R.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in many applications and likely released into the aquatic environment. There is increasing evidence that Ag is efficiently delivered to aquatic organisms from AgNPs after aqueous and dietary exposures. Accumulation of AgNPs through the diet can damage digestion and adversely affect growth. It is well recognized that aspects of water quality, such as hardness, affect the bioavailability and toxicity of waterborne Ag. However, the influence of water chemistry on the bioavailability and toxicity of dietborne AgNPs to aquatic invertebrates is largely unknown. Here we characterize for the first time the effects of water hardness and humic acids on the bioaccumulation and toxicity of AgNPs coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) to the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis after dietary exposures. Our results indicate that bioaccumulation and toxicity of Ag from PVP-AgNPs ingested with food are not affected by water hardness and by humic acids, although both could affect interactions with the biological membrane and trigger nanoparticle transformations. Snails efficiently assimilated Ag from the PVP-AgNPs mixed with diatoms (Ag assimilation efficiencies ranged from 82 to 93%). Rate constants of Ag uptake from food were similar across the entire range of water hardness and humic acid concentrations. These results suggest that correcting regulations for water quality could be irrelevant and ineffective where dietary exposure is important.

  17. PRODUCTION OF EXTRACELLULAR NUCLEIC ACIDS BY GENETICALLY ALTERED BACTERIA IN AQUATIC-ENVIRONMENT MICROCOSMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Factors which affect the production of extracellular DNA by genetically altered strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, pseudomonas cepacia, and Bradyrhizobium japonicum in aquatic environments were investigated. he presence or absence of the ambient microbial commun...

  18. GROUP REPORT: PHYSIOLOGICAL AND ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ACIDIFICATION ON AQUATIC BIOTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acidification affects all components of biological communities in lakes and streams: microbes, algae, macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, amphibians, and other vertebrates that rely on aquatic ecosystems for habitat or food. echanisms of effect are both direct (toxic responses to c...

  19. Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Mirabella, Paula; Waichman, Andrea; Solomon, Keith; Van den Brink, Paul J; Maund, Steve

    2014-10-01

    Latin America is anticipated to be a major growth market for agriculture and production is increasing with use of technologies such as pesticides. Reports of contamination of aquatic ecosystems by pesticides in Latin America have raised concerns about potential for adverse ecological effects. In the registration process of pesticides, all countries require significant data packages on aquatic toxicology and environmental fate. However, there are usually no specific requirements to conduct an aquatic risk assessment. To address this issue, the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry organized a workshop that brought together scientists from academia, government, and industry to review and elaborate on aquatic risk assessment frameworks that can be implemented into regulation of pesticides in Latin America. The workshop concluded that the international framework for risk assessments (protection goals, effects, and exposure assessments, risk characterization, and risk mitigation) is broadly applicable in Latin America but needs further refinement for the use in the region. Some of the challenges associated with these refinements are discussed in the article. It was recognized that there is potential for data sharing both within and outside of the region where conditions are similar. However, there is a need for research to compare local species and environmental conditions to those in other jurisdictions to be able to evaluate the applicability of data used in other countries. Development should also focus on human resources as there is a need to build local capacity and capability, and scientific collaboration and exchange between stakeholders in industry, government, and academia is also important. The meeting also emphasized that, although establishing a regionally relevant risk assessment framework is important, this also needs to be accompanied by enforcement of developed regulations and good management practices to help protect aquatic habitats

  20. Adverse possession of subsurface minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, P.N.

    1983-01-01

    Concepts applicable to adverse possession of subsurface minerals are generally the same as those that apply to adverse possession of all real estate. However, special requirements must be satisfied in order to perfect title to subsurface minerals by adverse possession, particularly when there has been a severance of the true title between surface and subsurface minerals. In those jurisdictions where senior and junior grants came from the state or commonwealth covering the same or some of the same land and in those areas where descriptions of land were vague or not carefully drawn, adverse possession serves to solidify land and mineral ownership. There may be some public, social, and economic justification in rewarding, with good title, those who take possession and use real estate for its intended use, including the extraction of subsurface minerals. 96 refernces.

  1. Reverse Engineering Adverse Outcome Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, Edward; Chipman, J.K.; Edwards, Stephen; Habib, Tanwir; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Ronald C.; Van Aggelen, Graham; Vulpe, Chris; Antczak, Philipp; Loguinov, Alexandre

    2011-01-30

    The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or poorly characterized, mechanisms of action. We describe the application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, metabolic, signaling) to characterize adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis in fathead minnows. Gene expression changes in fathead minnow ovaries in response to 7 different chemicals, over different times, doses, and in vivo versus in vitro conditions were captured in a large data set of 868 arrays. We examined potential AOPs of the antiandrogen flutamide using two mutual information theory methods, ARACNE and CLR to infer gene regulatory networks and potential adverse outcome pathways. Representative networks from these studies were used to predict a network path from stressor to adverse outcome as a candidate AOP. The relationship of individual chemicals to an adverse outcome can be determined by following perturbations through the network in response to chemical treatment leading to the nodes associated with the adverse outcome. Identification of candidate pathways allows for formation of testable hypotheses about key biologic processes, biomarkers or alternative endpoints, which could be used to monitor an adverse outcome pathway. Finally, we identify the unique challenges facing the application of this approach in ecotoxicology, and attempt to provide a road map for the utilization of these tools. Key Words: mechanism of action, toxicology, microarray, network inference

  2. Same Play, Different Actors: The Aquatic Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanis, Ira B.; Saccente, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    Provided are background information, equipment lists, and procedures for four activities for teaching aquatic ecology. Activities include "The Aquatic Food Chain Game"; "Two-Liter Aqua-Vivariums"; "A Sealed World"; and "Weaving a Web: Evaluation." (CW)

  3. The science of evaluation of adverse events associated with vaccination.

    PubMed

    Halsey, Neal A

    2002-07-01

    All vaccines cause some adverse events; serious adverse events are rare. Causal associations between a vaccine and an adverse event rarely can be determined by specific tests such as identifying a vaccine agent in the affected tissue of patients. In the absence of such data, epidemiologic studies can be used to determine if the risk of the disorder is increased in vaccinated compared to unvaccinated individuals. Common mistakes include assuming a causal relationship based on a temporal association only or a series of affected patients. Careful studies have demonstrated that many hypothesized causal associations between vaccines and adverse events were not substantiated. False assumptions regarding causality are likely to occur for illnesses without a carefully defined etiology or pathogenesis. PMID:12199617

  4. Virioplankton: Viruses in Aquatic Ecosystems†

    PubMed Central

    Wommack, K. Eric; Colwell, Rita R.

    2000-01-01

    The discovery that viruses may be the most abundant organisms in natural waters, surpassing the number of bacteria by an order of magnitude, has inspired a resurgence of interest in viruses in the aquatic environment. Surprisingly little was known of the interaction of viruses and their hosts in nature. In the decade since the reports of extraordinarily large virus populations were published, enumeration of viruses in aquatic environments has demonstrated that the virioplankton are dynamic components of the plankton, changing dramatically in number with geographical location and season. The evidence to date suggests that virioplankton communities are composed principally of bacteriophages and, to a lesser extent, eukaryotic algal viruses. The influence of viral infection and lysis on bacterial and phytoplankton host communities was measurable after new methods were developed and prior knowledge of bacteriophage biology was incorporated into concepts of parasite and host community interactions. The new methods have yielded data showing that viral infection can have a significant impact on bacteria and unicellular algae populations and supporting the hypothesis that viruses play a significant role in microbial food webs. Besides predation limiting bacteria and phytoplankton populations, the specific nature of virus-host interaction raises the intriguing possibility that viral infection influences the structure and diversity of aquatic microbial communities. Novel applications of molecular genetic techniques have provided good evidence that viral infection can significantly influence the composition and diversity of aquatic microbial communities. PMID:10704475

  5. Aquatic Pest Control. Bulletin 754.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, James F.

    Four groups of aquatic weeds are described: algae, floating weeds, emersed weeds, and submersed weeds. Specific requirements for pesticide application are given for static water, limited flow, and moving water situations. The secondary effects of improper pesticide application rates are given for static, limited flow, and moving water, and the…

  6. Photochemistry of environmental aquatic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zika, R.G.; Cooper, W.F.

    1987-01-01

    This text provides an incisive look at the subject of aquatic photochemistry. It divides this topic into three main areas: fresh water, estuarine, and marine environments and discussions on natural and anthropogenic impacts. In summary it brings together a diverse selection of viewpoints.

  7. Aquatic Plant Water Quality Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA, as stated in the Clean Water Act, is tasked with developing numerical Aquatic Life Critiera for various pollutants found in the waters of the United States. These criteria serve as guidance for States and Tribes to use in developing their water quality standards. The G...

  8. Aquatic Recreation for the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordellos, Harry C.

    The sixth in a series of booklets on physical education and recreation for the handicapped describes aquatic activities for blind persons. Written by a partially sighted athlete, the document discusses swimming pool characteristics and special pools for the visually impaired. Qualities of swimming instructors are reviewed, and suggestions for…

  9. Aquatics and Persons with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Mary Lou

    1993-01-01

    This bulletin shares information regarding adaptive equipment, recommended interventions, precautions, and fun activities related to aquatic activities and exercise for persons with handicapping conditions. The bulletin begins with a list of 13 safety precautions and then describes instructional aids, adaptive aids, fitness-oriented devices, and…

  10. Aquatic Exercise for the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Michael; And Others

    The development and implementation of aquatic exercise programs for the aged are discussed in this paper. Program development includes a discussion of training principles, exercise leadership and the setting up of safe water exercise programs for the participants. The advantages of developing water exercise programs and not swimming programs are…

  11. Parents' Psychiatric Issues May Adversely Affect Some Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... attempted suicide, or who had struggled with antisocial personality disorder or marijuana abuse, were found to face ... and mood disorders, schizophrenia, anxiety, Alzheimer's-related dementia, personality disorders, substance abuse and attempted suicide. Parental histories ...

  12. Survival and impact of genetically engineered Pseudomonas putida harboring mercury resistance gene in aquatic microcosms.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, K; Uchiyama, H; Yagi, O

    1993-08-01

    The survival of wild-type and genetically engineered Pseudomonas putida PpY101 that contained a recombinant plasmid pSR134 conferring mercury resistance were monitored in aquatic microcosms. We used lake, river, and spring water samples. The density of genetically engineered and wild-type P. putida decreased rapidly within 5 days (population change rate k -0.87 approximately -1.00 day-1), then moderately after 5 to 28 days (-0.10 approximately -0.14 day-1). The population change rates of genetically engineered and wild-type P. putida were not significantly different. We studied the important factors affecting the survival of genetically engineered and wild-type P. putida introduced in aquatic microcosms. Visible light exerted an adverse effect on the survival of the two strains. The densities of genetically engineered and wild-type P. putida were almost constant until 7 days after inoculation in natural water filtered with a 0.45-micron membrane filter, or treated with cycloheximide to inhibit the growth of protozoa. These results suggested that protozoan predation was one of the most important factors for the survival of two strains. We examined the impact of the addition of genetically engineered and wild-type P. putida on indigenous bacteria and protozoa. Inoculation of genetically engineered or wild-type P. putida had no apparent effect on the density of indigenous bacteria. The density of protozoa increased in microcosms inoculated with genetically engineered or wild-type P. putida at 3 days after inoculation, but after 5 to 21 days, the density of protozoa decreased to the same level as the control microcosms. PMID:7764012

  13. Effects of diquat, an aquatic herbicide, on the development of mallard embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sewalk, C.J.; Brewer, G.L.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    Bipyridylium herbicides produce embryotoxic and teratogenic effects in dipteran, amphibian, avian, and mammalian organisms. Diquat dibromide, a bipyridylium compound, is commonly used as an aquatic herbicide. Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggs were exposed to diquat by immersing the eggs for 10s in solutions of 0.88, 3.5, 7, 14, or 56 g/L on either the fourth or twenty-first day of incubation. Application of diquat on day 4 yielded an estimated LC50 of 19.5 g/L through 18 days of incubation, and 9.6 g/L through hatching. Body and organ weights, and bone lengths of hatchlings did not differ between control and treatment groups with the exception of a slight increase in brain weight in the 14 g/L group. Malformations in diquat-treated embryos included defects of the brain, eye, bill, limb, and pelvis; skeletal scoliosis; and incomplete ossification. Subcutaneous edema was also present. Significant manifestations of oxidative stress were apparent in hatchlings and included increased hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (lipid peroxidation) and decreased brain reduced glutathione (GSH). Brain protein-bound sulfhydryls (PBSH) increased. Diquat applied on day 21 of incubation yielded an estimated LC50 of 12.6 g/L through hatching. Exposure at this late stage of development did not produce deformities. Body and organ weights, and, bone lengths of hatchlings did not differ between control and treatment groups. Significant manifestations of oxidative stress in hatchlings included decreased brain GSH, increased oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and ratio of GSSG:GSH. This study suggests that concentrations of diquat commonly used for aquatic weed control, when based upon the expected dilution effect of average water depth of the application area, would probably have little impact on mallard embryos. However, concentrations applied above ground to weeds and cattails along the edge of waters and ditches could adversely affect the survival and development of mallard

  14. COASTAL SUBMERGED VEGETATION: AQUATIC HABITAT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic vegetation is one of the most widespread and important types of aquatic habitat, in part because of the exceptional productivity of the plants. Aquatic vegetation also strongly influences local physical and chemical habitat conditions of significance to fish and shellfis...

  15. Conference on Professional Standards for Aquatic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    This report on the 1970 meeting of the Aquatics Council of the American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation is divided into three sections reflecting the three phases of the Council's interest. Section One is devoted to basic aquatic education for the physical educator. Section Two concerns basic aquatic education for the…

  16. Neuropsychiatric Adverse Effects of Amphetamine and Methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Harro, Jaanus

    2015-01-01

    Administration of amphetamine and methamphetamine can elicit psychiatric adverse effects at acute administration, binge use, withdrawal, and chronic use. Most troublesome of these are psychotic states and aggressive behavior, but a large variety of undesirable changes in cognition and affect can be induced. Adverse effects occur more frequently with higher dosages and long-term use. They can subside over time but some persist long-term. Multiple alterations in the gray and white matter of the brain assessed as changes in tissue volume or metabolism, or at molecular level, have been associated with amphetamine and methamphetamine use and the psychiatric adverse effects, but further studies are required to clarify their causal role, specificity, and relationship with preceding states and traits and comorbidities. The latter include other substance use disorders, mood and anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and antisocial personality disorder. Amphetamine- and methamphetamine-related psychosis is similar to schizophrenia in terms of symptomatology and pathogenesis, and these two disorders share predisposing genetic factors. PMID:26070758

  17. Bioconcentration, bioaccumulation, and metabolism of pesticides in aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    The ecotoxicological assessment of pesticide effects in the aquatic environment should normally be based on a deep knowledge of not only the concentration of pesticides and metabolites found but also on the influence of key abiotic and biotic processes that effect rates of dissipation. Although the bioconcentration and bioaccumulation potentials of pesticides in aquatic organisms are conveniently estimated from their hydrophobicity (represented by log K(ow), it is still indispensable to factor in the effects of key abiotic and biotic processes on such pesticides to gain a more precise understanding of how they may have in the natural environment. Relying only on pesticide hydrophobicity may produce an erroneous environmental impact assessment. Several factors affect rates of pesticide dissipation and accumulation in the aquatic environment. Such factors include the amount and type of sediment present in the water and type of diet available to water-dwelling organisms. The particular physiological behavior profiles of aquatic organisms in water, such as capacity for uptake, metabolism, and elimination, are also compelling factors, as is the chemistry of the water. When evaluating pesticide uptake and bioconcentration processes, it is important to know the amount and nature of bottom sediments present and the propensity that the stuffed aquatic organisms have to absorb and process xenobiotics. Extremely hydrophobic pesticides such as the organochlorines and pyrethroids are susceptible to adsorb strongly to dissolved organic matter associated with bottom sediment. Such absorption reduces the bioavailable fraction of pesticide dissolved in the water column and reduces the probable ecotoxicological impact on aquatic organisms living the water. In contrast, sediment dweller may suffer from higher levels of direct exposure to a pesticide, unless it is rapidly degraded in sediment. Metabolism is important to bioconcentration and bioaccumulation processes, as is

  18. Graphene in the aquatic environment: adsorption, dispersion, toxicity and transformation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Wang, Zhenyu; White, Jason C; Xing, Baoshan

    2014-09-01

    Graphene-family nanomaterials (GFNs) including pristine graphene, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and graphene oxide (GO) offer great application potential, leading to the possibility of their release into aquatic environments. Upon exposure, graphene/rGO and GO exhibit different adsorption properties toward environmental adsorbates, thus the molecular interactions at the GFN-water interface are discussed. After solute adsorption, the dispersion/aggregation behaviors of GFNs can be altered by solution chemistry, as well as by the presence of colloidal particles and biocolloids. GO has different dispersion performance from pristine graphene and rGO, which is further demonstrated from surface properties. Upon exposure in aquatic environments, GFNs have adverse impacts on aquatic organisms (e.g., bacteria, algae, plants, invertebrates, and fish). The mechanisms of GFNs toxicity at the cellular level are reviewed and the remaining unclear points on toxic mechanisms such as membrane damage are presented. Moreover, we highlight the transformation routes of GO to rGO. The degradation of GFNs upon exposure to UV irradiation and/or biota is also reviewed. In view of the unanswered questions, future research should include comprehensive characterization of GFNs, new approaches for explaining GFNs aggregation, environmental behaviors of metastable GO, and the relationship between dispersion of GFNs and the related adsorption properties. PMID:25122195

  19. Differentiating aquatic plant communities in a eutrophic river using hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tian, Y.Q.; Yu, Q.; Zimmerman, M.J.; Flint, S.; Waldron, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of remote sensing technology to monitor species composition, areal extent and density of aquatic plants (macrophytes and filamentous algae) in impoundments where their presence may violate water-quality standards. Multispectral satellite (IKONOS) images and more than 500 in situ hyperspectral samples were acquired to map aquatic plant distributions. By analyzing field measurements, we created a library of hyperspectral signatures for a variety of aquatic plant species, associations and densities. We also used three vegetation indices. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), near-infrared (NIR)-Green Angle Index (NGAI) and normalized water absorption depth (DH), at wavelengths 554, 680, 820 and 977 nm to differentiate among aquatic plant species composition, areal density and thickness in cases where hyperspectral analysis yielded potentially ambiguous interpretations. We compared the NDVI derived from IKONOS imagery with the in situ, hyperspectral-derived NDVI. The IKONOS-based images were also compared to data obtained through routine visual observations. Our results confirmed that aquatic species composition alters spectral signatures and affects the accuracy of remote sensing of aquatic plant density. The results also demonstrated that the NGAI has apparent advantages in estimating density over the NDVI and the DH. In the feature space of the three indices, 3D scatter plot analysis revealed that hyperspectral data can differentiate several aquatic plant associations. High-resolution multispectral imagery provided useful information to distinguish among biophysical aquatic plant characteristics. Classification analysis indicated that using satellite imagery to assess Lemna coverage yielded an overall agreement of 79% with visual observations and >90% agreement for the densest aquatic plant coverages. Interpretation of biophysical parameters derived from high-resolution satellite or airborne imagery should prove to be a

  20. Environmental estrogens in an urban aquatic ecosystem: II. Biological effects.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Melissa M; Minarik, Thomas A; Martinovic-Weigelt, Dalma; Curran, Erin M; Bartell, Stephen E; Schoenfuss, Heiko L

    2013-11-01

    Urban aquatic ecosystems are often overlooked in toxicological studies even though they serve many ecosystem functions and sustain fish populations despite large-scale habitat alterations. However, urban fish populations are likely exposed to a broad range of stressors, including environmental estrogens (EEs) that may affect anatomy, physiology and reproduction of exposed fish. Although significant progress has been made in establishing ecological consequences of EE exposure, these studies have focused largely on hydrologically simple systems that lack the complexity of urban aquatic environments. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the occurrence and biological effects of EEs across a large urbanized aquatic ecosystem. A multi-pronged study design was employed relying on quantitative determination of select EEs by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and repeated biological monitoring of wild-caught and caged fish for indications of endocrine disruption. Over three years, EEs were measured in aqueous samples (n=42 samples) and biological effects assessed in >1200 male fish across the 2000km(2) aquatic ecosystems of the Greater Metropolitan Area of Chicago, IL. Our study demonstrated that in addition to water reclamation plant (WRP) effluents, non-WRP sources contribute significant EE loads to the aquatic ecosystem. While resident and caged male fish responded with the induction of the egg-yolk protein vitellogenin, an indicator of EE exposure, neither resident nor caged sunfish exhibited prevalent histopathological changes to their reproductive organs (i.e., intersex) that have been reported in other studies. Vitellogenin induction was greater in spring than the fall and was not correlated with body condition factor, gonadosomatic index or hepatosomatic index. Exposure effects were not correlated with sites downstream of treated effluent discharge further affirming the complexity of sources and effects of EEs in urban aquatic ecosystems

  1. Assessment of potential aquatic herbicide impacts to California aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Siemering, Geoffrey S; Hayworth, Jennifer D; Greenfield, Ben K

    2008-10-01

    A series of legal decisions culminated in 2002 with the California State Water Resources Control Board funding the San Francisco Estuary Institute to develop and implement a 3-year monitoring program to determine the potential environmental impacts of aquatic herbicide applications. The monitoring program was intended to investigate the behavior of all aquatic pesticides in use in California, to determine potential impacts in a wide range of water-body types receiving applications, and to help regulators determine where to direct future resources. A tiered monitoring approach was developed to achieve a balance between program goals and what was practically achievable within the project time and budget constraints. Water, sediment, and biota were collected under "worst-case" scenarios in close association with herbicide applications. Applications of acrolein, copper sulfate, chelated copper, diquat dibromide, glyphosate, fluridone, triclopyr, and 2,4-D were monitored. A range of chemical analyses, toxicity tests, and bioassessments were conducted. At each site, risk quotients were calculated to determine potential impacts. For sediment-partitioning herbicides, sediment quality triad analysis was performed. Worst-case scenario monitoring and special studies showed limited short-term and no long-term toxicity directly attributable to aquatic herbicide applications. Risk quotient calculations called for additional risk characterizations; these included limited assessments for glyphosate and fluridone and more extensive risk assessments for diquat dibromide, chelated copper products, and copper sulfate. Use of surfactants in conjunction with aquatic herbicides was positively associated with greater ecosystem impacts. Results therefore warrant full risk characterization for all adjuvant compounds. PMID:18293029

  2. Biotechnology and DNA vaccines for aquatic animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, G.

    2008-01-01

    Biotechnology has been used extensively in the development of vaccines for aquaculture. Modern molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and microarray analysis have facilitated antigen discovery, construction of novel candidate vaccines, and assessments of vaccine efficacy, mode of action, and host response. This review focuses on DNA vaccines for finfish to illustrate biotechnology applications in this field. Although DNA vaccines for fish rhabdoviruses continue to show the highest efficacy, DNA vaccines for several other viral and bacterial fish pathogens have now been proven to provide significant protection against pathogen challenge. Studies of the fish rhabdovirus DNA vaccines have elucidated factors that affect DNA vaccine efficacy as well as the nature of the fish innate and adaptive immune responses to DNA vaccines. As tools for managing aquatic animal disease emergencies, DNA vaccines have advantages in speed, flexibility, and safety, and one fish DNA vaccine has been licensed.

  3. Human health hazards associated with chemical contamination of aquatic environment.

    PubMed Central

    Stara, J F; Kello, D; Durkin, P

    1980-01-01

    Given the finite supply of water available for human use, continued chemical contamination of the aquatic environment may pose a significant human health hazard. Consequently, an effort must be made to develop ambient water quality criteria to protect human health and preserve the integrity of the aquatic environment. In developing water quality criteria based on human health effects, information on sources of exposure, pharmacokinetics, and adverse effects must be carefully evaluated. Information on sources of exposure is needed to determine the contribution of exposure from water relative to all other sources. Pharmacokinetic data are used in inter- and intraspecies extrapolation and in characterizing the mode of toxic action. Information on toxic effects includes data on acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity, mutagenicity, teratogenicity, and carcinogenicity. In analyzing such information, a distinction is made between threshold and nonthreshold effects. Currently, carcinogenicity and mutagenicity are considered to be nonthreshold effects. For carcinogens and mutagens, criteria are calculated by postulating an "acceptable" increased level of risk and using extrapolation models to estimate the dose which would result in this increased level of risk. For other chemicals, thresholds are assumed and criteria are calculated by deriving "acceptable daily intakes" for man which would presumably result in no observable adverse effects. Neither process is exact, and attempts must be made to improve and verify risk assessment methodologies. PMID:6993199

  4. Molecular size of aquatic humic substances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Wershaw, R. L.; Malcolm, R.L.; Pinckney, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Aquatic humic substances, which account for 30 to 50% of the organic carbon in water, are a principal component of aquatic organic matter. The molecular size of aquatic humic substances, determined by small-angle X-ray scattering, varies from 4.7 to 33 A?? in their radius of gyration, corresponding to a molecular weight range of 500 to greater than 10,000. The aquatic fulvic acid fraction contains substances with molecular weights ranging from 500 to 2000 and is monodisperse, whereas the aquatic humic acid fraction contains substances with molecular weights ranging from 1000 to greater than 10,000 and is generally polydisperse. ?? 1982.

  5. Proposed Release Guides to Protect Aquatic Biota

    SciTech Connect

    Marter, W.L.

    2001-03-28

    At the request of South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and the Department of Energy (DOE), the Savannah River Laboratory was assigned the task of developing the release guides to protect aquatic biota. A review of aquatic radioecology literature by two leading experts in the field of radioecology concludes that exposure of aquatic biota at one rad per day or less will not produce detectable deleterious effects on aquatic organisms. On the basis of this report, DOE recommends the use of one rad per day as an interim dose standard to protect aquatic biota.

  6. Fire and aquatic ecosystems of the western USA: Current knowledge and key questions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bisson, P.A.; Rieman, B.; Luce, C.; Hessburg, Paul F.; Lee, D.; Kershner, J.; Reeves, G.H.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    Understanding of the effects of wildland fire and fire management on aquatic and riparian ecosystems is an evolving field, with many questions still to be resolved. Limitations of current knowledge, and the certainty that fire management will continue, underscore the need to summarize available information. Integrating fire and fuels management with aquatic ecosystem conservation begins with recognizing that terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are linked and dynamic, and that fire can play a critical role in maintaining aquatic ecological diversity. To protect aquatic ecosystems we argue that it will be important to: (1) accommodate fire-related and other ecological processes that maintain aquatic habitats and biodiversity, and not simply control fires or fuels; (2) prioritize projects according to risks and opportunities for fire control and the protection of aquatic ecosystems; and (3) develop new consistency in the management and regulatory process. Ultimately, all natural resource management is uncertain; the role of science is to apply experimental design and hypothesis testing to management applications that affect fire and aquatic ecosystems. Policy-makers and the public will benefit from an expanded appreciation of fire ecology that enables them to implement watershed management projects as experiments with hypothesized outcomes, adequate controls, and replication.

  7. Antihistamines and aquatic insects: bioconcentration and impacts on behavior in damselfly larvae (Zygoptera).

    PubMed

    Jonsson, M; Fick, J; Klaminder, J; Brodin, T

    2014-02-15

    Because aquatic insects use histamines as neurotransmitters, adverse impacts on aquatic insects living in aquatic environments that receive antihistamines with wastewater effluent are plausible. In this study, we exposed damselfly larvae to low concentrations of two commonly used antihistamines (Hydroxyzine and Fexofenadine, 360 ± 42 and 2,200 ± 43 ng l(-1), respectively), and recorded damselfly larvae behavior before and after exposure. Further, after the second set of behavioral assays was performed, we quantified bioconcentration of the antihistamines in the damselfly bodies. Our results showed significant changes in damselfly behavior following antihistamine exposure. After Hydroxyzine exposure, the damselfly larvae became less active, and they showed reduced fleeing response (i.e. increased boldness) after being exposed to Fexofenadine, the latter also being significantly different from the non-exposed (control) individuals. Further, we found high levels of bioconcentration in the damselflies; Hydroxyzine showed an average bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 2000. As such, our results indicate that low concentrations of antihistamines can have sub-lethal effects on aquatic insects manifested as behavioral changes, and that bioconcentration of these substances can be high. Therefore, the need to investigate the impact of emergent aquatic contaminants also on aquatic insects, and on behaviors that are of ecological importance, is further highlighted. PMID:24291135

  8. LIGHT-INDUCED PROCESSES AFFECTING ENTEROCOCCI IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal indicator bacteria such as enterococci have been used to assess contamination of freshwater and marine environments by pathogenic microorganisms. Various past studies have shown that sunlight plays an important role in reducing concentrations of culturable enterococci and ...

  9. Nutrient enrichment affects the mechanical resistance of aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Lamberti-Raverot, Barbara; Puijalon, Sara

    2012-10-01

    For many plant species, nutrient availability induces important anatomical responses, particularly the production of low-density tissues to the detriment of supporting tissues. Due to the contrasting biomechanical properties of plant tissues, these anatomical responses may induce important modifications in the biomechanical properties of plant organs. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of nutrient enrichment on the anatomical traits of two freshwater plant species and its consequences on plant biomechanical performance. Two plant species were grown under controlled conditions in low versus high nutrient levels. The anatomical and biomechanical traits of the plant stems were measured. Both species produced tissues with lower densities under nutrient-rich conditions, accompanied by modifications in the structure of the aerenchyma for one species. As expected, nutrient enrichment also led to important modifications in the biomechanical properties of the stem for both species. In particular, mechanical resistance (breaking force and strength) and stiffness of stems were significantly reduced under nutrient rich conditions. The production of weaker stem tissues as a result of nutrient enrichment may increase the risk of plants to mechanical failure, thus challenging plant maintenance in mechanically stressful or disturbed habitats. PMID:23028018

  10. Spectroscopic studies on aquatic angiosperm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Atsumi; Oomizo, Nana; Fujinami, Rieko; Imaichi, Ryoko; Imai, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    Reflectance, transmittance and absorbance spectra were observed of Hydrobryum japonicum, a kind of Aquatic angiosperm, over the wavelength range from 300 to 780 nm. Three remarkable peaks were observed at 380, 430, and at 680 nm in the absorbance curve, which were assigned to the two pigments flavonoid and chlorophyll. The functions of these pigments of making photosynthesis inevitable for the botanical activity and of protecting the plant from the heat given by the sunlight were discussed.

