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  1. Obesity Adversely Affects Survival in Pancreatic Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams, Robert R.; Matsumoto, Martha E.; Burch, Patrick A.; Kim, George P.; Halfdanarson, Thorvardur R.; de Andrade, Mariza; Reid-Lombardo, Kaye; Bamlet, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Higher body-mass index (BMI) has been implicated as a risk factor for developing pancreatic cancer, but its effect on survival has not been thoroughly investigated. We assessed the association of BMI with survival in a sample of pancreatic cancer patients and utilized epidemiologic and clinical information to understand the contribution of diabetes and hyperglycemia. Methods A survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards by usual adult BMI was performed on 1,861 unselected patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma; analyses were adjusted for covariates that included clinical stage, age, and sex. Secondary analyses incorporated self reported diabetes and fasting blood glucose in the survival model. Results BMI as a continuous variable was inversely associated with survival from pancreatic adenocarcinoma [hazard ratio 1.019 for each increased unit of BMI (kg/m2), p < 0.001] after adjustment for age, stage, and sex. In analysis by National Institutes of Health BMI category, BMI of 30–34.99 kg/m2 (HR 1.14, 95% confidence interval 0.98–1.33), 35–39.99 kg/m2 (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.08–1.62), and ≥40 (HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.26–2.04) were associated with decreased survival compared to normal BMI of 18,5–24.99 kg/m2 (overall trend test p<0.001). Fasting blood glucose and diabetes did not affect the results. Conclusions Higher BMI is associated with decreased survival in pancreatic cancer. Although the mechanism of this association remains undetermined, diabetes and hyperglycemia do not appear to account for the observed association. PMID:20665496

  2. Delay of Treatment Initiation Does Not Adversely Affect Survival Outcome in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Tae-Kyung; Han, Wonshik; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Kim, Jisun; Lee, Jun Woo; Kim, Min Kyoon; Lee, Eunshin; Kim, Jongjin; Noh, Dong-Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies examining the relationship between time to treatment and survival outcome in breast cancer have shown inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to analyze the overall impact of delay of treatment initiation on patient survival and to determine whether certain subgroups require more prompt initiation of treatment. Materials and Methods This study is a retrospective analysis of stage I-III patients who were treated in a single tertiary institution between 2005 and 2008. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression model were used to evaluate the impact of interval between diagnosis and treatment initiation in breast cancer and various subgroups. Results A total of 1,702 patients were included. Factors associated with longer delay of treatment initiation were diagnosis at another hospital, medical comorbidities, and procedures performed before admission for surgery. An interval between diagnosis and treatment initiation as a continuous variable or with a cutoff value of 15, 30, 45, and 60 days had no impact on disease-free survival (DFS). Subgroup analyses for hormone-responsiveness, triple-negative breast cancer, young age, clinical stage, and type of initial treatment showed no significant association between longer delay of treatment initiation and DFS. Conclusion Our results show that an interval between diagnosis and treatment initiation of 60 days or shorter does not appear to adversely affect DFS in breast cancer. PMID:26511801

  3. Morbid obesity in liver transplant recipients adversely affects longterm graft and patient survival in a single-institution analysis

    PubMed Central

    Conzen, Kendra D; Vachharajani, Neeta; Collins, Kelly M; Anderson, Christopher D; Lin, Yiing; Wellen, Jason R; Shenoy, Surendra; Lowell, Jeffrey A; Doyle, M B Majella; Chapman, William C

    2015-01-01

    Objective The effects of obesity in liver transplantation remain controversial. Earlier institutional data demonstrated no significant difference in postoperative complications or 1-year mortality. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that obesity alone has minimal effect on longterm graft and overall survival. Methods A retrospective, single-institution analysis of outcomes in patients submitted to primary adult orthotopic liver transplantation was conducted using data for the period from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2012. Recipients were divided into six groups by pre-transplant body mass index (BMI), comprising those with BMIs of <18.0 kg/m2, 18.0–24.9 kg/m2, 25.0–29.9 kg/m2, 30.0–35.0 kg/m2, 35.1–40.0 kg/m2 and >40 kg/m2, respectively. Pre- and post-transplant parameters were compared. A P-value of <0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Independent predictors of patient and graft survival were determined using multivariate analysis. Results A total of 785 patients met the study inclusion criteria. A BMI of >35 kg/m2 was associated with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) cirrhosis (P < 0.0001), higher Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, and longer wait times for transplant (P = 0.002). There were no differences in operative time, intensive care unit or hospital length of stay, or perioperative complications. Graft and patient survival at intervals up to 3 years were similar between groups. Compared with non-obese recipients, recipients with a BMI of >40 kg/m2 showed significantly reduced 5-year graft (49.0% versus 75.8%; P < 0.02) and patient (51.3% versus 78.8%; P < 0.01) survival. Conclusions Obesity increasingly impacts outcomes in liver transplantation. Although the present data are limited by the fact that they were sourced from a single institution, they suggest that morbid obesity adversely affects longterm outcomes despite providing similar short-term results. Further analysis is

  4. Increased Fracture Collapse after Intertrochanteric Fractures Treated by the Dynamic Hip Screw Adversely Affects Walking Ability but Not Survival

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Christian; Gudushauri, Paata; Wong, Tak-Man; Lau, Tak-Wing; Pun, Terence; Leung, Frankie

    2016-01-01

    In osteoporotic hip fractures, fracture collapse is deliberately allowed by commonly used implants to improve dynamic contact and healing. The muscle lever arm is, however, compromised by shortening. We evaluated a cohort of 361 patients with AO/OTA 31.A1 or 31.A2 intertrochanteric fracture treated by the dynamic hip screw (DHS) who had a minimal follow-up of 3 months and an average follow-up of 14.6 months and long term survival data. The amount of fracture collapse and shortening due to sliding of the DHS was determined at the latest follow-up and graded as minimal (<1 cm), moderate (1-2 cm), or severe (>2 cm). With increased severity of collapse, more patients were unable to maintain their premorbid walking function (minimal collapse = 34.2%, moderate = 33.3%, severe = 62.8%, and p = 0.028). Based on ordinal regression of risk factors, increased fracture collapse was significantly and independently related to increasing age (p = 0.037), female sex (p = 0.024), A2 fracture class (p = 0.010), increased operative duration (p = 0.011), poor reduction quality (p = 0.000), and suboptimal tip-apex distance of >25 mm (p = 0.050). Patients who had better outcome in terms of walking function were independently predicted by younger age (p = 0.036), higher MMSE marks (p = 0.000), higher MBI marks (p = 0.010), better premorbid walking status (p = 0.000), less fracture collapse (p = 0.011), and optimal lag screw position in centre-centre or centre-inferior position (p = 0.020). According to Kaplan-Meier analysis, fracture collapse had no association with mortality from 2.4 to 7.6 years after surgery. In conclusion, increased fracture collapse after fixation of geriatric intertrochanteric fractures adversely affected walking but not survival. PMID:26955637

  5. Increased Fracture Collapse after Intertrochanteric Fractures Treated by the Dynamic Hip Screw Adversely Affects Walking Ability but Not Survival.

    PubMed

    Fang, Christian; Gudushauri, Paata; Wong, Tak-Man; Lau, Tak-Wing; Pun, Terence; Leung, Frankie

    2016-01-01

    In osteoporotic hip fractures, fracture collapse is deliberately allowed by commonly used implants to improve dynamic contact and healing. The muscle lever arm is, however, compromised by shortening. We evaluated a cohort of 361 patients with AO/OTA 31.A1 or 31.A2 intertrochanteric fracture treated by the dynamic hip screw (DHS) who had a minimal follow-up of 3 months and an average follow-up of 14.6 months and long term survival data. The amount of fracture collapse and shortening due to sliding of the DHS was determined at the latest follow-up and graded as minimal (<1 cm), moderate (1-2 cm), or severe (>2 cm). With increased severity of collapse, more patients were unable to maintain their premorbid walking function (minimal collapse = 34.2%, moderate = 33.3%, severe = 62.8%, and p = 0.028). Based on ordinal regression of risk factors, increased fracture collapse was significantly and independently related to increasing age (p = 0.037), female sex (p = 0.024), A2 fracture class (p = 0.010), increased operative duration (p = 0.011), poor reduction quality (p = 0.000), and suboptimal tip-apex distance of >25 mm (p = 0.050). Patients who had better outcome in terms of walking function were independently predicted by younger age (p = 0.036), higher MMSE marks (p = 0.000), higher MBI marks (p = 0.010), better premorbid walking status (p = 0.000), less fracture collapse (p = 0.011), and optimal lag screw position in centre-centre or centre-inferior position (p = 0.020). According to Kaplan-Meier analysis, fracture collapse had no association with mortality from 2.4 to 7.6 years after surgery. In conclusion, increased fracture collapse after fixation of geriatric intertrochanteric fractures adversely affected walking but not survival. PMID:26955637

  6. The type B brevetoxin (PbTx-3) adversely affects development, cardiovascular function, and survival in Medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Colman, Jamie R; Ramsdell, John S

    2003-01-01

    Brevetoxins are produced by the red tide dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. The toxins are lipophilic polyether toxins that elicit a myriad of effects depending on the route of exposure and the target organism. Brevetoxins are therefore broadly toxic to marine and estuarine animals. By mimicking the maternal route of exposure to the oocytes in finfish, we characterized the adverse effects of the type B brevetoxin brevetoxin-3 (PbTx-3) on embryonic fish development and survival. The Japanese rice fish, medaka (Oryzias latipes), was used as the experimental model in which individual eggs were exposed via microinjection to various known concentrations of PbTx-3 dissolved in an oil vehicle. Embryos injected with doses exceeding 1.0 ng/egg displayed tachycardia, hyperkinetic twitches in the form of sustained convulsions, spinal curvature, clumping of the erythrocytes, and decreased hatching success. Furthermore, fish dosed with toxin were often unable to hatch in the classic tail-first fashion and emerged head first, which resulted in partial hatches and death. We determined that the LD(50) (dose that is lethal to 50% of the fish) for an injected dose of PbTx-3 is 4.0 ng/egg. The results of this study complement previous studies of the developmental toxicity of the type A brevetoxin brevetoxin-1 (PbTx-1), by illustrating in vivo the differing affinities of the two congeners for cardiac sodium channels. Consequently, we observed differing cardiovascular responses in the embryos, wherein embryos exposed to PbTx-3 exhibited persistent tachycardia, whereas embryos exposed to PbTx-1 displayed bradycardia, the onset of which was delayed. PMID:14644667

  7. Hyperinsulinemia adversely affects lung structure and function.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suchita; Bodas, Manish; Bhatraju, Naveen K; Pattnaik, Bijay; Gheware, Atish; Parameswaran, Praveen Kolumam; Thompson, Michael; Freeman, Michelle; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Gosens, Reinoud; Ghosh, Balaram; Pabelick, Christina; Linneberg, Allan; Prakash, Y S; Agrawal, Anurag

    2016-05-01

    There is limited knowledge regarding the consequences of hyperinsulinemia on the lung. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, and epidemiological associations with asthma, this is a critical lacuna, more so with inhaled insulin on the horizon. Here, we demonstrate that insulin can adversely affect respiratory health. Insulin treatment (1 μg/ml) significantly (P < 0.05) increased the proliferation of primary human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells and induced collagen release. Additionally, ASM cells showed a significant increase in calcium response and mitochondrial respiration upon insulin exposure. Mice administered intranasal insulin showed increased collagen deposition in the lungs as well as a significant increase in airway hyperresponsiveness. PI3K/Akt mediated activation of β-catenin, a positive regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibrosis, was observed in the lungs of insulin-treated mice and lung cells. Our data suggests that hyperinsulinemia may have adverse effects on airway structure and function. Insulin-induced activation of β-catenin in lung tissue and the contractile effects on ASM cells may be causally related to the development of asthma-like phenotype. PMID:26919895

  8. FACTORS ADVERSELY AFFECTING AMPHIBIAN POPULATIONS IN THE US

    EPA Science Inventory

    Factors known or suspected to be adversely affecting native amphibian populations in the US were identified using information from species accounts written in a standardized format by multiple authors in a forthcoming book. Specific adverse factors were identified for 53 (58%) of...

  9. Fine sediment affects on survival to emergence of robust redhorse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennings, C.A.; Dilts, E.W.; Shelton, J.L., Jr.; Peterson, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    Robust redhorse (Moxostoma robustum) is a rare riverine sucker for which life history information is scarce. Spawning occurs over loose gravel substrate and eggs and larvae may be adversely affected by fine sediments among the gravel. A 2-year study was conducted to determine the threshold at which fine sediments are detrimental to successful egg incubation and larval emergence. Year 1 gravel treatments contained 0, 25, 50, and 75% fine sediments. Mean survival during Year 1 ranged from 63.5% in the 0% fine sediment treatment to 0% in the 75% fine sediment treatment. The results also indicated an adverse affect threshold between 0 and 25% fine sediment. Year 2 gravel treatments contained 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25% fine sediments. Mean survival during Year 2 ranged from 69.8% in the 0% treatment to 9.1% in the 25% treatment. Year 2 results also identified the 15% fine sediment treatment as the threshold at which survival began to decline. Substrates at one known spawning area used by robust redhorse typically contain 25 to 50% fine sediment, but the spawning act cleans some fines from the egg pocket. Whether the "cleaning" that results from the spawning act reduces the fines sufficiently to avoid adverse effects is unknown. According to our results, survival rates of robust redhorse eggs and larvae are predicted to be about 8.0% or less when fine sediment is >25%. ?? US Government 2009.

  10. Adversity before Conception Will Affect Adult Progeny in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shachar-Dadon, Alice; Schulkin, Jay; Leshem, Micah

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated whether adversity in a female, before she conceives, will influence the affective and social behavior of her progeny. Virgin female rats were either undisturbed (controls) or exposed to varied, unpredictable, stressors for 7 days (preconceptual stress [PCS]) and then either mated immediately after the end of the stress…

  11. Early Life Triclocarban Exposure During Lactation Affects Neonate Rat Survival

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Rebekah C. M.; Menn, Fu-Min; Healy, Laura; Fecteau, Kellie A.; Hu, Pan; Bae, Jiyoung; Gee, Nancy A.; Lasley, Bill L.; Zhao, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Triclocarban (3,4,4′-trichlorocarbanilide; TCC), an antimicrobial used in bar soaps, affects endocrine function in vitro and in vivo. This study investigates whether TCC exposure during early life affects the trajectory of fetal and/or neonatal development. Sprague Dawley rats were provided control, 0.2% weight/weight (w/w), or 0.5% w/w TCC-supplemented chow through a series of 3 experiments that limited exposure to critical growth periods: gestation, gestation and lactation, or lactation only (cross-fostering) to determine the susceptible windows of exposure for developmental consequences. Reduced offspring survival occurred when offspring were exposed to TCC at concentrations of 0.2% w/w and 0.5% w/w during lactation, in which only 13% of offspring raised by 0.2% w/w TCC dams survived beyond weaning and no offspring raised by 0.5% w/w TCC dams survived to this period. In utero exposure status had no effect on survival, as all pups nursed by control dams survived regardless of their in utero exposure status. Microscopic evaluation of dam mammary tissue revealed involution to be a secondary outcome of TCC exposure rather than a primary effect of compound administration. The average concentration of TCC in the milk was almost 4 times that of the corresponding maternal serum levels. The results demonstrate that gestational TCC exposure does not affect the ability of dams to carry offspring to term but TCC exposure during lactation has adverse consequences on the survival of offspring although the mechanism of reduced survival is currently unknown. This information highlights the importance of evaluating the safety of TCC application in personal care products and the impacts during early life exposure. PMID:24803507

  12. Early life triclocarban exposure during lactation affects neonate rat survival.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Rebekah C M; Menn, Fu-Min; Healy, Laura; Fecteau, Kellie A; Hu, Pan; Bae, Jiyoung; Gee, Nancy A; Lasley, Bill L; Zhao, Ling; Chen, Jiangang

    2015-01-01

    Triclocarban (3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide; TCC), an antimicrobial used in bar soaps, affects endocrine function in vitro and in vivo. This study investigates whether TCC exposure during early life affects the trajectory of fetal and/or neonatal development. Sprague Dawley rats were provided control, 0.2% weight/weight (w/w), or 0.5% w/w TCC-supplemented chow through a series of 3 experiments that limited exposure to critical growth periods: gestation, gestation and lactation, or lactation only (cross-fostering) to determine the susceptible windows of exposure for developmental consequences. Reduced offspring survival occurred when offspring were exposed to TCC at concentrations of 0.2% w/w and 0.5% w/w during lactation, in which only 13% of offspring raised by 0.2% w/w TCC dams survived beyond weaning and no offspring raised by 0.5% w/w TCC dams survived to this period. In utero exposure status had no effect on survival, as all pups nursed by control dams survived regardless of their in utero exposure status. Microscopic evaluation of dam mammary tissue revealed involution to be a secondary outcome of TCC exposure rather than a primary effect of compound administration. The average concentration of TCC in the milk was almost 4 times that of the corresponding maternal serum levels. The results demonstrate that gestational TCC exposure does not affect the ability of dams to carry offspring to term but TCC exposure during lactation has adverse consequences on the survival of offspring although the mechanism of reduced survival is currently unknown. This information highlights the importance of evaluating the safety of TCC application in personal care products and the impacts during early life exposure. PMID:24803507

  13. Adversity before conception will affect adult progeny in rats.

    PubMed

    Shachar-Dadon, Alice; Schulkin, Jay; Leshem, Micah

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated whether adversity in a female, before she conceives, will influence the affective and social behavior of her progeny. Virgin female rats were either undisturbed (controls) or exposed to varied, unpredictable, stressors for 7 days (preconceptual stress [PCS]) and then either mated immediately after the end of the stress (PCS0) or 2 weeks after the stress ended (PCS2). Their offspring were raised undisturbed until tested in adulthood. PCS offspring showed reduced social interaction; in the acoustic startle test, PCS males were less fearful, whereas PCS females were more fearful; in the shuttle task, PCS0 males avoided shock better; and in the elevated maze, PCS0 females were more active and anxious. The 2-week interval between stress and mating assuaged the effects on offspring activity and shock avoidance but not the changes in social behavior and fear in male and female offspring. Hence, PCS to the dam, even well before pregnancy, influences affective and social behavior in her adult offspring, depending on how long before conception it occurred, the behavior tested, and sex. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19209986

  14. The synthetic progestin megestrol acetate adversely affects zebrafish reproduction.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian; Wang, Qiangwei; Wang, Xianfeng; Li, Yonggang; Wen, Sheng; Liu, Shan; Ying, Guangguo; Guo, Yongyong; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2014-05-01

    Synthetic progestins contaminate the aquatic ecosystem, and may cause adverse health effects on aquatic organisms. Megestrol acetate (MTA) is present in the aquatic environment, but its possible effects on fish reproduction are unknown. In the present study, we investigated the endocrine disruption and impact of MTA on fish reproduction. After a pre-exposure period of 14 days, reproductively mature zebrafish (Danio rerio) (F0) were exposed to MTA at environmental concentrations (33, 100, 333, and 666 ng/L) for 21 days. Egg production was decreased in F0 fish exposed to MTA, with a significant decrease at 666 ng/L. The exposure significantly decreased the circulating concentrations of estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) in female fish or 11-keto testosterone (11-KT) in male fish. MTA exposure significantly downregulated the transcription of certain genes along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. MTA did not affect early embryonic development or hatching success in the F1 generation. The present study showed that MTA is a potent endocrine disruptor in fish, and short-term exposure to MTA could significantly affect reproduction in fish and negatively impact the fish population. PMID:24647012

  15. Factors affecting the development of adverse drug reactions (Review article)

    PubMed Central

    Alomar, Muaed Jamal

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To discuss the effect of certain factors on the occurrence of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs). Data Sources A systematic review of the literature in the period between 1991 and 2012 was made based on PubMed, the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, EMBASE and IDIS. Key words used were: medication error, adverse drug reaction, iatrogenic disease factors, ambulatory care, primary health care, side effects and treatment hazards. Summary Many factors play a crucial role in the occurrence of ADRs, some of these are patient related, drug related or socially related factors. Age for instance has a very critical impact on the occurrence of ADRs, both very young and very old patients are more vulnerable to these reactions than other age groups. Alcohol intake also has a crucial impact on ADRs. Other factors are gender, race, pregnancy, breast feeding, kidney problems, liver function, drug dose and frequency and many other factors. The effect of these factors on ADRs is well documented in the medical literature. Taking these factors into consideration during medical evaluation enables medical practitioners to choose the best drug regimen. Conclusion Many factors affect the occurrence of ADRs. Some of these factors can be changed like smoking or alcohol intake others cannot be changed like age, presence of other diseases or genetic factors. Understanding the different effects of these factors on ADRs enables healthcare professionals to choose the most appropriate medication for that particular patient. It also helps the healthcare professionals to give the best advice to patients. Pharmacogenomics is the most recent science which emphasizes the genetic predisposition of ADRs. This innovative science provides a new perspective in dealing with the decision making process of drug selection. PMID:24648818

  16. Root-Zone Glyphosate Exposure Adversely Affects Two Ditch Species

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Lyndsay E.; Koontz, Melissa B.; Pezeshki, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Glyphosate, one of the most applied herbicides globally, has been extensively studied for its effects on non-target organisms. In the field, following precipitation, glyphosate runs off into agricultural ditches where it infiltrates into the soil and thus may encounter the roots of vegetation. These edge-of-field ditches share many characteristics with wetlands, including the ability to reduce loads of anthropogenic chemicals through uptake, transformation, and retention. Different species within the ditches may have a differential sensitivity to exposure of the root zone to glyphosate, contributing to patterns of abundance of ruderal species. The present laboratory experiment investigated whether two species commonly found in agricultural ditches in southcentral United States were affected by root zone glyphosate in a dose-dependent manner, with the objective of identifying a sublethal concentration threshold. The root zone of individuals of Polygonum hydropiperoides and Panicum hemitomon were exposed to four concentrations of glyphosate. Leaf chlorophyll content was measured, and the ratio of aboveground biomass to belowground biomass and survival were quantified. The findings from this study showed that root zone glyphosate exposure negatively affected both species including dose-dependent reductions in chlorophyll content. P. hydropiperdoides showed the greatest negative response, with decreased belowground biomass allocation and total mortality at the highest concentrations tested. PMID:24833234

  17. Does Ramadan Fasting Adversely Affect Cognitive Function in Young Females?

    PubMed Central

    Ghayour Najafabadi, Mahboubeh; Rahbar Nikoukar, Laya; Memari, Amir; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Beygi, Sara

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of Ramadan fasting on cognitive function in 17 female athletes. Data were obtained from participants of two fasting (n = 9) and nonfasting (n = 8) groups at three periods of the study (before Ramadan, at the third week in Ramadan, and after Ramadan). Digit span test (DST) and Stroop color test were employed to assess short-term memory and inhibition/cognitive flexibility at each time point. There were no significant changes for DST and Stroop task 1 in both groups, whereas Stroop task 2 and task 3 showed significant improvements in Ramadan condition (p < 0.05). Interference indices did not change significantly across the study except in post-Ramadan period of fasting group (p < 0.05). Group × week interaction was significant only for error numbers (p < 0.05). Athletes in nonfasting showed a significant decrease in number of errors in Ramadan compared to baseline (p < 0.05). The results suggest that Ramadan fasting may not adversely affect cognitive function in female athletes. PMID:26697263

  18. Pathologic factors affecting postsplenectomy survival in dogs.

    PubMed

    Spangler, W L; Kass, P H

    1997-01-01

    The apparently high prevalence of splenomegaly in dogs, along with the surgical accessibility of the spleen, results in a relatively large number of splenectomies in dogs in clinical veterinary practice. Splenic nodular lesions are widely considered to be indicative of hemangiosarcoma and thus a disease that is ultimately fatal. This study correlates the results of complete pathologic evaluation and classification of 500 spleens obtained by splenectomy with survival information for each dog. Among the spleens examined, 257 of 500 (51.4%) were classified nonneoplastic and 241 (48.2%) were neoplastic; 2 (0.4%) were unclassified. Miscellaneous non-nodular splenomegaly accounted for 46 of 257 (18%) of the nonneoplastic lesions; nodular splenomegaly accounted for 206 of 257 (79%) of nonneoplastic splenic lesions and was composed of lymphoid hyperplastic nodules and associated hematomas, hyperplastic lymphoid nodules alone, or hematomas with no apparent underlying cause. Nodular neoplastic diseases of the spleen were divided among benign tumors (11.5%) and a variety of primary sarcomas. Hemangiosarcoma made up 51% of splenic malignancies but accounted for less than 25% of the spleens evaluated. Survival of dogs with hematomas associated with nonneoplastic conditions of the spleen was markedly different from that in dogs with hemangiosarcoma-associated hematomas, even though most could not be effectively differentiated on gross inspection. Two month postoperative survival was 83% for dogs with nonneoplastic-related hematomas, whereas only 31% of dogs with hemangiosarcoma, with or without associated hematomas, were alive after 2 months. Twelve-month survival times were 64% and 7%, respectively. An overall postsplenectomy survival rate of 52% was based on the number of dogs surviving for a minimum of 6 months postoperatively. PMID:9183768

  19. Risk factors affecting dental implant survival.

    PubMed

    Vehemente, Valerie A; Chuang, Sung-Kiang; Daher, Shadi; Muftu, Ali; Dodson, Thomas B

    2002-01-01

    Given the predictability of dental implant success, the attention of the scientific community is moving from descriptions of implant success toward a more detailed analysis of factors associated with implant failure. The purposes of this study were (1) to estimate the 1- and 5-year survival of Bicon dental implants and (2) to identify risk factors associated with implant failure in an objective, statistically valid manner. To address the research purposes, we used a retrospective cohort study design and a study sample composed of patients who had one or more implants placed. The predictor variables were grouped into the following categories: demographic, health status, anatomic, implant fixture-specific, prosthetic, perioperative, and ancillary variables. The major outcome variable of interest was implant failure defined as implant removal. Overall implant survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier analysis. Risk factors for implant failure were identified using the Cox proportional hazard regression models. The study sample was composed of 677 patients who had 677 implants randomly selected for analysis. The overall 1- and 5-year survival of the Bicon implant system was 95.2% and 90.2%, respectively. After adjusting for other covariates in a multivariate model, both tobacco use (P = .0004) and single-stage implant placement (P = .01) were statistically associated with an increased risk for failure. The results of these analyses suggest that the overall survival of the Bicon dental implant is comparable with other current implant systems. In addition, after controlling for covariates, we identified 2 exposures associated with implant survival, tobacco use and implant staging. Of interest, both of these exposures are under the clinician's control. PMID:12498449

  20. 47 CFR 73.4157 - Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service. 73.4157 Section 73.4157 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION....4157 Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service. See Public Notice, FCC...

  1. 47 CFR 73.4157 - Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service. 73.4157 Section 73.4157 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION....4157 Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service. See Public Notice, FCC...

  2. 47 CFR 73.4157 - Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service. 73.4157 Section 73.4157 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION....4157 Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service. See Public Notice, FCC...

  3. 47 CFR 73.4157 - Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service. 73.4157 Section 73.4157 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION....4157 Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service. See Public Notice, FCC...

  4. 47 CFR 73.4157 - Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service. 73.4157 Section 73.4157 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION....4157 Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service. See Public Notice, FCC...

  5. Cancer History May Affect Survival After Organ Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158468.html Cancer History May Affect Survival After Organ Transplant Study also ... death compared to organ recipients with no cancer history, new research suggests. The findings indicate that transplant ...

  6. Health Insurance Status May Affect Cancer Patients' Survival

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160304.html Health Insurance Status May Affect Cancer Patients' Survival 2 studies ... certain cancers in America could depend on your health insurance status. Despite improvements in cancer diagnosis and treatment, ...

  7. Missing Out: Excessive Absenteeism Adversely Affects Elementary Reading Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockert, Christine; Harrington, Sonja; Vaughn, Debra; Kelly, Kirk; Gooden, John

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to answer the question "Does excessive absenteeism affect student academic achievement?" During the 2002-2003 academic year, 188 students attending grades 3 through 5 at an urban Tennessee elementary school with a high poverty level participated in the study. Demographic data were gathered to provide descriptive statistics…

  8. Multiple Weather Factors Affect Apparent Survival of European Passerine Birds

    PubMed Central

    Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Fiedler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for

  9. Adverse foraging conditions may impact body mass and survival of a high Arctic seabird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harding, A.M.A.; Welcker, J.; Steen, H.; Hamer, K.C.; Kitaysky, A.S.; Fort, J.; Talbot, S.L.; Cornick, L.A.; Karnovsky, N.J.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Gremillet, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tradeoffs between current reproduction and future survival are widely recognized, but may only occur when food is limited: when foraging conditions are favorable, parents may be able to reproduce without compromising their own survival. We investigated these tradeoffs in the little auk (Alle alle), a small seabird with a single-egg clutch. During 2005-2007, we examined the relationship between body mass and survival of birds breeding under contrasting foraging conditions at two Arctic colonies. We used corticosterone levels of breeding adults as a physiological indicator of the foraging conditions they encountered during each reproductive season. We found that when foraging conditions were relatively poor (as reflected in elevated levels of corticosterone), parents ended the reproductive season with low body mass and suffered increased post-breeding mortality. A positive relationship between body mass and post-breeding survival was found in one study year; light birds incurred higher survival costs than heavy birds. The results of this study suggest that reproducing under poor foraging conditions may affect the post-breeding survival of long-lived little auks. They also have important demographic implications because even a small change in adult survival may have a large effect on populations of long-lived species. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Urban sprawl and you: how sprawl adversely affects worker health.

    PubMed

    Pohanka, Mary; Fitzgerald, Sheila

    2004-06-01

    Urban sprawl, once thought of as just an environmental issue, is currently gaining momentum as an emerging public health issue worthy of research and political attention. Characteristics seen in sprawling communities include increasing traffic volumes; inadequate public transportation; pedestrian unfriendly streets; and the division of businesses, shops, and homes. These characteristics can affect health in many ways. Greater air pollution contributes to higher asthma and other lung disorder rates. An increased dependence on the automobile encourages a more sedentary lifestyle and can potentially contribute to obesity. The increased danger and stress of long commutes can lead to more accidents, anxiety, and social isolation. Occupational health nurses can become involved by promoting physical activity in the workplace, creating programs for injury prevention and stress management, becoming involved in political smart growth measures, and educating and encouraging colleagues to become active in addressing this issue. PMID:15219110

  11. Emerging role of angiogenin in stress response and cell survival under adverse conditions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuping; Hu, Guo-Fu

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenin (ANG), also known as ribonuclease (RNASE) 5, is a member of the vertebrate-specific, secreted RNASE superfamily. ANG was originally identified as a tumor angiogenic factor, but its biological activity has been extended from inducing angiogenesis to stimulating cell proliferation and more recently, to promoting cell survival. Under growth conditions, ANG is translocated to nucleus where it accumulates in nucleolus and stimulates ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription, thus facilitating cell growth and proliferation. Under stress conditions, ANG is accumulated in cytoplasmic compartments and modulates the production of tiRNA, a novel class of small RNA that is derived from tRNA and is induced by stress. tiRNA suppress global protein translation by inhibiting both cap-dependent and -independent translation including that mediated by weak IRESes. However, strong IRES-mediated translation, a mechanism often used by genes involved in pro-survival and anti-apoptosis, is not affected. Thus, ANG-mediated tiRNA reprogram protein translation, save anabolic energy, and promote cell survival. This recently uncovered function of ANG presents a novel mechanism of action in regulating cell growth and survival. PMID:22021078

  12. Chemical ions affect survival of avian cholera organisms in pondwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, J.I.; Yandell, B.S.; Porter, W.P.

    1992-01-01

    Avian cholera (Pasteurella multocida) is a major disease of wild waterfowl, but its epizootiology remains little understood. Consequently, we examined whether chemical ions affected survival of avian cholera organisms in water collected from the Nebraska Rainwater Basin where avian cholera is enzootic. We tested the response of P. multocida to ammonium (NH4), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), nitrate (NO3), and ortho-phosphate (PO4) ions individually and in combination using a fractional factorial design divided into 4 blocks. High concentrations of Ca and Mg, singly or in combination, increased survival of P. multocida organisms (P < 0.001). We developed a survival index to predict whether or not specific ponds could be "problem" or "nonproblem" avian cholera sites based on concentrations of these ions in the water.

  13. Personality and morphological traits affect pigeon survival from raptor attacks.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carlos D; Cramer, Julia F; Pârâu, Liviu G; Miranda, Ana C; Wikelski, Martin; Dechmann, Dina K N

    2015-01-01

    Personality traits have recently been shown to impact fitness in different animal species, potentially making them similarly relevant drivers as morphological and life history traits along the evolutionary pathways of organisms. Predation is a major force of natural selection through its deterministic effects on individual survival, but how predation pressure has helped to shape personality trait selection, especially in free-ranging animals, remains poorly understood. We used high-precision GPS tracking to follow whole flocks of homing pigeons (Columba livia) with known personalities and morphology during homing flights where they were severely predated by raptors. This allowed us to determine how the personality and morphology traits of pigeons may affect their risk of being predated by raptors. Our survival model showed that individual pigeons, which were more tolerant to human approach, slower to escape from a confined environment, more resistant to human handling, with larger tarsi, and with lighter plumage, were more likely to be predated by raptors. We provide rare empirical evidence that the personality of prey influences their risk of being predated under free-ranging circumstances. PMID:26489437

  14. Personality and morphological traits affect pigeon survival from raptor attacks

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Carlos D.; Cramer, Julia F.; Pârâu, Liviu G.; Miranda, Ana C.; Wikelski, Martin; Dechmann, Dina K. N.

    2015-01-01

    Personality traits have recently been shown to impact fitness in different animal species, potentially making them similarly relevant drivers as morphological and life history traits along the evolutionary pathways of organisms. Predation is a major force of natural selection through its deterministic effects on individual survival, but how predation pressure has helped to shape personality trait selection, especially in free-ranging animals, remains poorly understood. We used high-precision GPS tracking to follow whole flocks of homing pigeons (Columba livia) with known personalities and morphology during homing flights where they were severely predated by raptors. This allowed us to determine how the personality and morphology traits of pigeons may affect their risk of being predated by raptors. Our survival model showed that individual pigeons, which were more tolerant to human approach, slower to escape from a confined environment, more resistant to human handling, with larger tarsi, and with lighter plumage, were more likely to be predated by raptors. We provide rare empirical evidence that the personality of prey influences their risk of being predated under free-ranging circumstances. PMID:26489437

  15. 41 CFR 102-78.40 - What responsibilities do Federal agencies have when an undertaking adversely affects a historic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... guidance on the protection of historic and cultural properties in 36 CFR part 800. ... Federal agencies have when an undertaking adversely affects a historic or cultural property? 102-78.40...-78.40 What responsibilities do Federal agencies have when an undertaking adversely affects a...

  16. 50 CFR 402.45 - Alternative consultation on FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat. 402.45 Section 402.45... habitat. (a) Consultation obligations for FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat when alternative consultation agreement is in effect. If EPA and the...

  17. 50 CFR 402.45 - Alternative consultation on FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat. 402.45 Section 402.45... habitat. (a) Consultation obligations for FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat when alternative consultation agreement is in effect. If EPA and the...

  18. 50 CFR 402.45 - Alternative consultation on FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat. 402.45 Section 402.45... habitat. (a) Consultation obligations for FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat when alternative consultation agreement is in effect. If EPA and the...

  19. The effect of sire selection on cow mortality and early lactation culling in adverse and favorable cow survival environments.

    PubMed

    Dechow, C D; Goodling, R C; Rhode, S P

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the extent that genetic selection can help reduce dairy cow mortality and early lactation culling in adverse cow survival environments. Two datasets were constructed. The first contained 100,911 mortality records and 171,178 sixty-day culling records from 1467 herds. Cows that left the herd (culled or died) from 21 days prior to a due date through 60 days in milk were considered a 60-day cull. Cows were classified as belonging to herds with adverse cow survival environments (≥ 4.4% mortality rate and ≥ 7.1% 60-day cull rate) or favorable cow survival environments (<4.4% mortality rate and <7.1% 60-day cull rate). The second dataset included 20,438 mortality records and 34,942 sixty-day culling records from 314 herds with a known herd management system. Cows from both datasets were stratified into quartiles based on their sire's predicted transmitting ability (PTA) for productive life and other traits. Cows in the first dataset were also stratified into high (>50th percentile) and low (≤ 50th percentile) groups based on their sire's PTA for daughter calving ease and daughter stillbirth rates. Mortality and 60-day culling in the first dataset were evaluated with logistic regression models with the independent effects of sire PTA quartile, cow survival environment (adverse or favorable), the interaction of sire PTA quartile with cow survival environment, lactation number, age within lactation number, and herd-calving-cluster. The second dataset was analyzed in the same manner, but with cow survival environment replaced by herd management system. The estimated proportion of lactations that ended in death declined from 9.0% to 6.8% and 60-day culling incidence from 7.6% to 4.9% as sire productive life PTA went from the lowest to highest quartile in adverse cow survival environments. The corresponding reduction in mortality (0.7%) and 60-day culling (0.9%) were also significant in favorable cow survival environments

  20. Genetic polymorphisms affect efficacy and adverse drug reactions of DMARDs in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling Ling; Yang, Sen; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Xue Jun

    2014-11-01

    Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and biological agents are critical in preventing the severe complications of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the outcome of treatment with these drugs in RA patients is quite variable and unpredictable. Drug-metabolizing enzymes (dihydrofolate reductase, cytochrome P450 enzymes, N-acetyltransferases, etc.), drug transporters (ATP-binding cassette transporters), and drug targets (tumor necrosis factor-α receptors) are coded for by variant alleles. These gene polymorphisms may influence the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and side effects of medicines. The cause for differences in efficacy and adverse drug reactions may be genetic variation in drug metabolism among individuals. Polymorphisms in drug transporter genes may change the distribution and excretion of medicines, and the sensitivity of the targets to drugs is strongly influenced by genetic variations. In this article, we review the genetic polymorphisms that affect the efficacy of DMARDs or the occurrence of adverse drug reactions associated with DMARDs in RA. PMID:25144752

  1. Family Adversity and Autonomic Reactivity Association With Immune Changes in HIV-Affected School Children

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Melanie; Wara, Diane; Saxton, Katherine; Truskier, Mary; Chesney, Margaret; Boyce, W. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore whether primary school entry is associated with changes in immune system parameters in HIV-affected children. HIV-affected children are vulnerable to psychosocial stressors, regardless of their own HIV serological status. Methods Data from 38 HIV+ and 29 HIV− children born to seropositive women were obtained before and after school entry. Measures included family adversity questionnaires, autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity (based on mean arterial responses to challenge tasks), and enumerative and functional changes in peripheral blood immune parameters. Results In comparison to children who were HIV−, children who were HIV+ at baseline had fewer CD4+ T lymphocytes (M = 916 vs. 1206 cells/mm3 × 103; F = 7.8, p = .007), more CD8+ cells (M = 1046 vs. 720 cells/mm3 ×103; F = 7.98, p = .006), and diminished NK cell cytotoxicity (M =−.29 vs. .41; F = 8.87, p = .004). School entry was associated with changes in immune parameters, but HIV status was not associated with the magnitude of changes. Changes in immune parameters following school entry were associated with family stress and pre school entry ANS reactivity. Highly ANS reactive children had either the greatest increase in CD8+ cells following school entry or the greatest decrease, depending upon reported levels of family adversity (B = 215.35; t = 3.74, p < .001). Changes in functional immune assays were significantly associated with the interactions between HIV status and ANS reactivity. Conclusions These results suggest that autonomic reactivity is associated with increased immunological sensitivity to adverse or challenging social contexts among children affected by HIV. PMID:23766380

  2. Survival gains needed to offset persistent adverse treatment effects in localised prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    King, M T; Viney, R; Smith, D P; Hossain, I; Street, D; Savage, E; Fowler, S; Berry, M P; Stockler, M; Cozzi, P; Stricker, P; Ward, J; Armstrong, B K

    2012-01-01

    Background: Men diagnosed with localised prostate cancer (LPC) face difficult choices between treatment options that can cause persistent problems with sexual, urinary and bowel function. Controlled trial evidence about the survival benefits of the full range of treatment alternatives is limited, and patients' views on the survival gains that might justify these problems have not been quantified. Methods: A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was administered in a random subsample (n=357, stratified by treatment) of a population-based sample (n=1381) of men, recurrence-free 3 years after diagnosis of LPC, and 65 age-matched controls (without prostate cancer). Survival gains needed to justify persistent problems were estimated by substituting side effect and survival parameters from the DCE into an equation for compensating variation (adapted from welfare economics). Results: Median (2.5, 97.5 centiles) survival benefits needed to justify severe erectile dysfunction and severe loss of libido were 4.0 (3.4, 4.6) and 5.0 (4.9, 5.2) months. These problems were common, particularly after androgen deprivation therapy (ADT): 40 and 41% overall (n=1381) and 88 and 78% in the ADT group (n=33). Urinary leakage (most prevalent after radical prostatectomy (n=839, mild 41%, severe 18%)) needed 4.2 (4.1, 4.3) and 27.7 (26.9, 28.5) months survival benefit, respectively. Mild bowel problems (most prevalent (30%) after external beam radiotherapy (n=106)) needed 6.2 (6.1, 6.4) months survival benefit. Conclusion: Emerging evidence about survival benefits can be assessed against these patient-based benchmarks. Considerable variation in trade-offs among individuals underlines the need to inform patients of long-term consequences and incorporate patient preferences into treatment decisions. PMID:22274410

  3. Factors affecting survival of bacteriophage on tomato leaf surfaces.

    PubMed

    Iriarte, F B; Balogh, B; Momol, M T; Smith, L M; Wilson, M; Jones, J B

    2007-03-01

    The ability of bacteriophage to persist in the phyllosphere for extended periods is limited by many factors, including sunlight irradiation, especially in the UV zone, temperature, desiccation, and exposure to copper bactericides. The effects of these factors on persistence of phage and formulated phage (phage mixed with skim milk) were evaluated. In field studies, copper caused significant phage reduction if applied on the day of phage application but not if applied 4 or 7 days in advance. Sunlight UV was evaluated for detrimental effects on phage survival on tomato foliage in the field. Phage was applied in the early morning, midmorning, early afternoon, and late evening, while UVA plus UVB irradiation and phage populations were monitored. The intensity of UV irradiation positively correlated with phage population decline. The protective formulation reduced the UV effect. In order to demonstrate direct effects of UV, phage suspensions were exposed to UV irradiation and assayed for effectiveness against bacterial spot of tomato. UV significantly reduced phage ability to control bacterial spot. Ambient temperature had a pronounced effect on nonformulated phage but not on formulated phages. The effects of desiccation and fluorescent light illumination on phage were investigated. Desiccation caused a significant but only slight reduction in phage populations after 60 days, whereas fluorescent light eliminated phages within 2 weeks. The protective formulation eliminated the reduction caused by both of these factors. Phage persistence was dramatically affected by UV, while the other factors had less pronounced effects. Formulated phage reduced deleterious effects of the studied environmental factors. PMID:17259361

  4. DO AUTOCHTHONOUS BACTERIA AFFECT GIARDIA CYST SURVIVAL IN NATURAL WATERS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Giardia lamblia survives in and is transmitted to susceptible human and animal populations via water, where it is present in an environmentally resistant cyst form. Previous research has highlighted the importance of water temperature in cyst survival, and has also suggested the ...

  5. 42 CFR 137.435 - Will an appeal adversely affect the Indian Tribe's rights in other compact, funding negotiations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... rights in other compact, funding negotiations, or construction project agreement? 137.435 Section 137.435... another compact, funding agreement, or construction project agreement. ... appeal adversely affect the Indian Tribe's rights in other compact, funding negotiations, or...

  6. Developmental and Evolutionary History Affect Survival in Stressful Environments

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Gareth R.; Brodie, Edmund D.; French, Susannah S.

    2014-01-01

    The world is increasingly impacted by a variety of stressors that have the potential to differentially influence life history stages of organisms. Organisms have evolved to cope with some stressors, while with others they have little capacity. It is thus important to understand the effects of both developmental and evolutionary history on survival in stressful environments. We present evidence of the effects of both developmental and evolutionary history on survival of a freshwater vertebrate, the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa) in an osmotically stressful environment. We compared the survival of larvae in either NaCl or MgCl2 that were exposed to salinity either as larvae only or as embryos as well. Embryonic exposure to salinity led to greater mortality of newt larvae than larval exposure alone, and this reduced survival probability was strongly linked to the carry-over effect of stunted embryonic growth in salts. Larval survival was also dependent on the type of salt (NaCl or MgCl2) the larvae were exposed to, and was lowest in MgCl2, a widely-used chemical deicer that, unlike NaCl, amphibian larvae do not have an evolutionary history of regulating at high levels. Both developmental and evolutionary history are critical factors in determining survival in this stressful environment, a pattern that may have widespread implications for the survival of animals increasingly impacted by substances with which they have little evolutionary history. PMID:24748021

  7. Cannula implantation into the lateral ventricle does not adversely affect recognition or spatial working memory.

    PubMed

    Seyer, Benjamin; Pham, Vi; Albiston, Anthony L; Chai, Siew Yeen

    2016-08-15

    Indwelling cannulas are often used to deliver pharmacological agents into the lateral ventricles of the brain to study their effects on memory and learning, yet little is known about the possible adverse effects of the cannulation itself. In this study, the effect of implanting an indwelling cannula into the right lateral ventricle was examined with respect to cognitive function and tissue damage in rats. Specifically, the cannula passed through sections of the primary motor (M1) and somatosensory hind limb (S1HL) cortices. One week following implantation, rats were impaired on the rotarod task, implying a deficit in fine motor control, likely caused by the passage of the cannula through the aforementioned cortical regions. Importantly, neither spatial working nor recognition memory was adversely affected. Histological examination showed immune cell activation only in the area immediately surrounding the cannulation site and not spreading to other brain regions. Both GFAP and CD-11b mRNA expression was elevated in the area immediately surrounding the cannulation site, but not in the contralateral hemisphere or the hippocampus. Neither of the inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α or IL-6, were upregulated in any region. These results show that cannulation into the lateral ventricle does not impair cognition and indicates that nootropic agents delivered via this method are enhancing normal memory rather than rescuing deficits caused by the surgery procedure. PMID:27345383

  8. Dietary restriction does not adversely affect bone geometry and mechanics in rapidly growing male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Jennifer; Lamothe, Jeremy M; Zernicke, Ronald F; Auer, Roland N; Reimer, Raylene A

    2005-02-01

    The present study assessed the effects of dietary restriction on tibial and vertebral mechanical and geometrical properties in 2-mo-old male Wistar rats. Two-month-old male Wistar rats were randomized to the ad libitum (n=8) or the 35% diet-restricted (DR) feeding group (n=9) for 5 mo. Tibiae and L6 vertebrae were dissected out for microcomputed tomography (microCT) scanning and subsequently fractured in biomechanical testing to determine geometrical and mechanical properties. The DR group had significantly lower mean tibial length, mass, area, and cross-sectional moment of inertia, as well as vertebral energy to maximal load. After adjustment for body mass, however, DR tibial mean maximal load and stiffness, and DR vertebral area, height, volume, and maximal load were significantly greater, relative to ad libitum means. No significant differences were found between the DR and ad libitum mineral ash fractions. Because the material properties of the tibiae between the two groups were not significantly different, presumably the material integrity of the bones was not adversely affected as a consequence of DR. The similar material characteristics were consistent with mineral ash fractions that were not different between the two groups. Vertebral maximal load and stiffness were not significant between the DR and ad libitum animals. Importantly, we show that a level of dietary restriction (35%) that is less severe than many studies (40%), and without micronutrient compensation does not adversely affect tibial and vertebral mechanical properties in young growing male rats when normalized for body mass. PMID:15585686

  9. Inflammatory Adverse Events are Associated with Disease-Free Survival after Vaccine Therapy among Patients with Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yinin; Smolkin, Mark E.; White, Emily J.; Petroni, Gina R.; Neese, Patrice Y.; Slingluff, Craig L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Multipeptide vaccines for melanoma may cause inflammatory adverse events (IAE). We hypothesize that IAE's are associated with a higher rate of immune response to vaccination (IR) and improved clinical outcomes. Methods Adult patients with resected, high-risk (stage IIB-IV) melanoma were vaccinated with a combination of 12 Class I MHC-restricted melanoma epitopes (12MP) and IAE's were recorded. A separate category for hypopigmentation (vitiligo) was also assessed. CD8+ T cell immune response was assessed by direct IFN-γ ELIspot. Overall survival and disease-free survival were analyzed by Cox proportional hazards modeling. Results Out of 332 patients, 57 developed IAE's, the majority of which were dermatologic (minimum CTCAE grade 3). Most non-dermatologic IAE's were CTCAE grade 1 and 2. Vitiligo developed in 23 patients (7%). 174 patients (53%) developed a CD8+ response. Presence of IAE was significantly associated with development of IR (70% vs 49%, p = 0.005) and with disease-free survival (HR 0.54, p = 0.043). There were no significant associations relating vitiligo or immune response alone with clinical outcomes. Conclusions Inflammatory adverse events are associated with a higher rate of CD8+ T-cell response following vaccination therapy for high-risk melanoma. Our findings suggest either that antitumor activity induced by Class I-restricted peptide vaccines may depend on immunologic effects beyond simple expansion of CD8+ T-cells or that the intrinsic inflammatory response of patients contributes to clinical outcome in melanoma. PMID:24841355

  10. Survival during the Breeding Season: Nest Stage, Parental Sex, and Season Advancement Affect Reed Warbler Survival

    PubMed Central

    Wierucka, Kaja; Halupka, Lucyna; Klimczuk, Ewelina; Sztwiertnia, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Avian annual survival has received much attention, yet little is known about seasonal patterns in survival, especially of migratory passerines. In order to evaluate survival rates and timing of mortality within the breeding season of adult reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus), mark-recapture data were collected in southwest Poland, between 2006 and 2012. A total of 612 individuals (304 females and 308 males) were monitored throughout the entire breeding season, and their capture-recapture histories were used to model survival rates. Males showed higher survival during the breeding season (0.985, 95% CI: 0.941–0.996) than females (0.869, 95% CI: 0.727–0.937). Survival rates of females declined with the progression of the breeding season (from May to August), while males showed constant survival during this period. We also found a clear pattern within the female (but not male) nesting cycle: survival was significantly lower during the laying, incubation, and nestling periods (0.934, 95% CI: 0.898–0.958), when birds spent much time on the nest, compared to the nest building and fledgling periods (1.000, 95% CI: 1.00–1.000), when we did not record any female mortality. These data (coupled with some direct evidence, like bird corpses or blood remains found next to/on the nest) may suggest that the main cause of adult mortality was on-nest predation. The calculated survival rates for both sexes during the breeding season were high compared to annual rates reported for this species, suggesting that a majority of mortality occurs at other times of the year, during migration or wintering. These results have implications for understanding survival variation within the reproductive period as well as general trends of avian mortality. PMID:26934086

  11. Factors Affecting the Timing of Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reactions.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Masayuki; Imai, Shungo; Uehara, Keiko; Maruyama, Junya; Shimizu, Mikiko; Mochizuki, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated factors affecting the timing of signal detection by comparing variations in reporting time of known and unknown ADRs after initial drug release in the USA. Data on adverse event reactions (AERs) submitted to U.S. FDA was used. Six ADRs associated with 6 drugs (rosuvastatin, aripiprazole, teriparatide, telithromycin, exenatide, varenicline) were investigated: Changes in the proportional reporting ratio, reporting odds ratio, and information component as indexes of signal detection were followed every 3 months after each drugs release, and the time for detection of signals was investigated. The time for the detection of signal to be detected after drug release in the USA was 2-10 months for known ADRs and 19-44 months for unknown ones. The median lag time for known and unknown ADRs was 99.0-122.5 days and 185.5-306.0 days, respectively. When the FDA released advisory information on rare but potentially serious health risks of an unknown ADR, the time lag to report from the onset of ADRs to the FDA was shorter. This study suggested that one factor affecting signal detection time is whether an ADR was known or unknown at release. PMID:26641634

  12. Sexually Dimorphic Responses to Early Adversity: Implications for Affective Problems and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Pfaff, Donald

    2014-01-01

    During gestation, development proceeds at a pace that is unmatched by any other stage of the lifecycle. For these reason the human fetus is particularly susceptible not only to organizing influences, but also to pathogenic disorganizing influences. Growing evidence suggests that exposure to prenatal adversity leads to neurological changes that underlie lifetime risks for mental illness. Beginning early in gestation, males and females show differential developmental trajectories and responses to stress. It is likely that sex-dependent organization of neural circuits during the fetal period influences differential vulnerability to mental health problems. We consider in this review evidence that sexually dimorphic responses to early life stress are linked to two developmental disorders: affective problems (greater female prevalence) and autism spectrum disorder (greater male prevalence). Recent prospective studies illustrating the neurodevelopmental consequences of fetal exposure to stress and stress hormones for males and females are considered here. Plausible biological mechanisms including the role of the sexually differentiated placenta are discussed. We consider in this review evidence that sexually dimorphic responses to early life stress are linked to two sets of developmental disorders: affective problems (greater female prevalence) and autism spectrum disorders (greater male prevalence). PMID:25038479

  13. Weed Seedling Emergence and Survival as Affected by Crop Canopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study measured impact of cool-season crops on seedling emergence, survival, and seed production of weeds common in corn and soybean. Weed dynamics were monitored in permanently-marked quadrats in winter wheat, spring wheat, and canola. Three species, green foxtail, yellow foxtail, and common ...

  14. Circadian timing of single daily 'meal' affects survival of mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, W.; Cadotte, L.; Halberg, F.

    1973-01-01

    It is shown that the survival of young mice after abrupt restriction to a single 4-hr span of daily food accessibility can depend on the temporal placement of this feeding span in relation to the lighting regimen. Housing conditions are an important codeterminant of this response.

  15. 42 CFR 137.445 - Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in other self-governance negotiations? 137.445 Section 137.445..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Appeals Appeals of An Immediate Reassumption of A Self-Governance Program § 137.445 Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect...

  16. 42 CFR 137.445 - Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in other self-governance negotiations? 137.445 Section 137.445..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Appeals Appeals of An Immediate Reassumption of A Self-Governance Program § 137.445 Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect...

  17. 42 CFR 137.445 - Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in other self-governance negotiations? 137.445 Section 137.445..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Appeals Appeals of An Immediate Reassumption of A Self-Governance Program § 137.445 Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect...

  18. 42 CFR 137.445 - Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in other self-governance negotiations? 137.445 Section 137.445..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Appeals Appeals of An Immediate Reassumption of A Self-Governance Program § 137.445 Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect...

  19. 42 CFR 137.445 - Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in other self-governance negotiations? 137.445 Section 137.445..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Appeals Appeals of An Immediate Reassumption of A Self-Governance Program § 137.445 Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect...

  20. Functional TLR5 genetic variants affect human colorectal cancer survival.

    PubMed

    Klimosch, Sascha N; Försti, Asta; Eckert, Jana; Knezevic, Jelena; Bevier, Melanie; von Schönfels, Witigo; Heits, Nils; Walter, Jessica; Hinz, Sebastian; Lascorz, Jesus; Hampe, Jochen; Hartl, Dominik; Frick, Julia-Stefanie; Hemminki, Kari; Schafmayer, Clemens; Weber, Alexander N R

    2013-12-15

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are overexpressed on many types of cancer cells, including colorectal cancer cells, but little is known about the functional relevance of these immune regulatory molecules in malignant settings. Here, we report frequent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the flagellin receptor TLR5 and the TLR downstream effector molecules MyD88 and TIRAP that are associated with altered survival in a large cohort of Caucasian patients with colorectal cancer (n = 613). MYD88 rs4988453, a SNP that maps to a promoter region shared with the acetyl coenzyme-A acyl-transferase-1 (ACAA1), was associated with decreased survival of patients with colorectal cancer and altered transcriptional activity of the proximal genes. In the TLR5 gene, rs5744174/F616L was associated with increased survival, whereas rs2072493/N592S was associated with decreased survival. Both rs2072493/N592S and rs5744174/F616L modulated TLR5 signaling in response to flagellin or to different commensal and pathogenic intestinal bacteria. Notably, we observed a reduction in flagellin-induced p38 phosphorylation, CD62L shedding, and elevated expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β mRNA in human primary immune cells from TLR5 616LL homozygote carriers, as compared with 616FF carriers. This finding suggested that the well-documented effect of cytokines like IL-6 on colorectal cancer progression might be mediated by TLR5 genotype-dependent flagellin sensing. Our results establish an important link between TLR signaling and human colorectal cancer with relevance for biomarker and therapy development. PMID:24154872

  1. Early Life in a Barren Environment Adversely Affects Spatial Cognition in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Nordgreen, Janicke; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition in vertebrates is adversely affected by a lack of environmental complexity during early life. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies have tested the effect of early exposure to varying degrees of environmental complexity on specific components of spatial cognition in chickens. There are two main rearing systems for laying hens in the EU: aviaries and cages. These two systems differ from one another in environmental complexity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that rearing in a barren cage environment relative to a complex aviary environment causes long-lasting deficits in the ability to perform spatial tasks. For this purpose, 24 white Dekalb laying hens, half of which had been reared in an aviary system and the other half in a conventional cage system, were tested in a holeboard task. Birds from both treatment groups learnt the task; however, the cage-reared hens required more time to locate rewards and had poorer levels of working memory. The latter finding supports the hypothesis that rearing in a barren environment causes long-term impairment of short-term memory in chickens. PMID:26664932

  2. Exposing physicians to reduced residency work hours did not adversely affect patient outcomes after residency.

    PubMed

    Jena, Anupam B; Schoemaker, Lena; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2014-10-01

    In 2003, work hours for physicians-in-training (residents) were capped by regulation at eighty hours per week, leading to the hotly debated but unexplored issue of whether physicians today are less well trained as a result of these work-hour reforms. Using a unique database of nearly all hospitalizations in Florida during 2000-09 that were linked to detailed information on the medical training history of the physician of record for each hospitalization, we studied whether hospital mortality and patients' length-of-stay varied according to the number of years a physician was exposed to the 2003 duty-hour regulations during his or her residency. We examined this database of practicing Florida physicians, using a difference-in-differences analysis that compared trends in outcomes of junior physicians (those with one-year post-residency experience) pre- and post-2003 to a control group of senior physicians (those with ten or more years of post-residency experience) who were not exposed to these reforms during their residency. We found that the duty-hour reforms did not adversely affect hospital mortality and length-of-stay of patients cared for by new attending physicians who were partly or fully exposed to reduced duty hours during their own residency. However, assessment of the impact of the duty-hour reforms on other clinical outcomes is needed. PMID:25288430

  3. Neonicotinoid clothianidin adversely affects insect immunity and promotes replication of a viral pathogen in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Di Prisco, Gennaro; Cavaliere, Valeria; Annoscia, Desiderato; Varricchio, Paola; Caprio, Emilio; Nazzi, Francesco; Gargiulo, Giuseppe; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2013-11-12

    Large-scale losses of honey bee colonies represent a poorly understood problem of global importance. Both biotic and abiotic factors are involved in this phenomenon that is often associated with high loads of parasites and pathogens. A stronger impact of pathogens in honey bees exposed to neonicotinoid insecticides has been reported, but the causal link between insecticide exposure and the possible immune alteration of honey bees remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin negatively modulates NF-κB immune signaling in insects and adversely affects honey bee antiviral defenses controlled by this transcription factor. We have identified in insects a negative modulator of NF-κB activation, which is a leucine-rich repeat protein. Exposure to clothianidin, by enhancing the transcription of the gene encoding this inhibitor, reduces immune defenses and promotes the replication of the deformed wing virus in honey bees bearing covert infections. This honey bee immunosuppression is similarly induced by a different neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, but not by the organophosphate chlorpyriphos, which does not affect NF-κB signaling. The occurrence at sublethal doses of this insecticide-induced viral proliferation suggests that the studied neonicotinoids might have a negative effect at the field level. Our experiments uncover a further level of regulation of the immune response in insects and set the stage for studies on neural modulation of immunity in animals. Furthermore, this study has implications for the conservation of bees, as it will contribute to the definition of more appropriate guidelines for testing chronic or sublethal effects of pesticides used in agriculture. PMID:24145453

  4. Sex Steroid Hormone Receptor Expression Affects Ovarian Cancer Survival12

    PubMed Central

    Jönsson, Jenny-Maria; Skovbjerg Arildsen, Nicolai; Malander, Susanne; Måsbäck, Anna; Hartman, Linda; Nilbert, Mef; Hedenfalk, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Although most ovarian cancers express estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and androgen (AR) receptors, they are currently not applied in clinical decision making. We explored the prognostic impact of sex steroid hormone receptor protein and mRNA expression on survival in epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods: Immunohistochemical stainings for ERα, ERβ, PR, and AR were assessed in relation to survival in 118 serous and endometrioid ovarian cancers. Expression of the genes encoding the four receptors was studied in relation to prognosis in the molecular subtypes of ovarian cancer in an independent data set, hypothesizing that the expression levels and prognostic impact may differ between the subtypes. Results: Expression of PR or AR protein was associated with improved 5-year progression-free (P = .001 for both) and overall survival (P < .001 for both, log-rank test). ERα and ERβ did not provide prognostic information. Patients whose tumors coexpressed PR and AR had the most favorable prognosis, and this effect was retained in multivariable analyses. Analyses of the corresponding genes using an independent data set revealed differences among the molecular subtypes, but no clear relationship between high coexpression of PGR and AR and prognosis. Conclusions: A favorable outcome was seen for patients whose tumors coexpressed PR and AR. Gene expression data suggested variable effects in the different molecular subtypes. These findings demonstrate a prognostic role for PR and AR in ovarian cancer and support that tumors should be stratified based on molecular as well as histological subtypes in future studies investigating the role of endocrine treatment in ovarian cancer. PMID:26500033

  5. Signet ring cell histology is associated with unique clinical features but does not affect gastric cancer survival.

    PubMed

    Theuer, C P; Nastanski, F; Brewster, W R; Butler, J A; Anton-Culver, H

    1999-10-01

    Signet ring cell histology is found in 3 to 39 per cent of gastric cancer cases and has been reported to be a feature of poor prognosis, although this issue has not been rigorously examined. The objective of this study was to determine those demographic and clinical variables associated with signet ring cell histology and to determine the effect of signet ring cell histology on survival using multivariate analyses. We studied a historical cohort of consecutive cases of gastric cancer reported to the population-based California Cancer Registries of Orange, San Diego, and Imperial Counties from 1984 through 1994. Factors associated with signet ring cell histology were assessed using chi2 and logistic regression. Life tables were constructed to assess unadjusted survival and survival differences in patient subgroups. Multivariate survival was determined using a Cox proportional hazards model. Of 3020 patients, 464 (15%) had signet ring cell histology. Patients with signet ring cell histology were more likely to be younger than 50 years (odds ratio (OR) = 2.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6-3.5), less likely to be male (OR = 0.49; 95% CI = 0.37-0.66), and more likely to have tumors of the distal stomach (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.4-3.0). Signet ring cell histology did not adversely affect unadjusted overall survival, race-stratified survival, or stage-stratified survival. Multivariate analysis indicated that patients with signet ring cell histology had an insignificant increased risk of dying (relative risk = 1.027; P>0.10) in comparison with patients without signet ring cell histology. Patients with signet ring cell histology were more likely to be young women and to have tumors of the distal stomach. Signet ring cell histology did not impact survival in our group of largely advanced gastric cancer cases. PMID:10515534

  6. Probabilities of adverse weather affecting transport in Europe: climatology and scenarios up to the 2050s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajda, A.; Tuomenvirta, H.; Jokinen, P.; Luomaranta, A.; Makkonen, L.; Tikanmäki, M.; Groenemeijer, P.; Saarikivi, P.; Michaelides, S.; Papadakis, M.; Tymvios, F.; Athanasatos, S.

    2012-04-01

    This paper provides the first comprehensive climatology of the adverse and extreme weather events affecting the European transport system by estimating the frequency (or probability) of phenomena for the present climate (1971-2000) and an overview of the projected changes in some of these extremes in the future climate until the 2050s. The research was carried out within the framework of the EWENT Project that addresses the European Union (EU) policies and strategies related to climate change, with a particular focus on extreme weather impacts on the EU transportation system. This project is funded by the Seventh Framework Programme (Transports, call ID FPT7-TPT-2008-RTD-1). The analyzed phenomena are wind, snow, blizzards, heavy precipitation, cold spells and heat waves. In addition, reduced visibility conditions determined by fog and dust events, small-scale phenomena affecting the transport system, such as thunderstorms, lightning, large hail and tornadoes and events damaging infrastructure of the transport system, have been considered. Frequency and probability analysis of past and present ex¬tremes were performed using observational and atmospheric reanalysis data. Future changes in the probability of severe events were assessed based on six regional climate model simulations produced in the FP6 ENSEMBLES project (http://www.ensembles-eu.org/). To facilitate the assessment of impacts and consequences of extreme phenomena on a continental level, the WP2 Deliverable introduces a regionalization of the European extreme phenomena, defining the climate zones with similarities in extreme phenomena. The projected changes as well as large natural variability in weather extremes on the transportation network will have impacts of both signs. The decline of extreme cold and snowfall over most of the continent implies a positive impact on road, rail, inland water and air transportation, e.g., by reducing snow removal. However, even with a general decreasing trend in

  7. A systematic review of psychosocial factors affecting survival after bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hoodin, Flora; Weber, Shauncie

    2003-01-01

    An electronic database search identified 15 studies of psychosocial factors affecting survival after bone marrow transplantation. The studies were assessed for methodological quality by two reviewers using the procedures of Bland and colleagues. Although some studies found that psychological variables affect survival after bone marrow transplantation, the reviewers' analysis of the methodologically sound studies suggested that survival after bone marrow transplantation is not substantively affected by depressed mood or other psychopathology in adults or by social support in adults or children. Longer survival may be related to lower "anxious preoccupation," higher "fighting spirit," and better quality of life ratings before and soon after transplant in adults. Overall, however, the literature is insufficiently developed to provide definitive evidence for a relationship between psychological variables and survival after bone marrow transplantation. Future primary studies in this area should be designed to maximize replicability and generalizability. PMID:12724499

  8. 41 CFR 102-78.40 - What responsibilities do Federal agencies have when an undertaking adversely affects a historic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... guidance on the protection of historic and cultural properties in 36 CFR part 800. ... Federal agencies have when an undertaking adversely affects a historic or cultural property? 102-78.40... (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 78-HISTORIC PRESERVATION Historic Preservation §...

  9. 25 CFR 900.244 - Will an Indian tribe or tribal organization's retrocession adversely affect funding available for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Will an Indian tribe or tribal organization's retrocession adversely affect funding available for the retroceded program? 900.244 Section 900.244 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, AND INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTS UNDER THE...

  10. 50 CFR 402.45 - Alternative consultation on FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Counterpart Regulations Governing Actions by the U.S... that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat. 402.45 Section...

  11. 50 CFR 402.45 - Alternative consultation on FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Counterpart Regulations Governing Actions by the U.S... that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat. 402.45 Section...