  11. The chronic aquatic toxicity of a microbicide dibromonitrilopropionamide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang

    2012-03-01

    The chronic aquatic toxicities of a microbicide dibromonitrilopropionamide (DBNPA) in Daphnia magna and rainbow trout were evaluated. DBNPA can significantly affect the reproduction and survival of D. magna. The lowest observed effective concentration (LOEC) and the no observed effective concentration (NOEC) of DBNPA to D. magna were 0.053 and 0.072 mg L(-1), respectively, and the intrinsic rate of natural increase (r) was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) at a concentration of 0.01 mg L(-1). Meanwhile, DBNPA affected the growth of juvenile rainbow trout at a concentration of 0.01875 mg L(-1) after 28-day exposure. The results showed that DBNPA has chronic deleterious effects on aquatic organisms. PMID:21937531

  12. Pesticide runoff from energy crops: A threat to aquatic invertebrates?

    PubMed

    Bunzel, Katja; Schäfer, Ralf B; Thrän, Daniela; Kattwinkel, Mira

    2015-12-15

    The European Union aims to reach a 10% share of biofuels in the transport sector by 2020. The major burden is most likely to fall on already established annual energy crops such as rapeseed and cereals for the production of biodiesel and bioethanol, respectively. Annual energy crops are typically cultivated in intensive agricultural production systems, which require the application of pesticides. Agricultural pesticides can have adverse effects on aquatic invertebrates in adjacent streams. We assessed the relative ecological risk to aquatic invertebrates associated with the chemical pest management from six energy crops (maize, potato, sugar beet, winter barley, winter rapeseed, and winter wheat) as well as from mixed cultivation scenarios. The pesticide exposure related to energy crops and cultivation scenarios was estimated as surface runoff for 253 small stream sites in Central Germany using a GIS-based runoff potential model. The ecological risk for aquatic invertebrates, an important organism group for the functioning of stream ecosystems, was assessed using acute toxicity data (48-h LC50 values) of the crustacean Daphnia magna. We calculated the Ecological Risk from potential Pesticide Runoff (ERPR) for all three main groups of pesticides (herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides). Our findings suggest that the crops potato, sugar beet, and rapeseed pose a higher ecological risk to aquatic invertebrates than maize, barley, and wheat. As maize had by far the lowest ERPR values, from the perspective of pesticide pollution, its cultivation as substrate for the production of the gaseous biofuel biomethane may be preferable compared to the production of, for example, biodiesel from rapeseed. PMID:26282752

  13. Adversity and advancing nursing knowledge.

    PubMed

    Reed, Pamela G

    2008-04-01

    This column reports the theme of adversity addressed in reference to theoretical and metatheoretical considerations for advancing nursing knowledge. The development and content of three classic nursing theories are presented by Neuman representatives, and by theorists King and Roy. Topics for continued dialogue are identified as derived from the interface between philosophy of science issues and these theories. PMID:18378823

  14. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Hallucinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, C.L.; Dube, S.R.; Felitti, V.J.; Anda, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: Little information is available about the contribution of multiple adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to the likelihood of reporting hallucinations. We used data from the ACE study to assess this relationship. Methods:: We conducted a survey about childhood abuse and household dysfunction while growing up, with questions about health…

  15. Diversity of Aquatic Pseudomonas Species and Their Activity against the Fish Pathogenic Oomycete Saprolegnia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiying; Rzeszutek, Elzbieta; van der Voort, Menno; Wu, Cheng-Hsuan; Thoen, Even; Skaar, Ida; Bulone, Vincent; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Raaijmakers, Jos M.; de Bruijn, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Emerging fungal and oomycete pathogens are increasingly threatening animals and plants globally. Amongst oomycetes, Saprolegnia species adversely affect wild and cultivated populations of amphibians and fish, leading to substantial reductions in biodiversity and food productivity. With the ban of several chemical control measures, new sustainable methods are needed to mitigate Saprolegnia infections in aquaculture. Here, PhyloChip-based community analyses showed that the Pseudomonadales, particularly Pseudomonas species, represent one of the largest bacterial orders associated with salmon eggs from a commercial hatchery. Among the Pseudomonas species isolated from salmon eggs, significantly more biosurfactant producers were retrieved from healthy salmon eggs than from Saprolegnia-infected eggs. Subsequent in vivo activity bioassays showed that Pseudomonas isolate H6 significantly reduced salmon egg mortality caused by Saprolegnia diclina. Live colony mass spectrometry showed that strain H6 produces a viscosin-like lipopeptide surfactant. This biosurfactant inhibited growth of Saprolegnia in vitro, but no significant protection of salmon eggs against Saprolegniosis was observed. These results indicate that live inocula of aquatic Pseudomonas strains, instead of their bioactive compound, can provide new (micro)biological and sustainable means to mitigate oomycete diseases in aquaculture. PMID:26317985

  16. Diversity of Aquatic Pseudomonas Species and Their Activity against the Fish Pathogenic Oomycete Saprolegnia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiying; Rzeszutek, Elzbieta; van der Voort, Menno; Wu, Cheng-Hsuan; Thoen, Even; Skaar, Ida; Bulone, Vincent; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Raaijmakers, Jos M; de Bruijn, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Emerging fungal and oomycete pathogens are increasingly threatening animals and plants globally. Amongst oomycetes, Saprolegnia species adversely affect wild and cultivated populations of amphibians and fish, leading to substantial reductions in biodiversity and food productivity. With the ban of several chemical control measures, new sustainable methods are needed to mitigate Saprolegnia infections in aquaculture. Here, PhyloChip-based community analyses showed that the Pseudomonadales, particularly Pseudomonas species, represent one of the largest bacterial orders associated with salmon eggs from a commercial hatchery. Among the Pseudomonas species isolated from salmon eggs, significantly more biosurfactant producers were retrieved from healthy salmon eggs than from Saprolegnia-infected eggs. Subsequent in vivo activity bioassays showed that Pseudomonas isolate H6 significantly reduced salmon egg mortality caused by Saprolegnia diclina. Live colony mass spectrometry showed that strain H6 produces a viscosin-like lipopeptide surfactant. This biosurfactant inhibited growth of Saprolegnia in vitro, but no significant protection of salmon eggs against Saprolegniosis was observed. These results indicate that live inocula of aquatic Pseudomonas strains, instead of their bioactive compound, can provide new (micro)biological and sustainable means to mitigate oomycete diseases in aquaculture. PMID:26317985

  17. Why do cervids feed on aquatic vegetation?

    PubMed

    Ceacero, Francisco; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Miranda, María; García, Andrés J; Martínez, Alberto; Gallego, Laureano

    2014-03-01

    Consumption of aquatic plants is rare among cervids, despite the common occurrence of this form of vegetation. However, the paucity of literature reporting on this feeding behaviour suggests that Na (but also other minerals), protein, and the ubiquitous availability of aquatic vegetation may play a role in its consumption. We present results quantifying those factors that regulate the consumption of aquatic plants in the Iberian red deer. We focussed our study primarily on two questions: (i) what nutritional values are red deer seeking in the aquatic plants?; and (ii) why do red deer primarily use aquatic plants during the summer? A comparison of the seasonal variations in Na content between terrestrial vs. aquatic vegetation did not fully support the hypothesis that aquatic plants are being consumed more in summer because of any seasonal variation in Na availability. The Na content in the aquatic vegetation was adequate all the year-round; whereas, the Na content in the terrestrial vegetation was consistently deficient. However, a greater summer content of essential minerals and protein in the aquatic vegetation may be the cause for their consumption exclusively during the summer. We suggest that seasonal variations in the consumption of aquatic vegetation by cervids is primarily driven by temporal variations in the nutrient content, combined with seasonal variations in the physiological demands for these nutrients. PMID:24220797

  18. The OIE's involvement in aquatic animal health.

    PubMed

    Bernoth, Eva-Maria

    2007-01-01

    The OIE develops normative documents relating to rules that Member Countries can use to protect themselves from diseases without setting up unjustified sanitary barriers. For aquatic animal disease, the Aquatic Animal Health Code and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals are prepared by the Aquatic Animals Commission, with the assistance of internationally renowned experts, the OIE's other Specialist Commissions, and in consultation with OIE Member Countries. These standards are described in detail. There are currently 27 OIE Reference Laboratories and one Collaborating Centre for aquatic animal diseases, providing a network of expertise in aquatic animal health. The OIE is committed to raising awareness about aquatic animal health and assisting Member Countries to fulfill their international obligations. Members of the Aquatic Animals Commission regularly present on the activities of the Aquatic Animals Commission at the Conferences of the OIE Regional Commissions and at scientific venues. Regional initiatives conducted in concert with other organisations complement the OIE's involvement in aquatic animal health. A range of interesting challenges lies ahead. PMID:18306529

  19. Successful aquatic animal disease emergency programmes.

    PubMed

    Håstein, T; Hill, B J; Winton, J R

    1999-04-01

    The authors provide examples of emergency programmes which have been successful in eradicating or controlling certain diseases of aquatic animals. The paper is divided into four parts. The first part describes the initial isolation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) virus in North America in the autumn of 1988 from feral adult chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) returning for spawning. The fish disease control policies at both State and Federal levels in the United States of America required quarantine and emergency eradication measures upon the finding of certain exotic fish pathogens, including VHS virus. The procedures for emergency plans, destruction of stocks and disinfection of facilities are described, as well as challenge experiments with the North American strains of VHS virus and the detection of the virus in marine fish species (cod [Gadus macrocephalus] and herring [Clupea harengus pallasi]) in the Pacific Ocean. The second part of the paper outlines the aquatic animal legislation in Great Britain and within the European Union, in regard to contingency plans, initial investigations, action on the suspicion of notifiable disease and action on confirmation of infection. The legal description is followed by an account of an outbreak of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) in Great Britain, including the stamping-out process at the affected farm and investigations conducted to screen other farms in the vicinity for possible infection. The third part provides a historical review of the build-up of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) in Norway and the attempts to control the disease using legal measures in the absence of detailed knowledge of the aetiology, epizootiology, pathogenesis, etc. of the disease. The measures taken show that the spread of ISA can be controlled using restrictions on the movement of fish, disinfection procedures, etc. However, acceptance and understanding of the chosen strategy

  20. Successful aquatic animal disease emergency programmes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hastein, T.; Hill, B.J.; Winton, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The authors provide examples of emergency programmes which have been successful in eradicating or controlling certain diseases of aquatic animals. The paper is divided into four parts. The first part describes the initial isolation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) virus in North America in the autumn of 1988 from feral adult chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O.kisutch) returning for spawning. The fish disease control policies at both State and Federal levels in the United States of America required quarantine and emergency eradication measures upon the finding of certain exotic fish pathogens, including VHS virus. The procedures for emergency plans, destruction of stocks and disinfection of facilities are described, as well as challenge experiments with the North American strains of VHS virus and the detection of the virus in marine fish species (cod [Gadus macrocephalus] and herring [Clupea harengus pallasi]) in the Pacific Ocean. The second part of the paper outlines the aquatic animal legislation in Great Britain and within the European Union, in regard to contingency plans, initial investigations, action on the suspicion of notifiable disease and action on confirmation of infection. The legal description is followed by an account of an outbreak of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) in Great Britain, including the stamping-out process at the affected farm and investigations conducted to screen other farms in the vicinity for possible infection. The third part provides a historical review of the build-up of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) in Norway and the attempts to control the disease using legal measures in the absence of detailed knowledge of the aetiology, epizootiology, pathogenesis, etc. of the disease. The measures taken show that the spread of ISA can be controlled using restrictions on the movement of fish, disinfection procedures, etc. However, acceptance and understanding of the chosen strategy by

  1. Pollutants as developmental toxicants in aquatic organisms.

    PubMed Central

    Weis, J S; Weis, P

    1987-01-01

    Pollutants, by disrupting metabolic processes, can interfere with development, and, at critical periods of development, can act as teratogens. Such interference with normal development can be used as a bioassay. Some screening tests are based on this phenomenon. As teratogens, pollutants are fairly nonspecific. Many different classes may elicit the same developmental responses. Mechanisms of teratogenicity include disruption of mitosis, interference with transcription and translation, metabolic disturbances in energy utilization, and nutritional deficits. These in turn interfere with cell interactions, migration, and growth. In aquatic organisms, environmental conditions can be critical. Interactions of pollutant effects with salinity and with temperature have been reported. Interactions between toxicants have also been studied; both synergism and antagonism have been reported. Most reports of teratogenesis have been qualitative. Quantitation has usually been in the form of percentages of embryos affected, but when severity of effect is indexed, more critical analysis is allowed. When effects of other developmental processes such as growth are analyzed, quantitation is readily achieved. Regeneration is an especially useful model of both differentiation and growth. These two components of regeneration can be separately analyzed. Dose-response relationships are readily apparent. In comparison to mammalian embryos, the use of embryos of many aquatic species for testing toxicants has certain advantages, including lower cost and maintenance and shorter development times. They respond to many of the same teratogens. A special advantage is availability for continual examination during development so that abnormalities can be observed and recorded as they arise. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. PMID:3297667

  2. Hazard identification and risk characterization of bisphenols A, F and AF to aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Tišler, Tatjana; Krel, Alja; Gerželj, Urška; Erjavec, Boštjan; Dolenc, Marija Sollner; Pintar, Albin

    2016-05-01

    Production of bisphenol A (BPA) analogues such as bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol AF (BPAF) has recently increased, due to clear evidence of adverse effects of BPA on humans and wildlife. Bisphenols (BPs) have already been released into aquatic environment without previous available information about potential adverse effects of BPs and their potential risk to aquatic ecosystems. In this study, lethal and sublethal effects of BPF and BPAF to bacteria, algae, crustacea and fish embryos were investigated and the results were compared to the adverse effects obtained for BPA. We found that BPAF was the most toxic compound to Daphnia magna, Danio rerio and Desmodesmus subspicatus; the lowest 72 h EC50 (median effective concentration) and 21 d NOEC (no observed effect concentration) values were determined at 2.2 mg/L regarding zebrafish hatching success and 0.23 mg/L of BPAF obtained for growth and reproduction of water fleas, respectively. In most cases, BPA was more toxic to D. magna, D. rerio and D. subspicatus in comparison to BPF, but pigmentation of zebrafish embryos after 48 h of exposure and reproduction of water fleas after 21-day D. magna reproductive test exposure to BPF were much more impaired. Risk quotients (measured environmental concentration/21 d NOEC) showed that BPA, BPF and BPAF are recently not chronically hazardous to the survival, reproduction and growth of water fleas in surface waters. On the other hand, we importantly show that currently present BPAF concentrations in surface waters could cause a potential ecological risk to aquatic organisms. In the near future, higher concentrations of BPF and BPAF in surface waters are anticipated and for this reason further testing using test systems with various aquatic species and endpoints are needed to provide additional information about toxic impacts of BPF and BPAF on aquatic biota. PMID:26957022

  3. The NEON Aquatic Network: Expanding the Availability of Biogeochemical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, J. M.; Bohall, C.; Fitzgerald, M.; Utz, R.; Parker, S. M.; Roehm, C. L.; Goodman, K. J.; McLaughlin, B.

    2013-12-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are facing unprecedented pressure from climate change and land-use practices. Invasive species, whether plant, animal, insect or microbe present additional threat to aquatic ecosystem services. There are significant scientific challenges to understanding how these forces will interact to affect aquatic ecosystems, as the flow of energy and materials in the environment is driven by multivariate and non-linear biogeochemical cycles. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will collect and provide observational data across multiple scales. Sites were selected to maximize representation of major North American ecosystems using a multivariate geographic clustering method that partitioned the continental US, AK, HI, and Puerto Rico into 20 eco-climatic domains. The NEON data collection systems and methods are designed to yield standardized, near real-time data subjected to rigorous quality controls prior to public dissemination through an online data portal. NEON will collect data for 30 years to facilitate spatial-temporal analysis of environmental responses and drivers of ecosystem change, ranging from local through continental scales. Here we present the NEON Aquatic Network, a multi-parameter network consisting of a combination of in situ sensor and observational data. This network will provide data to examine biogeochemical, biological, hydrologic and geomorphic metrics at 36 sites, which are a combination of small 1st/2nd order wadeable streams, large rivers and lakes. A typical NEON Aquatic site will host up to two in-stream sensor sets designed to collect near-continuous water quality data (e.g. pH/ORP, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, CDOM) along with up to 8 shallow groundwater monitoring wells (level, temp., cond.), and a local meteorological station (e.g. 2D wind speed, PAR, barometric pressure, temperature, net radiation). These coupled sensor suites will be complemented by observational data (e.g. water

  4. Cardiovascular adverse effects of phenytoin.

    PubMed

    Guldiken, B; Rémi, J; Noachtar, Soheyl

    2016-05-01

    Phenytoin is an established drug in the treatment of acute repetitive seizures and status epilepticus. One of its main advantages over benzodiazepines is the less sedative effect. However, the possibility of cardiovascular adverse effects with the intravenous use of phenytoin cause a reluctance to its usage, and this has lead to a search for safer anticonvulsant drugs. In this study, we aimed to review the studies which evaluated the safety of phenytoin with respect to cardiovascular adverse effects. The original clinical trials and case reports listed in PUBMED in English language between the years of 1946-2014 were evaluated. As the key words, "phenytoin, diphenylhydantoin, epilepsy, seizure, cardiac toxicity, asystole, arrhythmia, respiratory arrest, hypotension, death" were used. Thirty-two clinical trials and ten case reports were identified. In the case reports, a rapid infusion rate (>50 mg/min) of phenytoin appeared as the major cause of increased mortality. In contrast, no serious cardiovascular adverse effects leading to death were met in the clinical trials which applied the recommended infusion rate and dosages. An infusion rate of 50 mg/min was reported to be safe for young patients. For old patients and patients with a cardiovascular co-morbidity, a slower infusion rate was recommended with a careful follow-up of heart rhythm and blood pressure. No cardiovascular adverse effect was reported in oral phenytoin overdoses except one case with a very high serum phenytoin level and hypoalbuminemia. Phenytoin is an effective and well tolerated drug in the treatment of epilepsy. Intravenous phenytoin is safe when given at recommended infusion rates and doses. PMID:26645393

  5. Aquatic Debris Detection Using Embedded Camera Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Wang, Dianhong; Lu, Qian; Luo, Dapeng; Fang, Wu

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic debris monitoring is of great importance to human health, aquatic habitats and water transport. In this paper, we first introduce the prototype of an aquatic sensor node equipped with an embedded camera sensor. Based on this sensing platform, we propose a fast and accurate debris detection algorithm. Our method is specifically designed based on compressive sensing theory to give full consideration to the unique challenges in aquatic environments, such as waves, swaying reflections, and tight energy budget. To upload debris images, we use an efficient sparse recovery algorithm in which only a few linear measurements need to be transmitted for image reconstruction. Besides, we implement the host software and test the debris detection algorithm on realistically deployed aquatic sensor nodes. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach is reliable and feasible for debris detection using camera sensors in aquatic environments. PMID:25647741

  6. [Adverse events of psychotropic drugs].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Koichiro; Kikuchi, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    The authors discuss adverse events which are often missed but clinicians should pay attention to in order to preserve patients'quality of life(QOL). Among mood stabilizers, lithium may cause a urinary volume increase, hyperparathyroidism, and serum calcium elevation; sodium valproate possibly increases androgenic hormone levels and the risk of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) as well as hypothyroidism. Moreover, in addition to teratogenesis, it has been reported that fetal exposure to a higher dose of valproate is associated with a lower intelligence quotient and higher incidence of autism spectrum disorders in children. Antidepressants with a higher affinity for serotonin transporters might induce gastrointestinal bleeding, and some antidepressants cause sexual dysfunction more frequently than others. Activation syndrome is still a key side effect which should be noted. Regarding the adverse events of antipsychotics, subjective side effects unpleasant to patients such as dysphoria and a lower subjective well-being should not be overlooked. We clinicians have to cope with adverse events worsening the QOL of patients with psychiatric disorders and, therefore, we need to adopt appropriate counter-measures. PMID:24864567

  7. Pharmacogenetics of idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Pirmohamed, Munir

    2010-01-01

    Idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions are unpredictable and thought to have an underlying genetic etiology. With the completion of the human genome and HapMap projects, together with the rapid advances in genotyping technologies, we have unprecedented capabilities in identifying genetic predisposing factors for these relatively rare, but serious, reactions. The main roadblock to this is the lack of sufficient numbers of well-characterized samples from patients with such reactions. This is now beginning to be solved through the formation of international consortia, including developing novel ways of identifying and recruiting patients affected by these reactions, both prospectively and retrospectively. This has been led by the research on abacavir hypersensitivity - its association with HLA-B*5701 forms the gold standard of how we need to identify associations and implement them in clinical practice. Strong genetic predisposing factors have also been identified for hypersensitivity reactions such as are associated with carbamazepine, allopurinol, flucloxacillin, and statin-induced myopathy. However, for most other idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions, the genetic effect sizes have been low to moderate, although this may partly be due to the fact that only small numbers have been investigated and limited genotyping strategies have been utilized. It may also indicate that genetic predisposition will be dependent on multiple genes, with complex interactions with environmental factors. Irrespective of the strength of the genetic associations identified with individual idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions, it is important to undertake functional investigations to provide insights into the mechanism(s) of how the drug interacts with the gene variant to lead to a phenotype, which can take a multitude of clinical forms with variable severity. Such investigations will be essential in preventing the burden caused by idiosyncratic reactions, both in healthcare and in industry

  8. Beaver herbivory on aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Parker, John D; Caudill, Christopher C; Hay, Mark E

    2007-04-01

    Herbivores have strong impacts on marine and terrestrial plant communities, but their impact is less well studied in benthic freshwater systems. For example, North American beavers (Castor canadensis) eat both woody and non-woody plants and focus almost exclusively on the latter in summer months, yet their impacts on non-woody plants are generally attributed to ecosystem engineering rather than herbivory. Here, we excluded beavers from areas of two beaver wetlands for over 2 years and demonstrated that beaver herbivory reduced aquatic plant biomass by 60%, plant litter by 75%, and dramatically shifted plant species composition. The perennial forb lizard's tail (Saururus cernuus) comprised less than 5% of plant biomass in areas open to beaver grazing but greater than 50% of plant biomass in beaver exclusions. This shift was likely due to direct herbivory, as beavers preferentially consumed lizard's tail over other plants in a field feeding assay. Beaver herbivory also reduced the abundance of the invasive aquatic plant Myriophyllum aquaticum by nearly 90%, consistent with recent evidence that native generalist herbivores provide biotic resistance against exotic plant invasions. Beaver herbivory also had indirect effects on plant interactions in this community. The palatable plant lizard's tail was 3 times more frequent and 10 times more abundant inside woolgrass (Scirpus cyperinus) tussocks than in spatially paired locations lacking tussocks. When the protective foliage of the woolgrass was removed without exclusion cages, beavers consumed nearly half of the lizard's tail leaves within 2 weeks. In contrast, leaf abundance increased by 73-93% in the treatments retaining woolgrass or protected by a cage. Thus, woolgrass tussocks were as effective as cages at excluding beaver foraging and provided lizard's tail plants an associational refuge from beaver herbivory. These results suggest that beaver herbivory has strong direct and indirect impacts on populations and

  9. Six-year trajectories of post-traumatic stress and severe psychological distress symptoms and associations with timing of trauma exposure, ongoing adversity and sense of injustice: a latent transition analysis of a community cohort in conflict-affected Timor-Leste

    PubMed Central

    Rees, S; Steel, Z; Tam, N; Soares, Z; Soares, C; Silove, DM

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify the 6-year trajectories of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and psychological distress symptoms, and examine for associations with timing of trauma exposure, ongoing adversity and with the sense of injustice in conflict-affected Timor-Leste. Setting A whole-of-household survey was conducted in 2004 and 2010 in Dili, the capital of Timor-Leste. Participants 1022 adults were followed up over 6 years (retention rate 84.5%). Interviews were conducted by field workers applying measures of traumatic events (TEs), ongoing adversity, a sense of injustice, PTS symptoms and psychological distress. Results Latent transition analysis supported a 3-class longitudinal model (psychological distress, comorbid symptoms and low symptoms). We derived 4 composite trajectories comprising recovery (20.8%), a persisting morbidity trajectory (7.2%), an incident trajectory (37.2%) and a low-symptom trajectory (34.7%). Compared with the low-symptom trajectory, the persistent and incident trajectories reported greater stress arising from poverty and family conflict, higher TE exposure for 2 historical periods, and a sense of injustice for 2 historical periods. The persistent trajectory was unique in reporting greater TE exposure in the Indonesian occupation, whereas the incident trajectory reported greater TE exposure during the later internal conflict that occurred between baseline and follow-up. Compared with the low-symptom trajectory, the incident trajectory reported a greater sense of injustice relating to the periods of the Indonesian occupation and independence. The persistent trajectory was characterised by a sense of injustice relating to the internal conflict and contemporary times. The recovery trajectory was characterised by the absence of these risk factors, the only difference from the low-symptom trajectory being that the former reported a sense of injustice for the period surrounding independence. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the timing

  10. Marine envenomations and aquatic dermatology.

    PubMed

    Soppe, G G

    1989-08-01

    Jellyfish stings are usually mild except those caused by species in the South Pacific. The box jellyfish can produce a severe cardiorespiratory insult. The sting of the Portuguese man-of-war is more potent than that of the common jellyfish. The Indo-Pacific area is the source of the most venomous bony fish. Many injuries can be avoided by wearing shoes when walking in shallow water or tide pools. Aquatic-related skin infections may involve unusual organisms. Swimmer's itch, a disease of freshwater bathing, is caused by cercariae. Seabather's eruption produces a rash in swimsuit-covered areas; the etiology is not clear. PMID:2569260

  11. Population approaches to aquatic toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, M.B.

    1981-10-01

    Field studies in which age-specific survivorship and fecundity are measured can provide data for the validation of laboratory studies conducted to assess the effects of toxic materials on aquatic species. Comparison of the variability of age-specific survivorship and fecundity in polluted versus nonpolluted areas would provide insight into the consequences of pollution at the population level. Techniques which permit prediction of population structure and growth from age-specific survivorship and fecundity schedules are described. These techniques include the life table and the Leslie matrix. Examples of population studies in which these techniques may be applied are given.

  12. Lysosomes and autophagy in aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Moore, Michael N; Kohler, Angela; Lowe, David; Viarengo, Aldo

    2008-01-01

    The lysosomal-autophagic system appears to be a common target for many environmental pollutants, as lysosomes accumulate many toxic metals and organic xenobiotics, which perturb normal function and damage the lysosomal membrane. In fact, autophagic reactions frequently involving reduced lysosomal membrane integrity or stability appear to be effective generic indicators of cellular well-being in eukaryotes: in social amoebae (slime mold), mollusks and fish, autophagy/membrane destabilization is correlated with many stress and toxicological responses and pathological reactions. Prognostic use of adverse lysosomal and autophagic reactions to environmental pollutants can be used for predicting cellular dysfunction and health in aquatic animals, such as shellfish and fish, which are extensively used as sensitive bioindicators in monitoring ecosystem health; and also represent a significant food resource for at least 20% of the global human population. Explanatory frameworks for prediction of pollutant impact on health have been derived encompassing a conceptual mechanistic model linking lysosomal damage and autophagic dysfunction with injury to cells and tissues. Methods are described for tracking in vivo autophagy of fluorescently labeled cytoplasmic proteins, measuring degradation of radiolabeled intracellular proteins and morphometric measurement of lysosomal/cytoplasmic volume ratio. Additional methods for the determination of lysosomal membrane stability in lower animals are also described, which can be applied to frozen tissue sections, protozoans and isolated cells in vivo. Experimental and simulated results have also indicated that nutritional deprivation (analogous in marine mussels to caloric restriction)-induced autophagy has a protective function against toxic effects mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Finally, coupled measurement of lysosomal-autophagic reactions and simulation modelling is proposed as a practical toolbox for predicting toxic

  13. Aquatic pathways model to predict the fate of phenolic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Aaberg, R.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Mellinger, P.J.

    1983-04-01

    Organic materials released from energy-related activities could affect human health and the environment. To better assess possible impacts, we developed a model to predict the fate of spills or discharges of pollutants into flowing or static bodies of fresh water. A computer code, Aquatic Pathways Model (APM), was written to implement the model. The computer programs use compartmental analysis to simulate aquatic ecosystems. The APM estimates the concentrations of chemicals in fish tissue, water and sediment, and is therefore useful for assessing exposure to humans through aquatic pathways. The APM will consider any aquatic pathway for which the user has transport data. Additionally, APM will estimate transport rates from physical and chemical properties of chemicals between several key compartments. The major pathways considered are biodegradation, fish and sediment uptake, photolysis, and evaporation. The model has been implemented with parameters for distribution of phenols, an important class of compounds found in the water-soluble fractions of coal liquids. Current modeling efforts show that, in comparison with many pesticides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), the lighter phenolics (the cresols) are not persistent in the environment. The properties of heavier molecular weight phenolics (indanols, naphthols) are not well enough understood at this time to make similar judgements. For the twelve phenolics studied, biodegradation appears to be the major pathway for elimination from aquatic environments. A pond system simulation (using APM) of a spill of solvent refined coal (SRC-II) materials indicates that phenol, cresols, and other single cyclic phenolics are degraded to 16 to 25 percent of their original concentrations within 30 hours. Adsorption of these compounds into sediments and accumulation by fish was minor.

  14. Aquatic versus terrestrial attachment: Water makes a difference.

    PubMed

    Ditsche, Petra; Summers, Adam P

    2014-01-01

    Animal attachment to a substrate is very different in terrestrial and aquatic environments. We discuss variations in both the forces acting to detach animals and forces of attachment. While in a terrestrial environment gravity is commonly understood as the most important detachment force, under submerged conditions gravity is nearly balanced out by buoyancy and therefore matters little. In contrast, flow forces such as drag and lift are of higher importance in an aquatic environment. Depending on the flow conditions, flow forces can reach much higher values than gravity and vary in magnitude and direction. For many of the attachment mechanisms (adhesion including glue, friction, suction and mechanical principles such as hook, lock, clamp and spacer) significant differences have to be considered under water. For example, the main principles of dry adhesion, van der Waals forces and chemical bonding, which make a gecko stick to the ceiling, are weak under submerged conditions. Capillary forces are very important for wet adhesion, e.g., in terrestrial beetles or flies, but usually do not occur under water. Viscous forces are likely an important contributor to adhesion under water in some mobile animals such as torrent frogs and mayflies, but there are still many open questions to be answered. Glue is the dominant attachment mechanism of sessile aquatic animals and the aquatic realm presents many challenges to this mode of attachment. Viscous forces and the lack of surface tension under submerged conditions also affect frictional interactions in the aquatic environment. Moreover, the limitation of suction to the pressure difference at vacuum conditions can be ameliorated under water, due to the increasing pressure with water depth. PMID:25671138

  15. Aquatic versus terrestrial attachment: Water makes a difference

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Adam P

    2014-01-01

    Summary Animal attachment to a substrate is very different in terrestrial and aquatic environments. We discuss variations in both the forces acting to detach animals and forces of attachment. While in a terrestrial environment gravity is commonly understood as the most important detachment force, under submerged conditions gravity is nearly balanced out by buoyancy and therefore matters little. In contrast, flow forces such as drag and lift are of higher importance in an aquatic environment. Depending on the flow conditions, flow forces can reach much higher values than gravity and vary in magnitude and direction. For many of the attachment mechanisms (adhesion including glue, friction, suction and mechanical principles such as hook, lock, clamp and spacer) significant differences have to be considered under water. For example, the main principles of dry adhesion, van der Waals forces and chemical bonding, which make a gecko stick to the ceiling, are weak under submerged conditions. Capillary forces are very important for wet adhesion, e.g., in terrestrial beetles or flies, but usually do not occur under water. Viscous forces are likely an important contributor to adhesion under water in some mobile animals such as torrent frogs and mayflies, but there are still many open questions to be answered. Glue is the dominant attachment mechanism of sessile aquatic animals and the aquatic realm presents many challenges to this mode of attachment. Viscous forces and the lack of surface tension under submerged conditions also affect frictional interactions in the aquatic environment. Moreover, the limitation of suction to the pressure difference at vacuum conditions can be ameliorated under water, due to the increasing pressure with water depth. PMID:25671138

  16. Global ecological impacts of invasive species in aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Belinda; Clavero, Miguel; Sánchez, Marta I; Vilà, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of invasive species, which often differ functionally from the components of the recipient community, generates ecological impacts that propagate along the food web. This review aims to determine how consistent the impacts of aquatic invasions are across taxa and habitats. To that end, we present a global meta-analysis from 151 publications (733 cases), covering a wide range of invaders (primary producers, filter collectors, omnivores and predators), resident aquatic community components (macrophytes, phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic invertebrates and fish) and habitats (rivers, lakes and estuaries). Our synthesis suggests a strong negative influence of invasive species on the abundance of aquatic communities, particularly macrophytes, zooplankton and fish. In contrast, there was no general evidence for a decrease in species diversity in invaded habitats, suggesting a time lag between rapid abundance changes and local extinctions. Invaded habitats showed increased water turbidity, nitrogen and organic matter concentration, which are related to the capacity of invaders to transform habitats and increase eutrophication. The expansion of invasive macrophytes caused the largest decrease in fish abundance, the filtering activity of filter collectors depleted planktonic communities, omnivores (including both facultative and obligate herbivores) were responsible for the greatest decline in macrophyte abundance, and benthic invertebrates were most negatively affected by the introduction of new predators. These impacts were relatively consistent across habitats and experimental approaches. Based on our results, we propose a framework of positive and negative links between invasive species at four trophic positions and the five different components of recipient communities. This framework incorporates both direct biotic interactions (predation, competition, grazing) and indirect changes to the water physicochemical conditions mediated by invaders (habitat

  17. 15 CFR 970.701 - Significant adverse environmental effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... under a license of scale-model mining systems which simulate commercial recovery could adversely affect... setting of instruments; (7) Sampling by box core, small diameter core or grab sampler, to determine seabed... mining tests under exploration licenses will be extremely small. (ii) Blanketing of benthic fauna...

  18. 15 CFR 970.701 - Significant adverse environmental effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... under a license of scale-model mining systems which simulate commercial recovery could adversely affect... setting of instruments; (7) Sampling by box core, small diameter core or grab sampler, to determine seabed... mining tests under exploration licenses will be extremely small. (ii) Blanketing of benthic fauna...

  19. Influence of salinity and prey presence on the survival of aquatic macroinvertebrates of a freshwater marsh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kang, Sung-Ryong; King, Sammy L.

    2012-01-01

    Salinization of coastal freshwater environments is a global issue. Increased salinity from sea level rise, storm surges, or other mechanisms is common in coastal freshwater marshes of Louisiana, USA. The effects of salinity increases on aquatic macroinvertebrates in these systems have received little attention, despite the importance of aquatic macroinvertebrates for nutrient cycling, biodiversity, and as a food source for vertebrate species. We used microcosm experiments to evaluate the effects of salinity, duration of exposure, and prey availability on the relative survival of dominant aquatic macroinvertebrates (i.e., Procambarus clarkii Girard, Cambarellus puer Hobbs, Libellulidae, Dytiscidae cybister) in a freshwater marsh of southwestern Louisiana. We hypothesized that increased salinity, absence of prey, and increased duration of exposure would decrease survival of aquatic macroinvertebrates and that crustaceans would have higher survival than aquatic insect taxon. Our first hypothesis was only partially supported as only salinity increases combined with prolonged exposure duration affected aquatic macroinvertebrate survival. Furthermore, crustaceans had higher survival than aquatic insects. Salinity stress may cause mortality when acting together with other stressful conditions.

  20. Detecting Adverse Events Using Information Technology

    PubMed Central

    Bates, David W.; Evans, R. Scott; Murff, Harvey; Stetson, Peter D.; Pizziferri, Lisa; Hripcsak, George

    2003-01-01

    Context: Although patient safety is a major problem, most health care organizations rely on spontaneous reporting, which detects only a small minority of adverse events. As a result, problems with safety have remained hidden. Chart review can detect adverse events in research settings, but it is too expensive for routine use. Information technology techniques can detect some adverse events in a timely and cost-effective way, in some cases early enough to prevent patient harm. Objective: To review methodologies of detecting adverse events using information technology, reports of studies that used these techniques to detect adverse events, and study results for specific types of adverse events. Design: Structured review. Methodology: English-language studies that reported using information technology to detect adverse events were identified using standard techniques. Only studies that contained original data were included. Main Outcome Measures: Adverse events, with specific focus on nosocomial infections, adverse drug events, and injurious falls. Results: Tools such as event monitoring and natural language processing can inexpensively detect certain types of adverse events in clinical databases. These approaches already work well for some types of adverse events, including adverse drug events and nosocomial infections, and are in routine use in a few hospitals. In addition, it appears likely that these techniques will be adaptable in ways that allow detection of a broad array of adverse events, especially as more medical information becomes computerized. Conclusion: Computerized detection of adverse events will soon be practical on a widespread basis. PMID:12595401

  1. Passive electroreception in aquatic mammals.

    PubMed

    Czech-Damal, Nicole U; Dehnhardt, Guido; Manger, Paul; Hanke, Wolf

    2013-06-01

    Passive electroreception is a sensory modality in many aquatic vertebrates, predominantly fishes. Using passive electroreception, the animal can detect and analyze electric fields in its environment. Most electric fields in the environment are of biogenic origin, often produced by prey items. These electric fields can be relatively strong and can be a highly valuable source of information for a predator, as underlined by the fact that electroreception has evolved multiple times independently. The only mammals that possess electroreception are the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and the echidnas (Tachyglossidae) from the monotreme order, and, recently discovered, the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) from the cetacean order. Here we review the morphology, function and origin of the electroreceptors in the two aquatic species, the platypus and the Guiana dolphin. The morphology shows certain similarities, also similar to ampullary electroreceptors in fishes, that provide cues for the search for electroreceptors in more vertebrate and invertebrate species. The function of these organs appears to be very similar. Both species search for prey animals in low-visibility conditions or while digging in the substrate, and sensory thresholds are within one order of magnitude. The electroreceptors in both species are innervated by the trigeminal nerve. The origin of the accessory structures, however, is completely different; electroreceptors in the platypus have developed from skin glands, in the Guiana dolphin, from the vibrissal system. PMID:23187861

  2. Cutaneous Adverse Effects of Neurologic Medications.

    PubMed

    Bahrani, Eman; Nunneley, Chloe E; Hsu, Sylvia; Kass, Joseph S

    2016-03-01

    Life-threatening and benign drug reactions occur frequently in the skin, affecting 8 % of the general population and 2-3 % of all hospitalized patients, emphasizing the need for physicians to effectively recognize and manage patients with drug-induced eruptions. Neurologic medications represent a vast array of drug classes with cutaneous side effects. Approximately 7 % of the United States (US) adult population is affected by adult-onset neurological disorders, reflecting a large number of patients on neurologic drug therapies. This review elucidates the cutaneous reactions associated with medications approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat the following neurologic pathologies: Alzheimer disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, epilepsy, Huntington disease, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson disease, and pseudobulbar affect. A search of the literature was performed using the specific FDA-approved drug or drug classes in combination with the terms 'dermatologic,' 'cutaneous,' 'skin,' or 'rash.' Both PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were utilized, with side effects ranging from those cited in randomized controlled trials to case reports. It behooves neurologists, dermatologists, and primary care physicians to be aware of the recorded cutaneous adverse reactions and their severity for proper management and potential need to withdraw the offending medication. PMID:26914914

  3. [Adverse ocular effects of vaccinations].

    PubMed

    Ness, T; Hengel, H

    2016-07-01

    Vaccinations are very effective measures for prevention of infections but are also associated with a long list of possible side effects. Adverse ocular effects following vaccination have been rarely reported or considered to be related to vaccinations. Conjunctivitis is a frequent sequel of various vaccinations. Oculorespiratory syndrome and serum sickness syndrome are considered to be related to influenza vaccinations. The risk of reactivation or initiation of autoimmune diseases (e. g. uveitis) cannot be excluded but has not yet been proven. Overall the benefit of vaccination outweighs the possible but very low risk of ocular side effects. PMID:27357302

  4. Adverse Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan; Arumugham, Shyam Sundar; Thirthalli, Jagadisha

    2016-09-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment commonly used for depression and other major psychiatric disorders. We discuss potential adverse effects (AEs) associated with ECT and strategies for their prevention and management. Common acute AEs include headache, nausea, myalgia, and confusion; these are self-limiting and are managed symptomatically. Serious but uncommon AEs include cardiovascular, pulmonary, and cerebrovascular events; these may be minimized with screening for risk factors and by physiologic monitoring. Although most cognitive AEs of ECT are short-lasting, troublesome retrograde amnesia may rarely persist. Modifications of and improvements in treatment techniques minimize cognitive and other AEs. PMID:27514303

  5. Development of aquatic animal experiment facility, Aquatic Habitat (AQH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, S.; Kono, Y.; Sakimura, T.; Nishikawa, W.; Fujimoto, N.; Murakami, K.; Nakamura, T.

    We have been performing technical studies to develop aquatic animal experiment facility, Aquatic Habitat (AQH), for both of short-term experiments in the Space Shuttle middeck and long-term experiments in the Space Station including the Centrifuge Accommodation Module (CAM). The AQH will have the capabilities to accommodate three-generations of small freshwater fish (medaka and zebrafish) and egg through metamorphosis of amphibian (African clawed frog). For these purposes, the AQH will have the following brand-new capabilities that the previous facilities have never had; 90days experiment duration, automatic feeding according to specimen types and their developmental stages, separation of generations for fish, specimen sample collection in various developmental stages, air/water interface control for amphibian, continuous monitoring of specimen behavior even in dark condition, and so on. We have already performed preliminary breeding tests for medaka and zebrafish with a breeding system prototype. Their mating behavior was performed successfully in the small closed chamber and the hatched larvae grew and started spawning on the 45-47th day after hatching. These results demonstrated that three generational breeding of medaka and zebrafish within 90days would be possible based on this breeding system prototype. Also, we have developed almost of the above new mechanisms, that is, an automatic feeding system, an egg separation mechanism for fish, an air stabilizer to control air/water interface, and a continuous specimen monitoring system through light/dark cycle. Based on these results, we have manufactured a BBM of AQH water circulation system and performed biological compatibility tests as a next step. For African clawed frog breeding, some problems have been revealed through the preliminary tests with the breeding system prototype. Currently, we are performing the investigations to resolve the problems and preparing to proceed to the next step.

  6. Marine and Other Aquatic Education. Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    A framework for marine and aquatic education in Hawaii was developed for the purpose of restructuring attitudes on the use, protection, and appreciation of aquatic resources. This report identifies key elements of the framework and contains suggestions for its implementation and management. Contents include: (1) a rationale for marine education…

  7. Estimating Aquatic Insect Populations. Introduction to Sampling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chihuahuan Desert Research Inst., Alpine, TX.

    This booklet introduces high school and junior high school students to the major groups of aquatic insects and to population sampling techniques. Chapter 1 consists of a short field guide which can be used to identify five separate orders of aquatic insects: odonata (dragonflies and damselflies); ephemeroptera (mayflies); diptera (true flies);…

  8. GULF OF MEXICO AQUATIC MORTALITY NETWORK (GMNET)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five U.S. states share the northern coast of the Gulf, and each has a program to monitor mortalities of aquatic organisms (fish, shellfish, birds). However, each state has different standards, procedures, and documentation of mortality events. The Gulf of Mexico Aquatic Mortality...

  9. Control of Fish and Aquatic Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesser, R. B.; And Others

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University is a handbook for the water body manager. The bulk of the contents deals with aquatic plant control. The different types of aquatic plants, their reproduction and growth, and their role in the ecology of the water body are introduced in this main section. Also, the…

  10. Chapter 6: Selenium Toxicity to Aquatic Organisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter addresses the characteristics and nature of organic selenium (Se) toxicity to aquatic organisms, based on the most current state of scientific knowledge. As such, the information contained in this chapter relates to the 'toxicity assessment' phase of aquatic ecologi...

  11. SUBMERSED AQUATIC VEGETATION MAPPING USING HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) beds are an important resources for aquatic life and
    wildfowl in the Potomac River and Chesapeake Bay region. SAV habitat is threatened in part by nitrogen loadings from human activities. Monitoring and assessing this resource using field bas...

  12. Aquatic Therapy: A Viable Therapeutic Recreation Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broach, Ellen; Dattilo, John

    1996-01-01

    Reviews literature on the effects of aquatic therapy (swimming and exercise) to improve function. Research shows that aquatic therapy has numerous psychological and physical benefits, and it supports the belief that participation can provide a realistic solution to maintaining physical fitness and rehabilitation goals while engaging in enjoyable…

  13. Role of selenium toxicity and oxidative stress in aquatic birds.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, David J

    2002-04-01

    Adverse effects of selenium (Se) in wild aquatic birds have been documented as a consequence of pollution of the aquatic environment by subsurface agricultural drainwater and other sources. These effects include mortality, impaired reproduction with teratogenesis, reduced growth, histopathological lesions and alterations in hepatic glutathione metabolism. A review is provided, relating adverse biological effects of Se in aquatic birds to altered glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress. Laboratory studies, mainly with an organic form of Se, selenomethionine, have revealed oxidative stress in different stages of the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) life cycle. As dietary and tissue concentrations of Se increase, increases in plasma and hepatic GSH peroxidase activities occur, followed by dose-dependent increases in the ratio of hepatic oxidized to reduced glutathione (GSSG:GSH) and ultimately hepatic lipid peroxidation measured as an increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). One or more of these oxidative effects were associated with teratogenesis (4.6 ppm wet weight Se in eggs), reduced growth in ducklings (15 ppm Se in liver), diminished immune function (5 ppm Se in liver) and histopathological lesions (29 ppm Se in liver) in adults. Manifestations of Se-related effects on glutathione metabolism were also apparent in field studies in seven species of aquatic birds. Reduced growth and possibly immune function but increased liver:body weight and hepatic GSSG:GSH ratios were apparent in american avocet (Recurvirostra americana) hatchlings from eggs containing 9 ppm Se. In black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), which contained somewhat lower Se concentrations, a decrease in hepatic GSH was apparent with few other effects. In adult American coots (Fulica americana), signs of Se toxicosis included emaciation, abnormal feather loss and histopathological lesions. Mean liver concentrations of 28 ppm Se (ww) in the coots were associated with elevated

  14. Adverse drug reactions in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Ferner, R E

    2015-03-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) - that is, unintended and harmful responses to medicines - are important to dermatologists because many present with cutaneous signs and because dermatological treatments can cause serious ADRs. The detection of ADRs to new drugs is often delayed because they have a long latency or are rare or unexpected. This means that ADRs to newer agents emerge only slowly after marketing. ADRs are part of the differential diagnosis of unusual rashes. A good drug history that includes details of drug dose, time-course of the reaction and factors that may make the patient more susceptible, will help. For example, Stevens-Johnson syndrome with abacavir is much commoner in patients with HLA-B*5701, and has a characteristic time course. Newer agents have brought newer reactions; for example, acneiform rashes associated with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors such as erlotinib. Older systemic agents used to treat skin disease, including corticosteroids and methotrexate, cause important ADRs. The adverse effects of newer biological agents used in dermatology are becoming clearer; for example, hypersensitivity reactions or loss of efficacy from antibody formation and progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy due to reactivation of latent JC (John Cunningham) virus infections during efalizumab treatment. Unusual or serious harm from medicines, including ADRs, medication errors and overdose, should be reported. The UK Yellow Card scheme is online, and patients can report their own ADRs. PMID:25622648

  15. [Recipients adverse reactions: guidance supports].

    PubMed

    Bazin, A

    2010-12-01

    Since 1994, adverse effects of transfusion transmitted to the French haemovigilance network are registered on "e-fit", the database of the French agency for the safety of health products (Afssaps). In order to improve their analysis, guidance supports have been made by Afssaps working groups. Each support deals with a blood transfusion side effect and is composed of five parts including pathophysiological mechanisms, diagnostic criteria, management recommendations, etiologic investigations and rules of filing the notification form on e-fit. The major characteristics of sheets published or soon-to-be published are presented: transfusion-related acute lung injury, transfusion-transmitted bacterial infection, non-haemolytic febrile reaction, allergic reaction, transfusion-associated circulatory overload, hypotensive transfusion reaction, alloimmunization, erythrocyte incompatibility reaction and hemosiderosis. These new supports give relevant guidelines allowing a better analysis and evaluation of recipients' adverse reactions, particularly their diagnosis, gravity and accountability. They could also initiate studies in European and international haemovigilance and transfusion networks. PMID:21051267

  16. Adverse effects of plasma transfusion.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Suchitra; Vyas, Girish N

    2012-05-01

    Plasma utilization has increased over the past two decades, and there is a growing concern that many plasma transfusions are inappropriate. Plasma transfusion is not without risk, and certain complications are more likely with plasma than other blood components. Clinical and laboratory investigations of the patients suffering reactions after infusion of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) define the etiology and pathogenesis of the panoply of adverse effects. We review here the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of the risks associated with plasma transfusion. Risks commonly associated with FFP include: 1) transfusion-related acute lung injury, 2) transfusion-associated circulatory overload, and 3) allergic and/or anaphylactic reactions. Other less common risks include 1) transmission of infections, 2) febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions, 3) red blood cell alloimmunization, and 4) hemolytic transfusion reactions. The effects of pathogen inactivation or reduction methods on these risks are also discussed. Fortunately, a majority of the adverse effects are not lethal and are adequately treated in clinical practice. PMID:22578374

  17. The aquatic ecotoxicology of triazine herbicides

    SciTech Connect

    Giddings, J.M.

    1996-10-01

    Triazine herbicides control plant growth by inhibiting photophosphorylation, but typically do not cause permanent cell damage or death. Effects on aquatic plants are reversible; photosynthesis resumes when the herbicide disappears from the water, and sometimes even while it is still present. Effects on aquatic plant communities are further ameliorated by species replacements, so the communities as a whole are less sensitive than their most sensitive species. Atrazine, a representative triazine herbicide, is toxic to aquatic plants (algae and macrophytes) at concentrations in the range of 20 to 200 {mu}g/L or less. Aquatic invertebrates and fish are much less sensitive than plants, with acute toxicity occurring at 1000 {mu}g/L or higher. Ecologically significant effects in aquatic ecosystems are likely only if plant communities are severely damaged by prolonged exposure to high atrazine concentrations.

  18. The National Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pawlitz, Rachel J.; David, Kayla D.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Nonindigenous Aquatic Species (NAS) Program monitors, analyzes, and records sightings of non-native (introduced) aquatic species throughout the United States. The program is based at the USGS Southeast Ecological Science Center in Gainesville, Florida. The initiative to maintain scientific information on nationwide occurrences of non-native aquatic species began with the Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force, a group created by Congress in 1990 to address the need for this type of information by natural resource managers. Since then, the NAS program has maintained the database as a clearinghouse of information for confirmed sightings of non-native aquatic species throughout the Nation. The program also produces email alerts, maps, summary graphs, publications, and other information products to support natural resource managers.

  19. Phytoremediation potential of aquatic macrophyte, Azolla.

    PubMed

    Sood, Anjuli; Uniyal, Perm L; Prasanna, Radha; Ahluwalia, Amrik S

    2012-03-01

    Aquatic macrophytes play an important role in the structural and functional aspects of aquatic ecosystems by altering water movement regimes, providing shelter to fish and aquatic invertebrates, serving as a food source, and altering water quality by regulating oxygen balance, nutrient cycles, and accumulating heavy metals. The ability to hyperaccumulate heavy metals makes them interesting research candidates, especially for the treatment of industrial effluents and sewage waste water. The use of aquatic macrophytes, such as Azolla with hyper accumulating ability is known to be an environmentally friendly option to restore polluted aquatic resources. The present review highlights the phytoaccumulation potential of macrophytes with emphasis on utilization of Azolla as a promising candidate for phytoremediation. The impact of uptake of heavy metals on morphology and metabolic processes of Azolla has also been discussed for a better understanding and utilization of this symbiotic association in the field of phytoremediation. PMID:22396093

  20. "Adversative Conjunction": The Poetics of Linguistic Opposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallerstein, Nicholas

    1992-01-01

    The general use of adversative conjunction in (primarily) English and U.S. poetry is outlined. The contention is that the adversative is not merely a grammatical convenience but sometimes a highly functional tool of rhetorical strategy. (36 references) (LB)

  1. Cetacean brains: how aquatic are they?

    PubMed

    Marino, Lori

    2007-06-01

    The adaptation of cetaceans to a fully aquatic lifestyle represents one of the most dramatic transformations in mammalian evolutionary history. Two of the most salient features of modern cetaceans are their fully aquatic lifestyle and their large brains. This review article will offer an overview of comparative neuroanatomical research on aquatic mammals, including analyses of odontocete cetacean, sirenian, pinniped, and fossil archaeocete brains. In particular, the question of whether a relationship exists between being fully aquatic and having a large brain is addressed. It has been hypothesized that the large, well-developed cetacean brain is a direct product of adaptation to a fully aquatic lifestyle. The current consensus is that the paleontological evidence on brain size evolution in cetaceans is not consistent with this hypothesis. Cetacean brain enlargement took place millions of years after adaptation to a fully aquatic existence. Neuroanatomical comparisons with sirenians and pinnipeds provide no evidence for the idea that the odontocete's large brain, high encephalization level, and extreme neocortical gyrification is an adaptation to a fully aquatic lifestyle. Although echolocation has been suggested as a reason for the high encephalization level in odontocetes, it should be noted that not all aquatic mammals echolocate and echolocating terrestrial mammals (e.g., bats) are not particularly highly encephalized. Echolocation is not a requirement of a fully aquatic lifestyle and, thus, cannot be considered a sole effect of aquaticism on brain enlargement. These results indicate that the high encephalization level of odontocetes is likely related to their socially complex lifestyle patterns that transcend the influence of an aquatic environment. PMID:17516433

  2. Acid Toxicity and Aquatic Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, R.; Taylor, E. W.; Brown, D. J. A.; Brown, J. A.

    1989-04-01

    This book reviews and presents recent research on acid waters and their effects on aquatic animals. Starting with the environment, in order to assess why the problems have arisen in particular areas, the volume then deals with field and survival studies on invertebrates and vertebrates; examines the extent of the biological problem and the attempts that have been made to relate water quality and the susceptibility of animals. The natural progression of environmental and field studies, toxicity, and survival tests provide the background information for the physiological studies that follow. These form the major component of the book and they seek to analyze the toxic effects of acid waters and trace metals with cardiovascular and endocrinological effects.

  3. A microcosm study to support aquatic risk assessment of nickel: Community-level effects and comparison with bioavailability-normalized species sensitivity distributions.

    PubMed

    Hommen, Udo; Knopf, Burkhard; Rüdel, Heinz; Schäfers, Christoph; De Schamphelaere, Karel; Schlekat, Chris; Garman, Emily Rogevich

    2016-05-01

    The aquatic risk assessment for nickel (Ni) in the European Union is based on chronic species sensitivity distributions and the use of bioavailability models. To test whether a bioavailability-based safe threshold of Ni (the hazardous concentration for 5% of species [HC5]) is protective for aquatic communities, microcosms were exposed to 5 stable Ni treatments (6-96 μg/L) and a control for 4 mo to assess bioaccumulation and effects on phytoplankton, periphyton, zooplankton, and snails. Concentrations of Ni in the periphyton, macrophytes, and snails measured at the end of the exposure period increased in a dose-dependent manner but did not indicate biomagnification. Abundance of phytoplankton and snails decreased in 48 μg Ni/L and 96 μg Ni/L treatments, which may have indirectly affected the abundance of zooplankton and periphyton. Exposure up to 24 μg Ni/L had no adverse effects on algae and zooplankton, whereas the rate of population decline of the snails at 24 μg Ni/L was significantly higher than in the controls. Therefore, the study-specific overall no-observed-adverse-effect concentration (NOAEC) is 12 μg Ni/L. This NOAEC is approximately twice the HC5 derived from a chronic species sensitivity distribution considering the specific water chemistry of the microcosm by means of bioavailability models. Thus, the present study provides support to the protectiveness of the bioavailability-normalized HC5 for freshwater communities. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1172-1182. © 2015 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. PMID:26387764

  4. Identifying and designing chemicals with minimal acute aquatic toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kostal, Jakub; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina; Anastas, Paul T.; Zimmerman, Julie Beth

    2015-01-01

    Industrial ecology has revolutionized our understanding of material stocks and flows in our economy and society. For this important discipline to have even deeper impact, we must understand the inherent nature of these materials in terms of human health and the environment. This paper focuses on methods to design synthetic chemicals to reduce their intrinsic ability to cause adverse consequence to the biosphere. Advances in the fields of computational chemistry and molecular toxicology in recent decades allow the development of predictive models that inform the design of molecules with reduced potential to be toxic to humans or the environment. The approach presented herein builds on the important work in quantitative structure–activity relationships by linking toxicological and chemical mechanistic insights to the identification of critical physical–chemical properties needed to be modified. This in silico approach yields design guidelines using boundary values for physiochemical properties. Acute aquatic toxicity serves as a model endpoint in this study. Defining value ranges for properties related to bioavailability and reactivity eliminates 99% of the chemicals in the highest concern for acute aquatic toxicity category. This approach and its future implementations are expected to yield very powerful tools for life cycle assessment practitioners and molecular designers that allow rapid assessment of multiple environmental and human health endpoints and inform modifications to minimize hazard. PMID:24639521

  5. An updated weight of evidence approach to the aquatic hazard assessment of Bisphenol A and the derivation a new predicted no effect concentration (Pnec) using a non-parametric methodology.

    PubMed

    Wright-Walters, Maxine; Volz, Conrad; Talbott, Evelyn; Davis, Devra

    2011-01-15

    An aquatic hazard assessment establishes a derived predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) below which it is assumed that aquatic organisms will not suffer adverse effects from exposure to a chemical. An aquatic hazard assessment of the endocrine disruptor Bisphenol A [BPA; 2, 2-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) propane] was conducted using a weight of evidence approach, using the ecotoxicological endpoints of survival, growth and development and reproduction. New evidence has emerged that suggests that the aquatic system may not be sufficiently protected from adverse effects of BPA exposure at the current PNEC value of 100 μg/L. It is with this background that; 1) An aquatic hazard assessment for BPA using a weight of evidence approach, was conducted, 2) A PNEC value was derived using a non parametric hazardous concentration for 5% of the specie (HC(5)) approach and, 3) The derived BPA hazard assessment values were compared to aquatic environmental concentrations for BPA to determine, sufficient protectiveness from BPA exposure for aquatic species. A total of 61 studies yielded 94 no observed effect concentration (NOEC) and a toxicity dataset, which suggests that the aquatic effects of mortality, growth and development and reproduction are most likely to occur between the concentrations of 0.0483 μg/L and 2280 μg/L. This finding is within the range for aquatic adverse estrogenic effects reported in the literature. A PNEC of 0.06 μg/L was calculated. The 95% confidence interval was found to be (0.02, 3.40) μg/L. Thus, using the weight of evidence approach based on repeated measurements of these endpoints, the results indicate that currently observed BPA concentrations in surface waters exceed this newly derived PNEC value of 0.06 μg/L. This indicates that some aquatic receptors may be at risk for adverse effects on survival, growth and development and reproduction from BPA exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations. PMID:21130487

  6. Fiber optics in adverse environments

    SciTech Connect

    Lyous, P.B.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation effects in optical fibers are considered, taking into account recent progress in the investigation of radiation resistant optical fibers, radiation damage in optical fibers, radiation-induced transient absorption in optical fibers, X-ray-induced transient attenuation at low temperatures in polymer clad silica (PCS) fibers, optical fiber composition and radiation hardness, the response of irradiated optical waveguides at low temperatures, and the effect of ionizing radiation on fiber-optic waveguides. Other topics explored are related to environmental effects on components of fiber optic systems, and radiation detection systems using optical fibers. Fiber optic systems in adverse environments are also discussed, giving attention to the survivability of Army fiber optics systems, space application of fiber optics systems, fiber optic wavelength multiplexing for civil aviation applications, a new fiber optic data bus topology, fiber optics for aircraft engine/inlet control, and application of fiber optics in high voltage substations.

  7. Adverse reactions to food additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1986-01-01

    There are thousands of agents that are intentionally added to the food that we consume. These include preservatives, stabilizers, conditioners, thickeners, colorings, flavorings, sweeteners, antioxidants, etc. etc. Yet only a surprisingly small number have been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Amongst all the additives, FD&C dyes have been most frequently associated with adverse reactions. Tartrazine is the most notorious of them all; however, critical review of the medical literature and current Scripps Clinic studies would indicate that tartrazine has been confirmed to be at best only occasionally associated with flares of urticaria or asthma. There is no convincing evidence in the literature of reactivity to the other azo or nonazo dyes. This can also be said of BHA/BHT, nitrites/nitrates and sorbates. Parabens have been shown to elicit IgE mediated hypersensitivity reactions when used as pharmaceutical preservatives; however, as with the other additives noted above, ingested parabens have only occasionally been associated with adverse reactions. MSG, the cause of the 'Chinese restaurant syndrome' has only been linked to asthma in one report. Sulfiting agents used primarily as food fresheners and to control microbial growth in fermented beverages have been established as the cause of any where from mild to severe and even fatal reactions in at least 5% of the asthmatic population. Other reactions reported to follow sulfite ingestion include anaphylaxis, gastro intestinal complaints and dermatological eruptions. The prevalence of these non asthmatic reactions is unknown. The mechanism of sulfite sensitive asthma is also unknown but most likely involves hyperreactivity to inhale SO2 in the great majority of cases; however, there are reports of IgE mediated reactions and other sulfite sensitive asthmatics have been found with low levels of sulfite oxidase; necessary to oxidize endogenous sulfite to sulfate. PMID:3302664

  8. Adverse events in healthcare: learning from mistakes.

    PubMed

    Rafter, N; Hickey, A; Condell, S; Conroy, R; O'Connor, P; Vaughan, D; Williams, D

    2015-04-01

    Large national reviews of patient charts estimate that approximately 10% of hospital admissions are associated with an adverse event (defined as an injury resulting in prolonged hospitalization, disability or death, caused by healthcare management). Apart from having a significant impact on patient morbidity and mortality, adverse events also result in increased healthcare costs due to longer hospital stays. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of adverse events are preventable. Through identifying the nature and rate of adverse events, initiatives to improve care can be developed. A variety of methods exist to gather adverse event data both retrospectively and prospectively but these do not necessarily capture the same events and there is variability in the definition of an adverse event. For example, hospital incident reporting collects only a very small fraction of the adverse events found in retrospective chart reviews. Until there are systematic methods to identify adverse events, progress in patient safety cannot be reliably measured. This review aims to discuss the need for a safety culture that can learn from adverse events, describe ways to measure adverse events, and comment on why current adverse event monitoring is unable to demonstrate trends in patient safety. PMID:25078411

  9. Life adversity is associated with smoking relapse after a quit attempt.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Andrine; Olson, Leif; Nakajima, Motohiro; Schulberg, Lauren; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2016-09-01

    Multiple cross-sectional studies have linked adverse childhood events and adult adversities to current smoking, lifetime smoking, and former smoking. To date, however, there have been no direct observational studies assessing the influence of adversities on smoking relapse. We prospectively followed 123 participants, 86 of whom were habitual smokers, from pre-quit ad libitum smoking to four weeks post-quit. Thirty-seven non-smokers were also tested in parallel as a comparison group. Subjects provided biological samples for confirmation of abstinence status and self-report history of adversities such as abuse, neglect, family dysfunction, incarceration, and child-parent separation. They also completed mood and smoking withdrawal symptom measures. The results indicated that within non-smokers and smokers who relapsed within the first month of a quit attempt, but not abstainers, females had significantly higher adversity scores than males. Cigarette craving, which was independent from depressive affect, increased for low adversity participants, but not those with no adversity nor high adversity. These results demonstrate that sex and relapse status interact to predict adversity and that craving for nicotine may be an important additional mediator of relapse. These results add further support to the previous cross-sectional evidence of an adversity and smoking relationship. Further studies to clarify how adversity complicates smoking cessation and impacts smoking behaviors are warranted. PMID:27100471

  10. The impact on students of adverse experiences during medical school.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Tim J; Gill, Denzil J; Fitzjohn, Julie; Palmer, Claire L; Mulder, Roger T

    2006-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the consequences for, and coping method used by, medical students who experienced adverse experiences during their training. A nationwide questionnaire based census of all current medical students in New Zealand. The response rate was 83% (1384/1660). Two-thirds of students had at least one adverse experience, with humiliation being the most common and having the greatest adverse impact. Unwanted sexual advances, unfair treatment on the basis of gender or race had a lesser impact for most students. Most students took several hours or several days to get over an adverse episode and most commonly they then avoided that person or department. Around one half sought help. Only one-quarter felt it motivated their learning while one-sixth felt it made them consider leaving medical school. The most common perpetrators were senior doctors or nurses. Unwanted sexual advances were most common from other students or from patients. Humiliation is the experience that affected students the most and had a significant adverse effect on learning. There is a disturbing rate of unacceptable practice within medical schools, not all of which is from doctors. PMID:16707293

  11. Aquatic invasive species: Lessons from cancer research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Gross, Jackson A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are disrupting ecosystems with increasing frequency. Successful control of these invasions has been rare: Biologists and managers have few tools for fighting aquatic invaders. In contrast, the medical community has long worked to develop tools for preventing and fighting cancer. Its successes are marked by a coordinated research approach with multiple steps: prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment options and rehabilitation. The authors discuss how these steps can be applied to aquatic invasive species, such as the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), in the Northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States, to expedite tool development and implementation along with achievement of biodiversity conservation goals.