  12. Factors affecting post-capture survivability of lobster Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Basti, David; Bricknell, Ian; Hoyt, Ken; Chang, Ernest S; Halteman, William; Bouchard, Deborah

    2010-06-11

    Technological advances in gear and fishing practices have driven the global expansion of the American lobster live seafood market. These changes have had a positive effect on the lobster industry by increasing capture efficiency. However, it is unknown what effect these improved methods will have on the post-capture fitness and survival of lobsters. This project utilized a repeated measures design to compare the physiological changes that occur in lobsters over time as the result of differences in depth, hauling rate, and storage methodology. The results indicate that lobsters destined for long distance transport or temporary storage in pounds undergo physiological disturbance as part of the capture process. These changes are significant over time for total hemocyte counts, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone, L-lactate, ammonia, and glucose. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) for glucose indicates a significant interaction between depth and storage methodology over time for non-survivors. A Gram-negative bacterium, Photobacterium indicum, was identified in pure culture from hemolymph samples of 100% of weak lobsters. Histopathology revealed the presence of Gram-negative bacteria throughout the tissues with evidence of antemortem edema and necrosis suggestive of septicemia. On the basis of these findings, we recommend to the lobster industry that if a reduction in depth and hauling rate is not economically feasible, fishermen should take particular care in handling lobsters and provide them with a recovery period in recirculating seawater prior to land transport. The ecological role of P. indicum is not fully defined at this time. However, it may be an emerging opportunistic pathogen of stressed lobsters. Judicious preemptive antibiotic therapy may be necessary to reduce mortality in susceptible lobsters destined for high-density holding facilities. PMID:20662372

  13. Exposure to serotonin adversely affects oligodendrocyte development and myelination in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lir-Wan; Bhatt, Abhay; Tien, Lu-Tai; Zheng, Baoying; Simpson, Kimberly L; Lin, Rick C S; Cai, Zhengwei; Kumar, Praveen; Pang, Yi

    2015-05-01

    patterns of contactin-associated protein (Caspr) clustering were observed at the sites of Node of Ranvier, suggesting that 5-HT exposure may affect other axon-derived factors for myelination. In summary, this is the first study to demonstrate that manipulation of serotonin levels affects OL development and myelination, which may contribute to altered neural connectivity noted in SSRIs-treated animals. The current in vitro study demonstrated that exposure to high level of serotonin (5-HT) led to aberrant oligodendrocyte (OL) development, cell injury, and myelination deficit. We propose that elevated extracellular serotonin levels in the fetal brain, such as upon the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy, may adversely affect OL development and/or myelination, thus contributing to altered neural connectivity seen in Autism Spectrum Disorders. OPC = oligodendrocyte progenitor cell. PMID:25382136

  14. Factors affecting survival in total artificial heart recipients before transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, A T; Gandjbakhch, I; Pavie, A; Muneretto, C; Solis, E; Bors, V; Leger, P; Vaissier, E; Levasseur, J P; Szefner, J

    1990-11-01

    To identify factors affecting the successful bridge to transplantation, experience with 32 recipients of the Jarvik-7 artificial heart was reviewed. Between patients with and without a successful bridge, there were no significant differences in preoperative hepatorenal function or postoperative hemodynamics, but there were significant differences in body size. When recipients were divided according to body surface areas of less than or greater than 1.8 m2, the smaller patients more frequently developed respirator dependence (73% vs. 18%, p less than 0.01), renal failure (53% vs. 18%, p less than 0.05), and hepatic failure and sepsis, resulting in less frequent qualification for transplantation (20% vs. 65%, p less than 0.05). There were no successful bridge operations in seven patients with body surface areas of less than 1.7 m2, and only one success in nine patients who were less than 170 cm in height, despite use of a smaller stroke volume model. The smaller patients had poorer ventricular filling, which was largely compensated for by the drive controls set for significantly longer diastole and higher vacuum, resulting in similar hemodynamics between the groups. The results suggest that device fitting as manifested by body size is an important factor affecting major organ recovery and subsequent transplantation in recipients of the Jarvik-7 artificial heart. A paracorporeal device may be advisable for patients with body surface areas of less than 1.8 m2 or who were less than 175 cm in height until an even smaller model with a better fit in the thorax becomes available. PMID:2225424

  15. Correlation of adverse effects of cisplatin administration in patients affected by solid tumours: A retrospective evaluation

    PubMed Central

    ASTOLFI, LAURA; GHISELLI, SARA; GUARAN, VALERIA; CHICCA, MILVIA; SIMONI, EDI; OLIVETTO, ELENA; LELLI, GIORGIO; MARTINI, ALESSANDRO

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatin is the most common antineoplastic drug used for the therapy of solid tumours. To date, researchers have focused on the dosage to be administered for each specific tumour, mainly considering the local adverse effects. The aim of this study was to correlate the severity of the adverse effects with: i) the dosage of cisplatin; ii) the specific site of the tumour; iii) the association with other drugs; and iv) the symptoms. We analysed data from 123 patients with 11 different tumour classes undergoing therapy from 2007 to 2008 at St. Anna Hospital (Ferrara, Italy), using the Spearman non-parametric correlation index. Even though significant correlations were found among the variables, the overall results showed that the main factor influencing the severity of the adverse effects was the dosage of cisplatin administered. PMID:23404427

  16. Factors affecting survivability of local Rohilkhand goats under organized farm

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, D.; Patel, B. H. M.; Sahu, S.; Gaur, G. K.; Singh, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To study the pattern of mortality as affected by age, season and various diseases in local goats of Rohilkhand region maintained at the Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bareilly. Materials and Methods: Post-mortem records of 12 years (2000-01 to 2011-12) were used, and total 243 mortality data were collected and analyzed. The causes of mortality were classified into seven major classes viz. digestive disorders, respiratory disorders, cardiovascular disorders, musculoskeletal disorder, parasitic disorders, mixed disorders (combination of digestive, respiratory, parasitic, and cardiovascular disorders) and miscellaneous disorders (cold, hypoglycemia, emaciation, endometritis, traumatic injury, etc.). Results: The average mortality was 10.93%. The overall mortality was more during rainy season followed by winter and summer season. The mortality in 4-6 months of age was high (2.52%) followed by 0-1 month (2.34%) and 2-3 months (1.35%). The average mortality among adult age groups (>12 months) was 3.42%. The mortality showed declining trend with the advancement of age up to 3 months and then again increased in 4-6 months age group. The digestive diseases (3.51%) followed by respiratory diseases (1.89%) and parasitic diseases (1.48%) contributed major share to the total mortality occurred and the remaining disorders were of lesser significance in causing death in goats. There is significant (p<0.01; χ2=55.62) association between year with season and age with the season (p<0.05, χ2=16.083) found in the present study. Conclusion: This study confirms that overall mortality rate averaged 10.93% (ranged between 1.10% and 25.56%) over 12 years under semi-intensive farm condition. It was generally higher in rainy season. The mortality remains higher in kids particularly under 1 month of age. The digestive diseases contributed major share to overall mortality. PMID:27047020

  17. Severe Affective and Behavioural Dysregulation Is Associated with Significant Psychosocial Adversity and Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jucksch, Viola; Salbach-Andrae, Harriet; Lenz, Klaus; Goth, Kirstin; Dopfner, Manfred; Poustka, Fritz; Freitag, Christine M.; Lehmkuhl, Gerd; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Holtmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Recently, a highly heritable behavioral phenotype of simultaneous deviance on the Anxious/Depressed, Attention Problems, and Aggressive Behavior syndrome scales has been identified on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL-Dysregulation Profile, CBCL-DP). This study aims to investigate psychosocial adversity and impairment of the CBCL-DP.…

  18. Genetic variants determining survival and fertility in an adverse African environment: a population-based large-scale candidate gene association study

    PubMed Central

    Koopman, Jacob J.E.; Pijpe, Jeroen; Böhringer, Stefan; van Bodegom, David; Eriksson, Ulrika K.; Sanchez-Faddeev, Hernando; Ziem, Juventus B.; Zwaan, Bas; Slagboom, P. Eline; de Knijff, Peter; Westendorp, Rudi G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Human survival probability and fertility decline strongly with age. These life history traits have been shaped by evolution. However, research has failed to uncover a consistent genetic determination of variation in survival and fertility. As an explanation, such genetic determinants have been selected in adverse environments, in which humans have lived during most of their history, but are almost exclusively studied in populations in modern affluent environments. Here, we present a large-scale candidate gene association study in a rural African population living in an adverse environment. In 4387 individuals, we studied 4052 SNPs in 148 genes that have previously been identified as possible determinants of survival or fertility in animals or humans. We studied their associations with survival comparing newborns, middle-age adults, and old individuals. In women, we assessed their associations with reported and observed numbers of children. We found no statistically significant associations of these SNPs with survival between the three age groups nor with women's reported and observed fertility. Population stratification was unlikely to explain these results. Apart from a lack of power, we hypothesise that genetic heterogeneity of complex phenotypes and gene-environment interactions prevent the identification of genetic variants explaining variation in survival and fertility in humans. PMID:27356285

  19. Factors affecting breeding season survival of Red-Headed Woodpeckers in South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgo, John, C.; Vukovich, Mark

    2011-11-18

    Red-headed woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) populations have declined in the United States and Canada over the past 40 years. However, few demographic studies have been published on the species and none have addressed adult survival. During 2006-2007, we estimated survival probabilities of 80 radio-tagged red-headed woodpeckers during the breeding season in mature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forests in South Carolina. We used known-fate models in Program MARK to estimate survival within and between years and to evaluate the effects of foliar cover (number of available cover patches), snag density treatment (high density vs. low density), and sex and age of woodpeckers. Weekly survival probabilities followed a quadratic time trend, being lowest during mid-summer, which coincided with the late nestling and fledgling period. Avian predation, particularly by Cooper's (Accipiter cooperii) and sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus), accounted for 85% of all mortalities. Our best-supported model estimated an 18-week breeding season survival probability of 0.72 (95% CI = 0.54-0.85) and indicated that the number of cover patches interacted with sex of woodpeckers to affect survival; females with few available cover patches had a lower probability of survival than either males or females with more cover patches. At the median number of cover patches available (n = 6), breeding season survival of females was 0.82 (95% CI = 0.54-0.94) and of males was 0.60 (95% CI = 0.42-0.76). The number of cover patches available to woodpeckers appeared in all 3 of our top models predicting weekly survival, providing further evidence that woodpecker survival was positively associated with availability of cover. Woodpecker survival was not associated with snag density. Our results suggest that protection of {ge}0.7 cover patches per ha during vegetation control activities in mature pine forests will benefit survival of this Partners In Flight Watch List species.

  20. 30 CFR 285.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 285.816 Section 285.816 Mineral Resources..., pipeline, or facility? If environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or...

  1. Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutteling, Barbara M.; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50…

  2. Can aircraft noise less than or equal 115 to dBA adversely affect reproductive outcome in USAF women?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brubaker, P. A.

    1985-06-01

    It has been suggested, mainly through animal studies, that exposure to high noise levels may be associated with lower birth weight, reduced gestational length and other adverse reproductive outcomes. Few studies have been done on humans to show this association. The Air Force employs pregnant women in areas where there is a high potential for exposure to high noise levels. This study proposes a method to determine if there is an association between high frequency noise levels or = 115 dBA and adverse reproductive outcomes through a review of records and self-administered questionnaires in a case-comparison design. Prevelance rates will be calculated and a multiple logistic regression analysis computed for the independent variables that can affect reproduction.

  3. Stress and morphine affect survival of rats challenged with a mammary ascites tumor (MAT 13762B).

    PubMed

    Lewis, J W; Shavit, Y; Terman, G W; Gale, R P; Liebeskind, J C

    We have previously shown that exposure to inescapable footshock stress decreases survival of rats injected with a mammary ascites tumor (MAT 13762B). This increased vulnerability to the tumor challenge was prevented by an opiate antagonist, naltrexone, suggesting mediation by opioid peptides. Supporting this hypothesis, we now report that a high dose of an opiate agonist, morphine, also reduces survival of rats given the same tumor. This effect shows tolerance after 14 daily injections. The adverse effect of stress, however, did not show other signs of opioid involvement: it manifested neither tolerance with repeated stress exposures nor cross-tolerance in morphine-tolerant rats. Our recent findings that stress and morphine reduce natural killer cell cytotoxicity in a similar fashion suggest an immune mechanism that may explain the present results. PMID:6678390

  4. Adverse childhood experiences associate to reduced glutamate levels in the hippocampus of patients affected by mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Sara; Locatelli, Clara; Falini, Andrea; Colombo, Cristina; Benedetti, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) can possibly permanently alter the stress response system, affect the glutamatergic system and influence hippocampal volume in mood disorders. The aim of the study is to investigate the association between glutamate levels in the hippocampus, measured through single proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), and ACE in patients affected by mood disorders and healthy controls. Higher levels of early stress associate to reduced levels of Glx/Cr in the hippocampus in depressed patients but not in healthy controls. Exposure to stress during early life could lead to a hypofunctionality of the glutamatergic system in the hippocampus of depressed patients. Abnormalities of glutamatergic signaling could then possibly underpin the structural and functional abnormalities observed in patients affected by mood disorders. PMID:27449360

  5. Elevated depressive affect is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes among African Americans with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Michael J.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Greene, Tom; Gassman, Jennifer J.; Wang, Xuelei; Brooks, Deborah H.; Charleston, Jeanne; Dowie, Donna; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Cooper, Lisa A.; Bruce, Marino A.; Kusek, John W.; Norris, Keith C.; Lash, James P.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the impact of elevated depressive affect on health outcomes among participants with hypertensive chronic kidney disease in the African-American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) Cohort Study. Elevated depressive affect was defined by Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) thresholds of 11 or more, above 14, and by 5-Unit increments in the score. Cox regression analyses were used to relate cardiovascular death/hospitalization, doubling of serum creatinine/end-stage renal disease, overall hospitalization, and all-cause death to depressive affect evaluated at baseline, the most recent annual visit (time-varying), or average from baseline to the most recent visit (cumulative). Among 628 participants at baseline, 42% had BDI-II scores of 11 or more and 26% had a score above 14. During a 5-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of cardiovascular death/hospitalization was significantly greater for participants with baseline BDI-II scores of 11 or more compared with those with scores <11. The baseline, time-varying, and cumulative elevated depressive affect were each associated with a significant higher risk of cardiovascular death/hospitalization, especially with a time-varying BDI-II score over 14 (adjusted HR 1.63) but not with the other outcomes. Thus, elevated depressive affect is associated with unfavorable cardiovascular outcomes in African Americans with hypertensive chronic kidney disease. PMID:21633409

  6. Impaired Glucose Tolerance or Newly Diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus Diagnosed during Admission Adversely Affects Prognosis after Myocardial Infarction: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    George, Anish; Bhatia, Raghav T.; Buchanan, Gill L.; Whiteside, Anne; Moisey, Robert S.; Beer, Stephen F.; Chattopadhyay, Sudipta; Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; John, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prognostic effect of newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus (NDM) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) post myocardial infarction (MI). Research Design and Methods Retrospective cohort study of 768 patients without preexisting diabetes mellitus post-MI at one centre in Yorkshire between November 2005 and October 2008. Patients were categorised as normal glucose tolerance (NGT n = 337), IGT (n = 279) and NDM (n = 152) on pre- discharge oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Primary end-point was the first occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) including cardiovascular death, non-fatal MI, severe heart failure (HF) or non-haemorrhagic stroke. Secondary end-points were all cause mortality and individual components of MACE. Results Prevalence of NGT, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), IGT and NDM changed from 90%, 6%, 0% and 4% on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) to 43%, 1%, 36% and 20% respectively after OGTT. 102 deaths from all causes (79 as first events of which 46 were cardiovascular), 95 non fatal MI, 18 HF and 9 non haemorrhagic strokes occurred during 47.2 ± 9.4 months follow up. Event free survival was lower in IGT and NDM groups. IGT (HR 1.54, 95% CI: 1.06–2.24, p = 0.024) and NDM (HR 2.15, 95% CI: 1.42–3.24, p = 0.003) independently predicted MACE free survival. IGT and NDM also independently predicted incidence of MACE. NDM but not IGT increased the risk of secondary end-points. Conclusion Presence of IGT and NDM in patients presenting post-MI, identified using OGTT, is associated with increased incidence of MACE and is associated with adverse outcomes despite adequate secondary prevention. PMID:26571120

  7. Water pollution by Cu and Pb can adversely affect mallard embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Kertész, Virág; Bakonyi, Gábor; Farkas, Beáta

    2006-09-01

    The effects of heavy metal pollutants on aquatic birds have been widely studied in ecotoxicological investigations; however, the predominant focus has been on the postnatal period of life. Limited information on the adverse effects of metals to bird eggs is available. The possible toxic effects of lead and copper were studied in mallard eggs. After the accidental severe heavy metal pollution of the Tisa river (Hungary) in March 2000, these metals were detected in the highest concentration in both the water and the sediment, reaching far beyond acceptable concentrations. Pb treatment (2.9 mg/L) significantly increased the rate of mortality after a single immersion of the eggs into polluted water for 30 min. The rate of dead embryos significantly increased after the combined exposure to Cu and Pb (0.86 and 2.9 mg/L, respectively) both in the single- (once for 30 min) and in the multiple- (10s daily during first trimester of incubation) immersion groups. It was concluded that elevated metal concentrations similar to those found in the Tisa river after the tailing dam failure may cause toxic effects (mortality and teratogenicity) upon exposure of mallard eggs. PMID:16678261

  8. Orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 affects cardiomyocyte calcium homeostasis and adverse cardiac remodelling

    PubMed Central

    Medzikovic, Lejla; Schumacher, Cees A.; Verkerk, Arie O.; van Deel, Elza D.; Wolswinkel, Rianne; van der Made, Ingeborg; Bleeker, Natascha; Cakici, Daniella; van den Hoogenhof, Maarten M. G.; Meggouh, Farid; Creemers, Esther E.; Ann Remme, Carol; Baartscheer, Antonius; de Winter, Robbert J.; de Vries, Carlie J. M.; Arkenbout, E. Karin; de Waard, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    Distinct stressors may induce heart failure. As compensation, β-adrenergic stimulation enhances myocardial contractility by elevating cardiomyocyte intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i). However, chronic β-adrenergic stimulation promotes adverse cardiac remodelling. Cardiac expression of nuclear receptor Nur77 is enhanced by β-adrenergic stimulation, but its role in cardiac remodelling is still unclear. We show high and rapid Nur77 upregulation in cardiomyocytes stimulated with β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. Nur77 knockdown in culture resulted in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes. Ventricular cardiomyocytes from Nur77-deficient (Nur77-KO) mice exhibited elevated diastolic and systolic [Ca2+]i and prolonged action potentials compared to wild type (WT). In vivo, these differences resulted in larger cardiomyocytes, increased expression of hypertrophic genes, and more cardiac fibrosis in Nur77-KO mice upon chronic isoproterenol stimulation. In line with the observed elevated [Ca2+]i, Ca2+-activated phosphatase calcineurin was more active in Nur77-KO mice compared to WT. In contrast, after cardiac pressure overload by aortic constriction, Nur77-KO mice exhibited attenuated remodelling compared to WT. Concluding, Nur77-deficiency results in significantly altered cardiac Ca2+ homeostasis and distinct remodelling outcome depending on the type of insult. Detailed knowledge on the role of Nur77 in maintaining cardiomyocyte Ca2+ homeostasis and the dual role Nur77 plays in cardiac remodelling will aid in developing personalized therapies against heart failure. PMID:26486271

  9. Coralline algal physiology is more adversely affected by elevated temperature than reduced pH.

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Elizondo, Román Manuel; Enríquez, Susana

    2016-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the physiological responses of coralline algae to ocean acidification (OA) and global warming, by exposing algal thalli of three species with contrasting photobiology and growth-form to reduced pH and elevated temperature. The analysis aimed to discern between direct and combined effects, while elucidating the role of light and photosynthesis inhibition in this response. We demonstrate the high sensitivity of coralline algae to photodamage under elevated temperature and its severe consequences on thallus photosynthesis and calcification rates. Moderate levels of light-stress, however, were maintained under reduced pH, resulting in no impact on algal photosynthesis, although moderate adverse effects on calcification rates were still observed. Accordingly, our results support the conclusion that global warming is a stronger threat to algal performance than OA, in particular in highly illuminated habitats such as coral reefs. We provide in this study a quantitative physiological model for the estimation of the impact of thermal-stress on coralline carbonate production, useful to foresee the impact of global warming on coralline contribution to reef carbon budgets, reef cementation, coral recruitment and the maintenance of reef biodiversity. This model, however, cannot yet account for the moderate physiological impact of low pH on coralline calcification. PMID:26740396

  10. Coralline algal physiology is more adversely affected by elevated temperature than reduced pH

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez-Elizondo, Román Manuel; Enríquez, Susana

    2016-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the physiological responses of coralline algae to ocean acidification (OA) and global warming, by exposing algal thalli of three species with contrasting photobiology and growth-form to reduced pH and elevated temperature. The analysis aimed to discern between direct and combined effects, while elucidating the role of light and photosynthesis inhibition in this response. We demonstrate the high sensitivity of coralline algae to photodamage under elevated temperature and its severe consequences on thallus photosynthesis and calcification rates. Moderate levels of light-stress, however, were maintained under reduced pH, resulting in no impact on algal photosynthesis, although moderate adverse effects on calcification rates were still observed. Accordingly, our results support the conclusion that global warming is a stronger threat to algal performance than OA, in particular in highly illuminated habitats such as coral reefs. We provide in this study a quantitative physiological model for the estimation of the impact of thermal-stress on coralline carbonate production, useful to foresee the impact of global warming on coralline contribution to reef carbon budgets, reef cementation, coral recruitment and the maintenance of reef biodiversity. This model, however, cannot yet account for the moderate physiological impact of low pH on coralline calcification. PMID:26740396

  11. Lima bean – lady beetle interactions: hooked trichomes affect survival of Stethorus punctillum larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested the hypothesis that Lima bean Phaseolus lunatus L. (Henderson cultivar) trichome density affects the survival of the acariphagous lady beetle Stethorus punctillum Weise. When isolated throughout larval development, 10% or less of S. punctillum larvae reared on two-spotted spider mite Tetr...

  12. Weight Reduction in Athletes May Adversely Affect the Phagocytic Function of Monocytes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kono, Ichiro; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Study of the monocyte phagocytic function in nine competitive athletes before and after a two-week weight reduction (through calorie restriction) program revealed that their pre-program phagocytic activity was higher than in sedentary controls but decreased significantly after the program. This suggests calorie restriction may affect the human…

  13. Re-Evaluating Neonatal-Age Models for Ungulates: Does Model Choice Affect Survival Estimates?

    PubMed Central

    Grovenburg, Troy W.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Jacques, Christopher N.; Klaver, Robert W.; DePerno, Christopher S.; Brinkman, Todd J.; Monteith, Kyle B.; Gilbert, Sophie L.; Smith, Joshua B.; Bleich, Vernon C.; Swanson, Christopher C.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    New-hoof growth is regarded as the most reliable metric for predicting age of newborn ungulates, but variation in estimated age among hoof-growth equations that have been developed may affect estimates of survival in staggered-entry models. We used known-age newborns to evaluate variation in age estimates among existing hoof-growth equations and to determine the consequences of that variation on survival estimates. During 2001–2009, we captured and radiocollared 174 newborn (≤24-hrs old) ungulates: 76 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Minnesota and South Dakota, 61 mule deer (O. hemionus) in California, and 37 pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) in South Dakota. Estimated age of known-age newborns differed among hoof-growth models and varied by >15 days for white-tailed deer, >20 days for mule deer, and >10 days for pronghorn. Accuracy (i.e., the proportion of neonates assigned to the correct age) in aging newborns using published equations ranged from 0.0% to 39.4% in white-tailed deer, 0.0% to 3.3% in mule deer, and was 0.0% for pronghorns. Results of survival modeling indicated that variability in estimates of age-at-capture affected short-term estimates of survival (i.e., 30 days) for white-tailed deer and mule deer, and survival estimates over a longer time frame (i.e., 120 days) for mule deer. Conversely, survival estimates for pronghorn were not affected by estimates of age. Our analyses indicate that modeling survival in daily intervals is too fine a temporal scale when age-at-capture is unknown given the potential inaccuracies among equations used to estimate age of neonates. Instead, weekly survival intervals are more appropriate because most models accurately predicted ages within 1 week of the known age. Variation among results of neonatal-age models on short- and long-term estimates of survival for known-age young emphasizes the importance of selecting an appropriate hoof-growth equation and appropriately defining intervals (i.e., weekly

  14. Re-evaluating neonatal-age models for ungulates: Does model choice affect survival estimates?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grovenburg, Troy W.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Jacques, Christopher N.; Klaver, Robert W.; DePerno, Christopher S.; Brinkman, Todd J.; Monteith, Kyle B.; Gilbert, Sophie L.; Smith, Joshua B.; Bleich, Vernon C.; Swanson, Christopher C.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    New-hoof growth is regarded as the most reliable metric for predicting age of newborn ungulates, but variation in estimated age among hoof-growth equations that have been developed may affect estimates of survival in staggered-entry models. We used known-age newborns to evaluate variation in age estimates among existing hoof-growth equations and to determine the consequences of that variation on survival estimates. During 2001–2009, we captured and radiocollared 174 newborn (≤24-hrs old) ungulates: 76 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Minnesota and South Dakota, 61 mule deer (O. hemionus) in California, and 37 pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) in South Dakota. Estimated age of known-age newborns differed among hoof-growth models and varied by >15 days for white-tailed deer, >20 days for mule deer, and >10 days for pronghorn. Accuracy (i.e., the proportion of neonates assigned to the correct age) in aging newborns using published equations ranged from 0.0% to 39.4% in white-tailed deer, 0.0% to 3.3% in mule deer, and was 0.0% for pronghorns. Results of survival modeling indicated that variability in estimates of age-at-capture affected short-term estimates of survival (i.e., 30 days) for white-tailed deer and mule deer, and survival estimates over a longer time frame (i.e., 120 days) for mule deer. Conversely, survival estimates for pronghorn were not affected by estimates of age. Our analyses indicate that modeling survival in daily intervals is too fine a temporal scale when age-at-capture is unknown given the potential inaccuracies among equations used to estimate age of neonates. Instead, weekly survival intervals are more appropriate because most models accurately predicted ages within 1 week of the known age. Variation among results of neonatal-age models on short- and long-term estimates of survival for known-age young emphasizes the importance of selecting an appropriate hoof-growth equation and appropriately defining intervals (i.e., weekly

  15. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy with FOLFOX4 Regimen to Treat Advanced Gastric Cancer Improves Survival without Increasing Adverse Events: A Retrospective Cohort Study from a Chinese Center

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Rui-Juan; Yang, Gui-Fang; Li, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of FOLFOX4 (5-fluomumcil/leucovorin combined and oxaliplatin) neoadjuvant chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer (AGC). Patients and Methods. Fifty-eight AGC patients were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study, 23 in the neoadjuvant group and 35 in the adjuvant group. R0 resection, survival, and adverse events were compared. Results. The two groups were well-matched, with no significant differences in R0 resection rate (82.6% versus 82.0%) and number of lymph nodes dissection (16 (0–49) versus 13 (3–40)) between the two groups (P > 0.05). The number of lymph node metastases in the neoadjuvant group (3 (0–14)) was significantly fewer than that in the adjuvant group (6 (0–27)) (P = 0.04). The neoadjuvant group had significantly better median overall survival (29.0 versus 22.0 months) and 3-year survival rate (73.9% versus 40.0%) than the adjuvant group (P = 0.013). The positive expression rate of Ki-67 in the neoadjuvant group (40.0%, 8/20) was lower than that in the adjuvant group (74.2%, 23/31; P = 0.015). Conclusion. The FOLFOX4 neoadjuvant chemotherapy could improve survival without increasing adverse events in patients with AGC. PMID:25136668

  16. ASXL1 but Not TET2 Mutations Adversely Impact Overall Survival of Patients Suffering Systemic Mastocytosis with Associated Clonal Hematologic Non-Mast-Cell Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Damaj, Gandhi; Joris, Magalie; Chandesris, Olivia; Hanssens, Katia; Soucie, Erinn; Canioni, Danielle; Kolb, Brigitte; Durieu, Isabelle; Gyan, Emanuel; Livideanu, Cristina; Chèze, Stephane; Diouf, Momar; Garidi, Reda; Georgin-Lavialle, Sophie; Asnafi, Vahid; Lhermitte, Ludovic; Lavigne, Christian; Launay, David; Arock, Michel; Lortholary, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Systemic mastocytosis with associated hematologic clonal non-mast cell disease (SM-AHNMD) is a rare and heterogeneous subtype of SM and few studies on this specific entity have been reported. Sixty two patients with Systemic mastocytosis with associated hematologic clonal non-mast cell disease (SM-AHNMD) were presented. Myeloid AHNMD was the most frequent (82%) cases. This subset of patients were older, had more cutaneous lesions, splenomegaly, liver enlargement, ascites; lower bone mineral density and hemoglobin levels and higher tryptase level than lymphoid AHNMD. Defects in KIT, TET2, ASXL1 and CBL were positive in 87%, 27%, 14%, and 11% of cases respectively. The overall survival of patients with SM-AHNMD was 85.2 months. Within the myeloid group, SM-MPN fared better than SM-MDS or SM-AML (p = 0.044,). In univariate analysis, the presence of C-findings, the AHNMD subtypes (SM-MDS/CMML/AML versus SM-MPN/hypereosinophilia) (p = 0.044), Neutropenia (p = 0.015), high monocyte level (p = 0.015) and the presence of ASXL1 mutation had detrimental effects on OS (p = 0.007). In multivariate analysis and penalized Cox model, only the presence of ASXL1 mutation remained an independent prognostic factor that negatively affected OS (p = 0.035). SM-AHNMD is heterogeneous with variable prognosis according to the type of the AHNMD. ASXL1 is mutated in a subset of myeloid AHNMD and adversely impact on OS. PMID:24465546

  17. Offspring size at weaning affects survival to recruitment and reproductive performance of primiparous gray seals

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, William D; den Heyer, Cornelia E; McMillan, Jim I; Iverson, Sara J

    2015-01-01

    Offspring size affects survival and subsequent reproduction in many organisms. However, studies of offspring size in large mammals are often limited to effects on juveniles because of the difficulty of following individuals to maturity. We used data from a long-term study of individually marked gray seals (Halichoerus grypus; Fabricius, 1791) to test the hypothesis that larger offspring have higher survival to recruitment and are larger and more successful primiparous mothers than smaller offspring. Between 1998 and 2002, 1182 newly weaned female pups were branded with unique permanent marks on Sable Island, Canada. Each year through 2012, all branded females returning to the breeding colony were identified in weekly censuses and a subset were captured and measured. Females that survived were significantly longer offspring than those not sighted, indicating size-selective mortality between weaning and recruitment. The probability of female survival to recruitment varied among cohorts and increased nonlinearly with body mass at weaning. Beyond 51.5 kg (mean population weaning mass) weaning mass did not influence the probability of survival. The probability of female survival to recruitment increased monotonically with body length at weaning. Body length at primiparity was positively related to her body length and mass at weaning. Three-day postpartum mass (proxy for birth mass) of firstborn pups was also positively related to body length of females when they were weaned. However, females that were longer or heavier when they were weaned did not wean heavier firstborn offspring. PMID:25897381

  18. Offspring size at weaning affects survival to recruitment and reproductive performance of primiparous gray seals.

    PubMed

    Bowen, William D; den Heyer, Cornelia E; McMillan, Jim I; Iverson, Sara J

    2015-04-01

    Offspring size affects survival and subsequent reproduction in many organisms. However, studies of offspring size in large mammals are often limited to effects on juveniles because of the difficulty of following individuals to maturity. We used data from a long-term study of individually marked gray seals (Halichoerus grypus; Fabricius, 1791) to test the hypothesis that larger offspring have higher survival to recruitment and are larger and more successful primiparous mothers than smaller offspring. Between 1998 and 2002, 1182 newly weaned female pups were branded with unique permanent marks on Sable Island, Canada. Each year through 2012, all branded females returning to the breeding colony were identified in weekly censuses and a subset were captured and measured. Females that survived were significantly longer offspring than those not sighted, indicating size-selective mortality between weaning and recruitment. The probability of female survival to recruitment varied among cohorts and increased nonlinearly with body mass at weaning. Beyond 51.5 kg (mean population weaning mass) weaning mass did not influence the probability of survival. The probability of female survival to recruitment increased monotonically with body length at weaning. Body length at primiparity was positively related to her body length and mass at weaning. Three-day postpartum mass (proxy for birth mass) of firstborn pups was also positively related to body length of females when they were weaned. However, females that were longer or heavier when they were weaned did not wean heavier firstborn offspring. PMID:25897381

  19. Spatial Variation and Resuscitation Process Affecting Survival after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrests (OHCA)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Chou; Chen, Chao-Wen; Ho, Chi-Kung; Liu, I-Chuan; Lin, Bo-Cheng; Chan, Ta-Chien

    2015-01-01

    Background Ambulance response times and resuscitation efforts are critical predictors of the survival rate after out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA). On the other hand, rural-urban differences in the OHCA survival rates are an important public health issue. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the January 2011–December 2013 OHCA registry data of Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. With particular focus on geospatial variables, we aimed to unveil risk factors predicting the overall OHCA survival until hospital admission. Spatial analysis, network analysis, and the Kriging method by using geographic information systems were applied to analyze spatial variations and calculate the transport distance. Logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors for OHCA survival. Results Among the 4,957 patients, the overall OHCA survival to hospital admission was 16.5%. In the multivariate analysis, female sex (adjusted odds ratio:, AOR, 1.24 [1.06–1.45]), events in public areas (AOR: 1.30 [1.05–1.61]), exposure to automated external defibrillator (AED) shock (AOR: 1.70 [1.30–2.23]), use of laryngeal mask airway (LMA) (AOR: 1.35 [1.16–1.58]), non-trauma patients (AOR: 1.41 [1.04–1.90]), ambulance bypassed the closest hospital (AOR: 1.28 [1.07–1.53]), and OHCA within the high population density areas (AOR: 1.89 [1.55–2.32]) were positively associated with improved OHCA survival. By contrast, a prolonged total emergency medical services (EMS) time interval was negatively associated with OHCA survival (AOR: 0.98 [0.96–0.99]). Conclusions Resuscitative efforts, such as AED or LMA use, and a short total EMS time interval improved OHCA outcomes in emergency departments. The spatial heterogeneity of emergency medical resources between rural and urban areas might affect survival rate. PMID:26659851

  20. 30 CFR 585.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 585.816 Section 585.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU... corrective action to BOEM within 30 days of the discovery of the adverse effect. (b) Take remedial action...

  1. 30 CFR 285.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 285.816 Section 285.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU...: (a) Submit a plan of corrective action to MMS within 30 days of the discovery of the adverse...

  2. 30 CFR 585.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 585.816 Section 585.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU... corrective action to BOEM within 30 days of the discovery of the adverse effect. (b) Take remedial action...

  3. 30 CFR 585.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 585.816 Section 585.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU... corrective action to BOEM within 30 days of the discovery of the adverse effect. (b) Take remedial action...

  4. Donor race does not affect cadaver kidney transplant survival--a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Tesi, R J; DeboisBlanc, M; Saul, C; O'Donovan, R; Etheredge, E

    1995-12-27

    Black kidney transplant recipients have worse graft survival than white recipients. Speculation regarding etiology has focused on differences in human lymphocyte antigens (HLA). Some suggest that improvements in graft survival would be obtained if donor and recipient race were matched. We reviewed 236 cadaver transplants performed over 9 years at a single center using an HLA-match-driven allocation system and a uniform immunosuppressive protocol to determine the impact of donor race on graft survival. A multivariate analysis of graft survival using patient race, sex, age, transplant number, current and maximum plasma renin activity, donor race, cold ischemia time and HLA mismatch, the need for dialysis, and the presence of rejection as independent variables. Sixty percent of recipients were black, and 82% were primary transplants; 28 kidneys (12%) were from black donors. The 112 patients with the same race donor had identical 5-year graft survival as the 124 who had a different race donor (40%; P = 0.1726). The 5-year survival of the 88 white recipients of white donor organs was better than that of the 120 black recipients of white donor organs (54% vs. 42%, respectively; P = 0.0398). Black recipients (t1/2 = 37 months) did worse than white recipients (t1/2 = 60 months) regardless of organ source (P = 0.023). In the multivariate analysis, neither donor nor recipient race were an independent variable in predicting graft survival. Rejection (RR = 2.9) and the need for dialysis on the transplant admission (RR = 4.1) were the only factors that predicted poor survival. Black recipients had more rejection (P = 0.04) but not more need for dialysis posttransplant regardless of donor race. Donor race did not affect graft survival in this series. The effect of recipient race on graft survival was due to an increased incidence of rejection episodes in black recipients, which was independent of HLA mismatch. These data suggest that improvements in immunosuppression, not

  5. Depressing Antidepressant: Fluoxetine Affects Serotonin Neurons Causing Adverse Reproductive Responses in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Campos, Bruno; Rivetti, Claudia; Kress, Timm; Barata, Carlos; Dircksen, Heinrich

    2016-06-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely used antidepressants. As endocrine disruptive contaminants in the environment, SSRIs affect reproduction in aquatic organisms. In the water flea Daphnia magna, SSRIs increase offspring production in a food ration-dependent manner. At limiting food conditions, females exposed to SSRIs produce more but smaller offspring, which is a maladaptive life-history strategy. We asked whether increased serotonin levels in newly identified serotonin-neurons in the Daphnia brain mediate these effects. We provide strong evidence that exogenous SSRI fluoxetine selectively increases serotonin-immunoreactivity in identified brain neurons under limiting food conditions thereby leading to maladaptive offspring production. Fluoxetine increases serotonin-immunoreactivity at low food conditions to similar maximal levels as observed under high food conditions and concomitantly enhances offspring production. Sublethal amounts of the neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine known to specifically ablate serotonin-neurons markedly decrease serotonin-immunoreactivity and offspring production, strongly supporting the effect to be serotonin-specific by reversing the reproductive phenotype attained under fluoxetine. Thus, SSRIs impair serotonin-regulation of reproductive investment in a planktonic key organism causing inappropriately increased reproduction with potentially severe ecological impact. PMID:27128505

  6. Combining S-cone and luminance signals adversely affects discrimination of objects within backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Ben J.; Tsattalios, Konstantinos; Chakravarthi, Ramakrishna; Martinovic, Jasna

    2016-01-01

    The visual system processes objects embedded in complex scenes that vary in both luminance and colour. In such scenes, colour contributes to the segmentation of objects from backgrounds, but does it also affect perceptual organisation of object contours which are already defined by luminance signals, or are these processes unaffected by colour’s presence? We investigated if luminance and chromatic signals comparably sustain processing of objects embedded in backgrounds, by varying contrast along the luminance dimension and along the two cone-opponent colour directions. In the first experiment thresholds for object/non-object discrimination of Gaborised shapes were obtained in the presence and absence of background clutter. Contrast of the component Gabors was modulated along single colour/luminance dimensions or co-modulated along multiple dimensions simultaneously. Background clutter elevated discrimination thresholds only for combined S-(L + M) and L + M signals. The second experiment replicated and extended this finding by demonstrating that the effect was dependent on the presence of relatively high S-(L + M) contrast. These results indicate that S-(L + M) signals impair spatial vision when combined with luminance. Since S-(L + M) signals are characterised by relatively large receptive fields, this is likely to be due to an increase in the size of the integration field over which contour-defining information is summed. PMID:26856308

  7. Brain size affects female but not male survival under predation threat

    PubMed Central

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Buechel, Séverine D; Zala, Sarah M; Corral-Lopez, Alberto; Penn, Dustin J; Kolm, Niclas; Sorci, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    There is remarkable diversity in brain size among vertebrates, but surprisingly little is known about how ecological species interactions impact the evolution of brain size. Using guppies, artificially selected for large and small brains, we determined how brain size affects survival under predation threat in a naturalistic environment. We cohoused mixed groups of small- and large-brained individuals in six semi-natural streams with their natural predator, the pike cichlid, and monitored survival in weekly censuses over 5 months. We found that large-brained females had 13.5% higher survival compared to small-brained females, whereas the brain size had no discernible effect on male survival. We suggest that large-brained females have a cognitive advantage that allows them to better evade predation, whereas large-brained males are more colourful, which may counteract any potential benefits of brain size. Our study provides the first experimental evidence that trophic interactions can affect the evolution of brain size. PMID:25960088

  8. Brain size affects female but not male survival under predation threat.

    PubMed

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Buechel, Séverine D; Zala, Sarah M; Corral-Lopez, Alberto; Penn, Dustin J; Kolm, Niclas

    2015-07-01

    There is remarkable diversity in brain size among vertebrates, but surprisingly little is known about how ecological species interactions impact the evolution of brain size. Using guppies, artificially selected for large and small brains, we determined how brain size affects survival under predation threat in a naturalistic environment. We cohoused mixed groups of small- and large-brained individuals in six semi-natural streams with their natural predator, the pike cichlid, and monitored survival in weekly censuses over 5 months. We found that large-brained females had 13.5% higher survival compared to small-brained females, whereas the brain size had no discernible effect on male survival. We suggest that large-brained females have a cognitive advantage that allows them to better evade predation, whereas large-brained males are more colourful, which may counteract any potential benefits of brain size. Our study provides the first experimental evidence that trophic interactions can affect the evolution of brain size. PMID:25960088

  9. Nutrient supplementation may adversely affect maternal oral health--a randomised controlled trial in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Harjunmaa, Ulla; Järnstedt, Jorma; Dewey, Kathryn G; Ashorn, Ulla; Maleta, Kenneth; Vosti, Stephen A; Ashorn, Per

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional supplementation during pregnancy is increasingly recommended especially in low-resource settings, but its oral health impacts have not been studied. Our aim was to examine whether supplementation with multiple micronutrients (MMN) or small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements affects dental caries development or periodontal health in a rural Malawian population. The study was embedded in a controlled iLiNS-DYAD trial that enrolled 1391 pregnant women <20 gestation weeks. Women were provided with one daily iron-folic acid capsule (IFA), one capsule with 18 micronutrients (MMN) or one sachet of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) containing protein, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids and 21 micronutrients. Oral examination of 1024 participants was conducted and panoramic X-ray taken within 6 weeks after delivery. The supplement groups were similar at baseline in average socio-economic, nutritional and health status. At the end of the intervention, the prevalence of caries was 56.7%, 69.1% and 63.3% (P = 0.004), and periodontitis 34.9%, 29.8% and 31.2% (P = 0.338) in the IFA, MMN and LNS groups, respectively. Compared with the IFA group, women in the MMN group had 0.60 (0.18-1.02) and in the LNS group 0.59 (0.17-1.01) higher mean number of caries lesions. In the absence of baseline oral health data, firm conclusions on causality cannot be drawn. However, although not confirmatory, the findings are consistent with a possibility that provision of MMN or LNS may have increased the caries incidence in this target population. Because of the potential public health impacts, further research on the association between gestational nutrient interventions and oral health in low-income settings is needed. PMID:26194850

  10. Obesity/hyperleptinemic phenotype adversely affects hippocampal plasticity: effects of dietary restriction.

    PubMed

    Grillo, Claudia A; Piroli, Gerardo G; Evans, Ashlie N; Macht, Victoria A; Wilson, Steven P; Scott, Karen A; Sakai, Randall R; Mott, David D; Reagan, Lawrence P

    2011-08-01

    Epidemiological studies estimate that greater than 60% of the adult US population may be categorized as either overweight or obese and there is a growing appreciation that obesity affects the functional integrity of the central nervous system (CNS). We recently developed a lentivirus (LV) vector that produces an insulin receptor (IR) antisense RNA sequence (IRAS) that when injected into the hypothalamus selectively decreases IR signaling in hypothalamus, resulting in increased body weight, peripheral adiposity and plasma leptin levels. To test the hypothesis that this obesity/hyperleptinemic phenotype would impair hippocampal synaptic transmission, we examined short term potentiation (STP) and long term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus of rats that received the LV-IRAS construct or the LV-Control construct in the hypothalamus (hypo-IRAS and hypo-Con, respectively). Stimulation of the Schaffer collaterals elicits STP that develops into LTP in the CA1 region of hypo-Con rats; conversely, hypo-IRAS rats exhibit STP that fails to develop into LTP. To more closely examine the potential role of hyperleptinemia in these electrophysiological deficits, hypo-IRAS were subjected to mild food restriction paradigms that would either: 1) prevent the development of the obesity phenotype; or 2) reverse an established obesity phenotype in hypo-IRAS rats. Both of these paradigms restored LTP in the CA1 region and reversed the decreases in the phosphorylated/total ratio of GluA1 Ser845 AMPA receptor subunit expression observed in the hippocampus of hypo-IRAS rats. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that obesity impairs hippocampal synaptic transmission and support the hypothesis that these deficits are mediated through the impairment of hippocampal leptin activity. PMID:21036186

  11. Demography of forest birds in Panama: How do transients affect estimates of survival rates?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brawn, J.D.; Karr, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Robinson, W.D.

    1998-01-01

    Estimates of annual survival rates for a multispecies sample of neotropical birds from Panama have proven controversial. Traditionally, tropical birds were thought to have high survival rates for their size, but analyses by Kart et al. (1990. Am. Nat. 136:277-91) contradicted that view, suggesting tropical birds may not have systematically high survival rates. A persistent criticism of that study has been that the estimates were biased by transient birds captured only once as they passed through the area being sampled. New models that formally adjust for transient individuals have been developed since 1990. Preliminary analyses using these models indicate that, despite some variation among species, overall estimates of survival rates for understory birds in Panama are not strongly affected by adjustments for transients. We also compare estimates of survival rates based on mark-recapture models with observations of colour-marked birds. The demographic traits of birds in the tropics (and elsewhere) vary within and among species according to combinations of historical and ongoing ecological factors. Understanding sources of this variation is the challenge for future work.

  12. Adverse events of NOTES mediastinoscopy compared to conventional video-assisted mediastinoscopy: a randomized survival study in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Córdova, Henry; Cubas, Georgina; Boada, Marc; Rodríguez de Miguel, Cristina; Martínez-Pallí, Graciela; Gimferrer, Josep M.; Fernández-Esparrach, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Background: Safety is a concern in natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) mediastinoscopy. The objective of this study was to compare the safety of NOTES mediastinoscopy with video-assisted mediastinoscopy (VAM). Methods: Twenty-four pigs were randomly assigned to NOTES or VAM. Thirty-minute mediastinoscopies were performed with the identification of seven predetermined structures. The animals were euthanized after 7 days and necropsy was performed. Results: Mediastinoscopy was not possible in one animal in each group. There were more intraoperative adverse events with NOTES than VAM (7 vs. 2, P = 0.04); hemorrhage was the most frequent adverse event (4 and 1, respectively). At necropsy, pathological findings were observed in 13 animals (9 NOTES and 4 VAM; P = 0.03). Inflammatory parameters were not different between groups and were not related to adverse events. Conclusion: Systematic NOTES mediastinoscopy is possible and comparable to VAM in terms of number of organs identified and inflammatory impact. However, the safety profile of NOTES mediastinoscopy has to be improved before it can be adopted in a clinical setting. PMID:26716115

  13. Risk factors affecting the survival rate in patients with symptomatic pericardial effusion undergoing surgical intervention

    PubMed Central

    Mirhosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Fakhri, Mohammad; Mozaffary, Amirhossein; Lotfaliany, Mojtaba; Behzadnia, Neda; Ansari Aval, Zahra; Ghiasi, Seyed Mohammad Saeed; Boloursaz, Mohammad Reza; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The optimal management and treatment of pericardial effusion are still controversial. There is limited data related to the risk factors affecting survival in these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors affecting the survival rate of patients with symptomatic pericardial effusion who underwent surgical interventions. METHODS From 2004 to 2011, we retrospectively analysed 153 patients who underwent subxiphoid pericardial window as their surgical intervention to drain pericardial effusions at the National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung diseases (NRITLD). To determine the effects of risk factors on survival rate, demographic data, clinical records, echocardiographic data, computed tomographic and cytopathological findings and also operative information of patients were recorded. Patients were followed annually until the last clinical follow-up (August 2011). To determine the prognostic factors affecting survival, both univariate analysis and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model were utilized. RESULTS There were 89 men and 64 women with a mean age of 50.3 ± 15.5 years. The most prevalent symptom was dyspnoea. Concurrent malignancies were present in 66 patients. Lungs were the most prevalent primary site for malignancy. The median duration of follow-up was 15 (range 1–85 months). Six-month, 1-year and 18-month survival rates were 85.6, 61.4 and 36.6%, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, positive history of lung cancer (hazard ratio [HR] 2.894, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.362–6.147, P = 0.006) or other organ cancers (HR 2.315, 95% CI 1.009–50311, P = 0.048), presence of a mass in the computed tomography (HR 1.985, 95% CI 1.100–3.581, P = 0.023), and echocardiographic findings compatible with tamponade (HR 1.745, 95% CI 1.048–2.90 P = 0.032) were the three independent predictors of postoperative death. CONCLUSIONS In the surgical management of pericardial effusion, patients with underlying

  14. Factors Affecting Graft Survival among Patients Receiving Kidneys from Live Donors: A Single-Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Ghoneim, Mohamed A.; Bakr, Mohamed A.; Refaie, Ayman F.; Akl, Ahmed I.; Shokeir, Ahmed A.; Shehab El-Dein, Ahmed B.; Ammar, Hesham M.; Ismail, Amani M.; Sheashaa, Hussein A.; El-Baz, Mahmoud A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this report is to study the graft and patient survival in a large cohort of recipients with an analysis of factors that may affect the final outcomes. Methods. Between March 1976 and March 2008, 1967 consecutive live-donor renal transplants were carried out. Various variables that may have an impact on patients and/or graft survival were studied in two steps. Initially, a univariate analysis was carried out. Thereafter, significant variables were embedded in a stepwise regression analysis. Results. The overall graft survival was 86.7% and 65.5%, at 5 and 10 years, respectively. The projected half-life for grafts was 17.5 years and for patients was 22 years. Five factors had an independent negative impact on graft survival: donor's age, genetic considerations, the type of primary immunosuppression, number of acute rejection episodes, and total steroid dose during the first 3 months after transplantation. Conclusions. Despite refinements in tissue matching techniques and improvements in immunosuppression protocols, an important proportion of grafts is still lost following living donor kidney transplantation, presumably due to chronic allograft nephropathy. PMID:23878820

  15. Variants on the promoter region of PTEN affect breast cancer progression and patient survival

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The PTEN gene, a regulator of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt oncogenic pathway, is mutated in various cancers and its expression has been associated with tumor progression in a dose-dependent fashion. We investigated the effect of germline variation in the promoter region of the PTEN gene on clinical characteristics and survival in breast cancer. Methods We screened the promoter region of the PTEN gene for germline variation in 330 familial breast cancer cases and further determined the genotypes of three detected PTEN promoter polymorphisms -903GA, -975GC, and -1026CA in a total of 2,412 breast cancer patients to evaluate the effects of the variants on tumor characteristics and disease outcome. We compared the gene expression profiles in breast cancers of 10 variant carriers and 10 matched non-carriers and performed further survival analyses based on the differentially expressed genes. Results All three promoter variants associated with worse prognosis. The Cox's regression hazard ratio for 10-year breast cancer specific survival in multivariate analysis was 2.01 (95% CI 1.17 to 3.46) P = 0.0119, and for 5-year breast cancer death or distant metastasis free survival 1.79 (95% CI 1.03 to 3.11) P = 0.0381 for the variant carriers, indicating PTEN promoter variants as an independent prognostic factor. The breast tumors from the promoter variant carriers exhibited a similar gene expression signature of 160 differentially expressed genes compared to matched non-carrier tumors. The signature further stratified patients into two groups with different recurrence free survival in independent breast cancer gene expression data sets. Conclusions Inherited variation in the PTEN promoter region affects the tumor progression and gene expression profile in breast cancer. Further studies are warranted to establish PTEN promoter variants as clinical markers for prognosis in breast cancer. PMID:22171747

  16. High Pretreatment D-Dimer Levels Correlate with Adverse Clinical Features and Predict Poor Survival in Patients with Natural Killer/T-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Peng; Yan, Shu-mei; Liu, Pan-pan; Li, Zhi-ming; Jiang, Wen-qi

    2016-01-01

    Pretreatment plasma D-dimer levels have been reported to predict survival in several types of malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of D-dimer levels in patients with newly diagnosed natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL). The cut-off value of D-dimer to predict survival was set as 1.2 μg/mL based on the receiver operating curve analysis. Patients with a D-dimer level ≥ 1.2 μg/mL had significantly more adverse clinical features, including poor performance status, advanced stage diseases, B symptoms, elevated serum lactic dehydrogenase levels, involvement of regional lymph nodes, more extranodal diseases, and higher International Prognostic Index and natural killer/T-cell lymphoma prognostic index scores. A D-dimer level ≥ 1.2 μg/mL was significantly associated with inferior 3-year overall survival (OS, 13.0 vs. 68.5%, P < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, a D-dimer level ≥ 1.2 μg/mL remained an independent predictor for worse OS (HR: 3.13, 95% CI: 1.47–6.68, P = 0.003) after adjusting for other confounding prognostic factors. Among patients with Ann Arbor stage I-II diseases, those with a D-dimer level ≥ 1.2 μg/mL had a significantly worse survival than those with a D-dimer level < 1.2 μg/mL (3 year-OS: 76.2 vs. 22.2%, P < 0.001). Survival of early-stage patients with a high D-dimer level was similar to that of the advanced-stage patients. In conclusion, pretreatment plasma D-dimer level may serve as a simple but effective predictor of prognosis in patients with NKTCL. PMID:27032016

  17. Review of Factors Affecting the Growth and Survival of Follicular Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Parsley, William M; Perez-Meza, David

    2010-01-01

    Great strides have been made in hair restoration over the past 20 years. A better understanding of natural balding and non-balding patterns along with more respect for ageing has helped guide proper hairline design. Additionally, the use of smaller grafts has created a significantly improved natural appearance to the transplanted grafts. Inconsistent growth and survival of follicular grafts, however, has continued to be a problem that has perplexed hair restoration surgeons. This review attempts to explore the stresses affecting grafts during transplantation and some of the complexities involved in graft growth and survival. These authors reviewed the literature to determine the primary scope of aspects influencing growth and survival of follicular grafts. This scope includes patient selection, operating techniques, graft care, storage solutions and additives. The primary focus of the hair restoration surgeons should first be attention to the fundamentals of hair care, hydration, temperature, time out of body and gentle handling. Factors such as advanced storage solutions and additives can be helpful once the fundamentals have been addressed. PMID:21031063

  18. Age and Sex of Mice Markedly Affect Survival Times Associated with Hyperoxic Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Prows, Daniel R.; Gibbons, William J.; Smith, Jessica J.; Pilipenko, Valentina; Martin, Lisa J.

    2015-01-01

    Mortality associated with acute lung injury (ALI) remains substantial, with recent estimates of 35–45% similar to those obtained decades ago. Although evidence for sex-related differences in ALI mortality remains equivocal, death rates differ markedly for age, with more than 3-fold increased mortality in older versus younger patients. Strains of mice also show large differences in ALI mortality. To tease out genetic factors affecting mortality, we established a mouse model of differential hyperoxic ALI (HALI) survival. Separate genetic analyses of backcross and F2 populations generated from sensitive C57BL/6J (B) and resistant 129X1/SvJ (X1) progenitor strains identified two quantitative trait loci (QTLs; Shali1 and Shali2) with strong, equal but opposite, within-strain effects on survival. Congenic lines confirmed these opposing QTL effects, but also retained the low penetrance seen in the 6–12 week X1 control strain. Sorting mice into distinct age groups revealed that ‘age at exposure’ inversely correlated with survival time and explained reduced penetrance of the resistance trait. While B mice were already sensitive by 6 weeks old, X1 mice maintained significant resistance up to 3–4 weeks longer. Reanalysis of F2 data gave analogous age-related findings, and also supported sex-specific linkage for Shali1 and Shali2. Importantly, we have demonstrated in congenic mice that these age effects on survival correspond with B alleles for Shali1 (6-week old mice more sensitive) and Shali2 (10-week old mice more resistant) placed on the X1 background. Further studies revealed significant sex-specific survival differences in subcongenics for both QTLs. Accounting for age and sex markedly improved penetrance of both QTLs, thereby reducing trait variability, refining Shali1 to <8.5Mb, and supporting several sub-QTLs within the Shali2 interval. Together, these congenics will allow age- and sex-specific studies to interrogate myriad subphenotypes affected during ALI

  19. Sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to acetaminophen reveals biological pathways that affect patient survival

    PubMed Central

    BUSH, STEPHEN H.; TOLLIN, SHARON; MARCHION, DOUGLAS C.; XIONG, YIN; ABBASI, FOROUGH; RAMIREZ, INGRID J.; ZGHEIB, NADIM BOU; BOAC, BERNADETTE; JUDSON, PATRICIA L.; CHON, HYE SOOK; WENHAM, ROBERT M.; APTE, SACHIN M.; CUBITT, CHRISTOPHER L.; BERGLUND, ANDERS E.; HAVRILESKY, LAURA J.; LANCASTER, JOHNATHAN M.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental and epidemiological data support the potential activity of acetaminophen against ovarian cancer (OVCA). In this study, we sought to confirm the activity of acetaminophen in OVCA cell lines and to investigate the molecular basis of response. A total of 16 OVCA cell lines underwent pretreatment (baseline) genome-wide expression measurements and were then treated with and analyzed for acetaminophen sensitivity. Pearson's correlation analysis was performed to identify genes that were associated with OVCA acetaminophen response. The identified genes were subjected to pathway analysis, and the expression of each represented pathway was summarized using principal component analysis. OVCA acetaminophen response pathways were analyzed in 4 external clinico-genomic datasets from 820 women for associations with overall survival from OVCA. Acetaminophen exhibited antiproliferative activity against all tested OVCA cell lines, with half maximal inhibitory concentration values ranging from 63.2 to 403 µM. Pearson's correlation followed by biological pathway analysis identified 13 pathways to be associated with acetaminophen sensitivity (P<0.01). Associations were observed between patient survival from OVCA and expression of the following pathways: Development/angiotensin signaling via β-arrestin (P=0.04), protein folding and maturation/angiotensin system maturation (P=0.02), signal transduction/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway (P=0.03) and androstenedione and testosterone biosynthesis and metabolism (P=0.02). We confirmed that acetaminophen was active against OVCA cells in vitro. Furthermore, we identified 4 molecular signaling pathways associated with acetaminophen response that may also affect overall survival in women with OVCA, including the JNK pathway, which has been previously implicated in the mechanism of action of acetaminophen and is predictive of decreased survival in women with OVCA. PMID:26998291

  20. The Cultivation of Bt Corn Producing Cry1Ac Toxins Does Not Adversely Affect Non-Target Arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanyan; Feng, Yanjie; Ge, Yang; Tetreau, Guillaume; Chen, Xiaowen; Dong, Xuehui; Shi, Wangpeng

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic corn producing Cry1Ac toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provides effective control of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), and thus reduces insecticide applications. However, whether Bt corn exerts undesirable effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs) is still controversial. We conducted a 2-yr study in Shangzhuang Agricultural Experiment Station to assess the potential impact of Bt corn on field population density, biodiversity, community composition and structure of NTAs. On each sampling date, the total abundance, Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness index and Simpson's diversity index were not significantly affected by Bt corn as compared to non-Bt corn. The “sampling dates” had a significant effect on these indices, but no clear tendencies related to “Bt corn” or “sampling dates X corn variety” interaction were recorded. Principal response curve analysis of variance indicated that Bt corn did not alter the distribution of NTAs communities. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and distance analysis showed that Cry1Ac toxin exposure did not increase community dissimilarities between Bt and non-Bt corn plots and that the evolution of non-target arthropod community was similar on the two corn varieties. The cultivation of Bt corn failed to show any detrimental evidence on the density of non-target herbivores, predators and parasitoids. The composition of herbivores, predators and parasitoids was identical in Bt and non-Bt corn plots. Taken together, results from the present work support that Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect NTAs. PMID:25437213

  1. Loss of membranous VEGFR1 expression is associated with an adverse phenotype and shortened survival in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lebok, Patrick; Huber, Julia; Burandt, Eike-Christian; Lebeau, Annette; Marx, Andreas Holger; Terracciano, Luigi; Heilenkötter, Uwe; Jänicke, Fritz; Müller, Volkmar; Paluchowski, Peter; Geist, Stefan; Wilke, Christian; Simon, Ronald; Sauter, Guido; Quaas, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a key process in tumor growth and progression, which is controlled by vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and their receptors (VEGFRs). In order to better understand the prevalence and prognostic value of VEGFR1 expression in breast cancer, a tissue microarray containing >2,100 breast cancer specimens, with clinical follow-up data, was analyzed by immunohistochemistry using an antibody directed against the membrane-bound full-length receptor protein. The results demonstrated that membranous VEGFR1 staining was detected in all (5 of 5) normal breast specimens. In carcinoma specimens, membranous staining was negative in 3.1%, weak in 6.3%, moderate in 10.9%, and strong in 79.7% of the 1,630 interpretable tissues. Strong staining was significantly associated with estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor expression, but was inversely associated with advanced tumor stage (P=0.0431), high Bloom-Richardson-Ellis Score for Breast Cancer grade and low Ki67 labeling index (both P<0.0001). Cancers with moderate to strong (high) VEGFR1 expression were associated with significantly improved overall survival, as compared with tumors exhibiting negative or weak (low) expression (P=0.0015). This association was also detected in the subset of nodal-positive cancers (P=0.0018), and in the subset of 185 patients who had received tamoxifen as the sole therapy (P=0.001). In conclusion, these data indicated that membrane-bound VEGFR1 is frequently expressed in normal and cancerous breast epithelium. In addition, reduced or lost VEGFR1 expression may serve as a marker for poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer, who might not optimally benefit from endocrine therapy. PMID:27357606

  2. Loss of membranous VEGFR1 expression is associated with an adverse phenotype and shortened survival in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lebok, Patrick; Huber, Julia; Burandt, Eike-Christian; Lebeau, Annette; Marx, Andreas Holger; Terracciano, Luigi; Heilenkötter, Uwe; Jänicke, Fritz; Müller, Volkmar; Paluchowski, Peter; Geist, Stefan; Wilke, Christian; Simon, Ronald; Sauter, Guido; Quaas, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    Angiogenesis is a key process in tumor growth and progression, which is controlled by vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and their receptors (VEGFRs). In order to better understand the prevalence and prognostic value of VEGFR1 expression in breast cancer, a tissue microarray containing >2,100 breast cancer specimens, with clinical follow‑up data, was analyzed by immunohistochemistry using an antibody directed against the membrane‑bound full‑length receptor protein. The results demonstrated that membranous VEGFR1 staining was detected in all (5 of 5) normal breast specimens. In carcinoma specimens, membranous staining was negative in 3.1%, weak in 6.3%, moderate in 10.9%, and strong in 79.7% of the 1,630 interpretable tissues. Strong staining was significantly associated with estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor expression, but was inversely associated with advanced tumor stage (P=0.0431), high Bloom-Richardson-Ellis Score for Breast Cancer grade and low Ki67 labeling index (both P<0.0001). Cancers with moderate to strong (high) VEGFR1 expression were associated with significantly improved overall survival, as compared with tumors exhibiting negative or weak (low) expression (P=0.0015). This association was also detected in the subset of nodal‑positive cancers (P=0.0018), and in the subset of 185 patients who had received tamoxifen as the sole therapy (P=0.001). In conclusion, these data indicated that membrane‑bound VEGFR1 is frequently expressed in normal and cancerous breast epithelium. In addition, reduced or lost VEGFR1 expression may serve as a marker for poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer, who might not optimally benefit from endocrine therapy. PMID:27357606

  3. Neonatal and fetal exposure to trans-fatty acid retards early growth and adiposity while adversely affecting glucose in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, Kylie; Sajadian, Soraya; Jenkins, Kurt A.; Wilson, Martha D.; Carr, J. Jeffery; Wagner, Janice D.; Rudel, Lawrence L.

    2010-01-01

    Industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFAs) consumed in western diets are incorporated into maternal and fetal tissues, and are passed linearly to offspring via breast milk. We hypothesized that TFA exposure in utero and during lactation in infants would promote obesity and poor glycemic control as compared to unmodified fatty acids. We further hypothesized that in utero exposure alone may program for these outcomes in adulthood. To test this hypothesis we fed female C57/BL6 mice identical western diets that differed only in cis- or trans-isomers of C18:1 and then aimed to determine whether maternal transfer of TFAs through pregnancy and lactation alters growth, body composition and glucose metabolism. Mice were unexposed, exposed during pregnancy, during lactation, or throughout pregnancy and lactation to TFA. Body weight and composition (by computed tomography), and glucose metabolism we assessed at weaning and adulthood. TFA exposure through breast milk caused significant early growth retardation (p<0.001) and higher fasting glucose (p=0.01) but insulin sensitivity was not different. Elevated plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 in mice consuming TFA-enriched milk (p=0.02) may contribute to later catch-up growth, leanness and preserved peripheral insulin sensitivity observed in these mice. Mice exposed to TFA in utero underwent rapid early neonatal growth with TFA-free breast milk and had significantly impaired insulin sensitivity (p<0.05) and greater abdominal fat (p=0.01). We conclude that very early catch-up growth resulted in impaired peripheral insulin sensitivity in this model of diet-related fetal and neonatal programming. TFA surprisingly retarded growth and adiposity while still adversely affecting glucose metabolism. PMID:20650350

  4. Extreme Air Pollution Conditions Adversely Affect Blood Pressure and Insulin Resistance: The Air Pollution and Cardiometabolic Disease Study.

    PubMed

    Brook, Robert D; Sun, Zhichao; Brook, Jeffrey R; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Ruan, Yanping; Yan, Jianhua; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Rao, Xiaoquan; Duan, Fengkui; Sun, Lixian; Liang, Ruijuan; Lian, Hui; Zhang, Shuyang; Fang, Quan; Gu, Dongfeng; Sun, Qinghua; Fan, Zhongjie; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports that fine particulate matter adversely affects cardiometabolic diseases particularly in susceptible individuals; however, health effects induced by the extreme concentrations within megacities in Asia are not well described. We enrolled 65 nonsmoking adults with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the Beijing metropolitan area into a panel study of 4 repeated visits across 4 seasons since 2012. Daily ambient fine particulate matter and personal black carbon levels ranged from 9.0 to 552.5 µg/m(3) and 0.2 to 24.5 µg/m(3), respectively, with extreme levels observed during January 2013. Cumulative fine particulate matter exposure windows across the prior 1 to 7 days were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure elevations ranging from 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.7) to 2.7 (0.6-4.8) mm Hg per SD increase (67.2 µg/m(3)), whereas cumulative black carbon exposure during the previous 2 to 5 days were significantly associated with ranges in elevations in diastolic blood pressure from 1.3 (0.0-2.5) to 1.7 (0.3-3.2) mm Hg per SD increase (3.6 µg/m(3)). Both black carbon and fine particulate matter were significantly associated with worsening insulin resistance (0.18 [0.01-0.36] and 0.22 [0.04-0.39] unit increase per SD increase of personal-level black carbon and 0.18 [0.02-0.34] and 0.22 [0.08-0.36] unit increase per SD increase of ambient fine particulate matter on lag days 4 and 5). These results provide important global public health warnings that air pollution may pose a risk to cardiometabolic health even at the extremely high concentrations faced by billions of people in the developing world today. PMID:26573709

  5. A Vaccine Targeting Telomerase Enhances Survival of Dogs Affected by B-cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Peruzzi, Daniela; Gavazza, Alessandra; Mesiti, Giuseppe; Lubas, George; Scarselli, Elisa; Conforti, Antonella; Bendtsen, Claus; Ciliberto, Gennaro; La Monica, Nicola; Aurisicchio, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Canine cancers occur with an incidence similar to that of humans and share many features with human malignancies including histological appearance, tumor genetics, biological behavior, and response to conventional therapies. As observed in humans, the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) activity is largely confined to tumor tissues and absent in the majority of normal dog tissues. Therefore, dog TERT (dTERT) can constitute a valid target for translational cancer immunotherapy. We have evaluated the ability of adenovirus serotype 6 (Ad6) and DNA electroporation (DNA-EP) to induce immune responses against dTERT in dogs affected by malignant lymphoma (ML). The vaccine was combined with standard chemotherapy regimen [cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone (COP)]. dTERT-specific immune response was induced in 13 out of 14 treated animals (93%) and remained detectable and long-lasting with the absence of autoimmunity or other side effects. Most interestingly, the survival time of vaccine/Chemo-treated dogs was significantly increased over historic controls of Chemo-treated animals (>97.8 versus 37 weeks, respectively, P = 0.001). Our results show that Ad6/DNA-EP-based cancer vaccine against dTERT overcomes host immune tolerance, should be combined with chemotherapy, induces long-lasting immune responses, and significantly prolongs the survival of ML canine patients. These data support further evaluation of this approach in human clinical trials. PMID:20531395

  6. Cronobacter sakazakii in foods and factors affecting its survival, growth, and inactivation.

    PubMed

    Beuchat, Larry R; Kim, Hoikyung; Gurtler, Joshua B; Lin, Li-Chun; Ryu, Jee-Hoon; Richards, Glenner M

    2009-12-31

    Cronobacter sakazakii has been isolated from a wide range of environmental sources and from several foods of animal and plant origin. While infections caused by C. sakazakii have predominantly involved neonates and infants, its presence on or in foods other than powdered infant formula raises concern about the safety risks these foods pose to immunocompromised consumers. We have done a series of studies to better understand the survival and growth characteristics of C. sakazakii in infant formula, infant cereal, fresh-cut produce, and juices made from fresh produce. Over a 12-month storage period, the pathogen survived better in dried formula and cereal at low a(w) (0.25-0.30) than at high a(w) (0.69-0.82) and at 4 degrees C compared to 30 degrees C. C. sakazakii grows in formulas and cereals reconstituted with water or milk and held at 12-30 degrees C. The composition of formulas or cereals does not markedly affect the rate of growth. C. sakazakii grows well on fresh-cut apple, cantaloupe, watermelon, cabbage, carrot, cucumber, lettuce, and tomato at 25 degrees C and in some types of produce at 12 degrees C. Treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables with sanitizers such as chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and a peroxyacetic acid-based solution causes reductions of 1.6-5.4 log CFU/apple, tomato, and lettuce. Cells of C. sakazakii in biofilms formed on stainless steel and enteral feeding tubes or dried on the surface of stainless steel have increased resistance to disinfectants. Death of cells in biofilms is affected by atmospheric relative humidity. These studies have contributed to a better understanding of the behavior of C. sakazakii in and on foods and on food-contact surfaces, thereby enabling the development of more effective strategies and interventions for its control. PMID:19346021

  7. Myasthenia gravis in patients with thymoma affects survival rate following extended thymectomy

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, ZHEFENG; CUI, YOUBIN; JIA, RUI; XUE, LEI; LIANG, HUAGANG

    2016-01-01

    Thymomas are the most common adult tumors in the anterior mediastinal compartment, and a significant amount of thymomas are complicated by myasthenia gravis (MG). Extended thymectomy (ET) is the primary treatment method for thymomas and is used to completely resect possible ectopic thymus to avoid recurrence. Studies on the effect of MG in thymoma patients following ET are limited. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the presence of MG affects the prognosis of patients with thymoma. The present study consisted of 104 patients with thymoma that underwent ET; 61 men (58.7%) and 43 women (41.3%) (mean age, 54.6 years). In total, 38 patients had MG (36.5%). MG was most frequently observed in World Health Organization (WHO) classification type B2 thymoma compared with other types of thymoma. During the 5-year follow-up period, 11 patients succumbed to a recurrence of thymoma or respiratory failure due to MG. The overall 5-year survival rate in patients without MG or with MG was 89.1 and 76.0%, respectively. The overall survival (OS) rate in patients with Masaoka stages I + II and III + IV was 90.0 and 68.0%, respectively. The OS rate in patients with WHO type A + AB + B1 and type B2 + B3 was 96.9 and 76.8%, respectively. The patients with MG (P=0.026), Masaoka stages III + IV (P=0.008) and WHO type B2 + B3 (P=0.032) had a poorer prognosis compared with patients without these characteristics. Furthermore, multivariate analysis by Cox regression revealed that age [P=0.032; relative risk (RR)=1.097; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.097–1.192] and MG (P=0.042; RR=0.167; 95% CI=0.037–0.940) significantly affected OS rate. In summary, ET is a reliable method for the treatment of thymoma. Long-term survival is expected for patients at early Masaoka stages, and for patients without MG. The prognosis of patients with thymomas with MG is poorer compared with patients without MG. The present findings provide useful information for the future management of

  8. Survival of salmonella on dried fruits and in aqueous dried fruit homogenates as affected by temperature.

    PubMed

    Beuchat, Larry R; Mann, David A

    2014-07-01

    A study was done to determine the ability of Salmonella to survive on dried cranberries, raisins, and strawberries and in date paste, as affected by storage temperature. Acid-adapted Salmonella, initially at 6.57 to 7.01 log CFU/g, was recovered from mist-inoculated cranberries (water activity [aw] 0.47) and raisins (aw 0.46) stored at 25°C for 21 days but not 42 days, strawberries (aw 0.21) for 42 days but not 84 days, and date paste (aw 0.69) for 84 days but not 126 days. In contrast, the pathogen was detected in strawberries stored at 4°C for 182 days (6 months) but not 242 days (8 months) and in cranberries, date paste, and raisins stored for 242 days. Surface-grown cells survived longer than broth-grown cells in date paste. The order of rate of inactivation at 4°C was cranberry > strawberry > raisin > date paste. Initially at 2.18 to 3.35 log CFU/g, inactivation of Salmonella on dry (sand)&ndash inoculated fruits followed trends similar to those for mist-inoculated fruits. Survival of Salmonella in aqueous homogenates of dried fruits as affected by fruit concentration and temperature was also studied. Growth was not observed in 10% (aw 0.995 to 0.999) and 50% (aw 0.955 to 0.962) homogenates of the four fruits held at 4°C, 50% homogenates at 25°C, and 10% cranberry and strawberry homogenates at 25°C. Growth of the pathogen in 10% date paste and raisin homogenates stored at 25°C was followed by rapid inactivation. Results of these studies suggest the need to subject dried fruits that may be contaminated with Salmonella to a lethal process and prevent postprocess contamination before they are eaten out-of-hand or used as ingredients in ready-to-eat foods. Observations showing that Salmonella can grow in aqueous homogenates of date paste and raisins emphasize the importance of minimizing contact of these fruits with high-moisture environments during handling and storage. PMID:24988015

  9. Dam operations affect route-specific passage and survival of juvenile Chinook salmon at a main-stem diversion dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Russell W.; Kock, Tobias J.; Couter, Ian I; Garrison, Thomas M; Hubble, Joel D; Child, David B

    2016-01-01

    Diversion dams can negatively affect emigrating juvenile salmon populations because fish must pass through the impounded river created by the dam, negotiate a passage route at the dam and then emigrate through a riverine reach that has been affected by reduced river discharge. To quantify the effects of a main-stem diversion dam on juvenile Chinook salmon in the Yakima River, Washington, USA, we used radio telemetry to understand how dam operations and river discharge in the 18-km reach downstream of the dam affected route-specific passage and survival. We found evidence of direct mortality associated with dam passage and indirect mortality associated with migration through the reach below the dam. Survival of fish passing over a surface spill gate (the west gate) was positively related to river discharge, and survival was similar for fish released below the dam, suggesting that passage via this route caused little additional mortality. However, survival of fish that passed under a sub-surface spill gate (the east gate) was considerably lower than survival of fish released downstream of the dam, with the difference in survival decreasing as river discharge increased. The probability of fish passing the dam via three available routes was strongly influenced by dam operations, with passage through the juvenile fish bypass and the east gate increasing with discharge through those routes. By simulating daily passage and route-specific survival, we show that variation in total survival is driven by river discharge and moderated by the proportion of fish passing through low-survival or high-survival passage routes.