  12. Aquatic hazard assessment of a commercial sample of naphthenic acids.

    PubMed

    Swigert, James P; Lee, Carol; Wong, Diana C L; White, Russell; Scarlett, Alan G; West, Charles E; Rowland, Steven J

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents chemical composition and aquatic toxicity characteristics of a commercial sample of naphthenic acids (NAs). Naphthenic acids are derived from the refining of petroleum middle distillates and can contribute to refinery effluent toxicity. NAs are also present in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), but differences in the NAs compositions from these sources precludes using a common aquatic toxicity dataset to represent the aquatic hazards of NAs from both origins. Our chemical characterization of a commercial sample of NAs showed it to contain in order of abundance, 1-ring>2-ring>acyclic>3-ring acids (∼84%). Also present were monoaromatic acids (7%) and non-acids (9%, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and sulfur heterocyclic compounds). While the acyclic acids were only the third most abundant group, the five most abundant individual compounds were identified as C(10-14) n-acids (n-decanoic acid to n-tetradecanoic acid). Aquatic toxicity testing of fish (Pimephales promelas), invertebrate (Daphnia magna), algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), and bacteria (Vibrio fischeri) showed P. promelas to be the most sensitive species with 96-h LL50=9.0 mg L(-1) (LC50=5.6 mg L(-1)). Acute EL50 values for the other species ranged 24-46 mg L(-1) (EC50 values ranged 20-30 mg L(-1)). Biomimetic extraction via solid-phase-microextraction (BE-SPME) suggested a nonpolar narcosis mode of toxic action for D. magna, P. subcapitata, and V. fischeri. The BE analysis under-predicted fish toxicity, which indicates that a specific mode of action, besides narcosis, may be a factor for fishes. PMID:25434270

  13. Quantifying aquatic insect deposition from lake to land.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Jamin; Townsend, Philip A; Hook, James C; Hoekman, David; Vander Zanden, M Jake; Gratton, Claudio

    2015-02-01

    Adjacent ecosystems are influenced by organisms that move across boundaries, such as insects with aquatic larval stages and terrestrial adult stages, which transport energy and nutrients from water to land. However, the ecosystem-level effect of aquatic insects on land has generally been ignored, perhaps because the organisms themselves are individually small. At the naturally productive Lake Mývatn, Iceland, we used two readily measured quantities: total insect emergence from water and relative insect density on land, to demonstrate an approach for estimating aquatic insect deposition (e.g., kg N x m(-2) x yr(-1)) to shore. Estimates from emergence traps between 2008 and 20.11 indicated a range of 0.15-3.7 g x m(-2) x yr(-1), or a whole-lake emergence of 3.1-76 Mg/yr; all masses are given as dry mass. Using aerial infall trap measurements of midge relative abundance over land, we developed a local-maximum decay function model to predict proportional midge deposition with distance from the lake. The dispersal model predicted midge abundance with R2 = 0.89, a pattern consistent among years, with peak midge deposition occurring 20-25 m inland and 70% of midges deposited within 100 m of shore. During a high-midge year (2008), we estimate midge deposition within the first 50 m of shoreline to be 100 kg xha(-1) x yr(-1), corresponding to inputs of 10 kg N x ha(-1) x yr(-1) and 1 kg P x ha(-1) x yr(-1), or about three to five times above background terrestrial N deposition rates. Consistent with elevated N input where midges are most dense, we observed that soil available nitrate in resin bags decreases with increasing distance from the lake. Our approach, generalizable to other systems, shows that aquatic insects can be a major source of nutrients to terrestrial ecosystems and have the capacity to significantly affect ecosystem processes. PMID:26240871

  14. Thyroid-Disrupting Chemicals: Interpreting Upstream Biomarkers of Adverse Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark D.; Crofton, Kevin M.; Rice, Deborah C.; Zoeller, R. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence in humans and in experimental animals for a relationship between exposure to specific environmental chemicals and perturbations in levels of critically important thyroid hormones (THs). Identification and proper interpretation of these relationships are required for accurate assessment of risk to public health. Objectives We review the role of TH in nervous system development and specific outcomes in adults, the impact of xenobiotics on thyroid signaling, the relationship between adverse outcomes of thyroid disruption and upstream causal biomarkers, and the societal implications of perturbations in thyroid signaling by xenobiotic chemicals. Data sources We drew on an extensive body of epidemiologic, toxicologic, and mechanistic studies. Data synthesis THs are critical for normal nervous system development, and decreased maternal TH levels are associated with adverse neuropsychological development in children. In adult humans, increased thyroid-stimulating hormone is associated with increased blood pressure and poorer blood lipid profiles, both risk factors for cardiovascular disease and death. These effects of thyroid suppression are observed even within the “normal” range for the population. Environmental chemicals may affect thyroid homeostasis by a number of mechanisms, and multiple chemicals have been identified that interfere with thyroid function by each of the identified mechanisms. Conclusions Individuals are potentially vulnerable to adverse effects as a consequence of exposure to thyroid-disrupting chemicals. Any degree of thyroid disruption that affects TH levels on a population basis should be considered a biomarker of adverse outcomes, which may have important societal outcomes. PMID:19654909

  15. Why confined aquatic disposal cells often make sense.

    PubMed

    Fredette, Thomas J

    2006-01-01

    Confined aquatic disposal (CAD) cells are increasingly becoming the selected option for the management of unacceptably contaminated sediments. CAD cells are selected as the preferred alternative because this approach provides an acceptable compromise when cost, logistics, regulatory acceptance, environmental risk, and perception of various alternatives are considered. This preference for CAD cells often occurs even when other alternatives with similar risk reduction and less cost, such as an open water capping alternative, are considered as options. This paradox is largely a result of subjective factors that affect regulatory acceptance such as public perceptions. PMID:16640315

  16. Uptake and concentration factor af Aroclor 1254 in aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Gooch, J.A.; Hamdy, M.K.

    1983-10-01

    There are several factors that affect PCB bioaccumulation. These include: concentration in the surrounding environment; duration of exposure; temperature; solubility of the pollutant; species age, weight, feeding habits and lipid content; trophic level variations; and adsorption. Bioaccumulation can occur either through ingestion of contaminated food organisms or by direct absorption through the integument. Higher concentrations of PCBs have been found in plankton than in fish, indicating that direct absorption is the primary route of accumulation. This investigation was conducted to follow the uptake and concentration factor (CF) of Aroclor 1254 in selected organisms representing a simple aquatic ecosystem.

  17. Natural attenuation of chloroacetinilide herbicides in aquatic systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, D.W.; Graham, W.H.; DeNoyelles, F., Jr.; Smith, V.H.

    1999-01-01

    A 4-yr research program that studied the transformation of alachlor and metolachlor in aquatic systems using field microcosms is presented. The field microcosms provided an accurate simulation of natural ecosystems while also permitting the controlled creation of numerous contamination scenarios and sufficient replication to allow statistical evaluation of the results. Different treatments were assessed including conditions as diverse as anaerobic, eutrophic waters typical of nutrient-rich wetland to aerobic, oligotrophic waters typical of the epilimnion of Canadian glacial lake. Herbicide transformation rate was most strongly affected by water temperature, oxygen conditions, nutrient levels within the system, and the specific herbicide assessed.

  18. Exercise hypertension: an adverse prognosis?

    PubMed

    Smith, Ryan G; Rubin, Stanley A; Ellestad, Myrvin H

    2009-01-01

    We sought to clarify the prognostic importance of an "exaggerated" or "hypertensive" systolic blood pressure response to exercise during an exercise test. Studies evaluating the prognosis for cardiovascular events and cardiovascular mortality in those with hypertension during exercise testing were systematically reviewed. Fourteen studies were identified. Six studies were of healthy volunteers or hypertensives. Eight studies were in subjects with known or suspected heart disease. Without established heart disease, exercise hypertension predicted cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death. However, two of the six studies included a multivariate analysis; both demonstrated no independent association. Studies in subjects with known or suspected heart disease demonstrated that exercise hypertension predicted fewer cardiac events and lesser mortality or, after multivariate adjustment, no associated risk. In a healthy population, a higher exercise blood pressure may indicate hypertension or prehypertension, instead of normal vascular function, and an associated long-term adverse prognosis. In a population with a high burden of heart disease, the highest risk subjects with the most extensive cardiac disease may not be capable of generating pressure or workload to allow the manifestation of exercise systolic hypertension. By comparison, therefore, those with exercise hypertension have a better prognosis. PMID:20409979

  19. OAE: The Ontology of Adverse Events

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A medical intervention is a medical procedure or application intended to relieve or prevent illness or injury. Examples of medical interventions include vaccination and drug administration. After a medical intervention, adverse events (AEs) may occur which lie outside the intended consequences of the intervention. The representation and analysis of AEs are critical to the improvement of public health. Description The Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE), previously named Adverse Event Ontology (AEO), is a community-driven ontology developed to standardize and integrate data relating to AEs arising subsequent to medical interventions, as well as to support computer-assisted reasoning. OAE has over 3,000 terms with unique identifiers, including terms imported from existing ontologies and more than 1,800 OAE-specific terms. In OAE, the term ‘adverse event’ denotes a pathological bodily process in a patient that occurs after a medical intervention. Causal adverse events are defined by OAE as those events that are causal consequences of a medical intervention. OAE represents various adverse events based on patient anatomic regions and clinical outcomes, including symptoms, signs, and abnormal processes. OAE has been used in the analysis of several different sorts of vaccine and drug adverse event data. For example, using the data extracted from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), OAE was used to analyse vaccine adverse events associated with the administrations of different types of influenza vaccines. OAE has also been used to represent and classify the vaccine adverse events cited in package inserts of FDA-licensed human vaccines in the USA. Conclusion OAE is a biomedical ontology that logically defines and classifies various adverse events occurring after medical interventions. OAE has successfully been applied in several adverse event studies. The OAE ontological framework provides a platform for systematic representation and analysis of

  20. Changing Medicine and Building Community: Maine’s Adverse Childhood Experiences Momentum

    PubMed Central

    Forstadt, Leslie; Cooper, Sally; Andrews, Sue Mackey

    2015-01-01

    Physicians are instrumental in community education, prevention, and intervention for adverse childhood experiences. In Maine, a statewide effort is focusing on education about adverse childhood experiences and ways that communities and physicians can approach childhood adversity. This article describes how education about adversity and resilience can positively change the practice of medicine and related fields. The Maine Resilience Building Network brings together ongoing programs, supports new ventures, and builds on existing resources to increase its impact. It exemplifies the collective impact model by increasing community knowledge, affecting medical practice, and improving lives. PMID:25902346

  1. Nitrous oxide emission by aquatic macrofauna

    PubMed Central

    Stief, Peter; Poulsen, Morten; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Brix, Hans; Schramm, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    A large variety of aquatic animals was found to emit the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide when nitrate was present in the environment. The emission was ascribed to denitrification by ingested bacteria in the anoxic animal gut, and the exceptionally high N2O-to-N2 production ratio suggested delayed induction of the last step of denitrification. Filter- and deposit-feeding animal species showed the highest rates of nitrous oxide emission and predators the lowest, probably reflecting the different amounts of denitrifying bacteria in the diet. We estimate that nitrous oxide emission by aquatic animals is quantitatively important in nitrate-rich aquatic environments like freshwater, coastal marine, and deep-sea ecosystems. The contribution of this source to overall nitrous oxide emission from aquatic environments might further increase because of the projected increase of nitrate availability in tropical regions and the numeric dominance of filter- and deposit-feeders in eutrophic ecosystems. PMID:19255427

  2. Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients and Aquatic Organisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presence of active pharmaceuticals ingredients (APIs) in aquatic systems in recent years has led to a burgeoning literature examining environmental occurrence, fate, effects, risk assessment, and treatability of these compounds. Although APIs have received much attention as ...

  3. Freshwater aquatic plant biomass production in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.R.; Sutton, D.L.; Bowes, G.

    1983-01-01

    About 8% (1.2 million ha) of the total surface area of Florida is occupied by freshwater. Many of these water bodies are eutrophic. Nutrients present in these water bodies can be potentially used to culture aquatic plants as a possible feedstock for methane production. This paper summarizes the results of known research findings on biomass production potential of freshwater aquatic plants in Florida and identifies key research needs to improve the quality and quantity of biomass yields. Among floating aquatic plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of water-hyacinth > water lettuce > pennywort > salvinia > duckweed > azolla. Pennywort, duckweed, and azolla appear to perform well during the cooler months compared to other aquatic plants. Among emergent plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of southern wild rice > cattails > soft rush > bulrush. Cultural techniques, nutrient management, and environmental factors influencing the biomass yields were discussed. 68 references.

  4. A Submersible Light Sensor for Aquatic Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatina, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Describes the construction of an inexpensive light sensor that can be used to measure irradiance in aquatic habitats. Includes a list of tools and materials, details of construction, and usage of the light sensor. (DDR)

  5. Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds in Aquatic Ecosystems.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are a ubiquitous issue of concern in our aquatic systems. Commonly detected EDCs include natural and synthetic hormones, surfactants, plasticizers, disinfectants, herbicides and metals. The potency of these chemicals varies substantially, as ...

  6. SYNOPSIS OF HISTOTECHNIQUES FOR AQUATIC ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This synopsis provides an overview of the necropsy, fixation, trimming, and processing of tissues from aquatic organisms for examination using light microscopy. The handling of animals, their tissues, uses of knives, and processing chemicals will be covered. Understanding the his...

  7. Project WILD Aquatic K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Environmental Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "Project WILD Aquatic K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide" emphasizes aquatic wildlife and aquatic ecosystems. It is organized in topic units and is based on the Project WILD conceptual framework. Because these activities are designed for integration into existing courses of study, instructors may use one or many Project WILD Aquatic activities…

  8. Aquatic biodiversity and the electric utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Olmsted, L.L.; Bolin, J.W.

    1996-11-01

    Results for a 1995 survey of utility company biologists indicate that aquatic biodiversity is an emerging and poorly understood issue. As a result, there is some confusion about what aquatic biodiversity actually is, and how we can best conserve it. Only one fourth (24%) of the respondents said their company has a stated environmental policy that addresses biodiversity. Many respondents indicate that over the years they have not specially managed for biodiversity, but have been doing that through their efforts to assure balanced indigenous populations. While regulations are still the major driver for biological work, an increasing number of companies are involved in voluntary partnerships in managing water resources. Of these voluntary partnerships, 70% have biodiversity as a goal. Biodiversity is becoming an increasingly common subject of study, and a vast majority (75%) of the respondents suggested is should be a goal for utility for resource management. Conservation of aquatic biodiversity is a complex task, and to date most aquatic efforts have been directed toward fish and macroinvertebrates. Ecological research and technological development performed by the utility industry have resulted in a number of successful biopreservation and biorestoration success stories. A common theme to preserving or enhancing aquatic biodiversity is preserving aquatic habitat. Increasingly, ecosystem management is touted as the most likely approach to achieve success in preserving aquatic biodiversity. Several utilities are conducting progressive work in implementing ecosystem management. This paper presents the potential interactions between power plants and biodiversity, and overview of aquatic biodiversity preservations efforts within the electric utility industry, more detail on the results of the survey, and recent initiatives in ecosystem management. 17 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Environmental Exposure of Aquatic and Terrestrial Biota to Triclosan and Triclocarban

    PubMed Central

    Chalew, Talia E.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2009-01-01

    The synthetic biocides triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) and triclocarban (3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide) are routinely added to a wide array of antimicrobial personal care products and consumer articles. Both compounds can persist in the environment and exhibit toxicity toward a number of biological receptors. Recent reports of toxicological effects in wildlife, human cell cultures, and laboratory animals have heightened the interest in the occurrence of these biocide and related toxic effects. The present study aimed to summarize published environmental concentrations of biocides and contrast them with toxicity threshold values of susceptible organisms. Environmental occurrences and toxicity threshold values span more than six orders of magnitude in concentration. The highest biocide levels, measured in the mid parts-per-million range, were determined to occur in aquatic sediments and in municipal biosolids destined for land application. Crustacea and algae were identified as the most sensitive species, susceptible to adverse effects from biocide exposures in the parts-per-trillion range. An overlap of environmental concentrations and toxicity threshold values was noted for these more sensitive organisms, suggesting potential adverse ecological effects in aquatic environments. Affirmative evidence for this is lacking, however, since studies examining environmental occurrences of biocides vis-à-vis the health and diversity of aquatic species have not yet been conducted. PMID:20046971

  10. Aquatic arsenic: phytoremediation using floating macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H

    2011-04-01

    Phytoremediation, a plant based green technology, has received increasing attention after the discovery of hyperaccumulating plants which are able to accumulate, translocate, and concentrate high amount of certain toxic elements in their above-ground/harvestable parts. Phytoremediation includes several processes namely, phytoextraction, phytodegradation, rhizofiltration, phytostabilization and phytovolatilization. Both terrestrial and aquatic plants have been tested to remediate contaminated soils and waters, respectively. A number of aquatic plant species have been investigated for the remediation of toxic contaminants such as As, Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Hg, etc. Arsenic, one of the deadly toxic elements, is widely distributed in the aquatic systems as a result of mineral dissolution from volcanic or sedimentary rocks as well as from the dilution of geothermal waters. In addition, the agricultural and industrial effluent discharges are also considered for arsenic contamination in natural waters. Some aquatic plants have been reported to accumulate high level of arsenic from contaminated water. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweeds (Lemna gibba, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza), water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), water ferns (Azolla caroliniana, Azolla filiculoides, and Azolla pinnata), water cabbage (Pistia stratiotes), hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) and watercress (Lepidium sativum) have been studied to investigate their arsenic uptake ability and mechanisms, and to evaluate their potential in phytoremediation technology. It has been suggested that the aquatic macrophytes would be potential for arsenic phytoremediation, and this paper reviews up to date knowledge on arsenic phytoremediation by common aquatic macrophytes. PMID:21435676

  11. Severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Chung, Wen-Hung; Wang, Chuang-Wei; Dao, Ro-Lan

    2016-07-01

    The clinical manifestations of drug eruptions can range from mild maculopapular exanthema to severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCAR), including drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome/drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) which are rare but occasionally fatal. Some pathogens may induce skin reactions mimicking SCAR. There are several models to explain the interaction of human leukocyte antigen (HLA), drug and T-cell receptor (TCR): (i) the "hapten/prohapten" theory; (ii) the "p-i concept"; (iii) the "altered peptide repertoire"; and (iv) the "altered TCR repertoire". The checkpoints of molecular mechanisms of SCAR include specific drug antigens interacting with the specific HLA loci (e.g. HLA-B*15:02 for carbamazepine-induced SJS/TEN and HLA-B*58:01 for allopurinol-induced SCAR), involvement of specific TCR, induction of T-cell-mediated responses (e.g. granulysin, Fas ligand, perforin/granzyme B and T-helper 1/2-associated cytokines) and cell death mechanism (e.g. miR-18a-5p-induced apoptosis; annexin A1 and formyl peptide receptor 1-induced necroptosis in keratinocytes). In addition to immune mechanism, metabolism has been found to play a role in the pathogenesis of SCAR, such as recent findings of strong association of CYP2C9*3 with phenytoin-induced SCAR and impaired renal function with allopurinol SCAR. With a better understanding of the mechanisms, effective therapeutics and prevention for SCAR can be improved. PMID:27154258

  12. Integration of geographic information systems and logistic multiple regression for aquatic macrophyte modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Narumalani, S.; Jensen, J.R.; Althausen, J.D.; Burkhalter, S.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1994-06-01

    Since aquatic macrophytes have an important influence on the physical and chemical processes of an ecosystem while simultaneously affecting human activity, it is imperative that they be inventoried and managed wisely. However, mapping wetlands can be a major challenge because they are found in diverse geographic areas ranging from small tributary streams, to shrub or scrub and marsh communities, to open water lacustrian environments. In addition, the type and spatial distribution of wetlands can change dramatically from season to season, especially when nonpersistent species are present. This research, focuses on developing a model for predicting the future growth and distribution of aquatic macrophytes. This model will use a geographic information system (GIS) to analyze some of the biophysical variables that affect aquatic macrophyte growth and distribution. The data will provide scientists information on the future spatial growth and distribution of aquatic macrophytes. This study focuses on the Savannah River Site Par Pond (1,000 ha) and L Lake (400 ha) these are two cooling ponds that have received thermal effluent from nuclear reactor operations. Par Pond was constructed in 1958, and natural invasion of wetland has occurred over its 35-year history, with much of the shoreline having developed extensive beds of persistent and non-persistent aquatic macrophytes.

  13. Structural and functional effects of herbicides on non-target organisms in aquatic ecosystems with an emphasis on atrazine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fairchild, James

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural production accounts for approximately 90% of herbicide use in the U.S. (Kiely et al., 2004). Gianessi and Reigner (2007) indicated that herbicides are routinely used on more than 90% of the area designated for large commercial crops including corn, soybeans, cotton, sugar beets, peanuts, and rice. Increased farm mechanization, technological advancements in production of inexpensive sources of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer (e.g., anhydrous ammonia), and conversion of forest, grassland, and wetland habitats to cropland has led to a tremendous increase in global food production over the past half-century. Herbicides have augmented advances in large-scale agricultural systems and have largely replaced mechanical and hand-weeding control mechanisms (Gianessi and Reigner, 2007). The wide-spread use of herbicides in agriculture has resulted in frequent chemical detections in surface and groundwaters (Gilliom, 2007). The majority of herbicides used are highly water soluble and are therefore prone to runoff from terrestrial environments. In additon, spray drift and atmospheric deposition can contribute to herbicide contamination of aquatic environments. Lastly, selected herbicides are deliberately applied to aquatic environments for controlling nuisance aquatic vegetation. Although aquatic herbicide exposure has been widely documented, these exposures are not necessarily related to adverse non-target ecological effects on natural communities in aquatic environments. This chapter evaluates the potential for effects of herbicides on the structure and function of aquatic envrionments at the population, community, and ecosystem levels of biological organization. In this manuscript I examine several critical aspects of the subject matter area: primary herbicides in use and chemical modes of action; the regulatory process used for registration and risk assessment of herbicides; data regarding non-target risks and the relative sensitivity of aquatic plants

  14. Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Kiff, Cara J.; Cortes, Rebecca; Lengua, Lilana; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David; Mason, W. Alex

    2012-01-01

    Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment Abstract Exposure to adversity during childhood and adolescence predicts adjustment across development. Further, adolescent adjustment problems persist into young adulthood. This study examined relations of contextual adversity with concurrent adolescent adjustment and prospective mental health and health outcomes in young adulthood. A longitudinal sample (N = 808) was followed from age 10 through 27. Perceptions of neighborhood in childhood predicted depression, alcohol use disorders, and HIV risk in young adulthood. Further, the timing of adversity was important in determining the type of problem experienced in adulthood. Youth adjustment predicted adult outcomes, and in some cases, mediated the relation between adversity and outcomes. These findings support the importance of adversity in predicting adjustment and elucidate factors that affect outcomes into young adulthood. PMID:22754271

  15. Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Kiff, Cara J; Cortes, Rebecca; Lengua, Lilana; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J David; Mason, W Alex

    2012-06-01

    Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment Abstract Exposure to adversity during childhood and adolescence predicts adjustment across development. Further, adolescent adjustment problems persist into young adulthood. This study examined relations of contextual adversity with concurrent adolescent adjustment and prospective mental health and health outcomes in young adulthood. A longitudinal sample (N = 808) was followed from age 10 through 27. Perceptions of neighborhood in childhood predicted depression, alcohol use disorders, and HIV risk in young adulthood. Further, the timing of adversity was important in determining the type of problem experienced in adulthood. Youth adjustment predicted adult outcomes, and in some cases, mediated the relation between adversity and outcomes. These findings support the importance of adversity in predicting adjustment and elucidate factors that affect outcomes into young adulthood. PMID:22754271

  16. Toxicity on aquatic organisms exposed to secondary effluent disinfected with chlorine, peracetic acid, ozone and UV radiation.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Juliana Berninger; Rodgher, Suzelei; Daniel, Luiz Antonio; Espíndola, Evaldo Luiz Gaeta

    2014-11-01

    The toxic potential of four disinfectant agents (chlorine, ozone, peracetic acid and UV radiation), used in the disinfection of urban wastewater, was evaluated with respect to four aquatic organisms. Disinfection assays were carried out with wastewater from the city of Araraquara (São Paulo State, Brazil), and subsequently, toxicity bioassays were applied in order to verify possible adverse effects to the cladocerans (Ceriodaphnia silvestrii and Daphnia similis), midge larvae Chironomus xanthus and fish (Danio rerio). Under the experimental conditions tested, all the disinfectants were capable of producing harmful effects on the test organisms, except for C. xanthus. The toxicity of the effluent to C. silvestrii was observed to increase significantly as a result of disinfection using 2.5 mg L(-1) chlorine and 29.9 mg L(-1) ozone. Ozonation and chlorination significantly affected the survival of D. similis and D. rerio, causing mortality of 60 to 100 % in comparison to the non-disinfected effluent. In experiments with effluent treated with peracetic acid (PAA) and UV radiation, a statistically significant decrease in survival was only detected for D. rerio. This investigation suggested that the study of the ideal concentrations of disinfectants is a research need for ecologically safe options for the treatment of wastewater. PMID:25213288

  17. Ecotoxicogenomic Approaches for Understanding Molecular Mechanisms of Environmental Chemical Toxicity Using Aquatic Invertebrate, Daphnia Model Organism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo Jeong; Koedrith, Preeyaporn; Seo, Young Rok

    2015-01-01

    Due to the rapid advent in genomics technologies and attention to ecological risk assessment, the term “ecotoxicogenomics” has recently emerged to describe integration of omics studies (i.e., transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and epigenomics) into ecotoxicological fields. Ecotoxicogenomics is defined as study of an entire set of genes or proteins expression in ecological organisms to provide insight on environmental toxicity, offering benefit in ecological risk assessment. Indeed, Daphnia is a model species to study aquatic environmental toxicity designated in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development’s toxicity test guideline and to investigate expression patterns using ecotoxicology-oriented genomics tools. Our main purpose is to demonstrate the potential utility of gene expression profiling in ecotoxicology by identifying novel biomarkers and relevant modes of toxicity in Daphnia magna. These approaches enable us to address adverse phenotypic outcomes linked to particular gene function(s) and mechanistic understanding of aquatic ecotoxicology as well as exploration of useful biomarkers. Furthermore, key challenges that currently face aquatic ecotoxicology (e.g., predicting toxicant responses among a broad spectrum of phytogenetic groups, predicting impact of temporal exposure on toxicant responses) necessitate the parallel use of other model organisms, both aquatic and terrestrial. By investigating gene expression profiling in an environmentally important organism, this provides viable support for the utility of ecotoxicogenomics. PMID:26035755

  18. Transplanted aquatic mosses for monitoring trace metal mobilization in acidified streams of the Vosges Mountains, France

    SciTech Connect

    Mersch, J.; Guerold, F.; Rousselle, P.; Pihan, J.C. )

    1993-08-01

    As a result of acid depositions, trace metals are mobilized from the soils to the aquatic environment. Especially in poorly mineralized waters, elevated metal concentrations may rapidly have adverse effects on aquatic organisms. In particular, it has been shown that aluminium, a key element in the acidification process, is a toxic cofactor for fish and other biota. An accurate assessment of this specific form of water pollution may not be possible when only based on analyses of single water samples. On the one hand, water metal concentrations are often close to the detection limit of usual analytical techniques, and on the other hand, levels in acidified streams undergo strong temporal variations caused by acid pulses following meteorological events such as heavy rainfall and snowmelt. Compared to water analyses, indirect monitoring methods provide undeniable advantages for assessing water contamination. Aquatic bryophytes, in particular, have been regarded as interesting indicator organisms for trace metal pollution. However, their use has mainly been restricted to the lower course of streams for evaluating the impact of industrial discharges. The purpose of this study was to test the suitability of transplanted aquatic mosses for monitoring aluminium and four other trace metals (copper, iron, lead and zinc) in the particular context of acidifed streams draining a forested headwater catchment. 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Effects of contaminants on reproductive success of aquatic birds nesting at Edwards Air Force Base, California.

    PubMed

    Hothem, R L; Crayon, J J; Law, M A

    2006-11-01

    Contamination by organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and trace elements at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), located in the Mojave Desert, could adversely affect nesting aquatic birds, especially at the sewage lagoons that comprise Piute Ponds. Estimates of avian reproduction, in conjunction with analyses of eggs and avian foods for contaminant residues, may indicate the potential for negative effects on avian populations. From 1996 to 1999, we conducted studies at the Piute Ponds area of EAFB to evaluate the impacts of contaminants on nesting birds. Avian reproduction was evaluated in 1999. Eggs were collected for chemical analyses in 1996 and 1999, and African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis), a likely food source, were collected for chemical analyses in 1998. Avian species occupying the higher trophic levels--black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), white-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi), and American avocet (Recurvirostra americana)--generally bioaccumulated higher concentrations of contaminants in their eggs. Reproductive success and egg hatchability of night-herons and white-faced ibises in the Piute Ponds were similar to results observed at other western colonies. Deformities were observed in only one embryo in this study, but concentrations of contaminants evaluated in this ibis embryo were considered insufficient to have caused the deformities. Because clawed frogs, a primary prey item for night-herons at Piute Ponds, had no detectable levels of any OCs, it is likely that OCs found in night-heron eggs were acquired from the wintering grounds rather than from EAFB. The presence of isomers of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in ibis eggs indicated recent exposure, but invertebrates used for food by ibises were not sampled at Piute Ponds, and conclusions about the source of OCs in ibis eggs could not be made. Concentrations of contaminants in random and failed eggs of individual species were not different, and we concluded

  20. Trophic interactions determine the effects of drought on an aquatic ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Amundrud, Sarah L; Srivastava, Diane S

    2016-06-01

    Species interactions can be important mediators of community and ecosystem responses to environmental stressors. However, we still lack a mechanistic understanding of the indirect ecological effects of stress that arise via altered species interactions. To understand how species interactions will be altered by environmental stressors, we need to know if the species that are vulnerable to such stressors also have large impacts on the ecosystem. As predators often exhibit certain traits that are linked to a high vulnerability to stress (e.g., large body size, long generation time), as well as having large effects on communities (e.g., top-down trophic effects), predators may be particularly likely to mediate ecological effects of environmental stress. Other functional groups, like facilitators, are known to have large impacts on communities, but their vulnerability to perturbations remains undocumented. Here, we use aquatic insect communities in bromeliads to examine the indirect effects of an important stressor (drought) on community and ecosystem responses. In a microcosm experiment, we manipulated predatory and facilitative taxa under a range of experimental droughts, and quantified effects on community structure and ecosystem function. Drought, by adversely affecting the top predator, had indirect cascading effects on the entire food web, altering community composition and decomposition. We identified the likely pathway of how drought cascaded through the food web from the top-down as drought -->predator --> shredder --> decomposition. This stress-induced cascade depended on predators exhibiting both a strong vulnerability to drought and large impacts on prey (especially shredders), as well as shredders exhibiting high functional importance as decomposers. PMID:27459778

  1. Effects of contaminants on reproductive success of aquatic birds nesting at Edwards Air Force Base, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hothem, R.L.; Crayon, J.J.; Law, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Contamination by organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and trace elements at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), located in the Mojave Desert, could adversely affect nesting aquatic birds, especially at the sewage lagoons that comprise Piute Ponds. Estimates of avian reproduction, in conjunction with analyses of eggs and avian foods for contaminant residues, may indicate the potential for negative effects on avian populations. From 1996 to 1999, we conducted studies at the Piute Ponds area of EAFB to evaluate the impacts of contaminants on nesting birds. Avian reproduction was evaluated in 1999. Eggs were collected for chemical analyses in 1996 and 1999, and African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis), a likely food source, were collected for chemical analyses in 1998. Avian species occupying the higher trophic levels-black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), white-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi), and American avocet (Recurvirostra americana)-generally bioaccumulated higher concentrations of contaminants in their eggs. Reproductive success and egg hatchability of night-herons and white-faced ibises in the Piute Ponds were similar to results observed at other western colonies. Deformities were observed in only one embryo in this study, but concentrations of contaminants evaluated in this ibis embryo were considered insufficient to have caused the deformities. Because clawed frogs, a primary prey item for night-herons at Piute Ponds, had no detectable levels of any OCs, it is likely that OCs found in night-heron eggs were acquired from the wintering grounds rather than from EAFB. The presence of isomers of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in ibis eggs indicated recent exposure, but invertebrates used for food by ibises were not sampled at Piute Ponds, and conclusions about the source of OCs in ibis eggs could not be made. Concentrations of contaminants in random and failed eggs of individual species were not different, and we concluded

  2. Selenium in aquatic biota inhabiting agricultural drains in the Salton Sea Basin, California.

    PubMed

    Saiki, Michael K; Martin, Barbara A; May, Thomas W

    2012-09-01

    Resource managers are concerned that water conservation practices in irrigated farmlands along the southern border of the Salton Sea, Imperial County, California, could increase selenium concentrations in agricultural drainwater and harm the desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius), a federally protected endangered species. As part of a broader attempt to address this concern, we conducted a 3-year investigation to collect baseline information on selenium concentrations in seven agricultural drains inhabited by pupfish. We collected water, sediment, selected aquatic food-chain taxa (particulate organic detritus, filamentous algae, net plankton, and midge [Chironomidae] larvae), and two poeciliid fishes (western mosquitofish Gambusia affinis and sailfin molly Poecilia latipinna) for selenium determinations. The two fish species served as ecological surrogates for pupfish, which we were not permitted to sacrifice. Dissolved selenium ranged from 0.70 to 32.8 μg/L, with selenate as the major constituent. Total selenium concentrations in other environmental matrices varied widely among drains, with one drain (Trifolium 18) exhibiting especially high concentrations in detritus, 5.98-58.0 μg Se/g; midge larvae, 12.7-50.6 μg Se/g; mosquitofish, 13.2-20.2 μg Se/g; and mollies, 12.8-30.4 μg Se/g (all tissue concentrations are based on dry weights). Although toxic thresholds for selenium in fishes from the Salton Sea are still poorly understood, available evidence suggests that ambient concentrations of this element may not be sufficiently elevated to adversely affect reproductive success and survival in selenium-tolerant poeciliids and pupfish. PMID:21915593

  3. Aquatic risk assessment of herbicides in freshwater ecosystems of South Florida.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Lance J; Rand, Gary M

    2008-05-01

    Widespread, high-volume use and subsequent off-site transport of herbicides, specifically photosystem II inhibitors (PSII), on agricultural and noncultivated lands in south Florida has resulted in frequent detections in freshwater systems. In light of the current restoration efforts as part of the Comprehensive Environmental Restoration Plan (CERP), increased water flows containing detectable herbicide levels into the Everglades ecosystem and adjacent areas may have adverse consequences to the unique plant communities present in the region. The potential impact of individual herbicides to aquatic plant and algae species was examined using a probabilistic risk assessment approach. Risk was characterized for nine PSII herbicides (four triazines: ametryn, atrazine, simazine, and prometryn; two triazinones: hexazinone and metribuzin; two substituted ureas: diuron and linuron; and a uracil: bromacil) and a pyridazinone herbicide (norflurazon) by comparing the overlap of the 90th percentile surface water concentration (exposure benchmark) from the exposure distributions to the 10th percentile of effects (effects benchmark) determined from species sensitivity distributions of acute laboratory toxicity data. Overall, the risk of the individual herbicides was generally low. A Multiple Substance Potentially Affected Fraction (msPAF) risk approach also was utilized to examine the joint toxicity of the herbicide mixtures based on a concentration addition model. The risk associated with the herbicide mixture (mainly bromacil, diuron, and norflurazon) was determined to be high for Lee (site S79 on the Caloosahatchee River), Martin (site S80 on St. Lucie Canal), and St. Lucie (site S99 on C25 emptying into Indian River Lagoon) counties in south Florida. This study highlights the need to consider joint action of chemical mixtures as part of an ecological risk assessment. PMID:18094912

  4. DROUGHT-INDUCED DECLINE OF SUBMERGED AQUATIC VEGETATION IN ESCAMBIA BAY, FL.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Locally, the recent decline of SAV was first noticed in Blackwater Bay, FL by N. Craft of Northwest Florida Aquatic Preserves (personal communication). High salinity persisted throughout the summer and fall of 2000 due to a severe drought that has affected much of the southeast ...

  5. GLOBAL CLIMATE AND LARGE-SCALE INFLUENCES ON AQUATIC ANIMAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The last 3 decades have witnessed numerous large-scale mortality events of aquatic organisms in North America. Affected species range from ecologically-important sea urchins to commercially-valuable American lobsters and protected marine mammals. Short-term forensic investigation...

  6. SOLAR ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION AND AQUATIC CARBON, NITROGEN, SULFUR AND METALS CYCLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (290-400 nm) has a wide-ranging impact on biological and chemical processes that affect the cycling of elements in aquatic environments. This chapter uses recent field and laboratory observations along with models to assess these impacts on carbon, nit...

  7. INTERACTIONS OF SOLAR UV RADIATION AND DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in the ozone layer over the past two decades have resulted in increases in solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation that reaches the surface of aquatic environments. Recent studies have demonstrated that these UV increases cause changes in photochemical reactions that affect the...

  8. INTERACTIONS OF LIGHT AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS IN THE AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT: KINETIC AND MECHANISTIC ASPECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in the ozone layer over the past two decades have resulted in increases in solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation that reaches the surface of aquatic environments. Recent studies have demonstrated that these UV increases cause changes in photochemical reactions that affect the...

  9. Use of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing to Evaluate Efficacy of Aquatic Plant Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive aquatic weeds negatively affect biodiversity, fluvial dynamics, water quality, and water storage and conveyance for a variety of human resource demands. In California’s Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta one submersed species - Brazilian waterweed (Egeria densa) - and one floating species ...

  10. Effects of recent volcanic eruptions on aquatic habitat in the Drift River, Alaska, USA: Implications at other Cook Inlet region volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorava, J.M.; Milner, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Numerous drainages supporting productive salmon habitat are surrounded by active volcanoes on the west side of Cook Inlet in south-central Alaska. Eruptions have caused massive quantities of flowing water and sediment to enter the river channels emanating from glaciers and snowfields on these volcanoes. Extensive damage to riparian and aquatic habitat has commonly resulted, and benthic macroinvertebrate and salmonid communities can be affected. Because of the economic importance of Alaska's fisheries, detrimental effects on salmonid habitat can have significant economic implications. The Drift River drains glaciers on the northern and eastern flanks of Redoubt Volcano: During and following eruptions in 1989-1990, severe physical disturbances to the habitat features of the river adversely affected the fishery. Frequent eruptions at other Cook Inlet region volcanoes exemplify the potential effects of volcanic activity on Alaska's important commercial, sport, and subsistence fisheries. Few studies have documented the recovery of aquatic habitat following volcanic eruptions. The eruptions of Redoubt Volcano in 1989-1990 offered an opportunity to examine the recovery of the macroinvertebrate community. Macroinvertebrate community composition and structure in the Drift River were similar in both undisturbed and recently disturbed sites. Additionally, macroinvertebrate samples from sites in nearby undisturbed streams were highly similar to those from some Drift River sites. This similarity and the agreement between the Drift River macroinvertebrate community composition and that predicted by a qualitative model of typical macroinvertebrate communities in glacier-fed rivers indicate that the Drift River macroinvertebrate community is recovering five years after the disturbances associated with the most recent eruptions of Redoubt Volcano.

  11. [Acute adverse effects of dialysis].

    PubMed

    Opatrný, K

    2003-02-01

    Adverse reactions to dialyzers are a not very frequent, but because of the serious, sometimes fatal course, a dreaded complication of haemodialysis treatment. Most important among these reactions are hypersensitive reactions (anaphylactoid, reaction type A to dialyzer), which develop as a rule within the 10th minute of the procedure, and the reaction caused by the action of perfluorohydrocarbon which develop hours after onset or even completion of haemodialysis. Explanation of the development of hypersensitive reactions (HSR) by complement activation and formation of anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a during contact of blood with the bioincompatible dialysis membrane has been abandoned. Evidence of the etiological role of ethylene oxide (ETO) in the development of HSR influenced the selection of materials for the production of dialyzers and sterilization during manufacture, it emphasized the importance of rinsing of the dialyzer in the dialysis centre and led to the wide application of alternative methods of sterilization by gamma radiation and steam. HSR may be also caused by overproduction of bradykinin and inhibition of its degradation or degradation of its metabolites. Excessive bradykinin production caused by dialysis membranes with a negative charge is potentiated e.g. by a lower pH and increased plasma dilution in the initial stage of haemodialysis. Inhibition of bradykinin degradation develops during treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI). In prevention of HSR associated with bradykinin in addition to elimination of a combination of a negatively charged dialysis membrane and ACEI treatment a part is played also by rinsing of the dialyzer before haemodialysis with a bicarbonate solution and the modification of the membrane surface (implemented by the manufacturer) which reduces its negative charge. The first reaction to the dialyzer in conjunction with perfluorohydrocarbon (PF-5070), used in production of some dialyzers for testing the

  12. AQUATIC ASSESSMENT OF THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR ACCIDENT AND ITS REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Yasuo; Kivva, Sergey L.; Zheleznyak, Mark J.; Voitsekhovitch, Oleg V.

    2007-11-01

    This modeling study evaluated aquatic environment affected by the Chernobyl nuclear accident and the effectiveness of remediation efforts. Study results indicate that radionuclide concentrations in the Pripyat and Dnieper rivers were well above the drinking water limits immediately after the Chernobyl accident, but have decreased significantly in subsequent years due to flashing, burying, and decay. Because high concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs, the major radionuclides affecting human health through aquatic pathways, are associated with flooding, an earthen dike was constructed along the Pripyat River in its most contaminated floodplain. The dike was successful in reducing the 90Sr influx to the river by half. A 100-m-high movable dome called the New Safe Confinement is planned to cover the Chernobyl Shelter (formally called the sarcophagus) that was erected shortly after the accident. The NSC will reduce radionuclide contamination further in these rivers and nearby groundwater; however, even if the Chernobyl Shelter collapses before the NSC is built, the resulting peak concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in the Dnieper River would still be below the drinking water limits.

  13. Strategic approaches to adverse outcome pathway development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are conceptual frameworks for organizing biological and toxicological knowledge in a manner that supports extrapolation of data pertaining to the initiation or early progression of toxicity to an apical adverse outcome that occurs at a level of org...

  14. Adverse Drug Reactions in Dental Practice

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    Adverse reactions may occur with any of the medications prescribed or administered in dental practice. Most of these reactions are somewhat predictable based on the pharmacodynamic properties of the drug. Others, such as allergic and pseudoallergic reactions, are less common and unrelated to normal drug action. This article will review the most common adverse reactions that are unrelated to drug allergy. PMID:24697823

  15. Ecological and toxicological effects of inorganic nitrogen pollution in aquatic ecosystems: A global assessment.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Julio A; Alonso, Alvaro

    2006-08-01

    We provide a global assessment, with detailed multi-scale data, of the ecological and toxicological effects generated by inorganic nitrogen pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Our synthesis of the published scientific literature shows three major environmental problems: (1) it can increase the concentration of hydrogen ions in freshwater ecosystems without much acid-neutralizing capacity, resulting in acidification of those systems; (2) it can stimulate or enhance the development, maintenance and proliferation of primary producers, resulting in eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems; (3) it can reach toxic levels that impair the ability of aquatic animals to survive, grow and reproduce. Inorganic nitrogen pollution of ground and surface waters can also induce adverse effects on human health and economy. Because reductions in SO2 emissions have reduced the atmospheric deposition of H2SO4 across large portions of North America and Europe, while emissions of NOx have gone unchecked, HNO3 is now playing an increasing role in the acidification of freshwater ecosystems. This acidification process has caused several adverse effects on primary and secondary producers, with significant biotic impoverishments, particularly concerning invertebrates and fishes, in many atmospherically acidified lakes and streams. The cultural eutrophication of freshwater, estuarine, and coastal marine ecosystems can cause ecological and toxicological effects that are either directly or indirectly related to the proliferation of primary producers. Extensive kills of both invertebrates and fishes are probably the most dramatic manifestation of hypoxia (or anoxia) in eutrophic and hypereutrophic aquatic ecosystems with low water turnover rates. The decline in dissolved oxygen concentrations can also promote the formation of reduced compounds, such as hydrogen sulphide, resulting in higher adverse (toxic) effects on aquatic animals. Additionally, the occurrence of toxic algae can significantly

  16. Adverse drug reactions and organ damage: The skin.

    PubMed

    Marzano, Angelo V; Borghi, Alessandro; Cugno, Massimo

    2016-03-01

    Cutaneous adverse drug reactions are frequent, affecting 2-3% of hospitalized patients and in one twentieth of them are potentially life-threatening. Almost any pharmacologic agent can induce skin reactions, and certain drug classes, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and antiepileptics, have drug eruption rates ranging from 1% to 5%. Cutaneous drug reactions recognize several different pathomechanisms: some skin manifestations are immune-mediated like allergic reactions while others are the result of non immunological causes such as cumulative toxicity, photosensitivity, interaction with other drugs or different metabolic pathways. Cutaneous adverse drug reactions can be classified into two groups: common non-severe and rare life-threatening adverse drug reactions. Non-severe reactions are often exanthematous or urticarial whereas life-threatening reactions typically present with skin detachment or necrosis of large areas of the body and mucous membrane involvement, as in the Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis. Clinicians should carefully evaluate the signs and symptoms of all cutaneous adverse drug reactions thought to be due to drugs and immediately discontinue drugs that are not essential. Short cycles of systemic corticosteroids in combination with antihistamines may be necessary for widespread exanthematous rashes, while more aggressive corticosteroid regimens or intravenous immunoglobulins associated with supportive treatment should be used for patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis. PMID:26674736

  17. Aquatic chemistry of flood events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klavins, Maris; Rodinov, Valery

    2015-04-01

    During flood events a major discharge of water and dissolved substances happens. However flood waters very much differs from water composition during low-water events. Aquatic chemistry of flood waters also is of importance at the calculation of loadings as well as they might have major impact on water quality in receiving water bodies (lakes, coastal waters and seas). Further flood regime of rivers is subjected to changes due to climate change and growing impact of human activities. The aim of this study is to analyse water chemical composition changes during flood events in respect to low water periods, character of high-water events and characteristics of the corresponding basin. Within this study, the concentrations of major dissolved substances in the major rivers of Latvia have been studied using monitoring data as well as field studies during high water/ low water events. As territories of studies flows of substances in river basins/subbasins with different land-use character and different anthropogenic impacts has been studied to calculate export values depending on the land-use character. Impact of relations between dissolved substances and relations in respect to budgets has been calculated. The dynamics of DOC, nutrient and major dissolved substance flows depending on landuse pattern and soil properties in Latvia has been described, including emissions by industrial and agricultural production. In these changes evidently climate change signals can be identified. The water chemistry of a large number of rivers during flood events has been determined and the possible impact of water chemical composition on DOC and nutrient flows has been evaluated. Long-term changes (1977-2013) of concentrations of dissolved substances do not follow linear trends but rather show oscillating patterns, indicating impact of natural factors, e.g. changing hydrological and climatic conditions. There is a positive correlation between content of inert dissolved substances and

  18. Nurses must report adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    There is renewed determination throughout the European Union (EU) to reduce the economic cost and high death rate associated with adverse drug reactions through better pharmacovigilance. Timely reporting and sharing of information concerning adverse drug reactions is vital to the success of this initiative. In the UK, the reporting of serious adverse drug reactions is facilitated by the Yellow Card Scheme, yet despite being well placed to monitor the effect of medicines on patients, nurses do not make full use of the scheme. This article sets out the impact of adverse drug reactions in the EU and argues that it is essential that nurses must be at the vanguard of adverse reaction reporting if the EU's pharmacovigilance initiative is to be a success. PMID:23905231

  19. Adulthood personality correlates of childhood adversity

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Charles S.; Johnson, Sheri L.; McCullough, Michael E.; Forster, Daniel E.; Joormann, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Childhood adversity has been linked to internalizing and externalizing disorders and personality disorders in adulthood. This study extends that research by examining several personality measures as correlates of childhood adversity. Method: In a college sample self-reports were collected of childhood adversity, several scales relating to personality, and current depression symptoms as a control variable. The personality-related scales were reduced to four latent variables, which we termed anger/aggression, extrinsic focus, agreeableness, and engagement. Results: Controlling for concurrent depressive symptoms and gender, higher levels of reported childhood adversity related to lower agreeableness and to higher anger/aggression and extrinsic focus. Conclusions: Findings suggest that early adversity is linked to personality variables relevant to the building of social connection. PMID:25484874

  20. Understanding adverse events: human factors.

    PubMed Central

    Reason, J

    1995-01-01

    (1) Human rather than technical failures now represent the greatest threat to complex and potentially hazardous systems. This includes healthcare systems. (2) Managing the human risks will never be 100% effective. Human fallibility can be moderated, but it cannot be eliminated. (3) Different error types have different underlying mechanisms, occur in different parts of the organisation, and require different methods of risk management. The basic distinctions are between: Slips, lapses, trips, and fumbles (execution failures) and mistakes (planning or problem solving failures). Mistakes are divided into rule based mistakes and knowledge based mistakes. Errors (information-handling problems) and violations (motivational problems) Active versus latent failures. Active failures are committed by those in direct contact with the patient, latent failures arise in organisational and managerial spheres and their adverse effects may take a long time to become evident. (4) Safety significant errors occur at all levels of the system, not just at the sharp end. Decisions made in the upper echelons of the organisation create the conditions in the workplace that subsequently promote individual errors and violations. Latent failures are present long before an accident and are hence prime candidates for principled risk management. (5) Measures that involve sanctions and exhortations (that is, moralistic measures directed to those at the sharp end) have only very limited effectiveness, especially so in the case of highly trained professionals. (6) Human factors problems are a product of a chain of causes in which the individual psychological factors (that is, momentary inattention, forgetting, etc) are the last and least manageable links. Attentional "capture" (preoccupation or distraction) is a necessary condition for the commission of slips and lapses. Yet, its occurrence is almost impossible to predict or control effectively. The same is true of the factors associated with

  1. Abiotic variability among different aquatic systems of the central Amazon floodplain during drought and flood events.

    PubMed

    Affonso, A G; Queiroz, H L; Novo, E M L M

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines water properties from lakes, (depression lakes, sensu Junk et al., 2012), channels (scroll lakes with high connectivity, sensu Junk et al., 2012) and paleo-channels (scroll lakes with low connectivity-sensu Junk et al., 2012, locally called ressacas) located in Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, in Central Amazon floodplain, Amazonas, Brazil. We analysed surface temperature, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, transparency, suspended inorganic and organic matter, chlorophyll-a, pheophytin, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, organic and inorganic carbon in 2009 high water phase, 2009 and 2010 low water phases. Multivariate statistical analyses of 24 aquatic systems (6 ressacas, 12 lakes and 6 channels, 142 samples) were applied to the variables in order to: 1) quantify differences among aquatic system types; 2) assess how those differences are affected in the different phases of the hydrological year. First, we analysed the entire set of variables to test for differences among phases of the hydrological year and types of aquatic systems using a PERMANOVA two-way crossed design. The results showed that the all measured limnological variables are distinct regarding both factors: types of aquatic systems and hydrological phases. In general, the magnitude and amplitude of all variables were higher in the low water phase than in the high water phase, except for water transparency in all aquatic system's types. PERMANOVA showed that the differences between aquatic system's types and hydrological phases of all variables were highly significant for both main factors (type and phase) and for the type x phase interaction. Limnological patterns of Amazon floodplain aquatic systems are highly dynamic, dependent on the surrounding environment, flood pulse, main river input and system type. These patterns show how undisturbed systems respond to natural variability in such a diverse environment, and how distinct are those aquatic systems

  2. Ballast Blockade: Stopping Aquatic Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sara

    2003-01-01

    Presents students with six ballast water treatment methods to evaluate. Allows students to acquaint themselves with current Great Lakes topics while simultaneously partaking in decision-making processes that could affect them. Emphasizes not only an important environmental issue for the Great Lakes, but also the importance of decision-making…

  3. A source of terrestrial organic carbon to investigate the browning of aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Lennon, Jay T; Hamilton, Stephen K; Muscarella, Mario E; Grandy, A Stuart; Wickings, Kyle; Jones, Stuart E

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence that terrestrial ecosystems are exporting more dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to aquatic ecosystems than they did just a few decades ago. This "browning" phenomenon will alter the chemistry, physics, and biology of inland water bodies in complex and difficult-to-predict ways. Experiments provide an opportunity to elucidate how browning will affect the stability and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. However, it is challenging to obtain sources of DOC that can be used for manipulations at ecologically relevant scales. In this study, we evaluated a commercially available source of humic substances ("Super Hume") as an analog for natural sources of terrestrial DOC. Based on chemical characterizations, comparative surveys, and whole-ecosystem manipulations, we found that the physical and chemical properties of Super Hume are similar to those of natural DOC in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. For example, Super Hume attenuated solar radiation in ways that will not only influence the physiology of aquatic taxa but also the metabolism of entire ecosystems. Based on its chemical properties (high lignin content, high quinone content, and low C:N and C:P ratios), Super Hume is a fairly recalcitrant, low-quality resource for aquatic consumers. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that Super Hume can subsidize aquatic food webs through 1) the uptake of dissolved organic constituents by microorganisms, and 2) the consumption of particulate fractions by larger organisms (i.e., Daphnia). After discussing some of the caveats of Super Hume, we conclude that commercial sources of humic substances can be used to help address pressing ecological questions concerning the increased export of terrestrial DOC to aquatic ecosystems. PMID:24124511

  4. Carbon Cycling in Permafrost Aquatic Systems of Bylot Island, Eastern Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, F.; Preskienis, V.; Laurion, I.; Fortier, D.

    2014-12-01

    Aquatic systems are widespread in permafrost environments and play a crucial role in biogeochemical cycles, especially in GHG emissions (CO2, CH4). Amount, rate and age of carbon released from permafrost thawing can be strongly influenced by local geomorphology, which affects the biogeochemical dynamics of ponds and lakes. Bylot Island (Nunavut) is located in the heart of the Eastern Canadian Arctic and comprises numerous glacial and periglacial aquatic landscapes. Several glacial valleys of the island represent highly dynamic biogeosystems rich in permafrost ground ice, peat, and aquatic environments. We aimed at characterizing the influence of geomorphology and permafrost degradation processes on aquatic system biogeochemistry. We sampled gas, water, permafrost and lacustrine sediment in different types of aquatic systems: polygonal ponds, collapsed ice-wedge trough ponds, and larger lakes overlying unfrozen soil ('talik'). Preliminary results and field observations indicate a relationship between pond/lake morphology, processes of permafrost degradation, and the age of carbon processed - ultimately released as GHG - in these aquatic systems. Small and shallow ponds produced modern or young (< 500 yr BP) CO2 and CH4, whereas larger and deeper lakes released older (< 2000 yr BP) gases. We also observed a substantial difference in gas fluxes between similar ponds of comparable size and depth. When pond margins were actively eroding (eroded and collapsed peat blocks), fluxes were several orders of magnitude higher than when their margins were stabilized. Such findings underscore the strong impact of local geomorphology and permafrost degradation processes on aquatic system biogeochemistry. Upscaling of GHG emissions at the watershed scale requires a better understanding of the emissions from different types of ecosystems.

  5. A Source of Terrestrial Organic Carbon to Investigate the Browning of Aquatic Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Lennon, Jay T.; Hamilton, Stephen K.; Muscarella, Mario E.; Grandy, A. Stuart; Wickings, Kyle; Jones, Stuart E.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence that terrestrial ecosystems are exporting more dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to aquatic ecosystems than they did just a few decades ago. This “browning” phenomenon will alter the chemistry, physics, and biology of inland water bodies in complex and difficult-to-predict ways. Experiments provide an opportunity to elucidate how browning will affect the stability and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. However, it is challenging to obtain sources of DOC that can be used for manipulations at ecologically relevant scales. In this study, we evaluated a commercially available source of humic substances (“Super Hume”) as an analog for natural sources of terrestrial DOC. Based on chemical characterizations, comparative surveys, and whole-ecosystem manipulations, we found that the physical and chemical properties of Super Hume are similar to those of natural DOC in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. For example, Super Hume attenuated solar radiation in ways that will not only influence the physiology of aquatic taxa but also the metabolism of entire ecosystems. Based on its chemical properties (high lignin content, high quinone content, and low C:N and C:P ratios), Super Hume is a fairly recalcitrant, low-quality resource for aquatic consumers. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that Super Hume can subsidize aquatic food webs through 1) the uptake of dissolved organic constituents by microorganisms, and 2) the consumption of particulate fractions by larger organisms (i.e., Daphnia). After discussing some of the caveats of Super Hume, we conclude that commercial sources of humic substances can be used to help address pressing ecological questions concerning the increased export of terrestrial DOC to aquatic ecosystems. PMID:24124511

  6. Mismatch or allostatic load? Timing of life adversity differentially shapes gray matter volume and anxious temperament.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Manuel; Scharfenort, Robert; Schümann, Dirk; Schiele, Miriam A; Münsterkötter, Anna L; Deckert, Jürgen; Domschke, Katharina; Haaker, Jan; Kalisch, Raffael; Pauli, Paul; Reif, Andreas; Romanos, Marcel; Zwanzger, Peter; Lonsdorf, Tina B

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally, adversity was defined as the accumulation of environmental events (allostatic load). Recently however, a mismatch between the early and the later (adult) environment (mismatch) has been hypothesized to be critical for disease development, a hypothesis that has not yet been tested explicitly in humans. We explored the impact of timing of life adversity (childhood and past year) on anxiety and depression levels (N = 833) and brain morphology (N = 129). Both remote (childhood) and proximal (recent) adversities were differentially mirrored in morphometric changes in areas critically involved in emotional processing (i.e. amygdala/hippocampus, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, respectively). The effect of adversity on affect acted in an additive way with no evidence for interactions (mismatch). Structural equation modeling demonstrated a direct effect of adversity on morphometric estimates and anxiety/depression without evidence of brain morphology functioning as a mediator. Our results highlight that adversity manifests as pronounced changes in brain morphometric and affective temperament even though these seem to represent distinct mechanistic pathways. A major goal of future studies should be to define critical time periods for the impact of adversity and strategies for intervening to prevent or reverse the effects of adverse childhood life experiences. PMID:26568620

  7. Mismatch or allostatic load? Timing of life adversity differentially shapes gray matter volume and anxious temperament

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Manuel; Scharfenort, Robert; Schümann, Dirk; Schiele, Miriam A.; Münsterkötter, Anna L.; Deckert, Jürgen; Domschke, Katharina; Haaker, Jan; Kalisch, Raffael; Pauli, Paul; Reif, Andreas; Romanos, Marcel; Zwanzger, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, adversity was defined as the accumulation of environmental events (allostatic load). Recently however, a mismatch between the early and the later (adult) environment (mismatch) has been hypothesized to be critical for disease development, a hypothesis that has not yet been tested explicitly in humans. We explored the impact of timing of life adversity (childhood and past year) on anxiety and depression levels (N = 833) and brain morphology (N = 129). Both remote (childhood) and proximal (recent) adversities were differentially mirrored in morphometric changes in areas critically involved in emotional processing (i.e. amygdala/hippocampus, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, respectively). The effect of adversity on affect acted in an additive way with no evidence for interactions (mismatch). Structural equation modeling demonstrated a direct effect of adversity on morphometric estimates and anxiety/depression without evidence of brain morphology functioning as a mediator. Our results highlight that adversity manifests as pronounced changes in brain morphometric and affective temperament even though these seem to represent distinct mechanistic pathways. A major goal of future studies should be to define critical time periods for the impact of adversity and strategies for intervening to prevent or reverse the effects of adverse childhood life experiences. PMID:26568620

  8. Evaluating Ecological Effects in a Semi-arid Aquatic System Using Three Lines of Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardiff, M. F.; Ford-Schmid, R.; Hickmott, D. D.

    2003-12-01

    One mission of Los Alamos National Laboratory has been to develop explosives, machine explosive charges, and test explosive components for the United States nuclear weapons program. Effluents containing high explosives and metals from machining and photographic facilities were discharged to Canon de Valle for forty years at rates up to ten million gallons per year, making up as much as half of the canyon's flow. Discharges to the canyon were discontinued in 1996. Canon de Valle has an interrupted stream that supports an herbaceous ground cover and a multi-layer canopy of conifers, oak and aspen. An ecological screening assessment and problem formulation identified barium, cadmium, copper, manganese and silver as metals of potential ecological concern for the aquatic system in the canyon. Additionally, potential impacts associated with high explosives in the aquatic system are unknown because aquatic community screening values are not available. Two field studies were designed and implemented to assess the adverse effects in the canyon's aquatic system. The first field study consisted of benthic macro-invertebrate surveys that were conducted in Canon de Valle and three reference streams. The survey was then repeated in Canon de Valle four years later to assess trends in the benthic macro-invertebrate community. The second field study consisted of toxicity testing with {it Chironomus tentans} using three locations in the Canon de Valle and one location in a reference canyon. Two rounds of toxicity testing were conducted. Each round was supported with sediment and water sampling at each location for contaminant analysis. The data from the contaminant analysis of water and sediments will be presented along with the results of the benthic macro-invertebrate surveys and the toxicity tests. An example of identifying the contaminants associated with reduced survival in a toxicity test will presented, the utility of benthic macro-invertebrate community metrics as indicators

  9. Meta-Analysis of the Copper, Zinc, and Cadmium Absorption Capacities of Aquatic Plants in Heavy Metal-Polluted Water

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Yu, Haixin; Luan, Yaning

    2015-01-01

    The use of aquatic plants for phytoremediation is an important method for restoring polluted ecosystems. We sought to analyze the capacity of different aquatic plant species to absorb heavy metals and to summarize available relevant scientific data on this topic. We present a meta-analysis of Cu, Zn, and Cd absorption capacities of aquatic plants to provide a scientific basis for the selection of aquatic plants suitable for remediation of heavy-metal pollution. Plants from the Gramineae, Pontederiaceae, Ceratophyllaceae, Typhaceae and Haloragaceae showed relatively strong abilities to absorb these metals. The ability of a particular plant species to absorb a given metal was strongly correlated with its ability to absorb the other metals. However, the absorption abilities varied with the plant organ, with the following trend: roots > stems > leaves. The pH of the water and the life habits of aquatic plants (submerged and emerged) also affect the plant’s ability to absorb elements. Acidic water aids the uptake of heavy metals by plants. The correlation observed between element concentrations in plants with different aquatic life habits suggested that the enrichment mechanism is related to the surface area of the plant exposed to water. We argue that this meta-analysis would aid the selection of aquatic plants suitable for heavy-metal absorption from polluted waters. PMID:26703632

  10. Meta-Analysis of the Copper, Zinc, and Cadmium Absorption Capacities of Aquatic Plants in Heavy Metal-Polluted Water.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Yu, Haixin; Luan, Yaning

    2015-12-01

    The use of aquatic plants for phytoremediation is an important method for restoring polluted ecosystems. We sought to analyze the capacity of different aquatic plant species to absorb heavy metals and to summarize available relevant scientific data on this topic. We present a meta-analysis of Cu, Zn, and Cd absorption capacities of aquatic plants to provide a scientific basis for the selection of aquatic plants suitable for remediation of heavy-metal pollution. Plants from the Gramineae, Pontederiaceae, Ceratophyllaceae, Typhaceae and Haloragaceae showed relatively strong abilities to absorb these metals. The ability of a particular plant species to absorb a given metal was strongly correlated with its ability to absorb the other metals. However, the absorption abilities varied with the plant organ, with the following trend: roots > stems > leaves. The pH of the water and the life habits of aquatic plants (submerged and emerged) also affect the plant's ability to absorb elements. Acidic water aids the uptake of heavy metals by plants. The correlation observed between element concentrations in plants with different aquatic life habits suggested that the enrichment mechanism is related to the surface area of the plant exposed to water. We argue that this meta-analysis would aid the selection of aquatic plants suitable for heavy-metal absorption from polluted waters. PMID:26703632

  11. Global warming and environmental contaminants in aquatic organisms: the need of the etho-toxicology approach.

    PubMed

    Manciocco, Arianna; Calamandrei, Gemma; Alleva, Enrico

    2014-04-01

    Environmental contaminants are associated with a wide spectrum of pathological effects. Temperature increase affects ambient distribution and toxicity of these chemicals in the water environment, representing a potentially emerging problem for aquatic species with short-, medium- and long-term repercussions on human health through the food chain. We assessed peer-reviewed literature, including primary studies, review articles and organizational reports available. We focused on studies concerning toxicity of environmental pollutants within a global warming scenario. Existing knowledge on the effects that the increase of water temperature in a contaminated situation has on physiological mechanisms of aquatic organisms is presented. Altogether we consider the potential consequences for the human beings due to fish and shellfish consumption. Finally, we propose an etho-toxicological approach to study the effects of toxicants in conditions of thermal increase, using aquatic organisms as experimental models under laboratory controlled conditions. PMID:24480426

  12. Gradual adaptation of bone structure to aquatic lifestyle in extinct sloths from Peru.

    PubMed

    Amson, Eli; de Muizon, Christian; Laurin, Michel; Argot, Christine; de Buffrénil, Vivian

    2014-05-01

    Non-pathological densification (osteosclerosis) and swelling (pachyostosis) of bones are the main modifications affecting the skeleton of land vertebrates (tetrapods) that returned to water. However, a precise temporal calibration of the acquisition of such adaptations is still wanting. Here, we assess the timing of such acquisition using the aquatic sloth Thalassocnus, from the Neogene of the Pisco Formation, Peru. This genus is represented by five species occurring in successive vertebrate-bearing horizons of distinct ages. It yields the most detailed data about the gradual acquisition of aquatic adaptations among tetrapods, in displaying increasing osteosclerosis and pachyostosis through time. Such modifications, reflecting a shift in the habitat from terrestrial to aquatic, occurred over a short geological time span (ca 4 Myr). Otherwise, the bones of terrestrial pilosans (sloths and anteaters) are much more compact than the mean mammalian condition, which suggests that the osteosclerosis of Thalassocnus may represent an exaptation. PMID:24621950

  13. RhizoFlowCell system reveals early effects of micropollutants on aquatic plant rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Mynampati, Kalyan Chakravarthy; Lee, Yong Jian; Wijdeveld, Arjan; Reuben, Sheela; Samavedham, Lakshminarayanan; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Swarup, Sanjay

    2015-12-01

    In aquatic systems, one of the non-destructive ways to quantify toxicity of contaminants to plants is to monitor changes in root exudation patterns. In aquatic conditions, monitoring and quantifying such changes are currently challenging because of dilution of root exudates in water phase and lack of suitable instrumentation to measure them. Exposure to pollutants would not only change the plant exudation, but also affect the microbial communities that surround the root zone, thereby changing the metabolic profiles of the rhizosphere. This study aims at developing a device, the RhizoFlowCell, which can quantify metabolic response of plants, as well as changes in the microbial communities, to give an estimate of the stress to which the rhizosphere is exposed. The usefulness of RhizoFlowCell is demonstrated using naphthalene as a test pollutant. Results show that RhizoFlowCell system is useful in quantifying the dynamic metabolic response of aquatic rhizosphere to determine ecosystem health. PMID:26386206

  14. Gradual adaptation of bone structure to aquatic lifestyle in extinct sloths from Peru

    PubMed Central

    Amson, Eli; de Muizon, Christian; Laurin, Michel; Argot, Christine; de Buffrénil, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    Non-pathological densification (osteosclerosis) and swelling (pachyostosis) of bones are the main modifications affecting the skeleton of land vertebrates (tetrapods) that returned to water. However, a precise temporal calibration of the acquisition of such adaptations is still wanting. Here, we assess the timing of such acquisition using the aquatic sloth Thalassocnus, from the Neogene of the Pisco Formation, Peru. This genus is represented by five species occurring in successive vertebrate-bearing horizons of distinct ages. It yields the most detailed data about the gradual acquisition of aquatic adaptations among tetrapods, in displaying increasing osteosclerosis and pachyostosis through time. Such modifications, reflecting a shift in the habitat from terrestrial to aquatic, occurred over a short geological time span (ca 4 Myr). Otherwise, the bones of terrestrial pilosans (sloths and anteaters) are much more compact than the mean mammalian condition, which suggests that the osteosclerosis of Thalassocnus may represent an exaptation. PMID:24621950