  10. Estimating postoperative survival of gastric cancer patients and factors affecting it in Iran: Based on a TNM-7 Staging System.

    PubMed

    Zeraati, Hojjat; Amiri, Zohreh

    2016-02-01

    Recently, reports have shown that gastric cancer has high abundance in Iran and is at the second level in men, and fourth in total. This study aimed to determine the 5-year survival of gastric cancer patients and to investigate factors affecting the performance, based on TNM-7 staging system. In this study, we investigated 760 patients with gastric cancer since the beginning of 1993 to the end of 2006 in the Iran Cancer Institute who underwent surgery. Survival of these patients was determined after surgery, and the effects of demographic characteristics such as age (during operation), sex, and information on diseases such as cancer site, pathologic type, stage of disease progress (Stage), metastasis and sites of metastases were evaluated. The 5 -year survival probability of patients was 28 %, and median survival time was 25.69 months. Univariate tests showed that sex, cancer site, and pathologic type have no significant effects on patient's survival. But the probability of 5-year survival significantly decreases with increasing age, and as it is expected, those with metastases were significantly less likely to have 5-year survival, and disease stage was significantly effective on patients' life (P<0.001). Simultaneous evaluation of different variables' effects on the probability of survival using the multiple Cox proportional hazards models showed that age and stage disease variables were effective on the survival of patients. The 5-year survival of patients with gastric cancer is low in Iran, although it is improved compared to the past. It seems that one of the main reasons for low survival rate of these patients is a late referral of patients for diagnosis and treatment. Most patients refer in the final stages of the disease, at this stage most patients are affected by lymph nodes metastases, liver and as the result, their treatment will be more difficult. PMID:26997598

  11. Simulated predator extinctions: predator identity affects survival and recruitment of oysters.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Nessa E; Grabowski, Jonathan H; Ladwig, Laura M; Bruno, John F

    2008-02-01

    The rate of species loss is increasing at a global scale, and human-induced extinctions are biased toward predator species. We examined the effects of predator extinctions on a foundation species, the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica). We performed a factorial experiment manipulating the presence and abundance of three of the most common predatory crabs, the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), stone crab (Menippe mercenaria), and mud crab (Panopeus herbstii) in estuaries in the eastern United States. We tested the effects of species richness and identity of predators on juvenile oyster survival, oyster recruitment, and organic matter content of sediment. We also manipulated the density of each of the predators and controlled for the loss of biomass of species by maintaining a constant mass of predators in one set of treatments and simultaneously using an additive design. This design allowed us to test the density dependence of our results and test for functional compensation by other species. The identity of predator species, but not richness, affected oyster populations. The loss of blue crabs, alone or in combination with either of the other species, affected the survival rate of juvenile oysters. Blue crabs and stone crabs both affected oyster recruitment and sediment organic matter negatively. Mud crabs at higher than ambient densities, however, could fulfill some of the functions of blue and stone crabs, suggesting a level of ecological redundancy. Importantly, the strong effects of blue crabs in all processes measured no longer occurred when individuals were present at higher-than-ambient densities. Their role as dominant predator is, therefore, dependent on their density within the system and the density of other species within their guild (e.g., mud crabs). Our findings support the hypothesis that the effects of species loss at higher trophic levels are determined by predator identity and are subject to complex intraguild interactions that are largely

  12. Do social disadvantage and early family adversity affect the diurnal cortisol rhythm in infants? The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Saridjan, Nathalie S; Huizink, Anja C; Koetsier, Jitske A; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Mackenbach, Johan P; Hofman, Albert; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2010-02-01

    Dysregulation of diurnal cortisol secretion patterns may explain the link between adversities early in life and later mental health problems. However, few studies have investigated the influence of social disadvantage and family adversity on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis early in life. In 366 infants aged 12-20 months from the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort from fetal life onwards, parents collected saliva samples from their infant at 5 moments over the course of 1 day. The area under the curve (AUC), the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and the diurnal cortisol slope were calculated as different composite measures of the diurnal cortisol rhythm. Information about social disadvantage and early adversity was collected using prenatal and postnatal questionnaires. We found that older infants showed lower AUC levels; moreover, infants with a positive CAR were significantly older. Both the AUC and the CAR were related to indicators of social disadvantage and early adversity. Infants of low income families, in comparison to high income families, showed higher AUC levels and a positive CAR. Infants of mothers who smoked during pregnancy were also significantly more likely to show a positive CAR. Furthermore, infants of mothers experiencing parenting stress showed higher AUC levels. The results of our study show that effects of social disadvantage and early adversity on the diurnal cortisol rhythm are already observable in infants. This may reflect the influence of early negative life events on early maturation of the HPA axis. PMID:20006614

  13. Minimum Pricing of Alcohol versus Volumetric Taxation: Which Policy Will Reduce Heavy Consumption without Adversely Affecting Light and Moderate Consumers?

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anurag; Vandenberg, Brian; Hollingsworth, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Background We estimate the effect on light, moderate and heavy consumers of alcohol from implementing a minimum unit price for alcohol (MUP) compared with a uniform volumetric tax. Methods We analyse scanner data from a panel survey of demographically representative households (n = 885) collected over a one-year period (24 Jan 2010–22 Jan 2011) in the state of Victoria, Australia, which includes detailed records of each household's off-trade alcohol purchasing. Findings The heaviest consumers (3% of the sample) currently purchase 20% of the total litres of alcohol (LALs), are more likely to purchase cask wine and full strength beer, and pay significantly less on average per standard drink compared to the lightest consumers (A$1.31 [95% CI 1.20–1.41] compared to $2.21 [95% CI 2.10–2.31]). Applying a MUP of A$1 per standard drink has a greater effect on reducing the mean annual volume of alcohol purchased by the heaviest consumers of wine (15.78 LALs [95% CI 14.86–16.69]) and beer (1.85 LALs [95% CI 1.64–2.05]) compared to a uniform volumetric tax (9.56 LALs [95% CI 9.10–10.01] and 0.49 LALs [95% CI 0.46–0.41], respectively). A MUP results in smaller increases in the annual cost for the heaviest consumers of wine ($393.60 [95% CI 374.19–413.00]) and beer ($108.26 [95% CI 94.76–121.75]), compared to a uniform volumetric tax ($552.46 [95% CI 530.55–574.36] and $163.92 [95% CI 152.79–175.03], respectively). Both a MUP and uniform volumetric tax have little effect on changing the annual cost of wine and beer for light and moderate consumers, and likewise little effect upon their purchasing. Conclusions While both a MUP and a uniform volumetric tax have potential to reduce heavy consumption of wine and beer without adversely affecting light and moderate consumers, a MUP offers the potential to achieve greater reductions in heavy consumption at a lower overall annual cost to consumers. PMID:24465368

  14. Benefits of adversity?! How life history affects the behavioral profile of mice varying in serotonin transporter genotype

    PubMed Central

    Bodden, Carina; Richter, S. Helene; Schreiber, Rebecca S.; Kloke, Vanessa; Gerß, Joachim; Palme, Rupert; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Lewejohann, Lars; Kaiser, Sylvia; Sachser, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral profiles are influenced by both positive and negative experiences as well as the genetic disposition. Traditionally, accumulating adversity over lifetime is considered to predict increased anxiety-like behavior (“allostatic load”). The alternative “mismatch hypothesis” suggests increased levels of anxiety if the early environment differs from the later-life environment. Thus, there is a need for a whole-life history approach to gain a deeper understanding of how behavioral profiles are shaped. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of life history on the behavioral profile of mice varying in serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype, an established mouse model of increased anxiety-like behavior. For this purpose, mice grew up under either adverse or beneficial conditions during early phases of life. In adulthood, they were further subdivided so as to face a situation that either matched or mismatched the condition experienced so far, resulting in four different life histories. Subsequently, mice were tested for their anxiety-like and exploratory behavior. The main results were: (1) Life history profoundly modulated the behavioral profile. Surprisingly, mice that experienced early beneficial and later escapable adverse conditions showed less anxiety-like and more exploratory behavior compared to mice of other life histories. (2) Genotype significantly influenced the behavioral profile, with homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice displaying highest levels of anxiety-like and lowest levels of exploratory behavior. Our findings concerning life history indicate that the absence of adversity does not necessarily cause lower levels of anxiety than accumulating adversity. Rather, some adversity may be beneficial, particularly when following positive events. Altogether, we conclude that for an understanding of behavioral profiles, it is not sufficient to look at experiences during single phases of life, but the whole life history has to be considered

  15. Factors Affecting Pathogen Survival in Finished Dairy Compost with Different Particle Sizes Under Greenhouse Conditions.

    PubMed

    Diao, Junshu; Chen, Zhao; Gong, Chao; Jiang, Xiuping

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in finished dairy compost with different particle sizes during storage as affected by moisture content and temperature under greenhouse conditions. The mixture of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium strains was inoculated into the finished composts with moisture contents of 20, 30, and 40%, separately. The finished compost samples were then sieved into 3 different particle sizes (>1000, 500-1000, and <500 μm) and stored under greenhouse conditions. For compost samples with moisture contents of 20 and 30%, the average Salmonella reductions in compost samples with particle sizes of >1000, 500-1000, and <500 μm were 2.15, 2.27, and 2.47 log colony-forming units (CFU) g(-1) within 5 days of storage in summer, respectively, as compared with 1.60, 2.03, and 2.26 log CFU g(-1) in late fall, respectively, and 2.61, 3.33, and 3.67 log CFU g(-1) in winter, respectively. The average E. coli O157:H7 reductions in compost samples with particle sizes of >1000, 500-1000, and <500 μm were 1.98, 2.30, and 2.54 log CFU g(-1) within 5 days of storage in summer, respectively, as compared with 1.70, 2.56, and 2.90 log CFU g(-1) in winter, respectively. Our results revealed that both Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 in compost samples with larger particle size survived better than those with smaller particle sizes, and the initial rapid moisture loss in compost may contribute to the fast inactivation of pathogens in the finished compost. For the same season, the pathogens in the compost samples with the same particle size survived much better at the initial moisture content of 20% compared to 40%. PMID:26153914

  16. Abdominally implanted satellite transmitters affect reproduction and survival rather than migration of large shorebirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooijmeijer, Jos C. E. W.; Gill, Robert E., Jr.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Kentie, Rosemarie; Gerritsen, Gerrit J.; Bruinzeel, Leo W.; Tijssen, David C.; Harwood, Christopher M.; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    Satellite telemetry has become a common technique to investigate avian life-histories, but whether such tagging will affect fitness is a critical unknown. In this study, we evaluate multi-year effects of implanted transmitters on migratory timing and reproductive performance in shorebirds. Shorebirds increasingly are recognized as good models in ecology and evolution. That many of them are of conservation concern adds to the research responsibilities. In May 2009, we captured 56 female Black-tailed Godwits Limosa limosa limosa during late incubation in The Netherlands. Of these, 15 birds were equipped with 26-g satellite transmitters with a percutaneous antenna (7.8 % ± 0.2 SD of body mass), surgically implanted in the coelom. We compared immediate nest survival, timing of migration, subsequent nest site fidelity and reproductive behaviour including egg laying with those of the remaining birds, a comparison group of 41 females. We found no effects on immediate nest survival. Fledging success and subsequent southward and northward migration patterns of the implanted birds conformed to the expectations, and arrival time on the breeding grounds in 2010–2012 did not differ from the comparison group. Compared with the comparison group, in the year after implantation, implanted birds were equally faithful to the nest site and showed equal territorial behaviour, but a paucity of behaviours indicating nests or clutches. In the 3 years after implantation, the yearly apparent survival of implanted birds was 16 % points lower. Despite intense searching, we found only three eggs of two implanted birds; all were deformed. A similarly deformed egg was reported in a similarly implanted Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus returning to breed in central Alaska. The presence in the body cavity of an object slightly smaller than a normal egg may thus lead to egg malformation and, likely, reduced egg viability. That the use of implanted satellite transmitters in these large shorebirds

  17. Leaf biomechanical properties in Arabidopsis thaliana polysaccharide mutants affect drought survival.

    PubMed

    Balsamo, Ronald; Boak, Merewyn; Nagle, Kayla; Peethambaran, Bela; Layton, Bradley

    2015-11-26

    Individual sugars are the building blocks of cell wall polysaccharides, which in turn comprise a plant׳s overall architectural structure. But which sugars play the most prominent role in maintaining a plant׳s mechanical stability during large cellular deformations induced by drought? We investigated the individual contributions of several genes that are involved in the synthesis of monosaccharides which are important for cell wall structure. We then measured drought tolerance and mechanical integrity during simulated drought in Arabidopsis thaliana. To assess mechanical properties, we designed a small-scale tensile tester for measuring failure strain, ultimate tensile stress, work to failure, toughness, and elastic modulus of 6-week-old leaves in both hydrated and drought-simulated states. Col-0 mutants used in this study include those deficient in lignin, cellulose, components of hemicellulose such as xylose and fucose, the pectic components arabinose and rhamnose, as well as mutants with enhanced arabinose and total pectin content. We found that drought tolerance is correlated to the mechanical and architectural stability of leaves as they experience dehydration. Of the mutants, S096418 with mutations for reduced xylose and galactose was the least drought tolerant, while the arabinose-altered CS8578 mutants were the least affected by water loss. There were also notable correlations between drought tolerance and mechanical properties in the diminished rhamnose mutant, CS8575 and the dehydrogenase-disrupted S120106. Our findings suggest that components of hemicellulose and pectins affect leaf biomechanical properties and may play an important role in the ability of this model system to survive drought. PMID:26520913

  18. Dietary magnesium and copper affect survival time and neuroinflammation in chronic wasting disease

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Tracy A.; Spraker, Terry R.; Gidlewski, Thomas; Cummings, Bruce; Hill, Dana; Kong, Qingzhong; Balachandran, Aru; VerCauteren, Kurt C.; Zabel, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the only known wildlife prion disease, affects deer, elk and moose. The disease is an ongoing and expanding problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations and is difficult to control in part due to the extreme environmental persistence of prions, which can transmit disease years after initial contamination. The role of exogenous factors in CWD transmission and progression is largely unexplored. In an effort to understand the influence of environmental and dietary constituents on CWD, we collected and analyzed water and soil samples from CWD-negative and positive captive cervid facilities, as well as from wild CWD-endozootic areas. Our analysis revealed that, when compared with CWD-positive sites, CWD-negative sites had a significantly higher concentration of magnesium, and a higher magnesium/copper (Mg/Cu) ratio in the water than that from CWD-positive sites. When cevidized transgenic mice were fed a custom diet devoid of Mg and Cu and drinking water with varied Mg/Cu ratios, we found that higher Mg/Cu ratio resulted in significantly longer survival times after intracerebral CWD inoculation. We also detected reduced levels of inflammatory cytokine gene expression in mice fed a modified diet with a higher Mg/Cu ratio compared to those on a standard rodent diet. These findings indicate a role for dietary Mg and Cu in CWD pathogenesis through modulating inflammation in the brain. PMID:27216881

  19. Factors Affecting Survival in Patients with Lung Metastases from Colorectal Cancer. A Short Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lumachi, Franco; Chiara, Giordano B; Tozzoli, Renato; Del Conte, Alessandro; Del Contea, Alessandro; Basso, Stefano M M

    2016-01-01

    Liver and pulmonary metastases (PMs) are relatively common in patients with colorectal cancer. The majority of metastases are suitable for surgical resection, and the effectiveness of metastasectomy is usually assessed based on overall survival (OS). Metastasectomy provides a mean 5-year OS rate of approximately 50%, but the results are better in patients with liver metastases compared to those with PMs. Unfortunately, the presence of bilateral or multiple PMs represents a relative contraindication to surgical metastasectomy. Unresectable PMs can be safely treated with percutaneous radiofrequency ablation or radiotherapy, but the reported results vary widely. Several clinical prognostic factors affecting OS after metastasectomy have been reported, such as number of PMs, hilar or mediastinal lymph node involvement, disease-free interval, age and gender, resection margins, size of the metastases, neoadjuvant chemotherapy administration, and histological type of the primary cancer. The accurate evaluation of all clinical prognostic factors, circulating and immunohistochemical markers, and the study of gene mutational status will lead to a more accurate selection of patients scheduled to metastasectomy, with the aim of improving outcome. PMID:26722023

  20. Analysis of factors affecting hemorrhagic diathesis and overall survival in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho Jin; Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Seul; Koh, Myeong Seok; Kim, So Yeon; Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Suee; Oh, Sung Yong; Han, Jin Yeong; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Sung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: This study investigated whether patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) truly fulfill the diagnostic criteria of overt disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), as proposed by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) and the Korean Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (KSTH), and analyzed which component of the criteria most contributes to bleeding diathesis. Methods: A single-center retrospective analysis was conducted on newly diagnosed APL patients between January 1995 and May 2012. Results: A total of 46 newly diagnosed APL patients were analyzed. Of these, 27 patients (58.7%) showed initial bleeding. The median number of points per patient fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of overt DIC by the ISTH and the KSTH was 5 (range, 1 to 7) and 3 (range, 1 to 4), respectively. At diagnosis of APL, 22 patients (47.8%) fulfilled the overt DIC diagnostic criteria by either the ISTH or KSTH. In multivariate analysis of the ISTH or KSTH diagnostic criteria for overt DIC, the initial fibrinogen level was the only statistically significant factor associated with initial bleeding (p = 0.035), but it was not associated with overall survival (OS). Conclusions: Initial fibrinogen level is associated with initial presentation of bleeding of APL patients, but does not affect OS. PMID:26552464

  1. Dietary magnesium and copper affect survival time and neuroinflammation in chronic wasting disease.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Tracy A; Spraker, Terry R; Gidlewski, Thomas; Cummings, Bruce; Hill, Dana; Kong, Qingzhong; Balachandran, Aru; VerCauteren, Kurt C; Zabel, Mark D

    2016-05-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the only known wildlife prion disease, affects deer, elk and moose. The disease is an ongoing and expanding problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations and is difficult to control in part due to the extreme environmental persistence of prions, which can transmit disease years after initial contamination. The role of exogenous factors in CWD transmission and progression is largely unexplored. In an effort to understand the influence of environmental and dietary constituents on CWD, we collected and analyzed water and soil samples from CWD-negative and positive captive cervid facilities, as well as from wild CWD-endozootic areas. Our analysis revealed that, when compared with CWD-positive sites, CWD-negative sites had a significantly higher concentration of magnesium, and a higher magnesium/copper (Mg/Cu) ratio in the water than that from CWD-positive sites. When cevidized transgenic mice were fed a custom diet devoid of Mg and Cu and drinking water with varied Mg/Cu ratios, we found that higher Mg/Cu ratio resulted in significantly longer survival times after intracerebral CWD inoculation. We also detected reduced levels of inflammatory cytokine gene expression in mice fed a modified diet with a higher Mg/Cu ratio compared to those on a standard rodent diet. These findings indicate a role for dietary Mg and Cu in CWD pathogenesis through modulating inflammation in the brain. PMID:27216881

  2. Does seawater acidification affect survival, growth and shell integrity in bivalve juveniles?

    PubMed

    Bressan, M; Chinellato, A; Munari, M; Matozzo, V; Manci, A; Marčeta, T; Finos, L; Moro, I; Pastore, P; Badocco, D; Marin, M G

    2014-08-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide are leading to decreases in pH and changes in the carbonate chemistry of seawater. Ocean acidification may negatively affect the ability of marine organisms to produce calcareous structures while also influencing their physiological responses and growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of reduced pH on the survival, growth and shell integrity of juveniles of two marine bivalves from the Northern Adriatic sea: the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the striped venus clam Chamelea gallina. An outdoor flow-through plant was set up and two pH levels (natural seawater pH as a control, pH 7.4 as the treatment) were tested in long-term experiments. Mortality was low throughout the first experiment for both mussels and clams, but a significant increase, which was sensibly higher in clams, was observed at the end of the experiment (6 months). Significant decreases in the live weight (-26%) and, surprisingly, in the shell length (-5%) were observed in treated clams, but not in mussels. In the controls of both species, no shell damage was ever recorded; in the treated mussels and clams, damage proceeded via different modes and to different extents. The severity of shell injuries was maximal in the mussels after just 3 months of exposure to a reduced pH, whereas it progressively increased in clams until the end of the experiment. In shells of both species, the damaged area increased throughout the experiment, peaking at 35% in mussels and 11% in clams. The shell thickness of the treated and control animals significantly decreased after 3 months in clams and after 6 months in mussels. In the second experiment (3 months), only juvenile mussels were exposed to a reduced pH. After 3 months, the mussels at a natural pH level or pH 7.4 did not differ in their survival, shell length or live weight. Conversely, shell damage was clearly visible in the treated mussels from the 1st month onward. Monitoring the

  3. Sugar concentration and timing of feeding affect feeding characteristics and survival of a parasitic wasp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The availability of food sources is critical for parasitoid survival, especially for those that do not host-feed, or in agroecosystems where nectar and honeydew are sometimes spatially and temporally scarce. Therefore, the value of even a single meal can be crucial for survival. Psyttalia lounsbur...

  4. Factors affecting winter survival of female mallards in the lower Mississippi alluvial valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, B.E.; Afton, A.D.; Cox, R.R., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (hereafter LMAV) provides winter habitat for approximately 40% of the Mississippi Flyway's Mallard (Anas platyrhynhcos) population; information on winter survival rates of female Mallards in the LMAV is restricted to data collected prior to implementation of the North American Waterfowl Management Plan. To estimate recent survival and cause-specific mortality rates in the LMAV, 174 radio-marked female Mallards were tracked for a total of 11,912 exposure days. Survival varied by time periods defined by hunting seasons, and females with lower body condition (size adjusted body mass) at time of capture had reduced probability of survival. Female survival was less and the duration of our tracking period was greater than those in previous studies of similarly marked females in the LMAV; the product-limit survival estimate (??????SE) through the entire tracking period (136 days) was 0.54 ??0.10. Cause-specific mortality rates were 0.18 ??0.04 and 0.34 ??0.12 for hunting and other sources of mortality, respectively; the estimated mortality rate from other sources (including those from avian, mammalian, or unknown sources) was higher than mortality from non-hunting sources reported in previous studies of Mallards in the LMAV. Models that incorporate winter survival estimates as a factor in Mallard population growth rates should be adjusted for these reduced winter survival estimates.

  5. Factors affecting infiltration and survival of Salmonella on in-shell pecans and pecan nutmeats.

    PubMed

    Beuchat, Larry R; Mann, David A

    2010-07-01

    A study was done to determine the infiltration and survival characteristics of Salmonella in pecans. The rate of infiltration of water into in-shell nuts varied among six varieties evaluated and was significantly (alpha = 0.05) affected by the extent of shell damage. The rate of infiltration at -20 or 4 degrees C was lower than the rate of infiltration into nuts at 21 or 37 degrees C when nuts were immersed in water at 21 degrees C. In-shell nuts immersed in a suspension of Salmonella (8.66 or 2.82 log CFU/ml) for 1 h contained populations of 6.94 to 6.99 and 1.85 to 1.95 log CFU/g, respectively. Salmonella that infiltrated in-shell nuts reached the kernel and remained viable after drying and during subsequent storage at 4 degrees C. Initially high (5.78 log CFU/g) and low (1.53 log CFU/g) populations of Salmonella did not significantly decrease in in-shell pecans stored at -20 and 4 degrees C for 78 weeks (18 months). Significant reductions of 2.49 and 3.29 log CFU/g occurred in in-shell nuts stored for 78 weeks at 21 and 37 degrees C, respectively. High (6.16 log CFU/g) and low (2.56 log CFU/g) populations on pecan halves and high (7.13 log CFU/g) and low (4.71 log CFU/g) populations on medium pieces stored for 52 weeks at -20 and 4 degrees C decreased slightly, but not always significantly. Significant reductions occurred on nutmeats stored for 52 weeks at 21 and 37 degrees C, but the pathogen was detectable, regardless of the initial inoculum level. Results emphasize the importance of applying process treatments that will inactivate Salmonella. PMID:20615338

  6. CT and MR imaging findings of systemic complications occurring during pregnancy and puerperal period, adversely affected by natural changes

    PubMed Central

    Himoto, Yuki; Kido, Aki; Moribata, Yusaku; Yamaoka, Toshihide; Okumura, Ryosuke; Togashi, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic physiological and anatomical changes for delivery may adversely induce various specific non-obstetric complications during pregnancy and puerperal period. These complications can be fatal to both the mother and the fetus, thus a precise and early diagnosis ensued by an early treatment is essential. Along with ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have assumed an increasing role in the diagnosis. This article aims to discuss the pathophysiology of these complications, the indications for CT and MRI, and the imaging findings. PMID:26937442

  7. CT and MR imaging findings of systemic complications occurring during pregnancy and puerperal period, adversely affected by natural changes.

    PubMed

    Himoto, Yuki; Kido, Aki; Moribata, Yusaku; Yamaoka, Toshihide; Okumura, Ryosuke; Togashi, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic physiological and anatomical changes for delivery may adversely induce various specific non-obstetric complications during pregnancy and puerperal period. These complications can be fatal to both the mother and the fetus, thus a precise and early diagnosis ensued by an early treatment is essential. Along with ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have assumed an increasing role in the diagnosis. This article aims to discuss the pathophysiology of these complications, the indications for CT and MRI, and the imaging findings. PMID:26937442

  8. IgM peak independently predicts treatment-free survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and correlates with accumulation of adverse oncogenetic events.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, D; Chauzeix, J; Trimoreau, F; Woillard, J B; Genevieve, F; Bouvier, A; Labrousse, J; Poli, C; Guerin, E; Dmytruk, N; Remenieras, L; Feuillard, J; Gachard, N

    2015-02-01

    We examined the significance of IgM peaks in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), including its association with newly reported MYD88, BIRC3, NOTCH1 and SF3B1 mutations. A total of 27, 25, 41 and 57 patients with monoclonal IgM or IgG peaks (IgM and IgG groups), hypogammaglobulinemia (Hypo-γ group) and normal immunoglobulin serum levels (normal-γ group) were, respectively, included. IgM peaks were mainly associated with Binet stage C and the del(17p). Biased usage of IGHV3-48 was shared by both IgM and IgG groups. IGHV3-74 and IGHV4-39 gene rearrangements were specific for IgM and IgG peaks, respectively. SF3B1, NOTCH1, MYD88 and BIRC3 mutation frequencies were 12%, 4%, 2% and 2%, respectively, being over-represented in IgM, IgG and Hypo-γ groups for SF3B1, and being equal between normal-γ and IgM groups for MYD88. Overall, 76%, 87%, 49% and 42% of cases from IgM, IgG, Hypo-γ and normal-γ groups had at least one intermediate or poor prognosis genetic marker, respectively. By multivariate analysis, IgM peaks were associated with shorter treatment-free survival independently from any other univariate poor prognosis biological parameters, including IgG peaks, Hypo-γ, IGHV status, SF3B1 mutations, cytogenetics and lymphocytosis. Therefore, as with IgG peaks, IgM peaks aggravated the natural course of CLL, with increased accumulation of adverse genetic events. PMID:24943833

  9. Factors affecting the development of adverse drug reactions to β-blockers in hospitalized cardiac patient population

    PubMed Central

    Mugoša, Snežana; Djordjević, Nataša; Djukanović, Nina; Protić, Dragana; Bukumirić, Zoran; Radosavljević, Ivan; Bošković, Aneta; Todorović, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to undertake a study on the prevalence of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) poor metabolizer alleles (*3, *4, *5, and *6) on a Montenegrin population and its impact on developing adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of β-blockers in a hospitalized cardiac patient population. A prospective study was conducted in the Cardiology Center of the Clinical Center of Montenegro and included 138 patients who had received any β-blocker in their therapy. ADRs were collected using a specially designed questionnaire, based on the symptom list and any signs that could point to eventual ADRs. Data from patients’ medical charts, laboratory tests, and other available parameters were observed and combined with the data from the questionnaire. ADRs to β-blockers were observed in 15 (10.9%) patients. There was a statistically significant difference in the frequency of ADRs in relation to genetically determined enzymatic activity (P<0.001), with ADRs’ occurrence significantly correlating with slower CYP2D6 metabolism. Our study showed that the adverse reactions to β-blockers could be predicted by the length of hospitalization, CYP2D6 poor metabolizer phenotype, and the concomitant use of other CYP2D6-metabolizing drugs. Therefore, in hospitalized patients with polypharmacy CYP2D6 genotyping might be useful in detecting those at risk of ADRs. PMID:27536078

  10. Factors affecting gadwall brood and duckling survival in prairie pothole landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pietz, P.J.; Krapu, G.L.; Brandt, D.A.; Cox, R.R., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Waterfowl biologists need reliable predictors of brood and duckling survival to accurately estimate recruitment rates. We examined 30-day survival rates of gadwall (Anas strepera ) broods (1992-1994) and ducklings (1990-1994) in eastern North Dakota during years when water conditions ranged from extremely dry to extremely wet. Despite apparent resilience of gadwall populations during drought, our study documented a positive effect of seasonal wetland availability on gadwall duckling survival. Management efforts to improve recruitment will be more effective in years when most seasonal basins contain water.

  11. Detection of QTL in rainbow trout affecting survival when challenged with Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) causes significant economic loss in salmonid aquaculture. We previously detected genetic variation in survival following challenge with Flavobacterium psychrophilum (Fp), the causative agent of BCWD in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A family-based selectio...

  12. Factors affecting nest survival of Henslow's Sparrows (Ammodramus henslowii) in southern Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crimmins, Shawn M.; McKann, Patrick C.; Robb, Joseph R.; Lewis, Jason P.; Vanosdol, Teresa; Walker, Benjamin A.; Williams, Perry J.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.

    2016-01-01

    Populations of Henslow’s Sparrows have declined dramatically in recent decades, coinciding with widespread loss of native grassland habitat. Prescribed burning is a primary tool for maintaining grassland patches, but its effects on nest survival of Henslow’s Sparrows remains largely unknown, especially in conjunction with other factors. We monitored 135 nests of Henslow’s Sparrows at Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge in southern Indiana from 1998–2001 in an effort to understand factors influencing nest survival, including prescribed burning of habitat. We used a mixed-effects implementation of the logistic exposure model to predict daily nest survival in an information theoretic framework. We found that daily survival declined near the onset of hatching and increased with the height of standing dead vegetation, although this relationship was weak. We found only nominal support to suggest that time since burn influenced nest survival. Overall, nest age was the most important factor in estimating daily nest survival rates. Our daily survival estimate from our marginal model (0.937) was similar to that derived from the Mayfield method (0.944) suggesting that our results are comparable to previous studies using the Mayfield approach. Our results indicate that frequent burning to limit woody encroachment into grassland habitats might benefit Henslow’s Sparrow, but that a variety of factors ultimately influence daily nest survival. However, we note that burning too frequently can also limit occupancy by Henslow’s Sparrows. We suggest that additional research is needed to determine the population-level consequences of habitat alteration and if other extrinsic factors influence demographics of Henslow’s Sparrows.

  13. Survival of Manure-borne and Fecal Coliforms in Soil: Temperature Dependence as Affected by Site-Specific Factors.

    PubMed

    Park, Yongeun; Pachepsky, Yakov; Shelton, Daniel; Jeong, Jaehak; Whelan, Gene

    2016-05-01

    Understanding pathogenic and indicator bacteria survival in soils is essential for assessing the potential of microbial contamination of water and produce. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of soil properties, animal source, experimental conditions, and the application method on temperature dependencies of manure-borne generic , O157:H7, and fecal coliforms survival in soils. A literature search yielded 151 survival datasets from 70 publications. Either one-stage or two-stage kinetics was observed in the survival datasets. We used duration and rate of the logarithm of concentration change as parameters of the first stage in the two-stage kinetics data. The second stage of the two-stage kinetics and the one-stage kinetics were simulated with the model to find the dependence of the inactivation rate on temperature. Classification and regression trees and linear regressions were applied to parameterize the kinetics. Presence or absence of two-stage kinetics was controlled by temperature, soil texture, soil water content, and for fine-textured soils by setting experiments in the field or in the laboratory. The duration of the first stage was predominantly affected by soil water content and temperature. In the model dependencies of inactivation rates on temperature, parameter estimates were significantly affected by the laboratory versus field conditions and by the application method, whereas inactivation rates at 20°C were significantly affected by all survival and management factors. Results of this work can provide estimates of coliform survival parameters for models of microbial water quality. PMID:27136162

  14. Sarcopenia Does Not Affect Survival or Outcomes in Soft-Tissue Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Robert J.; Alamanda, Vignesh K.; Hartley, Katherine G.; Mesko, Nathan W.; Halpern, Jennifer L.; Schwartz, Herbert S.; Holt, Ginger E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective. Sarcopenia is associated with decreased survival and increased complications in carcinoma patients. We hypothesized that sarcopenic soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) patients would have decreased survival, increased incidence of wound complications, and increased length of postresection hospital stay (LOS). Methods. A retrospective, single-center review of 137 patients treated surgically for STS was conducted. Sarcopenia was assessed by measuring the cross-sectional area of bilateral psoas muscles (total psoas muscle area, TPA) at the level of the third lumbar vertebrae on a pretreatment axial computed tomography scan. TPA was then adjusted for height (cm2/m2). The association between height-adjusted TPA and survival was assessed using Cox proportional hazard model. A logistical model was used to assess the association between height-adjusted TPA and wound complications. A linear model was used to assess the association between height-adjusted TPA and LOS. Results. Height-adjusted TPA was not an independent predictor of overall survival (p = 0.746). Patient age (p = 0.02) and tumor size (p = 0.009) and grade (p = 0.001) were independent predictors of overall survival. Height-adjusted TPA was not a predictor of increased hospital LOS (p = 0.66), greater incidence of postoperative infection (p = 0.56), or other wound complications (p = 0.14). Conclusions. Sarcopenia does not appear to impact overall survival, LOS, or wound complications in patients with STS. PMID:26696772

  15. Culture system noise seems not to affect growth and survival of rainbow trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensive aquaculture systems, particularly recycle systems with all their pumps, blowers, and filters can be noisy, but the potential effects of this underwater noise on fish have not been evaluated. Earlier field and laboratory studies have shown that fish behavior and physiology can be adversely ...

  16. Exposure to Cerium Dioxide Nanoparticles Differently Affect Swimming Performance and Survival in Two Daphnid Species

    PubMed Central

    Artells, Ester; Issartel, Julien; Auffan, Mélanie; Borschneck, Daniel; Thill, Antoine; Tella, Marie; Brousset, Lenka; Rose, Jérôme; Bottero, Jean-Yves; Thiéry, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The CeO2 NPs are increasingly used in industry but the environmental release of these NPs and their subsequent behavior and biological effects are currently unclear. This study evaluates for the first time the effects of CeO2 NPs on the survival and the swimming performance of two cladoceran species, Daphnia similis and Daphnia pulex after 1, 10 and 100 mg.L−1 CeO2 exposures for 48 h. Acute toxicity bioassays were performed to determine EC50 of exposed daphnids. Video-recorded swimming behavior of both daphnids was used to measure swimming speeds after various exposures to aggregated CeO2 NPs. The acute ecotoxicity showed that D. similis is 350 times more sensitive to CeO2 NPs than D. pulex, showing 48-h EC50 of 0.26 mg.L−1 and 91.79 mg.L−1, respectively. Both species interacted with CeO2 NPs (adsorption), but much more strongly in the case of D. similis. Swimming velocities (SV) were differently and significantly affected by CeO2 NPs for both species. A 48-h exposure to 1 mg.L−1 induced a decrease of 30% and 40% of the SV in D. pulex and D. similis, respectively. However at higher concentrations, the SV of D. similis was more impacted (60% off for 10 mg.L−1 and 100 mg.L−1) than the one of D. pulex. These interspecific toxic effects of CeO2 NPs are explained by morphological variations such as the presence of reliefs on the cuticle and a longer distal spine in D. similis acting as traps for the CeO2 aggregates. In addition, D. similis has a mean SV double that of D. pulex and thus initially collides with twice more NPs aggregates. The ecotoxicological consequences on the behavior and physiology of a CeO2 NPs exposure in daphnids are discussed. PMID:23977004

  17. Functional SNP in stem of mir-146a affects Her2 status and breast cancer survival.

    PubMed

    Meshkat, Mahboobeh; Tanha, Hamzeh Mesrian; Naeini, Marjan Mojtabavi; Ghaedi, Kamran; Sanati, Mohammad H; Meshkat, Marzieh; Bagheri, Fatemeh

    2016-07-01

    In-silico investigation suggested a common variant within stem of miR-146a-5p precursor (rs2910164, n.60C>G) associated with breast cancer (BC) phenotypes. Our aim was computationally predicting possible targets of miR-146a-5p and probable rs2910164 mechanism of action in expression of phenotypes in BC. Additionally, a case-control study was designated to examine experimentally the correlation of mir-146a rs2910164 variant and BC phenotypes. In this study, 152 BC subjects and healthy controls were genotyped using RFLP-PCR. Allelic and genotypic association and Armitage's trend tests were run to investigate the correlation between the alleles and genotypes and expressed phenotypes of BC. Bioinformatics analyses introduce regulatory function of miR-146a-5p in numerous signaling pathways and impact of allele substitution upon mir-146a stem-loop stability. Logistic regression data represented the C allele of rs2910164 (OR = 4.00, p= 0.0037) as the risk allele and associated with Her2-positive phenotype. In a similar vein, data revealed the correlation of the C allele and cancer death less than two years in BC patients (OR = 2.65, p= 0.0217). Ultimately, unconditional logistical regression models suggested log-additive model for inheritance manner of rs2910164 in either Her2 status or BC survival (OR = 5.64, p= 0.0025 and OR = 3.13, p= 0.019, respectively). Using bioinformatics connected association of Her2 status to altered function of miR-146a-5p in regulation of focal adhesion and Ras pathway. Furthermore, computations inferred the association between death phenotype and studied SNP upon specific target genes of miR-146a-5p involved in focal adhesion, EGF receptor, Ras, ErbB, interleukin, Toll-like receptor, NGF, angiogenesis, and p53 feedback loops 2 signaling pathways. These verdicts may enhance our perceptions of how mir-146a rs2910164 affect expressed phenotypes in BC, and might have potential implications to develop BC treatment in future. PMID:27434289

  18. Curcumin affects cell survival and cell volume regulation in human renal and intestinal cells

    PubMed Central

    Kössler, Sonja; Nofziger, Charity; Jakab, Martin; Dossena, Silvia; Paulmichl, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin (1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1E,6E-heptadiene-3,5-dione or diferuloyl methane) is a polyphenol derived from the Curcuma longa plant, commonly known as turmeric. This substance has been used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine for centuries for its anti-oxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic activity. More recently curcumin has been found to possess anti-cancer properties linked to its pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative actions. The underlying mechanisms of these diverse effects are complex, not fully elucidated and subject of intense scientific debate. Despite increasing evidence indicating that different cation channels can be a molecular target for curcumin, very little is known about the effect of curcumin on chloride channels. Since, (i) the molecular structure of curcumin indicates that the substance could potentially interact with chloride channels, (ii) chloride channels play a role during the apoptotic process and regulation of the cell volume, and (iii) apoptosis is a well known effect of curcumin, we set out to investigate whether or not curcumin could (i) exert a modulatory effect (direct or indirect) on the swelling activated chloride current IClswell in a human cell system, therefore (ii) affect cell volume regulation and (iii) ultimately modulate cell survival. The IClswell channels, which are essential for regulating the cell volume after swelling, are also known to be activated under isotonic conditions as an early event in the apoptotic process. Here we show that long-term exposure of a human kidney cell line to extracellular 0.1–10 μM curcumin modulates IClswell in a dose-dependent manner (0.1 μM curcumin is ineffective, 0.5–5.0 μM curcumin increase, while 10 μM curcumin decrease the current), and short-term exposure to micromolar concentrations of curcumin does not affect IClswell neither if applied from the extracellular nor from the intracellular side – therefore, a direct effect of curcumin on

  19. Demography of forest birds in Panama: How do transients affect estimates of survival rates?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brawn, J.D.; Karr, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Robinson, W.D.

    1999-01-01

    Estimates of annual survival rates of neotropical birds have proven controversial. Traditionally, tropical birds were thought to have high survival rates for their size, but analyses of a multispecies assemblage from Panama by Karr et al. (1990) provided a counterexample to that view. One criticism of that study has been that the estimates were biased by transient birds captured only once as they passed through the area being sampled. New models that formally adjust for transient individuals have been developed since 1990. Preliminary analyses indicate that these models are indeed useful in modelling the data from Panama. Nonetheless, there is considerable interspecific variation and overall estimates of annual survival rates for understorey birds in Panama remain lower than those from other studies in the Neotropics and well below the rates long assumed for tropical birds (i.e. > 0.80). Therefore, tropical birds may not have systematically higher survival rates than temperate-zone species. Variation in survival rates among tropical species suggests that theory based on a simple tradeoff between clutch size and longevity is inadequate. The demographic traits of birds in the tropics (and elsewhere) vary within and among species according to some combination of historical and ongoing ecological factors. Understanding these processes is the challenge for future work.

  20. Factors affecting the survival of patients with oesophageal carcinoma under radiotherapy in the north of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hajian-Tilaki, K O

    2001-01-01

    Factors relevant to the survival of patients with oesophageal cancer under radiotherapy have been studied in northern Iran where its incidence is high. We conducted an analytical study using a historical cohort and information from the medical charts of patients with oesophageal cancer. Out of 523 patients referred to the Shahid Rajaii radiotherapy centre in Babolsar from 1992 to 1996, we followed 230 patients for whom an address was available in 1998. The frequency of prognostic factors among those not contacted was very similar to those included in the study. The data were analysed using survival analysis by the nonparametric method of Kaplan Meier and the Cox regression model to determine risk ratios (RR) of prognostic factors. Survival rates were 42% at 1 year, 21% at 2 years, and 8% at 5 years after diagnosis. Patients aged 50–64 were found to have poorer survival compared with those less than 50 (RR = 1.73, P = 0.03); the risk ratio for ages f = 65 was 1.88 (P = 0.03). Females had significantly better survival than males (RR = 0.71, P = 0.02). For each 100 rads dose of radiotherapy, the risk ratio was significantly decreased by 1% (RR = 0.99, P = 0.05); for each session of radiotherapy, the risk ratio was significantly decreased by 4% (RR = 0.96, P = 0.0001); for each square centimetre size of surface under radiotherapy, the risk ratio significantly increased (RR = 1.002, P = 0.04). We did not observe a significant difference on survival by histology, anatomical location of tumours, or type of treatment (P > 0.05). Prognosis is extremely poor. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11742486

  1. Early organ dysfunction affects long-term survival in acute pancreatitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Skouras, Christos; Hayes, Alastair J; Williams, Linda; Garden, O James; Parks, Rowan W; Mole, Damian J

    2014-01-01

    Background The effect of early organ dysfunction on long-term survival in acute pancreatitis (AP) patients is unknown. Objective The aim of this study was to ascertain whether early organ dysfunction impacts on long-term survival after an episode of AP. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed using survival data sourced from a prospectively maintained database of patients with AP admitted to the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh during a 5-year period commencing January 2000. A multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) score of ≥ 2 during the first week of admission was used to define early organ dysfunction. After accounting for in-hospital deaths, long-term survival probabilities were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier test. The prognostic significance of patient characteristics was assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses using Cox's proportional hazards methods. Results A total of 694 patients were studied (median follow-up: 8.8 years). Patients with early organ dysfunction (MODS group) were found to have died prematurely [mean survival: 10.0 years, 95% confidence interval (CI) 9.4–10.6 years] in comparison with the non-MODS group (mean survival: 11.6 years, 95% CI 11.2–11.9 years) (log-rank test, P = 0.001) after the exclusion of in-hospital deaths. Multivariate analysis confirmed MODS as an independent predictor of long-term survival [hazard ratio (HR): 1.528, 95% CI 1.72–2.176; P = 0.019] along with age (HR: 1.062; P < 0.001), alcohol-related aetiology (HR: 2.027; P = 0.001) and idiopathic aetiology (HR: 1.548; P = 0.048). Conclusions Early organ dysfunction in AP is an independent predictor of long-term survival even when in-hospital deaths are accounted for. Negative predictors also include age, and idiopathic and alcohol-related aetiologies. PMID:24712663

  2. Short-term exposure to predation affects body elemental composition, climbing speed and survival ability in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Krams, Indrikis; Eichler Inwood, Sarah; Trakimas, Giedrius; Krams, Ronalds; Burghardt, Gordon M; Butler, David M; Luoto, Severi; Krama, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Factors such as temperature, habitat, larval density, food availability and food quality substantially affect organismal development. In addition, risk of predation has a complex impact on the behavioural and morphological life history responses of prey. Responses to predation risk seem to be mediated by physiological stress, which is an adaptation for maintaining homeostasis and improving survivorship during life-threatening situations. We tested whether predator exposure during the larval phase of development has any influence on body elemental composition, energy reserves, body size, climbing speed and survival ability of adult Drosophila melanogaster. Fruit fly larvae were exposed to predation by jumping spiders (Phidippus apacheanus), and the percentage of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, extracted lipids, escape response and survival were measured from predator-exposed and control adult flies. The results revealed predation as an important determinant of adult phenotype formation and survival ability. D. melanogaster reared together with spiders had a higher concentration of body N (but equal body C), a lower body mass and lipid reserves, a higher climbing speed and improved adult survival ability. The results suggest that the potential of predators to affect the development and the adult phenotype of D. melanogaster is high enough to use predators as a more natural stimulus in laboratory experiments when testing, for example, fruit fly memory and learning ability, or when comparing natural populations living under different predation pressures. PMID:27602281

  3. Short-term exposure to predation affects body elemental composition, climbing speed and survival ability in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Eichler Inwood, Sarah; Trakimas, Giedrius; Krams, Ronalds; Burghardt, Gordon M.; Butler, David M.; Luoto, Severi; Krama, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Factors such as temperature, habitat, larval density, food availability and food quality substantially affect organismal development. In addition, risk of predation has a complex impact on the behavioural and morphological life history responses of prey. Responses to predation risk seem to be mediated by physiological stress, which is an adaptation for maintaining homeostasis and improving survivorship during life-threatening situations. We tested whether predator exposure during the larval phase of development has any influence on body elemental composition, energy reserves, body size, climbing speed and survival ability of adult Drosophila melanogaster. Fruit fly larvae were exposed to predation by jumping spiders (Phidippus apacheanus), and the percentage of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, extracted lipids, escape response and survival were measured from predator-exposed and control adult flies. The results revealed predation as an important determinant of adult phenotype formation and survival ability. D. melanogaster reared together with spiders had a higher concentration of body N (but equal body C), a lower body mass and lipid reserves, a higher climbing speed and improved adult survival ability. The results suggest that the potential of predators to affect the development and the adult phenotype of D. melanogaster is high enough to use predators as a more natural stimulus in laboratory experiments when testing, for example, fruit fly memory and learning ability, or when comparing natural populations living under different predation pressures. PMID:27602281

  4. A retrospective study on related factors affecting the survival rate of dental implants

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jeong-Kyung; Lee, Ki; Lee, Yong-Sang; Park, Pil-Kyoo

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this retrospective study is to analyze the relationship between local factors and survival rate of dental implant which had been installed and restored in Seoul Veterans Hospital dental center for past 10 years. And when the relationship is found out, it could be helpful to predict the prognosis of dental implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study of patients receiving root-shaped screw-type dental implants placed from January 2000 to December 2009 was conducted. 6385 implants were placed in 3755 patients. The following data were collected from the dental records and radiographs: patient's age, gender, implant type and surface, length, diameter, location of implant placement, bone quality, prosthesis type. The correlations between these data and survival rate were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed with the use of Kaplan-Meier analysis, Chi-square test and odds ratio. RESULTS In all, 6385 implants were placed in 3755 patients (3120 male, 635 female; mean age 65 ± 10.58 years). 108 implants failed and the cumulative survival rate was 96.33%. There were significant differences in age, implant type and surface, length, location and prosthesis type (P<.05). No significant differences were found in relation to the following factors: gender, diameter and bone quality (P>.05). CONCLUSION Related factors such as age, implant type, length, location and prosthesis type had a significant effect on the implant survival. PMID:22259704

  5. Mate loss affects survival but not breeding in black brant geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicolai, Christopher A.; Sedinger, James S.; Ward, David H.; Boyd, W. Sean

    2012-01-01

    For birds maintaining long-term monogamous relationships, mate loss might be expected to reduce fitness, either through reduced survival or reduced future reproductive investment. We used harvest of male brant during regular sport hunting seasons as an experimental removal to examine effects of mate loss on fitness of female black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans; hereafter brant). We used the Barker model in program MARK to examine effects of mate loss on annual survival, reporting rate, and permanent emigration. Survival rates decreased from 0.847 ± 0.004 for females who did not lose their mates to 0.690 ± 0.072 for birds who lost mates. Seber ring reporting rate for females that lost their mates were 2 times higher than those that did not lose mates, 0.12 ± 0.086 and 0.06 ± 0.006, respectively, indicating that mate loss increased vulnerability to harvest and possibly other forms of predation. We found little support for effects of mate loss on fidelity to breeding site and consequently on breeding. Our results indicate substantial fitness costs to females associated with mate loss, but that females who survived and were able to form new pair bonds may have been higher quality than the average female in the population.

  6. Affect of crop residue on colonization and survival of Phoma sclerotioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phoma sclerotioides causes brown root rot (BRR) of alfalfa and root rot of other perennial legumes and some winter hardy grasses. It can survive as a saprophyte on crop debris so crop residues that support the fungus may increase inocula levels. Current management of BRR is based on crop rotation wi...

  7. SURVIVAL OF SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM IN FOUR SOIL MICROCOSMS AS AFFECTED BY SOIL TYPE AND INCUBATION TEMPERATURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Survival of Salmonella typhimurium was determined in sterile and non-sterile microcosms in four soil series (Brooksville, Leeper, Marietta, and Ruston) held at 10, 15, 25 and 35 degrees C. Exponential linear destruction was observed for S. typhimurium in non-sterile soil stored at all temperatures....

  8. When the serotonin transporter gene meets adversity: the contribution of animal models to understanding epigenetic mechanisms in affective disorders and resilience.

    PubMed

    Lesch, Klaus-Peter

    2011-01-01

    Although converging epidemiological evidence links exposure to stressful life events with increased risk for affective spectrum disorders, there is extraordinary interindividual variability in vulnerability to adversity. The environmentally moderated penetrance of genetic variation is thought to play a major role in determining who will either develop disease or remain resilient. Research on genetic factors in the aetiology of disorders of emotion regulation has, nevertheless, been complicated by a mysterious discrepancy between high heritability estimates and a scarcity of replicable gene-disorder associations. One explanation for this incongruity is that at least some specific gene effects are conditional on environmental cues, i.e. gene-by-environment interaction (G × E) is present. For example, a remarkable number of studies reported an association of variation in the human serotonin (5-HT) transporter gene (SLC6A4, 5-HTT, SERT) with emotional and cognitive traits as well as increased risk for depression in interaction with psychosocial adversity. The results from investigations in non-human primate and mouse support the occurrence of G × E interaction by showing that variation of 5-HTT function is associated with a vulnerability to adversity across the lifespan leading to unfavourable outcomes resembling various neuropsychiatric disorders. The neural and molecular mechanisms by which environmental adversity in early life increases disease risk in adulthood are not known but may include epigenetic programming of gene expression during development. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and chromatin modification, are dynamic and reversible and may also provide targets for intervention strategies (see Bountra et al., Curr Top Behav Neurosci, 2011). Animal models amenable to genetic manipulation are useful in the identification of molecular mechanisms underlying epigenetic programming by adverse environments and individual differences in

  9. Lactate adversely affects the in vitro formation of endothelial cell tubular structures through the action of TGF-{beta}1

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Stephan A. . E-mail: leoni.kunz-schughart@oncoray.de; Gaumann, Andreas; Wondrak, Marit; Eckermann, Christoph; Schulte, Stephanie; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang; Wheatley, Denys N.; Kunz-Schughart, Leoni A.

    2007-07-15

    When lactate accumulation in a tumor microenvironment reaches an average concentration of 10-20 mM, it tends to reflect a high degree of malignancy. However, the hypothesis that tumor-derived lactate has a number of partially adverse biological effects on malignant and tumor-associated host cells requires further evidence. The present study attempted to evaluate the impact of lactate on the process of angiogenesis, in particular on the formation of tubular structures. The endothelial cell (EC) network in desmoplastic breast tumors is primarily located in areas of reactive fibroblastic stroma. We employed a fibroblast-endothelial cell co-culture model as in vitro angiogenesis system normally producing florid in vitro tubule formation to analyze this situation. In contrast to previous studies, we found that lactate significantly reduces EC network formation in a dose-dependent manner as quantified by semi-automated morphometric analyses following immunohistochemical staining. The decrease in CD31-positive tubular structures and the number of intersections was independent of VEGF supplementation and became more pronounced in the presence of protons. The number of cells, primarily of the fibroblast population, was reduced but cell loss could not be attributed to a decrease in proliferative activity or pronounced apoptotic cell death. Treatment with 10 mM lactate was accompanied by enhanced mRNA expression and release of TGF-{beta}1, which also shows anti-angiogenic activity in the model. Both TGF-{beta}1 and lactate induced myofibroblastic differentiation adjacent to the EC tubular structures. The lactate response on the EC network was diminished by TGF-{beta}1 neutralization, indicating a causal relationship between lactate and TGF-{beta}1 in the finely tuned processes of vessel formation and maturation which may also occur in vivo within tumor tissue.

  10. A Computational Study on the Effects of Dynamic Roughness Application to Separated Transitional Flows Affected by Adverse Pressure Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campitelli, Gennaro

    The study of transitional flows is considered crucial for many practical engineering applications. In fact, a comprehensive understanding of the laminar-turbulent transition phenomenon often helps to improve the overall performance of apparatuses such as airfoils, wind turbines, hulls and turbomachinery blades. In addition to understanding and prediction of transitional flows, active research continues in the area of boundary layer control, which includes control of phenomena such as flow separation and transition. For instance, optimum geometrical shaping may be followed by the adoption on the wall-surface of riblets to adjust pressure gradient and reduce drag. Further "flow control" may also be acquired by introducing active devices able to modify the flow field in order to accomplish a desired aerodynamic task. Such flow manipulation is often achieved by using time-dependent forcing mechanisms which promote natural instabilities amplifying the control effectiveness. Localized energy inputs such as Lorentz-force actuator, piezoelectric flaps and synthetic jets all produce a consistent boundary layer mixing enhancement with lift increase and drag abatement. The current numerical study attempts to demonstrate the efficacy of dynamic roughness (DR) on altering separated-reattached transitional flows under adverse pressure gradient. It has already been proven how DR, acting on the boundary sublayer perturbation, is able to suppress (partially or completely) the typical leading edge separation for an airfoil at different angles of attack. This makes DR particularly suitable for separated flow control applications where the shear layer reattaches presenting the characteristic laminar separation bubble. A numerical sensitivity study has been conducted with an efficient orthogonal design taking into account four different control parameters on three levels (actuation frequency, humps height, rows displacement, synchronization) to provide an optimum DR setup which limits

  11. The skin tissue is adversely affected by TNF-alpha blockers in patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis: a 5-year prospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Natalia P.; dos Reis Neto, Edgard Torres; Soares, Maria Roberta M. P.; Freitas, Daniele S.; Porro, Adriana; Ciconelli, Rozana M.; Pinheiro, Marcelo M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the incidence of and the main risk factors associated with cutaneous adverse events in patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis following anti-TNF-α therapy. METHODS: A total of 257 patients with active arthritis who were taking TNF-α blockers, including 158 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 87 with ankylosing spondylitis and 12 with psoriatic arthritis, were enrolled in a 5-year prospective analysis. Patients with overlapping or other rheumatic diseases were excluded. Anthropometric, socioeconomic, demographic and clinical data were evaluated, including the Disease Activity Score-28, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index and Psoriasis Area Severity Index. Skin conditions were evaluated by two dermatology experts, and in doubtful cases, skin lesion biopsies were performed. Associations between adverse cutaneous events and clinical, demographic and epidemiological variables were determined using the chi-square test, and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors. The significance level was set at p<0.05. RESULTS: After 60 months of follow-up, 71 adverse events (73.85/1000 patient-years) were observed, of which allergic and immune-mediated phenomena were the most frequent events, followed by infectious conditions involving bacterial (47.1%), parasitic (23.5%), fungal (20.6%) and viral (8.8%) agents. CONCLUSION: The skin is significantly affected by adverse reactions resulting from the use of TNF-α blockers, and the main risk factors for cutaneous events were advanced age, female sex, a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, disease activity and the use of infliximab. PMID:24141833

  12. Predator functional response and prey survival: Direct and indirect interactions affecting a marked prey population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David A.; Grand, J.B.; Fondell, T.F.; Anthony, M.

    2006-01-01

    1. Predation plays an integral role in many community interactions, with the number of predators and the rate at which they consume prey (i.e. their functional response) determining interaction strengths. Owing to the difficulty of directly observing predation events, attempts to determine the functional response of predators in natural systems are limited. Determining the forms that predator functional responses take in complex systems is important in advancing understanding of community interactions. 2. Prey survival has a direct relationship to the functional response of their predators. We employed this relationship to estimate the functional response for bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocepalus predation of Canada goose Branta canadensis nests. We compared models that incorporated eagle abundance, nest abundance and alternative prey presence to determine the form of the functional response that best predicted intra-annual variation in survival of goose nests. 3. Eagle abundance, nest abundance and the availability of alternative prey were all related to predation rates of goose nests by eagles. There was a sigmoidal relationship between predation rate and prey abundance and prey switching occurred when alternative prey was present. In addition, predation by individual eagles increased as eagle abundance increased. 4. A complex set of interactions among the three species examined in this study determined survival rates of goose nests. Results show that eagle predation had both prey- and predator-dependent components with no support for ratio dependence. In addition, indirect interactions resulting from the availability of alternative prey had an important role in mediating the rate at which eagles depredated nests. As a result, much of the within-season variation in nest survival was due to changing availability of alternative prey consumed by eagles. 5. Empirical relationships drawn from ecological theory can be directly integrated into the estimation process to

  13. Factors affecting route selection and survival of steelhead kelts at Snake River dams in 2012 and 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Harnish, Ryan A.; Colotelo, Alison H. A.; Li, Xinya; Fu, Tao; Ham, Kenneth D.; Deng, Zhiqun; Green, Ethan D.

    2015-03-31

    In 2012 and 2013, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a study that summarized the passage route proportions and route-specific survival rates of steelhead kelts that passed through Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) dams. To accomplish this, a total of 811 steelhead kelts were tagged with Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) transmitters. Acoustic receivers, both autonomous and cabled, were deployed throughout the FCRPS to monitor the downstream movements of tagged kelts. Kelts were also tagged with passive integrated transponder tags to monitor passage through juvenile bypass systems (JBS) and detect returning fish. The current study evaluated data collected in 2012 and 2013 to identify environmental, temporal, operational, individual, and behavioral variables that were related to forebay residence time, route of passage, and survival of steelhead kelts at FCRPS dams on the Snake River. Multiple approaches, including 3-D tracking, bivariate and multivariable regression modeling, and decision tree analyses were used to identify the environmental, temporal, operational, individual, and behavioral variables that had the greatest effect on forebay residence time, route of passage, and route-specific and overall dam passage survival probabilities for tagged kelts at Lower Granite (LGR), Little Goose (LGS), and Lower Monumental (LMN) dams. In general, kelt behavior and discharge appeared to work independently to affect forebay residence times. Kelt behavior, primarily approach location, migration depth, and “searching” activities in the forebay, was found to have the greatest influence on their route of passage. The condition of kelts was the single most important factor affecting their survival. The information gathered in this study may be used by dam operators and fisheries managers to identify potential management actions to improve in-river survival of kelts or collection methods for kelt reconditioning programs to aid

  14. Talc pleurodesis as surgical palliation of patients with malignant pleural effusion. Analysis of factors affecting survival.

    PubMed

    Lumachi, Franco; Mazza, Francesco; Ermani, Mario; Chiara, Giordano B; Basso, Stefano M M

    2012-11-01

    Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is common in most patients with advanced cancer, especially in those with lung cancer, metastatic breast carcinoma and lymphoma. This complication usually leads patients to suffer from significant dyspnea, which may impair their mobility and reduce their quality of life. In patients with MPE, several interventions have been shown to be useful for palliation of the symptoms, including talc pleurodesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate prognostic factors for survival of patients with symptomatic MPE who underwent palliative video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) talc pleurodesis. Thirty-five patients with MPE underwent VATS, evacuation of the pleural fluid and talc pleurodesis with large-particle talc. There were 22 (62.9%) males and 13 (37.1%) females, with an overall median age of 69 years (range 42-81 years). The main causes of MPE were non-small cell lung carcinoma, breast or ovarian cancer and malignant pleural mesothelioma. The age did not differ (p=0.88) between men (68.6±11.6 years) and women (68.0±8.7 years). The mean quantity of pleural effusion was 2005.7±1078.9 ml, while the overall survival was 11.2±8.9 months. We did not find any relationship between survival and gender (log-rank test, p=0.53) or underlying malignancy associated with MPE (p=0.89, 0.48 and 0.36 for secondary cancer, lung cancer and mesothelioma, respectively). Similarly, no correlation was found between survival and age of the patients (Cox's regression, p=0.44) or quantity of pleural effusion (p=0.88). Our results show that the prognosis of patients after talc pleurodesis is independent of age, gender, type of malignancy and amount of pleural effusion, thus, suggesting the utility of treating all patients with symptomatic MPE early. PMID:23155281

  15. Factors that affect response to chemotherapy and survival of patients with advanced head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Amer, M H; Al-Sarraf, M; Vaitkevicius, V K

    1979-06-01

    A review of 164 patients with far advanced head and neck cancer, treated by a cytotoxic chemotherapy over a ten year period, at WAyne State University, Detroit, Michigan, was done in an attempt to determine factors that may influence the response to chemotherapy and subsequent survival. Response rate to methotrexate was 28%, 5-FU 31%, and porfiromycin 13%. Improved responses were noted with combination chemotherapy. Patients who failed to first line therapy rarely responded to other single agent or combination chemotherapy. Those who did not have prior surgery and/or radiotherapy had better results from drug therapy. Patients with good performance status at the time of initial chemotherapy, had better response to treatment (32% vs. 13% PR & CR) and longer survival (28 weeks vs. 9 weeks, p = 0.01) when compared to those with poor status. Patients who responded to chemotherapy have better survival compared to nonresponders (29 weeks vs. 16 weeks, p = 0.002). This information may prove helpful in future planning of multidisciplinary approach in the treatment of patients with head and neck cancer. PMID:455217

  16. Does the use of vaginal-implant transmitters affect neonate survival rate of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, C.C.; Jenks, J.A.; DePerno, C.S.; Klaver, R.W.; Osborn, R.G.; Tardiff, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    We compared survival of neonate white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus captured using vaginal-implant transmitters (VITs) and traditional ground searches to determine if capture method affects neonate survival. During winter 2003, 14 adult female radio-collared deer were fitted with VITs to aid in the spring capture of neonates; neonates were captured using VITs (N = 14) and traditional ground searches (N = 7). Of the VITs, seven (50%) resulted in the location of birth sites and the capture of 14 neonates. However, seven (50%) VITs were prematurely expelled prior to parturition. Predation accounted for seven neonate mortalities, and of these, five were neonates captured using VITs. During summer 2003, survival for neonates captured using VITs one. two, and three months post capture was 0.76 (SE = 0.05; N = 14). 0.64 (SE = 0.07; N = 11) and 0.64 (SE = 0.08; N = 9), respectively. Neonate survival one, two and three months post capture for neonates captured using ground searches was 0.71 (SE = 0.11 N = 7), 0.71 (SE = 0.15; N = 5) and 0.71 (SE = 0.15; N = 5), respectively. Although 71% of neonates that died were captured <24 hours after birth using VITs, survival did not differ between capture methods. Therefore, use of VITs to capture neonate white-tailed deer did not influence neonate survival. VITs enabled us to capture neonates in dense habitats which would have been difficult to locate using traditional ground searches. ?? Wildlife Biology (2008).

  17. Factors affecting settling, survival, and viability of black bears reintroduced to Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wear, B.J.; Eastridge, R.; Clark, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    We used radiotelemetry and population modeling techniques to examine factors related to population establishment of black bears (Ursus americanus) reintroduced to Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Arkansas. Our objectives were to determine whether settling (i.e., establishment of a home range at or near the release site), survival, recruitment, and population viability were related to age class of reintroduced bears, presence of cubs, time since release, or number of translocated animals. We removed 23 adult female black bears with 56 cubs from their winter dens at White River NWR and transported them 160 km to man-made den structures at Felsenthal NWR during spring 2000–2002. Total movement and average circuity of adult females decreased from 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year post-emergence (F2,14 =19.7, P < 0.001 and F2,14 =5.76, P=0.015, respectively). Mean first-year post-release survival of adult female bears was 0.624 (SE = 0.110, SEinterannual = 0.144), and the survival rate of their cubs was 0.750 (SE = 0.088, SEinterannual = 0.109). The homing rate (i.e., the proportion of bears that returned to White River NWR) was 13%. Annual survival for female bears that remained at the release site and survived >1-year post-release increased to 0.909 (SE = 0.097, SEinterannual=0.067; Z=3.5, P < 0.001). Based on stochastic population growth simulations, the average annual growth rate (λ) was 1.093 (SD = 0.053) and the probability of extinction with no additional stockings ranged from 0.56-1.30%. The bear population at Felsenthal NWR is at or above the number after which extinction risk declines dramatically, although additional releases of bears could significantly decrease time to population reestablishment. Poaching accounted for at least 3 of the 8 adult mortalities that we documented; illegal kills could be a significant impediment to population re-establishment at Felsenthal NWR should poaching rates escalate.

  18. Survival and risk of relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a Mexican population is affected by dihydrofolate reductase gene polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    GÓMEZ-GÓMEZ, YAZMÍN; ORGANISTA-NAVA, JORGE; SAAVEDRA-HERRERA, MÓNICA VIRGINIA; RIVERA-RAMÍREZ, ANA BERTHA; TERÁN-PORCAYO, MARCO ANTONIO; DEL CARMEN ALARCÓN-ROMERO, LUZ; ILLADES-AGUIAR, BERENICE; LEYVA-VÁZQUEZ, MARCO ANTONIO

    2012-01-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is the major target of methotrexate, a key component in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment. Polymorphisms in the gene coding for DHFR have been associated with adverse event treatment. This study evaluated the effect of the -A317G and C829T polymorphisms in the DHFR gene on survival and risk of relapse of ALL. Seventy patients with ALL and 100 healthy individuals were genotyped by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. An association between the polymorphisms and the risk of relapse was found (p<0.05); patients with the -317G/G genotype were found to have an 8.55 (95% CI 1.84–39.70) higher chance of relapse and carriers of the 829T/T genotype had a 14.0 (95% CI 1.13–172.63) higher chance of relapse. Other variables, such as age and leukocyte count, were associated (p<0.05) with the risk of relapse of the disease. Individuals with the G/G and T/T genotype of the -A317G and C829T polymorphisms had poorer survival compared to other genotype groups (log-rank test; p<0.05). Although preliminary, these data seem to suggest a role for the DHFR polymorphisms in the risk of relapse of ALL and the mortality risk in these patients. PMID:22969948

  19. Plant Quantity Affects Development and Survival of a Gregarious Insect Herbivore and Its Endoparasitoid Wasp

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Minghui; Gols, Rieta; Zhu, Feng; Harvey, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Virtually all studies of plant-herbivore-natural enemy interactions focus on plant quality as the major constraint on development and survival. However, for many gregarious feeding insect herbivores that feed on small or ephemeral plants, the quantity of resources is much more limiting, yet this area has received virtually no attention. Here, in both lab and semi-field experiments using tents containing variably sized clusters of food plants, we studied the effects of periodic food deprivation in a tri-trophic system where quantitative constraints are profoundly important on insect performance. The large cabbage white Pieris brassicae, is a specialist herbivore of relatively small wild brassicaceous plants that grow in variable densities, with black mustard (Brassica nigra) being one of the most important. Larvae of P. brassicae are in turn attacked by a specialist endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia glomerata. Increasing the length of food deprivation of newly molted final instar caterpillars significantly decreased herbivore and parasitoid survival and biomass, but shortened their development time. Moreover, the ability of caterpillars to recover when provided with food again was correlated with the length of the food deprivation period. In outdoor tents with natural vegetation, we created conditions similar to those faced by P. brassicae in nature by manipulating plant density. Low densities of B. nigra lead to potential starvation of P. brassicae broods and their parasitoids, replicating nutritional conditions of the lab experiments. The ability of both unparasitized and parasitized caterpillars to find corner plants was similar but decreased with central plant density. Survival of both the herbivore and parasitoid increased with plant density and was higher for unparasitized than for parasitized caterpillars. Our results, in comparison with previous studies, reveal that quantitative constraints are far more important that qualitative constraints on the performance of

  20. Thrombospondin-1 Gene Expression Affects Survival and Tumor Spectrum of p53-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lawler, Jack; Miao, Wei-Min; Duquette, Mark; Bouck, Noël; Bronson, Roderick T.; Hynes, Richard O.

    2001-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo data indicate that thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) inhibits tumor progression in several ways including direct effects on cellular growth and apoptosis in the stromal compartment. To evaluate the importance of TSP1 for the progression of naturally arising tumors in vivo, we have crossed TSP1-deficient mice with p53-deficient mice. In p53-null mice, the absence of TSP1 decreases survival from 160 ± 52 days to 149 ± 42 days. A log-rank test comparing survival curves for these two populations yields a two-sided P value of 0.0272. For mice that are heterozygous for the p53-null allele, survival is 500 ± 103 days in the presence of TSP1 expression, and 426 ± 125 days in its absence (P = 0.0058). Whereas TSP1 expression did not cause a measurable change in the incidence of the majority of tumor types, a statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05) decrease in the incidence of osteosarcomas is observed in the absence of TSP1. To determine more directly if host TSP1 inhibits tumor growth, B16F10 melanoma and F9 testicular teratocarcinoma cells have been implanted in C57BL/6J and 129Sv TSP1-null mice, respectively. The B16F10 tumors grow approximately twice as fast in the TSP1-null background and exhibit an increase in vascular density, a decrease in the rate of tumor cell apoptosis, and an increase in the rate of tumor cell proliferation. Increased tumor growth is also observed in the absence of TSP1 on the 129Sv genetic background. These data indicate that endogenous host TSP1 functions as a modifier or landscaper gene to suppress tumor growth. PMID:11696456

  1. Ciprofloxacin Derivatives Affect Parasite Cell Division and Increase the Survival of Mice Infected with Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Martins-Duarte, Erica S.; Dubar, Faustine; Lawton, Philippe; França da Silva, Cristiane; C. Soeiro, Maria de Nazaré; de Souza, Wanderley; Biot, Christophe; Vommaro, Rossiane C.

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, is a worldwide disease whose clinical manifestations include encephalitis and congenital malformations in newborns. Previously, we described the synthesis of new ethyl-ester derivatives of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin with ~40-fold increased activity against T. gondii in vitro, compared with the original compound. Cipro derivatives are expected to target the parasite’s DNA gyrase complex in the apicoplast. The activity of these compounds in vivo, as well as their mode of action, remained thus far uncharacterized. Here, we examined the activity of the Cipro derivatives in vivo, in a model of acute murine toxoplasmosis. In addition, we investigated the cellular effects T. gondii tachyzoites in vitro, by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). When compared with Cipro treatment, 7-day treatments with Cipro derivatives increased mouse survival significantly, with 13–25% of mice surviving for up to 60 days post-infection (vs. complete lethality 10 days post-infection, with Cipro treatment). Light microscopy examination early (6 and 24h) post-infection revealed that 6-h treatments with Cipro derivatives inhibited the initial event of parasite cell division inside host cells, in an irreversible manner. By TEM and immunofluorescence, the main cellular effects observed after treatment with Cipro derivatives and Cipro were cell scission inhibition - with the appearance of ‘tethered’ parasites – malformation of the inner membrane complex, and apicoplast enlargement and missegregation. Interestingly, tethered daughter cells resulting from Cipro derivatives, and also Cipro, treatment did not show MORN1 cap or centrocone localization. The biological activity of Cipro derivatives against C. parvum, an apicomplexan species that lacks the apicoplast, is, approximately, 50 fold lower than that in T. gondii tachyzoites, supporting that these compounds targets the apicoplast. Our results show

  2. Ciprofloxacin Derivatives Affect Parasite Cell Division and Increase the Survival of Mice Infected with Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Martins-Duarte, Erica S; Dubar, Faustine; Lawton, Philippe; da Silva, Cristiane França; Soeiro, Maria de Nazaré C; de Souza, Wanderley; Biot, Christophe; Vommaro, Rossiane C

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, is a worldwide disease whose clinical manifestations include encephalitis and congenital malformations in newborns. Previously, we described the synthesis of new ethyl-ester derivatives of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin with ~40-fold increased activity against T. gondii in vitro, compared with the original compound. Cipro derivatives are expected to target the parasite's DNA gyrase complex in the apicoplast. The activity of these compounds in vivo, as well as their mode of action, remained thus far uncharacterized. Here, we examined the activity of the Cipro derivatives in vivo, in a model of acute murine toxoplasmosis. In addition, we investigated the cellular effects T. gondii tachyzoites in vitro, by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). When compared with Cipro treatment, 7-day treatments with Cipro derivatives increased mouse survival significantly, with 13-25% of mice surviving for up to 60 days post-infection (vs. complete lethality 10 days post-infection, with Cipro treatment). Light microscopy examination early (6 and 24h) post-infection revealed that 6-h treatments with Cipro derivatives inhibited the initial event of parasite cell division inside host cells, in an irreversible manner. By TEM and immunofluorescence, the main cellular effects observed after treatment with Cipro derivatives and Cipro were cell scission inhibition--with the appearance of 'tethered' parasites--malformation of the inner membrane complex, and apicoplast enlargement and missegregation. Interestingly, tethered daughter cells resulting from Cipro derivatives, and also Cipro, treatment did not show MORN1 cap or centrocone localization. The biological activity of Cipro derivatives against C. parvum, an apicomplexan species that lacks the apicoplast, is, approximately, 50 fold lower than that in T. gondii tachyzoites, supporting that these compounds targets the apicoplast. Our results show that Cipro

  3. Symptom Interval and Patient Delay Affect Survival Outcomes in Adolescent Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Song Lee; Hahn, Seung Min; Kim, Hyo Sun; Shin, Yoon Jung; Kim, Sun Hee; Lee, Yoon Sun; Lyu, Chuhl Joo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Unique features of adolescent cancer patients include cancer types, developmental stages, and psychosocial issues. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between diagnostic delay and survival to improve adolescent cancer care. Materials and Methods A total of 592 patients aged 0–18 years with eight common cancers were grouped according to age (adolescents, ≥10 years; children, <10 years). We retrospectively reviewed their symptom intervals (SIs, between first symptom/sign of disease and diagnosis), patient delay (PD, between first symptom/sign of disease and first contact with a physician), patient delay proportion (PDP), and overall survival (OS). Results Mean SI was significantly longer in adolescents than in children (66.4 days vs. 28.4 days; p<0.001), and OS rates were higher in patients with longer SIs (p=0.001). In children with long SIs, OS did not differ according to PDP (p=0.753). In adolescents with long SIs, OS was worse when PDP was ≥0.6 (67.2%) than <0.6 (95.5%, p=0.007). In a multivariate analysis, adolescents in the long SI/PDP ≥0.6 group tended to have a higher hazard ratio (HR, 6.483; p=0.069) than those in the long SI/PDP <0.6 group (HR=1, reference). Conclusion Adolescents with a long SI/PDP ≥0.6 had lower survival rates than those with a short SI/all PDP or a long SI/PDP <0.6. They should be encouraged to seek prompt medical assistance by a physician or oncologist to lessen PDs. PMID:26996554

  4. Warming affects hatching time and early season survival of eastern tent caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Abarca, Mariana; Lill, John T

    2015-11-01

    Climate change is disrupting species interactions by altering the timing of phenological events such as budburst for plants and hatching for insects. We combined field observations with laboratory manipulations to investigate the consequences of climate warming on the phenology and performance of the eastern tent caterpillar (Malacosoma americanum). We evaluated the effects of warmer winter and spring regimes on caterpillar hatching patterns and starvation endurance, traits likely to be under selection in populations experiencing phenological asynchrony, using individuals from two different populations (Washington, DC, and Roswell, GA). We also quantified the proximate and extended fitness effects of early food deprivation and recorded spring phenology of local caterpillars and their host plants. In addition, we conducted laboratory assays to determine if caterpillars are using plant chemical cues to fine-tune their hatching times. Warmer winter temperatures induced earlier hatching and caterpillars from GA survived starvation for periods that were 30% longer than caterpillars from DC. Warmer spring regimes reduced the starvation endurance of caterpillars overwintering in the wild but not in the laboratory. Early starvation dramatically reduced hatchling survival; however, surviving caterpillars did not show detrimental effects on pupal mass or development time. In the field, hatching preceded budburst in both 2013 and 2014 and the period of optimal foliage quality was 2 weeks shorter in 2013. Hatching time was unaffected by exposure to plant volatiles. Overall, we found that warmer temperatures can trigger late-season asynchrony by accelerating plant phenology and caterpillars from different populations exhibit differential abilities to cope with environmental unreliability. PMID:26093630

  5. Plant Quantity Affects Development and Survival of a Gregarious Insect Herbivore and Its Endoparasitoid Wasp.

    PubMed

    Fei, Minghui; Gols, Rieta; Zhu, Feng; Harvey, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    Virtually all studies of plant-herbivore-natural enemy interactions focus on plant quality as the major constraint on development and survival. However, for many gregarious feeding insect herbivores that feed on small or ephemeral plants, the quantity of resources is much more limiting, yet this area has received virtually no attention. Here, in both lab and semi-field experiments using tents containing variably sized clusters of food plants, we studied the effects of periodic food deprivation in a tri-trophic system where quantitative constraints are profoundly important on insect performance. The large cabbage white Pieris brassicae, is a specialist herbivore of relatively small wild brassicaceous plants that grow in variable densities, with black mustard (Brassica nigra) being one of the most important. Larvae of P. brassicae are in turn attacked by a specialist endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia glomerata. Increasing the length of food deprivation of newly molted final instar caterpillars significantly decreased herbivore and parasitoid survival and biomass, but shortened their development time. Moreover, the ability of caterpillars to recover when provided with food again was correlated with the length of the food deprivation period. In outdoor tents with natural vegetation, we created conditions similar to those faced by P. brassicae in nature by manipulating plant density. Low densities of B. nigra lead to potential starvation of P. brassicae broods and their parasitoids, replicating nutritional conditions of the lab experiments. The ability of both unparasitized and parasitized caterpillars to find corner plants was similar but decreased with central plant density. Survival of both the herbivore and parasitoid increased with plant density and was higher for unparasitized than for parasitized caterpillars. Our results, in comparison with previous studies, reveal that quantitative constraints are far more important that qualitative constraints on the performance of

  6. Does diabetes mellitus affect presentation, stage and survival in operable pancreatic cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anthea Y. S.; Shelat, Vishal G.; Ahmed, Saleem; Junnarkar, Sameer P.; Woon, Winston W. L.; Low, Jee-Keem

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the study is to investigate differences in clinical presentation, disease stage and survival of operable pancreatic cancer patients with new onset DM compared to long standing diabetes mellitus (DM) and non diabetics. Methods A prospectively maintained pancreatic cancer surgery database of a tertiary care teaching hospital from January 2006 to August 2012 was reviewed. Only patients with a histological diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma (PC) were included in final analysis. DM was defined as HbA1c >6.5% or any patient on anti-diabetic treatment regardless of HbA1c value. New onset DM was defined when diagnosed within two preceding years of surgery. Patients were stratified into two groups: DM and non DM. Among the DM patients, patients with new onset DM were further stratified and studied separately. Staging of PC was performed according to the 6th edition of AJCC. Survival of patients with PC was determined by reviewing medical records. Patients and their families were contacted if there was no existing follow-up. Results Eighty-six patients (n=55, 63.9% male) with a mean age of 62 years (range, 29-85 years) underwent pancreatic cancer surgery during the study period. Of the 86 patients, 30 (34%) had DM of which eight patients (9% overall) had new onset DM. DM patients tended to be older compared to non DM patients (67.8 vs. 58.5 years, P=0.0005). The majority of non DM patients were symptomatic (98.2%), and there was a tendency for DM group patients to be asymptomatic at presentation (13.3% vs. 1.8%, P=0.05). Abdominal pain was less common in DM patients compared to non DM patients (30% vs. 53.6%, P=0.04). The median duration of new onset DM prior to diagnosis of PC was 2 months (range, 1-23 months). There was a tendency for DM patients to present at an early stage (stage I and stage II) (P=0.08). There was no difference in survival (P=0.17) for new onset DM compared to long standing DM and non DM patients. Conclusions DM patients tend to be

  7. Factors affecting the survival, fertilization, and embryonic development of mouse oocytes after vitrification using glass capillaries.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiuwen; Song, Enliang; Liu, Xiaomu; You, Wei; Wan, Fachun

    2009-09-01

    Cryopreservation of mammalian oocytes is an important way to provide a steady source of materials for research and practice of parthenogenetic activation, in vitro fertilization, and nuclear transfer. However, oocytes cryopreservation has not been common used, as there still are some problems waiting to be solved on the repeatability, safety, and validity. Then, it is necessary to investigate the damage occurred from vitrification and find a way to avoid or repair it. In this study, mouse mature oocytes were firstly pretreated in different equilibrium media, such as 5% ethylene glycol (EG) + 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 10% EG + 10% DMSO, and 15% EG + 15% DMSO in TCM199 supplemented with 20% fetal calf serum (FCS), for 1, 3, and 5 min, respectively, and then oocytes were transferred into vitrification solution (20% EG, 20% DMSO, 0.3 M sucrose, and 20% FCS in TCM199, M2, Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline, and 0.9% saline medium, respectively) and immediately loaded into glass capillaries to be plunged into liquid nitrogen. After storage from 1 h to 1 wk, they were diluted in stepwise sucrose solutions. The surviving oocytes were stained for cortical granule, meiotic spindles, and chromosomes. Oocytes without treatments were used as controls. The results showed that oocytes pretreated in 5% EG +5% DMSO group for 3-5 min or in 10% EG + 10% DMSO group for 1-3 min were better than other treatments. Oocytes vitrified in TCM199 as basic medium showed higher survival and better subsequent embryonic development than other groups. When the concentration of FCS in vitrification solution reduced below 15%, the rates of survival, fertilization, and developing to blastocyst declined dramatically. The inner diameter (0.6 mm) of glass capillaries and amount of vitrification solution (1-3 microl) achieved more rapid cooling and warming and so reduce the injury to oocytes. Cropreservation led to the exocytosis of cortical granule of oocytes (about 10%) and serious disturbance of

  8. Cisplatin-induced DNA damage activates replication checkpoint signaling components that differentially affect tumor cell survival.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Jill M; Karnitz, Larry M

    2009-07-01

    Cisplatin and other platinating agents are some of the most widely used chemotherapy agents. These drugs exert their antiproliferative effects by creating intrastrand and interstrand DNA cross-links, which block DNA replication. The cross-links mobilize signaling and repair pathways, including the Rad9-Hus1-Rad1-ATR-Chk1 pathway, a pathway that helps tumor cells survive the DNA damage inflicted by many chemotherapy agents. Here we show that Rad9 and ATR play critical roles in helping tumor cells survive cisplatin treatment. However, depleting Chk1 with small interfering RNA or inhibiting Chk1 with 3-(carbamoylamino)-5-(3-fluorophenyl)-N-(3-piperidyl)thiophene-2-carboxamide (AZD7762) did not sensitize these cells to cisplatin, oxaliplatin, or carboplatin. Moreover, when Rad18, Rad51, BRCA1, BRCA2, or FancD2 was disabled, Chk1 depletion did not further sensitize the cells to cisplatin. In fact, Chk1 depletion reversed the sensitivity seen when Rad18 was disabled. Collectively, these studies suggest that the pharmacological manipulation of Chk1 may not be an effective strategy to sensitize tumors to platinating agents. PMID:19403702

  9. Sialylation Facilitates the Maturation of Mammalian Sperm and Affects Its Survival in Female Uterus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xue; Pan, Qian; Feng, Ying; Choudhury, Biswa P; Ma, Qianhong; Gagneux, Pascal; Ma, Fang

    2016-06-01

    Establishment of adequate levels of sialylation is crucial for sperm survival and function after insemination; however, the mechanism for the addition of the sperm sialome has not been identified. Here, we report evidence for several different mechanisms that contribute to the establishment of the mature sperm sialome. Directly quantifying the source of the nucleotide sugar CMP-beta-N-acetylneuraminic acid in epididymal fluid indicates that transsialylation occurs in the upper epididymis. Western blots for the low-molecular-mass sialoglycoprotein (around 20-50 kDa) in C57BL/6 mice epididymal fluid reflect that additional sialome could be obtained by glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored sialoglycopeptide incorporation during epididymal transit in the caput of the epididymis. Additionally, we found that in Cmah (CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase)-/- transgenic mice, epididymal sperm obtained sialylated-CD52 from seminal vesicle fluid (SVF). Finally, we used Gfp (green fluorescent protein)+/+ mouse sperm to test the role of sialylation on sperm for protection from female leukocyte attack. There is very low phagocytosis of the epididymal sperm when compared to that of sperm coincubated with SVF. Treating sperm with Arthrobacter ureafaciens sialidase (AUS) increased phagocytosis even further. Our results highlight the different mechanisms of increasing sialylation, which lead to the formation of the mature sperm sialome, as well as reveal the sialome's function in sperm survival within the female genital tract. PMID:27075617

  10. Task-Oriented and Bottle Feeding Adversely Affect the Quality of Mother-Infant Interactions Following Abnormal Newborn Screens

    PubMed Central

    Tluczek, Audrey; Clark, Roseanne; McKechnie, Anne Chevalier; Orland, Kate Murphy; Brown, Roger L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Examine effects of newborn screening (NBS) and neonatal diagnosis on the quality of mother-infant interactions in the context of feeding. Methods Study compared the quality of mother-infant feeding interactions among four groups of infants classified by severity of NBS and diagnostic results: cystic fibrosis (CF), congenital hypothyroidism, heterozygote CF carrier, and healthy with normal NBS. The Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment and a task-oriented item measured the quality of feeding interactions for 130 dyads, infant ages 3–19 weeks (M=9.19, SD=3.28). The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory measured maternal depression and anxiety. Results Composite Indicator Structure Equation Modeling showed that infant diagnostic status and, to a lesser extent, maternal education predicted feeding method. Mothers of infants with CF were most likely to bottle feed, which was associated with more task-oriented maternal behavior than breastfeeding. Mothers with low task-oriented behavior showed more sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues, as well as less negative affect and behavior in their interactions with their infants than mothers with high task-oriented scores. Mothers of infants with CF were significantly more likely to have clinically significant anxiety and depression than the other groups. However, maternal psychological profile did not predict feeding method or interaction quality. Conclusions Mothers in the CF group were the least likely to breastfeed. Research is needed to explicate long-term effects of feeding methods on quality of mother-child relationship and ways to promote continued breastfeeding following a neonatal CF diagnosis. PMID:20495477

  11. Factors affecting high-oxygen survival of heterotrophic microorganisms from an antarctic lake.

    PubMed

    Mikell, A T; Parker, B C; Gregory, E M

    1986-12-01

    We sought to determine factors relating to the survival of heterotrophic microorganisms from the high-dissolved-oxygen (HDO) waters of Lake Hoare, Antarctica. This lake contains perpetual HDO about three times that of normal saturation (40 to 50 mg liter). Five isolates, one yeast and four bacteria, were selected from Lake Hoare waters by growth with the membrane filter technique with oxygen added to yield dissolved concentrations 14 times that in situ, 175 mg liter. One bacterial isolate was obtained from the microbial mat beneath the HDO waters. This organism was isolated at normal atmospheric oxygen saturation. The bacteria were gram-negative rods, motile, oxidase positive, catalase positive, and superoxide dismutase positive; they contained carotenoids. The planktonic isolates grew in media containing 10 mg of Trypticase soy (BBL Microbiology Systems)-peptone (2:1) liter but not at 10 g liter. Under low-nutrient levels simulating Lake Hoare waters (10 mg liter), two of the planktonic isolates tested were not inhibited by HDO. Growth inhibition by HDO increased as nutrient concentration was increased. A carotenoid-negative mutant of one isolate demonstrated a decreased growth rate, maximal cell density, and increased cell lysis in the death phase under HDO compared with the parent strain. The specific activity of superoxide dismutase was increased by HDO in four of the five bacterial isolates. The superoxide dismutase was of the manganese type on the basis of inhibition and electrophoretic studies. The bacterial isolates from Lake Hoare possess several adaptations which may aid their survival in the HDO waters, as well as protection due to the oligotrophic nature of the lake. PMID:16347231

  12. MORTALITY DURING TREATMENT: FACTORS AFFECTING THE SURVIVAL OF OILED, REHABILITATED COMMON MURRES (URIA AALGE).

    PubMed

    Duerr, Rebecca S; Ziccardi, Michael H; Massey, J Gregory

    2016-07-01

    After major oil spills, hundreds to thousands of live stranded birds enter rehabilitative care. To target aspects of rehabilitative efforts for improvement and to evaluate which initial physical examination and biomedical parameters most effectively predict survival to release, medical records were examined from 913 Common Murres ( Uria aalge ; COMUs) oiled during the November 2001-January 2003 oil spill associated with the sunken S.S. Jacob Luckenbach off San Francisco, California, US. Results showed that 52% of all deaths occurred during the first 2 days of treatment. Birds stranding closest to the wreck had greater amounts of oil on their bodies than birds stranding farther away. More heavily oiled birds were in better clinical condition than birds with lesser amounts of oil, as shown by higher body mass (BM), packed cell volumes (PCV), total plasma protein (TP), and higher survival proportions. Additionally, BM, PCV, TP, and body temperature were positively correlated. For comparison, medical records from all nonoiled COMUs admitted for rehabilitation at the same facility during 2007-09 (n=468) were examined, and these variables were also found to be positively correlated. Oiled birds with BM under 750 g had approximately 5% lower PCV than BM-matched nonoiled COMUs. More heavily oiled COMUs may be in better condition than less oiled birds because heavily oiled birds must beach themselves immediately to avoid drowning and hypothermia, whereas lightly oiled birds may postpone beaching until exhausted due to extreme body catabolism. The strong relationship of PCV to BM regardless of oiling provides evidence that anemia commonly encountered in oiled seabirds may be a sequela to overall loss of body condition rather than solely due to toxic effects of oiling. Clinical information garnered in this study provides guidance for triage decisions during oil spills. PMID:27187030

  13. Myocardial Galectin-3 Expression Is Associated with Remodeling of the Pressure-Overloaded Heart and May Delay the Hypertrophic Response without Affecting Survival, Dysfunction, and Cardiac Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Frunza, Olga; Russo, Ilaria; Saxena, Amit; Shinde, Arti V; Humeres, Claudio; Hanif, Waqas; Rai, Vikrant; Su, Ya; Frangogiannis, Nikolaos G

    2016-05-01

    The β-galactoside-binding animal lectin galectin-3 is predominantly expressed by activated macrophages and is a promising biomarker for patients with heart failure. Galectin-3 regulates inflammatory and fibrotic responses; however, its role in cardiac remodeling remains unclear. We hypothesized that galectin-3 may be up-regulated in the pressure-overloaded myocardium and regulate hypertrophy and fibrosis. In normal mouse myocardium, galectin-3 was constitutively expressed in macrophages and was localized in atrial but not ventricular cardiomyocytes. In a mouse model of transverse aortic constriction, galectin-3 expression was markedly up-regulated in the pressure-overloaded myocardium. Early up-regulation of galectin-3 was localized in subpopulations of macrophages and myofibroblasts; however, after 7 to 28 days of transverse aortic constriction, a subset of cardiomyocytes in fibrotic areas contained large amounts of galectin-3. In vitro, cytokine stimulation suppressed galectin-3 synthesis by macrophages and cardiac fibroblasts. Correlation studies revealed that cardiomyocyte- but not macrophage-specific galectin-3 localization was associated with adverse remodeling and dysfunction. Galectin-3 knockout mice exhibited accelerated cardiac hypertrophy after 7 days of pressure overload, whereas female galectin-3 knockouts had delayed dilation after 28 days of transverse aortic constriction. However, galectin-3 loss did not affect survival, systolic and diastolic dysfunction, cardiac fibrosis, and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in the pressure-overloaded heart. Despite its potential role as a prognostic biomarker, galectin-3 is not a critical modulator of cardiac fibrosis but may delay the hypertrophic response. PMID:26948424

  14. The oxidized state of the nanocomposite Carbo-Iron® causes no adverse effects on growth, survival and differential gene expression in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Weil, Mirco; Meißner, Tobias; Busch, Wibke; Springer, Armin; Kühnel, Dana; Schulz, Ralf; Duis, Karen

    2015-10-15

    For degradation of halogenated chemicals in groundwater Carbo-Iron®, a composite of activated carbon and nano-sized Fe(0), was developed (Mackenzie et al., 2012). Potential effects of this nanocomposite on fish were assessed. Beyond the contaminated zone Fe(0) can be expected to have oxidized and Carbo-Iron was used in its oxidized form in ecotoxicological tests. Potential effects of Carbo Iron in zebrafish (Danio rerio) were investigated using a 48 h embryo toxicity test under static conditions, a 96 h acute test with adult fish under semi-static conditions and a 34 d fish early life stage test (FELST) in a flow-through system. Particle diameters in test suspensions were determined via dynamic light scattering (DLS) and ranged from 266 to 497 nm. Particle concentrations were measured weekly in samples from the FELST using a method based on the count rate in DLS. Additionally, uptake of particles into test organisms was investigated using microscopic methods. Furthermore, effects of Carbo-Iron on gene expression were investigated by microarray analysis in zebrafish embryos. In all tests performed, no significant lethal effects were observed. Furthermore, Carbo-Iron had no significant influence on weight and length of fish as determined in the FELST. In the embryo test and the early life stage test, growth of fungi on the chorion was observed at Carbo-Iron concentrations between 6.3 and 25mg/L. Fungal growth did not affect survival, hatching success and growth. In the embryo test, no passage of Carbo-Iron particles into the perivitelline space or the embryo was observed. In juvenile and adult fish, Carbo-Iron was detected in the gut at the end of exposure. In juvenile fish exposed to Carbo-Iron for 29 d and subsequently kept for 5d in control water, Carbo-Iron was no longer detectable in the gut. Global gene expression in zebrafish embryos was not significantly influenced by Carbo-Iron. PMID:26042533

  15. The imaging viewpoint: how imaging affects determination of progression-free survival.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Daniel Carl; Schwartz, Lawrence H; Zhao, Binsheng

    2013-05-15

    Tumor measurements on computed tomgoraphic or MRI scans and/or the appearance of new lesions on any of a variety of imaging studies including positron emission tomographic scans are key determinants for assessing progression-free survival as an endpoint in many clinical trials of therapies for solid tumors. Test-retest tumor measurement reproducibility may vary considerably across serial scans on the same patient unless rigorous attention is paid to standardization of image acquisition parameters and unless measurements are made by trained, experienced observers using validated objective methods. Target lesion selection also must be done with care to choose lesions that are or will be reproducibly measurable. Likewise, new lesions will be missed or misinterpreted on follow-up imaging studies unless those imaging studies are obtained using techniques suitable for detecting early, small lesions. Reader variability is clearly a major component of the problem. The increasing availability of semiautomatic image processing algorithms will help ameliorate that issue. In addition, an array of internationally accepted guidelines, standards, and accreditation programs now exist to help address these problems. PMID:23669422

  16. Maternally derived carotenoid pigments affect offspring survival, sex ratio, and sexual attractiveness in a colorful songbird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, K. J.; Adkins-Regan, E.; Parker, R. S.

    2005-08-01

    In egg-laying animals, mothers can influence the development of their offspring via the suite of biochemicals they incorporate into the nourishing yolk (e.g. lipids, hormones). However, the long-lasting fitness consequences of this early nutritional environment have often proved elusive. Here, we show that the colorful carotenoid pigments that female zebra finches ( Taeniopygia guttata) deposit into egg yolks influence embryonic and nestling survival, the sex ratio of fledged offspring, and the eventual ornamental coloration displayed by their offspring as adults. Mothers experimentally supplemented with dietary carotenoids prior to egg-laying incorporated more carotenoids into eggs, which, due to the antioxidant activity of carotenoids, rendered their embryos less susceptible to free-radical attack during development. These eggs were subsequently more likely to hatch, fledge offspring, produce more sons than daughters, and produce sons who exhibited more brightly colored carotenoid-based beak pigmentation. Provisioned mothers also acquired more colorful beaks, which directly predicted levels of carotenoids found in eggs, thus indicating that these pigments may function not only as physiological ‘damage-protectants’ in adults and offspring but also as morphological signals of maternal reproductive capabilities.

  17. Survival of weed seeds and animal parasites as affected by anaerobic digestion at meso- and thermophilic conditions.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Anders; Nielsen, Henrik B; Hansen, Christian M; Andreasen, Christian; Carlsgart, Josefine; Hauggard-Nielsen, Henrik; Roepstorff, Allan

    2013-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion of residual materials from animals and crops offers an opportunity to simultaneously produce bioenergy and plant fertilizers at single farms and in farm communities where input substrate materials and resulting digested residues are shared among member farms. A surplus benefit from this practice may be the suppressing of propagules from harmful biological pests like weeds and animal pathogens (e.g. parasites). In the present work, batch experiments were performed, where survival of seeds of seven species of weeds and non-embryonated eggs of the large roundworm of pigs, Ascaris suum, was assessed under conditions similar to biogas plants managed at meso- (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. Cattle manure was used as digestion substrate and experimental units were sampled destructively over time. Regarding weed seeds, the effect of thermophilic conditions (55°C) was very clear as complete mortality, irrespective of weed species, was reached after less than 2 days. At mesophilic conditions, seeds of Avena fatua, Sinapsis arvensis, Solidago canadensis had completely lost germination ability, while Brassica napus, Fallopia convolvulus and Amzinckia micrantha still maintained low levels (~1%) of germination ability after 1 week. Chenopodium album was the only weed species which survived 1 week at substantial levels (7%) although after 11 d germination ability was totally lost. Similarly, at 55°C, no Ascaris eggs survived more than 3h of incubation. Incubation at 37°C did not affect egg survival during the first 48 h and it took up to 10 days before total elimination was reached. In general, anaerobic digestion in biogas plants seems an efficient way (thermophilic more efficient than mesophilic) to treat organic farm wastes in a way that suppresses animal parasites and weeds so that the digestates can be applied without risking spread of these pests. PMID:23266071

  18. Exogenous Modulation of Retinoic Acid Signaling Affects Adult RGC Survival in the Frog Visual System after Optic Nerve Injury.

    PubMed

    Duprey-Díaz, Mildred V; Blagburn, Jonathan M; Blanco, Rosa E

    2016-01-01

    After lesions to the mammalian optic nerve, the great majority of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) die before their axons have even had a chance to regenerate. Frog RGCs, on the other hand, suffer only an approximately 50% cell loss, and we have previously investigated the mechanisms by which the application of growth factors can increase their survival rate. Retinoic acid (RA) is a vitamin A-derived lipophilic molecule that plays major roles during development of the nervous system. The RA signaling pathway is also present in parts of the adult nervous system, and components of it are upregulated after injury in peripheral nerves but not in the CNS. Here we investigate whether RA signaling affects long-term RGC survival at 6 weeks after axotomy. Intraocular injection of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) type-α agonist AM80, the RARβ agonist CD2314, or the RARγ agonist CD1530, returned axotomized RGC numbers to almost normal levels. On the other hand, inhibition of RA synthesis with disulfiram, or of RAR receptors with the pan-RAR antagonist Ro-41-5253, or the RARβ antagonist LE135E, greatly reduced the survival of the axotomized neurons. Axotomy elicited a strong activation of the MAPK, STAT3 and AKT pathways; this activation was prevented by disulfiram or by RAR antagonists. Finally, addition of exogenous ATRA stimulated the activation of the first two of these pathways. Future experiments will investigate whether these strong survival-promoting effects of RA are mediated via the upregulation of neurotrophins. PMID:27611191

  19. Skin toxins in coral-associated Gobiodon species (Teleostei: Gobiidae) affect predator preference and prey survival

    PubMed Central

    Gratzer, Barbara; Millesi, Eva; Walzl, Manfred; Herler, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Predation risk is high for the many small coral reef fishes, requiring successful sheltering or other predator defence mechanisms. Coral-dwelling gobies of the genus Gobiodon live in close association with scleractinian corals of the genus Acropora. Earlier studies indicated that the low movement frequency of adult fishes and the development of skin toxins (crinotoxicity) are predation avoidance mechanisms. Although past experiments showed that predators refuse food prepared with goby skin mucus, direct predator–prey interactions have not been studied. The present study compares the toxicity levels of two crinotoxic coral gobies – Gobiodon histrio, representative of a conspicuously coloured species, and Gobiodon sp.3 with cryptic coloration – using a standard bioassay method. The results show that toxin levels of both species differ significantly shortly after mucus release but become similar over time. Predator preferences were tested experimentally in an aquarium in which the two gobies and a juvenile damselfish Chromis viridis were exposed to the small grouper Epinephelus fasciatus. Video-analysis revealed that although coral gobies are potential prey, E. fasciatus clearly preferred the non-toxic control fish (C. viridis) over Gobiodon. When targeting a goby, the predator did not prefer one species over the other. Contrary to our expectations that toxic gobies are generally avoided, gobies were often captured, but they were expelled quickly, repeatedly and alive. This unusual post-capture avoidance confirms that these gobies have a very good chance of surviving attacks in the field due to their skin toxins. Nonetheless, some gobies were consumed: the coral shelter may therefore also provide additional protection, with toxins protecting them mainly during movement between corals. In summary, chemical deterrence by crinotoxic fishes seems to be far more efficient in predation avoidance than in physical deterrence involving body squamation and/or strong fin

  20. Manure source and age affect survival of zoonotic pathogens during aerobic composting at sublethal temperatures.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Smith, Chris; Jiang, Xiuping; Flitcroft, Ian D; Doyle, Michael P

    2015-02-01

    Heat is the primary mechanism by which aerobic composting inactivates zoonotic bacterial pathogens residing within animal manures, but at sublethal temperatures, the time necessary to hold the compost materials to ensure pathogen inactivation is uncertain. To determine the influence of the type of nitrogen amendment on inactivation of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in compost mixtures stored at sublethal temperatures, specific variables investigated in these studies included the animal source of the manure, the initial carbon/nitrogen (C:N) ratio of the compost mixture, and the age of the manure. Salmonella and L. monocytogenes were both inactivated more rapidly in chicken and swine compost mixtures stored at 20°C when formulated to an initial C:N ratio of 20:1 compared with 40:1, whereas a C:N ratio did not have an effect on inactivation of these pathogens in cow compost mixtures. Pathogen inactivation was related to the elevated pH of the samples that likely arises from ammonia produced by the indigenous microflora in the compost mixtures. Indigenous microbial activity was reduced when compost mixtures were stored at 30°C and drier conditions (<10% moisture level) were prevalent. Furthermore, under these drier conditions, Salmonella persisted to a greater extent than L. monocytogenes, and the desiccation resistance of Salmonella appeared to convey cross-protection to ammonia. Salmonella persisted longer in compost mixtures prepared with aged chicken litter compared with fresh chicken litter, whereas E. coli O157:H7 survived to similar extents in compost mixtures prepared with either fresh or aged cow manure. The different responses observed when different sources of manure were used in compost mixtures reveal that guidelines with times required for pathogen inactivation in compost mixtures stored at sublethal temperatures should be dependent on the source of nitrogen, i.e., type of animal manure, present. PMID:25710145

  1. Population-related variation in plant defense more strongly affects survival of an herbivore than its solitary parasitoid wasp.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Jeffrey A; Gols, Rieta

    2011-10-01

    The performance of natural enemies, such as parasitoid wasps, is affected by differences in the quality of the host's diet, frequently mediated by species or population-related differences in plant allelochemistry. Here, we compared survival, development time, and body mass in a generalist herbivore, the cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae, and its solitary endoparasitoid, Microplitis mediator, when reared on two cultivated (CYR and STH) and three wild (KIM, OH, and WIN) populations of cabbage, Brassica oleracea. Plants either were undamaged or induced by feeding of larvae of the cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae. Development and biomass of M. brassicae and Mi. mediator were similar on both cultivated and one wild cabbage population (KIM), intermediate on the OH population, and significantly lower on the WIN population. Moreover, development was prolonged and biomass was reduced on herbivore-induced plants. However, only the survival of parasitized hosts (and not that of healthy larvae) was affected by induction. Analysis of glucosinolates in leaves of the cabbages revealed higher levels in the wild populations than cultivars, with the highest concentrations in WIN plants. Multivariate statistics revealed a negative correlation between insect performance and total levels of glucosinolates (GS) and levels of 3-butenyl GS. However, GS chemistry could not explain the reduced performance on induced plants since only indole GS concentrations increased in response to herbivory, which did not affect insect performance based on multivariate statistics. This result suggests that, in addition to aliphatic GS, other non-GS chemicals are responsible for the decline in insect performance, and that these chemicals affect the parasitoid more strongly than the host. Remarkably, when developing on WIN plants, the survival of Mi. mediator to adult eclosion was much higher than in its host, M. brassicae. This may be due to the fact that hosts parasitized by Mi. mediator pass through fewer

  2. Autonomic dysreflexia: one more way EMS can positively affect patient survival.

    PubMed

    Tomassoni, Paul J; Campagnolo, Denise I

    2003-12-01

    Autonomic dysreflexia is a life-threatening medical condition that affects people with spinal cord injuries above T6. Caused by the division of the autonomic nervous system, it can result in disastrous hypertension. Although complicated in nature, AD can be quickly treated and reversed by prehospital providers. The prompt emptying of a patient's bladder and/or bowels will resolve most occurrences. Other factors that can't be resolved in the prehospital setting may cause AD. In these situations, quickly transport the patient to a definitive care facility and consider the use of antihypertensive agents. Bladder catheterization and digital bowel emptying are not everyday EMS skills. They are, however, skills within the range of EMS abilities. Providers should contact their medical directors or training supervisors to obtain the training necessary to carry out both techniques. Having these skills will arm you with the necessary abilities to mitigate an episode of autonomic dysreflexia. PMID:14699347

  3. Factors Affecting Route Selection and Survival of Steelhead Kelts at Snake River Dams in 2012 and 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Harnish, Ryan A.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Li, Xinya; Ham, Kenneth D.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2014-12-15

    turbines. The side of the river in which kelts approached the dam and dam operations also affected route of passage. Dam operations and the size and condition of kelts were found to have the greatest effect on route-specific survival probabilities for fish that passed via the spillway at LGS. That is, longer kelts and those in fair condition had a lower probability of survival for fish that passed via the spillway weir. The survival of spillway weir- and deep-spill passed kelts was positively correlated with the percent of the total discharge that passed through turbine unit 4. Too few kelts passed through the traditional spill, JBS, and turbine units to evaluate survival through these routes. The information gathered in this study describes Snake River steelhead kelt passage behavior, rates, and distributions through the FCRPS as well as provide information to biologists and engineers about the dam operations and abiotic conditions that are related to passage and survival of steelhead kelts.

  4. Short communication: Dairy bedding type affects survival of Prototheca in vitro.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, N; Bonaiuto, H E; Lichtenwalner, A B

    2013-01-01

    Protothecae are algal pathogens, capable of causing bovine mastitis, that are unresponsive to treatment; they are believed to have an environmental reservoir. The role of bedding management in control of protothecal mastitis has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the growth of either environmental or mastitis-associated Prototheca genotypes in dairy bedding materials that are commonly used in Maine. Prototheca zopfii genotypes 1 and 2 (gt1 and gt2) were inoculated into sterile broth only (control ), kiln-dried spruce shavings, "green" hemlock sawdust, sand, or processed manure-pack beddings with broth, and incubated for 2 d. Fifty microliters of each isolate was then cultured onto plates and the resulting colonies counted at 24 and 48 h postinoculation. Shavings were associated with significantly less total Prototheca growth than other bedding types. Growth of P. zopfii gt1 was significantly higher than that of gt2 in the manure-pack bedding material. Spruce shavings, compared with manure, sand, or sawdust, may be a good bedding type to prevent growth of Prototheca. Based on these in vitro findings, bedding type may affect Prototheca infection of cattle in vivo. PMID:24119794

  5. TERT promoter mutations in bladder cancer affect patient survival and disease recurrence through modification by a common polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Rachakonda, P Sivaramakrishna; Hosen, Ismail; de Verdier, Petra J; Fallah, Mahdi; Heidenreich, Barbara; Ryk, Charlotta; Wiklund, N Peter; Steineck, Gunnar; Schadendorf, Dirk; Hemminki, Kari; Kumar, Rajiv

    2013-10-22

    The telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter, an important element of telomerase expression, has emerged as a target of cancer-specific mutations. Originally described in melanoma, the mutations in TERT promoter have been shown to be common in certain other tumor types that include glioblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and bladder cancer. To fully define the occurrence and effect of the TERT promoter mutations, we investigated tumors from a well-characterized series of 327 patients with urothelial cell carcinoma of bladder. The somatic mutations, mainly at positions -124 and -146 bp from ATG start site that create binding motifs for E-twenty six/ternary complex factors (Ets/TCF), affected 65.4% of the tumors, with even distribution across different stages and grades. Our data showed that a common polymorphism rs2853669, within a preexisting Ets2 binding site in the TERT promoter, acts as a modifier of the effect of the mutations on survival and tumor recurrence. The patients with the mutations showed poor survival in the absence [hazard ratio (HR) 2.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-4.70] but not in the presence (HR 0.42, 95% CI 0.18-1.01) of the variant allele of the polymorphism. The mutations in the absence of the variant allele were highly associated with the disease recurrence in patients with Tis, Ta, and T1 tumors (HR 1.85, 95% CI 1.11-3.08). The TERT promoter mutations are the most common somatic lesions in bladder cancer with clinical implications. The association of the mutations with patient survival and disease recurrence, subject to modification by a common polymorphism, can be a unique putative marker with individualized prognostic potential. PMID:24101484

  6. Factors affecting songbird nest survival in riparian forests in a Midwestern agricultural landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peak, R.G.; Thompson, F. R., III; Shaffer, T.L.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated factors affecting nest success of songbirds in riparian forest and buffers in northeastern Missouri. We used an information-theoretic approach to determine support for hypotheses concerning effects of nest-site, habitat-patch, edge, and temporal factors on nest success of songbirds in three narrow (55DS95 m) and three wide (400DS530 m) riparian forests with adjacent grasslandDSshrub buffer strips and in three narrow and three wide riparian forests without adjacent grasslandDSshrub buffer strips. We predicted that temporal effects would have the most support and that habitat-patch and edge effects would have little support, because nest predation would be great across all sites in the highly fragmented, predominantly agricultural landscape. Interval nest success was 0.404, 0.227, 0.070, and 0.186, respectively, for Gray Catbird (Dumetella carolinensis), Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), and forest interior species pooled (Acadian Flycatcher [Empidonax virescens], Wood Thrush [Hylocichla mustelina], Ovenbird [Seiurus aurocapillus], and Kentucky Warbler [Oporornis formosus]). The effect of nest stage on nest success had the most support; daily nest success for Gray Catbird and Indigo Bunting were lowest in the laying stage. We found strong support for greater nest success of Gray Catbird in riparian forests with adjacent buffer strips than in riparian forests without adjacent buffer strips. Patch width also occurred in the most supported model for Gray Catbird, but with very limited support. The null model received the most support for Northern Cardinal. Riparian forests provided breeding habitat for areas sensitive forest species and grassland-shrub nesting species. Buffer strips provided additional breeding habitat for grassland-shrub nesting species. Interval nest success for Indigo Bunting and area-sensitive forest species pooled, however, fell well below the level that is likely necessary to balance

  7. Factors affecting songbird nest survival in riparian forests in a midwestern agricultural landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peak, R.G.; Thompson, F. R., III; Shaffer, T.L.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated factors affecting nest success of songbirds in riparian forest and buffers in northeastern Missouri. We used an information-theoretic approach to determine support for hypotheses concerning effects of nest-site, habitat-patch, edge, and temporal factors on nest success of songbirds in three narrow (55-95 m) and three wide (400-530 m) riparian forests with adjacent grassland-shrub buffer strips and in three narrow and three wide riparian forests without adjacent grassland-shrub buffer strips. We predicted that temporal effects would have the most support and that habitat-patch and edge effects would have little support, because nest predation would be great across all sites in the highly fragmented, predominantly agricultural landscape. Interval nest success was 0.404, 0.227, 0.070, and 0.186, respectively, for Gray Catbird (Dumetella carolinensis), Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), and forest interior species pooled (Acadian Flycatcher [Empidonax virescens], Wood Thrush [Hylocichla mustelina], Ovenbird [Seiurus aurocapillus], and Kentucky Warbler [Oporornis formosus]). The effect of nest stage on nest success had the most support; daily nest success for Gray Catbird and Indigo Bunting were lowest in the laying stage. We found strong support for greater nest success of Gray Catbird in riparian forests with adjacent buffer strips than in riparian forests without adjacent buffer strips. Patch width also occurred in the most-supported model for Gray Catbird, but with very limited support. The null model received the most support for Northern Cardinal. Riparian forests provided breeding habitat for area-sensitive forest species and grassland-shrub nesting species. Buffer strips provided additional breeding habitat for grassland-shrub nesting species. Interval nest success for Indigo Bunting and area-sensitive forest species pooled, however, fell well below the level that is likely necessary to balance juvenile

  8. Genetically-induced Estrogen Receptor Alpha mRNA (Esr1) Overexpression Does Not Adversely Affect Fertility or Penile Development in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Heath, John; Abdelmageed, Yazeed; Braden, Tim D.; Williams, Carol S.; Williams, John W.; Paulose, Tessie; Hernandez-Ochoa, Isabel; Gupta, Rupesh; Flaws, Jodi A.; Goyal, Hari O.

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we reported that estrogen receptor alpha mRNA (Esr1) or protein (ESR1) overexpression resulting from neonatal exposure to estrogens in rats was associated with infertility and mal-developed penis characterized by reduced length and weight and abnormal accumulation of fat cells. The objective of this study was to determine if mutant male mice overexpressing Esr1 are naturally infertile or have reduced fertility and/or develop abnormal penis. The fertility parameters, including fertility and fecundity indices, numbers of days from the day of cohabitation to the day of delivery, and numbers of pups per female, were not altered from controls, as a result of Esr1 overexpression. Likewise, penile morphology, including the length, weight, and diameter and os penis development, was not altered from controls. Conversely, weights of the seminal vesicles and bulbospongiosus and levator ani (BS/LA) muscles were significantly (P < 0.05) lower as compared to controls; however, the weight of the testis, the morphology of the testis and epididymis, and the plasma and testicular testosterone concentration were not different from controls. Hence, the genetically-induced Esr1 overexpression alone, without an exogenous estrogen exposure during the neonatal period, is unable to adversely affect the development of the penis as well as other male reproductive organs, except limited, but significant, reductions in weights of the seminal vesicles and BS/LA muscles. PMID:20930192

  9. Bortezomib-based induction improves progression-free survival of myeloma patients harboring 17p deletion and/or t(4;14) and overcomes their adverse prognosis.

    PubMed

    El-Ghammaz, Amro M S; Abdelwahed, Essam

    2016-08-01

    Providing a risk-adapted treatment strategy has been a key goal in the ongoing research efforts aimed at providing treatment tailored to the individual genetic make-up. Eighty myeloma patients have been tested for presence of 17p deletion and/or t(4;14) by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Based on FISH results, they have been categorized into patients lacking them (standard risk) and those harboring them (high risk). Patients in each category were randomly assigned 1:1 to induction treatment by either vincristine, adriamycin and dexamethasone (VAD), or bortezomib and dexamethasone (VD) followed by autologous stem cell transplantation and thalidomide maintenance and were followed up for 32 months. 32.5 % of patients were high risk. Following induction, there were significantly higher rates of at least very good partial response achievement in VD arms in standard- and high-risk patients. Regarding complete response achievement, there were insignificant differences between VAD and VD arms in standard and high-risk patients. After a median follow-up of 17.5 months, there was insignificant difference in overall survival (OS) between VAD and VD arms in standard and high-risk patients. There was superior progression-free survival (PFS) in VD arms in standard- and high-risk patients. Among patients who received VD, those belonging to standard and high-risk groups had similar PFS. In conclusion, bortezomib-based induction is superior to non-bortezomib-based one in patients harboring 17p deletion and/or t(4;14) in terms of improving PFS but not OS. Also, it reduces progression risk in patients harboring these high risk cytogenetics. PMID:27184486

  10. Post-thaw survival of ram spermatozoa and fertility after insemination as affected by prefreezing sperm concentration and extender composition.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, A G; Martemucci, A G; Colonna, M A; Bellitti, A

    2001-03-15

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of prefreezing sperm concentration using two extenders on post-thaw survival and acrosomal status of ram spermatozoa (Experiment 1) and fertility after intrauterine insemination with differing doses of semen (Experiment 2). In autumn (Northern hemisphere), semen was collected by artificial vagina from 8 adult Leccese rams and ejaculates of good quality semen were pooled. Two extender systems for cryopreservation were considered, one based on milk-lactose egg yolk (Milk-LY) and the other based on tris-fructose egg yolk (Tris-FY). Experiment 1 (2 x 6 factorial scheme) examined the in vitro characteristics of spermatozoa in relation to the Milk-LY and Tris-FY extenders and six prefreezing sperm concentrations (50, 100, 200, 400, 500 and 800 x 10(6) spermatozoa/mL). Experiment 2 (2 x 4 factorial) evaluated the influence of the Milk-LY vs Tris-FY extenders and four doses (20, 40, 80 and 160 x 10(6) spermatozoa/0.25 mL) corresponding to prefreezing spermatozoa concentrations of 100, 200, 400 and 800 x 10(6) spermatozoa/mL, on fertility of ewes inseminated in uterus by laparoscope. Prefreezing sperm concentration influenced (P < 0.01) freezability of spermatozoa and affected negatively all the in vitro parameters at 800 x 10(6) spermatozoa/mL. Overall, Milk-LY tended to ensure higher viability and acrosomal integrity of spermatozoa after thawing at the intermediate sperm densities (range 100 to 500 x 10(6) spermatozoa/mL). At 500 x 10(6) spermatozoa/mL concentration corresponded the best condition for survival of spermatozoa (71.2%), acrosome integrity (71.5%) and acrosomal loss (6.0%). At the lowest sperm concentration (50 x 10(6) spermatozoa/mL), Tris-FY resulted in a higher survival rate than Milk-LY (61.3%, P < 0.05) and lower acrosomal loss (9.7%, P < 0.05). Milk-LY supported spermatozoa motility better than Tris-FY after incubation at sperm concentration between 50 and 400 x 10(6) spermatozoa/mL (0.05 > P < 0

  11. High fat diet enriched with saturated, but not monounsaturated fatty acids adversely affects femur, and both diets increase calcium absorption in older female mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Dellatore, Peter; Douard, Veronique; Qin, Ling; Watford, Malcolm; Ferraris, Ronaldo P; Lin, Tiao; Shapses, Sue A

    2016-07-01

    Diet induced obesity has been shown to reduce bone mineral density (BMD) and Ca absorption. However, previous experiments have not examined the effect of high fat diet (HFD) in the absence of obesity or addressed the type of dietary fatty acids. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effects of different types of high fat feeding, without obesity, on fractional calcium absorption (FCA) and bone health. It was hypothesized that dietary fat would increase FCA and reduce BMD. Mature 8-month-old female C57BL/6J mice were fed one of three diets: a HFD (45% fat) enriched either with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or with saturated fatty acids (SFAs), and a normal fat diet (NFD; 10% fat). Food consumption was controlled to achieve a similar body weight gain in all groups. After 8wk, total body bone mineral content and BMD as well as femur total and cortical volumetric BMD were lower in SFA compared with NFD groups (P<.05). In contrast, femoral trabecular bone was not affected by the SFAs, whereas MUFAs increased trabecular volume fraction and thickness. The rise over time in FCA was greater in mice fed HFD than NFD and final FCA was higher with HFD (P<.05). Intestinal calbindin-D9k gene and hepatic cytochrome P450 2r1 protein levels were higher with the MUFA than the NFD diet (P<.05). In conclusion, HFDs elevated FCA overtime; however, an adverse effect of HFD on bone was only observed in the SFA group, while MUFAs show neutral or beneficial effects. PMID:27262536

  12. In vivo genetic ablation of the periotic mesoderm affects cell proliferation survival and differentiation in the cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huansheng; Chen, Li; Baldini, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Tbx1 is required for ear development in humans and mice. Gene manipulation in the mouse has discovered multiple consequences of loss of function on early development of the inner ear, some of which are attributable to a cell autonomous role in maintaining cell proliferation of epithelial progenitors of the cochlear and vestibular apparata. However, ablation of the mesodermal domain of the gene also results in severe but more restricted abnormalities. Here we show that Tbx1 has a dynamic expression during late development of the ear, in particular, is expressed in the sensory epithelium of the vestibular organs but not of the cochlea. Vice versa, it is expressed in the condensed mesenchyme that surrounds the cochlea but not in the one that surrounds the vestibule. Loss of Tbx1 in the mesoderm disrupts this peri-cochlear capsule by strongly reducing the proliferation of mesenchymal cells. The organogenesis of the cochlea, which normally occurs inside the capsule, was dramatically affected in terms of growth of the organ, as well as proliferation, differentiation and survival of its epithelial cells. This model provides a striking demonstration of the essential role played by the periotic mesenchyme in the organogenesis of the cochlea. PMID:17825816

  13. Factors Affecting the Survival of Upstream Migrant Adult Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 9 of 11.

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, Dennis D.; Mueller, Robert P.

    1993-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is developing conservation planning documentation to support the National Marine Fisheries Service`s (NMFS) recovery plan for Columbia Basin salmonid stocks that are currently listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Information from the conservation planning documentation will be used as a partial scientific basis for identifying alternative conservation strategies and to make recommendations toward conserving, rebuilding, and ultimately removing these salmon stocks from the list of endangered species. This report describes the adult upstream survival study, a synthesis of biological analyses related to conditions affecting the survival of adult upstream migrant salmonids in the Columbia River system. The objective of the adult upstream survival study was to analyze existing data related to increasing the survival of adult migrant salmonids returning to the Snake River system. The fate and accountability of each stock during its upstream migration period and the uncertainties associated with measurements of escapement and survival were evaluated. Operational measures that affected the survival of adult salmon were evaluated including existing conditions, augmented flows from upstream storage release, and drawdown of mainstem reservoirs. The potential impacts and benefits of these measures to each ESA stock were, also described based on considerations of species behavior and run timing.

  14. Age-related changes to TNF receptors affect neuron survival in the presence of beta-amyloid

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jigisha R.; Brewer, Gregory J.

    2007-01-01

    Inflammation including local accumulations of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is a part of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology and may exacerbate age-related neurodegeneration. Most studies on TNFα and TNF neuronal receptors are conducted using embryonic neurons. Few studies consider age-related deficits that may occur in neurons. Age-related changes in susceptibility to TNFα through TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) and receptor 2 (TNFR2) expression could increase susceptibility to β-amyloid (1-42, Abeta42). Evidence is conflicting about which receptor mediates survival and/or apoptosis. We determined how aging affects receptor expression in cultured adult rat cortical neurons. Old neurons were more susceptible to Abeta42 toxicity than middle-age neurons and the addition of TNFα was neuroprotective in middle-age, but exacerbated the toxicity from Abeta42 in old neurons. These pathologic and protective responses in old and middle-age neurons respectively correlated with higher starting TNFR1 and TNFR2 mRNA levels in old versus middle-age neurons. Middle-age neurons treated with TNFα plus Abeta42 did not show an increase in either TNFR1 or TNFR2 mRNA but old neurons showed an upregulation in TNFR2 mRNA and not TNFR1 mRNA. Despite these mRNA changes, surface immunoreactivity of both TNFR1 and TNFR2 increased with dose of TNFα in middle-age neurons. However, middle-age neurons treated with TNFα plus Abeta42 showed an upregulation in both TNFR1 and TNFR2 surface expression, whereas old neurons failed to upregulate surface expression of either receptor. These findings support the hypothesis that age-related changes in TNFα surface receptor expression contribute to the neuronal loss associated with inflammation in AD. PMID:18418902

  15. Dietary potassium diformate did not affect growth and survival but did reduce nutrient digestibility of Pacific white shrimp cultured under clean water conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the effect of a dietary supplement potassium diformate (PDF) on growth performance, survival and nutrient digestibility of Pacific white shrimp cultured under clean water conditions. We found that weight gain was not significantly (P>0.05) affected by the different levels of ...

  16. Vaccenic acid and trans fatty acid isomers from partially hydrogenated oil both adversely affect LDL cholesterol: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence of the adverse effects of industrially-produced trans fatty acids (iTFA) on risk of cardiovascular disease is consistent and well documented in the scientific literature; however, the cardiovascular effects of naturally-occurring TFA synthesized in ruminant animals (rTFA), such as vaccenic ...

  17. Survival analysis of factors affecting incidence risk of Salmonella Dublin in Danish dairy herds during a 7-year surveillance period.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dohoo, Ian

    2012-12-01

    A national surveillance programme for Salmonella Dublin, based on regular bulk-tank milk antibody screening and movements of cattle, was initiated in Denmark in 2002. From 2002 to end of 2009 the prevalence of test-positive dairy herds was reduced from 26% to 10%. However, new infections and spread of S. Dublin between herds continued to occur. The objective of this study was to investigate factors affecting incidence risk of S. Dublin infection in Danish dairy herds between 2003 and 2009. Herds were considered at risk when they had been test-negative for at least four consecutive year-quarters (YQs), either at the start of the study period or after recovery from infection. Survival analysis was performed on a dataset including 6931 dairy herds with 118,969 YQs at risk, in which 1523 failures (new infection events) occurred. Predictors obtained from register data were tested in a multivariable, proportional hazard model allowing for recurrence within herds. During October to December the hazard of failures was higher (hazard ratio HR=3.4, P=0.0005) than the rest of the year. Accounting for the delay in bulk-tank milk antibody responses to S. Dublin infection, this indicates that introduction of bacteria was most frequent between July and October. Purchase from test-positive cattle herds within the previous 6 months was associated with higher hazard of failures (HR=2.5, P<0.0001) compared to no purchase and purchase from test-negative herds. Increasing local prevalence, herd size and bulk-tank milk somatic cell counts were also associated with increasing hazard of failures. The effect of prior infection was time-dependent; the hazard of failures was reduced following a logarithmic decline with increasing time at risk. The hazard was markedly higher in herds with prior infections the first year after becoming at risk again, and then approached the hazard in herds without known prior infections 2-3 years after becoming test-negative. This showed that herds with prior

  18. Time-lagged variation in pond density and primary productivity affects duck nest survival in the Prairie Pothole Region.

    PubMed

    Walker, Johann; Rotella, Jay J; Stephens, Scott E; Lindberg, Mark S; Ringelman, James K; Hunter, Christine; Smith, Aaron J

    2013-07-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) is the primary breeding region for most species of North American dabbling ducks (Anas spp.). Conservation of these species is guided in part by knowledge of relationships between nest survival probability and habitat features. Positive relationships between duck nest survival and amount and configuration of herbaceous perennial vegetation have been observed in previous studies, but these 2- to 4-year studies might not have adequately characterized the temporal effect of wet-dry episodes on nest survival. Over an eight-year period, we studied nest survival of five species of ducks in the PPR relative to spatial and temporal variation in pond density, primary productivity, and hydrologic status of wetlands, soil, and vegetation on 52 study sites selected to span a gradient of spatial variation in proportion of herbaceous perennial vegetation and in number of wetland basins. We observed the fate of 12 754 nests. Consistent with past studies, 90% of nests that failed to hatch were destroyed by predators. Nest survival probability was positively related to current-year pond density and primary productivity, negatively related to pond density and primary productivity during the previous two years, and positively related to the number of wetland basins on the study site. Predicted relationships between nest survival and proportion or configuration of herbaceous perennial vegetation in the surrounding landscape were not supported. For mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), median estimated nest survival probability ranged from 0.02 (SE = 0.01) to 0.22 (SE = 0.02). Estimated nest survival was greatest on sites with numerous wetland basins that had transitioned from dry, unproductive conditions to wet, productive conditions in the previous 1-2 years. Our results were consistent with time-lagged responses of food webs to resource pulses in a broad array of ecosystems. Our study highlighted the importance of wetland basins and wet-dry episodes to duck

  19. How does epidemiological and clinicopathological features affect survival after gastrectomy for gastric cancer patients-single Egyptian center experience

    PubMed Central

    El Hanafy, Ehab; El Nakeeb, Ayman; Ezzat, Helmy; Hamdy, Emad; Atif, Ehab; Kandil, Tharwat; Fouad, Amgad; Wahab, Mohamed Abdel; Monier, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the clinicopathological features and the significance of different prognostic factors which predict surgical overall survival in patients with gastric carcinoma. METHODS: This retrospective study includes 80 patients diagnosed and treated at gastroenterology surgical center, Mansoura University, Egypt between February 2009 to February 2013. Prognostic factors were assessed by cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: There were 57 male and 23 female. The median age was 57 years (24-83). One, 3 and 5 years survival rates were 71%, 69% and 46% respectively. The median survival was 69.96 mo. During the follow-up period, 13 patients died (16%). Hospital morbidity was reported in 10 patients (12.5%). The median number of lymph nodes removed was 22 (4-41). Lymph node (LN) involvement was found in 91% of cases. After R0 resection, depth of wall invasion, LN involvement and the number (> 15) of retrieved LN, LN ratio and tumor differentiation predict survival. In multivariable analysis, tumor differentiation, curability of resection and a number of resected LN superior to 15 were found to be independent prognostic factors. CONCLUSION: Surgery remains the cornerstone of treatment. Tumor differentiation, curability of resection and a number of resected LN superior to 15 were found to be independent prognostic factors. Extended LN dissection does not increase the morbidity or mortality rate but markedly improves long term survival. PMID:27358677

  20. Quantitative trait loci affecting survival and fertility-related traits in Caenorhabditis elegans show genotype-environment interactions, pleiotropy and epistasis.

    PubMed Central

    Shook, D R; Johnson, T E

    1999-01-01

    We have identified, using composite interval mapping, quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting a variety of life history traits (LHTs) in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Using recombinant inbred strains assayed on the surface of agar plates, we found QTL for survival, early fertility, age of onset of sexual maturity, and population growth rate. There was no overall correlation between survival on solid media and previous measures of survival in liquid media. Of the four survival QTL found in these two environments, two have genotype-environment interactions (GEIs). Epistatic interactions between markers were detected for four traits. A multiple regression approach was used to determine which single markers and epistatic interactions best explained the phenotypic variance for each trait. The amount of phenotypic variance accounted for by genetic effects ranged from 13% (for internal hatching) to 46% (for population growth). Epistatic effects accounted for 9-11% of the phenotypic variance for three traits. Two regions containing QTL that affected more than one fertility-related trait were found. This study serves as an example of the power of QTL mapping for dissecting the genetic architecture of a suite of LHTs and indicates the potential importance of environment and GEIs in the evolution of this architecture. PMID:10545455

  1. The long summer: Pre-wintering temperatures affect metabolic expenditure and winter survival in a solitary bee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Impact of global warming on insect populations is highly dependent on specific life cycle traits and physiological adaptations. Species currently under cold-induced stress are expected to attain higher survival rates and expand their distribution area. Other species appear to be compensating for del...

  2. Survival of manure-borne and fecal coliforms in soil: temperature dependence as affected by site-specific factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding pathogenic and indicator bacteria survival in soils is essential for assessing the potential of microbial contamination of water and produce, and making appropriate management decisions. The objective of this work was to evaluate effects of soil and management factors on temperature de...

  3. Application of a generalized linear mixed model to analyze mixture toxicity: survival of brown trout affected by copper and zinc.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yuichi; Brinkman, Stephen F

    2015-04-01

    Increased concerns about the toxicity of chemical mixtures have led to greater emphasis on analyzing the interactions among the mixture components based on observed effects. The authors applied a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) to analyze survival of brown trout (Salmo trutta) acutely exposed to metal mixtures that contained copper and zinc. Compared with dominant conventional approaches based on an assumption of concentration addition and the concentration of a chemical that causes x% effect (ECx), the GLMM approach has 2 major advantages. First, binary response variables such as survival can be modeled without any transformations, and thus sample size can be taken into consideration. Second, the importance of the chemical interaction can be tested in a simple statistical manner. Through this application, the authors investigated whether the estimated concentration of the 2 metals binding to humic acid, which is assumed to be a proxy of nonspecific biotic ligand sites, provided a better prediction of survival effects than dissolved and free-ion concentrations of metals. The results suggest that the estimated concentration of metals binding to humic acid is a better predictor of survival effects, and thus the metal competition at the ligands could be an important mechanism responsible for effects of metal mixtures. Application of the GLMM (and the generalized linear model) presents an alternative or complementary approach to analyzing mixture toxicity. PMID:25524054

  4. The Cumulative Cisplatin Dose Affects the Long-Term Survival Outcomes of Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Receiving Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hao; Chen, Lei; Li, Wen-Fei; Guo, Rui; Mao, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Li-Zhi; Tian, Li; Lin, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ying; Ma, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The prognostic value of the cumulative cisplatin dose (CCD) remains controversial for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) receiving only concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). We retrospectively reviewed 549 consecutive patients with non-metastatic, histologically-proven NPC treated using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) at Sun Yat-sen university cancer center. Patient survival between different CCD groups were compared. The cut-off value of pre-treatment plasma EBV DNA (pre-DNA) and CCD based on disease-free survival (DFS) were 1460 copies/ml (AUC, 0.691; sensitivity, 0.717; specificity, 0.635) and 240 mg/m2 (AUC, 0.506; sensitivity, 0.526; specificity, 0.538), respectively. Of the entire cohort, 92/549 (16.8%) patients received a CCD ≥ 240 mg/m2 and 457 (83.2%) patients, <240 mg/m2. For CCD ≥ 240 mg/m2 vs. < 240 mg/m2, the estimated 4-year DFS, overall survival (OS), locoregional-free survival (LRFFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rates were 89.1% vs. 81.3% (P = 0.097), 92.4% vs. 90.0% (P = 0.369), 95.6% vs. 91.2% (P = 0.156), and 91.3% vs. 88.4% (P = 0.375), respectively. For the whole cohort, multivariate analysis identified the CCD was an independent prognostic factor for DFS (HR, 0.515; 95% CI, 0.267–0.995; P = 0.048). However, CCD (≥240 mg/m2) had no prognostic value in subgroup analysis with stratification by the cut-off value of pre-DNA (P > 0.05 for all rates). PMID:27071833

  5. Polymorphism in one-carbon metabolism pathway affects survival of gastric cancer patients: Large and comprehensive study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tingting; Gu, Dongying; Xu, Zhi; Huo, Xinying; Shen, Lili; Wang, Chun; Tang, Yongfei; Wu, Peng; He, Jason; Gong, Weida; He, Ming-Liang; Chen, Jinfei

    2015-04-20

    Although it has been shown that polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism (OCM) pathway are associated with gastric cancer (GC), their interactions and contributions for patients' survival are elusive. In this study, we investigated the effects of polymorphisms and their interactions on the survival of GC patients, including genes of Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677C > T, 1298A > C), Methionine synthase reductase (MTRR 66A > G), Methionine synthase (MTR 2756A > G), and Thymidylate synthase (TS 3'-UTR ins6 > del6, 5'-UTR 2R > 3R). We recruited 919 GC patients from 1998 to 2006. The Kaplan-Meier plots, Cox regression analyses and the log-rank tests were carried out in this study. MTHFR 1298CC genotype showed protective effect (HR = 0.444, 95% CI = 0.210-0.940). MTRR 66 GA + GG genotypes decreased the risk of death (HR = 0.793, 95% CI = 0.651-0.967) in general, and in subgroups with more pronounced diffuse type, greater depth of invasion (T2/T3/T4), higher level lymph node metastasis (N1/N2/N3), advanced TNM stages (II/III level) and 5-Fu treatment. However, the improved survival disappeared when GC patients simultaneously had MTR 2756 GA + GG genotypes (HR = 1.063, 95% CI = 0.750-1.507). Although MTRR 66GA genotype was not associated with the survival of GC patients, patients with simultaneous MTRR 66GA and MTR 2756AA genotypes exhibited significant risk reduction of death (HR = 0.773, 95% CI = 0.609-0.981). MTHFR 1298 CA + CC combined with TS 5-UTR 2R3R + 3R3R genotypes (HR = 0.536, 95% CI = 0.315-0.913) also increased patient survival rates. Our results suggest that the MTRR 66A > G and MTHFR 1298A > C polymorphisms may be useful prognostic biomarkers for GC patients. PMID:25840420

  6. High d(+)-fructose diet adversely affects testicular weight gain in weaning rats─protection by moderate d(+)-glucose diet.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    The use of high D(+)-fructose corn syrup has increased over the past several decades in the developed countries, while overweight and obesity rates and the related diseases have risen dramatically. However, we found that feeding a high D(+)-fructose diet (80% D(+)-fructose as part of the diet) to weaning rats for 21 days led to reduced food intake (50% less, P < 0.0001) and thus delayed the weight gains in the body (40% less, P < 0.0001) and testes (40% less, P < 0.0001) compared to the no D(+)-fructose diet. We also challenged a minimum requirement of dietary D(+)-glucose for preventing the adverse effects of D(+)-fructose, such as lower food intake and reduction of body weight and testicular weight; the minimum requirement of D(+)-glucose was ≈23% of the diet. This glucose amount may be the minimum requirement of exogenous glucose for reducing weight gain. PMID:23935370

  7. Down-regulated FSTL5 promotes cell proliferation and survival by affecting Wnt/β-catenin signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dengyong; Ma, Xiang; Sun, Wanliang; Cui, Peiyuan; Lu, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Follistatin-like 5 (FSTL5), a member of the follistatin family of genes, encodes a secretory glycoprotein. Previous study revealed that it might play a suppressive role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, its clinical significances, biological functions and molecular mechanisms in HCC development are poorly understood. To gain insight to the functions of FSTL5 in HCC, We examined FSTL5 expression pattern in 117 HCC tissue samples. The results of immunohistochemical staining analysis showed that FSTL5 is more commonly down-regulated in HCC compared to adjacent tissues and further clinicopathological analysis showed that its expression level is closely correlated with tumor size, TNM stage, local infiltration and patient prognosis. Both gain function assays and recombinant human FSTL5 protein treatment assays in vitro revealed that over-expressing FSTL5 could inhibit the abilities of cancer cell proliferation and survival. Further, we found that those effects on HCC growth and survival are associated with Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Taken together, all of our results validate that FSTL5 plays a suppressive role in HCC and suggest that down-regulated FSTL5 could elevate abilities of growth and survival of HCC cells by activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PMID:26045876

  8. Potential factors affecting survival differ by run-timing and location: linear mixed-effects models of Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the Klamath River, California.