  15. Nutrition, illness, and injury in aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Pyne, David B; Verhagen, Evert A; Mountjoy, Margo

    2014-08-01

    In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of illness and injury. Aquatic athletes are encouraged to consume a well-planned diet with sufficient calories, macronutrients (particularly carbohydrate and protein), and micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6, and B12) to maintain health and performance. Ingesting carbohydrate via sports drinks, gels, or sports foods during prolonged training sessions is beneficial in maintaining energy availability. Studies of foods or supplements containing plant polyphenols and selected strains of probiotic species are promising, but further research is required. In terms of injury, intake of vitamin D, protein, and total caloric intake, in combination with treatment and resistance training, promotes recovery back to full health and training. PMID:24937101

  16. Collateral Adverse Outcomes After Lumbar Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Alan H; Gundle, Kenneth; Hart, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Collateral adverse outcomes are the expected or unavoidable results of a procedure that is performed in a standard manner and typically experienced by the patient. Collateral adverse outcomes do not result from errors, nor are they rare. Collateral adverse outcomes occur as the direct result of a surgical procedure and must be accepted as a trade-off to attain the intended benefits of the surgical procedure. As such, collateral adverse outcomes do not fit into the traditional definition of a complication or adverse event. Examples of collateral adverse outcomes after lumbar spine arthrodesis include lumbar stiffness, postoperative psychological stress, postoperative pain, peri-incisional numbness, paraspinal muscle denervation, and adjacent-level degeneration. Ideally, a comparison of interventions for the treatment of a clinical condition should include information on both the negative consequences (expected and unexpected) and potential benefits of the treatment options. The objective evaluation and reporting of collateral adverse outcomes will provide surgeons with a more complete picture of invasive interventions and, thus, the improved ability to assess alternative treatment options. PMID:27049197

  17. Adverse event recording post hip fracture surgery.

    PubMed

    Doody, K; Mohamed, K M S; Butler, A; Street, J; Lenehan, B

    2013-01-01

    Accurate recording of adverse events post hip fracture surgery is vital for planning and allocating resources. The purpose of this study was to compare adverse events recorded prospectively at point of care with adverse recorded by the Hospital In-Patient Enquiry (HIPE) System. The study examined a two month period from August to September 2011 at University Hospital Limerick. Out of a sample size of 39, there were 7 males (17.9%) and 32 females (82.1%) with an age range of between 53 and 98 years. The mean age was 80.5 years. 55 adverse events were recorded, in contrast to the HIPE record of 13 (23.6%) adverse events. The most common complications included constipation 10 (18.2%), anaemia 8 (14.5%), urinary retention 8 (14.50%), pneumonia 5 (9.1%) and delirium 5 (9.1%). Of the female cohort, 24 (68.8%) suffered an adverse event, while only 4 (57%) males suffered an adverse event. PMID:24579408

  18. Adaptive features of aquatic mammals' eye.

    PubMed

    Mass, Alla M; Supin, Alexander Ya

    2007-06-01

    The eye of aquatic mammals demonstrates several adaptations to both underwater and aerial vision. This study offers a review of eye anatomy in four groups of aquatic animals: cetaceans (toothed and baleen whales), pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses), sirenians (manatees and dugongs), and sea otters. Eye anatomy and optics, retinal laminar morphology, and topography of ganglion cell distribution are discussed with particular reference to aquatic specializations for underwater versus aerial vision. Aquatic mammals display emmetropia (i.e., refraction of light to focus on the retina) while submerged, and most have mechanisms to achieve emmetropia above water to counter the resulting aerial myopia. As underwater vision necessitates adjusting to wide variations in luminosity, iris muscle contractions create species-specific pupil shapes that regulate the amount of light entering the pupil and, in pinnipeds, work in conjunction with a reflective optic tapetum. The retina of aquatic mammals is similar to that of nocturnal terrestrial mammals in containing mainly rod photoreceptors and a minor number of cones (however, residual color vision may take place). A characteristic feature of the cetacean and pinniped retina is the large size of ganglion cells separated by wide intercellular spaces. Studies of topographic distribution of ganglion cells in the retina of cetaceans revealed two areas of ganglion cell concentration (the best-vision areas) located in the temporal and nasal quadrants; pinnipeds, sirenians, and sea otters have only one such area. In general, the visual system of marine mammals demonstrates a high degree of development and several specific features associated with adaptation for vision in both the aquatic and aerial environments. PMID:17516421

  19. Photodegradation behaviour of estriol: An insight on natural aquatic organic matter influence.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cindy; Lima, Diana L D; Silva, Carla Patrícia; Otero, Marta; Esteves, Valdemar I

    2016-09-01

    Estriol (E3) is one of the steroidal estrogens ubiquitously found in the aquatic environment, photodegradation being an important pathway for the elimination of such endocrine disrupting compounds. However, it is important to understand how environmentally important components present in aquatic matrices, such as organic matter, may affect their photodegradation. The main objective of this work was to investigate the photodegradation of E3 in water, under simulated solar radiation, as well as the effect of humic substances (HS - humic acids (HA), fulvic acids (FA) and XAD-4 fraction) in E3 photodegradation. Moreover, the photodegradation behaviour of E3 when present in different environmental aquatic matrices (fresh, estuarine and waste water samples) was also assessed. Results showed a completely different E3 degradation rate depending on the aquatic matrix. In ultrapure water the half-life obtained was about 50 h, while in presence of HS it varied between 5 and 10 h. Then, half-life times between 1.6 and 9.5 h were determined in environmental samples, in which it was observed that the matrix composition contributed up to 97% for the overall E3 photodegradation. Therefore, E3 photodegradation in the considered aquatic matrices was mostly caused by photosensitizing reactions (indirect photodegradation). PMID:27341158

  20. Aquatic Snails, Passive Hosts of Mycobacterium ulcerans

    PubMed Central

    Marsollier, Laurent; Sévérin, Tchibozo; Aubry, Jacques; Merritt, Richard W.; Saint André, Jean-Paul; Legras, Pierre; Manceau, Anne-Lise; Chauty, Annick; Carbonnelle, Bernard; Cole, Stewart T.

    2004-01-01

    Accumulative indirect evidence of the epidemiology of Mycobacterium ulcerans infections causing chronic skin ulcers (i.e., Buruli ulcer disease) suggests that the development of this pathogen and its transmission to humans are related predominantly to aquatic environments. We report that snails could transitorily harbor M. ulcerans without offering favorable conditions for its growth and replication. A novel intermediate link in the transmission chain of M. ulcerans becomes likely with predator aquatic insects in addition to phytophage insects. Water bugs, such as Naucoris cimicoides, a potential vector of M. ulcerans, were shown to be infected specifically by this bacterium after feeding on snails experimentally exposed to M. ulcerans. PMID:15466578

  1. Microbial ecology of Antarctic aquatic systems.

    PubMed

    Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    The Earth's biosphere is dominated by cold environments, and the cold biosphere is dominated by microorganisms. Microorganisms in cold Southern Ocean waters are recognized for having crucial roles in global biogeochemical cycles, including carbon sequestration, whereas microorganisms in other Antarctic aquatic biomes are not as well understood. In this Review, I consider what has been learned about Antarctic aquatic microbial ecology from 'omic' studies. I assess the factors that shape the biogeography of Antarctic microorganisms, reflect on some of the unusual biogeochemical cycles that they are associated with and discuss the important roles that viruses have in controlling ecosystem function. PMID:26456925

  2. Aquatic ape theory and fossil hominids.

    PubMed

    Verhaegen, M J

    1991-06-01

    While most older palaeo-anthropological studies emphasise the similarities of the fossil hominids with modern man, recent studies often stress the unique and the apelike features of the australopithecine dentitions, skulls and postcranial bones. It is worth reconsidering the features of Australopithecus, Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis in the light of the so-called Aquatic Ape Theory (AAT) of Hardy and Morgan, and to compare the skeletal parts of our fossil relatives with those of (semi)aquatic animals. Possible convergences are observed with proboscis monkeys, beavers, sea-otters, hippopotamuses, seals, sea-lions, walruses, sea-cows, whales, dolphins, porpoises, penguins and crocodiles. PMID:1909768

  3. Adverse childhood event experiences, fertility difficulties, and menstrual cycle characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Marni B.; Boynton-Jarrett, Renee D.; Harville, Emily W.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Increased childhood adversity may be affect adult fertility, however, the mechanism through which this occurs is unclear. Menstrual cycle abnormalities are predictive of fertility difficulties, and stress influences menstrual cycle characteristics. Here, we assesses whether adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with fertility difficulties and menstrual cycle dysregulation, offering a plausible mechanism for the link between lifetime stress and fertility. Methods From April 2012 – February 2014, 742 pregnant and non-pregnant women aged 18–45 years residing in southeastern Louisiana provided information on childhood adversity and reproductive history. Associations between ACEs and fertility difficulties and menstrual cycle patterns were evaluated. Results As the number of ACEs increased, risk of fertility difficulties and amenorrhea increased (RR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.05 – 1.13 and RR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.04 – 1.10, respectively), while fecundability decreased (FR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.95 – 1.00). Compared to women with no adversity, women in the high adversity group were more likely to experience both infertility and amenorrhea (RR = 2.75, 95% CI 1.45 – 5.21 and RR = 2.54, 95% CI 1.52 – 4.25, respectively), and reduced fecundability (FR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.56 – 1.00). Although similar patterns were seen for menstrual cycle irregularity, associations were diminished. Associations did not materially change following adjustment for age, BMI, race, education, smoking, and income. Results are constrained by the self-report nature of the study and the limited generalizability of the study population. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first study to present evidence of a link between childhood stressors, menstrual cycle disruption, and fertility difficulties. The effect of childhood stress on fertility may be mediated through altered functioning of the HPA axis, acting to suppress fertility in response to less than optimal reproductive

  4. Learning from adverse incidents involving medical devices.

    PubMed

    Amoore, John; Ingram, Paula

    While an adverse event involving a medical device is often ascribed to either user error or device failure, the causes are typically multifactorial. A number of incidents involving medical devices are explored using this approach to investigate the various causes of the incident and the protective barriers that minimised or prevented adverse consequences. User factors, including mistakes, omissions and lack of training, conspired with background factors--device controls and device design, storage conditions, hidden device damage and physical layout of equipment when in use--to cause the adverse events. Protective barriers that prevented or minimised the consequences included staff vigilance, operating procedures and alarms. PMID:12715578

  5. Uncertainty Comparison of Visual Sensing in Adverse Weather Conditions.

    PubMed

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Chen, Lun-Chi; Tseng, Chien-Hao; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on flood-region detection using monitoring images. However, adverse weather affects the outcome of image segmentation methods. In this paper, we present an experimental comparison of an outdoor visual sensing system using region-growing methods with two different growing rules-namely, GrowCut and RegGro. For each growing rule, several tests on adverse weather and lens-stained scenes were performed, taking into account and analyzing different weather conditions with the outdoor visual sensing system. The influence of several weather conditions was analyzed, highlighting their effect on the outdoor visual sensing system with different growing rules. Furthermore, experimental errors and uncertainties obtained with the growing rules were compared. The segmentation accuracy of flood regions yielded by the GrowCut, RegGro, and hybrid methods was 75%, 85%, and 87.7%, respectively. PMID:27447642

  6. Uncertainty Comparison of Visual Sensing in Adverse Weather Conditions†

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Chen, Lun-Chi; Tseng, Chien-Hao; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on flood-region detection using monitoring images. However, adverse weather affects the outcome of image segmentation methods. In this paper, we present an experimental comparison of an outdoor visual sensing system using region-growing methods with two different growing rules—namely, GrowCut and RegGro. For each growing rule, several tests on adverse weather and lens-stained scenes were performed, taking into account and analyzing different weather conditions with the outdoor visual sensing system. The influence of several weather conditions was analyzed, highlighting their effect on the outdoor visual sensing system with different growing rules. Furthermore, experimental errors and uncertainties obtained with the growing rules were compared. The segmentation accuracy of flood regions yielded by the GrowCut, RegGro, and hybrid methods was 75%, 85%, and 87.7%, respectively. PMID:27447642

  7. Chemical research on red pigments after adverse reactions to tattoo.

    PubMed

    Tammaro, A; Toniolo, C; Giulianelli, V; Serafini, M; Persechino, S

    2016-03-01

    Currently, the incidence of tattooing is on the rise compared to the past, especially among adolescents, and it leads to the urgency of monitoring the security status of tattooing centers, as well as to inform people about the risks of tattoo practice. In our clinical experience, 20% of tattooed patients presented adverse reactions, like allergic contact dermatitis, psoriasis with Koebner's phenomena and granulomatous reactions, with the latter most prevalent and most often related to red pigment. Adverse reactions to tattoo pigments, especially the red one, are well known and described in literature. Great attention has to be focused on the pigments used, especially for the presence of new substances, often not well known. For this reason, we decided to perform a study on 12 samples of red tattoo ink, obtained by patients affected by different cutaneous reactions in the site of tattoo, to analyze their chemical composition. PMID:26934738

  8. Adverse Effects of Wheat Gluten.

    PubMed

    Koning, Frits

    2015-01-01

    Man began to consume cereals approximately 10,000 years ago when hunter-gatherers settled in the fertile golden crescent in the Middle East. Gluten has been an integral part of the Western type of diet ever since, and wheat consumption is also common in the Middle East, parts of India and China as well as Australia and Africa. In fact, the food supply in the world heavily depends on the availability of cereal-based food products, with wheat being one of the largest crops in the world. Part of this is due to the unique properties of wheat gluten, which has a high nutritional value and is crucial for the preparation of high-quality dough. In the last 10 years, however, wheat and gluten have received much negative attention. Many believe that it is inherently bad for our health and try to avoid consumption of gluten-containing cereals; a gluten-low lifestyle so to speak. This is fueled by a series of popular publications like Wheat Belly; Lose the Wheat, Lose the Weight, and Find Your Path Back to Health. However, in reality, there is only one condition where gluten is definitively the culprit: celiac disease (CD), affecting approximately 1% of the population in the Western world. Here, I describe the complexity of the cereals from which gluten is derived, the special properties of gluten which make it so widely used in the food industry, the basis for its toxicity in CD patients and the potential for the development of safe gluten and alternatives to the gluten-free diet. PMID:26606684

  9. Adverse Outcome Pathways: From Definition to Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    A challenge for both human health and ecological toxicologists is the transparent application of mechanistic (e.g., molecular, biochemical, histological) data to risk assessments. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) is a conceptual framework designed to meet this need. Specifical...

  10. Adverse cutaneous drug eruptions: current understanding.

    PubMed

    Hoetzenecker, W; Nägeli, M; Mehra, E T; Jensen, A N; Saulite, I; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Guenova, E; Cozzio, A; French, L E

    2016-01-01

    Adverse cutaneous drug reactions are recognized as being major health problems worldwide causing considerable costs for health care systems. Most adverse cutaneous drug reactions follow a benign course; however, up to 2% of all adverse cutaneous drug eruptions are severe and life-threatening. These include acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Physicians should be aware of specific red flags to rapidly identify these severe cutaneous drug eruptions and initiate appropriate treatment. Besides significant progress in clinical classification and treatment, recent studies have greatly enhanced our understanding in the pathophysiology of adverse cutaneous drug reactions. Genetic susceptibilities to certain drugs have been identified in SJS/TEN patients, viral reactivation in DRESS has been elucidated, and the discovery of tissue resident memory T cells helps to better understand the recurrent site-specific inflammation in patients with fixed drug eruption. PMID:26553194

  11. Childhood adversities and psychosis: evidence, challenges, implications

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Craig; Gayer‐Anderson, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    There is a substantial body of research reporting evidence of associations between various forms of childhood adversity and psychosis, across the spectrum from experiences to disorder. This has been extended, more recently, to include studies of cumulative effects, of interactions with other factors, of specific effects, and of putative biological and psychological mechanisms. In this paper we evaluate this research and highlight the remaining methodological issues and gaps that temper, but do not dismiss, conclusions about the causal role of childhood adversity. We also consider the emerging work on cumulative, synergistic, and specific effects and on mechanisms; and discuss the broader implications of this line of research for our understanding of psychosis. We conclude that the current balance of evidence is that childhood adversities – particularly exposure to multiple adversities involving hostility and threat – do, in some people, contribute to the onset of psychotic experiences and psychotic disorders. PMID:27265690

  12. RACIAL RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    INTRODUCTION. The disparity between black and white women's adverse birth outcomes has been subject to much investigation, yet the factors underlying its persistence remain elusive, which has encouraged research on neighborhood-level influences, including racial residential segr...

  13. Tracking contaminant flux from aquatic to terrestrial food webs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic insects provide a critical energy subsidy to riparian food webs, yet their role as vectors of contaminants to terrestrial ecosystems is poorly understood. We investigated aquatic resource utilization and contaminant exposure among riparian invertivores (spiders and herpt...

  14. INTEGRATED STATE-FEDERAL PARTNERSHIP FOR AQUATIC RESOURCE MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fifteen federal agencies, 50 states, cities, counties, and 800-1000 volunteer organizations conduct aquatic resource monitoring in the United States. Most aquatic monitoring is project-specific focusing on individual locations or watersheds. The Clean Water Act requires states ...

  15. Why Care About Aquatic Insects: Uses, Benefits, and Services

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mayflies and other aquatic insects are common subjects of ecological research, and environmental monitoring and assessment. However, their important role in protecting and restoring aquatic ecosystems is often challenged, because their benefits and services to humans are not obv...

  16. Chapter 5. Assessing the Aquatic Hazards of Veterinary Medicines

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, there has been increasing awareness of the widespread distribution of low concentrations of veterinary medicine products and other pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. While aquatic hazard for a select group of veterinary medicines has received previous s...

  17. The mode of bioturbation triggers pesticide remobilization from aquatic sediments.

    PubMed

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Schletz, Marco; Goedkoop, Willem

    2016-08-01

    After their release into the aquatic environment, contaminants may - depending on the physicochemical properties - adsorb to sediments. From there these contaminants can either be buried or remobilised by abiotic factors (e.g., resuspension) as well as by the bioturbating activity of sediment dwelling invertebrates. Little is, however, know about the effects of bioturbation on the fate of pesticides. Therefore, the present study quantified the impact of the bioturbation mode of benthic invertebrate species (bio-diffusor vs. bio-irrigation), the invertebrate density (i.e. 0-8 individuals per replicate), and the substance-inherent properties (i.e. hydrophobicity, water solubility) on the remobilization of sediment-associated pesticides in a laboratory-based set-up over 13 days. We found that both the bioturbation mode (i.e., species identity) and species density, as well as pesticide properties (i.e., hydrophobicity) affected the direction and magnitude of remobilisation of sediment-bound pesticides. The oligochaeta Lumbriculus variegatus showed a density-dependent effect on the remobilization of lindane to the water phase, whereas those with the amphipod Monoporeia affinis and larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius did not. Although these findings show that sediments not per definition are a sink for pesticides, the rates of pesticide remobilization are limited. This observation, thus, suggests that the risk for aquatic communities posed by the remobilization of pesticides from the sediment due to bioturbation is low. PMID:27107774

  18. The formation of adipocere in model aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Stuart, B H; Notter, S J; Dent, B; Selvalatchmanan, J; Fu, S

    2016-01-01

    An examination of the chemistry of adipocere formation in aquatic systems provides insight into how environmental factors affect the decomposition processes of human remains. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICPMS) have been employed to monitor the changes to the chemistry of adipocere formed in aquatic environments used to model seawater, river and chlorinated water systems. Seawater was shown to inhibit adipocere formation, and a distinctively different elemental composition was produced in this environment due to the high concentrations of salts. By comparison, river water has been shown to accelerate the formation of adipocere. Chlorinated water appears to significantly enhance adipocere formation, based on a comparison with established fatty acid concentration values. However, a competing reaction to form chlorohydrins in chlorinated water is believed to be responsible for the unusual findings in this environment. The application of the chemical characterization of adipocere to an understanding of how this particular decomposition product forms in different water environments has been demonstrated, and there is potential to utilise this approach to identify the environment in which a body has been immersed. PMID:26493693

  19. Optical diagnostic test of stress conditions of aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Axenov-Gribanov, Denis V; Gurkov, Anton N; Shakhtanova, Nadezhda S; Bedulina, Daria S; Timofeyev, Maxim A; Meglinski, Igor

    2011-09-01

    Global climate change has become a dire reality and its impact is expected to rise dramatically in the near future. Combined with the day-to-day human activities the climatic changes heavily affect the environment. In particular, a global temperature increase accompanied by a number of anthropogenic chemicals falling within the freshwater ecosystem results in a dramatic enhancement of the overall stress for most aquatic organisms. This leads to a significant shift in the species inventory and potential breakdown of the water ecosystem with severe consequences for local economies and water supply. In order to understand and predict the influence of climatic changes on the physiological and biochemical processes that take place in living aquatic organisms we explore the application of optical spectroscopy for monitoring and quantitative assessment of antioxidant enzymes activity in benthic amphipods of Lake Baikal. We demonstrate that the changes of the enzymes activity in Baikal amphipods undergoing thermal and/or hypoxia stress can be observed and documented by UV and optical spectroscopy both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:21548104

  20. Aquatic noise pollution: implications for individuals, populations, and ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Kunc, Hansjoerg P; McLaughlin, Kirsty Elizabeth; Schmidt, Rouven

    2016-08-17

    Anthropogenically driven environmental changes affect our planet at an unprecedented scale and are considered to be a key threat to biodiversity. According to the World Health Organization, anthropogenic noise is one of the most hazardous forms of anthropogenically driven environmental change and is recognized as a major global pollutant. However, crucial advances in the rapidly emerging research on noise pollution focus exclusively on single aspects of noise pollution, e.g. on behaviour, physiology, terrestrial ecosystems, or on certain taxa. Given that more than two-thirds of our planet is covered with water, there is a pressing need to get a holistic understanding of the effects of anthropogenic noise in aquatic ecosystems. We found experimental evidence for negative effects of anthropogenic noise on an individual's development, physiology, and/or behaviour in both invertebrates and vertebrates. We also found that species differ in their response to noise, and highlight the potential underlying mechanisms for these differences. Finally, we point out challenges in the study of aquatic noise pollution and provide directions for future research, which will enhance our understanding of this globally present pollutant. PMID:27534952

  1. ELF communications system ecological monitoring program: Aquatic ecosystem studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Thomas M.; Stout, R. J.; Winterstein, Scott; Coon, Thomas; Novinger, Doug

    1994-11-01

    The U.S. Navy has completed a program that monitored biota and ecological miationships for possible effects from electromagnetic (EM) fields produced by its Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communications System. This report documents the results and conclusions of aquatic studies conducted near its transmitting antenna in Michigan. From 1982 through 1993 researchers from the Michigan State University (MSU) monitored aquatic flora and fauna on matched reaches of the Ford River. A treatment site was located immediately adjacent to the antenna, whereas a control site was situated at a distance downstream. Functional and structural components of the periphyton, insect, and fish communities were monitored. The research team also measured ambient factors such as temperature, discharge, and water quality indicators. Data were analyzed using a variety of statistical tests; however, BACI techniques were emphasized. Results indicated a relative increase in algal biomass at the treatment site after the antenna became fully operational, but no changes in any other parameter or organism. MSU concludes that algal biomass was affected by ELF EM exposure. Since neither the other ecological characteristics of the periphyton nor the insect and fish communities showed any effects, MSU infers little EM impact to riverine habitats.

  2. Functional ecology of aquatic phagotrophic protists - Concepts, limitations, and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Weisse, Thomas; Anderson, Ruth; Arndt, Hartmut; Calbet, Albert; Hansen, Per Juel; Montagnes, David J S

    2016-08-01

    Functional ecology is a subdiscipline that aims to enable a mechanistic understanding of patterns and processes from the organismic to the ecosystem level. This paper addresses some main aspects of the process-oriented current knowledge on phagotrophic, i.e. heterotrophic and mixotrophic, protists in aquatic food webs. This is not an exhaustive review; rather, we focus on conceptual issues, in particular on the numerical and functional response of these organisms. We discuss the evolution of concepts and define parameters to evaluate predator-prey dynamics ranging from Lotka-Volterra to the Independent Response Model. Since protists have extremely versatile feeding modes, we explore if there are systematic differences related to their taxonomic affiliation and life strategies. We differentiate between intrinsic factors (nutritional history, acclimatisation) and extrinsic factors (temperature, food, turbulence) affecting feeding, growth, and survival of protist populations. We briefly consider intraspecific variability of some key parameters and constraints inherent in laboratory microcosm experiments. We then upscale the significance of phagotrophic protists in food webs to the ocean level. Finally, we discuss limitations of the mechanistic understanding of protist functional ecology resulting from principal unpredictability of nonlinear dynamics. We conclude by defining open questions and identifying perspectives for future research on functional ecology of aquatic phagotrophic protists. PMID:27094869

  3. Aquatic noise pollution: implications for individuals, populations, and ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Kunc, Hansjoerg P.; McLaughlin, Kirsty Elizabeth; Schmidt, Rouven

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenically driven environmental changes affect our planet at an unprecedented scale and are considered to be a key threat to biodiversity. According to the World Health Organization, anthropogenic noise is one of the most hazardous forms of anthropogenically driven environmental change and is recognized as a major global pollutant. However, crucial advances in the rapidly emerging research on noise pollution focus exclusively on single aspects of noise pollution, e.g. on behaviour, physiology, terrestrial ecosystems, or on certain taxa. Given that more than two-thirds of our planet is covered with water, there is a pressing need to get a holistic understanding of the effects of anthropogenic noise in aquatic ecosystems. We found experimental evidence for negative effects of anthropogenic noise on an individual's development, physiology, and/or behaviour in both invertebrates and vertebrates. We also found that species differ in their response to noise, and highlight the potential underlying mechanisms for these differences. Finally, we point out challenges in the study of aquatic noise pollution and provide directions for future research, which will enhance our understanding of this globally present pollutant. PMID:27534952

  4. Delineating resource sheds in aquatic ecosystems (presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analysis of spatially-explicit ecological phenomena in aquatic ecosystems is impeded by a lack of knowledge of, and tools to delimit, spatial patterns of material supply to point locations. Here we apply the concept of "resource sheds" to coasts and watersheds. Resource sheds ar...

  5. Applicator Training Manual for: Aquatic Weed Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herron, James W.

    The aquatic weeds discussed in this manual include algae, floating weeds, emersed weeds, and submerged weeds. Specific requirements for pesticide application are given for static water, limited flow, and moving water situations. Secondary effects of improper application rates and faulty application are described. Finally, techniques of limited…

  6. Aquatics Therapy and the Halliwick Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Alison; Thomson, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Aquatic therapy is the use of the properties of water for the therapeutic benefit of people of all ages and abilities. This article illustrates how people with disabilities may maximize the benefits of activities in water, including individual and group work and swimming. The overall aim is to encourage family activity and social interaction. The…

  7. SEDIMENT ASSOCIATED PHOTOTOXICITY TO AQUATIC ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phototoxicity is a two to greater than 1000-fold increase in chemical toxicity caused by ultraviolet radation (UV), which has been demonstrated in a broad range of marine and freshwater fish, invertebrates, and other aquatic organisms in water column exposures. Field collected s...

  8. Teachers and Aquatic Education--A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.

    The Minnesota Sea Grant Education Sub-program provided funds to the University of Minnesota in 1980 to develop aquatic education materials (dealing with freshwater systems) for grades 5-9. The project resulted in the development and classroom testing of 13 instructional modules. A second grant (1982) funded workshops to introduce Minnesota…

  9. SUBMERGED AQUATIC VEGETATION GARDENING MX974861

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Gardening project will acquire the seed/seedlings of SAVs for planting, will create an SAV gardening guide; and will create SAV plots at volunteers waterfront properties. Volunteers will gather data on plant size and spacing. Water quality test ...

  10. Thermal Pollution Impact upon Aquatic Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiomoto, Gail T.; Olson, Betty H.

    1978-01-01

    Conventional and nuclear power plants release waste heat to cooling water which then returns to receiving bodies of surface water. This thermal pollution causes a variety of effects in the aquatic ecosystem. More must be learned about these effects to ensure adequate regulation of thermal discharges. (RE)

  11. Aquatic Habitats, Level 4-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigel, Margaret

    Designed to acquaint students in grades 4-9 with aquatic plants and animals, this guide provides materials which can be used in preparation for field trips or laboratory work, for individual projects, as supplemental activities for a unit, or for learning center projects. Teacher background notes and an answer key for the student activites are…

  12. Aquatic Habitats: Exploring Desktop Ponds. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Katharine; Willard, Carolyn

    This book, for grades 2-6, is designed to provide students with a highly motivating and unique opportunity to investigate an aquatic habitat. Students set up, observe, study, and reflect upon their own "desktop ponds." Accessible plants and small animals used in these activities include Elodea, Tubifex worms, snails, mosquito larvae, and fish.…

  13. Aquatic Pest Control. Sale Publication 4071.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    The information in this manual applies to control of aquatic pests in recreational waters, agricultural reservoirs, ornamental ponds, coastal bays, estuaries and channels, and drinking water reservoirs. Mechanical, cultural, biological, and chemical control methods are discussed. The majority of the material is devoted to weed control in static…

  14. Recommendations for Implementing an Aquatic Plyometric Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael G.; Berry, David C.; Gilders, Roger; Bullard, Sue

    2001-01-01

    Describes the advantages of using plyometric programs in the water, explaining that they may provide athletes with several benefits (e.g., added resistance, which increases muscle strength, and getting a break from more monotonous drills on land). The paper discusses: the physical properties of water, aquatic rehabilitation that incorporates…

  15. Nano-plastics in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, K; Hansson, L-A; Cedervall, T

    2015-10-01

    The amount of plastics released to the environment in modern days has increased substantially since the development of modern plastics in the early 1900s. As a result, concerns have been raised by the public about the impact of plastics on nature and on, specifically, aquatic wildlife. Lately, much attention has been paid to macro- and micro-sized plastics and their impact on aquatic organisms. However, micro-sized plastics degrade subsequently into nano-sizes whereas nano-sized particles may be released directly into nature. Such particles have a different impact on aquatic organisms than larger pieces of plastic due to their small size, high surface curvature, and large surface area. This review describes the possible sources of nano-sized plastic, its distribution and behavior in nature, the impact of nano-sized plastic on the well-being of aquatic organisms, and the difference of impact between nano- and micro-sized particles. We also identify research areas which urgently need more attention and suggest experimental methods to obtain useful data. PMID:26337600

  16. Basic Fishing. Aquatic Skills Series. Instructor Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staton, Robert D., Jr.

    Part of a series of self-contained instructional units to teach Missourians how to use outdoor resources wisely and skillfully, this module of the Aquatic Skills Series introduces the basics of sport fishing using spin-casting equipment. The instructor may modify the module to meet the individual needs of class members based on age, experience…

  17. Aquatic Habitat Bottom Classification Using ADCP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Description of physical aquatic habitat often includes data describing distributions of water depth, velocity and bed material type. Water depth and velocity in streams deeper than about 1 m may be continuously mapped using an acoustic Doppler current profiler from a moving boat. Herein we examine...

  18. Systems and Cycles: Learning about Aquatic Ecosystems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Jordan, Rebecca; Eberbach, Catherine; Rugaber, Spencer; Goel, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    In this research, the authors present both the design and preliminary testing of a technology-intensive classroom intervention designed to support middle schools students' understanding of an aquatic ecosystem. The goals of their intervention are to help learners develop deep understanding of ecosystems and to use tools that make the relationships…

  19. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF AQUATIC NUISANCES - A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    A total of 532 references on the biological control of aquatic nuisances were reviewed. Three major control approaches exist. Grazing and predation have been the most frequently utilized techniques, with emphasis on macrophyte control by fish and insects. The use of pathogens is ...

  20. Apparatus Induces And Fixes Small Aquatic Organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, Christopher

    1992-01-01

    Syringe-and-bag assembly compact, lightweight self-contained, portable apparatus introducing liquids to aquatic organisms. Isolates organisms from toxic substances until time of introduction. Includes plastic syringes, each containing inner, sealed, burstable bag. Adaptable to use in biological tests and experiments at remote locations on Earth.

  1. Aquatic Exercise and Heat-Related Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sova, Ruth

    1991-01-01

    Heat-related injuries in aquatics classes are possible, though 100 percent preventable. The article discusses heat-related syndromes; how bodies generate and dissipate heat; how elevated heart rates that burn calories differ from those that dissipate heat; and modification of exercise intensity to provide calorie-burning workouts without…

  2. Adapted Aquatics for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Coleen A.

    2006-01-01

    This article provides information for physical education teachers to use while teaching their students with autism in an adapted aquatics unit plan. Crollick, Mancil, & Stopka (2006) have found that activities such as running, cycling, or swimming can reduce inappropriate behaviors in children who are autistic. They recommend further that…

  3. Focus on Preschool Aquatics: Child Care Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayre, Nancy E.

    This paper proposes state regulations for the training of child care staff members in developmentally appropriate safe aquatic practices, outlines required features of any pools that children visit, and suggests safe practices for water-related activities at child care centers and swimming pools. The staff training regulation suggestions include…

  4. Aquatic Community Colonization Within Riparian Headwater Corridors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Headwater streams are the smallest streams in a watershed. Their small size and high frequency of occurrence make them susceptible to anthropogenic habitat alterations. Many headwater streams in the Midwestern US have been channelized to drain agricultural fields. Aquatic macroinvertebrate communiti...