    PubMed

    Quiñones, Rebecca M; Holyoak, Marcel; Johnson, Michael L; Moyle, Peter B

    2014-01-01

    Understanding factors influencing survival of Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) is essential to species conservation, because drivers of mortality can vary over multiple spatial and temporal scales. Although recent studies have evaluated the effects of climate, habitat quality, or resource management (e.g., hatchery operations) on salmonid recruitment and survival, a failure to look at multiple factors simultaneously leaves open questions about the relative importance of different factors. We analyzed the relationship between ten factors and survival (1980-2007) of four populations of salmonids with distinct life histories from two adjacent watersheds (Salmon and Scott rivers) in the Klamath River basin, California. The factors were ocean abundance, ocean harvest, hatchery releases, hatchery returns, Pacific Decadal Oscillation, North Pacific Gyre Oscillation, El Niño Southern Oscillation, snow depth, flow, and watershed disturbance. Permutation tests and linear mixed-effects models tested effects of factors on survival of each taxon. Potential factors affecting survival differed among taxa and between locations. Fall Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha survival trends appeared to be driven partially or entirely by hatchery practices. Trends in three taxa (Salmon River spring Chinook salmon, Scott River fall Chinook salmon; Salmon River summer steelhead trout O. mykiss) were also likely driven by factors subject to climatic forcing (ocean abundance, summer flow). Our findings underscore the importance of multiple factors in simultaneously driving population trends in widespread species such as anadromous salmonids. They also show that the suite of factors may differ among different taxa in the same location as well as among populations of the same taxa in different watersheds. In the Klamath basin, hatchery practices need to be reevaluated to protect wild salmonids. PMID:24866173

  9. Potential Factors Affecting Survival Differ by Run-Timing and Location: Linear Mixed-Effects Models of Pacific Salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the Klamath River, California

    PubMed Central

    Quiñones, Rebecca M.; Holyoak, Marcel; Johnson, Michael L.; Moyle, Peter B.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding factors influencing survival of Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) is essential to species conservation, because drivers of mortality can vary over multiple spatial and temporal scales. Although recent studies have evaluated the effects of climate, habitat quality, or resource management (e.g., hatchery operations) on salmonid recruitment and survival, a failure to look at multiple factors simultaneously leaves open questions about the relative importance of different factors. We analyzed the relationship between ten factors and survival (1980–2007) of four populations of salmonids with distinct life histories from two adjacent watersheds (Salmon and Scott rivers) in the Klamath River basin, California. The factors were ocean abundance, ocean harvest, hatchery releases, hatchery returns, Pacific Decadal Oscillation, North Pacific Gyre Oscillation, El Niño Southern Oscillation, snow depth, flow, and watershed disturbance. Permutation tests and linear mixed-effects models tested effects of factors on survival of each taxon. Potential factors affecting survival differed among taxa and between locations. Fall Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha survival trends appeared to be driven partially or entirely by hatchery practices. Trends in three taxa (Salmon River spring Chinook salmon, Scott River fall Chinook salmon; Salmon River summer steelhead trout O. mykiss) were also likely driven by factors subject to climatic forcing (ocean abundance, summer flow). Our findings underscore the importance of multiple factors in simultaneously driving population trends in widespread species such as anadromous salmonids. They also show that the suite of factors may differ among different taxa in the same location as well as among populations of the same taxa in different watersheds. In the Klamath basin, hatchery practices need to be reevaluated to protect wild salmonids. PMID:24866173

  10. Polymorphism in one-carbon metabolism pathway affects survival of gastric cancer patients: Large and comprehensive study

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Xinying; Shen, Lili; Wang, Chun; Tang, Yongfei; Wu, Peng; He, Jason; Gong, Weida; He, Ming-Liang; Chen, Jinfei

    2015-01-01

    Although it has been shown that polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism (OCM) pathway are associated with gastric cancer (GC), their interactions and contributions for patients’ survival are elusive. In this study, we investigated the effects of polymorphisms and their interactions on the survival of GC patients, including genes of Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677C > T, 1298A > C), Methionine synthase reductase (MTRR 66A > G), Methionine synthase (MTR 2756A > G), and Thymidylate synthase (TS 3′-UTR ins6 > del6, 5′-UTR 2R > 3R). We recruited 919 GC patients from 1998 to 2006. The Kaplan–Meier plots, Cox regression analyses and the log-rank tests were carried out in this study. MTHFR 1298CC genotype showed protective effect (HR = 0.444, 95% CI = 0.210–0.940). MTRR 66 GA + GG genotypes decreased the risk of death (HR = 0.793, 95% CI = 0.651–0.967) in general, and in subgroups with more pronounced diffuse type, greater depth of invasion (T2/T3/T4), higher level lymph node metastasis (N1/N2/N3), advanced TNM stages (II/III level) and 5-Fu treatment. However, the improved survival disappeared when GC patients simultaneously had MTR 2756 GA + GG genotypes (HR = 1.063, 95% CI = 0.750–1.507). Although MTRR 66GA genotype was not associated with the survival of GC patients, patients with simultaneous MTRR 66GA and MTR 2756AA genotypes exhibited significant risk reduction of death (HR = 0.773, 95% CI = 0.609–0.981). MTHFR 1298 CA + CC combined with TS 5-UTR 2R3R + 3R3R genotypes (HR = 0.536, 95% CI = 0.315–0.913) also increased patient survival rates. Our results suggest that the MTRR 66A > G and MTHFR 1298A > C polymorphisms may be useful prognostic biomarkers for GC patients. PMID:25840420

  11. Analyses of potential factors affecting survival of juvenile salmonids volitionally passing through turbines at McNary and John Day Dams, Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John; Hansel, Hal; Perry, Russell; Hockersmith, Eric; Sandford, Ben

    2011-01-01

    This report describes analyses of data from radio- or acoustic-tagged juvenile salmonids passing through hydro-dam turbines to determine factors affecting fish survival. The data were collected during a series of studies designed to estimate passage and survival probabilities at McNary (2002-09) and John Day (2002-03) Dams on the Columbia River during controlled experiments of structures or operations at spillways. Relatively few tagged fish passed turbines in any single study, but sample sizes generally were adequate for our analyses when data were combined from studies using common methods over a series of years. We used information-theoretic methods to evaluate biological, operational, and group covariates by creating models fitting linear (all covariates) or curvilinear (operational covariates only) functions to the data. Biological covariates included tag burden, weight, and water temperature; operational covariates included spill percentage, total discharge, hydraulic head, and turbine unit discharge; and group covariates included year, treatment, and photoperiod. Several interactions between the variables also were considered. Support of covariates by the data was assessed by comparing the Akaike Information Criterion of competing models. The analyses were conducted because there was a lack of information about factors affecting survival of fish passing turbines volitionally and the data were available from past studies. The depth of acclimation, tag size relative to fish size (tag burden), turbine unit discharge, and area of entry into the turbine intake have been shown to affect turbine passage survival of juvenile salmonids in other studies. This study indicates that turbine passage survival of the study fish was primarily affected by biological covariates rather than operational covariates. A negative effect of tag burden was strongly supported in data from yearling Chinook salmon at John Day and McNary dams, but not for subyearling Chinook salmon or

  12. Survival and growth of acid-adapted and unadapted Salmonella in and on raw tomatoes as affected by variety, stage of ripeness, and storage temperature.

    PubMed

    Beuchat, Larry R; Mann, David A

    2008-08-01

    Consumption of raw round and Roma tomatoes has been associated with outbreaks of salmonellosis. A study was done to determine whether survival and growth of Salmonella in and on tomatoes is affected by variety of tomato, stage of ripeness, and storage temperature. The influence of acid adaptation of cells and site of inoculation on survival and growth was studied. Salmonella grew in stem scar and pulp tissues of round, Roma, and grape tomatoes stored at 12 and 21 degrees C but not in those tomatoes stored at 4 degrees C. Survival and growth was largely unaffected by variety and stage of ripeness at the time of inoculation. The pathogen did not grow on the skin of grape tomatoes stored at 4, 12, and 21 degrees C. Survival and growth of Salmonella inoculated into stem scar and pulp tissues of round and Roma tomatoes were unaffected by exposure of cells to an acidic (pH 4.75) environment before inoculation. Results emphasize the importance of preventing contamination of tomatoes with Salmonella at all stages of ripeness, regardless of variety or previous exposure of cells to an acidic environment. PMID:18724750

  13. Migration, neighborhoods, and networks: approaches to understanding how urban environmental conditions affect syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Egan, James E; Frye, Victoria; Kurtz, Steven P; Latkin, Carl; Chen, Minxing; Tobin, Karin; Yang, Cui; Koblin, Beryl A

    2011-04-01

    Adopting socioecological, intersectionality, and lifecourse theoretical frameworks may enhance our understanding of the production of syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM). From this perspective, we present preliminary data from three related studies that suggest ways in which social contexts may influence the health of MSM. The first study, using cross-sectional data, looked at migration of MSM to the gay resort area of South Florida, and found that amount of time lived in the area was associated with risk behaviors and HIV infection. The second study, using qualitative interviews, observed complex interactions between neighborhood-level social environments and individual-level racial and sexual identity among MSM in New York City. The third study, using egocentric network analysis with a sample of African American MSM in Baltimore, found that sexual partners were more likely to be found through face-to-face means than the Internet. They also observed that those who co-resided with a sex partner had larger networks of people to depend on for social and financial support, but had the same size sexual networks as those who did not live with a partner. Overall, these findings suggest the need for further investigation into the role of macro-level social forces on the emotional, behavioral, and physical health of urban MSM. PMID:21369730

  14. Trans-generational exposure to low levels of rhodamine B does not adversely affect litter size or liver function in murine mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Ainslie L K; Fletcher, Janice M; Moore, Lynette; Byers, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    MPS IIIA is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the sulphamidase gene, resulting in the accumulation of heparan sulphate glycosaminoglycans (HS GAGs). Symptoms predominantly manifest in the CNS and there is no current therapy that effectively addresses neuropathology in MPS IIIA patients. Recent studies in MPS IIIA mice have shown that rhodamine B substrate deprivation therapy (SDT) (also termed substrate reduction therapy/SRT) inhibits GAG biosynthesis and, improves both somatic and CNS disease pathology. Acute overexposure to high doses of rhodamine B results in liver toxicity and is detrimental to reproductive ability. However, the long-term effects of decreasing GAG synthesis, at the low dose sufficient to alter neurological function are unknown. A trans-generational study was therefore initiated to evaluate the continuous exposure of rhodamine B treatment in MPS IIIA mice over 4 generations, including treatment during pregnancy. No alterations in litter size, liver histology or liver function were observed. Overall, there are no long-term issues with the administration of rhodamine B at the low dose tested and no adverse effects were noted during pregnancy in mice. PMID:20650670

  15. Rock Glacier Outflows May Adversely Affect Lakes: Lessons from the Past and Present of Two Neighboring Water Bodies in a Crystalline-Rock Watershed

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that rock glaciers are one of the most common geomorphological expressions of mountain permafrost, the impacts of their solute fluxes on lakes still remain largely obscure. We examined water and sediment chemistry, and biota of two neighboring water bodies with and without a rock glacier in their catchments in the European Alps. Paleolimnological techniques were applied to track long-term temporal trends in the ecotoxicological state of the water bodies and to establish their baseline conditions. We show that the active rock glacier in the mineralized catchment of Lake Rasass (RAS) represents a potent source of acid rock drainage that results in enormous concentrations of metals in water, sediment, and biota of RAS. The incidence of morphological abnormalities in the RAS population of Pseudodiamesa nivosa, a chironomid midge, is as high as that recorded in chironomid populations inhabiting sites heavily contaminated by trace metals of anthropogenic origin. The incidence of morphological deformities in P. nivosa of ∼70% persisted in RAS during the last 2.5 millennia and was ∼40% in the early Holocene. The formation of RAS at the toe of the rock glacier most probably began at the onset of acidic drainage in the freshly deglaciated area. The present adverse conditions are not unprecedented in the lake’s history and cannot be associated exclusively with enhanced thawing of the rock glacier in recent years. PMID:24804777

  16. Rock glacier outflows may adversely affect lakes: lessons from the past and present of two neighboring water bodies in a crystalline-rock watershed.

    PubMed

    Ilyashuk, Boris P; Ilyashuk, Elena A; Psenner, Roland; Tessadri, Richard; Koinig, Karin A

    2014-06-01

    Despite the fact that rock glaciers are one of the most common geomorphological expressions of mountain permafrost, the impacts of their solute fluxes on lakes still remain largely obscure. We examined water and sediment chemistry, and biota of two neighboring water bodies with and without a rock glacier in their catchments in the European Alps. Paleolimnological techniques were applied to track long-term temporal trends in the ecotoxicological state of the water bodies and to establish their baseline conditions. We show that the active rock glacier in the mineralized catchment of Lake Rasass (RAS) represents a potent source of acid rock drainage that results in enormous concentrations of metals in water, sediment, and biota of RAS. The incidence of morphological abnormalities in the RAS population of Pseudodiamesa nivosa, a chironomid midge, is as high as that recorded in chironomid populations inhabiting sites heavily contaminated by trace metals of anthropogenic origin. The incidence of morphological deformities in P. nivosa of ∼70% persisted in RAS during the last 2.5 millennia and was ∼40% in the early Holocene. The formation of RAS at the toe of the rock glacier most probably began at the onset of acidic drainage in the freshly deglaciated area. The present adverse conditions are not unprecedented in the lake's history and cannot be associated exclusively with enhanced thawing of the rock glacier in recent years. PMID:24804777

  17. Plasmid load adversely affects growth and gluconic acid secretion ability of mineral phosphate-solubilizing rhizospheric bacterium Enterobacter asburiae PSI3 under P limited conditions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vikas; Archana, G; Naresh Kumar, G

    2011-01-20

    Effect of the metabolic load caused by the presence of plasmids on mineral phosphate-solubilizing (MPS) Enterobacter asburiae PSI3, was monitored with four plasmid cloning vectors and one native plasmid, varying in size, nature of the replicon, copy number and antibiotic resistance genes. Except for one plasmid, the presence of all other plasmids in E. asburiae PSI3 resulted in the loss of the MPS phenotype as reflected by the failure to bring about a drop in pH and release soluble P when grown in media containing rock phosphate (RP) as the sole P source. When 100 μM soluble P was supplemented along with RP, the adverse effects of plasmids on MPS phenotype and on growth parameters was reduced for some plasmid bearing derivatives, as monitored in terms of specific growth rates, glucose consumed, gluconic acids yields and P released. When 10 mM of soluble P as the only P source, was added to the medium all transformants showed growth and pH drop comparable with native strain. It may be concluded that different plasmids impose, to varying extents, a metabolic load in the phosphate-solubilizing bacterium E. asburiae PSI3 and results in diminishing its growth and P-solubilizing ability in P deficient conditions. PMID:20171856

  18. Migration, Neighborhoods, and Networks: Approaches to Understanding How Urban Environmental Conditions Affect Syndemic Adverse Health Outcomes Among Gay, Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Egan, James E.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Latkin, Carl; Chen, Minxing; Tobin, Karin; Yang, Cui; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2011-01-01

    Adopting socioecological, intersectionality, and lifecourse theoretical frameworks may enhance our understanding of the production of syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM). From this perspective, we present preliminary data from three related studies that suggest ways in which social contexts may influence the health of MSM. The first study, using cross-sectional data, looked at migration of MSM to the gay resort area of South Florida, and found that amount of time lived in the area was associated with risk behaviors and HIV infection. The second study, using qualitative interviews, observed complex interactions between neighborhood-level social environments and individual-level racial and sexual identity among MSM in New York City. The third study, using egocentric network analysis with a sample of African American MSM in Baltimore, found that sexual partners were more likely to be found through face-to-face means than the Internet. They also observed that those who co-resided with a sex partner had larger networks of people to depend on for social and financial support, but had the same size sexual networks as those who did not live with a partner. Overall, these findings suggest the need for further investigation into the role of macro-level social forces on the emotional, behavioral, and physical health of urban MSM. PMID:21369730

  19. RD-1 encoded EspJ protein gets phosphorylated prior to affect the growth and intracellular survival of mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pramod K; Saxena, Richa; Tiwari, Sameer; Singh, Diwakar K; Singh, Susmita K; Kumari, Ruma; Srivastava, Kishore K

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) synchronizes a number of processes and controls a series of events to subvert host defense mechanisms for the sake of residing inside macrophages. Besides these, MTB also possesses a wide range of signal enzyme systems, including eleven serine threonine protein kinases (STPKs). The present study describes STPK modulated modification in one of the hypothetical proteins of the RD1 region; EspJ (ESX-1 secretion associated protein), which is predicted to be involved in virulence of MTB. We have employed knock-out MTB, and M. bovis BCG as a surrogate strain to elaborate the consequence of the phosphorylation of EspJ. The molecular and mass spectrometric analyses in this study, confirmed EspJ as one of the substrates of STPKs. The ectopic expression of phosphoablative mutants of espJ in M. bovis BCG also articulated the effect of phosphorylation on the growth and in survival of mycobacteria. Importantly, the level of phosphorylation of EspJ also differed between pathogenic H37 Rv (Rv) and non pathogenic H37 Ra (Ra) strains of MTB. This further suggested that to a certain extent, the STPKs mediated phosphorylation may be accountable, in determining the growth and in intra-cellular survival of mycobacteria. PMID:26228622

  20. RD-1 encoded EspJ protein gets phosphorylated prior to affect the growth and intracellular survival of mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pramod K; Saxena, Richa; Tiwari, Sameer; Singh, Diwakar K; Singh, Susmita K; Kumari, Ruma; Srivastava, Kishore K

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) synchronizes a number of processes and controls a series of events to subvert host defense mechanisms for the sake of residing inside macrophages. Besides these, MTB also possesses a wide range of signal enzyme systems, including eleven serine threonine protein kinases (STPKs). The present study describes STPK modulated modification in one of the hypothetical proteins of the RD1 region; EspJ (ESX-1 secretion associated protein), which is predicted to be involved in virulence of MTB. We have employed knock-out MTB, and M. bovis BCG as a surrogate strain to elaborate the consequence of the phosphorylation of EspJ. The molecular and mass spectrometric analyses in this study, confirmed EspJ as one of the substrates of STPKs. The ectopic expression of phosphoablative mutants of espJ in M. bovis BCG also articulated the effect of phosphorylation on the growth and in survival of mycobacteria. Importantly, the level of phosphorylation of EspJ also differed between pathogenic H37 Rv (Rv) and non pathogenic H37 Ra (Ra) strains of MTB. This further suggested that to a certain extent, the STPKs mediated phosphorylation may be accountable, in determining the growth and in intra-cellular survival of mycobacteria. PMID:26228622

  1. Annual survival of ruddy turnstones is not affected by natural infection with low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Maxted, Angela M; Porter, Ronald R; Luttrell, M Page; Goekjian, Virginia H; Dey, Amanda D; Kalasz, Kevin S; Niles, Lawrence J; Stallknecht, David E

    2012-09-01

    The population of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres morinella) that migrates through Delaware Bay has undergone severe declines in recent years, attributable to reduced availability of horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs at this critical spring migration stopover site. Concurrently, this population has experienced annual low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (AIV) epidemics at this same site. Using a prospective cohort study design with birds individually flagged during May-June 2006-2008, we evaluated resighting rates (a proxy for annual survival) between AIV-infected and uninfected birds at 1 yr after capture, testing, and measurement. Overall resighting rate was 46%, which varied by year and increased with relative mass of the bird when captured. Resighting rates were not different between AIV-infected and uninfected birds in any period. In multivariate analyses, infection status was also unrelated to resighting rate after controlling for year, day, state, sex, body size, mass index, or whether the bird was blood-sampled. Thus, apparent annual survival in ruddy turnstones was not reduced by AIV infection at this migratory stopover. However, it is unknown whether intestinal AIV infection might cause subtle reductions in weight gain which could negatively influence reproduction. PMID:23050475

  2. Does insecticide drift adversely affect grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Saltatoria) in field margins? A case study combining laboratory acute toxicity testing with field monitoring data.

    PubMed

    Bundschuh, Rebecca; Schmitz, Juliane; Bundschuh, Mirco; Brühl, Carsten Albrecht

    2012-08-01

    The current terrestrial risk assessment of insecticides regarding nontarget arthropods considers exclusively beneficial organisms, whereas herbivorous insects, such as grasshoppers, are ignored. However, grasshoppers living in field margins or meadows adjacent to crops may potentially be exposed to insecticides due to contact with or ingestion of contaminated food. Therefore, the present study assessed effects of five active ingredients of insecticides (dimethoate, pirimicarb, imidacloprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, and deltamethrin) on the survival of Chorthippus sp. grasshopper nymphs by considering two routes of exposure (contact and oral). The experiments were accompanied by monitoring field margins that neighbored cereals, vineyards, and orchards. Grasslands were used as reference sites. The laboratory toxicity tests revealed a sensitivity of grasshoppers with regard to the insecticides tested in the present study similar to that of the standard test species used in arthropod risk assessments. In the field monitoring program, increasing grasshopper densities were detected with increasing field margin width next to cereals and vineyards, but densities remained low over the whole range of field margins from 0.5 to 20 m next to orchards. Grasshopper densities equivalent to those of grassland sites were only observed in field margins exceeding 9 m in width, except for field margins next to orchards. These results may indicate that current insecticide risk assessments are insufficiently protective for grasshoppers in field margins. PMID:22619160

  3. Dead or Alive? Factors Affecting the Survival of Victims during Attacks by Saltwater Crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Yusuke; Manolis, Charlie; Saalfeld, Keith; Zuur, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts between humans and crocodilians are a widespread conservation challenge and the number of crocodile attacks is increasing worldwide. We identified the factors that most effectively decide whether a victim is injured or killed in a crocodile attack by fitting generalized linear models to a 42-year dataset of 87 attacks (27 fatal and 60 non-fatal) by saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) in Australia. The models showed that the most influential factors were the difference in body mass between crocodile and victim, and the position of victim in relation to the water at the time of an attack. In-water position (for diving, swimming, and wading) had a higher risk than on-water (boating) or on-land (fishing, and hunting near the water's edge) positions. In the in-water position a 75 kg person would have a relatively high probability of survival (0.81) if attacked by a 300 cm crocodile, but the probability becomes much lower (0.17) with a 400 cm crocodile. If attacked by a crocodile larger than 450 cm, the survival probability would be extremely low (<0.05) regardless of the victim's size. These results indicate that the main cause of death during a crocodile attack is drowning and larger crocodiles can drag a victim more easily into deeper water. A higher risk associated with a larger crocodile in relation to victim's size is highlighted by children's vulnerability to fatal attacks. Since the first recently recorded fatal attack involving a child in 2006, six out of nine fatal attacks (66.7%) involved children, and the average body size of crocodiles responsible for these fatal attacks was considerably smaller (384 cm, 223 kg) than that of crocodiles that killed adults (450 cm, 324 kg) during the same period (2006-2014). These results suggest that culling programs targeting larger crocodiles may not be an effective management option to improve safety for children. PMID:25961294

  4. Dead or Alive? Factors Affecting the Survival of Victims during Attacks by Saltwater Crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts between humans and crocodilians are a widespread conservation challenge and the number of crocodile attacks is increasing worldwide. We identified the factors that most effectively decide whether a victim is injured or killed in a crocodile attack by fitting generalized linear models to a 42-year dataset of 87 attacks (27 fatal and 60 non-fatal) by saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) in Australia. The models showed that the most influential factors were the difference in body mass between crocodile and victim, and the position of victim in relation to the water at the time of an attack. In-water position (for diving, swimming, and wading) had a higher risk than on-water (boating) or on-land (fishing, and hunting near the water's edge) positions. In the in-water position a 75 kg person would have a relatively high probability of survival (0.81) if attacked by a 300 cm crocodile, but the probability becomes much lower (0.17) with a 400 cm crocodile. If attacked by a crocodile larger than 450 cm, the survival probability would be extremely low (<0.05) regardless of the victim’s size. These results indicate that the main cause of death during a crocodile attack is drowning and larger crocodiles can drag a victim more easily into deeper water. A higher risk associated with a larger crocodile in relation to victim’s size is highlighted by children’s vulnerability to fatal attacks. Since the first recently recorded fatal attack involving a child in 2006, six out of nine fatal attacks (66.7%) involved children, and the average body size of crocodiles responsible for these fatal attacks was considerably smaller (384 cm, 223 kg) than that of crocodiles that killed adults (450 cm, 324 kg) during the same period (2006–2014). These results suggest that culling programs targeting larger crocodiles may not be an effective management option to improve safety for children. PMID:25961294

  5. Detection of Melanoma Nodal Metastases; Differences in Detection Between Elderly and Younger Patients Do Not Affect Survival

    PubMed Central

    Bastiaannet, E.; Suurmeijer, A. J. H.; Hoekstra, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Melanoma lymph nodes metastases may be detected by patients or by physicians. Understanding the outcomes of self-detection or physician detection is essential for the design of follow-up studies. We evaluated the role of the method of detection in nodal disease in the prognosis of melanoma patients who underwent therapeutic lymph node dissection (TLND). Materials and Methods All melanoma patients with palpable lymph nodes were included in a prospective database (n = 98), and the method of detection was recorded. Detection of lymph node metastases compared with pathological findings in the TLND was assessed by multivariate logistic regression. Disease-free survival (DFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) were assessed by univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis. Results Nodal metastases were detected by physicians in 45% and by patients in 55% (P < 0.001). Age was significantly associated with method of detection. Patients ≤60 years detected 69% their lymph node metastases as opposed to 32% of patients >60 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.3; P = 0.007). However, this was not associated with prognostic findings in TLND, number of positive nodes, tumor size, or extranodal spread. Method of detection or age at the time of nodal metastases was not significantly associated with 2-year DFS or DSS. Conclusions 45% of all lymph node metastases in stage I–II melanoma patients are physician detected. Younger patients detect their own lymph node metastases significantly more often than elderly patients. However, neither the method of detection nor age correlates with DSS. More frequent follow-up would not alter DFS and DSS significantly. PMID:20443146

  6. Retention in Treated Wastewater Affects Survival and Deposition of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in Sand Columns

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiuyi; Zhao, Xiaokang; Tian, Xiujun; Li, Jin; Sjollema, Jelmer

    2015-01-01

    The fate and transport of pathogenic bacteria from wastewater treatment facilities in the Earth's subsurface have attracted extensive concern over recent decades, while the impact of treated-wastewater chemistry on bacterial viability and transport behavior remains unclear. The influence of retention time in effluent from a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant on the survival and deposition of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains in sand columns was investigated in this paper. In comparison to the bacteria cultivated in nutrient-rich growth media, retention in treated wastewater significantly reduced the viability of all strains. Bacterial surface properties, e.g., zeta potential, hydrophobicity, and surface charges, varied dramatically in treated wastewater, though no universal trend was found for different strains. Retention in treated wastewater effluent resulted in changes in bacterial deposition in sand columns. Longer retention periods in treated wastewater decreased bacterial deposition rates for the strains evaluated and elevated the transport potential in sand columns. We suggest that the wastewater quality should be taken into account in estimating the fate of pathogenic bacteria discharged from wastewater treatment facilities and the risks they pose in the aquatic environment. PMID:25595758

  7. 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 10 predicts survival of patients with colorectal cancer and affects mitochondrial DNA content.

    PubMed

    Amberger, Albert; Deutschmann, Andrea J; Traunfellner, Pia; Moser, Patrizia; Feichtinger, René G; Kofler, Barbara; Zschocke, Johannes

    2016-04-28

    Mitochondrial energy production is reduced in tumor cells, and altered mitochondrial respiration contributes to tumor progression. Synthesis of proteins coded by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) requires the correct processing of long polycistronic precursor RNA molecules. Mitochondrial RNase P, composed of three different proteins (MRPP1, HSD10, and MRPP3), is necessary for correct RNA processing. Here we analyzed the role of RNase P proteins in colorectal cancer. High HSD10 expression was found in 28%; high MRPP1 expression in 40% of colorectal cancers, respectively. Expression of both proteins was not significantly associated with clinicopathological parameters. Survival analysis revealed that loss of HSD10 expression is associated with poor prognosis. Cox regression demonstrated that patients with high HSD10 tumors are at lower risk. High HSD10 expression was significantly associated with high mtDNA content in tumor tissue. A causal effect of HSD10 overexpression or knock down with increased or reduced mtDNA levels, respectively, was confirmed in tumor cell lines. Our data suggest that HSD10 plays a role in alterations of energy metabolism by regulating mtDNA content in colorectal carcinomas, and HSD10 protein analysis may be of prognostic value. PMID:26884257

  8. Knockdown of Human TCF4 Affects Multiple Signaling Pathways Involved in Cell Survival, Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition and Neuronal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Marc P.; Waite, Adrian J.; Martin-Rendon, Enca; Blake, Derek J.

    2013-01-01

    Haploinsufficiency of TCF4 causes Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS): a severe form of mental retardation with phenotypic similarities to Angelman, Mowat-Wilson and Rett syndromes. Genome-wide association studies have also found that common variants in TCF4 are associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. Although TCF4 is transcription factor, little is known about TCF4-regulated processes in the brain. In this study we used genome-wide expression profiling to determine the effects of acute TCF4 knockdown on gene expression in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. We identified 1204 gene expression changes (494 upregulated, 710 downregulated) in TCF4 knockdown cells. Pathway and enrichment analysis on the differentially expressed genes in TCF4-knockdown cells identified an over-representation of genes involved in TGF-β signaling, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and apoptosis. Among the most significantly differentially expressed genes were the EMT regulators, SNAI2 and DEC1 and the proneural genes, NEUROG2 and ASCL1. Altered expression of several mental retardation genes such as UBE3A (Angelman Syndrome), ZEB2 (Mowat-Wilson Syndrome) and MEF2C was also found in TCF4-depleted cells. These data suggest that TCF4 regulates a number of convergent signaling pathways involved in cell differentiation and survival in addition to a subset of clinically important mental retardation genes. PMID:24058414

  9. Acute over-the-counter pharmacological intervention does not adversely affect behavioral outcome following diffuse traumatic brain injury in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Jordan L; Rowe, Rachel K; O'Hara, Bruce F; Adelson, P David; Lifshitz, Jonathan

    2014-09-01

    Following mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), patients may self-treat symptoms of concussion, including post-traumatic headache, taking over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics. Administering one dose of OTC analgesics immediately following experimental brain injury mimics the at-home treated population of concussed patients and may accelerate the understanding of the relationship between brain injury and OTC pharmacological intervention. In the current study, we investigate the effect of acute administration of OTC analgesics on neurological function and cortical cytokine levels after experimental diffuse TBI in the mouse. Adult, male C57BL/6 mice were injured using a midline fluid percussion (mFPI) injury model of concussion (6-10 min righting reflex time for brain-injured mice). Experimental groups included mFPI paired with either ibuprofen (60 mg/kg, i.p.; n = 16), acetaminophen (40 mg/kg, i.p.; n = 9), or vehicle (15% ethanol (v/v) in 0.9% saline; n = 13) and sham injury paired OTC medicine or vehicle (n = 7-10 per group). At 24 h after injury, functional outcome was assessed using the rotarod task and a modified neurological severity score. Following behavior assessment, cortical cytokine levels were measured by multiplex ELISA at 24 h post-injury. To evaluate efficacy on acute inflammation, cortical cytokine levels were measured also at 6 h post-injury. In the diffuse brain-injured mouse, immediate pharmacological intervention did not attenuate or exacerbate TBI-induced functional deficits. Cortical cytokine levels were affected by injury, time, or their interaction. However, levels were not affected by treatment at 6 or 24 h post-injury. These data indicate that acute administration of OTC analgesics did not exacerbate or attenuate brain-injury deficits which may inform clinical recommendations for the at-home treated mildly concussed patient. PMID:24760409

  10. Surviving Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Watch the video to learn more about these breast cancer survivors. To enlarge the video, click the brackets in the lower right-hand corner. To reduce the video, press the Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) Age and Health May Affect Survival A person's age, and more importantly his or ...

  11. SCM-198 Ameliorates Cognitive Deficits, Promotes Neuronal Survival and Enhances CREB/BDNF/TrkB Signaling without Affecting Aβ Burden in AβPP/PS1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Zhen-Yi; Yu, Shuang-Shuang; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Zhu, Yi-Zhun

    2015-01-01

    SCM-198 is an alkaloid found only in Herba leonuri and it has been reported to possess considerable neuroprotective effects in animal models of ischemic stroke, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that 3-month oral SCM-198 treatment could significantly improve both recognition and spatial memory, inhibit microgliosis and promote neuronal survival in amyloid-β protein precursor and presenilin-1(AβPP/PS1) double-transgenic mice without affecting amyloid-β (Aβ) burden. In addition, decreases in cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) phosphorylation were attenuated by SCM-198 both in vivo and in primary cortical neurons, which could be blocked by protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors, suggesting the involvement of upstream PKA in enhancing the BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling by SCM-198. Our results indicate that SCM-198, a drug that could promote neuronal survival and enhance BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling, has beneficial effects on behavioral and biochemical alterations without affecting Aβ burden in AβPP/PS1 mice and might become a potential drug candidate for AD treatment in the future. PMID:26262618

  12. Length of time on dialysis prior to renal transplantation is a critical factor affecting patient survival after allografting.

    PubMed

    West, J C; Bisordi, J E; Squiers, E C; Latsha, R; Miller, J; Kelley, S E

    1992-01-01

    Within the past year at our transplant center we have had the experience of performing renal allografts in two patients older than 65 years, each of whom had been on hemodialysis more than 10 years. Both resulted in patient mortality within 90 days of transplant (one due to myocardial infarction, the other due to visceral ischemia with infarction). This prompted us to review retrospectively our own data (n = 204) and the national (UNOS) data (n = 10,971) regarding transplant outcome, patient age, and length of time on dialysis prior to renal transplantation. This review revealed that patient mortality after transplant increased with the length of end-stage renal disease (dialysis, regardless of type) independent of age, the greatest mortality occurring within the first 6 months of transplant (and not thereafter); graft survival was similar for all age cohorts analyzed. Our review of the literature reveals a paucity of articles pertaining to post-transplant mortality and length of time on dialysis prior to transplant. Our results indicate the following possible conclusions. (1) The length of time of end-stage renal disease therapy prior to renal transplantation is a significant and independent risk factor for post-transplant mortality. (2) Higher priority should be given to this factor when formulating strategies for allocation of scarce resources. (3) Patients on dialysis for extended periods of time who are elderly may be at particularly high risk. (4) Patients being considered for renal transplant should be informed of their individual risk factors for mortality post-transplant based on length of ESRD therapy. (5) Renal transplantation should be considered as early as possible in patients with ESRD (or imminent ESRD). PMID:14621760

  13. Serine Protease Inhibitor-6 Differentially Affects the Survival of Effector and Memory Alloreactive CD8-T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Azzi, J.; Ohori, S.; Ting, C.; Uehara, M.; Abdoli, R.; Smith, B. D.; Safa, K.; Solhjou, Z.; Lukyanchykov, P.; Patel, J.; McGrath, M.; Abdi, R.

    2016-01-01

    The clonal expansion of effector T cells and subsequent generation of memory T cells are critical in determining the outcome of transplantation. While cytotoxic T lymphocytes induce direct cytolysis of target cells through secretion of Granzyme-B (GrB), they also express cytoplasmic serine protease inhibitor-6 (Spi6) to protect themselves from GrB that has leaked from granules. Here, we studied the role of GrB/Spi6 axis in determining clonal expansion of alloreactive CD8-T cells and subsequent generation of memory CD8-T cells in transplantation. CD8-T cells from Spi6−/− mice underwent more GrB mediated apoptosis upon alloantigen stimulation in vitro and in vivo following adoptive transfer into an allogeneic host. Interestingly, while OT1.Spi6−/− CD8 T cells showed significantly lower clonal expansion following skin transplants from OVA mice, there was no difference in the size of the effector memory CD8-T cells long after transplantation. Furthermore, lack of Spi6 resulted in a decrease of short-lived-effector-CD8-cells but did not impact the pool of memory-precursor-effector-CD8-cells. Similar results were found in heart transplant models. Our findings suggest that the final alloreactive CD8-memory-pool-size is independent from the initial clonal-proliferation as memory precursors express low levels of GrB and therefore are independent of Spi6 for survival. These data advance our understanding of memory T cells generation in transplantation and provide basis for Spi6 based strategies to target effector T cells. PMID:25534448

  14. Inoculation Preparation Affects Survival of Salmonella enterica on Whole Black Peppercorns and Cumin Seeds Stored at Low Water Activity.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Lauren S; Waterman, Kim M; Williams, Robert C; Ponder, Monica A

    2015-07-01

    Salmonellosis has been increasingly associated with contaminated spices. Identifying inoculation and stabilization methods for Salmonella on whole spices is important for development of validated inactivation processes. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of inoculation preparation on the recoverability of Salmonella enterica from dried whole peppercorns and cumin seeds. Whole black peppercorns and cumin seeds were inoculated with S. enterica using one dry transfer method and various wet inoculation methods: immersion of spice seeds in tryptic soy broth (TSB) plus Salmonella for 24 h (likely leading to inclusion of Salmonella in native microbiota biofilms formed around the seeds), application of cells grown in TSB, and/or application of cells scraped from tryptic soy agar (TSA). Postinoculation seeds were dried to a water activity of 0.3 within 24 h and held for 28 days. Seeds were sampled after drying (time 0) and periodically during the 28 days of storage. Salmonella cells were enumerated by serial dilution and plated onto xylose lysine Tergitol (XLT4) agar and TSA. Recovery of Salmonella was high after 28 days of storage but was dependent on inoculation method, with 4.05 to 6.22 and 3.75 to 8.38 log CFU/g recovered from peppercorns and cumin seeds, respectively, on XLT4 agar. The changes in surviving Salmonella (log CFU per gram) from initial inoculation levels after 28 days were significantly smaller for the biofilm inclusion method (+0.142pepper, +0.186cumin) than for the other inoculation methods (-0.425pepper, -2.029cumin for cells grown on TSA; -0.641pepper, -0.718cumin for dry transfer; -1.998pepper for cells grown in TSB). In most cases, trends for reductions of total aerobic bacteria were similar to those of Salmonella. The inoculation method influenced the recoverability of Salmonella from whole peppercorns and cumin seeds after drying. The most stable inoculum strategies were dry transfer, 24-h incubation of Salmonella and spices in

  15. Early pregnancy vitamin D status and risk for adverse maternal and infant outcomes in a bi-ethnic cohort: the Behaviors Affecting Baby and You (B.A.B.Y.) Study.

    PubMed

    Nobles, Carrie J; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2015-12-28

    Vitamin D deficiency is common during pregnancy and higher in Hispanic as compared with non-Hispanic white women. However, the association between vitamin D deficiency and adverse pregnancy outcomes remains unclear and may vary across ethnic groups, in part because of genetic variation in the metabolism of vitamin D. Few studies have included Hispanic women. Therefore, we investigated this association among 237 participants in the Behaviors Affecting Baby and You Study, a randomised trial of an exercise intervention among ethnically diverse prenatal care patients in Massachusetts. Baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured at 15·2 (sd 4·7) weeks' gestation. Information on adverse pregnancy outcomes was abstracted from medical records. Mean 25(OH)D was 30·4 (sd 12·0) ng/ml; 53·2 % of participants had insufficient (<30 ng/ml) and 20·7 % had deficient (<20 ng/ml) 25(OH)D levels. After adjusting for month of blood draw, gestational age at blood draw, gestational age at delivery, age, BMI and Hispanic ethnicity, women with insufficient and deficient vitamin D had infants with birth weights 139·74 (se 69·16) g (P=0·045) and 175·52 (se 89·45) g (P=0·051) lower compared with women with sufficient vitamin D levels (≥30 ng/ml). Each 1 ng/ml increase in 25(OH)D was associated with an increased risk for gestational diabetes mellitus among Hispanic women only (relative risk 1·07; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·11) in multivariable analysis. We did not observe statistically significant associations between maternal vitamin D status and other pregnancy outcomes. Our findings provide further support for an adverse impact of vitamin D deficiency on birth weight in Hispanic women. PMID:26507186

  16. Social chromosome variants differentially affect queen determination and the survival of workers in the fire ant Solenopsis invicta.

    PubMed

    Buechel, Séverine D; Wurm, Yanick; Keller, Laurent

    2014-10-01

    Intraspecific variation in social organization is common, yet the underlying causes are rarely known. An exception is the fire ant Solenopsis invicta in which the existence of two distinct forms of social colony organization is under the control of the two variants of a pair of social chromosomes, SB and Sb. Colonies containing exclusively SB/SB workers accept only one single queen and she must be SB/SB. By contrast, when colonies contain more than 10% of SB/Sb workers, they accept several queens but only SB/Sb queens. The variants of the social chromosome are associated with several additional important phenotypic differences, including the size, fecundity and dispersal strategies of queens, aggressiveness of workers, and sperm count in males. However, little is known about whether social chromosome variants affect fitness in other life stages. Here, we perform experiments to determine whether differential selection occurs during development and in adult workers. We find evidence that the Sb variant of the social chromosome increases the likelihood of female brood to develop into queens and that adult SB/Sb workers, the workers that cull SB/SB queens, are overrepresented in comparison to SB/SB workers. This demonstrates that supergenes such as the social chromosome can have complex effects on phenotypes at various stages of development. PMID:25211290

  17. The Gastropod Menace: Slugs on Brassica Plants Affect Caterpillar Survival through Consumption and Interference with Parasitoid Attraction.

    PubMed

    Desurmont, Gaylord A; Zemanova, Miriam A; Turlings, Ted C J

    2016-03-01

    Terrestrial molluscs and insect herbivores play a major role as plant consumers in a number of ecosystems, but their direct and indirect interactions have hardly been explored. The omnivorous nature of slugs makes them potential disrupters of predator-prey relationships, as a direct threat to small insects and through indirect, plant-mediated effects. Here, we examined the effects of the presence of two species of slugs, Arion rufus (native) and A. vulgaris (invasive) on the survivorship of young Pieris brassicae caterpillars when feeding on Brassica rapa plants, and on plant attractiveness to the main natural enemy of P. brassicae, the parasitoid Cotesia glomerata. In two separate predation experiments, caterpillar mortality was significantly higher on plants co-infested with A. rufus or A. vulgaris. Moreover, caterpillar mortality correlated positively with slug mass and leaf consumption by A. vulgaris. At the third trophic level, plants infested with slugs and plants co-infested with slugs and caterpillars were far less attractive to parasitoids than plants damaged by caterpillars only, independently of slug species. Chemical analyses confirmed that volatile emissions, which provide foraging cues for parasitoids, were strongly reduced in co-infested plants. Our study shows that the presence of slugs has the potential to affect insect populations, directly via consumptive effects, and indirectly via changes in plant volatiles that result in a reduced attraction of natural enemies. The fitness cost for P. brassicae imposed by increased mortality in presence of slugs may be counterbalanced by the benefit of escaping its parasitoids. PMID:27002323

  18. A Single Hot Event That Does Not Affect Survival but Decreases Reproduction in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Fei; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2013-01-01

    Extremely hot events (usually involving a few hours at extreme high temperatures in summer) are expected to increase in frequency in temperate regions under global warming. The impact of these events is generally overlooked in insect population prediction, since they are unlikely to cause widespread mortality, however reproduction may be affected by them. In this study, we examined such stress effects in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. We simulated a single extreme hot day (maximum of 40°C lasting for 3, 4 or 5 h) increasingly experienced under field conditions. This event had no detrimental effects on immediate mortality, copulation duration, mating success, longevity or lifetime fecundity, but stressed females produced 21% (after 3 or 4 h) fewer hatched eggs because of a decline in the number and hatching success of eggs laid on the first two days. These negative effects on reproduction were no longer evident in the following days. Male heat exposure led to a similar but smaller effect on fertile egg production, and exposure extended pre-mating period in both sexes. Our results indicate that a single hot day can have detrimental effects on reproduction, particularly through maternal effects on egg hatching, and thereby influence the population dynamics of diamondback moth. PMID:24116081

  19. Effect of salt on survival and P-solubilization potential of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms from salt affected soils

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Ramakrishnan; Yandigeri, Mahesh S.; Kashyap, Sudhanshu; Alagawadi, Ajjanna R.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 23 phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and 35 phosphate solubilizing fungi (PSF) were isolated from 19 samples of salt affected soils. The ability of 12 selected PSB and PSF to grow and solubilize tricalcium phosphate in the presence of different concentrations of NaCl was examined. Among 12 PSB, Aerococcus sp. strain PSBCRG1-1 recorded the highest (12.15) log viable cell count at 0.4 M NaCl concentration after 7 days after incubation (DAI) and the lowest log cell count (1.39) was recorded by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PSBI3-1 at 2.0 M NaCl concentration after 24 h of incubation. Highest mycelial dry weight irrespective of NaCl concentrations was recorded by the Aspergillus terreus strain PSFCRG2-1 (0.567 g). The percent Pi release, in general, was found to increase with increase in NaCl concentration up to 0.8 M for bacterial solubilization and declined thereafter. At 15 DAI, strain Aerococcus sp. strain PSBCRG1-1 irrespective of NaCl concentrations showed the maximum P-solubilization (12.12%) which was significantly superior over all other isolates. The amount of Pi released in general among PSF was found to decrease with increase in NaCl concentration at all the incubation periods. Aspergillus sp. strain PSFNRH-2 (20.81%) recorded the maximum Pi release irrespective of the NaCl concentrations and was significantly superior over all other PSF at 7 DAI. PMID:24936136

  20. Pre-Transplant Cardiovascular Risk Factors Affect Kidney Allograft Survival: A Multi-Center Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Pyo; Bae, Eunjin; Kang, Eunjeong; Kim, Hack-Lyoung; Kim, Yong-Jin; Oh, Yun Kyu; Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Young Hoon; Lim, Chun Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background Pre-transplant cardiovascular (CV) risk factors affect the development of CV events even after successful kidney transplantation (KT). However, the impact of pre-transplant CV risk factors on allograft failure (GF) has not been reported. Methods and Findings We analyzed the graft outcomes of 2,902 KT recipients who were enrolled in a multi-center cohort from 1997 to 2012. We calculated the pre-transplant CV risk scores based on the Framingham risk model using age, gender, total cholesterol level, smoking status, and history of hypertension. Vascular disease (a composite of ischemic heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease) was noted in 6.5% of the patients. During the median follow-up of 6.4 years, 286 (9.9%) patients had developed GF. In the multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard model, pre-transplant vascular disease was associated with an increased risk of GF (HR 2.51; 95% CI 1.66–3.80). The HR for GF (comparing the highest with the lowest tertile regarding the pre-transplant CV risk scores) was 1.65 (95% CI 1.22–2.23). In the competing risk model, both pre-transplant vascular disease and CV risk score were independent risk factors for GF. Moreover, the addition of the CV risk score, the pre-transplant vascular disease, or both had a better predictability for GF compared to the traditional GF risk factors. Conclusions In conclusion, both vascular disease and pre-transplant CV risk score were independently associated with GF in this multi-center study. Pre-transplant CV risk assessments could be useful in predicting GF in KT recipients. PMID:27501048

  1. Genetic and Environmental Factors Associated with Laboratory Rearing Affect Survival and Assortative Mating but Not Overall Mating Success in Anopheles gambiae Sensu Stricto

    PubMed Central

    Paton, Doug; Touré, Mahamoudou; Sacko, Adama; Coulibaly, Mamadou B.; Traoré, Sékou F.; Tripet, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, the main vector of malaria in Africa, is characterized by its vast geographical range and complex population structure. Assortative mating amongst the reproductively isolated cryptic forms that co-occur in many areas poses unique challenges for programs aiming to decrease malaria incidence via the release of sterile or genetically-modified mosquitoes. Importantly, whether laboratory-rearing affects the ability of An. gambiae individuals of a given cryptic taxa to successfully mate with individuals of their own form in field conditions is still unknown and yet crucial for mosquito-releases. Here, the independent effects of genetic and environmental factors associated with laboratory rearing on male and female survival, mating success and assortative mating were evaluated in the Mopti form of An. gambiae over 2010 and 2011. In semi-field enclosures experiments and despite strong variation between years, the overall survival and mating success of male and female progeny from a laboratory strain was not found to be significantly lower than those of the progeny of field females from the same population. Adult progeny from field-caught females reared at the larval stage in the laboratory and from laboratory females reared outdoors exhibited a significant decrease in survival but not in mating success. Importantly, laboratory individuals reared as larvae indoors were unable to mate assortatively as adults, whilst field progeny reared either outdoors or in the laboratory, as well as laboratory progeny reared outdoors all mated significantly assortatively. These results highlight the importance of genetic and environment interactions for the development of An. gambiae's full mating behavioral repertoire and the challenges this creates for mosquito rearing and release-based control strategies. PMID:24391719

  2. Oxidized LDL Immune Complexes and Oxidized LDL Differentially Affect the Expression of Genes Involved with Inflammation and Survival In Human U937 Monocytic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hammad, Samar M; Twal, Waleed O; Barth, Jeremy L; Smith, Kent J.; Saad, Antonio F; Virella, Gabriel; Argraves, W. Scott; Lopes-Virella., Maria F

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare the global effects of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) and oxLDL-containing immune complexes (oxLDL-IC) on gene expression in human monocytic cells and to identify differentially expressed genes involved with inflammation and survival. Methods and Results U937 cells were treated with oxLDL-IC, oxLDL, Keyhole limpet hemocyanin immune complexes (KLH-IC), or vehicle for 4 h. Transcriptome profiling was performed using DNA microarrays. oxLDL-IC uniquely affected the expression of genes involved with pro-survival (RAD54B, RUFY3, SNRPB2, and ZBTB24). oxLDL-IC also regulated many genes in a manner similar to KLH-IC. Functional categorization of these genes revealed that 39% are involved with stress responses, including the unfolded protein response which impacts cell survival, 19% with regulation of transcription, 10% with endocytosis and intracellular transport of protein and lipid, and 16% with inflammatory responses including regulation of I-κB/NF-κB cascade and cytokine activity. One gene in particular, HSP70 6, greatly up-regulated by ox-LDL-IC, was found to be required for the process by which oxLDL-IC augments IL1-β secretion. The study also revealed genes uniquely up-regulated by oxLDL including genes involved with growth inhibition (OKL38, NEK3, and FTH1), oxidoreductase activity (SPXN1 and HMOX1), and transport of amino acids and fatty acids (SLC7A11 and ADFP). Conclusions These findings highlight early transcriptional responses elicited by oxLDL-IC that may underlie its cytoprotective and pro-inflammatory effects. Cross-linking of Fcγ receptors appears to be the trigger for most of the transcriptional responses to oxLDL-IC. The findings further strengthen the hypothesis that oxLDL and oxLDL-IC elicit disparate inflammatory responses and play distinct roles in the process of atherosclerosis. PMID:18597759

  3. Adverse ocular reactions to drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Spiteri, M. A.; James, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    Drugs acting on various parts of the body may also affect the eye insidiously. Increased awareness of such drug toxicity by the prescribing doctor should encourage him to consider effects on the cornea, lens, retina, optic nerve and elsewhere when checking the patient's progress. The following review concerns adverse ocular effects of systemic drug administration. PMID:6356101

  4. Sirtuin Inhibition Adversely Affects Porcine Oocyte Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Ma, Rujun; Hu, Jin; Ding, Xiaolin; Xu, Yinxue

    2015-01-01

    Sirtuins have been implicated in diverse biological processes, including oxidative stress, energy metabolism, cell migration, and aging. Here, we employed Sirtuin inhibitors, nicotinamide (NAM) and Sirtinol, to investigate their effects on porcine oocyte maturation respectively. The rate of polar body extrusion in porcine oocytes decreased after treatment with NAM and Sirtinol, accompanied with the failure of cumulus cell expansion. We further found that NAM and Sirtinol significantly disrupted oocyte polarity, and inhibited the formation of actin cap and cortical granule-free domain (CGFD). Moreover, the abnormal spindles and misaligned chromosomes were readily detected during porcine oocyte maturation after treatment with NAM and Sirtinol. Together, these results suggest that Sirtuins are involved in cortical polarity and spindle organization in porcine oocytes. PMID:26176547

  5. Low pH affects survival, growth, size distribution, and carapace quality of the postlarvae and early juveniles of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Gunzo; Bagarinao, Teodora; Yong, Annita Seok Kian; Chen, Chiau Yu; Noor, Siti Norasidah Mat; Lim, Leong Seng

    2015-06-01

    Acidification of rain water caused by air pollutants is now recognized as a serious threat to aquatic ecosystems. We examined the effects of low pH (control pH 7.5, pH 6, pH 5, pH 4) on the survival, growth, and shell quality of Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae and early juveniles in the laboratory. Hatcheryproduced postlarvae (PL 5) were stocked at 250 PL per aquarium, acclimated over 7 d to experimental pH adjusted with hydrochloric acid, and reared for 30 d. Dead specimens were removed and counted twice a day. After 27 d rearing, all specimens were measured for total length and body weight. Carapace quality was assessed by spectrophotometry. Survival of juveniles was highest at pH 6 (binomial 95% confidence interval 79 - 89%) followed by control pH 7.5 (56 - 68%) and pH 5 (50 - 60%) and was lowest for unmetamorphosed postlarvae and juveniles at pH 4 (43 - 49%). The final median total length and body weight of juveniles were similar at control pH 7.5 (18.2 TL, 50.2 mg BW) and pH 6 (17.7 mm TL, 45.0 mg BW) but significantly less at pH 5 (16.7 mm TL, 38.2 mg BW); at pH 4, the postlarvae did not metamorphose and measured only 9.8 mm TL, 29.3 mg BW. Length frequency distribution showed homogeneous growth at pH 6, positive skew at control pH 7.5 and pH 5, and extreme heterogeneity at pH 4. The carapace showed different transmittance spectra and lower total transmittance (i.e. thicker carapace) in juveniles at pH 7.5, pH 6, and pH 5 than in unmetamorphosed postlarvae and juveniles with thinner carapace at pH 4. Thus, survival, growth, size distribution, and carapace quality of M. rosenbergii postlarvae and early juveniles were negatively affected by pH 5 and especially pH 4. The thinner carapace of the survivors at pH 4 was mostly due to their small size and failure to metamorphose. Natural waters affected by acid rain could decimate M. rosenbergii populations in the wild.

  6. Vaccine Adverse Events

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability ( ... Center for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  7. Factors affecting disease-free survival in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer who receive adjuvant trastuzumab

    PubMed Central

    GÜNDÜZ, SEYDA; GÖKSU, SEMA SEZGIN; ARSLAN, DENIZ; TATLI, ALI MURAT; UYSAL, MÜKREMIN; GÜNDÜZ, UMUT RIZA; SEVINÇ, MERT MAHSUNI; COŞKUN, HASAN SENOL; BOZCUK, HAKAN; MUTLU, HASAN; SAVAS, BURHAN

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women worldwide and the second cause of cancer-related mortality. A total of 20–30% of patients with early-stage breast cancer develop recurrence within the first 5 years following diagnosis. Trastuzumab significantly improves overall survival and disease-free survival (DFS) in women with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive early and locally advanced breast cancer. This study aimed to determine the factors that affect DFS following adjuvant transtuzumab therapy. A total of 62 patients treated with trastuzumab for early and locally advanced breast cancer were included in our study. Data, including pathology, treatment and treatment outcome, rate of recurrence and laboratory tests, were retrospectively collected. There was no significant association between DFS and age, menopausal status, disease stage and hormone receptor status. The median follow-up was 48.4 months. The median DFS of patients treated with adjuvant trastuzumab was 64.1 months. In addition, the median DFS was 44.3 vs. 66.8 months in patients with platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) ≤200 vs. >200, respectively (log-rank test; P=0.001), and 70 vs. 45 months in patients with eosinophil count ≤70 vs. >70×103/mm3 (log-rank test; P=0.001). Our data revealed the prognostic relevance of a decrease in the peripheral blood eosinophil count and PLR value following trastuzumab therapy in breast cancer. PLR and eosinophil count measurements are cost-effective, readily available worldwide, non-invasive and safe. Combined with other markers, such as patient age, tumor stage and tumor histology, may be effectively used for patients with breast cancer. PMID:26623060

  8. Biologics in dermatology: adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Pandhi, Deepika; Khurana, Ananta

    2015-12-01

    Biologics are a group of drugs that precisely affect certain specific steps in the immune response and are an extremely useful group when used in an appropriate setting. However, their use can often be a double-edged sword. Careful patient selection and thorough knowledge of adverse effects is a key to their successful use in various disorders. The initial enthusiasm has gradually given way to a more cautious approach wherein a balance is sought between clinical usefulness and expected side effects. The adverse effects of the biologics most commonly used in dermatology have been carefully listed for ready reference. The plausible causes of the adverse reactions are succinctly outlined along with their incriminating factor(s). Besides, in brief, the attention has been focused on their management. The content should provide an essential didactic content for educating the practitioner. PMID:26147909

  9. The Competitive Interplay between Allosteric HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitor BI/D and LEDGF/p75 during the Early Stage of HIV-1 Replication Adversely Affects Inhibitor Potency.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lei; Dharmarajan, Venkatasubramanian; Serrao, Erik; Hoyte, Ashley; Larue, Ross C; Slaughter, Alison; Sharma, Amit; Plumb, Matthew R; Kessl, Jacques J; Fuchs, James R; Bushman, Frederic D; Engelman, Alan N; Griffin, Patrick R; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka

    2016-05-20

    Allosteric HIV-1 integrase inhibitors (ALLINIs) have recently emerged as a promising class of antiretroviral agents and are currently in clinical trials. In infected cells, ALLINIs potently inhibit viral replication by impairing virus particle maturation but surprisingly exhibit a reduced EC50 for inhibiting HIV-1 integration in target cells. To better understand the reduced antiviral activity of ALLINIs during the early stage of HIV-1 replication, we investigated the competitive interplay between a potent representative ALLINI, BI/D, and LEDGF/p75 with HIV-1 integrase. While the principal binding sites of BI/D and LEDGF/p75 overlap at the integrase catalytic core domain dimer interface, we show that the inhibitor and the cellular cofactor induce markedly different multimerization patterns of full-length integrase. LEDGF/p75 stabilizes an integrase tetramer through the additional interactions with the integrase N-terminal domain, whereas BI/D induces protein-protein interactions in C-terminal segments that lead to aberrant, higher-order integrase multimerization. We demonstrate that LEDGF/p75 binds HIV-1 integrase with significantly higher affinity than BI/D and that the cellular protein is able to reverse the inhibitor induced aberrant, higher-order integrase multimerization in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Consistent with these observations, alterations of the cellular levels of LEDGF/p75 markedly affected BI/D EC50 values during the early steps of HIV-1 replication. Furthermore, genome-wide sequencing of HIV-1 integration sites in infected cells demonstrate that LEDGF/p75-dependent integration site selection is adversely affected by BI/D treatment. Taken together, our studies elucidate structural and mechanistic details of the interplay between LEDGF/p75 and BI/D during the early stage of HIV-1 replication. PMID:26910179

  10. Transgenic Cabbage Expressing Cry1Ac1 Does Not Affect the Survival and Growth of the Wolf Spider, Pardosa astrigera L. Koch (Araneae: Lycosidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Joong; Lee, Joon-Ho; Harn, Chee Hark; Kim, Chang-Gi

    2016-01-01

    Both herbivores that consume transgenic crops and their predators can be exposed to insecticidal proteins expressed in those crops. We conducted a tritrophic bioassay to evaluate the ecotoxicological impacts that Bt cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) expressing Cry1Ac1 protein might have on the wolf spider (Pardosa astrigera), a non-target generalist predator. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays indicated that protein levels were 4.61 ng g(-1) dry weight in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) fed with the transgenic cabbage and 1.86 ng g(-1) dry weight in the wolf spiders that preyed upon them. We also compared the life history traits of spiders collected from Bt versus non-Bt cabbage and found no significant differences in their growth, survival, and developmental rates. Because Bt cabbage did not affect the growth of fruit flies, we conclude that any indirect effects that this crop had on the wolf spider were probably not mediated by prey quality. Therefore, exposure to Cry1Ac1 protein when feeding upon prey containing that substance from transgenic cabbage has only a negligible influence on those non-target predatory spiders. PMID:27055120

  11. Transgenic Cabbage Expressing Cry1Ac1 Does Not Affect the Survival and Growth of the Wolf Spider, Pardosa astrigera L. Koch (Araneae: Lycosidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Joong; Lee, Joon-Ho; Harn, Chee Hark; Kim, Chang-Gi

    2016-01-01

    Both herbivores that consume transgenic crops and their predators can be exposed to insecticidal proteins expressed in those crops. We conducted a tritrophic bioassay to evaluate the ecotoxicological impacts that Bt cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) expressing Cry1Ac1 protein might have on the wolf spider (Pardosa astrigera), a non-target generalist predator. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays indicated that protein levels were 4.61 ng g-1 dry weight in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) fed with the transgenic cabbage and 1.86 ng g-1 dry weight in the wolf spiders that preyed upon them. We also compared the life history traits of spiders collected from Bt versus non-Bt cabbage and found no significant differences in their growth, survival, and developmental rates. Because Bt cabbage did not affect the growth of fruit flies, we conclude that any indirect effects that this crop had on the wolf spider were probably not mediated by prey quality. Therefore, exposure to Cry1Ac1 protein when feeding upon prey containing that substance from transgenic cabbage has only a negligible influence on those non-target predatory spiders. PMID:27055120

  12. Does really previous stenting affect graft patency following CABG? A 5-year follow-up: The effect of PCI on graft survival.

    PubMed

    Songur, Murat Çetin; Özyalçin, Sertan; Özen, Anıl; Şimşek, Erdal; Kervan, Ümit; Taşoğlu, İrfan; Kaplan, Sadi; Köse, Kenan; Ulus, Ahmet Tulga

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the graft patency rates among patients who had a previous history of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) followed by coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) with the patients who had experienced CABG surgery alone. The 69 patients who were included in the study had a history of bare metal stent implantation prior to CABG (group 1). The coronary angiography results were compared with 69 patients who had a previous history of CABG (group 2). Graft patency rates of the left anterior descending artery and circumflex anastomoses are statistically significant for both groups, whereas the right coronary artery anastomoses are not statistically significant (p = 0.008; 0.009; 0.2). Graft patency rate of LIMA-LAD anastomoses was 43.9 ± 10.8 % in group 1 and 86.2 ± 6 % in group 2 for means of 60 months (p = 0.0001) and circumflex coronary artery anastomosis is 28.9 ± 0.9 % in group 1, 65.7 ± 10.8 % in group 2 (p = 0.0001) and the right coronary artery anastomosis is 37.2 ± 13.6 % in group 1, 56.4 ± 8.9 % in group 2 (p = 0.0001). The graft patency rates of coronary arteries without previous stent implantation were higher than the patients with previous stent implantation and experienced CABG. The results suggest that prior PCI may induce atherosclerotic events in the vessel that can adversely affect graft patency after surgery. PMID:25637043

  13. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations. PMID:27091302

  14. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2016-01-01

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations. PMID:27091302

  15. Adverse antibiotic drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Bint, A J; Burtt, I

    1980-07-01

    There is enormous potential for drug interactions in patients who, today, often receive many drugs. Antibiotics are prominent amongst the groups of drugs commonly prescribed. Many interactions take place at the absorption stage. Antacids and antidiarrhoeal preparations, in particular, can delay and reduce the absorption of antibiotics such as tetracyclines and clindamycin, by combining with them in the gastrointestinal tract to form chelates or complexes. Other drugs can affect gastric motility, which in turn often controls the rate at which antibiotics are absorbed. Some broad spectrum antibiotics can alter the bacterial flora of the gut which may be related to malabsorption states. The potentiation of toxic side effects of one drug by another is a common type of interaction. Antibiotics which are implicated in this type of interaction are those which themselves possess some toxicity such as aminoglycosides, some cephalosporins, tetracyclines and colistin. Some of the most important adverse interactions with antibiotics are those which involve other drugs which have a low toxicity/efficacy ratio. These include anticoagulants such as warfarin, anticonvulsants such as phenytoin and phenobarbitone and oral antidiabetic drugs like tolbutamide. Risk of interaction arises when the metabolism of these drugs is inhibited by liver microsomal enzyme inhibitors such as some sulphonamides and chloramphenicol, or is enhanced by enzyme inducers such as rifampicin. PMID:6995091

  16. Corticosteroids compromise survival in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Pitter, Kenneth L; Tamagno, Ilaria; Alikhanyan, Kristina; Hosni-Ahmed, Amira; Pattwell, Siobhan S; Donnola, Shannon; Dai, Charles; Ozawa, Tatsuya; Chang, Maria; Chan, Timothy A; Beal, Kathryn; Bishop, Andrew J; Barker, Christopher A; Jones, Terreia S; Hentschel, Bettina; Gorlia, Thierry; Schlegel, Uwe; Stupp, Roger; Weller, Michael; Holland, Eric C; Hambardzumyan, Dolores

    2016-05-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common and most aggressive primary brain tumour. Standard of care consists of surgical resection followed by radiotherapy and concomitant and maintenance temozolomide (temozolomide/radiotherapy→temozolomide). Corticosteroids are commonly used perioperatively to control cerebral oedema and are frequently continued throughout subsequent treatment, notably radiotherapy, for amelioration of side effects. The effects of corticosteroids such as dexamethasone on cell growth in glioma models and on patient survival have remained controversial. We performed a retrospective analysis of glioblastoma patient cohorts to determine the prognostic role of steroid administration. A disease-relevant mouse model of glioblastoma was used to characterize the effects of dexamethasone on tumour cell proliferation and death, and to identify gene signatures associated with these effects. A murine anti-VEGFA antibody was used in parallel as an alternative for oedema control. We applied the dexamethasone-induced gene signature to The Cancer Genome Atlas glioblastoma dataset to explore the association of dexamethasone exposure with outcome. Mouse experiments were used to validate the effects of dexamethasone on survival in vivo Retrospective clinical analyses identified corticosteroid use during radiotherapy as an independent indicator of shorter survival in three independent patient cohorts. A dexamethasone-associated gene expression signature correlated with shorter survival in The Cancer Genome Atlas patient dataset. In glioma-bearing mice, dexamethasone pretreatment decreased tumour cell proliferation without affecting tumour cell viability, but reduced survival when combined with radiotherapy. Conversely, anti-VEGFA antibody decreased proliferation and increased tumour cell death, but did not affect survival when combined with radiotherapy. Clinical and mouse experimental data suggest that corticosteroids may decrease the effectiveness of treatment and shorten

  17. Urbanicity, social adversity and psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, Andreas; Deserno, Lorenz; Reininghaus, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in research on geographical variation in the incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses. In this paper, we review the evidence on variation in incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in terms of place, as well as the individual- and area-level factors that account for this variation. We further review findings on potential mechanisms that link adverse urban environment and psychosis. There is evidence from earlier and more recent studies that urbanicity is associated with an increased incidence of schizophrenia and non-affective psychosis. In addition, considerable variation in incidence across neighbourhoods has been observed for these disorders. Findings suggest it is unlikely that social drift alone can fully account for geographical variation in incidence. Evidence further suggests that the impact of adverse social contexts – indexed by area-level exposures such as population density, social fragmentation and deprivation – on risk of psychosis is explained (confounding) or modified (interaction) by environmental exposures at the individual level (i.e., cannabis use, social adversity, exclusion and discrimination). On a neurobiological level, several studies suggest a close link between social adversity, isolation and stress on the one hand, and monoamine dysfunction on the other, which resembles findings in schizophrenia patients. However, studies directly assessing correlations between urban stress or discrimination and neurobiological alterations in schizophrenia are lacking to date. PMID:24096775

  18. Intracellular ice and cell survival in cryo-exposed embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds of Acer saccharinum: an ultrastructural study of factors affecting cell and ice structures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryogenic technologies are required to preserve embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds. Formation of potentially lethal intracellular ice limits successful cryopreservation; thus, it is important to understand the relationships among cryo-exposure techniques, water content and survival. In this pap...

  19. The complement system and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Regal, Jean F; Gilbert, Jeffrey S; Burwick, Richard M

    2015-09-01

    Adverse pregnancy outcomes significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality for mother and child, with lifelong health consequences for both. The innate and adaptive immune system must be regulated to insure survival of the fetal allograft, and the complement system is no exception. An intact complement system optimizes placental development and function and is essential to maintain host defense and fetal survival. Complement regulation is apparent at the placental interface from early pregnancy with some degree of complement activation occurring normally throughout gestation. However, a number of pregnancy complications including early pregnancy loss, fetal growth restriction, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and preterm birth are associated with excessive or misdirected complement activation, and are more frequent in women with inherited or acquired complement system disorders or complement gene mutations. Clinical studies employing complement biomarkers in plasma and urine implicate dysregulated complement activation in components of each of the adverse pregnancy outcomes. In addition, mechanistic studies in rat and mouse models of adverse pregnancy outcomes address the complement pathways or activation products of importance and allow critical analysis of the pathophysiology. Targeted complement therapeutics are already in use to control adverse pregnancy outcomes in select situations. A clearer understanding of the role of the complement system in both normal pregnancy and complicated or failed pregnancy will allow a rational approach to future therapeutic strategies for manipulating complement with the goal of mitigating adverse pregnancy outcomes, preserving host defense, and improving long term outcomes for both mother and child. PMID:25802092

  20. Managing adverse effects of glaucoma medications

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma is a chronic, progressive disease in which retinal ganglion cells disappear and subsequent, gradual reductions in the visual field ensues. Glaucoma eye drops have hypotensive effects and like all other medications are associated with adverse effects. Adverse reactions may either result from the main agent or from preservatives used in the drug vehicle. The preservative benzalkonium chloride, is one such compound that causes frequent adverse reactions such as superficial punctate keratitis, corneal erosion, conjunctival allergy, and conjunctival injection. Adverse reactions related to main hypotensive agents have been divided into those affecting the eye and those affecting the entire body. In particular, β-blockers frequently cause systematic adverse reactions, including bradycardia, decrease in blood pressure, irregular pulse and asthma attacks. Prostaglandin analogs have distinctive local adverse reactions, including eyelash bristling/lengthening, eyelid pigmentation, iris pigmentation, and upper eyelid deepening. No systemic adverse reactions have been linked to prostaglandin analog eye drop usage. These adverse reactions may be minimized when they are detected early and prevented by reducing the number of different eye drops used (via fixed combination eye drops), reducing the number of times eye drops are administered, using benzalkonium chloride-free eye drops, using lower concentration eye drops, and providing proper drop instillation training. Additionally, a one-time topical medication can be given to patients to allow observation of any adverse reactions, thereafter the preparation of a topical medication with the fewest known adverse reactions can be prescribed. This does require precise patient monitoring and inquiries about patient symptoms following medication use. PMID:24872675

  1. Fiber optics in adverse environments

    SciTech Connect

    Lyous, P.B.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation effects in optical fibers are considered, taking into account recent progress in the investigation of radiation resistant optical fibers, radiation damage in optical fibers, radiation-induced transient absorption in optical fibers, X-ray-induced transient attenuation at low temperatures in polymer clad silica (PCS) fibers, optical fiber composition and radiation hardness, the response of irradiated optical waveguides at low temperatures, and the effect of ionizing radiation on fiber-optic waveguides. Other topics explored are related to environmental effects on components of fiber optic systems, and radiation detection systems using optical fibers. Fiber optic systems in adverse environments are also discussed, giving attention to the survivability of Army fiber optics systems, space application of fiber optics systems, fiber optic wavelength multiplexing for civil aviation applications, a new fiber optic data bus topology, fiber optics for aircraft engine/inlet control, and application of fiber optics in high voltage substations.

  2. Survival in an extreme habitat: the roles of behaviour and energy limitation.

    PubMed

    Plath, Martin; Tobler, Michael; Riesch, Rüdiger; García de León, Francisco J; Giere, Olav; Schlupp, Ingo

    2007-12-01

    Extreme habitats challenge animals with highly adverse conditions, like extreme temperatures or toxic substances. In this paper, we report of a fish (Poecilia mexicana) inhabiting a limestone cave in Mexico. Several springs inside the cave are rich in toxic H(2)S. We demonstrate that a behavioural adaptation, aquatic surface respiration (ASR), allows for the survival of P. mexicana in this extreme, sulphidic habitat. Without the possibility to perform ASR, the survival rate of P. mexicana was low even at comparatively low H(2)S concentrations. Furthermore, we show that food limitation affects the survival of P. mexicana pointing to energetically costly physiological adaptations to detoxify H(2)S. PMID:17639290

  3. Survival in an extreme habitat: the roles of behaviour and energy limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plath, Martin; Tobler, Michael; Riesch, Rüdiger; García de León, Francisco J.; Giere, Olav; Schlupp, Ingo

    2007-12-01

    Extreme habitats challenge animals with highly adverse conditions, like extreme temperatures or toxic substances. In this paper, we report of a fish ( Poecilia mexicana) inhabiting a limestone cave in Mexico. Several springs inside the cave are rich in toxic H2S. We demonstrate that a behavioural adaptation, aquatic surface respiration (ASR), allows for the survival of P. mexicana in this extreme, sulphidic habitat. Without the possibility to perform ASR, the survival rate of P. mexicana was low even at comparatively low H2S concentrations. Furthermore, we show that food limitation affects the survival of P. mexicana pointing to energetically costly physiological adaptations to detoxify H2S.

  4. Evaluation of PIT tagging effects on growth and survival of white bass fingerlings used for quantitative genetic trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tagging fish for individual or family identification is advantageous to ensure equal family representation in genetics trials and to assess within and between family trait variation without expensive molecular methods. However, tagging can adversely affect performance traits as well as survival, es...

  5. Initial Stage Affects Survival Even After Complete Pathologic Remission is Achieved in Locally Advanced Esophageal Cancer: Analysis of 70 Patients With Pathologic Major Response After Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Min Kyoung; Cho, Kyung-Ja; Park, Seung-Il; Kim, Yong Hee; Kim, Jong Hoon; Song, Ho-Young; Shin, Ji Hoon; Jung, Hwoon Yong; Lee, Gin Hyug; Choi, Kee Don; Song, Ho June; Ryu, Jin-Sook; Kim, Sung-Bae

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: To analyze outcomes and factors predictive for recurrence and survival in patients with operable esophageal carcinoma who achieved pathologic complete response (PCR) or microscopic residual disease (MRD) after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Materials and Methods: Outcomes were assessed in 70 patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer who achieved pathologic major response (53 with PCR and 17 with MRD) after preoperative CRT. Results: At a median follow-up of 38.6 months for surviving patients, 17 of 70 patients (24.3%) experienced disease recurrence and 31 (44.3%) died. Clinical stage (II vs III; p = 0.013) and pathologic response (PCR vs. MRD; p = 0.014) were independent predictors of disease recurrence. Median overall survival (OS) was 99.6 months (95% CI, 44.1-155.1 months) and the 5-year OS rate was 57%. Median recurrence-free survival (RFS) was 71.5 months (95% CI, 39.5-103.6 months) and the 5-year RFS rate was 51.3%. Median OS of patients with Stage II and Stage III disease was 108.8 months and 39.9 months, respectively, and the 5-year OS rates were 68.2% and 27.0%, respectively (p = 0.0003). In a subgroup of patients with PCR, median OS and RFS were also significantly different according to clinical stage. Multivariate analysis showed that clinical stage was an independent predictor of RFS (p = 0.01) and OS (p = 0.008). Conclusions: Even though patients achieved major response after preoperative CRT, pretreatment clinical stage is an important prognostic marker for recurrence and survival. Patients with MRD have an increased recurrence risk but similar survival compared with patients achieved PCR.

  6. Adverse reactions to sulfites

    PubMed Central

    Yang, William H.; Purchase, Emerson C.R.

    1985-01-01

    Sulfites are widely used as preservatives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In the United States more than 250 cases of sulfite-related adverse reactions, including anaphylactic shock, asthmatic attacks, urticaria and angioedema, nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhea, seizures and death, have been reported, including 6 deaths allegedly associated with restaurant food containing sulfites. In Canada 10 sulfite-related adverse reactions have been documented, and 1 death suspected to be sulfite-related has occurred. The exact mechanism of sulfite-induced reactions is unknown. Practising physicians should be aware of the clinical manifestations of sulfite-related adverse reactions as well as which foods and pharmaceuticals contain sulfites. Cases should be reported to health officials and proper advice given to the victims to prevent further exposure to sulfites. The food industry, including beer and wine manufacturers, and the pharmaceutical industry should consider using alternative preservatives. In the interim, they should list any sulfites in their products. PMID:4052897

  7. Survival of Manure-borne Escherichia coli and Fecal Coliforms in Soil: Temperature Dependence as Affected by Site-Specific Factors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding pathogenic and indicator bacteria survival in soils is essential for assessing the potential of microbial contamination of water and produce. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of soil properties, animal source, experimental conditions, and the a...

  8. Dynamic O-Linked N-Acetylglucosamine Modification of Proteins Affects Stress Responses and Survival of Mesothelial Cells Exposed to Peritoneal Dialysis Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Rebecca; Bender, Thorsten O.; Vychytil, Andreas; Bialas, Katarzyna; Aufricht, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The ability of cells to respond and survive stressful conditions is determined, in part, by the attachment of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) to proteins (O-GlcNAcylation), a post-translational modification dependent on glucose and glutamine. This study investigates the role of dynamic O-GlcNAcylation of mesothelial cell proteins in cell survival during exposure to glucose-based peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF). Immortalized human mesothelial cells and primary mesothelial cells, cultured from human omentum or clinical effluent of PD patients, were assessed for O-GlcNAcylation under normal conditions or after exposure to PDF. The dynamic status of O-GlcNAcylation and effects on cellular survival were investigated by chemical modulation with 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DON) to decrease or O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranosylidene)amino N-phenyl carbamate (PUGNAc) to increase O-GlcNAc levels. Viability was decreased by reducing O-GlcNAc levels by DON, which also led to suppressed expression of the cytoprotective heat shock protein 72. In contrast, increasing O-GlcNAc levels by PUGNAc or alanyl-glutamine led to significantly improved cell survival paralleled by higher heat shock protein 72 levels during PDF treatment. Addition of alanyl-glutamine increased O-GlcNAcylation and partly counteracted its inhibition by DON, also leading to improved cell survival. Immunofluorescent analysis of clinical samples showed that the O-GlcNAc signal primarily originates from mesothelial cells. In conclusion, this study identified O-GlcNAcylation in mesothelial cells as a potentially important molecular mechanism after exposure to PDF. Modulating O-GlcNAc levels by clinically feasible interventions might evolve as a novel therapeutic target for the preservation of peritoneal membrane integrity in PD. PMID:24854264

  9. Dynamic O-linked N-acetylglucosamine modification of proteins affects stress responses and survival of mesothelial cells exposed to peritoneal dialysis fluids.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Rebecca; Bender, Thorsten O; Vychytil, Andreas; Bialas, Katarzyna; Aufricht, Christoph; Kratochwill, Klaus

    2014-12-01

    The ability of cells to respond and survive stressful conditions is determined, in part, by the attachment of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) to proteins (O-GlcNAcylation), a post-translational modification dependent on glucose and glutamine. This study investigates the role of dynamic O-GlcNAcylation of mesothelial cell proteins in cell survival during exposure to glucose-based peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF). Immortalized human mesothelial cells and primary mesothelial cells, cultured from human omentum or clinical effluent of PD patients, were assessed for O-GlcNAcylation under normal conditions or after exposure to PDF. The dynamic status of O-GlcNAcylation and effects on cellular survival were investigated by chemical modulation with 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DON) to decrease or O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranosylidene)amino N-phenyl carbamate (PUGNAc) to increase O-GlcNAc levels. Viability was decreased by reducing O-GlcNAc levels by DON, which also led to suppressed expression of the cytoprotective heat shock protein 72. In contrast, increasing O-GlcNAc levels by PUGNAc or alanyl-glutamine led to significantly improved cell survival paralleled by higher heat shock protein 72 levels during PDF treatment. Addition of alanyl-glutamine increased O-GlcNAcylation and partly counteracted its inhibition by DON, also leading to improved cell survival. Immunofluorescent analysis of clinical samples showed that the O-GlcNAc signal primarily originates from mesothelial cells. In conclusion, this study identified O-GlcNAcylation in mesothelial cells as a potentially important molecular mechanism after exposure to PDF. Modulating O-GlcNAc levels by clinically feasible interventions might evolve as a novel therapeutic target for the preservation of peritoneal membrane integrity in PD. PMID:24854264

  10. Regulation of Osteoblast Survival by the Extracellular Matrix and Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus. Ruth K.; Almeida, Eduardo A. C.; Searby, Nancy D.; Bowley, Susan M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Spaceflight adversely affects the skeleton, posing a substantial risk to astronaut's health during long duration missions. The reduced bone mass observed in growing animals following spaceflight is due at least in part to inadequate bone formation by osteoblasts. Thus, it is of central importance to identify basic cellular mechanisms underlying normal bone formation. The fundamental ideas underlying our research are that interactions between extracellular matrix proteins, integrin adhesion receptors, cytoplasmic signaling and cytoskeletal proteins are key ingredients for the proper functioning of osteoblasts, and that gravity impacts these interactions. As an in vitro model system we used primary fetal rat calvarial cells which faithfully recapitulate osteoblast differentiation characteristically observed in vivo. We showed that specific integrin receptors ((alpha)3(beta)1), ((alpha)5(beta)1), ((alpha)8(betal)1) and extracellular matrix proteins (fibronectin, laminin) were needed for the differentiation of immature osteoblasts. In the course of maturation, cultured osteoblasts switched from depending on fibronectin and laminin for differentiation to depending on these proteins for their very survival. Furthermore, we found that manipulating the gravity vector using ground-based models resulted in activation of key intracellular survival signals generated by integrin/extracellular matrix interactions. We are currently testing the in vivo relevance of some of these observations using targeted transgenic technology. In conclusion, mechanical factors including gravity may participate in regulating survival via cellular interactions with the extracellular matrix. This leads us to speculate that microgravity adversely affects the survival of osteoblasts and contributes to spaceflight-induced osteoporosis.

  11. Scientists Trace Adversity's Toll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    The stress of a spelling bee or a challenging science project can enhance a student's focus and promote learning. But the stress of a dysfunctional or unstable home life can poison a child's cognitive ability for a lifetime, according to new research. Those studies show that stress forms the link between childhood adversity and poor academic…

  12. Remote sensing and avian influenza: A review of image processing methods for extracting key variables affecting avian influenza virus survival in water from Earth Observation satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Annelise; Goutard, Flavie; Chamaillé, Lise; Baghdadi, Nicolas; Lo Seen, Danny

    2010-02-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the potential role of water in the transmission of avian influenza (AI) viruses and the existence of often interacting variables that determine the survival rate of these viruses in water; the two main variables are temperature and salinity. Remote sensing has been used to map and monitor water bodies for several decades. In this paper, we review satellite image analysis methods used for water detection and characterization, focusing on the main variables that influence AI virus survival in water. Optical and radar imagery are useful for detecting water bodies at different spatial and temporal scales. Methods to monitor the temperature of large water surfaces are also available. Current methods for estimating other relevant water variables such as salinity, pH, turbidity and water depth are not presently considered to be effective.

  13. Intracellular ice and cell survival in cryo-exposed embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds of Acer saccharinum: an ultrastructural study of factors affecting cell and ice structures

    PubMed Central

    Wesley-Smith, James; Berjak, Patricia; Pammenter, N. W.; Walters, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Cryopreservation is the only long-term conservation strategy available for germplasm of recalcitrant-seeded species. Efforts to cryopreserve this form of germplasm are hampered by potentially lethal intracellular freezing events; thus, it is important to understand the relationships among cryo-exposure techniques, water content, structure and survival. Methods Undried embryonic axes of Acer saccharinum and those rapidly dried to two different water contents were cooled at three rates and re-warmed at two rates. Ultrastructural observations were carried out on radicle and shoot tips prepared by freeze-fracture and freeze-substitution to assess immediate (i.e. pre-thaw) responses to cooling treatments. Survival of axes was assessed in vitro. Key Results Intracellular ice formation was not necessarily lethal. Embryo cells survived when crystal diameter was between 0·2 and 0·4 µm and fewer than 20 crystals were distributed per μm2 in the cytoplasm. Ice was not uniformly distributed within the cells. In fully hydrated axes cooled at an intermediate rate, the interiors of many organelles were apparently ice-free; this may have prevented the disruption of vital intracellular machinery. Intracytoplasmic ice formation did not apparently impact the integrity of the plasmalemma. The maximum number of ice crystals was far greater in shoot apices, which were more sensitive than radicles to cryo-exposure. Conclusions The findings challenge the accepted paradigm that intracellular ice formation is always lethal, as the results show that cells can survive intracellular ice if crystals are small and localized in the cytoplasm. Further understanding of the interactions among water content, cooling rate, cell structure and ice structure is required to optimize cryopreservation treatments without undue reliance on empirical approaches. PMID:24368198

  14. Survival of Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) Treated by Percutaneous Radio-Frequency Ablation (RFA) Is Affected by Complete Radiological Response

    PubMed Central

    Cabibbo, Giuseppe; Maida, Marcello; Genco, Chiara; Alessi, Nicola; Peralta, Marco; Butera, Giuseppe; Galia, Massimo; Brancatelli, Giuseppe; Genova, Claudio; Raineri, Maurizio; Orlando, Emanuele; Attardo, Simona; Giarratano, Antonino; Midiri, Massimo; Di Marco, Vito; Craxì, Antonio; Cammà, Calogero

    2013-01-01

    Background Radio-frequency ablation (RFA) has been employed in the treatment of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as curative treatments. Aim To assess the effectiveness and the safety of RFA in patients with early HCC and compensated cirrhosis. Methods A cohort of 151 consecutive patients with early stage HCC (122 Child-Pugh class A and 29 class B patients) treated with RFA were enrolled. Clinical, laboratory and radiological follow-up data were collected from the time of first RFA. A single lesion was observed in 113/151 (74.8%), two lesions in 32/151 (21.2%), and three lesions in 6/151 (4%) of patients. Results The overall survival rates were 94%, 80%, 64%, 49%, and 41% at 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months, respectively. Complete response (CR) at 1 month (p<0.0001) and serum albumin levels (p = 0.0004) were the only variables indipendently linked to survival by multivariate Cox model. By multivariate analysis, tumor size (p = 0.01) is the only variable associated with an increased likehood of CR. The proportion of major complications after treatment was 4%. Conclusions RFA is safe and effective for managing HCC with cirrhosis, especially for patients with HCC ≤3 cm and higher baseline albumin levels. Complete response after RFA significantly increases survival. PMID:23922893

  15. The Affect of the Space Environment on the Survival of Halorubrum Chaoviator and Synechococcus (Nageli): Data from the Space Experiment OSMO on EXPOSE-R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancinelli, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    We have shown using ESA's Biopan facility flown in Earth orbit that when exposed to the space environment for 2 weeks the survival rate of Synechococcus (Nageli), a halophilic cyanobacterium isolated from the evaporitic gypsum-halite crusts that form along the marine intertidal, and Halorubrum chaoviator a member of the Halobacteriaceae isolated from an evaporitic NaCl crystal obtained from a salt evaporation pond, were higher than all other test organisms except Bacillus spores. These results led to the EXPOSE-R mission to extend and refine these experiments as part of the experimental package for the external platform space exposure facility on the ISS. The experiment was flown in February 2009 and the organisms were exposed to low-Earth orbit for nearly 2 years. Samples were either exposed to solar ultraviolet (UV)-radiation (lambda is greater than 110 nm or lambda is greater than 200 nm, cosmic radiation (dosage range 225-320 mGy), or kept in darkness shielded from solar UV-radiation. Half of each of the UV-radiation exposed samples and dark samples were exposed to space vacuum and half kept at 105 pascals in argon. Duplicate samples were kept in the laboratory to serve as unexposed controls. Ground simulation control experiments were also performed. After retrieval, organism viability was tested using Molecular Probes Live-Dead Bac-Lite stain and by their reproduction capability. Samples kept in the dark, but exposed to space vacuum had a 90 +/- 5% survival rate compared to the ground controls. Samples exposed to full UV-radiation for over a year were bleached and although results from Molecular Probes Live-Dead stain suggested approximately 10% survival, the data indicate that no survival was detected using cell growth and division using the most probable number method. Those samples exposed to attenuated UV-radiation exhibited limited survival. Results from of this study are relevant to understanding adaptation and evolution of life, the future of life

  16. The affect of the space environment on the survival of Halorubrum chaoviator and Synechococcus (Nägeli): data from the Space Experiment OSMO on EXPOSE-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancinelli, R. L.

    2015-01-01

    We have shown using ESA's Biopan facility flown in Earth orbit that when exposed to the space environment for 2 weeks the survival rate of Synechococcus (Nägeli), a halophilic cyanobacterium isolated from the evaporitic gypsum-halite crusts that form along the marine intertidal, and Halorubrum chaoviator a member of the Halobacteriaceae isolated from an evaporitic NaCl crystal obtained from a salt evaporation pond, were higher than all other test organisms except Bacillus spores. These results led to the EXPOSE-R mission to extend and refine these experiments as part of the experimental package for the external platform space exposure facility on the ISS. The experiment was flown in February 2009 and the organisms were exposed to low-Earth orbit for nearly 2 years. Samples were either exposed to solar ultraviolet (UV)-radiation (λ > 110 nm or λ > 200 nm, cosmic radiation (dosage range 225-320 mGy), or kept in darkness shielded from solar UV-radiation. Half of each of the UV-radiation exposed samples and dark samples were exposed to space vacuum and half kept at 105 pascals in argon. Duplicate samples were kept in the laboratory to serve as unexposed controls. Ground simulation control experiments were also performed. After retrieval, organism viability was tested using Molecular Probes Live-Dead Bac-Lite stain and by their reproduction capability. Samples kept in the dark, but exposed to space vacuum had a 90 +/- 5% survival rate compared to the ground controls. Samples exposed to full UV-radiation for over a year were bleached and although results from Molecular Probes Live-Dead stain suggested ~10% survival, the data indicate that no survival was detected using cell growth and division using the most probable number method. Those samples exposed to attenuated UV-radiation exhibited limited survival. Results from of this study are relevant to understanding adaptation and evolution of life, the future of life beyond earth, the potential for interplanetary

  17. Surface characteristics of spacecraft components affect the aggregation of microorganisms and may lead to different survival rates of bacteria on Mars landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuerger, Andrew C.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Hintze, Paul E.; Kern, Roger G.

    2005-01-01

    Layers of dormant endospores of Bacillus subtilis HA101 were applied to eight different spacecraft materials and exposed to martian conditions of low pressure (8.5 mbar), low temperature (-10 degrees C), and high CO(2) gas composition and irradiated with a Mars-normal ultraviolet (UV-visible- near-infrared spectrum. Bacterial layers were exposed to either 1 min or 1 h of Mars-normal UV irradiation, which simulated clear-sky conditions on equatorial Mars (0.1 tau). When exposed to 1 min of Mars UV irradiation, the numbers of viable endospores of B. subtilis were reduced three to four orders of magnitude for two brands of aluminum (Al), stainless steel, chemfilm-treated Al, clear-anodized Al, and black-anodized Al coupons. In contrast, bacterial survival was reduced only one to two orders of magnitude for endospores on the non-metal materials astroquartz and graphite composite when bacterial endospores were exposed to 1 min of Mars UV irradiation. When bacterial monolayers were exposed to 1 h of Mars UV irradiation, no viable bacteria were recovered from the six metal coupons listed above. In contrast, bacterial survival was reduced only two to three orders of magnitude for spore layers on astroquartz and graphite composite exposed to 1 h of Mars UV irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy images of the bacterial monolayers on all eight spacecraft materials revealed that endospores of B. subtilis formed large aggregates of multilayered spores on astroquartz and graphite composite, but not on the other six spacecraft materials. It is likely that the formation of multilayered aggregates of endospores on astroquartz and graphite composite is responsible for the enhanced survival of bacterial cells on these materials.

  18. The caspase-3 inhibitor (peptide Z-DEVD-FMK) affects the survival and function of platelets in platelet concentrate during storage

    PubMed Central

    Shiri, Reza; Ahmadinejad, Minoo; Vaeli, Shahram; Tabatabaei, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background Although apoptosis occurs in nucleated cells, studies show that this event also occurs in some anucleated cells such as platelets. During storage of platelets, the viability of platelets decreased, storage lesions were observed, and cells underwent apoptosis. We investigated the effects of caspase-3 inhibitor on the survival and function of platelets after different periods of storage. Methods Platelet concentrates were obtained from the Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization in plastic blood bags. Caspase-3 inhibitor (Z-DEVD-FMK) was added to the bags. These bags along with control bags to which no inhibitor was added were stored in a shaking incubator at 22℃ for 7 days. The effects of Z-DEVD-FMK on the functionality of platelets were analyzed by assessing their ability to bind to von Willebrand factor (vWF) and to aggregate in the presence of arachidonic acid and ristocetin. Cell survival was surveyed by MTT assay. Results At day 4 of storage, ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation was significantly higher in the inhibitor-treated (test) than in control samples; the difference was not significant at day 7. There was no significant difference in arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation between test and control samples. However, at day 7 of storage, the binding of platelets to vWF was significantly higher in test than in control samples. The MTT assay revealed significantly higher viability in test than in control samples at both days of study. Conclusion Treatment of platelets with caspase-3 inhibitor could increase their functionality and survival. PMID:24724067

  19. Surface Characteristics of Spacecraft Components Affect the Aggregation of Microorganisms and May Lead to Different Survival Rates of Bacteria on Mars Landers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuerger, Andrew W.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Hintze, Paul E.; Kern, Roger G.

    2005-08-01

    Layers of dormant endospores of Bacillus subtilis HA101 were applied to eight different spacecraft materials and exposed to martian conditions of low pressure (8.5 mbar), low temperature (-10°C), and high CO2 gas composition and irradiated with a Mars-normal ultraviolet (UV-visible- near-infrared spectrum. Bacterial layers were exposed to either 1 min or 1 h of Mars-normal UV irradiation, which simulated clear-sky conditions on equatorial Mars (0.1 tau). When exposed to 1 min of Mars UV irradiation, the numbers of viable endospores of B. subtilis were reduced three to four orders of magnitude for two brands of aluminum (Al), stainless steel, chemfilm-treated Al, clear-anodized Al, and black-anodized Al coupons. In contrast, bacterial survival was reduced only one to two orders of magnitude for endospores on the non-metal materials astroquartz and graphite composite when bacterial endospores were exposed to 1 min of Mars UV irradiation. When bacterial monolayers were exposed to 1 h of Mars UV irradiation, no viable bacteria were recovered from the six metal coupons listed above. In contrast, bacterial survival was reduced only two to three orders of magnitude for spore layers on astroquartz and graphite composite exposed to 1 h of Mars UV irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy images of the bacterial monolayers on all eight spacecraft materials revealed that endospores of B. subtilis formed large aggregates of multilayered spores on astroquartz and graphite composite, but not on the other six spacecraft materials. It is likely that the formation of multilayered aggregates of endospores on astroquartz and graphite composite is responsible for the enhanced survival of bacterial cells on these materials.

  20. High expression of peroxiredoxin 4 affects the survival time of colorectal cancer patients, but is not an independent unfavorable prognostic factor

    PubMed Central

    YI, NAN; XIAO, MING BING; NI, WEN KAI; JIANG, FENG; LU, CUI HUA; NI, RUN-ZHOU

    2014-01-01

    Peroxiredoxin 4 (Prx4) has a number of important biological functions, such as efficient antioxidant capacity and promotion of cell proliferation and differentiation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression and significance of Prx4 in human colorectal cancer (CRC). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed to detect Prx4 in 8 freshly frozen specimens of CRC and their adjacent normal tissues. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis was performed to detect Prx4 in 59 specimens of CRC and 26 of adjacent normal tissues. The immunohistochemical and qPCR results demonstrated that the expressions of the Prx4 gene and protein were higher in CRC compared to those in the adjacent normal tissues. The expression intensity of the Prx4 protein was correlated with depth of invasion (P=0.001), lymph node metastasis (P=0.006) and Dukes’ classification (P=0.004) in CRC. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed that high Prx4 expression was correlated with short survival time. However, the Cox proportional hazards regression analysis did not identify Prx4 as an independent prognostic marker for CRC (P>0.05). These results suggested that Prx4 may be associated with carcinogenesis and the development of CRC and it may be a prognostic marker for postoperative CRC patients. PMID:25054044

  1. Hierarchically nanotextured surfaces maintaining superhydrophobicity under severely adverse conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maitra, Tanmoy; Antonini, Carlo; Auf der Mauer, Matthias; Stamatopoulos, Christos; Tiwari, Manish K.; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2014-07-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are highly desirable for a broad range of technologies and products affecting everyday life. Despite significant progress in recent years in understanding the principles of hydrophobicity, mostly inspired by surface designs found in nature, many man-made surfaces employ readily processable materials, ideal to demonstrate principles, but with little chance of survivability outside a very limited range of well-controlled environments. Here we focus on the rational development of robust, hierarchically nanostructured, environmentally friendly, metal-based (aluminum) superhydrophobic surfaces, which maintain their performance under severely adverse conditions. Based on their functionality, we superpose selected hydrophobic layers (i.e. self-assembled monolayers, thin films, or nanofibrous coatings) on hierarchically textured aluminum surfaces, collectively imparting high level robustness of superhydrophobicity under adverse conditions. These surfaces simultaneously exhibit chemical stability, mechanical durability and droplet impalement resistance. They impressively maintained their superhydrophobicity after exposure to severely adverse chemical environments like strong alkaline (pH ~ 9-10), acidic (pH ~ 2-3), and ionic solutions (3.5 weight% of sodium chloride), and could simultaneously resist water droplet impalement up to an impact velocity of 3.2 m s-1 as well as withstand standard mechanical durability tests.Superhydrophobic surfaces are highly desirable for a broad range of technologies and products affecting everyday life. Despite significant progress in recent years in understanding the principles of hydrophobicity, mostly inspired by surface designs found in nature, many man-made surfaces employ readily processable materials, ideal to demonstrate principles, but with little chance of survivability outside a very limited range of well-controlled environments. Here we focus on the rational development of robust, hierarchically

  2. Sequencing of Local Therapy Affects the Pattern of Treatment Failure and Survival in Children With Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumors of the Central Nervous System

    SciTech Connect

    Pai Panandiker, Atmaram S.; Merchant, Thomas E.; Beltran, Chris; Wu, Shengjie; Sharma, Shelly; Boop, Frederick A.; Jenkins, Jesse J.; Helton, Kathleen J.; Wright, Karen D.; Broniscer, Alberto; Kun, Larry E.; Gajjar, Amar

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the pattern of treatment failure associated with current therapeutic paradigms for childhood atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT). Methods and Materials: Pediatric patients with AT/RT of the central nervous system treated at our institution between 1987 and 2007 were retrospectively evaluated. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival, and cumulative incidence of local failure were correlated with age, sex, tumor location, extent of disease, and extent of surgical resection. Radiotherapy (RT) sequencing, chemotherapy, dose, timing, and volume administered after resection were also evaluated. Results: Thirty-one patients at a median age of 2.3 years at diagnosis (range, 0.45-16.87 years) were enrolled into protocols that included risk- and age-stratified RT. Craniospinal irradiation with focal tumor bed boost (median dose, 54 Gy) was administered to 18 patients. Gross total resection was achieved in 16. Ten patients presented with metastases at diagnosis. RT was delayed more than 3 months in 20 patients and between 1 and 3 months in 4; 7 patients received immediate postoperative irradiation preceding high-dose alkylator-based chemotherapy. At a median follow-up of 48 months, the cumulative incidence of local treatment failure was 37.5% {+-} 9%; progression-free survival was 33.2% {+-} 10%; and OS was 53.5% {+-} 10%. Children receiving delayed RT ({>=}1 month postoperatively) were more likely to experience local failure (hazard ratio [HR] 1.23, p = 0.007); the development of distant metastases before RT increased the risk of progression (HR 3.49, p = 0.006); and any evidence of disease progressionbefore RT decreased OS (HR 20.78, p = 0.004). Disease progression occurred in 52% (11/21) of children with initially localized tumors who underwent gross total resection, and the progression rate increased proportionally with increasing delay from surgery to RT. Conclusions: Delayed RT is associated with a higher rate of local and metastatic

  3. A review of factors that affect transmission and survival of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli in the European farm to fork beef chain.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Geraldine; Burgess, Catherine M; Bolton, Declan J

    2014-07-01

    Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) are a significant foodborne public health hazard in Europe, where most human infections are associated with six serogroups (O157, O26, O103, O145, O111 and O104). With the exception of O104, these serogroups are associated with bovine animals and beef products. This paper reviews our current knowledge of VTEC in the beef chain focusing on transmission and the factors which impact on survival from the farm through transport, lairage, slaughter, dressing, processing and distribution, in the context of the European beef industry. It provides new information on beef farm and animal hide prevalence, distribution and virulence factors as well as pre-chilled carcass and ground beef prevalence, generated by the recently completed EU Framework research project, ProSafeBeef. In the concluding section, emerging issues and data gaps are addressed with a view to increasing our understanding of this pathogen and developing new thinking on detection and control. PMID:24548772

  4. Survival to Parasitoids in an Insect Hosting Defensive Symbionts: A Multivariate Approach to Polymorphic Traits Affecting Host Use by Its Natural Enemy

    PubMed Central

    Bilodeau, Emilie; Guay, Jean-Frédéric; Turgeon, Julie; Cloutier, Conrad

    2013-01-01

    Insect parasitoids and their insect hosts represent a wide range of parasitic trophic relations that can be used to understand the evolution of biotic diversity on earth. Testing theories of coevolution between hosts and parasites is based on factors directly involved in host susceptibility and parasitoid virulence. We used controlled encounters with potential hosts of the Aphidius ervi wasp to elucidate behavioral and other phenotypic traits of host Acyrthosiphon pisum that most contribute to success or failure of parasitism. The host aphid is at an advanced stage of specialization on different crop plants, and exhibits intra-population polymorphism for traits of parasitoid avoidance and resistance based on clonal variation of color morph and anti-parasitoid bacterial symbionts. Randomly selected aphid clones from alfalfa and clover were matched in 5 minute encounters with wasps of two parasitoid lineages deriving from hosts of each plant biotype in a replicated transplant experimental design. In addition to crop plant affiliation (alfalfa, clover), aphid clones were characterized for color morph (green, pink), Hamiltonella defensa and Regiella insecticola symbionts, and frequently used behaviors in encounters with A. ervi wasps. A total of 12 explanatory variables were examined using redundancy analysis (RDA) to predict host survival or failure to A. ervi parasitism. Aphid color was the best univariate predictor, but was poorly predictive in the RDA model. In contrast, aphid host plant and symbionts were not significant univariate predictors, but significant predictors in the multivariate model. Aphid susceptibility to wasp acceptance as reflected in host attacks and oviposition clearly differed from its suitability to parasitism and progeny development. Parasitoid progeny were three times more likely to survive on clover than alfalfa host aphids, which was compensated by behaviorally adjusting eggs invested per host. Strong variation of the predictive power of

  5. Prolonged survival of a patient affected by pancreatic adenocarcinoma with massive lymphocyte and dendritic cell infiltration after interleukin-2 immunotherapy. Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Nobili, Cinzia; Degrate, Luca; Caprotti, Roberto; Franciosi, Claudio; Leone, Biagio Eugenio; Trezzi, Rosangela; Romano, Fabrizio; Uggeri, Fabio; Uggeri, Franco

    2008-01-01

    Several studies have shown that there is a paucity of immune cells within the stroma of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, a very aggressive cancer with a median survival of about 18 months. A 65-year-old man presented with jaundice. Abdominal ultrasound revealed intra- and extrahepatic bile duct dilatation and a 45-mm diameter hypoechoic solid mass within the pancreatic head; a computed tomography scan excluded vascular infiltration and metastatic lesions. The patient received immunotherapy consisting of 6,000,000 IU human recombinant interleukin-2 administered subcutaneously twice a day for 3 consecutive days. Thirty-six hours after the last dose, he underwent a pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. Because of the presence of high-grade dysplasia detected by intraoperative histological examination of a distal section, a spleen preserving total pancreatectomy was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful. The patient died 32 months after surgery because of local recurrence. Histopathology showed G3 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma infiltrating the anterior and posterior peripancreatic tissue, duodenal wall and intrapancreatic common bile duct, with sarcoma-like foci and a component of intraductal tumor involving the common bile duct. In the distal pancreas, widespread foci of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanI2-3) were found. The Ki-67 proliferation index was 16%. TNM staging was pT3 pN1 R1. Sections were immunostained for the T-lymphocyte marker CD3 and for the dendritic cell marker CD1a. Intratumoral infiltration was high for CD1a+ cells and mild for CD3+ cells. Preoperative immunotherapy with interleukin-2 may contribute to massive stromal infiltration of immune cells in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. This may prolong the survival even in the presence of negative prognostic factors (age >65 years, tumor diameter >20 mm, R1, tumor grade G3). PMID:18705415

  6. [Adverse reaction of pseudoephedrine].

    PubMed

    López Lois, G; Gómez Carrasco, J A; García de Frías, E

    2005-04-01

    We present a case of a 7 years old girl who developed an episode of myoclonic movements and tremors after being medicated with a not well quantified amount of a pseudoephedrine/antihistamine combination. We want to highlight the potential toxicity of pseudoephedrine, usually administered as part of cold-syrup preparations which are used for symptomatic treatment of upper respiratory tract cough and congestion associated with the common cold and allergic rhinitis. Although these products are generally considered to be safe either by physicians and parents, we can't underestimate the potential adverse events and toxic effects that can occur when administering these medications. PMID:15826569

  7. Screening for adverse events.

    PubMed

    Karson, A S; Bates, D W

    1999-02-01

    Adverse events (AEs) in medical patients are common, costly, and often preventable. Development of quality improvement programs to decrease the number and impact of AEs demands effective methods for screening for AEs on a routine basis. Here we describe the impact, types, and potential causes of AEs and review various techniques for identifying AEs. We evaluate the use of generic screening criteria in detail and describe a recent study of the sensitivity and specificity of individual generic screening criteria and combinations of these criteria. In general, the most sensitive screens were the least specific and no small sub-set of screens identified a large percentage of adverse events. Combinations of screens that were limited to administrative data were the least expensive, but none were particularly sensitive, although in practice they might be effective since routine screening is currently rarely done. As computer systems increase in sophistication sensitivity will improve. We also discuss recent studies that suggest that programs that screen for and identify AEs can be useful in reducing AE rates. While tools for identifying AEs have strengths and weaknesses, they can play an important role in organizations' quality improvement portfolios. PMID:10468381

  8. Diet complexity in early life affects survival in released pheasants by altering foraging efficiency, food choice, handling skills and gut morphology.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Mark A; Sage, Rufus; Madden, Joah R

    2015-11-01

    Behavioural and physiological deficiencies are major reasons why reintroduction programmes suffer from high mortality when captive animals are used. Mitigation of these deficiencies is essential for successful reintroduction programmes. Our study manipulated early developmental diet to better replicate foraging behaviour in the wild. Over 2 years, we hand-reared 1800 pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), from 1 day old, for 7 weeks under different dietary conditions. In year one, 900 pheasants were divided into three groups and reared with (i) commercial chick crumb, (ii) crumb plus 1% live mealworm or (iii) crumb plus 5% mixed seed and fruit. In year two, a further 900 pheasants were divided into two groups and reared with (i) commercial chick crumb or (ii) crumb plus a combination of 1% mealworm and 5% mixed seed and fruit. In both years, the commercial chick crumb acted as a control treatment, whilst those with live prey and mixed seeds and fruits mimicking a more naturalistic diet. After 7 weeks reared on these diets, pheasants were released into the wild. Postrelease survival was improved with exposure to more naturalistic diets prior to release. We identified four mechanisms to explain this. Pheasants reared with more naturalistic diets (i) foraged for less time and had a higher likelihood of performing vigilance behaviours, (ii) were quicker at handling live prey items, (iii) were less reliant on supplementary feed which could be withdrawn and (iv) developed different gut morphologies. These mechanisms allowed the pheasants to (i) reduce the risk of predation by reducing exposure time whilst foraging and allowing more time to be vigilant; (ii) be better at handling and discriminating natural food items and not be solely reliant on supplementary feed; and (iii) have a better gut system to cope with the natural forage after the cessation of supplementary feeding in the spring. Learning food discrimination, preference and handling skills by the provision of a more

  9. Adverse Drug Reactions of the Lower Extremities.

    PubMed

    Adigun, Chris G

    2016-07-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a common cause of dermatologic consultation, involving 2 to 3 per 100 medical inpatients in the United States. Female patients are 1.3 to 1.5 times more likely to develop ADRs, except in children less than 3 years of age, among whom boys are more often affected. Certain drugs are more frequent causes, including aminopenicillins, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Chemotherapeutic agents commonly cause adverse reactions to the skin and nails, with certain agents causing particular patterns of reactions. ADRs can involve any area of the skin; the appendages, including hair and nails; as well as mucosa. PMID:27215159

  10. ANRIL is associated with the survival rate of patients with colorectal cancer, and affects cell migration and invasion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Zheng, Zhao-Peng; Li, Hang; Zhang, Han-Qun; Ma, Fa-Qiang

    2016-08-01

    Antisense noncoding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL) has been reported to be upregulated in various types of human cancer, and is also highly expressed in normal human tissue. The aim of the present study was to identify whether ANRIL may be a possible target for colorectal cancer (CRC) therapy. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the expression levels of the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) ANRIL in 97 paired CRC and adjacent non‑neoplastic tissue samples. In addition, the HT29 and RKO human CRC cell lines underwent ANRIL RNA interference, and knockdown efficiency was evaluated by western blotting. Cell viability, and migratory and invasive ability were subsequently assessed. The CRC tissues were revealed to express higher levels of ANRIL lncRNA compared with the adjacent non‑neoplastic tissues (P<0.05). Furthermore, high ANRIL expression was significantly associated with reduced survival rate (P<0.05). ANRIL gene expression was successfully silenced in human CRC cells. ANRIL knockdown decreased proliferation, inhibited migration and invasion, and reduced the colony‑forming ability of the cells. These data indicated that the lncRNA ANRIL is upregulated in CRC tissues, and is associated with CRC cell pathogenesis. Furthermore, the underlying mechanisms of these effects may be exploited for therapeutic benefit. PMID:27314206

  11. Endothelium-mediated survival of leukemic cells and angiogenesis-related factors are affected by lenalidomide treatment in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Rossana; Fiorcari, Stefania; Bulgarelli, Jenny; Rizzotto, Lara; Martinelli, Silvia; Rigolin, Gian Matteo; Debbia, Giulia; Castelli, Ilaria; Bonacorsi, Goretta; Santachiara, Rita; Forconi, Francesco; Rossi, Davide; Laurenti, Luca; Palumbo, Giuseppe A; Vallisa, Daniele; Cuneo, Antonio; Gaidano, Gianluca; Luppi, Mario; Marasca, Roberto

    2014-02-01

    Lenalidomide is an IMID immunomodulatory agent clinically active in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We evaluated the activity of lenalidomide inside an in vitro coculture system of endothelial and CLL cells. Lenalidomide was able to inhibit CLL survival advantage mediated by endothelial contact. Moreover, the marked increase of in vitro angiogenesis determined by CLL-derived conditioned media was reduced by lenalidomide. We also analyzed peripheral blood collected from 27 patients with relapsed or refractory CLL being treated with lenalidomide within a phase II trial. Plasma levels of VEGF and THBS-1 decreased, whereas Ang2 and Ang increased during treatment. Patients who respond to lenalidomide showed a more pronounced decrease of VEGF and bFGF than did patients with stable or progressive disease (p = 0.007 and p = 0.005). Furthermore, lenalidomide reduced circulating endothelial cells and endothelial progenitors by increasing the percentage of apoptotic cells. Conversely, for six matched bone marrow biopsies available before and after treatment, we did not detect any modification in vessel density, suggesting a possible mechanism of vessel normalization rather than regression. In conclusion, our study provides further evidence that the anti-CLL effect of lenalidomide is mediated through the alteration of microenvironmental elements, implying the modulation of several angiogenesis-related factors and disruption of CLL crosstalk with endothelial cells. PMID:24212063

  12. The Transcriptional Response of Neurotrophins and Their Tyrosine Kinase Receptors in Lumbar Sensorimotor Circuits to Spinal Cord Contusion is Affected by Injury Severity and Survival Time

    PubMed Central

    Hougland, M. Tyler; Harrison, Benjamin J.; Magnuson, David S. K.; Rouchka, Eric C.; Petruska, Jeffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) results in changes to the anatomical, neurochemical, and physiological properties of cells in the central and peripheral nervous system. Neurotrophins, acting by binding to their cognate Trk receptors on target cell membranes, contribute to modulation of anatomical, neurochemical, and physiological properties of neurons in sensorimotor circuits in both the intact and injured spinal cord. Neurotrophin signaling is associated with many post-SCI changes including maladaptive plasticity leading to pain and autonomic dysreflexia, but also therapeutic approaches such as training-induced locomotor improvement. Here we characterize expression of mRNA for neurotrophins and Trk receptors in lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cord after two different severities of mid-thoracic injury and at 6 and 12 weeks post-SCI. There was complex regulation that differed with tissue, injury severity, and survival time, including reversals of regulation between 6 and 12 weeks, and the data suggest that natural regulation of neurotrophins in the spinal cord may continue for months after birth. Our assessments determined that a coordination of gene expression emerged at the 12-week post-SCI time point and bioinformatic analyses address possible mechanisms. These data can inform studies meant to determine the role of the neurotrophin signaling system in post-SCI function and plasticity, and studies using this signaling system as a therapeutic approach. PMID:23316162

  13. ISMP Adverse Drug Reactions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this feature is to heighten awareness of specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discuss methods of prevention, and promote reporting of ADRs to the US Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) MedWatch program (800-FDA-1088). If you have reported an interesting, preventable ADR to MedWatch, please consider sharing the account with our readers. Write to Dr. Mancano at ISMP, 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite 200, Horsham, PA 19044 (phone: 215-707-4936; e-mail: mmancano@temple.edu). Your report will be published anonymously unless otherwise requested. This feature is provided by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) in cooperation with the FDA’s MedWatch program and Temple University School of Pharmacy. ISMP is an FDA MedWatch partner. PMID:24421544

  14. [Cutaneous adverse drug reactions].

    PubMed

    Lebrun-Vignes, B; Valeyrie-Allanore, L

    2015-04-01

    Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR) represent a heterogeneous field including various clinical patterns without specific features suggesting drug causality. Exanthematous eruptions, urticaria and vasculitis are the most common forms of CADR. Fixed eruption is uncommon in western countries. Serious reactions (fatal outcome, sequelae) represent 2% of CADR: bullous reactions (Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis), DRESS (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms or drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome) and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP). These forms must be quickly diagnosed to guide their management. The main risk factors are immunosuppression, autoimmunity and some HLA alleles in bullous reactions and DRESS. Most systemic drugs may induce cutaneous adverse reactions, especially antibiotics, anticonvulsivants, antineoplastic drugs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, allopurinol and contrast media. Pathogenesis includes immediate or delayed immunologic mechanism, usually not related to dose, and pharmacologic/toxic mechanism, commonly dose-dependent or time-dependent. In case of immunologic mechanism, allergologic exploration is possible to clarify drug causality, with a variable sensitivity according to the drug and to the CADR type. It includes epicutaneous patch testing, prick test and intradermal test. However, no in vivo or in vitro test can confirm the drug causality. To determine the cause of the eruption, a logical approach based on clinical characteristics, chronologic factors and elimination of differential diagnosis is required, completed with a literature search. A reporting to pharmacovigilance network is essential in case of a serious CADR whatever the suspected drug and in any case if the involved drug is a newly marketed one or unusually related to cutaneous reactions. PMID:25458866

  15. Downregulation of HOXA1 gene affects small cell lung cancer cell survival and chemoresistance under the regulation of miR-100.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Faman; Bai, Yifeng; Chen, Zhenzhu; Li, Yufa; Luo, Luqiao; Huang, Jie; Yang, Jie; Liao, Hongzhan; Guo, Linlang

    2014-05-01

    Chemoresistance is often developed in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients and leads to poor prognosis. Hox genes, a highly conserved family, play a crucial role in apoptosis, receptor signalling and differentiation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have also been shown to play a crucial role in these biological processes by regulating the target genes. Several studies reported that both Hox genes and miRNAs are involved in chemoresistance. The aim of our study is to characterise the clinical significance and functional roles of HOXA1 in SCLC. Expression of HOXA1 was examined in 63 cases of SCLC tissues and 29 cases of blood by immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) methods. Multivariate analysis confirmed the prognostic significance of HOXA1 in SCLC patients. Restoration of HOXA1 expression was carried out in SCLC multidrug resistant cell line H69AR and its parental cell line H69 to assess its influence on chemoresistance. Luciferase reporter assay was used to assess HOXA1 as a target of miR-100. The results showed that HOXA1 was expressed in 46% (29/63) of SCLC. Low HOXA1 expression was associated with the poor prognosis of SCLC (P<0.05 by the Fisher's Exact Test) and the shorter survival rate (P<0.001 by the Kaplan-Meier method). HOXA1 expression on both mRNA and protein levels significantly correlated with chemotherapy response. Enforced expression of HOXA1 in resistant H69AR cells led to increased chemosensitivity through increasing cell apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest. Inhibition of HOXA1 expression using HOXA1 siRNA in H69 cells resulted in cell resistance to therapeutic drugs through reducing drug-induced cell apoptosis accompanied with cell cycle arrest. Expression of endogenous miR-100 was significantly elevated in resistant H69AR cells and negatively related with HOXA1 expression. The expression of HOXA1 in SCLC tissues correlated inversely with the expression levels of miR-100. Reporter assays confirmed that

  16. Adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Reiser, Sarah J; McMillan, Katherine A; Wright, Kristi D; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2014-03-01

    Childhood experiences are thought to predispose a person to the development of health anxiety later in life. However, there is a lack of research investigating the influence of specific adverse experiences (e.g., childhood abuse, household dysfunction) on this condition. The current study examined the cumulative influence of multiple types of childhood adversities on health anxiety in adulthood. Adults 18-59 years of age (N=264) completed a battery of measures to assess adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs (i.e., negative affect and trait anxiety). Significant associations were observed between adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicted that adverse childhood experiences were predictive of health anxiety in adulthood; however, the unique contribution of these experience were no longer significant following the inclusion of the other variables of interest. Subsequently, mediation analyses indicated that both negative affect and trait anxiety independently mediated the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood. Increased exposure to adverse childhood experiences is associated with higher levels of health anxiety in adulthood; this relationship is mediated through negative affect and trait anxiety. Findings support the long-term negative impact of cumulative adverse childhood experiences and emphasize the importance of addressing negative affect and trait anxiety in efforts to prevent and treat health anxiety. PMID:24011493

  17. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  18. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  19. ADVERSE CUTANEOUS DRUG REACTION

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Surajit; Acharjya, Basanti

    2008-01-01

    In everyday clinical practice, almost all physicians come across many instances of suspected adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDR) in different forms. Although such cutaneous reactions are common, comprehensive information regarding their incidence, severity and ultimate health effects are often not available as many cases go unreported. It is also a fact that in the present world, almost everyday a new drug enters market; therefore, a chance of a new drug reaction manifesting somewhere in some form in any corner of world is unknown or unreported. Although many a times, presentation is too trivial and benign, the early identification of the condition and identifying the culprit drug and omit it at earliest holds the keystone in management and prevention of a more severe drug rash. Therefore, not only the dermatologists, but all practicing physicians should be familiar with these conditions to diagnose them early and to be prepared to handle them adequately. However, we all know it is most challenging and practically difficult when patient is on multiple medicines because of myriad clinical symptoms, poorly understood multiple mechanisms of drug-host interaction, relative paucity of laboratory testing that is available for any definitive and confirmatory drug-specific testing. Therefore, in practice, the diagnosis of ACDR is purely based on clinical judgment. In this discussion, we will be primarily focusing on pathomechanism and approach to reach a diagnosis, which is the vital pillar to manage any case of ACDR. PMID:19967009

  20. The adverse health effects of chronic cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Hall, Wayne; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the most probable of the adverse health effects of regular cannabis use sustained over years, as indicated by epidemiological studies that have established an association between cannabis use and adverse outcomes; ruled out reverse causation; and controlled for plausible alternative explanations. We have also focused on adverse outcomes for which there is good evidence of biological plausibility. The focus is on those adverse health effects of greatest potential public health significance--those that are most likely to occur and to affect a substantial proportion of regular cannabis users. These most probable adverse effects of regular use include a dependence syndrome, impaired respiratory function, cardiovascular disease, adverse effects on adolescent psychosocial development and mental health, and residual cognitive impairment. PMID:23836598

  1. Postfledging survival of European starlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that mass at fledging and fledge date within the breeding season affect postfledging survival in European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Nestlings were weighed on day 18 after hatch and tagged with individually identifiable patagial tags. Fledge date was recorded. Marked fledglings were resighted during weekly two-day intensive observation periods for 9 weeks postfledging. Post-fledging survival and sighting probabilities were estimated for each of four groups (early or late fledging by heavy or light fledging mass). Body mass was related to post-fledging survival for birds that fledged early. Results were not clear-cut for relative fledge date, although there was weak evidence that this also influenced survival. Highest survival probability estimates occurred in the EARLY-HEAVY group, while the lowest survival estimate occurred in the LATE-LIGHT group. Sighting probabilities differed significantly among groups, emphasizing the need to estimate and compare survival using models which explicitly incorporate sighting probabilities.

  2. Cutaneous adverse reactions specific to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lupu, I; Voiculescu, VM; Bacalbasa, N; Prie, BE; Cojocaru, I; Giurcaneanu, C

    2015-01-01

    Classical antineoplastic therapy is encumbered by extensively studied adverse reactions, most often of systemic nature. The emergence of new generations of anticancer treatments, including epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors, besides improving the response to treatment and the survival rate, is accompanied by the occurrence of new specific side effects, incompletely studied. These side effects are most often cutaneous (hand foot syndrome, acneiform reactions), and in some cases are extremely severe, requiring dose reduction or drug discontinuation. The prevention of the cutaneous adverse effects and their treatment require a close collaboration between the oncologist and the dermatologist. The occurrence of some of these skin adverse effects may be a favorable prognostic factor for the response to the cancer treatment and the overall survival. Abbreviations: EGFR = epidermal growth factor receptors; EGFRI = epidermal growth factor receptors inhibitors PMID:26361513

  3. Beyond Survival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffenson, Dave

    1975-01-01

    The author argues that environmentalists need to realize that the present ecological crisis is essentially a value crisis, not merely a fight for survival alone. He envisions a complete value change for the human population and advocates the incorporation of value strategies into all environmental education programs immediately. (MA)

  4. Adverse Reactions to Hallucinogenic Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Roger E. , Ed.

    This reports a conference of psychologists, psychiatrists, geneticists and others concerned with the biological and psychological effects of lysergic acid diethylamide and other hallucinogenic drugs. Clinical data are presented on adverse drug reactions. The difficulty of determining the causes of adverse reactions is discussed, as are different…

  5. Functional brown adipose tissue limits cardiomyocyte injury and adverse remodeling in catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Thoonen, Robrecht; Ernande, Laura; Cheng, Juan; Nagasaka, Yasuko; Yao, Vincent; Miranda-Bezerra, Alexandre; Chen, Chan; Chao, Wei; Panagia, Marcello; Sosnovik, David E; Puppala, Dheeraj; Armoundas, Antonis A; Hindle, Allyson; Bloch, Kenneth D; Buys, Emmanuel S; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle

    2015-07-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has well recognized thermogenic properties mediated by uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1); more recently, BAT has been demonstrated to modulate cardiovascular risk factors. To investigate whether BAT also affects myocardial injury and remodeling, UCP1-deficient (UCP1(-/-)) mice, which have dysfunctional BAT, were subjected to catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy. At baseline, there were no differences in echocardiographic parameters, plasma cardiac troponin I (cTnI) or myocardial fibrosis between wild-type (WT) and UCP1(-/-) mice. Isoproterenol infusion increased cTnI and myocardial fibrosis and induced left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy in both WT and UCP1(-/-) mice. UCP1(-/-) mice also demonstrated exaggerated myocardial injury, fibrosis, and adverse remodeling, as well as decreased survival. Transplantation of WT BAT to UCP1(-/-) mice prevented the isoproterenol-induced cTnI increase and improved survival, whereas UCP1(-/-) BAT transplanted to either UCP1(-/-) or WT mice had no effect on cTnI release. After 3 days of isoproterenol treatment, phosphorylated AKT and ERK were lower in the LV's of UCP1(-/-) mice than in those of WT mice. Activation of BAT was also noted in a model of chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy, and was correlated to LV dysfunction. Deficiency in UCP1, and accompanying BAT dysfunction, increases cardiomyocyte injury and adverse LV remodeling, and decreases survival in a mouse model of catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy. Myocardial injury and decreased survival are rescued by transplantation of functional BAT to UCP1(-/-) mice, suggesting a systemic cardioprotective role of functional BAT. BAT is also activated in chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy. PMID:25968336

  6. Ouabain protects against adverse developmental programming of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Khodus, Georgiy R; Kruusmägi, Markus; Kamali-Zare, Padideh; Liu, Xiao-Li; Eklöf, Ann-Christine; Zelenin, Sergey; Brismar, Hjalmar; Aperia, Anita

    2010-01-01

    The kidney is extraordinarily sensitive to adverse fetal programming. Malnutrition, the most common form of developmental challenge, retards the formation of functional units, the nephrons. The resulting low nephron endowment increases susceptibility to renal injury and disease. Using explanted rat embryonic kidneys, we found that ouabain, the Na,K-ATPase ligand, triggers a calcium-nuclear factor-κB signal, which protects kidney development from adverse effects of malnutrition. To mimic malnutrition, kidneys were serum deprived for 24 h. This resulted in severe retardation of nephron formation and a robust increase in apoptosis. In ouabain-exposed kidneys, no adverse effects of serum deprivation were observed. Proof of principle that ouabain rescues development of embryonic kidneys exposed to malnutrition was obtained from studies on pregnant rats given a low-protein diet and treated with ouabain or vehicle throughout pregnancy. Thus, we have identified a survival signal and a feasible therapeutic tool to prevent adverse programming of kidney development. PMID:20975704

  7. Adverse Outcome Pathways and Extrapolation Tools to Advance the Three Rs in Ecotoxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are conceptual frameworks for identifying and organizing predictive and causal linkages between cellular-level responses and endpoints conventionally considered in ecological risk assessment (e.g., effects on survival, growth/development, and repro...

  8. Seniors' survival trajectories and the illness connection.

    PubMed

    Montbriand, Muriel J

    2004-04-01

    In a recent life history research, 100 out of 190 randomly selected seniors from a Canadian prairie city determined that their lives were survival trajectories, many with connections to their present illnesses. Seniors told of surviving the Great Depression and World War II, making hard decisions, and experiencing adversities that changed their life courses and perceptions. Completed in 2003, this 5-year study consisted of two phases. The first phase, an ethnomethod, sought the meaning seniors ascribe to illness and healing. The second phase was a reentry of the initial data. Highlighting seniors' stories shows how hard decisions evolved and contrasts can be made in seniors' narratives. Through seniors' analyses of their own lives, findings in this inquiry demonstrate how the price of survival is embedded in ways of perceiving adverse experiences. Those who avoided facing adversities in making difficult decisions were those who now blame illnesses on life experiences. PMID:15068573

  9. Adverse possession of subsurface minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, P.N.

    1983-01-01

    Concepts applicable to adverse possession of subsurface minerals are generally the same as those that apply to adverse possession of all real estate. However, special requirements must be satisfied in order to perfect title to subsurface minerals by adverse possession, particularly when there has been a severance of the true title between surface and subsurface minerals. In those jurisdictions where senior and junior grants came from the state or commonwealth covering the same or some of the same land and in those areas where descriptions of land were vague or not carefully drawn, adverse possession serves to solidify land and mineral ownership. There may be some public, social, and economic justification in rewarding, with good title, those who take possession and use real estate for its intended use, including the extraction of subsurface minerals. 96 refernces.

  10. Evaluation of hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking thyroid peroxidase inhibition to fish early life stage toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  11. Reverse Engineering Adverse Outcome Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, Edward; Chipman, J.K.; Edwards, Stephen; Habib, Tanwir; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Ronald C.; Van Aggelen, Graham; Vulpe, Chris; Antczak, Philipp; Loguinov, Alexandre

    2011-01-30

    The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or poorly characterized, mechanisms of action. We describe the application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, metabolic, signaling) to characterize adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis in fathead minnows. Gene expression changes in fathead minnow ovaries in response to 7 different chemicals, over different times, doses, and in vivo versus in vitro conditions were captured in a large data set of 868 arrays. We examined potential AOPs of the antiandrogen flutamide using two mutual information theory methods, ARACNE and CLR to infer gene regulatory networks and potential adverse outcome pathways. Representative networks from these studies were used to predict a network path from stressor to adverse outcome as a candidate AOP. The relationship of individual chemicals to an adverse outcome can be determined by following perturbations through the network in response to chemical treatment leading to the nodes associated with the adverse outcome. Identification of candidate pathways allows for formation of testable hypotheses about key biologic processes, biomarkers or alternative endpoints, which could be used to monitor an adverse outcome pathway. Finally, we identify the unique challenges facing the application of this approach in ecotoxicology, and attempt to provide a road map for the utilization of these tools. Key Words: mechanism of action, toxicology, microarray, network inference

  12. Pentachlorophenol disrupts steroid hormone metabolism at concentrations that reduce survival and fecundity of Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, L.G.; LeBlanc, G.A.

    1995-12-31

    Alterations in steroid metabolism by environmental endocrine disrupters can significantly affect steroid hormone-dependent processes such as growth and reproduction. Exposure to pentachlorophenol (PCP) has been shown to elicit a variety of endocrine-related adverse effects. The present study was undertaken to establish whether concentrations of PCP that adversely affect survival, growth, or reproduction of Daphnia magna during chronic exposure also elicit changes in steroid hormone metabolism. Survival and/or reproduction of daphnids was significantly reduced from exposure to 1.0, 0.50 and 0.25 mg/L PCP. Following chronic exposure to PCP, daphnids were incubated with [{sup 14}C]testosterone and the testosterone metabolites eliminated were identified and quantified. The rate of testosterone hydroxyl-metabolite elimination was not significantly different from controls. However, elimination of two of the glucose-conjugated metabolites of testosterone decreased in a PCP concentration-dependent manner. Adult daphnids were next exposed to these concentrations of PCP for only 48 hours and effects on steroid metabolism assessed. As observed following chronic exposure, PCP had no effect on the elimination of hydroxyl-metabolites. However, elimination of glucose and sulfate conjugates of testosterone were inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that, (1) PCP alters steroid biotransformation activities at concentrations that affect survival and reproduction, and (2) effects on steroid metabolism can be detected following short-term exposure to PCP. Thus, this biochemical parameter may serve as a biomarker of chronic toxicity associated with PCP.

  13. Targeting Sirtuin-1 prolongs murine renal allograft survival and function.

    PubMed

    Levine, Matthew H; Wang, Zhonglin; Xiao, Haiyan; Jiao, Jing; Wang, Liqing; Bhatti, Tricia R; Hancock, Wayne W; Beier, Ulf H

    2016-05-01

    Current immunosuppressive medications used after transplantation have significant toxicities. Foxp3(+) T-regulatory cells can prevent allograft rejection without compromising protective host immunity. Interestingly, inhibiting the class III histone/protein deacetylase Sirtuin-1 can augment Foxp3(+) T-regulatory suppressive function through increasing Foxp3 acetylation. Here we determined whether Sirtuin-1 targeting can stabilize biological allograft function. BALB/c kidney allografts were transplanted into C57BL/6 recipients with a CD4-conditional deletion of Sirtuin-1 (Sirt1(fl/fl)CD4(cre)) or mice treated with a Sirtuin-1-specific inhibitor (EX-527), and the native kidneys removed. Blood chemistries and hematocrit were followed weekly. Sirt1(fl/fl)CD4(cre) recipients showed markedly longer survival and improved kidney function. Sirt1(fl/fl)CD4(cre) recipients exhibited donor-specific tolerance, accepted BALB/c, but rejected third-party C3H cardiac allografts. C57BL/6 recipients of BALB/c renal allografts that were treated with EX-527 showed improved survival and renal function at 1, but not 10 mg/kg/day. Pharmacologic inhibition of Sirtuin-1 also improved renal allograft survival and function with dosing effects having relevance to outcome. Thus, inhibiting Sirtuin-1 can be a useful asset in controlling T-cell-mediated rejection. However, effects on non-T cells that could adversely affect allograft survival and function merit consideration. PMID:27083279

  14. The science of evaluation of adverse events associated with vaccination.

    PubMed

    Halsey, Neal A

    2002-07-01

    All vaccines cause some adverse events; serious adverse events are rare. Causal associations between a vaccine and an adverse event rarely can be determined by specific tests such as identifying a vaccine agent in the affected tissue of patients. In the absence of such data, epidemiologic studies can be used to determine if the risk of the disorder is increased in vaccinated compared to unvaccinated individuals. Common mistakes include assuming a causal relationship based on a temporal association only or a series of affected patients. Careful studies have demonstrated that many hypothesized causal associations between vaccines and adverse events were not substantiated. False assumptions regarding causality are likely to occur for illnesses without a carefully defined etiology or pathogenesis. PMID:12199617

  15. Parents' Psychiatric Issues May Adversely Affect Some Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... attempted suicide, or who had struggled with antisocial personality disorder or marijuana abuse, were found to face ... and mood disorders, schizophrenia, anxiety, Alzheimer's-related dementia, personality disorders, substance abuse and attempted suicide. Parental histories ...