  5. Developing robust crop plants for sustaining growth and yield under adverse climatic changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural production and quality are expected to suffer from adverse changes in climatic conditions, including global warming, and this will affect worldwide human and animal food security. Global warming has been shown to negatively impact crop yield and therefore will affect sustainability of a...

  6. Establishing aquatic restoration priorities using a watershed approach.

    PubMed

    Bohn, B A; Kershner, J L

    2002-04-01

    Since the passage of the Clean Water Act in 1972, the United States has made great strides to reduce the threats to its rivers, lakes, and wetlands from pollution. However, despite our obvious successes, nearly half of the nation's surface water resources remain incapable of supporting basic aquatic values or maintaining water quality adequate for recreational swimming. The Clean Water Act established a significant federal presence in water quality regulation by controlling point and non-point sources of pollution. Point-sources of pollution were the major emphasis of the Act, but Section 208 specifically addressed non-point sources of pollution and designated silviculture and livestock grazing as sources of non-point pollution. Non-point source pollutants include runoff from agriculture, municipalities, timber harvesting, mining, and livestock grazing. Non-point source pollution now accounts for more than half of the United States water quality impairments. To successfully improve water quality, restoration practitioners must start with an understanding of what ecosystem processes are operating in the watershed and how they have been affected by outside variables. A watershed-based analysis template developed in the Pacific Northwest can be a valuable aid in developing that level of understanding. The watershed analysis technique identifies four ecosystem scales useful to identify stream restoration priorities: region, basin, watershed, and site. The watershed analysis technique is based on a set of technically rigorous and defensible procedures designed to provide information on what processes are active at the watershed scale, how those processes are distributed in time and space. They help describe what the current upland and riparian conditions of the watershed are and how these conditions in turn influence aquatic habitat and other beneficial uses. The analysis is organized as a set of six steps that direct an interdisciplinary team of specialists to examine

  7. CAM Photosynthesis in Submerged Aquatic Plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a CO2-concentrating mechanism selected in response to aridity in terrestrial habitats, and, in aquatic environments, to ambient limitations of carbon. Evidence is reviewed for its presence in five genera of aquatic vascular plants, including Isoe??tes, Sagittaria, Vallisneria, Crassula, and Littorella. Initially, aquatic CAM was considered by some to be an oxymoron, but some aquatic species have been studied in sufficient detail to say definitively that they possess CAM photosynthesis. CO2-concentrating mechanisms in photosynthetic organs require a barrier to leakage; e.g., terrestrial C4 plants have suberized bundle sheath cells and terrestrial CAM plants high stomatal resistance. In aquatic CAM plants the primary barrier to CO2 leakage is the extremely high diffusional resistance of water. This, coupled with the sink provided by extensive intercellular gas space, generates daytime CO2(Pi) comparable to terrestrial CAM plants. CAM contributes to the carbon budget by both net carbon gain and carbon recycling, and the magnitude of each is environmentally influenced. Aquatic CAM plants inhabit sites where photosynthesis is potentially limited by carbon. Many occupy moderately fertile shallow temporary pools that experience extreme diel fluctuations in carbon availability. CAM plants are able to take advantage of elevated nighttime CO2 levels in these habitats. This gives them a competitive advantage over non-CAM species that are carbon starved during the day and an advantage over species that expend energy in membrane transport of bicarbonate. Some aquatic CAM plants are distributed in highly infertile lakes, where extreme carbon limitation and light are important selective factors. Compilation of reports on diel changes in titratable acidity and malate show 69 out of 180 species have significant overnight accumulation, although evidence is presented discounting CAM in some. It is concluded that similar proportions of the aquatic

  8. Evaluating the risk to aquatic ecosystems posed by leachate from tire shred fill in roads using toxicity tests, toxicity identification evaluations, and groundwater modeling.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Patrick J; Warmerdam, John M; Ogle, Scott; Humphrey, Dana N; Patenaude, Stacey M

    2006-02-01

    The risk to adjacent aquatic systems posed by leachates from scrap tires used in engineering applications has not been characterized adequately. Toxicity testing, toxicity identification evaluation (TIE), and groundwater modeling were used to determine the circumstances under which tire shreds could be used as roadbed fill with negligible risk to aquatic organisms in adjacent water bodies. Elevated levels of iron, manganese, and several other chemicals were found in tire shred leachates. However, chronic toxicity tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) showed no adverse effects caused by leachates collected from tire shreds installed above the water table. Exposure to leachates collected from tire shreds installed below the water table resulted in significant reductions to both survival and reproduction in C. dubia. The TIE results indicated that exposure to soluble metals (likely ferrous iron primarily) and the formation of iron hydroxide precipitates on this invertebrate species likely were the causes of the observed effects. The available chemistry data show that iron concentrations in the affected groundwater decreased substantially within a short distance (0.61 m) downgradient of tire shred fill. Based on geochemical modeling, the use of tire shreds in applications below the water table is appropriate in settings where dissolved oxygen is greater than 2.0 mg/L, pH is greater than 5.8, and a downgradient buffer of approximately 3.0 m exists between the fill and the surface water. For settings with lower dissolved oxygen concentrations or lower pH, results of groundwater modeling indicate that a greater buffer distance (approximately 11 m) is needed to dilute the leachate to nontoxic levels under various soil and groundwater conditions solely through advection and dispersion processes. PMID:16519300

  9. Predatory aquatic beetles, suitable trace elements bioindicators.

    PubMed

    Burghelea, Carmen I; Zaharescu, Dragos G; Hooda, Peter S; Palanca-Soler, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Predatory aquatic beetles are common colonizers of natural and managed aquatic environments. While as important components of the aquatic food webs they are prone to accumulate trace elements, they have been largely neglected from metal uptake studies. We aim to test the suitability of three dytiscid species, i.e.Hydroglyphus pusillus, Laccophilus minutus and Rhantus suturalis, as trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) bioindicators. The work was carried out in a case area representing rice paddies and control sites (reservoirs) from an arid region known for its land degradation (Monegros, NE Spain). Categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA) was tested as a nonlinear approach to identify significant relationships between metals, species and habitat conditions so as to examine the ability of these species to reflect differences in metal uptake. Except Se and As, the average concentrations of all other elements in the beetles were higher in the rice fields than in the control habitats. The CATPCA determined that H. pusillus had high capacity to accumulate Fe, Ni and Mn regardless of the habitat type, and hence may not be capable of distinguishing habitat conditions with regards to these metals. On the other hand, L. minutus was found less sensitive for Se in non-managed habitats (i.e. reservoirs), while R. suturalis was good in accumulating Al, Mo and Pb in rice fields. The latter seems to be a promising bioindicator of metal enrichment in rice fields. We conclude that predatory aquatic beetles are good candidates for trace elements bioindication in impacted and non-impacted environments and can be used in environmental monitoring studies. CATPCA proved to be a reliable approach to unveil trends in metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates according to their habitat status. PMID:21468408

  10. Safety in Aquatic Activities. Sports Safety Series. Monograph No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borozne, Joseph, Ed.; And Others

    The prevention of injuries and control of hazards in aquatic activities is outlined. Discussions include the causes and prevention of aquatic accidents, aquatic safety in the basic instructional program, the design of public swimming facilities, and safety considerations in pool operation and administration. A chapter is devoted to each of the…

  11. STRATEGY FOR REVISION TO THE AQUATIC LIFE CRITERIA GUIDELINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The existing Guidelines for Deriving Water Quality Criteria for the Protection of Aquatic Life (the Guidelines) have not been updated since 1985. This effort will update the guidelines, as needed, to reflect scientific advancement in aquatic toxicology, aquatic biology, fate, tra...

  12. HAZARDOUS WASTE IDENTIFICATION RULE (HWIR) AQUATIC FOOD CHAINS MODULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Aquatic Food Web (AqFW) module calculates chemical concentrations in aquatic organisms that are consumed by human and ecological receptors (e.g., fish filet; aquatic macrophytes). These concentrations are used as input to the human and ecological exposure modules to determine...

  13. [Radioecological problems of aquatic ecosystems of the Chernobyl exclusion zone].

    PubMed

    Gudkov, D I; Kuz'menko, M I; Kireev, S I; Nazarov, A B; Shevtsova, N L; Dziubenko, E V; Kaglian, A E

    2009-01-01

    The results of radioactive contamination dynamics in the main components of aquatic ecosystems and the absorbed dose rate for hydrobionts within the Chernobyl accident exclusion zone was analysed. Some cytogenetical and haematological effects of long-term irradiation on aquatic organisms as well as damage of higher aquatic plants by parasitic fungi and gall-producing arthropods were considered. PMID:19507688

  14. Professional Preparation in Aquatics Education--Curriculum Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    This document contains course outlines for a professional curriculum in aquatics at the college and university level, endorsed by the National Symposium on Professional Preparation in Aquatics Education. The proposed curriculum is divided into four areas of professional standards: (a) the physical educator, (b) the aquatics instructor, (c) the…

  15. Desert potholes: Ephemeral aquatic microsystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chan, M.A.; Moser, K.; Davis, J.M.; Southam, G.; Hughes, K.; Graham, T.

    2005-01-01

    An enigma of the Colorado Plateau high desert is the "pothole", which ranges from shallow ephemeral puddles to deeply carved pools. The existence of prokaryotic to eukaryotic organisms within these pools is largely controlled by the presence of collected rainwater. Multivariate statistical analysis of physical and chemical limnologic data variables measured from potholes indicates spatial and temporal variations, particularly in water depth, manganese, iron, nitrate and sulfate concentrations and salinity. Variation in water depth and salinity are likely related to the amount of time since the last precipitation, whereas the other variables may be related to redox potential. The spatial and temporal variations in water chemistry affect the distribution of organisms, which must adapt to daily and seasonal extremes of fluctuating temperature (0-60 ??C), pH changes of as much as 5 units over 12 days, and desiccation. For example, many species become dormant when potholes dry, in order to endure intense heat, UV radiation, desiccation and freezing, only to flourish again upon rehydration. But the pothole organisms also have a profound impact on the potholes. Through photosynthesis and respiration, pothole organisms affect redox potential, and indirectly alter the water chemistry. Laboratory examination of dried biofilm from the potholes revealed that within 2 weeks of hydration, the surface of the desiccated, black biofilm became green from cyanobacterial growth, which supported significant growth in heterotrophic bacterial populations. This complex biofilm is persumably responsible for dissolving the cement between the sandstone grains, allowing the potholes to enlarge, and for sealing the potholes, enabling them to retain water longer than the surrounding sandstone. Despite the remarkable ability of life in potholes to persist, desert potholes may be extremely sensitive to anthropogenic effects. The unique limnology and ecology of Utah potholes holds great scientific

  16. Adverse effects of common medications on male fertility.

    PubMed

    Samplaski, Mary K; Nangia, Ajay K

    2015-07-01

    An increasing number of patients require long-term medication regimens at a young age, but the adverse effects of medications on male reproduction are often inadequately considered, recognized and investigated. Medications can affect male reproduction through central hormonal effects, direct gonadotoxic effects, effects on sperm function or on sexual function. For example, exogenous testosterone inhibits spermatogenesis through central suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal hormonal axis. 5α-reductase inhibitors can impair sexual function, decrease semen volume and negatively affect sperm parameters, depending on dose and treatment duration. α-Blockers might decrease seminal emission and cause retrograde ejaculation, depending on the receptor specificity and dose of the agent. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors seem to have variable effects based on the isoform inhibited and evidence is conflicting. Antihypertensive and psychotropic agents can affect sperm, sexual function and hormonal parameters. For antibiotics, the literature on effects on sperm and sperm function is limited and dated. Many chemotherapeutic agents have a direct gonadotoxic effect, depending on agents used, dosing and number of treatment cycles. Overall, many medications commonly used in urology can have effects on male fertility (mostly reversible) but conclusive evidence in humans is often limited. Men should be counselled appropriately about potential drug-related adverse effects on their fertility. PMID:26101108

  17. Aquatic Ecosystem Enhancement at Mountaintop Mining Sites Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D. Courtney; Lawson, Peter; Morgan, John; Maggard, Randy; Schor, Horst; Powell, Rocky; Kirk, Ed. J.

    2000-01-12

    Welcome to this symposium which is part of the ongoing effort to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) regarding mountaintop mining and valley fills. The EIS is being prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Office of Surface Mining, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, in cooperation with the State of West Virginia. Aquatic Ecosystem Enhancement (AEE) at mountaintop mining sites is one of fourteen technical areas identified for study by the EIS Interagency Steering Committee. Three goals were identified in the AEE Work Plan: 1. Assess mining and reclamation practices to show how mining operations might be carried out in a way that minimizes adverse impacts to streams and other environmental resources and to local communities. Clarify economic and technical constraints and benefits. 2. Help citizens clarify choices by showing whether there are affordable ways to enhance existing mining, reclamation, mitigation processes and/or procedures. 3. Ide identify data needed to improve environmental evaluation and design of mining projects to protect the environment. Today’s symposium was proposed in the AEE Team Work Plans but coordinated planning for the event began September 15, 1999 when representatives from coal industry, environmental groups and government regulators met in Morgantown. The meeting participants worked with a facilitator from the Canaan Valley Institute to outline plans for the symposium. Several teams were formed to carry out the plans we outlined in the meeting.

  18. Relative sensitivity of some selected aquatic organisms to phenol

    SciTech Connect

    Tisler, T.; Zagorc-Koncan, J.

    1995-05-01

    Although the possibility of adverse effects of materials on organisms was recognized earlier, not until the 1940s or 1950s short-term acute tests with fishes were being studied. The fishes have become the most popular test organism because the effects of toxic substances in streams have been most evident on the fishes. Many other organisms bearing the important role in the environment live in the waters and began to be used in the toxicological research. Nowadays such great variety of test methods and organisms make the selection of the suitable toxicity test difficult. One or two species of test organisms only are often applied in the determination of the toxic substances or wastewaters. The toxicity test with daphnids is widely used due to its sensitivity to the great part of toxic substances. The purpose of our research was to determine the toxicity of phenol to some aquatic organisms from the group of bacteria, algae, crustacea and fishes, and to determine the most sensitive kind. Test organisms have been selected from three basic groups in the food chain (bacteria - decomposers, algae - producers and crustacea, fish - consumers). Phenol, an organic degradable substance that is a frequent contaminant in wastewaters, has been chosen for the test substance. 29 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. Interventions designed to prevent adverse programming outcomes resulting from exposure to maternal obesity during development

    PubMed Central

    Nathanielsz, PW; Ford, SP; Long, NM; Vega, CC; Reyes-Castro, LA; Zambrano, E

    2013-01-01

    Maternal obesity is a global epidemic affecting the developed and developing world. Human and animal studies indicate that maternal obesity programs development predisposing offspring to later-life chronic diseases. Several mechanisms act together to produce these adverse health problems. There is a need for effective interventions that prevent these outcomes and guide management in human pregnancy. We report here dietary and exercise intervention studies in both altricial and precocial species, rats and sheep, designed to prevent adverse offspring outcomes. Both interventions present exciting opportunities to at least in part prevent adverse metabolic and other outcomes in mother and offspring. PMID:24147928

  20. Renal function trajectory over time and adverse clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sohel, Badrul Munir; Rumana, Nahid; Ohsawa, Masaki; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury; Kelly, Martina Ann; Al Mamun, Mohammad

    2016-06-01

    The growing burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD), with its associated morbidity and mortality, is recognized as a major public health problem globally and causing substantial load on health care systems. The current framework for the definition and staging of CKD, based on eGFR levels or presence of kidney damage, is useful for clinical classification of patients, but identifies a huge number of people as having CKD which is too many to target for intervention. The ability to identify a subset of patients, at high risk for adverse outcomes, would be useful to inform clinical management. The current staging system applies static definitions of kidney function that fail to capture the dynamic nature of the kidney disease over time. Now-a-days, it is possible to capture multiple measurements of different laboratory test results for an individual including eGFR values. A new possibility for identifying individuals at higher risk of adverse outcomes is being explored through assessment and consideration of the rate of change in kidney function over time, and this approach will be feasible in the current context of digitalization of health record keeping system. On the basis of the existing evidence, this paper summarizes important findings that support the concept of dynamic changes in kidney function over time, and discusses how the magnitude of these changes affect the future adverse outcomes of kidney disease, particularly the End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD), CVD and mortality. PMID:26728745

  1. The Role of Biomarkers in the Assessment of Aquatic Ecosystem Health

    PubMed Central

    Hook, Sharon E; Gallagher, Evan P; Batley, Graeme E

    2016-01-01

    Ensuring the health of aquatic ecosystems and identifying species at risk from the detrimental effects of environmental contaminants can be facilitated by integrating analytical chemical analysis with carefully selected biological endpoints measured in tissues of species of concern. These biological endpoints include molecular, biochemical and physiological markers (i.e. biomarkers) that when integrated, can clarify issues of contaminant bioavailability, bioaccumulation and ecological effects while enabling a better understanding of the effects of non-chemical stressors. In the case of contaminant stressors, an understanding of chemical modes of toxicity can be incorporated with diagnostic markers of aquatic animal physiology to help understand the health status of aquatic organisms in the field. Furthermore, new approaches in functional genomics and bioinformatics can help discriminate individual chemicals, or groups of chemicals among complex mixtures that may contribute to adverse biological effects. While the use of biomarkers is not a new paradigm, such approaches have been underutilized in the context of ecological risk assessment and natural resource damage assessment. From a regulatory standpoint, these approaches can help better assess the complex effects from coastal development activities to assessing ecosystem integrity pre- and post-development or site remediation. PMID:24574147

  2. Spatio-temporal variations of aquatic weeds abundance and coverage in Lake Chivero, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekede, M. D.; Kusangaya, S.; Schmidt, K.

    Information on the spatial distribution of aquatic weeds is required for understanding the evolution of weed invasion and propagation rates. Such information is also vital for identifying affected areas and relating weed abundance to probable changes in environmental conditions and human actions including management practices within the lake and its catchment. Information on aquatic weed distribution also assists in evaluating the effectiveness of control measures and management actions. In Zimbabwe, Lake Chivero has been characterised by aquatic weed proliferation since the 1970s. Field surveys done between December 2005 and March 2006 showed concentrations of 1.2 mg/l and 0.3 mg/l up from 0.3 mg/l and 0.03 mg/l in 2001 for phosphates and nitrates respectively. Proliferation of aquatic weeds will continue unless nutrient loadings to this lake are reduced. The aim of this paper was to assess the feasibility of mapping the spatial extent and abundance of aquatic weeds in Lake Chivero, Zimbabwe using Landsat images. Landsat images of 1976, 1989 and 2000 were used to calculate the normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) which was used for estimating the spatial extent of aquatic weeds and weed biomass. Field data and actual biomass measurements were obtained between December 2005 and March 2006 by harvesting weeds from the lake. This was subsequently related to NDVI and used to estimate the abundance of the different weed species. The results indicate that the weed coverage in Lake Chivero declined from 42% in 1976, 36% in 1989 to 22% in 2000. The research also demonstrated that Typha capensis has more biomass, 11.1kg per square metre, than any other weed type and hence higher abundance in all the years. It was concluded that remote sensing is an invaluable asset for detection of invasions, assessment of infestation levels, monitoring rate of spread, and determining the efficacy of weed mitigation measures.

  3. Importance of the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska for aquatic birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bart, Jonathan; Platte, Robert M.; Andres, Brad; Brown, Stephen; Johnson, James A.; Larned, William

    2013-01-01

    We used data from aerial surveys (1992–2010) of >100,000 km2 and ground surveys (1998–2004) of >150 km2 to estimate the density and abundance of birds on the North Slope of Alaska (U.S.A.). In the ground surveys, we used double sampling to estimate detection ratios. We used the aerial survey data to compare densities of birds and Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus), the major nest predator of birds, on the North Slope, in Prudhoe Bay, and in nearby areas. We partitioned the Prudhoe Bay oil field into 2 × 2 km plots and determined the relation between density of aquatic birds and density of roads, buildings, and other infrastructure in these plots. Abundance and density (birds per square kilometer) of 3 groups of aquatic birds—waterfowl, loons, and grebes; shorebirds; and gulls, terns, and jaegers—were highest in the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska (NPRA) and lowest in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Six other major wetlands occur in the Arctic regions of Canada and Russia, but the largest population of aquatic birds was in the NPRA. Aquatic birds were concentrated in the northern part of the NPRA. For example, an area that covered 18% of the NPRA included 53% of its aquatic birds. The aerial surveys showed that bird density was not lower and fox density was not higher in Prudhoe Bay than in surrounding areas. Density of infrastructure did not significantly affect bird density for any group of species. Our results establish that the NPRA is one of the most important areas for aquatic birds in the Arctic. Our results and those of others also indicate that oil production, as practiced in Prudhoe Bay, does not necessarily lead to substantial declines in bird density or productivity in or near the developed areas.

  4. Aquatic habitats of Canaan Valley, West Virginia: Diversity and environmental threats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, C.D.; Young, J.A.; Stout, B. M., III

    2006-01-01

    We conducted surveys of aquatic habitats during the spring and summer of 1995 in Canaan Valley, WV, to describe the diversity of aquatic habitats in the valley and identify issues that may threaten the viability of aquatic species. We assessed physical habitat and water chemistry of 126 ponds and 82 stream sites, and related habitat characteristics to landscape variables such as geology and terrain. Based on our analyses, we found two issues likely to affect the viability of aquatic populations in the valley. The first issue was acid rain and the extent to which it potentially limits the distribution of aquatic and semi-aquatic species, particularly in headwater portions of the watershed. We estimate that nearly 46%, or 56 kilometers of stream, had pH levels that would not support survival and reproduction of Salvelinuw fontinalis (brook trout), one of the most acid-tolerant fishes in the eastern US. The second issue was the influence of Castor canadensis (beaver) activity. In the Canaan Valley State Park portion of the valley, beaver have transformed 4.7 kilometers of stream (approximately 17% of the total) to pond habitat through their dam building. This has resulted in an increase in pond habitat, a decrease in stream habitat, and a fragmented stream network (i.e., beaver ponds dispersed among stream reaches). In addition, beaver have eliminated an undetermined amount of forested riparian area through their foraging activities. Depending on the perspective, beaver-mediated changes can be viewed as positive or negative. Increases in pond habitat may increase habitat heterogeneity with consequent increases in biological diversity. In contrast, flooding associated with beaver activity may eliminate lowland wetlands and associated species, create barriers to fish dispersal, and possibly contribute to low dissolved oxygen levels in the Blackwater River. We recommend that future management strategies for the wildlife refuge be viewed in the context of these two issues

  5. A Study on Effect of Water Background on Canopy Spectral of Wetland Aquatic Plant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guang; Tang, Peng; Cai Zhan-qing; Wang, Tian-tian; Xu, Jun-feng

    2015-10-01

    Aquatic vegetation is the core of the wetland ecosystem, and it's also the main factor influencing the wetland ecosystem functions. In recent years, satellite remote sensing technology has been widely used in the investigation, classification and protection fields of wetland vegetation resources. Because of its unique growth environment, aquatic vegetation, the canopy spectrum of aquatic vegetation will be affected by water background elements including air-water interface, plankton in the water, sediment content, transparency, water depth, sediment, and the other optically active ingredients. When the remote sensing technology for wetland aquatic vegetation canopy spectral studies, should be considered the growth environment differences between aquatic and terrestrial vegetation. However, previous studies did not get the attention it deserves. This paper choose a typical water plant (Iris tentorium Maxim) as the research object, simulate the growth environment of wetland aquatic plants, use the feature spectrometer measurements the spectral reflectance of Iris tentorium Maxim vegetation canopy under different water depth gradient background (400-2 400 nm). Experimental results show that there is a significant negative correlation between background water depth and Iris canopy reflectance. Visible light band absolute correlation coefficient is above 0.9, near infrared band absolute correlation coefficient is above 0.8. In visible light and near infrared band, with water depth increases, the Iris canopy reflectance decreases obviously. Finally based on the highest correlation band of visible light and near infrared region (505, 717, 1 075 and 2 383 nm) established the linear equation between background water depth and the canopy reflectance, obtained the related parameters. PMID:26904852

  6. Importance of the national petroleum reserve-alaska for aquatic birds.

    PubMed

    Bart, Jonathan; Platte, Robert M; Andres, Brad; Brown, Stephen; Johnson, James A; Larned, William

    2013-12-01

    We used data from aerial surveys (1992-2010) of >100,000 km(2) and ground surveys (1998-2004) of >150 km(2) to estimate the density and abundance of birds on the North Slope of Alaska (U.S.A.). In the ground surveys, we used double sampling to estimate detection ratios. We used the aerial survey data to compare densities of birds and Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus), the major nest predator of birds, on the North Slope, in Prudhoe Bay, and in nearby areas. We partitioned the Prudhoe Bay oil field into 2 × 2 km plots and determined the relation between density of aquatic birds and density of roads, buildings, and other infrastructure in these plots. Abundance and density (birds per square kilometer) of 3 groups of aquatic birds-waterfowl, loons, and grebes; shorebirds; and gulls, terns, and jaegers-were highest in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPRA) and lowest in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Six other major wetlands occur in the Arctic regions of Canada and Russia, but the largest population of aquatic birds was in the NPRA. Aquatic birds were concentrated in the northern part of the NPRA. For example, an area that covered 18% of the NPRA included 53% of its aquatic birds. The aerial surveys showed that bird density was not lower and fox density was not higher in Prudhoe Bay than in surrounding areas. Density of infrastructure did not significantly affect bird density for any group of species. Our results establish that the NPRA is one of the most important areas for aquatic birds in the Arctic. Our results and those of others also indicate that oil production, as practiced in Prudhoe Bay, does not necessarily lead to substantial declines in bird density or productivity in or near the developed areas. Prioridades para la Conservación de Aves en el Norte de Alaska. PMID:23937114

  7. Stimulation of microbial nitrogen cycling in aquatic ecosystems by benthic macrofauna: mechanisms and environmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stief, P.

    2013-12-01

    Invertebrate animals that live at the bottom of aquatic ecosystems (i.e., benthic macrofauna) are important mediators between nutrients in the water column and microbes in the benthos. The presence of benthic macrofauna stimulates microbial nutrient dynamics through different types of animal-microbe interactions, which potentially affect the trophic status of aquatic ecosystems. This review contrasts three types of animal-microbe interactions in the benthos of aquatic ecosystems: (i) ecosystem engineering, (ii) grazing, and (iii) symbiosis. Their specific contributions to the turnover of fixed nitrogen (mainly nitrate and ammonium) and the emission of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide are evaluated. Published data indicate that ecosystem engineering by sediment-burrowing macrofauna stimulates benthic nitrification and denitrification, which together allows fixed nitrogen removal. However, the release of ammonium from sediments is enhanced more strongly than the sedimentary uptake of nitrate. Ecosystem engineering by reef-building macrofauna increases nitrogen retention and ammonium concentrations in shallow aquatic ecosystems, but allows organic nitrogen removal through harvesting. Grazing by macrofauna on benthic microbes apparently has small or neutral effects on nitrogen cycling. Animal-microbe symbioses provide abundant and distinct benthic compartments for a multitude of nitrogen-cycle pathways. Recent studies reveal that ecosystem engineering, grazing, and symbioses of benthic macrofauna significantly enhance nitrous oxide emission from shallow aquatic ecosystems. The beneficial effect of benthic macrofauna on fixed nitrogen removal through coupled nitrification-denitrification can thus be offset by the concurrent release of (i) ammonium that stimulates aquatic primary production and (ii) nitrous oxide that contributes to global warming. Overall, benthic macrofauna intensifies the coupling between benthos, pelagial, and atmosphere through enhanced turnover and

  8. Stimulation of microbial nitrogen cycling in aquatic ecosystems by benthic macrofauna: mechanisms and environmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stief, P.

    2013-07-01

    Invertebrate animals that live at the bottom of aquatic ecosystems (i.e., benthic macrofauna) are important mediators between nutrients in the water column and microbes in the benthos. The presence of benthic macrofauna stimulates microbial nutrient dynamics through different types of animal-microbe interactions, which potentially affect the trophic status of aquatic ecosystems. This review contrasts three types of animal-microbe interactions in the benthos of aquatic ecosystems: (i) ecosystem engineering, (ii) grazing, and (iii) symbiosis. Their specific contributions to the turnover of fixed nitrogen (mainly nitrate and ammonium) and the emission of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide are evaluated. Published data indicate that ecosystem engineering by sediment-burrowing macrofauna stimulates benthic nitrification and denitrification, which together allows fixed nitrogen removal. However, the release of ammonium from sediments often is enhanced even more than the sedimentary uptake of nitrate. Ecosystem engineering by reef-building macrofauna increases nitrogen retention and ammonium concentrations in shallow aquatic ecosystems, but allows organic nitrogen removal through harvesting. Grazing by macrofauna on benthic microbes apparently has small or neutral effects on nitrogen cycling. Animal-microbe symbioses provide abundant and distinct benthic compartments for a multitude of nitrogen-cycle pathways. Recent studies revealed that ecosystem engineering, grazing, and symbioses of benthic macrofauna significantly enhance nitrous oxide emission from shallow aquatic ecosystems. The beneficial effect of benthic macrofauna on fixed nitrogen removal through coupled nitrification-denitrification can thus be offset by the concurrent release of (i) ammonium that stimulates aquatic primary production and (ii) nitrous oxide that contributes to global warming. Overall, benthic macrofauna intensifies the coupling between benthos, pelagial, and atmosphere through enhanced turnover

  9. Adverse events temporally associated with meningococcal vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Yergeau, A; Alain, L; Pless, R; Robert, Y

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of severe adverse events temporally associated with meningococcal vaccines administered as part of a mass vaccination program. DESIGN: Retrospective descriptive study of events reported to a passive provincial surveillance system. SETTING: The province of Quebec. PARTICIPANTS: The 1,198,751 individuals aged 6 months to 20 years who were vaccinated against meningococcal disease between Dec. 27, 1992, and Mar. 31, 1993. OUTCOME MEASURES: Total numbers and rates of severe adverse events, including allergic reactions, anaphylactic reactions, neurological events (other than abnormal crying and screaming) and other serious or unusual events. RESULTS: A total of 118 reports of severe adverse events were selected from the surveillance system. The most frequent were allergic reactions (9.2 per 100,000 doses). Few anaphylactic or neurologic reactions were reported (0.1 and 0.5 per 100,000 doses respectively). There were no reports of sequelae or of encephalopathy, meningitis or encephalitis. CONCLUSION: Meningococcal vaccines seem to be associated with fewer adverse events than have previously been reported. Existing surveillance programs are useful for determining the incidence of adverse events temporally associated with vaccines. PMID:8630839

  10. The complement system and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Regal, Jean F; Gilbert, Jeffrey S; Burwick, Richard M

    2015-09-01

    Adverse pregnancy outcomes significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality for mother and child, with lifelong health consequences for both. The innate and adaptive immune system must be regulated to insure survival of the fetal allograft, and the complement system is no exception. An intact complement system optimizes placental development and function and is essential to maintain host defense and fetal survival. Complement regulation is apparent at the placental interface from early pregnancy with some degree of complement activation occurring normally throughout gestation. However, a number of pregnancy complications including early pregnancy loss, fetal growth restriction, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and preterm birth are associated with excessive or misdirected complement activation, and are more frequent in women with inherited or acquired complement system disorders or complement gene mutations. Clinical studies employing complement biomarkers in plasma and urine implicate dysregulated complement activation in components of each of the adverse pregnancy outcomes. In addition, mechanistic studies in rat and mouse models of adverse pregnancy outcomes address the complement pathways or activation products of importance and allow critical analysis of the pathophysiology. Targeted complement therapeutics are already in use to control adverse pregnancy outcomes in select situations. A clearer understanding of the role of the complement system in both normal pregnancy and complicated or failed pregnancy will allow a rational approach to future therapeutic strategies for manipulating complement with the goal of mitigating adverse pregnancy outcomes, preserving host defense, and improving long term outcomes for both mother and child. PMID:25802092

  11. Differential autumn migration of the aquatic warbler Acrocephalus paludicola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna; Jakubas, Dariusz; Foucher, Julien; Dziarska-Pałac, Joanna; Dugué, Hubert

    2013-11-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to sex differences in the migration of birds in autumn. We studied the autumn migration strategy of molecularly sexed males and females in the globally threatened aquatic warbler Acrocephalus paludicola. We captured 176 birds at a stopover site in the Loire estuary at Donges, France. The median date for the passage of adults was 8 days earlier in males than females, although the timing of migration in first-year males and females was similar. This indicates that males, who are without parental duties, can start their migration earlier than females and first-year birds. Adults were significantly heavier than immature birds but did not have higher fat scores. In both age categories, more males (two to three times more) were captured. However, various factors (including tape-luring) can affect observed sex ratio.