  16. Neuropsychiatric Adverse Effects of Amphetamine and Methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Harro, Jaanus

    2015-01-01

    Administration of amphetamine and methamphetamine can elicit psychiatric adverse effects at acute administration, binge use, withdrawal, and chronic use. Most troublesome of these are psychotic states and aggressive behavior, but a large variety of undesirable changes in cognition and affect can be induced. Adverse effects occur more frequently with higher dosages and long-term use. They can subside over time but some persist long-term. Multiple alterations in the gray and white matter of the brain assessed as changes in tissue volume or metabolism, or at molecular level, have been associated with amphetamine and methamphetamine use and the psychiatric adverse effects, but further studies are required to clarify their causal role, specificity, and relationship with preceding states and traits and comorbidities. The latter include other substance use disorders, mood and anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and antisocial personality disorder. Amphetamine- and methamphetamine-related psychosis is similar to schizophrenia in terms of symptomatology and pathogenesis, and these two disorders share predisposing genetic factors. PMID:26070758

  17. Adversity and advancing nursing knowledge.

    PubMed

    Reed, Pamela G

    2008-04-01

    This column reports the theme of adversity addressed in reference to theoretical and metatheoretical considerations for advancing nursing knowledge. The development and content of three classic nursing theories are presented by Neuman representatives, and by theorists King and Roy. Topics for continued dialogue are identified as derived from the interface between philosophy of science issues and these theories. PMID:18378823

  18. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Hallucinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, C.L.; Dube, S.R.; Felitti, V.J.; Anda, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: Little information is available about the contribution of multiple adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to the likelihood of reporting hallucinations. We used data from the ACE study to assess this relationship. Methods:: We conducted a survey about childhood abuse and household dysfunction while growing up, with questions about health…

  19. Coronary-Heart-Disease-Associated Genetic Variant at the COL4A1/COL4A2 Locus Affects COL4A1/COL4A2 Expression, Vascular Cell Survival, Atherosclerotic Plaque Stability and Risk of Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Xiangyuan; Ren, Meixia; An, Weiwei; Zhang, Ruoxin; Yan, Shunying; Situ, Haiteng; He, Xinjie; Chen, Yequn; Tan, Xuerui; Xiao, Qingzhong; Tucker, Arthur T.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Ye, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have revealed an association between coronary heart disease (CHD) and genetic variation on chromosome 13q34, with the lead single nucleotide polymorphism rs4773144 residing in the COL4A2 gene in this genomic region. We investigated the functional effects of this genetic variant. Analyses of primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) from different individuals showed a difference between rs4773144 genotypes in COL4A2 and COL4A1 expression levels, being lowest in the G/G genotype, intermediate in A/G and highest in A/A. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by allelic imbalance assays of primary cultures of SMCs and ECs that were of the A/G genotype revealed that the G allele had lower transcriptional activity than the A allele. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and luciferase reporter gene assays showed that a short DNA sequence encompassing the rs4773144 site interacted with a nuclear protein, with lower efficiency for the G allele, and that the G allele sequence had lower activity in driving reporter gene expression. Analyses of cultured SMCs from different individuals demonstrated that cells of the G/G genotype had higher apoptosis rates. Immunohistochemical and histological examinations of ex vivo atherosclerotic coronary arteries from different individuals disclosed that atherosclerotic plaques with the G/G genotype had lower collagen IV abundance and thinner fibrous cap, a hallmark of unstable, rupture-prone plaques. A study of a cohort of patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease showed that patients of the G/G genotype had higher rates of myocardial infarction, a phenotype often caused by plaque rupture. These results indicate that the CHD-related genetic variant at the COL4A2 locus affects COL4A2/COL4A1 expression, SMC survival, and atherosclerotic plaque stability, providing a mechanistic explanation for the association between the genetic variant and CHD

  20. Coronary-Heart-Disease-Associated Genetic Variant at the COL4A1/COL4A2 Locus Affects COL4A1/COL4A2 Expression, Vascular Cell Survival, Atherosclerotic Plaque Stability and Risk of Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Ng, Fu Liang; Chan, Kenneth; Pu, Xiangyuan; Poston, Robin N; Ren, Meixia; An, Weiwei; Zhang, Ruoxin; Wu, Jingchun; Yan, Shunying; Situ, Haiteng; He, Xinjie; Chen, Yequn; Tan, Xuerui; Xiao, Qingzhong; Tucker, Arthur T; Caulfield, Mark J; Ye, Shu

    2016-07-01

    Genome-wide association studies have revealed an association between coronary heart disease (CHD) and genetic variation on chromosome 13q34, with the lead single nucleotide polymorphism rs4773144 residing in the COL4A2 gene in this genomic region. We investigated the functional effects of this genetic variant. Analyses of primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) from different individuals showed a difference between rs4773144 genotypes in COL4A2 and COL4A1 expression levels, being lowest in the G/G genotype, intermediate in A/G and highest in A/A. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by allelic imbalance assays of primary cultures of SMCs and ECs that were of the A/G genotype revealed that the G allele had lower transcriptional activity than the A allele. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and luciferase reporter gene assays showed that a short DNA sequence encompassing the rs4773144 site interacted with a nuclear protein, with lower efficiency for the G allele, and that the G allele sequence had lower activity in driving reporter gene expression. Analyses of cultured SMCs from different individuals demonstrated that cells of the G/G genotype had higher apoptosis rates. Immunohistochemical and histological examinations of ex vivo atherosclerotic coronary arteries from different individuals disclosed that atherosclerotic plaques with the G/G genotype had lower collagen IV abundance and thinner fibrous cap, a hallmark of unstable, rupture-prone plaques. A study of a cohort of patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease showed that patients of the G/G genotype had higher rates of myocardial infarction, a phenotype often caused by plaque rupture. These results indicate that the CHD-related genetic variant at the COL4A2 locus affects COL4A2/COL4A1 expression, SMC survival, and atherosclerotic plaque stability, providing a mechanistic explanation for the association between the genetic variant and CHD

  1. Effects of Triclosan on Neural Stem Cell Viability and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Park, Bo Kyung; Gonzales, Edson Luck T.; Yang, Sung Min; Bang, Minji; Choi, Chang Soon; Shin, Chan Young

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial or sanitizing agent used in personal care and household products such as toothpaste, soaps, mouthwashes and kitchen utensils. There are increasing evidence of the potentially harmful effects of triclosan in many systemic and cellular processes of the body. In this study, we investigated the effects of triclosan in the survivability of cultured rat neural stem cells (NSCs). Cortical cells from embryonic day 14 rat embryos were isolated and cultured in vitro. After stabilizing the culture, triclosan was introduced to the cells with concentrations ranging from 1 μM to 50 μM and in varied time periods. Thereafter, cell viability parameters were measured using MTT assay and PI staining. TCS decreased the cell viability of treated NSC in a concentration-dependent manner along with increased expressions of apoptotic markers, cleaved caspase-3 and Bax, while reduced expression of Bcl2. To explore the mechanisms underlying the effects of TCS in NSC, we measured the activation of MAPKs and intracellular ROS. TCS at 50 μM induced the activations of both p38 and JNK, which may adversely affect cell survival. In contrast, the activities of ERK, Akt and PI3K, which are positively correlated with cell survival, were inhibited. Moreover, TCS at this concentration augmented the ROS generation in treated NSC and depleted the glutathione activity. Taken together, these results suggest that TCS can induce neurodegenerative effects in developing rat brains through mechanisms involving ROS activation and apoptosis initiation. PMID:26759708

  2. Breast cancer treatment--later pregnancy and survival.

    PubMed

    Kasum, M

    2006-01-01

    Although breast cancer (BC) affects patients at older age, it occurs more frequently in premenopausal women due to better diagnostic methods and an increasing trend towards delay in childbearing. The increasing population of women with BC delaying childbearing may be of concern regarding the effect of treatment on later pregnancy, as well as the influence of pregnancy on the prognosis of disease and survival. Radiotherapy has shown no adverse effects on the clinical outcome in the offspring except diminished lactation. The offspring of patients who became pregnant after chemotherapy have shown no congenital anomalies, although sometimes a high abortion rate (10-29%) has been demonstrated. Currently, several fertility-sparing options, including the use of endocrine therapy and assisted reproductive technologies, cryopreservation and ovarian tissue transplantation, are very promising. The survival of BC patients is not decreased by a subsequent pregnancy; compared with the non-pregnant group their survival rates are often the same or better, with favourable relative risks and lower recurrence of metastases. PMID:16800246

  3. Effects of Triclosan on Neural Stem Cell Viability and Survival.

    PubMed

    Park, Bo Kyung; Gonzales, Edson Luck T; Yang, Sung Min; Bang, Minji; Choi, Chang Soon; Shin, Chan Young

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial or sanitizing agent used in personal care and household products such as toothpaste, soaps, mouthwashes and kitchen utensils. There are increasing evidence of the potentially harmful effects of triclosan in many systemic and cellular processes of the body. In this study, we investigated the effects of triclosan in the survivability of cultured rat neural stem cells (NSCs). Cortical cells from embryonic day 14 rat embryos were isolated and cultured in vitro. After stabilizing the culture, triclosan was introduced to the cells with concentrations ranging from 1 μM to 50 μM and in varied time periods. Thereafter, cell viability parameters were measured using MTT assay and PI staining. TCS decreased the cell viability of treated NSC in a concentration-dependent manner along with increased expressions of apoptotic markers, cleaved caspase-3 and Bax, while reduced expression of Bcl2. To explore the mechanisms underlying the effects of TCS in NSC, we measured the activation of MAPKs and intracellular ROS. TCS at 50 μM induced the activations of both p38 and JNK, which may adversely affect cell survival. In contrast, the activities of ERK, Akt and PI3K, which are positively correlated with cell survival, were inhibited. Moreover, TCS at this concentration augmented the ROS generation in treated NSC and depleted the glutathione activity. Taken together, these results suggest that TCS can induce neurodegenerative effects in developing rat brains through mechanisms involving ROS activation and apoptosis initiation. PMID:26759708

  4. Cardiovascular adverse effects of phenytoin.

    PubMed

    Guldiken, B; Rémi, J; Noachtar, Soheyl

    2016-05-01

    Phenytoin is an established drug in the treatment of acute repetitive seizures and status epilepticus. One of its main advantages over benzodiazepines is the less sedative effect. However, the possibility of cardiovascular adverse effects with the intravenous use of phenytoin cause a reluctance to its usage, and this has lead to a search for safer anticonvulsant drugs. In this study, we aimed to review the studies which evaluated the safety of phenytoin with respect to cardiovascular adverse effects. The original clinical trials and case reports listed in PUBMED in English language between the years of 1946-2014 were evaluated. As the key words, "phenytoin, diphenylhydantoin, epilepsy, seizure, cardiac toxicity, asystole, arrhythmia, respiratory arrest, hypotension, death" were used. Thirty-two clinical trials and ten case reports were identified. In the case reports, a rapid infusion rate (>50 mg/min) of phenytoin appeared as the major cause of increased mortality. In contrast, no serious cardiovascular adverse effects leading to death were met in the clinical trials which applied the recommended infusion rate and dosages. An infusion rate of 50 mg/min was reported to be safe for young patients. For old patients and patients with a cardiovascular co-morbidity, a slower infusion rate was recommended with a careful follow-up of heart rhythm and blood pressure. No cardiovascular adverse effect was reported in oral phenytoin overdoses except one case with a very high serum phenytoin level and hypoalbuminemia. Phenytoin is an effective and well tolerated drug in the treatment of epilepsy. Intravenous phenytoin is safe when given at recommended infusion rates and doses. PMID:26645393

  5. [Adverse events of psychotropic drugs].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Koichiro; Kikuchi, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    The authors discuss adverse events which are often missed but clinicians should pay attention to in order to preserve patients'quality of life(QOL). Among mood stabilizers, lithium may cause a urinary volume increase, hyperparathyroidism, and serum calcium elevation; sodium valproate possibly increases androgenic hormone levels and the risk of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) as well as hypothyroidism. Moreover, in addition to teratogenesis, it has been reported that fetal exposure to a higher dose of valproate is associated with a lower intelligence quotient and higher incidence of autism spectrum disorders in children. Antidepressants with a higher affinity for serotonin transporters might induce gastrointestinal bleeding, and some antidepressants cause sexual dysfunction more frequently than others. Activation syndrome is still a key side effect which should be noted. Regarding the adverse events of antipsychotics, subjective side effects unpleasant to patients such as dysphoria and a lower subjective well-being should not be overlooked. We clinicians have to cope with adverse events worsening the QOL of patients with psychiatric disorders and, therefore, we need to adopt appropriate counter-measures. PMID:24864567

  6. Pharmacogenetics of idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Pirmohamed, Munir

    2010-01-01

    Idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions are unpredictable and thought to have an underlying genetic etiology. With the completion of the human genome and HapMap projects, together with the rapid advances in genotyping technologies, we have unprecedented capabilities in identifying genetic predisposing factors for these relatively rare, but serious, reactions. The main roadblock to this is the lack of sufficient numbers of well-characterized samples from patients with such reactions. This is now beginning to be solved through the formation of international consortia, including developing novel ways of identifying and recruiting patients affected by these reactions, both prospectively and retrospectively. This has been led by the research on abacavir hypersensitivity - its association with HLA-B*5701 forms the gold standard of how we need to identify associations and implement them in clinical practice. Strong genetic predisposing factors have also been identified for hypersensitivity reactions such as are associated with carbamazepine, allopurinol, flucloxacillin, and statin-induced myopathy. However, for most other idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions, the genetic effect sizes have been low to moderate, although this may partly be due to the fact that only small numbers have been investigated and limited genotyping strategies have been utilized. It may also indicate that genetic predisposition will be dependent on multiple genes, with complex interactions with environmental factors. Irrespective of the strength of the genetic associations identified with individual idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions, it is important to undertake functional investigations to provide insights into the mechanism(s) of how the drug interacts with the gene variant to lead to a phenotype, which can take a multitude of clinical forms with variable severity. Such investigations will be essential in preventing the burden caused by idiosyncratic reactions, both in healthcare and in industry

  7. Six-year trajectories of post-traumatic stress and severe psychological distress symptoms and associations with timing of trauma exposure, ongoing adversity and sense of injustice: a latent transition analysis of a community cohort in conflict-affected Timor-Leste

    PubMed Central

    Rees, S; Steel, Z; Tam, N; Soares, Z; Soares, C; Silove, DM

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify the 6-year trajectories of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and psychological distress symptoms, and examine for associations with timing of trauma exposure, ongoing adversity and with the sense of injustice in conflict-affected Timor-Leste. Setting A whole-of-household survey was conducted in 2004 and 2010 in Dili, the capital of Timor-Leste. Participants 1022 adults were followed up over 6 years (retention rate 84.5%). Interviews were conducted by field workers applying measures of traumatic events (TEs), ongoing adversity, a sense of injustice, PTS symptoms and psychological distress. Results Latent transition analysis supported a 3-class longitudinal model (psychological distress, comorbid symptoms and low symptoms). We derived 4 composite trajectories comprising recovery (20.8%), a persisting morbidity trajectory (7.2%), an incident trajectory (37.2%) and a low-symptom trajectory (34.7%). Compared with the low-symptom trajectory, the persistent and incident trajectories reported greater stress arising from poverty and family conflict, higher TE exposure for 2 historical periods, and a sense of injustice for 2 historical periods. The persistent trajectory was unique in reporting greater TE exposure in the Indonesian occupation, whereas the incident trajectory reported greater TE exposure during the later internal conflict that occurred between baseline and follow-up. Compared with the low-symptom trajectory, the incident trajectory reported a greater sense of injustice relating to the periods of the Indonesian occupation and independence. The persistent trajectory was characterised by a sense of injustice relating to the internal conflict and contemporary times. The recovery trajectory was characterised by the absence of these risk factors, the only difference from the low-symptom trajectory being that the former reported a sense of injustice for the period surrounding independence. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the timing

  8. 15 CFR 970.701 - Significant adverse environmental effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... under a license of scale-model mining systems which simulate commercial recovery could adversely affect... setting of instruments; (7) Sampling by box core, small diameter core or grab sampler, to determine seabed... mining tests under exploration licenses will be extremely small. (ii) Blanketing of benthic fauna...

  9. 15 CFR 970.701 - Significant adverse environmental effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... under a license of scale-model mining systems which simulate commercial recovery could adversely affect... setting of instruments; (7) Sampling by box core, small diameter core or grab sampler, to determine seabed... mining tests under exploration licenses will be extremely small. (ii) Blanketing of benthic fauna...

  10. Detecting Adverse Events Using Information Technology

    PubMed Central

    Bates, David W.; Evans, R. Scott; Murff, Harvey; Stetson, Peter D.; Pizziferri, Lisa; Hripcsak, George

    2003-01-01

    Context: Although patient safety is a major problem, most health care organizations rely on spontaneous reporting, which detects only a small minority of adverse events. As a result, problems with safety have remained hidden. Chart review can detect adverse events in research settings, but it is too expensive for routine use. Information technology techniques can detect some adverse events in a timely and cost-effective way, in some cases early enough to prevent patient harm. Objective: To review methodologies of detecting adverse events using information technology, reports of studies that used these techniques to detect adverse events, and study results for specific types of adverse events. Design: Structured review. Methodology: English-language studies that reported using information technology to detect adverse events were identified using standard techniques. Only studies that contained original data were included. Main Outcome Measures: Adverse events, with specific focus on nosocomial infections, adverse drug events, and injurious falls. Results: Tools such as event monitoring and natural language processing can inexpensively detect certain types of adverse events in clinical databases. These approaches already work well for some types of adverse events, including adverse drug events and nosocomial infections, and are in routine use in a few hospitals. In addition, it appears likely that these techniques will be adaptable in ways that allow detection of a broad array of adverse events, especially as more medical information becomes computerized. Conclusion: Computerized detection of adverse events will soon be practical on a widespread basis. PMID:12595401

  11. Cutaneous Adverse Effects of Neurologic Medications.

    PubMed

    Bahrani, Eman; Nunneley, Chloe E; Hsu, Sylvia; Kass, Joseph S

    2016-03-01

    Life-threatening and benign drug reactions occur frequently in the skin, affecting 8 % of the general population and 2-3 % of all hospitalized patients, emphasizing the need for physicians to effectively recognize and manage patients with drug-induced eruptions. Neurologic medications represent a vast array of drug classes with cutaneous side effects. Approximately 7 % of the United States (US) adult population is affected by adult-onset neurological disorders, reflecting a large number of patients on neurologic drug therapies. This review elucidates the cutaneous reactions associated with medications approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat the following neurologic pathologies: Alzheimer disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, epilepsy, Huntington disease, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson disease, and pseudobulbar affect. A search of the literature was performed using the specific FDA-approved drug or drug classes in combination with the terms 'dermatologic,' 'cutaneous,' 'skin,' or 'rash.' Both PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were utilized, with side effects ranging from those cited in randomized controlled trials to case reports. It behooves neurologists, dermatologists, and primary care physicians to be aware of the recorded cutaneous adverse reactions and their severity for proper management and potential need to withdraw the offending medication. PMID:26914914

  12. [Adverse ocular effects of vaccinations].

    PubMed

    Ness, T; Hengel, H

    2016-07-01

    Vaccinations are very effective measures for prevention of infections but are also associated with a long list of possible side effects. Adverse ocular effects following vaccination have been rarely reported or considered to be related to vaccinations. Conjunctivitis is a frequent sequel of various vaccinations. Oculorespiratory syndrome and serum sickness syndrome are considered to be related to influenza vaccinations. The risk of reactivation or initiation of autoimmune diseases (e. g. uveitis) cannot be excluded but has not yet been proven. Overall the benefit of vaccination outweighs the possible but very low risk of ocular side effects. PMID:27357302

  13. Adverse Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan; Arumugham, Shyam Sundar; Thirthalli, Jagadisha

    2016-09-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment commonly used for depression and other major psychiatric disorders. We discuss potential adverse effects (AEs) associated with ECT and strategies for their prevention and management. Common acute AEs include headache, nausea, myalgia, and confusion; these are self-limiting and are managed symptomatically. Serious but uncommon AEs include cardiovascular, pulmonary, and cerebrovascular events; these may be minimized with screening for risk factors and by physiologic monitoring. Although most cognitive AEs of ECT are short-lasting, troublesome retrograde amnesia may rarely persist. Modifications of and improvements in treatment techniques minimize cognitive and other AEs. PMID:27514303

  14. Adverse drug reactions in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Ferner, R E

    2015-03-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) - that is, unintended and harmful responses to medicines - are important to dermatologists because many present with cutaneous signs and because dermatological treatments can cause serious ADRs. The detection of ADRs to new drugs is often delayed because they have a long latency or are rare or unexpected. This means that ADRs to newer agents emerge only slowly after marketing. ADRs are part of the differential diagnosis of unusual rashes. A good drug history that includes details of drug dose, time-course of the reaction and factors that may make the patient more susceptible, will help. For example, Stevens-Johnson syndrome with abacavir is much commoner in patients with HLA-B*5701, and has a characteristic time course. Newer agents have brought newer reactions; for example, acneiform rashes associated with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors such as erlotinib. Older systemic agents used to treat skin disease, including corticosteroids and methotrexate, cause important ADRs. The adverse effects of newer biological agents used in dermatology are becoming clearer; for example, hypersensitivity reactions or loss of efficacy from antibody formation and progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy due to reactivation of latent JC (John Cunningham) virus infections during efalizumab treatment. Unusual or serious harm from medicines, including ADRs, medication errors and overdose, should be reported. The UK Yellow Card scheme is online, and patients can report their own ADRs. PMID:25622648

  15. [Recipients adverse reactions: guidance supports].

    PubMed

    Bazin, A

    2010-12-01

    Since 1994, adverse effects of transfusion transmitted to the French haemovigilance network are registered on "e-fit", the database of the French agency for the safety of health products (Afssaps). In order to improve their analysis, guidance supports have been made by Afssaps working groups. Each support deals with a blood transfusion side effect and is composed of five parts including pathophysiological mechanisms, diagnostic criteria, management recommendations, etiologic investigations and rules of filing the notification form on e-fit. The major characteristics of sheets published or soon-to-be published are presented: transfusion-related acute lung injury, transfusion-transmitted bacterial infection, non-haemolytic febrile reaction, allergic reaction, transfusion-associated circulatory overload, hypotensive transfusion reaction, alloimmunization, erythrocyte incompatibility reaction and hemosiderosis. These new supports give relevant guidelines allowing a better analysis and evaluation of recipients' adverse reactions, particularly their diagnosis, gravity and accountability. They could also initiate studies in European and international haemovigilance and transfusion networks. PMID:21051267

  16. Adverse effects of plasma transfusion.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Suchitra; Vyas, Girish N

    2012-05-01

    Plasma utilization has increased over the past two decades, and there is a growing concern that many plasma transfusions are inappropriate. Plasma transfusion is not without risk, and certain complications are more likely with plasma than other blood components. Clinical and laboratory investigations of the patients suffering reactions after infusion of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) define the etiology and pathogenesis of the panoply of adverse effects. We review here the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of the risks associated with plasma transfusion. Risks commonly associated with FFP include: 1) transfusion-related acute lung injury, 2) transfusion-associated circulatory overload, and 3) allergic and/or anaphylactic reactions. Other less common risks include 1) transmission of infections, 2) febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions, 3) red blood cell alloimmunization, and 4) hemolytic transfusion reactions. The effects of pathogen inactivation or reduction methods on these risks are also discussed. Fortunately, a majority of the adverse effects are not lethal and are adequately treated in clinical practice. PMID:22578374

  17. "Adversative Conjunction": The Poetics of Linguistic Opposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallerstein, Nicholas

    1992-01-01

    The general use of adversative conjunction in (primarily) English and U.S. poetry is outlined. The contention is that the adversative is not merely a grammatical convenience but sometimes a highly functional tool of rhetorical strategy. (36 references) (LB)

  18. Survival of Salmonella, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, non-0157 shiga toxin producing E.coli, and potential surrogate bacteria in crop soil as affected by the addition of fast pyrolysis-generated switchgrass biochar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fast pyrolysis of switchgrass (and resultant biochar) can be used for bio-fuel production, soil amendments for fertilizing crops, binding heavy metals, and sequestering environmental biocarbon. To determine the influence of fast pyrolysis-generated switchgrass biochar on survival of foodborne path...

  19. Adverse reactions to food additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1986-01-01

    There are thousands of agents that are intentionally added to the food that we consume. These include preservatives, stabilizers, conditioners, thickeners, colorings, flavorings, sweeteners, antioxidants, etc. etc. Yet only a surprisingly small number have been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Amongst all the additives, FD&C dyes have been most frequently associated with adverse reactions. Tartrazine is the most notorious of them all; however, critical review of the medical literature and current Scripps Clinic studies would indicate that tartrazine has been confirmed to be at best only occasionally associated with flares of urticaria or asthma. There is no convincing evidence in the literature of reactivity to the other azo or nonazo dyes. This can also be said of BHA/BHT, nitrites/nitrates and sorbates. Parabens have been shown to elicit IgE mediated hypersensitivity reactions when used as pharmaceutical preservatives; however, as with the other additives noted above, ingested parabens have only occasionally been associated with adverse reactions. MSG, the cause of the 'Chinese restaurant syndrome' has only been linked to asthma in one report. Sulfiting agents used primarily as food fresheners and to control microbial growth in fermented beverages have been established as the cause of any where from mild to severe and even fatal reactions in at least 5% of the asthmatic population. Other reactions reported to follow sulfite ingestion include anaphylaxis, gastro intestinal complaints and dermatological eruptions. The prevalence of these non asthmatic reactions is unknown. The mechanism of sulfite sensitive asthma is also unknown but most likely involves hyperreactivity to inhale SO2 in the great majority of cases; however, there are reports of IgE mediated reactions and other sulfite sensitive asthmatics have been found with low levels of sulfite oxidase; necessary to oxidize endogenous sulfite to sulfate. PMID:3302664

  20. Multidisciplinary approach to identification and remedial intervention for adverse late effects of cancer therapy

    SciTech Connect

    McCalla, J.L.

    1985-03-01

    Because of advances in surgical technique, radiation therapy, and combined chemotherapy regimens, there has been a dramatic improvement in the survival of children with pediatric malignancies. All treatment modalities are associated with adverse effects that may be manifested months to years after therapy. This article has provided an overview of the physiologic and psychologic adverse effects of antineoplastic therapy and described the multidisciplinary approach used by one institution to identify and initiate appropriate remedial intervention. Nurses can learn to assist in the identification of adverse late effects, provide support to the family, and facilitate appropriate intervention.

  1. Adverse events in healthcare: learning from mistakes.

    PubMed

    Rafter, N; Hickey, A; Condell, S; Conroy, R; O'Connor, P; Vaughan, D; Williams, D

    2015-04-01

    Large national reviews of patient charts estimate that approximately 10% of hospital admissions are associated with an adverse event (defined as an injury resulting in prolonged hospitalization, disability or death, caused by healthcare management). Apart from having a significant impact on patient morbidity and mortality, adverse events also result in increased healthcare costs due to longer hospital stays. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of adverse events are preventable. Through identifying the nature and rate of adverse events, initiatives to improve care can be developed. A variety of methods exist to gather adverse event data both retrospectively and prospectively but these do not necessarily capture the same events and there is variability in the definition of an adverse event. For example, hospital incident reporting collects only a very small fraction of the adverse events found in retrospective chart reviews. Until there are systematic methods to identify adverse events, progress in patient safety cannot be reliably measured. This review aims to discuss the need for a safety culture that can learn from adverse events, describe ways to measure adverse events, and comment on why current adverse event monitoring is unable to demonstrate trends in patient safety. PMID:25078411

  2. Estimation of Ten-Year Survival of Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis Based on the Competing Risks Model in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kazempour-Dizaji, Mehdi; Tabarsi, Payam; Zayeri, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic bacterial disease, which despite the presence of effective drug strategies, still remains a serious health problem worldwide. Estimation of survival rate is an appropriate indicator for prognosis in patients with pulmonary TB. Therefore, this research was designed with the aim of accurate estimation of the survival of patients by taking both the death event and relapse into consideration. Materials and Methods: Based on a retrospective cohort study, information of 2,299 patients with pulmonary TB that had been referred to and treated in Masih Daneshvari Hospital from 2005 to 2015 was reviewed. To estimate the survival of patients with pulmonary TB, the competing risks model, which considered death and relapse as competing events, was used. In addition, the effect of factors affecting the cumulative incidence function (CIF) of death event and relapse was also examined. Results: The effect of risk factors on the CIF of death events and relapse showed that patients’ age, marital status, contact with TB patients, adverse effect of drugs, imprisonment and HIV positivity were factors that affected the CIF of death. Meanwhile, sex, marital status, imprisonment and HIV positivity were factors affecting the CIF of relapse (P <0.05). Considering death and relapse as competing events, survival estimation in pulmonary TB patients showed that survival in this group of patients in the first, third, fifth and tenth year after treatment was 39%, 14%, 7% and 0%, respectively. Conclusion: The use of competing risks model in survival analysis of patients with pulmonary TB with consideration of competing events, enables more accurate estimation of survival. PMID:27403177

  3. Life adversity is associated with smoking relapse after a quit attempt.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Andrine; Olson, Leif; Nakajima, Motohiro; Schulberg, Lauren; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2016-09-01

    Multiple cross-sectional studies have linked adverse childhood events and adult adversities to current smoking, lifetime smoking, and former smoking. To date, however, there have been no direct observational studies assessing the influence of adversities on smoking relapse. We prospectively followed 123 participants, 86 of whom were habitual smokers, from pre-quit ad libitum smoking to four weeks post-quit. Thirty-seven non-smokers were also tested in parallel as a comparison group. Subjects provided biological samples for confirmation of abstinence status and self-report history of adversities such as abuse, neglect, family dysfunction, incarceration, and child-parent separation. They also completed mood and smoking withdrawal symptom measures. The results indicated that within non-smokers and smokers who relapsed within the first month of a quit attempt, but not abstainers, females had significantly higher adversity scores than males. Cigarette craving, which was independent from depressive affect, increased for low adversity participants, but not those with no adversity nor high adversity. These results demonstrate that sex and relapse status interact to predict adversity and that craving for nicotine may be an important additional mediator of relapse. These results add further support to the previous cross-sectional evidence of an adversity and smoking relationship. Further studies to clarify how adversity complicates smoking cessation and impacts smoking behaviors are warranted. PMID:27100471

  4. The impact on students of adverse experiences during medical school.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Tim J; Gill, Denzil J; Fitzjohn, Julie; Palmer, Claire L; Mulder, Roger T

    2006-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the consequences for, and coping method used by, medical students who experienced adverse experiences during their training. A nationwide questionnaire based census of all current medical students in New Zealand. The response rate was 83% (1384/1660). Two-thirds of students had at least one adverse experience, with humiliation being the most common and having the greatest adverse impact. Unwanted sexual advances, unfair treatment on the basis of gender or race had a lesser impact for most students. Most students took several hours or several days to get over an adverse episode and most commonly they then avoided that person or department. Around one half sought help. Only one-quarter felt it motivated their learning while one-sixth felt it made them consider leaving medical school. The most common perpetrators were senior doctors or nurses. Unwanted sexual advances were most common from other students or from patients. Humiliation is the experience that affected students the most and had a significant adverse effect on learning. There is a disturbing rate of unacceptable practice within medical schools, not all of which is from doctors. PMID:16707293

  5. Thyroid-Disrupting Chemicals: Interpreting Upstream Biomarkers of Adverse Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark D.; Crofton, Kevin M.; Rice, Deborah C.; Zoeller, R. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence in humans and in experimental animals for a relationship between exposure to specific environmental chemicals and perturbations in levels of critically important thyroid hormones (THs). Identification and proper interpretation of these relationships are required for accurate assessment of risk to public health. Objectives We review the role of TH in nervous system development and specific outcomes in adults, the impact of xenobiotics on thyroid signaling, the relationship between adverse outcomes of thyroid disruption and upstream causal biomarkers, and the societal implications of perturbations in thyroid signaling by xenobiotic chemicals. Data sources We drew on an extensive body of epidemiologic, toxicologic, and mechanistic studies. Data synthesis THs are critical for normal nervous system development, and decreased maternal TH levels are associated with adverse neuropsychological development in children. In adult humans, increased thyroid-stimulating hormone is associated with increased blood pressure and poorer blood lipid profiles, both risk factors for cardiovascular disease and death. These effects of thyroid suppression are observed even within the “normal” range for the population. Environmental chemicals may affect thyroid homeostasis by a number of mechanisms, and multiple chemicals have been identified that interfere with thyroid function by each of the identified mechanisms. Conclusions Individuals are potentially vulnerable to adverse effects as a consequence of exposure to thyroid-disrupting chemicals. Any degree of thyroid disruption that affects TH levels on a population basis should be considered a biomarker of adverse outcomes, which may have important societal outcomes. PMID:19654909

  6. Defensive platform size and survivability. [Platform survivability

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, Gregory H.

    1988-06-01

    This report discusses the survivability of space platforms, concentrating on space based kinetic energy interceptors. It evaluates the efficacy of hardening, maneuver, self-defense, and deception in extending the survivability of platforms of varying sizes to expected threats, concluding that they should be adequate in the near and mid terms.

  7. Effects of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) density on the survival and growth of juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas): Implications for North American river fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennings, Cecil A.

    1996-01-01

    I used replicated 37.8 1 aquaria in a factorial design (four densities of zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha; two hydrologic regimes) to determine if the survival or growth of juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) was affected by the density of zebra mussel or by the retention time of the test system. None of the fathead minnows died during the 30-d experiment. However, growth of fathead minnows was lower (P0.05). These laboratory results suggest that juvenile fish survival will not be affected by low to moderate densities of mussels (0-3000 m super(-2)) but fish growth might be adversely affected at moderate densities of mussels (e.g., 3000 m super(-2)).

  8. Exercise hypertension: an adverse prognosis?

    PubMed

    Smith, Ryan G; Rubin, Stanley A; Ellestad, Myrvin H

    2009-01-01

    We sought to clarify the prognostic importance of an "exaggerated" or "hypertensive" systolic blood pressure response to exercise during an exercise test. Studies evaluating the prognosis for cardiovascular events and cardiovascular mortality in those with hypertension during exercise testing were systematically reviewed. Fourteen studies were identified. Six studies were of healthy volunteers or hypertensives. Eight studies were in subjects with known or suspected heart disease. Without established heart disease, exercise hypertension predicted cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death. However, two of the six studies included a multivariate analysis; both demonstrated no independent association. Studies in subjects with known or suspected heart disease demonstrated that exercise hypertension predicted fewer cardiac events and lesser mortality or, after multivariate adjustment, no associated risk. In a healthy population, a higher exercise blood pressure may indicate hypertension or prehypertension, instead of normal vascular function, and an associated long-term adverse prognosis. In a population with a high burden of heart disease, the highest risk subjects with the most extensive cardiac disease may not be capable of generating pressure or workload to allow the manifestation of exercise systolic hypertension. By comparison, therefore, those with exercise hypertension have a better prognosis. PMID:20409979

  9. OAE: The Ontology of Adverse Events

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A medical intervention is a medical procedure or application intended to relieve or prevent illness or injury. Examples of medical interventions include vaccination and drug administration. After a medical intervention, adverse events (AEs) may occur which lie outside the intended consequences of the intervention. The representation and analysis of AEs are critical to the improvement of public health. Description The Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE), previously named Adverse Event Ontology (AEO), is a community-driven ontology developed to standardize and integrate data relating to AEs arising subsequent to medical interventions, as well as to support computer-assisted reasoning. OAE has over 3,000 terms with unique identifiers, including terms imported from existing ontologies and more than 1,800 OAE-specific terms. In OAE, the term ‘adverse event’ denotes a pathological bodily process in a patient that occurs after a medical intervention. Causal adverse events are defined by OAE as those events that are causal consequences of a medical intervention. OAE represents various adverse events based on patient anatomic regions and clinical outcomes, including symptoms, signs, and abnormal processes. OAE has been used in the analysis of several different sorts of vaccine and drug adverse event data. For example, using the data extracted from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), OAE was used to analyse vaccine adverse events associated with the administrations of different types of influenza vaccines. OAE has also been used to represent and classify the vaccine adverse events cited in package inserts of FDA-licensed human vaccines in the USA. Conclusion OAE is a biomedical ontology that logically defines and classifies various adverse events occurring after medical interventions. OAE has successfully been applied in several adverse event studies. The OAE ontological framework provides a platform for systematic representation and analysis of

  10. Results of vascular resections during pancreatectomy from two European centres: an analysis of survival and disease-free survival explicative factors1

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, D. F.; Chapuis, F.; Mayer, A. D.; Bramhall, S. R.; Coldham, C.; Baulieux, J.; Buckels, J.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives The object of our study was to report on the experience with vascular resections at pancreatectomy in two European specialist hepatopancreatobiliary centres and evaluate outcome and prognostic factors. Patients and methods From 1989 to 2002, 45 patients (21 men, 24 women) underwent pancreatectomy for a pancreatic mass: Whipple's procedure (n=33), total pancreatectomy (n=10) or left splenopancreatectomy (n=2), along with a vascular resection, i.e. venous (n=39), arterial (n=1) or venous + arterial (n=5). Results Operative mortality was nil, postoperative mortality was 2.2% (n=1); 34 patients had an uneventful postoperative course. Reoperations were performed for portal vein thromobosis (n=1), pancreatic leak (n=1), gastric outlet syndrome (n=1) and gastrointestinal bleeding (n=1). In all, 43 patients had cancer on pathology examination, with retropancreatic invasion in 72% and lymph node extension in 62.8%. Resection was R0 in 21 cases. Vessel wall invasion was present in 13 cases and 19 had perivascular invasion. Disease-free survival (DFS) at 1, 2 and 3 years was 36.0%, 15.0% and 12.0%, respectively. Median DFS length was 8.7 months (95% CI: 7.2; 10.2). Overall survival rates were 56.6%, 28.9% and 19.2%, respectively. Median survival length was 14.2 months (95% CI: 9.8; 18.6). A multivariate analysis of prognostic variables identified tumour location (other than head of pancreas), neoadjuvant chemotherapy and advanced disease stage as adverse factors for DFS. Conclusion Survival and DFS rates of these patients are comparable to those without vascular resection. Tumour localization, tumour stage, neoadjuvant treatment and tumour recurrence are explanatory variables of survival. Tumour localization, tumour stage and neoadjuvant treatment were explanatory variables for DFS. However, the type and extent of vascular resections as well as vessel wall invasion does not affect survival and DFS. PMID:18333103

  11. Changing Medicine and Building Community: Maine’s Adverse Childhood Experiences Momentum

    PubMed Central

    Forstadt, Leslie; Cooper, Sally; Andrews, Sue Mackey

    2015-01-01

    Physicians are instrumental in community education, prevention, and intervention for adverse childhood experiences. In Maine, a statewide effort is focusing on education about adverse childhood experiences and ways that communities and physicians can approach childhood adversity. This article describes how education about adversity and resilience can positively change the practice of medicine and related fields. The Maine Resilience Building Network brings together ongoing programs, supports new ventures, and builds on existing resources to increase its impact. It exemplifies the collective impact model by increasing community knowledge, affecting medical practice, and improving lives. PMID:25902346

  12. Probabilistic Survivability Versus Time Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyner, James J., Sr.

    2015-01-01

    This technical paper documents Kennedy Space Centers Independent Assessment team work completed on three assessments for the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program to assist the Chief Safety and Mission Assurance Officer (CSO) and GSDO management during key programmatic reviews. The assessments provided the GSDO Program with an analysis of how egress time affects the likelihood of astronaut and worker survival during an emergency. For each assessment, the team developed probability distributions for hazard scenarios to address statistical uncertainty, resulting in survivability plots over time. The first assessment developed a mathematical model of probabilistic survivability versus time to reach a safe location using an ideal Emergency Egress System at Launch Complex 39B (LC-39B); the second used the first model to evaluate and compare various egress systems under consideration at LC-39B. The third used a modified LC-39B model to determine if a specific hazard decreased survivability more rapidly than other events during flight hardware processing in Kennedys Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB).Based on the composite survivability versus time graphs from the first two assessments, there was a soft knee in the Figure of Merit graphs at eight minutes (ten minutes after egress ordered). Thus, the graphs illustrated to the decision makers that the final emergency egress design selected should have the capability of transporting the flight crew from the top of LC 39B to a safe location in eight minutes or less. Results for the third assessment were dominated by hazards that were classified as instantaneous in nature (e.g. stacking mishaps) and therefore had no effect on survivability vs time to egress the VAB. VAB emergency scenarios that degraded over time (e.g. fire) produced survivability vs time graphs that were line with aerospace industry norms.

  13. Severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Chung, Wen-Hung; Wang, Chuang-Wei; Dao, Ro-Lan

    2016-07-01

    The clinical manifestations of drug eruptions can range from mild maculopapular exanthema to severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCAR), including drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome/drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) which are rare but occasionally fatal. Some pathogens may induce skin reactions mimicking SCAR. There are several models to explain the interaction of human leukocyte antigen (HLA), drug and T-cell receptor (TCR): (i) the "hapten/prohapten" theory; (ii) the "p-i concept"; (iii) the "altered peptide repertoire"; and (iv) the "altered TCR repertoire". The checkpoints of molecular mechanisms of SCAR include specific drug antigens interacting with the specific HLA loci (e.g. HLA-B*15:02 for carbamazepine-induced SJS/TEN and HLA-B*58:01 for allopurinol-induced SCAR), involvement of specific TCR, induction of T-cell-mediated responses (e.g. granulysin, Fas ligand, perforin/granzyme B and T-helper 1/2-associated cytokines) and cell death mechanism (e.g. miR-18a-5p-induced apoptosis; annexin A1 and formyl peptide receptor 1-induced necroptosis in keratinocytes). In addition to immune mechanism, metabolism has been found to play a role in the pathogenesis of SCAR, such as recent findings of strong association of CYP2C9*3 with phenytoin-induced SCAR and impaired renal function with allopurinol SCAR. With a better understanding of the mechanisms, effective therapeutics and prevention for SCAR can be improved. PMID:27154258

  14. Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Kiff, Cara J.; Cortes, Rebecca; Lengua, Lilana; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David; Mason, W. Alex

    2012-01-01

    Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment Abstract Exposure to adversity during childhood and adolescence predicts adjustment across development. Further, adolescent adjustment problems persist into young adulthood. This study examined relations of contextual adversity with concurrent adolescent adjustment and prospective mental health and health outcomes in young adulthood. A longitudinal sample (N = 808) was followed from age 10 through 27. Perceptions of neighborhood in childhood predicted depression, alcohol use disorders, and HIV risk in young adulthood. Further, the timing of adversity was important in determining the type of problem experienced in adulthood. Youth adjustment predicted adult outcomes, and in some cases, mediated the relation between adversity and outcomes. These findings support the importance of adversity in predicting adjustment and elucidate factors that affect outcomes into young adulthood. PMID:22754271

  15. Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Kiff, Cara J; Cortes, Rebecca; Lengua, Lilana; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J David; Mason, W Alex

    2012-06-01

    Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment Abstract Exposure to adversity during childhood and adolescence predicts adjustment across development. Further, adolescent adjustment problems persist into young adulthood. This study examined relations of contextual adversity with concurrent adolescent adjustment and prospective mental health and health outcomes in young adulthood. A longitudinal sample (N = 808) was followed from age 10 through 27. Perceptions of neighborhood in childhood predicted depression, alcohol use disorders, and HIV risk in young adulthood. Further, the timing of adversity was important in determining the type of problem experienced in adulthood. Youth adjustment predicted adult outcomes, and in some cases, mediated the relation between adversity and outcomes. These findings support the importance of adversity in predicting adjustment and elucidate factors that affect outcomes into young adulthood. PMID:22754271

  16. Human islet mass, morphology, and survival after cryopreservation using the Edmonton protocol

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Priya M; Mohan, Viswanathan; Ganthimathy, Sekhar; Anjana, Ranjit M; Gunasekaran, S; Thiagarajan, Venkatachalam; Churchill, Thomas A; Kin, Tatsuya; Shapiro, AM James; Lakey, Jonathan RT

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess recovery, cell death, and cell composition of post-thaw cultured human islets. Cryopreserved islets were provided by the Clinical Islet Transplant Program, Edmonton, Canada. Islets were processed using media prepared in accordance with Pre-Edmonton and Edmonton protocols. Cryopreserved islets were rapidly thawed and cultured for 24 h, 3 d, 5 d, and 7 d, following which they were processed for histology. Islet quantification, integrity, morphology and tissue turnover were studied via hematoxylin and eosin stained sections. Ultrastructure was studied by electron microscopy and endocrine cell composition by immunohistochemistry. Using the Pre-Edmonton protocol, islet recovery was 50.1% and islet survival was 50% at 24 h while for the Edmonton protocol, the islet recovery was 69.4% (p < 0.001) and islet survival, 50% at ≈2.5 d. With an increasing culture duration although the physical integrity was retained there was an increasing loss of cohesivity both at light microscopic and at ultrastructure level regardless of the protocols used. Percentage islet survival and tissue turnover correlated negatively with culture duration in both protocols. The Edmonton protocol appears to preserve the islets better. However, culture duration adversely affects islet survival and quality, indicating the need for more optimal cryopreservation and culture techniques. PMID:24759005

  17. Survivability Versus Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyner, James J., Sr.

    2014-01-01

    Develop Survivability vs Time Model as a decision-evaluation tool to assess various emergency egress methods used at Launch Complex 39B (LC 39B) and in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) on NASAs Kennedy Space Center. For each hazard scenario, develop probability distributions to address statistical uncertainty resulting in survivability plots over time and composite survivability plots encompassing multiple hazard scenarios.

  18. [Acute adverse effects of dialysis].

    PubMed

    Opatrný, K

    2003-02-01

    Adverse reactions to dialyzers are a not very frequent, but because of the serious, sometimes fatal course, a dreaded complication of haemodialysis treatment. Most important among these reactions are hypersensitive reactions (anaphylactoid, reaction type A to dialyzer), which develop as a rule within the 10th minute of the procedure, and the reaction caused by the action of perfluorohydrocarbon which develop hours after onset or even completion of haemodialysis. Explanation of the development of hypersensitive reactions (HSR) by complement activation and formation of anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a during contact of blood with the bioincompatible dialysis membrane has been abandoned. Evidence of the etiological role of ethylene oxide (ETO) in the development of HSR influenced the selection of materials for the production of dialyzers and sterilization during manufacture, it emphasized the importance of rinsing of the dialyzer in the dialysis centre and led to the wide application of alternative methods of sterilization by gamma radiation and steam. HSR may be also caused by overproduction of bradykinin and inhibition of its degradation or degradation of its metabolites. Excessive bradykinin production caused by dialysis membranes with a negative charge is potentiated e.g. by a lower pH and increased plasma dilution in the initial stage of haemodialysis. Inhibition of bradykinin degradation develops during treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI). In prevention of HSR associated with bradykinin in addition to elimination of a combination of a negatively charged dialysis membrane and ACEI treatment a part is played also by rinsing of the dialyzer before haemodialysis with a bicarbonate solution and the modification of the membrane surface (implemented by the manufacturer) which reduces its negative charge. The first reaction to the dialyzer in conjunction with perfluorohydrocarbon (PF-5070), used in production of some dialyzers for testing the

  19. Disentangling the effects of tocilizumab on neutrophil survival and function.

    PubMed

    Gaber, Timo; Hahne, Martin; Strehl, Cindy; Hoff, Paula; Dörffel, Yvonne; Feist, Eugen; Burmester, Gerd-Rüdiger; Buttgereit, Frank

    2016-06-01

    The synovial tissue in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) represents a hypoxic environment with up-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines and cellular infiltrates including neutrophils. Although inhibition of the interleukin (IL)6 receptor pathway by tocilizumab is a potent treatment option for RA, it may also cause adverse effects such as an occasionally high-grade neutropenia. We analysed the impact of tocilizumab on survival, mediator secretion, oxidative burst, phagocytosis and energy availability of high-dose toll-like receptor (TLR)2/4-stimulated neutrophils (to mimic an arthritis flare) under normoxic versus hypoxic conditions. Human neutrophils were purified, pre-treated with varying doses of tocilizumab, dexamethasone or human IgG1 and high-dose-stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alone-triggering TLR2/4-, LPS plus IL6, or left unstimulated. Cells were then incubated under normoxic (18 % O2) or hypoxic (1 % O2) conditions and subsequently analysed. Neutrophil survival and energy availability were significantly decreased by tocilizumab in a dose-dependent manner in high-dose TLR2/4-stimulated cells, but to a greater extent under normoxia as compared to hypoxia. We also found high-dose LPS-stimulated oxidative burst and phagocytosis of neutrophils to be higher under hypoxic versus normoxic conditions, but this difference was reduced by tocilizumab. Finally, we observed that tocilizumab affected neutrophil mediator secretion as a function of oxygen availability. Tocilizumab is known for both beneficial effects and a higher incidence of neutropenia when treating RA patients. Our results suggest that both effects can at least in part be explained by a reduction in neutrophil survival, a dose-dependent inhibition of hypoxia-induced NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative burst and phagocytosis of infiltrating hypoxic neutrophils and an alteration of mediator secretion. PMID:26721805

  20. Strategic approaches to adverse outcome pathway development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are conceptual frameworks for organizing biological and toxicological knowledge in a manner that supports extrapolation of data pertaining to the initiation or early progression of toxicity to an apical adverse outcome that occurs at a level of org...

  1. Adverse Drug Reactions in Dental Practice

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    Adverse reactions may occur with any of the medications prescribed or administered in dental practice. Most of these reactions are somewhat predictable based on the pharmacodynamic properties of the drug. Others, such as allergic and pseudoallergic reactions, are less common and unrelated to normal drug action. This article will review the most common adverse reactions that are unrelated to drug allergy. PMID:24697823

  2. The influence of heart developmental anatomy on cardiotoxicity-based adverse outcome pathways in fish.

    PubMed

    Incardona, John P; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2016-08-01

    The developing fish heart is vulnerable to a diverse array of toxic chemical contaminants in freshwater, estuarine, and marine habitats. Globally occurring examples of cardiotoxic agents include dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The disruption of cardiac function during the process of heart morphogenesis can lead to adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) that can negatively affect fish survival at hatching as well as later life stages. Proximal impacts include cardiogenic fluid accumulation (edema) and defects of the body axis and jaw that preclude larval feeding. More subtle changes in heart development can produce permanent structural defects in the heart that reduce cardiac output and swimming performance in older fish. In recent decades, the presence of edema in fish embryos and larvae has been a very common bioindicator of cardiotoxicity. However, the different ways that edema forms in fish from different habitats (i.e., freshwater vs. marine, pelagic vs. demersal) has not been rigorously examined. Oil spills are an important source of PAHs in fish spawning areas worldwide, and research is revealing how patterns of cardiogenic edema are shaped by species-specific differences in developmental anatomy and ionoregulatory physiology. Here we review the visible evidence for circulatory disruption across nine freshwater and marine fish species, exposed to crude oils from different parts of the world. We focus on the close interconnectedness of the cardiovascular and osmoregulatory systems during early development, and corresponding implications for fish in hyperosmotic and hyposmotic habitats. Finally, we suggest there may be poorly understood adverse outcomes pathways related to osmotic gradients and water movement within embryos, the latter causing extreme shifts in tissue osmolality. PMID:27447099

  3. Adverse drug reactions and organ damage: The skin.

    PubMed

    Marzano, Angelo V; Borghi, Alessandro; Cugno, Massimo

    2016-03-01

    Cutaneous adverse drug reactions are frequent, affecting 2-3% of hospitalized patients and in one twentieth of them are potentially life-threatening. Almost any pharmacologic agent can induce skin reactions, and certain drug classes, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and antiepileptics, have drug eruption rates ranging from 1% to 5%. Cutaneous drug reactions recognize several different pathomechanisms: some skin manifestations are immune-mediated like allergic reactions while others are the result of non immunological causes such as cumulative toxicity, photosensitivity, interaction with other drugs or different metabolic pathways. Cutaneous adverse drug reactions can be classified into two groups: common non-severe and rare life-threatening adverse drug reactions. Non-severe reactions are often exanthematous or urticarial whereas life-threatening reactions typically present with skin detachment or necrosis of large areas of the body and mucous membrane involvement, as in the Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis. Clinicians should carefully evaluate the signs and symptoms of all cutaneous adverse drug reactions thought to be due to drugs and immediately discontinue drugs that are not essential. Short cycles of systemic corticosteroids in combination with antihistamines may be necessary for widespread exanthematous rashes, while more aggressive corticosteroid regimens or intravenous immunoglobulins associated with supportive treatment should be used for patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis. PMID:26674736

  4. Surviving Atmospheric Spacecraft Breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.; Conley, Catharine A.

    2003-01-01

    In essence, to survival a spacecraft breakup an animal must not experience a lethal event. Much as with surviving aircraft breakup, dissipation of lethal forces via breakup of the craft around the organism is likely to greatly increase the odds of survival. As spacecraft can travel higher and faster than aircraft, it is often assumed that spacecraft breakup is not a survivable event. Similarly, the belief that aircraft breakup or crashes are not survivable events is still prevalent in the general population. As those of us involved in search and rescue know, it is possible to survive both aircraft breakup and crashes. Here we make the first report of an animal, C. elegans, surviving atmospheric breakup of the spacecraft supporting it and discuss both the lethal events these animals had to escape and the implications implied for search and rescue following spacecraft breakup.

  5. Nurses must report adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    There is renewed determination throughout the European Union (EU) to reduce the economic cost and high death rate associated with adverse drug reactions through better pharmacovigilance. Timely reporting and sharing of information concerning adverse drug reactions is vital to the success of this initiative. In the UK, the reporting of serious adverse drug reactions is facilitated by the Yellow Card Scheme, yet despite being well placed to monitor the effect of medicines on patients, nurses do not make full use of the scheme. This article sets out the impact of adverse drug reactions in the EU and argues that it is essential that nurses must be at the vanguard of adverse reaction reporting if the EU's pharmacovigilance initiative is to be a success. PMID:23905231

  6. Adulthood personality correlates of childhood adversity

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Charles S.; Johnson, Sheri L.; McCullough, Michael E.; Forster, Daniel E.; Joormann, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Childhood adversity has been linked to internalizing and externalizing disorders and personality disorders in adulthood. This study extends that research by examining several personality measures as correlates of childhood adversity. Method: In a college sample self-reports were collected of childhood adversity, several scales relating to personality, and current depression symptoms as a control variable. The personality-related scales were reduced to four latent variables, which we termed anger/aggression, extrinsic focus, agreeableness, and engagement. Results: Controlling for concurrent depressive symptoms and gender, higher levels of reported childhood adversity related to lower agreeableness and to higher anger/aggression and extrinsic focus. Conclusions: Findings suggest that early adversity is linked to personality variables relevant to the building of social connection. PMID:25484874

  7. Understanding adverse events: human factors.

    PubMed Central

    Reason, J

    1995-01-01

    (1) Human rather than technical failures now represent the greatest threat to complex and potentially hazardous systems. This includes healthcare systems. (2) Managing the human risks will never be 100% effective. Human fallibility can be moderated, but it cannot be eliminated. (3) Different error types have different underlying mechanisms, occur in different parts of the organisation, and require different methods of risk management. The basic distinctions are between: Slips, lapses, trips, and fumbles (execution failures) and mistakes (planning or problem solving failures). Mistakes are divided into rule based mistakes and knowledge based mistakes. Errors (information-handling problems) and violations (motivational problems) Active versus latent failures. Active failures are committed by those in direct contact with the patient, latent failures arise in organisational and managerial spheres and their adverse effects may take a long time to become evident. (4) Safety significant errors occur at all levels of the system, not just at the sharp end. Decisions made in the upper echelons of the organisation create the conditions in the workplace that subsequently promote individual errors and violations. Latent failures are present long before an accident and are hence prime candidates for principled risk management. (5) Measures that involve sanctions and exhortations (that is, moralistic measures directed to those at the sharp end) have only very limited effectiveness, especially so in the case of highly trained professionals. (6) Human factors problems are a product of a chain of causes in which the individual psychological factors (that is, momentary inattention, forgetting, etc) are the last and least manageable links. Attentional "capture" (preoccupation or distraction) is a necessary condition for the commission of slips and lapses. Yet, its occurrence is almost impossible to predict or control effectively. The same is true of the factors associated with

  8. Rainfall during parental care reduces reproductive and survival components of fitness in a passerine bird

    PubMed Central

    Öberg, Meit; Arlt, Debora; Pärt, Tomas; Laugen, Ane T; Eggers, Sönke; Low, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Adverse weather conditions during parental care may have direct consequences for offspring production, but longer-term effects on juvenile and parental survival are less well known. We used long-term data on reproductive output, recruitment, and parental survival in northern wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) to investigate the effects of rainfall during parental care on fledging success, recruitment success (juvenile survival), and parental survival, and how these effects related to nestling age, breeding time, habitat quality, and parental nest visitation rates. While accounting for effects of temperature, fledging success was negatively related to rainfall (days > 10 mm) in the second half of the nestling period, with the magnitude of this effect being greater for breeding attempts early in the season. Recruitment success was, however, more sensitive to the number of rain days in the first half of the nestling period. Rainfall effects on parental survival differed between the sexes; males were more sensitive to rain during the nestling period than females. We demonstrate a probable mechanism driving the rainfall effects on reproductive output: Parental nest visitation rates decline with increasing amounts of daily rainfall, with this effect becoming stronger after consecutive rain days. Our study shows that rain during the nestling stage not only relates to fledging success but also has longer-term effects on recruitment and subsequent parental survival. Thus, if we want to understand or predict population responses to future climate change, we need to consider the potential impacts of changing rainfall patterns in addition to temperature, and how these will affect target species' vital rates. PMID:25691962

  9. Rainfall during parental care reduces reproductive and survival components of fitness in a passerine bird.

    PubMed

    Öberg, Meit; Arlt, Debora; Pärt, Tomas; Laugen, Ane T; Eggers, Sönke; Low, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Adverse weather conditions during parental care may have direct consequences for offspring production, but longer-term effects on juvenile and parental survival are less well known. We used long-term data on reproductive output, recruitment, and parental survival in northern wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) to investigate the effects of rainfall during parental care on fledging success, recruitment success (juvenile survival), and parental survival, and how these effects related to nestling age, breeding time, habitat quality, and parental nest visitation rates. While accounting for effects of temperature, fledging success was negatively related to rainfall (days > 10 mm) in the second half of the nestling period, with the magnitude of this effect being greater for breeding attempts early in the season. Recruitment success was, however, more sensitive to the number of rain days in the first half of the nestling period. Rainfall effects on parental survival differed between the sexes; males were more sensitive to rain during the nestling period than females. We demonstrate a probable mechanism driving the rainfall effects on reproductive output: Parental nest visitation rates decline with increasing amounts of daily rainfall, with this effect becoming stronger after consecutive rain days. Our study shows that rain during the nestling stage not only relates to fledging success but also has longer-term effects on recruitment and subsequent parental survival. Thus, if we want to understand or predict population responses to future climate change, we need to consider the potential impacts of changing rainfall patterns in addition to temperature, and how these will affect target species' vital rates. PMID:25691962

  10. Mismatch or allostatic load? Timing of life adversity differentially shapes gray matter volume and anxious temperament.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Manuel; Scharfenort, Robert; Schümann, Dirk; Schiele, Miriam A; Münsterkötter, Anna L; Deckert, Jürgen; Domschke, Katharina; Haaker, Jan; Kalisch, Raffael; Pauli, Paul; Reif, Andreas; Romanos, Marcel; Zwanzger, Peter; Lonsdorf, Tina B

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally, adversity was defined as the accumulation of environmental events (allostatic load). Recently however, a mismatch between the early and the later (adult) environment (mismatch) has been hypothesized to be critical for disease development, a hypothesis that has not yet been tested explicitly in humans. We explored the impact of timing of life adversity (childhood and past year) on anxiety and depression levels (N = 833) and brain morphology (N = 129). Both remote (childhood) and proximal (recent) adversities were differentially mirrored in morphometric changes in areas critically involved in emotional processing (i.e. amygdala/hippocampus, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, respectively). The effect of adversity on affect acted in an additive way with no evidence for interactions (mismatch). Structural equation modeling demonstrated a direct effect of adversity on morphometric estimates and anxiety/depression without evidence of brain morphology functioning as a mediator. Our results highlight that adversity manifests as pronounced changes in brain morphometric and affective temperament even though these seem to represent distinct mechanistic pathways. A major goal of future studies should be to define critical time periods for the impact of adversity and strategies for intervening to prevent or reverse the effects of adverse childhood life experiences. PMID:26568620

  11. Mismatch or allostatic load? Timing of life adversity differentially shapes gray matter volume and anxious temperament

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Manuel; Scharfenort, Robert; Schümann, Dirk; Schiele, Miriam A.; Münsterkötter, Anna L.; Deckert, Jürgen; Domschke, Katharina; Haaker, Jan; Kalisch, Raffael; Pauli, Paul; Reif, Andreas; Romanos, Marcel; Zwanzger, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, adversity was defined as the accumulation of environmental events (allostatic load). Recently however, a mismatch between the early and the later (adult) environment (mismatch) has been hypothesized to be critical for disease development, a hypothesis that has not yet been tested explicitly in humans. We explored the impact of timing of life adversity (childhood and past year) on anxiety and depression levels (N = 833) and brain morphology (N = 129). Both remote (childhood) and proximal (recent) adversities were differentially mirrored in morphometric changes in areas critically involved in emotional processing (i.e. amygdala/hippocampus, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, respectively). The effect of adversity on affect acted in an additive way with no evidence for interactions (mismatch). Structural equation modeling demonstrated a direct effect of adversity on morphometric estimates and anxiety/depression without evidence of brain morphology functioning as a mediator. Our results highlight that adversity manifests as pronounced changes in brain morphometric and affective temperament even though these seem to represent distinct mechanistic pathways. A major goal of future studies should be to define critical time periods for the impact of adversity and strategies for intervening to prevent or reverse the effects of adverse childhood life experiences. PMID:26568620

  12. Effects of fin clipping on survival and position-holding behavior of brown darters, Etheostoma edwini

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Champagne, C.E.; Austin, J.D.; Jelks, H.L.; Jordan, F.

    2008-01-01

    Advent of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has allowed conservation biologists to use small portions of tissue to obtain genetic material for population genetic and taxonomic study. Fin clips are used extensively in large-sized fishes, but it is unclear how clipping enough fin tissue for genetic analysis will affect survival of smaller fishes such as minnows and darters, which are among the most threatened organisms in North America. We tested for effects of fin clipping on survival and swimming performance of non-threatened Brown Darters (Etheostoma edwini) in order to justify similar tissue collection in co-occurring endangered Okaloosa Darters (E. okaloosae). We collected 48 E. edwini from a small stream in northwest Florida, transported them to the laboratory, and randomly assigned them to one of three experimental groups: control, entire right pectoral fin removed, or rear half of caudal fin removed. Successful amplification of DNA indicated that our fin clips were large enough for genetic analysis using PCR. No mortality occurred during a two-month observation period. Fin regeneration was almost complete and we could not visually distinguish clipped fins from control fins after two months. We then randomly assigned fish into the same three experimental groups, clipped fins, and evaluated their ability to hold position at 20 cm/sec in an experimental flow chamber. Neither fish size nor treatment type affected position-holding behavior. Fin clipping does not adversely affect survival and swimming performance of E. edwini maintained in the laboratory. Additional research on the effects of fin clipping on small-sized fishes should be conducted in the field to evaluate survival under natural conditions. ?? 2008 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

  13. Surviving a Suicide Attempt

    PubMed Central

    Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Maqbali, Mandhar; Al-Sinawi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors) and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support). All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor. PMID:27602193

  14. Surviving a Suicide Attempt.

    PubMed

    Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Maqbali, Mandhar; Al-Sinawi, Hamed

    2016-09-01

    Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors) and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support). All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor. PMID:27602193

  15. FATE AND SURVIVAL OF MICROBIAL PEST CONTROL AGENTS IN NONTARGET AQUATIC ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A fully enclosed test system was developed to both potential adverse effects of microbial pest control agents on nontarget aquatic invertebrates and monitor their fate and survival Eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica, were exposed to various microbial pest control agents inclu...

  16. Cyclin-dependent kinase 7 controls mRNA synthesis by affecting stability of preinitiation complexes, leading to altered gene expression, cell cycle progression, and survival of tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Kelso, Timothy W R; Baumgart, Karen; Eickhoff, Jan; Albert, Thomas; Antrecht, Claudia; Lemcke, Sarah; Klebl, Bert; Meisterernst, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7) activates cell cycle CDKs and is a member of the general transcription factor TFIIH. Although there is substantial evidence for an active role of CDK7 in mRNA synthesis and associated processes, the degree of its influence on global and gene-specific transcription in mammalian species is unclear. In the current study, we utilize two novel inhibitors with high specificity for CDK7 to demonstrate a restricted but robust impact of CDK7 on gene transcription in vivo and in in vitro-reconstituted reactions. We distinguish between relative low- and high-dose responses and relate them to distinct molecular mechanisms and altered physiological responses. Low inhibitor doses cause rapid clearance of paused RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) molecules and sufficed to cause genome-wide alterations in gene expression, delays in cell cycle progression at both the G1/S and G2/M checkpoints, and diminished survival of human tumor cells. Higher doses and prolonged inhibition led to strong reductions in RNAPII carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) phosphorylation, eventual activation of the p53 program, and increased cell death. Together, our data reason for a quantitative contribution of CDK7 to mRNA synthesis, which is critical for cellular homeostasis. PMID:25047832

  17. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 7 Controls mRNA Synthesis by Affecting Stability of Preinitiation Complexes, Leading to Altered Gene Expression, Cell Cycle Progression, and Survival of Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kelso, Timothy W. R.; Baumgart, Karen; Eickhoff, Jan; Albert, Thomas; Antrecht, Claudia; Lemcke, Sarah; Klebl, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7) activates cell cycle CDKs and is a member of the general transcription factor TFIIH. Although there is substantial evidence for an active role of CDK7 in mRNA synthesis and associated processes, the degree of its influence on global and gene-specific transcription in mammalian species is unclear. In the current study, we utilize two novel inhibitors with high specificity for CDK7 to demonstrate a restricted but robust impact of CDK7 on gene transcription in vivo and in in vitro-reconstituted reactions. We distinguish between relative low- and high-dose responses and relate them to distinct molecular mechanisms and altered physiological responses. Low inhibitor doses cause rapid clearance of paused RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) molecules and sufficed to cause genome-wide alterations in gene expression, delays in cell cycle progression at both the G1/S and G2/M checkpoints, and diminished survival of human tumor cells. Higher doses and prolonged inhibition led to strong reductions in RNAPII carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) phosphorylation, eventual activation of the p53 program, and increased cell death. Together, our data reason for a quantitative contribution of CDK7 to mRNA synthesis, which is critical for cellular homeostasis. PMID:25047832

  18. Azacitidine in CMML: matched-pair analyses of daily-life patients reveal modest effects on clinical course and survival.

    PubMed

    Pleyer, Lisa; Germing, Ulrich; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Linkesch, Werner; Burgstaller, Sonja; Stauder, Reinhard; Girschikofsky, Michael; Schreder, Martin; Pfeilstocker, Michael; Lang, Alois; Sliwa, Thamer; Geissler, Dietmar; Schlick, Konstantin; Placher-Sorko, Gudrun; Theiler, Georg; Thaler, Josef; Mitrovic, Martina; Neureiter, Daniel; Valent, Peter; Greil, Richard

    2014-04-01

    Recent data suggest that azacitidine may be beneficial in CMML. We report on 48 CMML-patients treated with azacitidine. Overall response rates were high (70% according to IWG-criteria, including 22% complete responses). Monocyte count and cytogenetics adversely affected survival, whereas age, WHO-type, FAB-type, and spleen size did not. Matched-pair analyses revealed a trend for higher two-year-survival for azacitidine as compared to best supportive care (62% vs. 41%, p=0.067) and longer OS for azacitidine first-line vs. hydroxyurea first-line (p=0.072, median OS 27.7 vs. 6.2 months). This report reinforces existing evidence that azacitidine is safe and efficacious in both myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative CMML. PMID:24522248

  19. Effect of antibiotic on survival and development of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its gut microbial diversity.

    PubMed

    Thakur, A; Dhammi, P; Saini, H S; Kaur, S

    2016-06-01

    Addition of antibiotics to artificial diets of insects is a key component in the rearing of insects in the laboratory. In the present study an antimicrobial agent, streptomycin sulphate was tested for its influence on survival and fitness of Spodoptera litura (Fabricus) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as well as its gut microbial diversity. The antibiotic did not adversely affect the survival of S. litura. Faster growth of larvae was recorded on diet amended with different concentrations of streptomycin sulphate (0.03, 0.07 and 0.15%) as compared to diet without streptomycin sulphate. The overall activity of various digestives enzymes increased on S+ diet while the activity of detoxifying enzymes significantly decreased. In addition, alteration in microbial diversity was found in the gut of S. litura larvae fed on diet supplemented with antibiotic (S+) and without antibiotic (S-). PMID:26907537

  20. Collateral Adverse Outcomes After Lumbar Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Alan H; Gundle, Kenneth; Hart, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Collateral adverse outcomes are the expected or unavoidable results of a procedure that is performed in a standard manner and typically experienced by the patient. Collateral adverse outcomes do not result from errors, nor are they rare. Collateral adverse outcomes occur as the direct result of a surgical procedure and must be accepted as a trade-off to attain the intended benefits of the surgical procedure. As such, collateral adverse outcomes do not fit into the traditional definition of a complication or adverse event. Examples of collateral adverse outcomes after lumbar spine arthrodesis include lumbar stiffness, postoperative psychological stress, postoperative pain, peri-incisional numbness, paraspinal muscle denervation, and adjacent-level degeneration. Ideally, a comparison of interventions for the treatment of a clinical condition should include information on both the negative consequences (expected and unexpected) and potential benefits of the treatment options. The objective evaluation and reporting of collateral adverse outcomes will provide surgeons with a more complete picture of invasive interventions and, thus, the improved ability to assess alternative treatment options. PMID:27049197

  1. Adverse event recording post hip fracture surgery.

    PubMed

    Doody, K; Mohamed, K M S; Butler, A; Street, J; Lenehan, B

    2013-01-01

    Accurate recording of adverse events post hip fracture surgery is vital for planning and allocating resources. The purpose of this study was to compare adverse events recorded prospectively at point of care with adverse recorded by the Hospital In-Patient Enquiry (HIPE) System. The study examined a two month period from August to September 2011 at University Hospital Limerick. Out of a sample size of 39, there were 7 males (17.9%) and 32 females (82.1%) with an age range of between 53 and 98 years. The mean age was 80.5 years. 55 adverse events were recorded, in contrast to the HIPE record of 13 (23.6%) adverse events. The most common complications included constipation 10 (18.2%), anaemia 8 (14.5%), urinary retention 8 (14.50%), pneumonia 5 (9.1%) and delirium 5 (9.1%). Of the female cohort, 24 (68.8%) suffered an adverse event, while only 4 (57%) males suffered an adverse event. PMID:24579408

  2. Adverse childhood event experiences, fertility difficulties, and menstrual cycle characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Marni B.; Boynton-Jarrett, Renee D.; Harville, Emily W.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Increased childhood adversity may be affect adult fertility, however, the mechanism through which this occurs is unclear. Menstrual cycle abnormalities are predictive of fertility difficulties, and stress influences menstrual cycle characteristics. Here, we assesses whether adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with fertility difficulties and menstrual cycle dysregulation, offering a plausible mechanism for the link between lifetime stress and fertility. Methods From April 2012 – February 2014, 742 pregnant and non-pregnant women aged 18–45 years residing in southeastern Louisiana provided information on childhood adversity and reproductive history. Associations between ACEs and fertility difficulties and menstrual cycle patterns were evaluated. Results As the number of ACEs increased, risk of fertility difficulties and amenorrhea increased (RR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.05 – 1.13 and RR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.04 – 1.10, respectively), while fecundability decreased (FR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.95 – 1.00). Compared to women with no adversity, women in the high adversity group were more likely to experience both infertility and amenorrhea (RR = 2.75, 95% CI 1.45 – 5.21 and RR = 2.54, 95% CI 1.52 – 4.25, respectively), and reduced fecundability (FR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.56 – 1.00). Although similar patterns were seen for menstrual cycle irregularity, associations were diminished. Associations did not materially change following adjustment for age, BMI, race, education, smoking, and income. Results are constrained by the self-report nature of the study and the limited generalizability of the study population. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first study to present evidence of a link between childhood stressors, menstrual cycle disruption, and fertility difficulties. The effect of childhood stress on fertility may be mediated through altered functioning of the HPA axis, acting to suppress fertility in response to less than optimal reproductive

  3. The Role of Notch in the Cardiovascular System: Potential Adverse Effects of Investigational Notch Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Paola; Mele, Donato; Caliceti, Cristiana; Pannella, Micaela; Fortini, Cinzia; Clementz, Anthony George; Morelli, Marco Bruno; Aquila, Giorgio; Ameri, Pietro; Ferrari, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Targeting the Notch pathway is a new promising therapeutic approach for cancer patients. Inhibition of Notch is effective in the oncology setting because it causes a reduction of highly proliferative tumor cells and it inhibits survival of cancer stem cells, which are considered responsible for tumor recurrence and metastasis. Additionally, since Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4)-activated Notch signaling is a major modulator of angiogenesis, anti-Dll4 agents are being investigated to reduce vascularization of the tumor. Notch plays a major role in the heart during the development and, after birth, in response to cardiac damage. Therefore, agents used to inhibit Notch in the tumors (gamma secretase inhibitors and anti-Dll4 agents) could potentially affect myocardial repair. The past experience with trastuzumab and other tyrosine kinase inhibitors used for cancer therapy demonstrates that the possible cardiotoxicity of agents targeting shared pathways between cancer and heart and the vasculature should be considered. To date, Notch inhibition in cancer patients has resulted only in mild gastrointestinal toxicity. Little is known about the potential long-term cardiotoxicity associated to Notch inhibition in cancer patients. In this review, we will focus on mechanisms through which inhibition of Notch signaling could lead to cardiomyocytes and endothelial dysfunctions. These adverse effects could contrast with the benefits of therapeutic responses in cancer cells during times of increased cardiac stress and/or in the presence of cardiovascular risk factor. PMID:25629006

  4. Learning from adverse incidents involving medical devices.

    PubMed

    Amoore, John; Ingram, Paula

    While an adverse event involving a medical device is often ascribed to either user error or device failure, the causes are typically multifactorial. A number of incidents involving medical devices are explored using this approach to investigate the various causes of the incident and the protective barriers that minimised or prevented adverse consequences. User factors, including mistakes, omissions and lack of training, conspired with background factors--device controls and device design, storage conditions, hidden device damage and physical layout of equipment when in use--to cause the adverse events. Protective barriers that prevented or minimised the consequences included staff vigilance, operating procedures and alarms. PMID:12715578

  5. Uncertainty Comparison of Visual Sensing in Adverse Weather Conditions.

    PubMed

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Chen, Lun-Chi; Tseng, Chien-Hao; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on flood-region detection using monitoring images. However, adverse weather affects the outcome of image segmentation methods. In this paper, we present an experimental comparison of an outdoor visual sensing system using region-growing methods with two different growing rules-namely, GrowCut and RegGro. For each growing rule, several tests on adverse weather and lens-stained scenes were performed, taking into account and analyzing different weather conditions with the outdoor visual sensing system. The influence of several weather conditions was analyzed, highlighting their effect on the outdoor visual sensing system with different growing rules. Furthermore, experimental errors and uncertainties obtained with the growing rules were compared. The segmentation accuracy of flood regions yielded by the GrowCut, RegGro, and hybrid methods was 75%, 85%, and 87.7%, respectively. PMID:27447642

  6. Uncertainty Comparison of Visual Sensing in Adverse Weather Conditions†

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Chen, Lun-Chi; Tseng, Chien-Hao; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on flood-region detection using monitoring images. However, adverse weather affects the outcome of image segmentation methods. In this paper, we present an experimental comparison of an outdoor visual sensing system using region-growing methods with two different growing rules—namely, GrowCut and RegGro. For each growing rule, several tests on adverse weather and lens-stained scenes were performed, taking into account and analyzing different weather conditions with the outdoor visual sensing system. The influence of several weather conditions was analyzed, highlighting their effect on the outdoor visual sensing system with different growing rules. Furthermore, experimental errors and uncertainties obtained with the growing rules were compared. The segmentation accuracy of flood regions yielded by the GrowCut, RegGro, and hybrid methods was 75%, 85%, and 87.7%, respectively. PMID:27447642

  7. Chemical research on red pigments after adverse reactions to tattoo.

    PubMed

    Tammaro, A; Toniolo, C; Giulianelli, V; Serafini, M; Persechino, S

    2016-03-01

    Currently, the incidence of tattooing is on the rise compared to the past, especially among adolescents, and it leads to the urgency of monitoring the security status of tattooing centers, as well as to inform people about the risks of tattoo practice. In our clinical experience, 20% of tattooed patients presented adverse reactions, like allergic contact dermatitis, psoriasis with Koebner's phenomena and granulomatous reactions, with the latter most prevalent and most often related to red pigment. Adverse reactions to tattoo pigments, especially the red one, are well known and described in literature. Great attention has to be focused on the pigments used, especially for the presence of new substances, often not well known. For this reason, we decided to perform a study on 12 samples of red tattoo ink, obtained by patients affected by different cutaneous reactions in the site of tattoo, to analyze their chemical composition. PMID:26934738

  8. Adverse Effects of Wheat Gluten.

    PubMed

    Koning, Frits

    2015-01-01

    Man began to consume cereals approximately 10,000 years ago when hunter-gatherers settled in the fertile golden crescent in the Middle East. Gluten has been an integral part of the Western type of diet ever since, and wheat consumption is also common in the Middle East, parts of India and China as well as Australia and Africa. In fact, the food supply in the world heavily depends on the availability of cereal-based food products, with wheat being one of the largest crops in the world. Part of this is due to the unique properties of wheat gluten, which has a high nutritional value and is crucial for the preparation of high-quality dough. In the last 10 years, however, wheat and gluten have received much negative attention. Many believe that it is inherently bad for our health and try to avoid consumption of gluten-containing cereals; a gluten-low lifestyle so to speak. This is fueled by a series of popular publications like Wheat Belly; Lose the Wheat, Lose the Weight, and Find Your Path Back to Health. However, in reality, there is only one condition where gluten is definitively the culprit: celiac disease (CD), affecting approximately 1% of the population in the Western world. Here, I describe the complexity of the cereals from which gluten is derived, the special properties of gluten which make it so widely used in the food industry, the basis for its toxicity in CD patients and the potential for the development of safe gluten and alternatives to the gluten-free diet. PMID:26606684

  9. Adverse Outcome Pathways: From Definition to Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    A challenge for both human health and ecological toxicologists is the transparent application of mechanistic (e.g., molecular, biochemical, histological) data to risk assessments. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) is a conceptual framework designed to meet this need. Specifical...