  12. Differential autumn migration of the aquatic warbler Acrocephalus paludicola.

    PubMed

    Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna; Jakubas, Dariusz; Foucher, Julien; Dziarska-Pałac, Joanna; Dugué, Hubert

    2013-11-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to sex differences in the migration of birds in autumn. We studied the autumn migration strategy of molecularly sexed males and females in the globally threatened aquatic warbler Acrocephalus paludicola. We captured 176 birds at a stopover site in the Loire estuary at Donges, France. The median date for the passage of adults was 8 days earlier in males than females, although the timing of migration in first-year males and females was similar. This indicates that males, who are without parental duties, can start their migration earlier than females and first-year birds. Adults were significantly heavier than immature birds but did not have higher fat scores. In both age categories, more males (two to three times more) were captured. However, various factors (including tape-luring) can affect observed sex ratio. PMID:24154543

  13. Life under solar UV radiation in aquatic organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, R. P.; Häder, D.-P.

    Aquatic photosynthetic organisms are exposed to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation while they harvest longer wavelength radiation for energetic reasons. Solar UV-B radiation (280 - 315 nm) affects motility and orientation in motile organisms and impairs photosynthesis in cyanobacteria, phytoplankton and macroalgae as measured by monitoring oxygen production or pulse amplitude modulated fluorescence analysis. Upon moderate UV stress most organisms respond by photoinhibition which is an active downregulation of the photosynthetic electron transport in photosystem II by degradation of UV-damaged D1 protein. Photoinhibition is readily reversible during recovery in shaded conditions. Excessive UV stress causes photodamage which is not easily reversible. Another major target is the DNA where UV-B mainly induces thymine dimers. Cyanobacteria, phytoplankton and macroalgae produce scytonemin, mycosporine-like amino acids and other UV-absorbing substances to protect themselves from short wavelength solar radiation.

  14. Three month performances of Closed Aquatic Ecosystem on ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gaohong; Hao, Zongjie; Hu, Chunxiang; Liu, Yongding

    A Closed Aquatic Ecosystem (CAES) was developed to study on performance of closed ecosystems for three month as a preparation for future spaceflight experiments. The system housed three small freshwater snails (Bulinus australianus) and autotrophic green algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) in a 500mL box with light and temperature control. The special sensors for pH value, oxygen concentration, biomass, temperature and light were developed for long-time performance. It was found that algae biomass increased for several days and then leveled off, and light and temperature control indicated normally, pH and oxygen concentration was affect by light cycle but they met the snails' requirement for live. After three month experiment, the snails survive successfully and laid some eggs in box, and the atmosphere and biomass for food were met snails' requirement. The results on ground demonstrated the biological stability and technical reliability for future spaceflight experiment.

  15. Identifying Adverse Drug Events by Relational Learning

    PubMed Central

    Page, David; Costa, Vítor Santos; Natarajan, Sriraam; Barnard, Aubrey; Peissig, Peggy; Caldwell, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry, consumer protection groups, users of medications and government oversight agencies are all strongly interested in identifying adverse reactions to drugs. While a clinical trial of a drug may use only a thousand patients, once a drug is released on the market it may be taken by millions of patients. As a result, in many cases adverse drug events (ADEs) are observed in the broader population that were not identified during clinical trials. Therefore, there is a need for continued, post-marketing surveillance of drugs to identify previously-unanticipated ADEs. This paper casts this problem as a reverse machine learning task, related to relational subgroup discovery and provides an initial evaluation of this approach based on experiments with an actual EMR/EHR and known adverse drug events. PMID:24955289

  16. Standardizing drug adverse event reporting data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liwei; Jiang, Guoqian; Li, Dingcheng; Liu, Hongfang

    2013-01-01

    Normalizing data in the Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS), an FDA database, would improve the mining capacity of AERS for drug safety signal detection. In this study, we aim to normalize AERS and build a publicly available normalized Adverse drug events (ADE) data source.he drug information in AERS is normalized to RxNorm, a standard terminology source for medication. Drug class information is then obtained from the National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT). Adverse drug events (ADE) are aggregated through mapping with the PT (Preferred Term) and SOC (System Organ Class) codes of MedDRA. Our study yields an aggregated knowledge-enhanced AERS data mining set (AERS-DM). The AERS-DM could provide more perspectives to mine AERS database for drug safety signal detection and could be used by research community in the data mining field. PMID:23920875

  17. A revised inventory of Adverse Childhood Experiences.

    PubMed

    Finkelhor, David; Shattuck, Anne; Turner, Heather; Hamby, Sherry

    2015-10-01

    This study examines whether the items from the original Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale can be improved in their prediction of health outcomes by adding some additional widely recognized childhood adversities. The analyses come from the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence 2014, a telephone survey conducted from August 2013 through April 2014 with a nationally representative sample of 1,949 children and adolescents aged 10-17 and their caregivers who were asked about adversities, physical health conditions and mental health symptoms. The addition of measures of peer victimization, peer isolation/rejection, and community violence exposure added significantly to the prediction of mental health symptoms, and the addition of a measure of low socioeconomic status (SES) added significantly to the prediction of physical health problems. A revised version of the ACES scale is proposed. PMID:26259971

  18. Adverse health consequences of the Iraq War.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2013-03-16

    The adverse health consequences of the Iraq War (2003-11) were profound. We conclude that at least 116,903 Iraqi non-combatants and more than 4800 coalition military personnel died over the 8-year course. Many Iraqi civilians were injured or became ill because of damage to the health-supporting infrastructure of the country, and about 5 million were displaced. More than 31,000 US military personnel were injured and a substantial percentage of those deployed suffered post-traumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, and other neuropsychological disorders and their concomitant psychosocial problems. Many family members of military personnel had psychological problems. Further review of the adverse health consequences of this war could help to minimise the adverse health consequences of, and help to prevent, future wars. PMID:23499043

  19. Adverse events related to blood transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Sandeep; Hemlata; Verma, Anupam

    2014-01-01

    The acute blood transfusion reactions are responsible for causing most serious adverse events. Awareness about various clinical features of acute and delayed transfusion reactions with an ability to assess the serious reactions on time can lead to a better prognosis. Evidence-based medicine has changed today's scenario of clinical practice to decrease adverse transfusion reactions. New evidence-based algorithms of transfusion and improved haemovigilance lead to avoidance of unnecessary transfusions perioperatively. The recognition of adverse events under anaesthesia is always challenging. The unnecessary blood transfusions can be avoided with better blood conservation techniques during surgery and with anaesthesia techniques that reduce blood loss. Better and newer blood screening methods have decreased the infectious complications to almost negligible levels. With universal leukoreduction of red blood cells (RBCs), selection of potential donors such as use of male donors only plasma and restriction of RBC storage, most of the non-infectious complications can be avoided. PMID:25535415

  20. Solar energy development and aquatic ecosystems in the southwestern United States: potential impacts, mitigation, and research needs.

    PubMed

    Grippo, Mark; Hayse, John W; O'Connor, Ben L

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative impacts of utility-scale solar energy facilities on aquatic ecosystems in the Southwestern United States are of concern, considering the many existing regional anthropogenic stressors. We review the potential impacts of solar energy development on aquatic habitat and biota. The greatest potential for impacts is related to the loss, fragmentation, or prolonged drying of ephemeral water bodies and drainage networks resulting from the loss of desert washes within the construction footprint of the facility. Groundwater-dependent aquatic habitat may also be affected by operational groundwater withdrawal in the case of water-intensive solar technologies. Solar panels have also been found to attract aquatic insects and waterbirds, potentially resulting in mortality. Avoiding construction activity near perennial and intermittent surface waters is the primary means of reducing impacts on aquatic habitats, followed by measures to minimize erosion, sedimentation, and contaminant inputs into waterways. Currently, significant data gaps make solar facility impact assessment and mitigation more difficult. Examples include the need for more regional and site-specific studies of surface-groundwater connectivity, more detailed maps of regional stream networks and riparian vegetation corridors, as well as surveys of the aquatic communities inhabiting ephemeral streams. In addition, because they often lack regulatory protection, there is also a need to develop valuation criteria for ephemeral waters based on their ecological and hydrologic function within the landscape. By addressing these research needs, we can achieve the goal of greater reliance on solar energy, while at the same time minimizing impacts on desert ecosystems. PMID:25331641

  1. Solar Energy Development and Aquatic Ecosystems in the Southwestern United States: Potential Impacts, Mitigation, and Research Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grippo, Mark; Hayse, John W.; O'Connor, Ben L.

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative impacts of utility-scale solar energy facilities on aquatic ecosystems in the Southwestern United States are of concern, considering the many existing regional anthropogenic stressors. We review the potential impacts of solar energy development on aquatic habitat and biota. The greatest potential for impacts is related to the loss, fragmentation, or prolonged drying of ephemeral water bodies and drainage networks resulting from the loss of desert washes within the construction footprint of the facility. Groundwater-dependent aquatic habitat may also be affected by operational groundwater withdrawal in the case of water-intensive solar technologies. Solar panels have also been found to attract aquatic insects and waterbirds, potentially resulting in mortality. Avoiding construction activity near perennial and intermittent surface waters is the primary means of reducing impacts on aquatic habitats, followed by measures to minimize erosion, sedimentation, and contaminant inputs into waterways. Currently, significant data gaps make solar facility impact assessment and mitigation more difficult. Examples include the need for more regional and site-specific studies of surface-groundwater connectivity, more detailed maps of regional stream networks and riparian vegetation corridors, as well as surveys of the aquatic communities inhabiting ephemeral streams. In addition, because they often lack regulatory protection, there is also a need to develop valuation criteria for ephemeral waters based on their ecological and hydrologic function within the landscape. By addressing these research needs, we can achieve the goal of greater reliance on solar energy, while at the same time minimizing impacts on desert ecosystems.

  2. Aquatic macroinvertebrates of the lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poulton, Barry C.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS), and the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR), has been conducting research on the aquatic macroinvertebrates of the lower Missouri River since the mid-1990s. This research was initiated in response to the need for comprehensive characterization of biological communities inhabiting aquatic habitats in large river systems that have historically been poorly studied. The USGS Status and Trends of Biological Resources Program provided partial funding for pilot studies that began in 1993 when the CERC was part of the USFWS. The purpose of this fact sheet is to provide stakeholders, scientists, management, and the general public with a basic summary of results from studies conducted by the CERC since that time period.

  3. Acute aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, B.; Haws, R.; Little, D.; Reese, D.; Peterson, C.; Moeller, G.

    1995-12-31

    This study develops data on the acute aquatic toxicity of selected biodiesel fuels which may become subject to environmental effects test regulations under the US Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). The test substances are Rape Methyl Ester (RME), Rape Ethyl Ester (REE), Methyl Soyate (MS), a biodiesel mixture of 20% REE and 80% Diesel, a biodiesel mixture of 50% REE and diesel, and a reference substance of Phillips D-2 Reference Diesel. The test procedure follows the Daphnid Acute Toxicity Test outlined in 40 CFR {section} 797.1300 of the TSCA regulations. Daphnia Magna are exposed to the test substance in a flow-through system consisting of a mixing chamber, a proportional diluter, and duplicate test chambers. Novel system modifications are described that accommodate the testing of oil-based test substances with Daphnia. The acute aquatic toxicity is estimated by an EC50, an effective concentration producing immobility in 50% of the test specimen.

  4. [Aquatic animals of medical importance in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Haddad Junior, Vidal

    2003-01-01

    The injuries caused by venomous and poisonous aquatic animals may provoke important morbidity in the victim. The cnidarians (jellyfishes, especially cubomedusas and Portuguese-Man-of-War) caused nearly 25% of 236 accidents by marine animals, while sea urchins were responsible for about 50% and catfish, stingrays and scorpionfish nearly 25%). In freshwater, stingrays and catfish cause injuries with a very similar mechanism to the poisoning and the effects of the toxins of marine species. In a series of about 200 injuries observed among freshwater fishermen, nearly 40% were caused by freshwater catfish, 5% freshwater stingrays and 55% by traumatogenic fish, such as piranhas and traíras. The author presents the aquatic animals that cause injuries to humans in Brazil, the clinical aspects of the envenoming and the first measures for the control of the severe pain observed mainly in the accidents caused by cnidarians and venomous fishes. PMID:14576874

  5. Acute aquatic toxicity of alkyl phenol ethoxylates

    SciTech Connect

    Schueuermann G2 )

    1991-04-01

    The recently derived log Kow (octanol/water partition coefficient in logarithmic form) increment for a nonterminal oxyethylene unit was used to calculate a quantitative structure-activity relationships for literature data on the acute crustacean toxicity of polyoxyethylene surfactants. The resulting log Kow regression parameters are between the corresponding values for nonpolar and polar narcosis, which supports an interpretation of the surfactants' aquatic toxicity on the basis of another distinct mode of action. Furthermore, a comparison with calculated water solubility data indicates that for log Kow greater than 5 an aquatic toxicity decrease due to a solubility limit is expected, which gets support from two other sets on toxicity data of nonyl phenol polyethoxylates.

  6. Preparative isolation of aquatic humic substances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Malcolm, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    A useful procedure has been developed which utilizes adsorption chromatography followed by size-exclusion chromatography, hydrogen saturation by ion exchange, and lypholization to obtain low-ash aqueous humic substances. The preparative concentration of aquatic humic substances is done by multiple reconcentration procedures even though initial concentrations of aqueous humus may be less than 25 ??g/L. The procedure yields concentration factors of 25 000 times for both humic and fulvic acid in water.

  7. Toxicity of trifluoroacetate to aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Berends, A.G.; Rooij, C.G. de; Boutonnet, J.C.; Thompson, R.S.

    1999-05-01

    As a result of the atmospheric degradation of several hydrofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons, trifluoroacetate (TFA) will be formed. Through precipitation, TFA will enter aquatic ecosystems. To evaluate the impact on the aquatic environment, an aquatic toxicity testing program was carried out with sodium trifluoroacetate (NaTFA). During acute toxicity tests, no effects of NaTFA on water fleas (Daphnia magna) and zebra fish (Danio retrio) were found at a concentration of 1,200 mg/L. A 7-d study with duckweed (Lemna gibba Ge) revealed a NOEC of 300 mg/L. On the basis of the results of five toxicity tests with Selenastrum capricornutum, they determined a NOEC of 0.12 mg/L. However, algal toxicity tests with NaTFA and Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus subspicatus, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Eugelan gracilis, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Navicula pelliculosa, Skeletonema costatum, Anabaena flos-aquae, and Microcystis aeruginosa resulted in EC50 values that were all higher than 100 mg/L. The toxicity of TFA to S. capricornutum could be due to metabolic defluorination to monofluoroacetate (MFA), which is known to inhibit the citric acid cycle. A toxicity test with MFA and S. capricornutum revealed it to be about three orders of magnitude more toxic than TFA. However, a bioactivation study revealed that defluorination of TFA was less than 4%. On the other hand, S. capricornutum exposed to a toxic concentration of NaTFA showed a recovery of growth when citric acid was added, suggesting that TFA (or a metabolite of TFA) interferes with the citric acid cycle. A recovery of the growth of S. capricornutum was also found when TFA was removed from the test solutions. Therefore, TFA should be considered algistatic and not algicidic for S. capricornutum. On the basis of the combined results of the laboratory tests and a previously reported semi-field study, they can consider a TFA concentration of 0.10 mg/L as safe for the aquatic ecosystem.

  8. Fraser River action plan: Aquatic science

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    Reviews research carried out under the Fraser River Action Plan in the field of aquatic science, beginning with research carried out on Fraser River headwater lakes and the contaminants found in those lakes and their fish. Subsequent sections cover research on sediment and contaminant transport, benthic communities, fish species distribution, contaminants in fish, pollution sources (from urban runoff, agriculture, and forestry), pollution in the Fraser estuary, and environmental indicators.

  9. Aquatic Toxicity Assessment of Phosphate Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunju; Yoo, Sunkyoung; Ro, Hee-Young; Han, Hye-Jin; Baek, Yong-Wook; Eom, Ig-Chun; Kim, Pilje; Choi, Kyunghee

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Tricalcium phosphate and calcium hydrogenorthophosphate are high production volume chemicals, mainly used as foodstuff additives, pharmaceuticals, lubricants, synthetic resin, and disinfectants. Phosphate has the potential to cause increased algal growth leading to eutrophication in the aquatic environment. However, there is no adequate information available on risk assessment or acute and chronic toxicity. The aim of this research is to evaluate the toxic potential of phosphate compounds in the aquatic environment. Methods An aquatic toxicity test of phosphate was conducted, and its physico-chemical properties were obtained from a database recommended in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidance manual. An ecotoxicity test using fish, Daphnia, and algae was conducted by the good laboratory practice facility according to the OECD TG guidelines for testing of chemicals, to secure reliable data. Results The results of the ecotoxicity tests of tricalcium phosphate and calcium hydrogenorthophosphate are as follows: In an acute toxicity test with Oryzias latipes, 96 hr 50% lethal concentration (LC50) was >100 (measured:>2.14) mg/L and >100 (measured: >13.5) mg/L, respectively. In the Daphnia test, 48 hr 50% effective concentration (EC50) was >100 (measured: >5.35) mg/L and >100 (measured: >2.9) mg/L, respectively. In a growth inhibition test with Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, 72 hr EC50 was >100 (measured: >1.56) mg/L and >100 (measured: >4.4) mg/L, respectively. Conclusions Based on the results of the ecotoxicity test of phosphate using fish, Daphnia, and algae, L(E)C50 was above 100 mg/L (nominal), indicating no toxicity. In general, the total phosphorus concentration including phosphate in rivers and lakes reaches levels of several ppm, suggesting that phosphate has no toxic effects. However, excessive inflow of phosphate into aquatic ecosystems has the potential to cause eutrophication due to algal growth. PMID:23440935

  10. [Virus and prophages in aquatic ecosystems].

    PubMed

    Sime-Ngando, Télesphore; Colombet, Jonathan

    2009-02-01

    In this review, available data on the structure (diversity, abundance, biomass) and functional imprints (bacteriolysis, lysogeny, gene transfers, regulation of prokaryotic diversity) of natural viruses in the context of food webs in aquatic microbial ecology, and the related biogeochemical cycles, are summarized. Viruses are the most abundant, and probably the most diverse, biological entities in aquatic ecosystems and in the biosphere (i.e., viriosphere). Aquatic viruses typically exceed 107 particles/mL in mesotrophic conditions, the majority being represented by phages without tails and by tailed-phages such as members of the family Siphoviridae. Both types of phages have a small capsid and a small genome size, which is considered an evolutionary adaptation to planktonic life. Their contribution to microbial mortality is significant. There is strong evidence that phages exert a significant pressure on the community structure and diversity and on the diversification of potential hosts, mainly through two major pathways: biogeochemical catalysis from lysis products and horizontal gene transfers. In turn, phages are sensitive to environmental factors, both in terms of integrity and of infectivity. Some phages contain typical viral genes that code for biological functions of interest, such as photosynthesis. In general, development in viral ecology is a source of new knowledge for the scientific community in the domain of environmental sciences, but also in the context of evolutionary biology of living cellular organisms, the obligatory hosts for viruses. For example, the recent discovery of a giant virus that becomes ill through infection by another virus (i.e., a viriophage) is fuelling debate about whether viruses are alive. Finally, future research directions are identified in the context of general aquatic ecology, including ecological researches on cyanophages and other phytoplanktonic phages as a priority, primarily in freshwater lakes. PMID:19295641

  11. Emotion Dysregulation Mediates the Relationship between Lifetime Cumulative Adversity and Depressive Symptomatology

    PubMed Central

    Abravanel, Benjamin T.; Sinha, Rajita

    2014-01-01

    Repeated exposure to stressful events across the lifespan, referred to as cumulative adversity, is a potent risk factor for depression. Research indicates that cumulative adversity detrimentally affects emotion regulation processes, which may represent a pathway linking cumulative adversity to vulnerability to depression. However, empirical evidence that emotion dysregulation mediates the relationship between cumulative adversity and depression is limited, particularly in adult populations. We examined the direct and indirect effects of cumulative adversity on depressive symptomatology in a large community sample of adults (n = 745) who were further characterized by risk status: never-depressed (n = 638) and “at-risk” remitted mood-disordered (n = 107). All participants completed the Cumulative Adversity Inventory (CAI), the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Bootstrapped confidence intervals were computed to estimate the indirect effect of emotion dysregulation on the relationship between cumulative adversity and depressive symptomatology and to test whether this indirect effect was moderated by risk status. Emotion dysregulation partially and significantly mediated the relationship between cumulative adversity and depressive symptomatology independent of risk status. Overall, cumulative adversity and emotion dysregulation accounted for 50% of the variance in depressive symptomatology. These findings support the hypothesis that disruption of adaptive emotion regulation processes associated with repeated exposure to stressful life events represents an intrapersonal mechanism linking the experience of adverse events to depression. Our results support the utility of interventions that simultaneously emphasize stress reduction and emotion regulation to treat and prevent depressive vulnerability and pathology. PMID:25528603

  12. Mycoloop: chytrids in aquatic food webs

    PubMed Central

    Kagami, Maiko; Miki, Takeshi; Takimoto, Gaku

    2014-01-01

    Parasites are ecologically significant in various ecosystems through their role in shaping food web structure, facilitating energy transfer, and controlling disease. Here in this review, we mainly focus on parasitic chytrids, the dominant parasites in aquatic ecosystems, and explain their roles in aquatic food webs, particularly as prey for zooplankton. Chytrids have a free-living zoosporic stage, during which they actively search for new hosts. Zoospores are excellent food for zooplankton in terms of size, shape, and nutritional quality. In the field, densities of chytrids can be high, ranging from 101 to 109 spores L−1. When large inedible phytoplankton species are infected by chytrids, nutrients within host cells are transferred to zooplankton via the zoospores of parasitic chytrids. This new pathway, the “mycoloop,” may play an important role in shaping aquatic ecosystems, by altering sinking fluxes or determining system stability. The grazing of zoospores by zooplankton may also suppress outbreaks of parasitic chytrids. A food web model demonstrated that the contribution of the mycoloop to zooplankton production increased with nutrient availability and was also dependent on the stability of the system. Further studies with advanced molecular tools are likely to discover greater chytrid diversity and evidence of additional mycoloops in lakes and oceans. PMID:24795703

  13. Mycoloop: chytrids in aquatic food webs.

    PubMed

    Kagami, Maiko; Miki, Takeshi; Takimoto, Gaku

    2014-01-01

    Parasites are ecologically significant in various ecosystems through their role in shaping food web structure, facilitating energy transfer, and controlling disease. Here in this review, we mainly focus on parasitic chytrids, the dominant parasites in aquatic ecosystems, and explain their roles in aquatic food webs, particularly as prey for zooplankton. Chytrids have a free-living zoosporic stage, during which they actively search for new hosts. Zoospores are excellent food for zooplankton in terms of size, shape, and nutritional quality. In the field, densities of chytrids can be high, ranging from 10(1) to 10(9) spores L(-1). When large inedible phytoplankton species are infected by chytrids, nutrients within host cells are transferred to zooplankton via the zoospores of parasitic chytrids. This new pathway, the "mycoloop," may play an important role in shaping aquatic ecosystems, by altering sinking fluxes or determining system stability. The grazing of zoospores by zooplankton may also suppress outbreaks of parasitic chytrids. A food web model demonstrated that the contribution of the mycoloop to zooplankton production increased with nutrient availability and was also dependent on the stability of the system. Further studies with advanced molecular tools are likely to discover greater chytrid diversity and evidence of additional mycoloops in lakes and oceans. PMID:24795703

  14. Effect of emergent aquatic insects on bat foraging in a riparian forest.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Dai; Murakami, Masashi; Nakano, Shigeru; Aoi, Toshiki

    2006-11-01

    1. Riparian zones serve several ecological functions for bats. They provide a source of prey and likely provide favourable structural habitats and shelter from predators. Many studies have shown that bats use the space above streams, ponds or riparian vegetation as feeding habitat. These studies, however, have never distinguished between the effects of habitat structure and prey availability on the foraging activities of bats. Such effects can only be distinguished by an experimental approach. We predicted that bat activity along a stream is influenced by the number of emerged aquatic insects. 2. We evaluated the response of terrestrial consumers, insectivorous bats, to changes in the abundance of emergent aquatic insects by conducting a manipulative field experiment. In a deciduous riparian forest in Japan, aquatic insect flux from the stream to the riparian zone was controlled with an insect-proof cover over a 1.2 km stream reach. 3. We estimated the abundance of emergent aquatic and flying terrestrial arthropods near the treatment and control reaches using Malaise traps. The foraging activity of bats was evaluated in both treatment and control reaches using ultrasonic detectors. 4. The insect-proof cover effectively reduced the flux of emergent aquatic insects to the riparian zone adjacent to the treatment reach. Adjacent to the control reach, adult aquatic insect biomass was highest in spring, and then decreased gradually. Terrestrial insect biomass increased gradually during the summer at both treatment and control reaches. 5. Foraging activity of bats was correlated with insect abundance. In spring, foraging activity of bats at the control reach was significantly greater than at the treatment reach, and increased at both sites with increasing terrestrial insect abundance. 6. Our result suggests that the flux of aquatic insects emerging from streams is one of the most important factors affecting the distribution of riparian-foraging bats. As is the case with

  15. Challenges of deriving a complete biosphere greenhouse gas balance through integration of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peichl, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Past research efforts have mostly focused on separately investigating the exchange of greenhouse gases (GHGs) within the limits of different terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem types. More recently however, it has been recognized that GHG exchanges and budgets are not limited to boundaries of the terrestrial or aquatic biosphere components and instead are often tightly linked amongst the different ecosystem types. Primarily the aquatic production and export of GHGs due to substrate supply or discharge from surrounding terrestrial ecosystems play a major role in regional GHG budgets. Understanding the mechanisms and drivers of this connectivity between different terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem GHG exchanges is therefore necessary to develop landscape-level GHG budgets and to understand their sensitivity to disturbances of the biosphere. Moreover, the exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) as the most important GHG species has been the primary research objective with regards to obtaining better estimates of the carbon sequestration potential of the biosphere. However, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions may offset CO2 sinks and considerably affect the complete GHG balance in both terrestrial and aquatic systems. Including their contribution and improved knowledge on the dynamics of these two gas species is therefore essential for complete GHG budget estimates. At present, the integration of terrestrial and aquatic GHG exchanges toward landscape GHG budgets poses numerous challenges. These include the need for a better knowledge of i) the contribution of CH4 and N2O to the GHG budgets within contrasting terrestrial (forests, peatlands, grasslands, croplands) and aquatic (lake, streams) ecosystems when integrated over a full year, ii) the effect of ecosystem properties (e.g. age and/or development stage, size of water body) on the GHG balance, iii) the impact of management effects (e.g. nitrogen fertilizer application), iv) differences among climate regions and v

  16. Presence, fate and effects of the intense sweetener sucralose in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Nizzetto, Luca; Huggett, Duane B

    2012-11-01

    Sucralose (1,6-dichloro-1,6-dideoxy-b-D-fructo-furanosyl 4-chloro-4-deoxy-a-D-galactopyranoside), sold under the trade name Splenda, has been detected in municipal effluents and surface waters in the United States and Europe. The environmental presence of sucralose has led to interest in the possibility of toxic effects in non-target species. This review presents an environmental risk assessment of sucralose based on available data concerning its presence, fate and effects in the environment. Sucralose, which is made by selective chlorination of sucrose, is a highly stable compound, which undergoes negligible metabolism in mammals, including humans, and displays a low biodegradation potential in the environment. This intense sweetener is highly soluble in water, displays a low bioaccumulation potential and a low sorption potential to soil and organic matter, and thus is predominantly present in the water column. The predicted environmental concentration (PEC) for sucralose, based on measured data in surface waters, was determined to be 10 μg/L. Aquatic toxicity studies using standardized, validated protocols used in regulatory decision making indicate that sucralose does not alter survival, growth and reproduction of aquatic organisms (such as plants, algae, crustaceans and fish) at concentrations >9000 times higher than those detected in the environment. Some studies, using non-standardized protocols, have reported behavioral and other non-traditional responses in aquatic organisms, but the relevance of these findings for assessing adverse effects on individuals and populations will require further investigation. In terms of traditional risk assessment, the proposed predicted no effect concentration for aquatic organisms (PNEC) was determined to be 0.93 mg/L, based on the lowest no effect concentration (NOEC) from a validated chronic study with mysid shrimp and an application factor of 100. The resultant PEC/PNEC quotient was determined to be well below 1 (PEC

  17. Adverse effects of drugs on the immature kidney.

    PubMed

    Guignard, J P; Gouyon, J B

    1988-01-01

    The immature kidney may be adversely affected by a variety of vasoactive or diuretic drugs, either administered to the mother during pregnancy, or to the neonate. Inhibitors of the angiotensin-converting enzyme administered to the hypertensive pregnant woman can severely and sometimes definitely impair renal function in the fetus, leading to postnatal anuria. Pathogenesis involves interference with the renin-angiotensin system and the prostaglandins. Beta-adrenergic agents administered during labor depress glomerular filtration rate transiently. Tolazoline, an alpha-adrenergic blocking agent useful in the treatment of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate induces intense renal vasoconstriction with consequent hypoperfusion. Indomethacin, a prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor used for the pharmacological closure of a patent ductus arteriosus, also increases renal vascular resistance, and decreases urine output. Furosemide, the drug most often used in oliguric neonates, may also adversely affect the newborn infant. Its use has been associated with an increase in the incidence of patent ductus arteriosus, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis and secondary hyperparathyroidism. These observations demonstrate that the proper use of drugs requires that the therapeutic endpoint be clearly defined and the predictable side effects be anticipated. PMID:2901276

  18. Hepatic drug metabolism and adverse hepatic drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Schaffner, F

    1975-01-01

    Drugs and other chemicals are usually metabolized in the liver in the drug-metabolizing enzyme system. The metabolites sometimes bind with cellular macromolecules and injure the cell directly or serve as new antigens to create immunologic injury in a delayed fashion. The immediate or toxic injury is dose-dependent, predictable and zonal in the liver lobule, usually in the central region. Carbon tetrachloride intoxication and acetaminophen overdose are examples of injury resulting from microsomal metabolism. Other injuries related to microsomal metabolism are those produced by vinyl chloride in polymerization plant workers and by methotrexate in psoriatics or leukemic children. Most adverse drug reactions affecting the liver and producing jaundice are unpredictable, delayed in onset, and only hypothetically related to microsomal metabolism in some instances. The two main types are cholestasis and viral-hepatitis-like. The former may be in a pure form, in which case it may be partly dose-dependent, or in a form mixed with hepatitis. Many drugs produce cholestasis in a small percentage of persons, and because the reaction is benign, albeit prolonged at times, such drugs continue to be used. The viral-hepatitis-like reaction involves few drugs and affects few persons, but can be fatal. The recognition that chronic hepatitis can be caused by drugs such as oxyphenisatin, alpha-methyldopa, and isoniazid has added a new dimension to the clinical problem of adverse drug reactions, which may extend to widely used and commonly available agents like aspirin. PMID:171822

  19. [Analgesics in geriatric patients. Adverse side effects and interactions].

    PubMed

    Gosch, Markus

    2015-07-01

    Pain is a widespread symptom in clinical practice. Older adults and chronically ill patients are particularly affected. In multimorbid geriatric patients, pharmacological pain treatment is an extension of a previously existing multimedication. Besides the efficacy of pain treatment, drug side effects and drug-drug interactions have to be taken into account to minimize the health risk for these patients. Apart from the number of prescriptions, the age-related pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes significantly increase the risk among older adults. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) is widespread but NSAIDs have the highest risk of adverse drug reactions and drug interactions. In particular, the gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal and coagulation systems are affected. Apart from the known toxic effect on the liver (in high doses), paracetamol (acetaminophen) has similar risks although to a lesser degree. According to current data, metamizol is actually better than its reputation suggests. The risk of potential drug interactions seems to be low. Apart from the risk of sedation in combination with other drugs, tramadol and other opioids can induce the serotonin syndrome. Among older adults, especially in the case of polypharmacy, an individualized approach should be considered instead of sticking to the pain management recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) in order to minimize drug-drug interactions and adverse drug reactions. PMID:26152872

  20. A comparative study of the effects of trunk exercise program in aquatic and land-based therapy on gait in hemiplegic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byoung-Sun; Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Park, Jaehong; Kim, Junghwan

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of aquatic and land-based trunk exercise program on gait in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 28 hemiplegic stroke patients (20 males, 8 females). The subjects performed a trunk exercise program for a total of four weeks. [Results] Walking speed and cycle, stance phase and stride length of the affected side, and the symmetry index of the stance phase significantly improved after the aquatic and land-based trunk exercise program. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the aquatic and land-based trunk exercise program may help improve gait performance ability after stroke. PMID:27390444