  10. Adverse cutaneous drug eruptions: current understanding.

    PubMed

    Hoetzenecker, W; Nägeli, M; Mehra, E T; Jensen, A N; Saulite, I; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Guenova, E; Cozzio, A; French, L E

    2016-01-01

    Adverse cutaneous drug reactions are recognized as being major health problems worldwide causing considerable costs for health care systems. Most adverse cutaneous drug reactions follow a benign course; however, up to 2% of all adverse cutaneous drug eruptions are severe and life-threatening. These include acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Physicians should be aware of specific red flags to rapidly identify these severe cutaneous drug eruptions and initiate appropriate treatment. Besides significant progress in clinical classification and treatment, recent studies have greatly enhanced our understanding in the pathophysiology of adverse cutaneous drug reactions. Genetic susceptibilities to certain drugs have been identified in SJS/TEN patients, viral reactivation in DRESS has been elucidated, and the discovery of tissue resident memory T cells helps to better understand the recurrent site-specific inflammation in patients with fixed drug eruption. PMID:26553194

  11. Childhood adversities and psychosis: evidence, challenges, implications

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Craig; Gayer‐Anderson, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    There is a substantial body of research reporting evidence of associations between various forms of childhood adversity and psychosis, across the spectrum from experiences to disorder. This has been extended, more recently, to include studies of cumulative effects, of interactions with other factors, of specific effects, and of putative biological and psychological mechanisms. In this paper we evaluate this research and highlight the remaining methodological issues and gaps that temper, but do not dismiss, conclusions about the causal role of childhood adversity. We also consider the emerging work on cumulative, synergistic, and specific effects and on mechanisms; and discuss the broader implications of this line of research for our understanding of psychosis. We conclude that the current balance of evidence is that childhood adversities – particularly exposure to multiple adversities involving hostility and threat – do, in some people, contribute to the onset of psychotic experiences and psychotic disorders. PMID:27265690

  12. RACIAL RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    INTRODUCTION. The disparity between black and white women's adverse birth outcomes has been subject to much investigation, yet the factors underlying its persistence remain elusive, which has encouraged research on neighborhood-level influences, including racial residential segr...

  13. Developing robust crop plants for sustaining growth and yield under adverse climatic changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural production and quality are expected to suffer from adverse changes in climatic conditions, including global warming, and this will affect worldwide human and animal food security. Global warming has been shown to negatively impact crop yield and therefore will affect sustainability of a...

  14. Occupational Survival Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, James A.; Nelson, Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    The author describes a set of twelve curriculum modules called "Occupational Survival Skills" relating to the "human" aspects of work organizations. The modules were based on information from opinion surveys of workers, students, parents, and teachers on what occupational survival skills are and how to teach them. (MF)

  15. A review of adverse events caused by immune checkpoint inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

      There has been no effective therapy in the unresectable melanoma for more than 40 years. Anti-PD-1 antibody and anti-CTLA-4 antibody have totally changed the situation. They have clearly shown the survival benefits of the patients with metastatic melanoma. However, immune checkpoint inhibitors sometimes induce various kinds of immune-related adverse events (irAEs). It is very important for the clinicians to know the reported cases of irAEs and to keep in mind the symptoms of irAEs for the early detection. This review describes the previously reported irAEs and adequate managements for irAEs induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors. PMID:27181232

  16. The impact of pregnancy on breast cancer survival in women who carry a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Valentini, Adriana; Lubinski, Jan; Byrski, Tomasz; Ghadirian, Parviz; Moller, Pal; Lynch, Henry T; Ainsworth, Peter; Neuhausen, Susan L; Weitzel, Jeffrey; Singer, Christian F; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Saal, Howard; Lyonnet, Dominique Stoppa; Foulkes, William D; Kim-Sing, Charmaine; Manoukian, Siranoush; Zakalik, Dana; Armel, Susan; Senter, Leigha; Eng, Charis; Grunfeld, Eva; Chiarelli, Anna M; Poll, Aletta; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A

    2013-11-01

    Physicians are often approached by young women with a BRCA mutation and a recent history of breast cancer who wish to have a baby. They wish to know if pregnancy impacts upon their future risks of cancer recurrence and survival. To date, there is little information on the survival experience of women who carry a mutation in one of the BRCA genes and who become pregnant. From an international multi-center cohort study of 12,084 women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, we identified 128 case subjects who were diagnosed with breast cancer while pregnant or who became pregnant after a diagnosis of breast cancer. These women were age-matched to 269 mutation carriers with breast cancer who did not become pregnant (controls). Subjects were followed from the date of breast cancer diagnosis until the date of last follow-up or death from breast cancer. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate 15-year survival rates. The hazard ratio for survival associated with pregnancy was calculated using a left-truncated Cox proportional hazard model, adjusting for other prognostic factors. Among women who were diagnosed with breast cancer when pregnant or who became pregnant thereafter, the 15-year survival rate was 91.5 %, compared to a survival of 88.6 % for women who did not become pregnant (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.76; 95 % CI 0.31-1.91; p = 0.56). Pregnancy concurrent with or after a diagnosis of breast cancer does not appear to adversely affect survival among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. PMID:24136669

  17. Adverse effects of common medications on male fertility.

    PubMed

    Samplaski, Mary K; Nangia, Ajay K

    2015-07-01

    An increasing number of patients require long-term medication regimens at a young age, but the adverse effects of medications on male reproduction are often inadequately considered, recognized and investigated. Medications can affect male reproduction through central hormonal effects, direct gonadotoxic effects, effects on sperm function or on sexual function. For example, exogenous testosterone inhibits spermatogenesis through central suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal hormonal axis. 5α-reductase inhibitors can impair sexual function, decrease semen volume and negatively affect sperm parameters, depending on dose and treatment duration. α-Blockers might decrease seminal emission and cause retrograde ejaculation, depending on the receptor specificity and dose of the agent. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors seem to have variable effects based on the isoform inhibited and evidence is conflicting. Antihypertensive and psychotropic agents can affect sperm, sexual function and hormonal parameters. For antibiotics, the literature on effects on sperm and sperm function is limited and dated. Many chemotherapeutic agents have a direct gonadotoxic effect, depending on agents used, dosing and number of treatment cycles. Overall, many medications commonly used in urology can have effects on male fertility (mostly reversible) but conclusive evidence in humans is often limited. Men should be counselled appropriately about potential drug-related adverse effects on their fertility. PMID:26101108

  18. Interventions designed to prevent adverse programming outcomes resulting from exposure to maternal obesity during development

    PubMed Central

    Nathanielsz, PW; Ford, SP; Long, NM; Vega, CC; Reyes-Castro, LA; Zambrano, E

    2013-01-01

    Maternal obesity is a global epidemic affecting the developed and developing world. Human and animal studies indicate that maternal obesity programs development predisposing offspring to later-life chronic diseases. Several mechanisms act together to produce these adverse health problems. There is a need for effective interventions that prevent these outcomes and guide management in human pregnancy. We report here dietary and exercise intervention studies in both altricial and precocial species, rats and sheep, designed to prevent adverse offspring outcomes. Both interventions present exciting opportunities to at least in part prevent adverse metabolic and other outcomes in mother and offspring. PMID:24147928

  19. In-hospital resuscitation: opioids and other factors influencing survival

    PubMed Central

    Fecho, Karamarie; Jackson, Freeman; Smith, Frances; Overdyk, Frank J

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: “Code Blue” is a standard term used to alertt hospital staff that a patient requires resuscitation. This study determined rates of survival from Code Blue events and the role of opioids and other factors on survival. Methods: Data derived from medical records and the Code Blue and Pharmacy databases were analyzed for factors affecting survival. Results: During 2006, rates of survival from the code only and to discharge were 25.9% and 26.4%, respectively, for Code Blue events involving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR; N = 216). Survival rates for events not ultimately requiring CPR (N = 77) were higher, with 32.5% surviving the code only and 62.3% surviving to discharge. For CPR events, rates of survival to discharge correlated inversely with time to chest compressions and defibrillation, precipitating event, need for airway management, location and age. Time of week, witnessing, postoperative status, gender and opioid use did not influence survival rates. For non-CPR events, opioid use was associated with decreased survival. Survival rates were lowest for patients receiving continuous infusions (P < 0.01) or iv boluses of opioids (P < 0.05). Conclusions: One-quarter of patients survive to discharge after a CPR Code Blue event and two-thirds survive to discharge after a non-CPR event. Opioids may influence survival from non-CPR events. PMID:20057895

  20. Narghile smoking and its adverse health consequences: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Dar-Odeh, N S; Abu-Hammad, O A

    2009-06-13

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a world health problem with approximately 50% of patients having a 5-year survival rate. A change in the demographics of the disease is now being recognised, particularly in Europe, where it is increasingly being seen in young males. While a variety of risk factors are important in OSCC, it is tobacco that plays a central part in the pathogenesis of the disease. Narghile is an old form of tobacco use but in the past decade, there has been a resurgence in this form of smoking. The practice is particularly common in young males and females from the Middle East but with the advent of immigration and globalisation, its use is becoming more widespread. It is now not uncommon to see narghile smoking in western countries such as the UK and USA. Studies describing the oral effects of narghile are unfortunately scarce. While adverse effects such as periodontal bone loss and dry socket have been described, its association with OSCC cannot be excluded. Variation in the type of narghile, the type of tobacco and the presence of co-factors such as cigarette smoking may all influence clinical outcome. In the present study, the practice of narghile smoking is reviewed in terms of its effect on health, particularly oral health. The association of narghile smoking and adverse effects on the orofacial region will be outlined, namely, periodontal disease, potentially malignant lesions and oral cancer. PMID:19521371

  1. Evaluating competing adverse and beneficial outcomes using a mixture model

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Bryan; Cole, Stephen R.; Moore, Richard D.; Gange, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY A competing risk framework occurs when individuals have the potential to experience only one of several mutually exclusive outcomes. Standard survival methods often overestimate the cumulative incidence of events when competing events are censored. Mixture distributions have been previously applied to the competing risk framework to obtain inferences regarding the subdistribution of an event of interest. Often the competing event is treated as a nuisance, but it may be of interest to compare adverse events against the beneficial outcome when dealing with an intervention. In this paper, methods for using a mixture model to estimate an adverse-benefit ratio curve (ratio of the cumulative incidence curves for the two competing events) and the ratio of the subhazards for the two competing events are presented. Both parametric and semi-parametric approaches are described with some remarks for extending the model to include uncertainty in the event type that occurred, left-truncation in order to allow for time-dependent analyses, and uncertainty in the timing of the event resulting in interval censoring. The methods are illustrated with data from a HIV clinical cohort examining whether individuals initiating effective antiretroviral therapy have a greater risk of antiretroviral discontinuation or switching compared to HIV RNA suppression. PMID:18416435

  2. Reproduction and survival of tawny owls in relation to persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Yoccoz, Nigel G; Bustnes, Jan O; Bangjord, Georg; Skaare, Jannech Utne

    2009-01-01

    The potential effects of organochlorines (OCs) and brominated flame retardants on reproduction and survival were studied in tawny owls (Strix aluco) in Central Norway over a period of 19 years (1986-2004). Concentrations of 14 OCs and five polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in eggs (n=104), and Principal Component Analysis was used to produce composite measurements of pollutants; i.e. PC1 and PC2, which accounted for 85% of the variation in contaminant concentrations. There was no evidence for adverse associations between pollutants (PC scores) and life-history traits such as clutch size, probability of producing fledglings and survival, when controlling for potentially confounding variables. Moreover, there was no evidence for interactions between pollutants and vole abundance suggesting no synergistic effects of food stress and pollutants on these life-history traits. There was, however, some evidence for a non-linear negative association between p,p'-DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethylene) and eggshell thickness. This suggests that the concentrations of pollutants in this ecosystem were too low to affect reproduction and survival in an owl predominantly consuming prey at low trophic levels, but may be sufficient to cause eggshell thinning at the highest concentrations. PMID:18930319

  3. Burmese political dissidents in Thailand: trauma and survival among young adults in exile.

    PubMed Central

    Allden, K; Poole, C; Chantavanich, S; Ohmar, K; Aung, N N; Mollica, R F

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the self-reported mental health, physical health, and social functioning of young adult political exiles and relates their psychiatric symptoms to their trauma and survival strategies. METHODS: A 1992/93 survey of Burmese who fled to Bangkok, Thailand, after participating in a 1988 uprising against Burma's government elicited information on employment, education, disability, trauma, survival strategies, and depressive and posttraumatic stress symptoms. RESULTS: The 104 participants reported a mean of 30 trauma events, including interrogation (89%), imprisonment (78%), threats of deportation (70%), and torture (38%). Many reported poor health and lack of social supports, but few reported substantial social disability. The prevalence of elevated symptom scores was 38% for depressive symptoms and 23% for criterion symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Symptoms of avoidance and of increased arousal were the most strongly related to cumulative trauma. Two survival strategies, camaraderie and a Buddhist concept of self-confidence (weria), were associated with somewhat reduced levels of both classes of symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Burmese political exiles in Thailand are young adults adversely affected by severe trauma. Their psychosocial well-being may deteriorate further without legal protections to reduce the continuing stress and violence. PMID:8916521

  4. Renal function trajectory over time and adverse clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sohel, Badrul Munir; Rumana, Nahid; Ohsawa, Masaki; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury; Kelly, Martina Ann; Al Mamun, Mohammad

    2016-06-01

    The growing burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD), with its associated morbidity and mortality, is recognized as a major public health problem globally and causing substantial load on health care systems. The current framework for the definition and staging of CKD, based on eGFR levels or presence of kidney damage, is useful for clinical classification of patients, but identifies a huge number of people as having CKD which is too many to target for intervention. The ability to identify a subset of patients, at high risk for adverse outcomes, would be useful to inform clinical management. The current staging system applies static definitions of kidney function that fail to capture the dynamic nature of the kidney disease over time. Now-a-days, it is possible to capture multiple measurements of different laboratory test results for an individual including eGFR values. A new possibility for identifying individuals at higher risk of adverse outcomes is being explored through assessment and consideration of the rate of change in kidney function over time, and this approach will be feasible in the current context of digitalization of health record keeping system. On the basis of the existing evidence, this paper summarizes important findings that support the concept of dynamic changes in kidney function over time, and discusses how the magnitude of these changes affect the future adverse outcomes of kidney disease, particularly the End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD), CVD and mortality. PMID:26728745

  5. Effects of yogurt starter cultures on the survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Ng, Elizabeth W; Yeung, Marie; Tong, Phillip S

    2011-01-31

    Recognized to confer health benefits to consumers, probiotics such as Lactobacillus acidophilus are commonly incorporated into fermented dairy products worldwide; among which yogurt is a popular delivery vehicle. To materialize most of the putative health benefits associated with probiotics, an adequate amount of viable cells must be delivered at the time of consumption. However, the loss in their viabilities during refrigerated storage has been demonstrated previously. This study focused on the effects of yogurt starter cultures on the survival of five strains of L. acidophilus, with emphases on low pH and acid production. Differential survival behavior between L. acidophilus strains was further analyzed. To this end, viable cell counts of L. acidophilus were determined weekly during 4°C storage in various types of yogurts made with Streptococcus thermophilus alone, L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus alone, both species of the starter cultures, or glucono-delta-lactone (GDL). All yogurt types, except for pasteurized yogurts, were co-fermented with L. acidophilus. Yogurt filtrate was analyzed for the presence of any inhibitory substance and for the amount of hydrogen peroxide. Multiplication of L. acidophilus was not affected by the starter cultures as all strains reached high level on day 0 of the storage period. Throughout the 28-day storage period, cell counts of L. acidophilus PIM703 and SBT2062 remained steady (~6 × 10(7)CFU/g) in yogurts made with both starter cultures, whereas those of ATCC 700396 and NCFM were reduced by a maximum of 3 and 4.6 logs, respectively. When starter cultures were replaced by GDL, all strains survived well, suggesting that a low pH was not a critical factor dictating their survival. In addition, the filtrate collected from yogurts made with starter cultures appeared to have higher inhibitory activities against L. acidophilus than that made with GDL. The presence of viable starter cultures was necessary to adversely affect the

  6. Adverse events temporally associated with meningococcal vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Yergeau, A; Alain, L; Pless, R; Robert, Y

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of severe adverse events temporally associated with meningococcal vaccines administered as part of a mass vaccination program. DESIGN: Retrospective descriptive study of events reported to a passive provincial surveillance system. SETTING: The province of Quebec. PARTICIPANTS: The 1,198,751 individuals aged 6 months to 20 years who were vaccinated against meningococcal disease between Dec. 27, 1992, and Mar. 31, 1993. OUTCOME MEASURES: Total numbers and rates of severe adverse events, including allergic reactions, anaphylactic reactions, neurological events (other than abnormal crying and screaming) and other serious or unusual events. RESULTS: A total of 118 reports of severe adverse events were selected from the surveillance system. The most frequent were allergic reactions (9.2 per 100,000 doses). Few anaphylactic or neurologic reactions were reported (0.1 and 0.5 per 100,000 doses respectively). There were no reports of sequelae or of encephalopathy, meningitis or encephalitis. CONCLUSION: Meningococcal vaccines seem to be associated with fewer adverse events than have previously been reported. Existing surveillance programs are useful for determining the incidence of adverse events temporally associated with vaccines. PMID:8630839

  7. The herpes simplex virus immediate-early protein ICP0 affects transcription from the viral genome and infected-cell survival in the absence of ICP4 and ICP27.

    PubMed Central

    Samaniego, L A; Wu, N; DeLuca, N A

    1997-01-01

    ICP4, ICP0, and ICP27 are the immediate-early (IE) regulatory proteins of herpes simplex virus that have the greatest effect on viral gene expression and growth. Comparative analysis of viral mutants defective in various subsets of these IE genes should help elucidate how these proteins affect cellular and viral processes. This study focuses on the mutant d97, which is defective for the genes encoding ICP4, ICP0, and ICP27 and expresses the bacterial beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) gene from the ICP0 promoter. Together with the d92 virus (ICP4- ICP27-) and the ICP0-complementing cell line L7, d97 provided a unique opportunity to evaluate ICP0 function in the absence of the regulatory activities specified by ICP4 and ICP27. The pattern of protein synthesis in d97-infected cells was unique relative to other IE gene mutants in that it was similar to that seen in the absence of prior viral protein synthesis, possibly approximating the effect of cellular factors and virion components alone. Inactivation of ICP0 in the absence of ICP4 produced a significant decrease in the levels of the early mRNAs ICP6 and thymidine kinase (tk). There was also a marginal reduction in the levels of the IE ICP22 mRNA, and this was most notable at low multiplicity of infection (MOI). In d97-infected L7 cells, the levels of the viral mRNAs were mostly restored to those observed in infections with d92. Nuclear runoff transcription analysis demonstrated that the presence of ICP0 resulted in an increase in the transcription rates of the analyzed genes. The transcription rates of the early genes were dramatically reduced in the absence of ICP0. At low MOI, the transcription rates of ICP6 and tk were comparable to the rate of transcription of a cellular gene. Relevant to the potential use of d97 as a transfer vector, it was also determined that the absence of ICP0 reduced the cellular toxicity of the virus compared to that of d92. The beta-gal transgene expressed from an IE promoter was detected

  8. Identifying Adverse Drug Events by Relational Learning

    PubMed Central

    Page, David; Costa, Vítor Santos; Natarajan, Sriraam; Barnard, Aubrey; Peissig, Peggy; Caldwell, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry, consumer protection groups, users of medications and government oversight agencies are all strongly interested in identifying adverse reactions to drugs. While a clinical trial of a drug may use only a thousand patients, once a drug is released on the market it may be taken by millions of patients. As a result, in many cases adverse drug events (ADEs) are observed in the broader population that were not identified during clinical trials. Therefore, there is a need for continued, post-marketing surveillance of drugs to identify previously-unanticipated ADEs. This paper casts this problem as a reverse machine learning task, related to relational subgroup discovery and provides an initial evaluation of this approach based on experiments with an actual EMR/EHR and known adverse drug events. PMID:24955289

  9. Standardizing drug adverse event reporting data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liwei; Jiang, Guoqian; Li, Dingcheng; Liu, Hongfang

    2013-01-01

    Normalizing data in the Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS), an FDA database, would improve the mining capacity of AERS for drug safety signal detection. In this study, we aim to normalize AERS and build a publicly available normalized Adverse drug events (ADE) data source.he drug information in AERS is normalized to RxNorm, a standard terminology source for medication. Drug class information is then obtained from the National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT). Adverse drug events (ADE) are aggregated through mapping with the PT (Preferred Term) and SOC (System Organ Class) codes of MedDRA. Our study yields an aggregated knowledge-enhanced AERS data mining set (AERS-DM). The AERS-DM could provide more perspectives to mine AERS database for drug safety signal detection and could be used by research community in the data mining field. PMID:23920875

  10. A revised inventory of Adverse Childhood Experiences.

    PubMed

    Finkelhor, David; Shattuck, Anne; Turner, Heather; Hamby, Sherry

    2015-10-01

    This study examines whether the items from the original Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale can be improved in their prediction of health outcomes by adding some additional widely recognized childhood adversities. The analyses come from the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence 2014, a telephone survey conducted from August 2013 through April 2014 with a nationally representative sample of 1,949 children and adolescents aged 10-17 and their caregivers who were asked about adversities, physical health conditions and mental health symptoms. The addition of measures of peer victimization, peer isolation/rejection, and community violence exposure added significantly to the prediction of mental health symptoms, and the addition of a measure of low socioeconomic status (SES) added significantly to the prediction of physical health problems. A revised version of the ACES scale is proposed. PMID:26259971

  11. Adverse health consequences of the Iraq War.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2013-03-16

    The adverse health consequences of the Iraq War (2003-11) were profound. We conclude that at least 116,903 Iraqi non-combatants and more than 4800 coalition military personnel died over the 8-year course. Many Iraqi civilians were injured or became ill because of damage to the health-supporting infrastructure of the country, and about 5 million were displaced. More than 31,000 US military personnel were injured and a substantial percentage of those deployed suffered post-traumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, and other neuropsychological disorders and their concomitant psychosocial problems. Many family members of military personnel had psychological problems. Further review of the adverse health consequences of this war could help to minimise the adverse health consequences of, and help to prevent, future wars. PMID:23499043

  12. Adverse events related to blood transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Sandeep; Hemlata; Verma, Anupam

    2014-01-01

    The acute blood transfusion reactions are responsible for causing most serious adverse events. Awareness about various clinical features of acute and delayed transfusion reactions with an ability to assess the serious reactions on time can lead to a better prognosis. Evidence-based medicine has changed today's scenario of clinical practice to decrease adverse transfusion reactions. New evidence-based algorithms of transfusion and improved haemovigilance lead to avoidance of unnecessary transfusions perioperatively. The recognition of adverse events under anaesthesia is always challenging. The unnecessary blood transfusions can be avoided with better blood conservation techniques during surgery and with anaesthesia techniques that reduce blood loss. Better and newer blood screening methods have decreased the infectious complications to almost negligible levels. With universal leukoreduction of red blood cells (RBCs), selection of potential donors such as use of male donors only plasma and restriction of RBC storage, most of the non-infectious complications can be avoided. PMID:25535415

  13. Survival Skills: Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Reviewed are five programs (textbooks, audiovisual materials, workbooks, video-cassettes) designed to improve academic survival skills in secondary students. Content emphasis, reading level, rationale, objectives, organization, instructional method, student evaluation, physical features, and recommendations are listed for each. (KC)

  14. Survival at Isle Royale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballone, Lena M.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a simulation based on the popular television show "Survivor" in which students work in groups and study physiological needs for human survival. Focuses on communication skills, problem solving, and cooperative learning. (YDS)

  15. Surviving at extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougan, Lorna

    2015-11-01

    Wherever we look on Earth - even in the most inhospitable places - we find life. But how do organisms manage to survive such difficult conditions? Lorna Dougan explains how physicists are helping to unravel the properties of “extremophile” life.

  16. The Relation between Obesity and Survival after Surgical Resection of Hepatitis C Virus-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Hiroki; Arimoto, Akira; Wakasa, Tomoko; Kita, Ryuichi; Kimura, Toru; Osaki, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims. We aimed to investigate the relationship between obesity and survival in hepatitis C virus-(HCV-) related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients who underwent curative surgical resection (SR). Methods. A total of 233 patients with HCV-related HCC who underwent curative SR were included. They included 60 patients (25.8%) with a body mass index (BMI) of > 25 kg/m2 (obesity group) and 173 patients with a BMI of < 25 kg/m2 (control group). Overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were compared. Results. The median follow-up periods were 3.6 years in the obesity group and 3.1 years in the control group. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year cumulative OS rates were 98.3%, 81.0%, and 63.9% in the obesity group and 90.0%, 70.5%, and 50.3% in the control group (P = 0.818). The corresponding RFS rates were 70.1%, 27.0%, and 12.0% in the obesity group and 70.1%, 39.0%, and 21.7% in the control group (P = 0.124). There were no significant differences between the obesity group and the control group in terms of blood loss during surgery (P = 0.899) and surgery-related serious adverse events (P = 0.813). Conclusions. Obesity itself did not affect survival in patients with HCV-related HCC after curative SR. PMID:23710167

  17. Surviving Operation Desert Storm

    SciTech Connect

    Vice, J. )

    1992-08-01

    The importance of aircraft survivability during the invasion of Iraq is examined detailing anecdotal evidence of susceptibility and vulnerability reduction. Among the aircraft used that were designed to be more survivable than their predecessors were the F-117, A-10, F/A-18, and the AH-64. Reduced vulnerability is incorporated into the aircraft designs in the form of damage tolerant components, redundancy, self-sealing fluid systems, and miniaturization.

  18. Stromal cell-derived CSF-1 blockade prolongs xenograft survival of CSF-1-negative neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Dietmar; Zins, Karin; Sioud, Mouldy; Lucas, Trevor; Schäfer, Romana; Stanley, E. Richard; Aharinejad, Seyedhossein

    2011-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of tumor–host interactions that render neuroblastoma (NB) cells highly invasive are unclear. Cancer cells upregulate host stromal cell colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) production to recruit tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and accelerate tumor growth by affecting extracellular matrix remodeling and angiogenesis. By coculturing NB with stromal cells in vitro, we showed the importance of host CSF-1 expression for macrophage recruitment to NB cells. To examine this interaction in NB in vivo, mice bearing human CSF-1-expressing SK-N-AS and CSF-1-negative SK-NDZ NB xenografts were treated with intratumoral injections of small interfering RNAs directed against mouse CSF-1. Significant suppression of both SK-N-AS and SK-N-DZ NB growth by these treatments was associated with decreased TAM infiltration, matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-12 levels and angiogenesis compared to controls, while expression of tissue inhibitors of MMPs increased following mouse CSF-1 blockade. Furthermore, Tie-2-positive and -negative TAMs recruited by host CSF-1 were identified in NB tumor tissue by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. However, host-CSF-1 blockade prolonged survival only in CSF-1-negative SK-N-DZ NB. These studies demonstrated that increased CSF-1 production by host cells enhances TAM recruitment and NB growth and that the CSF-1 phenotype of NB tumor cells adversely affects survival. PMID:19711348

  19. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  20. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  1. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  2. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  3. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  4. Emotion Dysregulation Mediates the Relationship between Lifetime Cumulative Adversity and Depressive Symptomatology

    PubMed Central

    Abravanel, Benjamin T.; Sinha, Rajita

    2014-01-01

    Repeated exposure to stressful events across the lifespan, referred to as cumulative adversity, is a potent risk factor for depression. Research indicates that cumulative adversity detrimentally affects emotion regulation processes, which may represent a pathway linking cumulative adversity to vulnerability to depression. However, empirical evidence that emotion dysregulation mediates the relationship between cumulative adversity and depression is limited, particularly in adult populations. We examined the direct and indirect effects of cumulative adversity on depressive symptomatology in a large community sample of adults (n = 745) who were further characterized by risk status: never-depressed (n = 638) and “at-risk” remitted mood-disordered (n = 107). All participants completed the Cumulative Adversity Inventory (CAI), the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Bootstrapped confidence intervals were computed to estimate the indirect effect of emotion dysregulation on the relationship between cumulative adversity and depressive symptomatology and to test whether this indirect effect was moderated by risk status. Emotion dysregulation partially and significantly mediated the relationship between cumulative adversity and depressive symptomatology independent of risk status. Overall, cumulative adversity and emotion dysregulation accounted for 50% of the variance in depressive symptomatology. These findings support the hypothesis that disruption of adaptive emotion regulation processes associated with repeated exposure to stressful life events represents an intrapersonal mechanism linking the experience of adverse events to depression. Our results support the utility of interventions that simultaneously emphasize stress reduction and emotion regulation to treat and prevent depressive vulnerability and pathology. PMID:25528603

  5. Adverse effects of drugs on the immature kidney.

    PubMed

    Guignard, J P; Gouyon, J B

    1988-01-01

    The immature kidney may be adversely affected by a variety of vasoactive or diuretic drugs, either administered to the mother during pregnancy, or to the neonate. Inhibitors of the angiotensin-converting enzyme administered to the hypertensive pregnant woman can severely and sometimes definitely impair renal function in the fetus, leading to postnatal anuria. Pathogenesis involves interference with the renin-angiotensin system and the prostaglandins. Beta-adrenergic agents administered during labor depress glomerular filtration rate transiently. Tolazoline, an alpha-adrenergic blocking agent useful in the treatment of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate induces intense renal vasoconstriction with consequent hypoperfusion. Indomethacin, a prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor used for the pharmacological closure of a patent ductus arteriosus, also increases renal vascular resistance, and decreases urine output. Furosemide, the drug most often used in oliguric neonates, may also adversely affect the newborn infant. Its use has been associated with an increase in the incidence of patent ductus arteriosus, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis and secondary hyperparathyroidism. These observations demonstrate that the proper use of drugs requires that the therapeutic endpoint be clearly defined and the predictable side effects be anticipated. PMID:2901276

  6. Hepatic drug metabolism and adverse hepatic drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Schaffner, F

    1975-01-01

    Drugs and other chemicals are usually metabolized in the liver in the drug-metabolizing enzyme system. The metabolites sometimes bind with cellular macromolecules and injure the cell directly or serve as new antigens to create immunologic injury in a delayed fashion. The immediate or toxic injury is dose-dependent, predictable and zonal in the liver lobule, usually in the central region. Carbon tetrachloride intoxication and acetaminophen overdose are examples of injury resulting from microsomal metabolism. Other injuries related to microsomal metabolism are those produced by vinyl chloride in polymerization plant workers and by methotrexate in psoriatics or leukemic children. Most adverse drug reactions affecting the liver and producing jaundice are unpredictable, delayed in onset, and only hypothetically related to microsomal metabolism in some instances. The two main types are cholestasis and viral-hepatitis-like. The former may be in a pure form, in which case it may be partly dose-dependent, or in a form mixed with hepatitis. Many drugs produce cholestasis in a small percentage of persons, and because the reaction is benign, albeit prolonged at times, such drugs continue to be used. The viral-hepatitis-like reaction involves few drugs and affects few persons, but can be fatal. The recognition that chronic hepatitis can be caused by drugs such as oxyphenisatin, alpha-methyldopa, and isoniazid has added a new dimension to the clinical problem of adverse drug reactions, which may extend to widely used and commonly available agents like aspirin. PMID:171822

  7. [Analgesics in geriatric patients. Adverse side effects and interactions].

    PubMed

    Gosch, Markus

    2015-07-01

    Pain is a widespread symptom in clinical practice. Older adults and chronically ill patients are particularly affected. In multimorbid geriatric patients, pharmacological pain treatment is an extension of a previously existing multimedication. Besides the efficacy of pain treatment, drug side effects and drug-drug interactions have to be taken into account to minimize the health risk for these patients. Apart from the number of prescriptions, the age-related pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes significantly increase the risk among older adults. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) is widespread but NSAIDs have the highest risk of adverse drug reactions and drug interactions. In particular, the gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal and coagulation systems are affected. Apart from the known toxic effect on the liver (in high doses), paracetamol (acetaminophen) has similar risks although to a lesser degree. According to current data, metamizol is actually better than its reputation suggests. The risk of potential drug interactions seems to be low. Apart from the risk of sedation in combination with other drugs, tramadol and other opioids can induce the serotonin syndrome. Among older adults, especially in the case of polypharmacy, an individualized approach should be considered instead of sticking to the pain management recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) in order to minimize drug-drug interactions and adverse drug reactions. PMID:26152872

  8. Survival Rates for Thymus Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... staged? Next Topic How is thymus cancer treated? Survival rates for thymus cancer Survival rates are often ... into account. Stage of thymoma 5-year observed survival rate I 74% II 73% III 64% IV ...

  9. The adverse outcome pathway knowledge base

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapid advancement of the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework has been paralleled by the development of tools to store, analyse, and explore AOPs. The AOP Knowledge Base (AOP-KB) project has brought three independently developed platforms (Effectopedia, AOP-Wiki, and AOP-X...

  10. Adverse Effects of Psychotropic Medications on Sleep.

    PubMed

    Doghramji, Karl; Jangro, William C

    2016-09-01

    Psychotropic medications such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, stimulants, and benzodiazepines are widely prescribed. Most of these medications are thought to exert their effects through modulation of various monoamines as well as interactions with receptors such as histamine and muscarinic cholinergic receptors. Through these interactions, psychotropics can also have a significant impact on sleep physiology, resulting in both beneficial and adverse effects on sleep. PMID:27514301

  11. Resilience in the Face of Adversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Jerry

    2001-01-01

    "Resilience" is the capacity for moving ahead under adverse circumstances. School superintendents are advised to stay upbeat and mindful of "both-and" opportunities; stay focused on what they care about; remain flexible and tolerant of ambiguity; be proactive, not reactive; and apply resilience-conserving strategies during tough times. (MLH)

  12. Adverse effects of fillers and their histopathology.

    PubMed

    Haneke, Eckart

    2014-12-01

    Injectable fillers nowadays represent a pillar in facial rejuvenation and make a significant contribution to the success of the treatment. Despite their obvious benefits, a wide range of possible complications such as immediate, late, delayed, temporary, or irreversible adverse effects have to be respected. Differentiating the various filler materials, these effects are assigned to histopathology findings and currently available treatment options. PMID:25536126

  13. Helping Student Teachers Avoid Adverse Legal Actions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Larry; Reddick, Thomas L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses five areas of the school environment lending themselves to the possibility of teacher and student teacher liability: negligence, malpractice, rights to privacy, field trips, and search of students and school property. Suggests specific guidelines for decreasing the possibility of adverse legal action. (NEC)

  14. Pharmacogenomics and adverse drug reactions in children

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Michael J.; Carleton, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions are a common and important complication of drug therapy in children. Over the past decade it has become increasingly apparent that genetically controlled variations in drug disposition and response are important determinants of adverse events for many important adverse events associated with drug therapy in children. While this research has been difficult to conduct over the past decade technical and ethical evolution has greatly facilitated the ability of investigators to conduct pharmacogenomic studies in children. Some of this research has already resulted in changes in public policy and clinical practice, for example in the case of codeine use by mothers and children. It is likely that the use of pharmacogenomics to enhance drug safety will first be realized among selected groups of children with high rates of drug use such as children with cancer, but it also likely that this research will be extended to other groups of children who have high rates of drug utilization and as well as providing insights into the mechanisms and pathophysiology of adverse drug reactions in children. PMID:24795743

  15. [Analysis of Spontaneously Reported Adverse Events].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Observational study is necessary for the evaluation of drug effectiveness in clinical practice. In recent years, the use of spontaneous reporting systems (SRS) for adverse drug reactions has increased and they have become an important resource for regulatory science. SRS, being the largest and most well-known databases worldwide, are one of the primary tools used for postmarketing surveillance and pharmacovigilance. To analyze SRS, the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) and the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report Database (JADER) are reviewed. Authorized pharmacovigilance algorithms were used for signal detection, including the reporting odds ratio. An SRS is a passive reporting database and is therefore subject to numerous sources of selection bias, including overreporting, underreporting, and a lack of a denominator. Despite the inherent limitations of spontaneous reporting, SRS databases are a rich resource and data mining index that provide powerful means of identifying potential associations between drugs and their adverse effects. Our results, which are based on the evaluation of SRS databases, provide essential knowledge that could improve our understanding of clinical issues. PMID:27040337

  16. Adverse outcome pathway (AOP) development and evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Adverse Outcome Pathway provides a construct for assembling mechanistic information at different levels of biological organization in a form designed to support regulatory decision making. In particular, it frames the link between molecular and cellular events that can be mea...

  17. Reducing Adverse Impact: One City's Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Jeff

    Following a workshop on "Innovations in Employment Testing that Improve Validity and Reduce Adverse Impact," the City of Louisville (Kentucky) implemented a strategy to develop a comprehensive testing and recruiting program for police recruits. To improve candidate expectations and preparation, the following activities were undertaken: intense…

  18. Enduring psychobiological effects of childhood adversity.

    PubMed

    Ehlert, Ulrike

    2013-09-01

    This mini-review refers to recent findings on psychobiological long-term consequences of childhood trauma and adverse living conditions. The continuum of trauma-provoked aftermath reaches from healthy adaptation with high resilience, to severe maladjustment with co-occurring psychiatric and physical pathologies in children, adolescents and adults. There is increasing evidence of a strong interconnectivity between genetic dispositions, epigenetic processes, stress-related hormonal systems and immune parameters in all forms of (mal)-adjustment to adverse living conditions. Unfavorable constellations of these dispositions and systems, such as low cortisol levels and elevated markers of inflammation in maltreated children, seem to promote the (co)-occurrence of psychiatric and physical pathologies such as posttraumatic stress disorder, obesity, or diabetes. Although findings from prospective study designs support a deepened understanding of causal relations between adverse living conditions, including traumatic experiences, during childhood and its psychobiological effects, so far, little is known about the temporal coincidence of stress-sensitive developmental stages during childhood and adolescence and trauma consequences. Taken together, childhood adversity is a severe risk factor for the onset of psychobiological (mal)-adjustment, which has to be explained under consideration of diverse physiological systems and developmental stages of childhood and adolescence. PMID:23850228

  19. Analysis of adverse events of sunitinib in patients treated for advanced renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cedrych, Ida; Jasiówka, Marek; Niemiec, Maciej; Skotnicki, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Treatment of the metastatic stage of renal cell carcinoma is specific because classical chemotherapy is not applicable here. The treatment is mainly based on molecularly targeted drugs, including inhibitors of tyrosine kinases. In many cases the therapy takes many months, and patients often report to general practitioners due to adverse events. In this article, the effectiveness and side effects of one of these drugs are presented. The aim of the study was to analyse of the toxicity and safety of treatment with sunitinib malate in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma in the metastatic stage. Material and methods Adverse events were analyzed using retrospective analysis of data collected in a group of 39 patients treated in the Department of Systemic and Generalized Malignancies in the Cancer Center in Krakow, Poland. Results Toxicity of treatment affected 50% of patients. The most common side effects observed were hypertension, thrombocytopenia, stomatitis, diarrhea and weakness. Grade 3 serious adverse events according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4 affected up to 10% of patients. The most common serious adverse events were hypertension and fatigue. Conclusions Sunitinib malate is characterized by a particular type of toxicity. Knowledge of the types and range of adverse events of this drug is an important part of oncological and internal medicine care. PMID:27186181

  20. A longitudinal perspective on childhood adversities and onset risk of various psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ormel, Johan

    2015-06-01

    It is well-known that childhood adversities can have long-term effects on mental health, but a lot remains to be learned about the risk they bring about for a first onset of various psychiatric disorders, and how this risk develops over time. In the present study, which was based on a Dutch longitudinal population survey of adolescents TRAILS (N = 1,584), we investigated whether and how childhood adversities, as assessed with three different measures, affected the risk of developing an incident depressive, anxiety, or disruptive behavior in childhood and adolescence. In addition, we tested gender differences in any of the effects under study. The results indicated that depressive, anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders each had their own, characteristic, pattern of associations with childhood adversities across childhood and adolescence, which was maintained after adjustment for comorbid disorders. For depressive disorders, the overall pattern suggested a high excess risk of incidence during childhood, which decreased during adolescence. Anxiety disorders were characterized by a moderately increased incident risk during childhood, which remained approximately stable over time. Disruptive behavior disorders took an intermediate position. Of the three childhood adversities tested, an overall rating of the stressfulness of the childhood appeared to predict onset of psychiatric disorders best. To conclude, the risk of developing a psychiatric disorder after exposure to adversities early in life depends on the nature of the adversities, the nature of the outcome, and the time that has passed since the adversities without disorder onset. PMID:24723042

  1. Microencapsulation in genipin cross-linked gelatine-maltodextrin improves survival of Bifidobacterium adolescentis during exposure to in vitro gastrointestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Borza, Antonela D; Annan, Nana T; Moreau, Debra L; Allan-Wojtas, Paula M; Ghanem, Amyl; Rousseau, Dérick; Paulson, Allan T; Hansen, Lisbeth Truelstrup

    2010-01-01

    To improve survival during exposure to adverse conditions, probiotic Bifidobacterium adolescentis 15703T cells were encapsulated in novel mono-core and multi-core phase-separated gelatine-maltodextrin (GMD) microspheres where the gelatine (G) phase was cross-linked with genipin (GP). Microscopy showed that encapsulated cells were exclusively associated with maltodextrin (MD) core(s). Small (average diameter 37 microm) and large (70 microm) GMD and G microspheres were produced by modulating factors (e.g. mixing speed, surfactant, GP and G concentrations) affecting the size, structural stability and phase-separation. In vitro sequential gastro-intestinal (GI) juice challenge experiments revealed increased survival of cells encapsulated in GMD ( approximately 10(6-7) cfu mL(-1)) and G (approximately 10(5) cfu mL(-1)) microspheres as compared to free cells (approximately 10(4) cfu mL(-1)). In GMD microspheres, the bacteria derive energy from MD to survive during exposure to acid and bile salts. In conclusion, the novel food grade GMD microencapsulation formulation was shown to protect probiotic bifidobacteria from adverse conditions. PMID:19860547

  2. Breeding-ground habitat conditions and the survival of mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Pospahala, R.S.; Hines, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between habitat conditions in prairie breeding areas of North America and mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) survival rates was investigated. Annual survival-rate estimates for mallards generally were higher during years of high May pond numbers and low mallards-per-pond ratios than during years of low pond numbers and high ratios. This tendency was most pronounced among males. These results suggest that mallard survival probabilities may be affected by breeding-ground habitat conditions.

  3. Surviving atmospheric spacecraft breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.; McLamb, William

    2005-01-01

    Spacecraft travel higher and faster than aircraft, making breakup potentially less survivable. As with aircraft breakup, the dissipation of lethal forces via spacecraft breakup around an organism is likely to greatly increase the odds of survival. By employing a knowledge of space and aviation physiology, comparative physiology, and search-and-rescue techniques, we were able to correctly predict and execute the recovery of live animals following the breakup of the space shuttle Columbia. In this study, we make what is, to our knowledge, the first report of an animal, Caenorhabditis elegans, surviving the atmospheric breakup of the spacecraft that was supporting it and discuss both the lethal events these animals had to escape and the implications for search and rescue following spacecraft breakup.

  4. Growth and aggressiveness factors affecting Monilinia spp. survival peaches.

    PubMed

    Villarino, M; Melgarejo, P; De Cal, A

    2016-06-16

    Brown rot of stone fruit is caused by three species of Monilinia, Monilinia laxa, M. fructigena, and M. fructicola. Eleven components of 20 different isolates of each of the three Monilinia species were analyzed to determine distinct aggressiveness and growth characteristics among the three fungi. M. fructicola showed the greatest lesion diameter, and the lowest incubation and latency period on fruit postharvest, however isolates of M. fructigena exhibited less aggressiveness components. Five growth characteristics of M. fructicola could be used to distinguish M. fructicola from the other two species. The dendrogram generated from only the presence of sclerotia and lesion length on infected fruit separated the 60 isolates into two clusters (r=0.93). One cluster was composed of the M. laxa and M. fructigena isolates and the other cluster comprised the M. fructicola isolates. However, the dendrogram generated based on the presence of stromata and sclerotia in the same colony of the three species when they were grown on potato dextrose agar, and the lesion diameter on fruit infected with each species separated the 60 isolates into three clusters (r=0.81). Each cluster comprised the isolates of each of three Monilinia spp. We discussed the effect of M. fructicola growth and aggressiveness differences on the displacement of M. laxa and M. fructigena by M. fructicola recorded in Spanish peach orchards and their effect on brown rot at postharvest. PMID:27043383

  5. Critical processes affecting Cryptosporidium oocyst survival in the environment.

    PubMed

    King, B J; Monis, P T

    2007-03-01

    Cryptosporidium are parasitic protozoans that cause gastrointestinal disease and represent a significant risk to public health. Cryptosporidium oocysts are prevalent in surface waters as a result of human, livestock and native animal faecal contamination. The resistance of oocysts to the concentrations of chlorine and monochloramine used to disinfect potable water increases the risk of waterborne transmission via drinking water. In addition to being resistant to commonly used disinfectants, it is thought that oocysts can persist in the environment and be readily mobilized by precipitation events. This paper will review the critical processes involved in the inactivation or removal of oocysts in the terrestrial and aquatic environments and consider how these processes will respond in the context of climate change. PMID:17096874

  6. Growth and aggressiveness factors affecting Monilinia spp. survival peaches.

    PubMed

    Villarino, M; Melgarejo, P; De Cal, A

    2016-05-01

    Brown rot of stone fruit is caused by three species of Monilinia, Monilinia laxa, M. fructigena, and M. fructicola. Eleven components of 20 different isolates of each of the three Monilinia species were analysed to determine distinct aggressiveness and growth characteristics among the three fungi. M. fructicola showed the greatest lesion diameter, and the lowest incubation and latency period on fruit postharvest, however isolates of M. fructigena exhibited less aggressiveness components. Five growth characteristics of M. fructicola could be used to distinguish M. fructicola from the other two species. The dendrogram generated from only the presence of sclerotia and lesion length on infected fruit separated the 60 isolates into two clusters (r=0.93). One cluster was composed of the M. laxa and M. fructigena isolates and the other cluster comprised the M. fructicola isolates. However, the dendrogram generated based on the presence of stromata and sclerotia in the same colony of the three species when they were grown on potato dextrose agar, and the lesion diameter on fruit infected with each species separated the 60 isolates into three clusters (r=0.81). Each cluster comprised the isolates of each of three Monilinia spp. We discussed the effect of M. fructicola growth and aggressiveness differences on the displacement of M. laxa and M. fructigena by M. fructicola recorded in Spanish peach orchards and their effect on brown rot at postharvest. PMID:26918325

  7. Factors Affecting Survival of Bacteriophage on Tomato Leaf Surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of bacteriophage to persist in the phyllosphere for extended periods is limited by many factors, including sunlight irradiation, especially in the UV zone, temperature, desiccation, and exposure to copper bactericides. The effects of these factors on persistence of phage and formulated p...

  8. 21 CFR 606.170 - Adverse reaction file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adverse reaction file. 606.170 Section 606.170... Adverse reaction file. (a) Records shall be maintained of any reports of complaints of adverse reactions... thorough investigation of each reported adverse reaction shall be made. A written report of...

  9. 21 CFR 606.170 - Adverse reaction file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adverse reaction file. 606.170 Section 606.170... Adverse reaction file. (a) Records shall be maintained of any reports of complaints of adverse reactions... thorough investigation of each reported adverse reaction shall be made. A written report of...

  10. 21 CFR 606.170 - Adverse reaction file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adverse reaction file. 606.170 Section 606.170... Adverse reaction file. (a) Records shall be maintained of any reports of complaints of adverse reactions... thorough investigation of each reported adverse reaction shall be made. A written report of...

  11. Survival after judicial hanging.

    PubMed

    Sabermoghaddam, Mohsen; Abad, Mohsen; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Mozaffari, Nasrollah

    2015-06-01

    Hanging is known not only as a common method of suicide but also as a capital punishment method in some countries. Although several cases have been reported to survive after the attempted suicidal/accidental hanging, to the extent of our knowledge, no modern case of survival after judicial hanging exists. We reported a case of an individual who revived after modern judicial hanging despite being declared dead. The case was admitted with poor clinical presentations and the Glasgow Coma Scale of 6/15. The victim received all the standard supportive intensive care and gained complete clinical recovery. PMID:25747958

  12. Adverse events during intrahospital transport of critically ill patients: incidence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transport of critically ill patients for diagnostic or therapeutic procedures is at risk of complications. Adverse events during transport are common and may have significant consequences for the patient. The objective of the study was to collect prospectively adverse events that occurred during intrahospital transports of critically ill patients and to determine their risk factors. Methods This prospective, observational study of intrahospital transport of consecutively admitted patients with mechanical ventilation was conducted in a 38-bed intensive care unit in a university hospital from May 2009 to March 2010. Results Of 262 transports observed (184 patients), 120 (45.8%) were associated with adverse events. Risk factors were ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure >6 cmH2O, sedation before transport, and fluid loading for intrahospital transports. Within these intrahospital transports with adverse events, 68 (26% of all intrahospital transports) were associated with an adverse event affecting the patient. Identified risk factors were: positive end-expiratory pressure >6 cmH2O, and treatment modification before transport. In 44 cases (16.8% of all intrahospital transports), adverse event was considered serious for the patient. In our study, adverse events did not statistically increase ventilator-associated pneumonia, time spent on mechanical ventilation, or length of stay in the intensive care unit. Conclusions This study confirms that the intrahospital transports of critically ill patients leads to a significant number of adverse events. Although in our study adverse events have not had major consequences on the patient stay, efforts should be made to decrease their incidence. PMID:23587445

  13. Survival and impact of genetically engineered Pseudomonas putida harboring mercury resistance gene in aquatic microcosms.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, K; Uchiyama, H; Yagi, O

    1993-08-01

    The survival of wild-type and genetically engineered Pseudomonas putida PpY101 that contained a recombinant plasmid pSR134 conferring mercury resistance were monitored in aquatic microcosms. We used lake, river, and spring water samples. The density of genetically engineered and wild-type P. putida decreased rapidly within 5 days (population change rate k -0.87 approximately -1.00 day-1), then moderately after 5 to 28 days (-0.10 approximately -0.14 day-1). The population change rates of genetically engineered and wild-type P. putida were not significantly different. We studied the important factors affecting the survival of genetically engineered and wild-type P. putida introduced in aquatic microcosms. Visible light exerted an adverse effect on the survival of the two strains. The densities of genetically engineered and wild-type P. putida were almost constant until 7 days after inoculation in natural water filtered with a 0.45-micron membrane filter, or treated with cycloheximide to inhibit the growth of protozoa. These results suggested that protozoan predation was one of the most important factors for the survival of two strains. We examined the impact of the addition of genetically engineered and wild-type P. putida on indigenous bacteria and protozoa. Inoculation of genetically engineered or wild-type P. putida had no apparent effect on the density of indigenous bacteria. The density of protozoa increased in microcosms inoculated with genetically engineered or wild-type P. putida at 3 days after inoculation, but after 5 to 21 days, the density of protozoa decreased to the same level as the control microcosms. PMID:7764012

  14. Dying to be famous: retrospective cohort study of rock and pop star mortality and its association with adverse childhood experiences

    PubMed Central

    Bellis, Mark A; Hughes, Karen; Sharples, Olivia; Hennell, Tom; Hardcastle, Katherine A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Rock and pop fame is associated with risk taking, substance use and premature mortality. We examine relationships between fame and premature mortality and test how such relationships vary with type of performer (eg, solo or band member) and nationality and whether cause of death is linked with prefame (adverse childhood) experiences. Design A retrospective cohort analysis based on biographical data. An actuarial methodology compares postfame mortality to matched general populations. Cox survival and logistic regression techniques examine risk and protective factors for survival and links between adverse childhood experiences and cause of death, respectively. Setting North America and Europe. Participants 1489 rock and pop stars reaching fame between 1956 and 2006. Outcomes Stars’ postfame mortality relative to age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched populations (USA and UK); variations in survival with performer type, and in cause of mortality with exposure to adverse childhood experiences. Results Rock/pop star mortality increases relative to the general population with time since fame. Increases are greater in North American stars and those with solo careers. Relative mortality begins to recover 25 years after fame in European but not North American stars. Those reaching fame from 1980 onwards have better survival rates. For deceased stars, cause of death was more likely to be substance use or risk-related in those with more adverse childhood experiences. Conclusions Relationships between fame and mortality vary with performers’ characteristics. Adverse experiences in early life may leave some predisposed to health-damaging behaviours, with fame and extreme wealth providing greater opportunities to engage in risk-taking. Millions of youths wish to emulate their icons. It is important they recognise that substance use and risk-taking may be rooted in childhood adversity rather than seeing them as symbols of success. PMID:23253869

  15. Glaucoma eye drops adverse skin reactions.

    PubMed

    Cantisani, Carmen; Ambrifi, Marina; Frascani, Federica; Fazia, Gilda; Paolino, Giovanni; Lisi, Roberto; Calvieri, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The term "Glaucoma" is used to describe a number of diseases of the eye characterized by a particular form of optic nerve damage that is often associated with high intraocular pressure (IOP). The open-angle glaucoma is the most common form that is also referred to as chronic glaucoma. This is described as an optic neuropathy with multifactorial nature in which there is a loss of characteristics of the optic nerve fibers. Therapeutic options for the treatment of this disease are different, you can take advantage of eye drops, laser therapy and conventional surgery or more combined treatments. Medicated eye drops are the most common way to treat glaucoma. Although eye drops are widely used, adverse reactions are not frequently observed and described. In particular, the adverse skin reactions are not frequently described in the literature, but often seen in dermatologic clinic, we reported their skin reactions and possible alternative treatments described in literature and their patent applications. PMID:25487259

  16. Anaphylactoid and adverse reactions to radiocontrast agents.

    PubMed

    Hagan, John B

    2004-08-01

    Over the past 75 years, radiocontrast agents have provided numerous diagnostic and therapeutic advances. The benefits of these agents must be weighed against the potential risks for each individual undergoing radiologic tests. This summary is intended to be a guide for the allergy and immunology specialist to direct him or her to the current literature regarding adverse reactions to traditional and less commonly used radiologic contrast agents. PMID:15242724

  17. An Ss Model with Adverse Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Christopher L.; Leahy, John V.

    2004-01-01

    We present a model of the market for a used durable in which agents face fixed costs of adjustment, the magnitude of which depends on the degree of adverse selection in the secondary market. We find that, unlike typical models, the sS bands in our model contract as the variance of the shock increases. We also analyze a dynamic version of the model…

  18. Adverse Effects of UV-B Radiation on Plants Growing at Schirmacher Oasis, East Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jaswant; Singh, Rudra P.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the impacts of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation over a 28-day period on the levels of pigments of Umbilicaria aprina and Bryum argenteum growing in field. The depletion of stratospheric ozone is most prominent over Antarctica, which receives more UV-B radiation than most other parts of the planet. Although UV-B radiation adversely affects all flora, Antarctic plants are better equipped to survive the damaging effects of UV-B owing to defenses provided by UV-B absorbing compounds and other screening pigments. The UV-B radiations and daily average ozone values were measured by sun photometer and the photosynthetic pigments were analyzed by the standard spectrophotometric methods of exposed and unexposed selected plants. The daily average atmospheric ozone values were recorded from 5 January to 2 February 2008. The maximum daily average for ozone (310.7 Dobson Units (DU)) was recorded on 10 January 2008. On that day, average UV-B spectral irradiances were 0.016, 0.071, and 0.186 W m-2 at wavelengths of 305, 312, and 320 nm, respectively. The minimum daily average ozone value (278.6 DU) was recorded on 31 January 2008. On that day, average UV-B spectral irradiances were 0.018, 0.085, and 0.210 W m-2 at wavelengths of 305, 312, and 320 nm, respectively. Our results concludes that following prolonged UV-B exposure, total chlorophyll levels decreased gradually in both species, whereas levels of UV-B absorbing compounds, phenolics, and carotenoids gradually increased. PMID:24748743

  19. Metabolic syndrome definitions and components in predicting major adverse cardiovascular events after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Prasad, G V Ramesh; Huang, Michael; Silver, Samuel A; Al-Lawati, Ali I; Rapi, Lindita; Nash, Michelle M; Zaltzman, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) associates with cardiovascular risk post-kidney transplantation, but its ambiguity impairs understanding of its diagnostic utility relative to components. We compared five MetS definitions and the predictive value of constituent components of significant definitions for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in a cohort of 1182 kidney transplant recipients. MetS definitions were adjusted for noncomponent traditional Framingham risk factors and relevant transplant-related variables. Kaplan-Meier, logistic regression, and Cox proportional hazards analysis were utilized. There were 143 MACE over 7447 patient-years of follow-up. Only the World Health Organization (WHO) 1998 definition predicted MACE (25.3 vs 15.5 events/1000 patient-years, P = 0.019). Time-to-MACE was 5.5 ± 3.5 years with MetS and 6.8 ± 3.9 years without MetS (P < 0.0001). MetS was independent of pertinent MACE risk factors except age and previous cardiac disease. Among MetS components, dysglycemia provided greatest hazard ratio (HR) for MACE (1.814 [95% confidence interval 1.26-2.60]), increased successively by microalbuminuria (HR 1.946 [1.37-2.75]), dyslipidemia (3.284 [1.72-6.26]), hypertension (4.127 [2.16-7.86]), and central obesity (4.282 [2.09-8.76]). MetS did not affect graft survival. In summary, although the WHO 1998 definition provides greatest predictive value for post-transplant MACE, most of this is conferred by dysglycemia and is overshadowed by age and previous cardiac disease. PMID:25207680

  20. Novel biopesticide based on a spider venom peptide shows no adverse effects on honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Nakasu, Erich Y. T.; Williamson, Sally M.; Edwards, Martin G.; Fitches, Elaine C.; Gatehouse, John A.; Wright, Geraldine A.; Gatehouse, Angharad M. R.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that commonly used pesticides are linked to decline of pollinator populations; adverse effects of three neonicotinoids on bees have led to bans on their use across the European Union. Developing insecticides that pose negligible risks to beneficial organisms such as honeybees is desirable and timely. One strategy is to use recombinant fusion proteins containing neuroactive peptides/proteins linked to a ‘carrier’ protein that confers oral toxicity. Hv1a/GNA (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin), containing an insect-specific spider venom calcium channel blocker (ω-hexatoxin-Hv1a) linked to snowdrop lectin (GNA) as a ‘carrier’, is an effective oral biopesticide towards various insect pests. Effects of Hv1a/GNA towards a non-target species, Apis mellifera, were assessed through a thorough early-tier risk assessment. Following feeding, honeybees internalized Hv1a/GNA, which reached the brain within 1 h after exposure. However, survival was only slightly affected by ingestion (LD50 > 100 µg bee−1) or injection of fusion protein. Bees fed acute (100 µg bee−1) or chronic (0.35 mg ml−1) doses of Hv1a/GNA and trained in an olfactory learning task had similar rates of learning and memory to no-pesticide controls. Larvae were unaffected, being able to degrade Hv1a/GNA. These tests suggest that Hv1a/GNA is unlikely to cause detrimental effects on honeybees, indicating that atracotoxins targeting calcium channels are potential alternatives to conventional pesticides. PMID:24898372

  1. Adverse Effects of UV-B Radiation on Plants Growing at Schirmacher Oasis, East Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jaswant; Singh, Rudra P

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the impacts of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation over a 28-day period on the levels of pigments of Umbilicaria aprina and Bryum argenteum growing in field. The depletion of stratospheric ozone is most prominent over Antarctica, which receives more UV-B radiation than most other parts of the planet. Although UV-B radiation adversely affects all flora, Antarctic plants are better equipped to survive the damaging effects of UV-B owing to defenses provided by UV-B absorbing compounds and other screening pigments. The UV-B radiations and daily average ozone values were measured by sun photometer and the photosynthetic pigments were analyzed by the standard spectrophotometric methods of exposed and unexposed selected plants. The daily average atmospheric ozone values were recorded from 5 January to 2 February 2008. The maximum daily average for ozone (310.7 Dobson Units (DU)) was recorded on 10 January 2008. On that day, average UV-B spectral irradiances were 0.016, 0.071, and 0.186 W m(-2) at wavelengths of 305, 312, and 320 nm, respectively. The minimum daily average ozone value (278.6 DU) was recorded on 31 January 2008. On that day, average UV-B spectral irradiances were 0.018, 0.085, and 0.210 W m(-2) at wavelengths of 305, 312, and 320 nm, respectively. Our results concludes that following prolonged UV-B exposure, total chlorophyll levels decreased gradually in both species, whereas levels of UV-B absorbing compounds, phenolics, and carotenoids gradually increased. PMID:24748743

  2. Adverse effects of human immunoglobulin therapy.

    PubMed

    Stiehm, E Richard

    2013-07-01

    Human immunoglobulin (IG) is used for IgG replacement therapy in primary and secondary immunodeficiency, for prevention and treatment of certain infections, and as an immunomodulatory agent for autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. IG has a wide spectrum of antibodies to microbial and human antigens. Several high-titered IGs are also available enriched in antibodies to specific viruses or bacterial toxins. IG can be given intravenously (IGIV), intramuscularly (IGIM) or by subcutaneous infusions (SCIG). Local adverse reactions such as persistent pain, bruising, swelling and erythema are rare with IGIV infusions but common (75%) with SCIG infusions. By contrast, adverse systemic reactions are rare with SCIG infusions but common with IGIV infusions, occurring as often as 20% to 50% of patients and 5% to 15% of all IGIV infusions. Systemic adverse reactions can be immediate (60% of reactions) occurring within 6 hours of an infusion, delayed (40% of reactions) occurring 6 hours-1 week after an infusion, and late (less than 1% of reactions), occurring weeks and months after an infusion. Immediate systemic reactions such as head and body aches, chills and fever are usually mild and readily treatable. Immediate anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions are uncommon. The most common delayed systemic reaction is persistent headache. Less common but more serious delayed reactions include aseptic meningitis, renal failure, thromboembolism, and hemolytic reactions. Late reactions are uncommon but often severe, and include lung disease, enteritis, dermatologic disorders and infectious diseases. The types, incidence, causes, prevention, and management of these reactions are discussed. PMID:23835249

  3. The Option for Survival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, R. Stephen

    1971-01-01

    Suggests formula for survival that takes a thermodynamic view which holds that we must recycle waste while the thermodynamic potential still is moderately high. Otherwise they are lost, as helium is lost when it leaves Earth's atmosphere and goes into space. The idea that the Earth is a closed system is a myth; it collapses each time we put our…

  4. Independence and Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, H. Thomas

    Independent schools that are of viable size, well managed, and strategically located to meet competition will survive and prosper past the current financial crisis. We live in a complex technological society with insatiable demands for knowledgeable people to keep it running. The future will be marked by the orderly selection of qualified people,…

  5. A Profile of Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimrin, Hanita

    1986-01-01

    Abused children who survived the trauma of their childhood and grew up to be well-adjusted were compared with a matched group who showed a high degree of psychosocial pathology. The variables which distinguished the two groups were fatalism, self-esteem, cognitive abilities, self-destructiveness, hope and fantasy, behavior patterns and external…

  6. Survivability via Control Objectives

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  7. Education for Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, James E., Jr.

    In this address, James E. Allen, Jr., Assistant Secretary for Education and U.S. Commissioner of Education, discusses the relationship of education to the problem of ecological destruction. He states that the solutions to the problems of air, water, and soil pollution may be found in redirected education. This "education for survival" can serve to…

  8. Survival Learning Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robert M.; Barnes, Marcia M.

    This booklet is designed to provide some starter ideas for teachers to use in developing their own packet of learning materials. The procedures suggested and the examples included are literally starters. "Introduction to Survival Learning Materials" presents some procedures to help teachers get started in developing materials. "Following…

  9. Association of assisted reproductive technology with adverse pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Jie, Zhang; Yiling, Ding; Ling, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Background: More and more infertile patients have accepted the assisted reproductive technique (ART) therapy. Concerns have been raised over an increased risk of adverse maternal outcomes in ART populations as compared with natural conception (NC). Objective: The aim was to improve the ART in clinicial work and to reduce the incidence of pregnancy complications in ART group according to analyzing the reasons of high incidence of pregnancy complications in ART group, comparing the incidence of pregnancy complications in different controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) programs and evaluating the effects of ART which attribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this prospective population-based cohort study,3216 pregnant women with gestational age ≤12 weeks, regular antenatal examination,and ultrasound identification of intrauterine pregnancy were enrolled from January 2010 to June 2013. According to having ART history, the participantswere divided into two groups: ART group (contains fresh embryo transfer group or frozen-thawed embryo transfer group) and NC group. We compared the incidence of pregnancy complications between different groups and evaluated the factors which could affect the occurrence of these complications. Results: When compared to NC group, significantly increased rates of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (p<0.01), preeclampsia (PE) (p<0.01) and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) (p˂0.01) were observed in ART group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of birth defect between the two groups (p=0.07). Multiple pregnancies and Gonadotropin (Gn) were risk factors in GDM, PE, and ICP. The exogenous progesterone treatment had no effect on GDM, PE or ICP. Conclusion: ART increases the risk of adverse maternal complications such as GDM, PE and ICP. The dosages of Gn should be reduced to an extent and the number of embryo implantation should be controlled. Exogenous progesterone treatment is safe

  10. Are PRO discharge screens associated with postdischarge adverse outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Wei, F.; Mark, D.; Hartz, A.; Campbell, C.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We evaluate whether patient outcomes may be affected by possible errors in care at discharge as assessed by Peer Review Organizations (PROs). DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING. The three data sources for the study were (1) the generic screen results of a 3 percent random sample of Medicare beneficiaries age 65 years or older who were admitted to California hospitals between 1 July 1987 and 30 June 1988 (n = 20,136 patients); (2) the 1987 and 1988 California Medicare Provided Analysis and Review (MEDPAR) data files; and (3) the American Hospital Association (AHA) 1988 Annual Survey of Hospitals. STUDY DESIGN. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between the results of generic discharge administered by the PROs and two patient outcomes: mortality and readmission within 30 days. The analysis was adjusted for other patient characteristics recorded on the uniform discharge abstract. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Four discharge screens indicated an increased risk of an adverse outcome-absence of documentation of discharge planning, elevated temperature, abnormal pulse, and unaddressed abnormal test results at discharge. The other three discharge screens examined-abnormal blood pressure, IV fluids or drugs, and wound drainage before discharge-were unrelated to postdischarge adverse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS. Generic discharge screens based on inadequate discharge planning, abnormal pulse, increased temperature, or unaddressed abnormal tests may be important indicators of substandard care. Other discharge screens apparently do not detect errors in care associated with major consequences for patients. PMID:7649753

  11. Mechanisms and assessment of statin-related muscular adverse effects

    PubMed Central

    Moßhammer, Dirk; Schaeffeler, Elke; Schwab, Matthias; Mörike, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Statin-associated muscular adverse effects cover a wide range of symptoms, including asymptomatic increase of creatine kinase serum activity and life-threatening rhabdomyolysis. Different underlying pathomechanisms have been proposed. However, a unifying concept of the pathogenesis of statin-related muscular adverse effects has not emerged so far. In this review, we attempt to categorize these mechanisms along three levels. Firstly, among pharmacokinetic factors, it has been shown for some statins that inhibition of cytochrome P450-mediated hepatic biotransformation and hepatic uptake by transporter proteins contribute to an increase of systemic statin concentrations. Secondly, at the myocyte membrane level, cell membrane uptake transporters affect intracellular statin concentrations. Thirdly, at the intracellular level, inhibition of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase results in decreased intracellular concentrations of downstream metabolites (e.g. selenoproteins, ubiquinone, cholesterol) and alteration of gene expression (e.g. ryanodine receptor 3, glycine amidinotransferase). We also review current recommendations for prescribers. PMID:25069381

  12. Adverse drug reactions in special populations - the elderly.

    PubMed

    Davies, E A; O'Mahony, M S

    2015-10-01

    The International Conference on Harmonization considers older people a 'special population', as they differ from younger adults in terms of comorbidity, polypharmacy, pharmacokinetics and greater vulnerability to adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Medical practice is often based on single disease guidelines derived from clinical trials that have not included frail older people or those with multiple morbidities. This presents a challenge caring for older people, as drug doses in trials may not be achievable in real world patients and risks of ADRs are underestimated in clinical trial populations. The majority of ADRs in older people are Type A, potentially avoidable and associated with commonly prescribed medications. Several ADRs are particularly associated with major adverse consequences in the elderly and their reduction is therefore a clinical priority. Falls are strongly associated with benzodiazepines, neuroleptics, antidepressants and antihypertensives. There is good evidence for medication review as part of a multifactorial intervention to reduce falls risk in community dwelling elderly. Multiple medications also contribute to delirium, another multifactorial syndrome resulting in excess mortality particularly in frail older people. Clostridium difficile associated with use of broad spectrum antibiotics mainly affects frail older people and results in prolonged hospital stay with substantial morbidity and mortality. Antipsychotics increase the risk of stroke by more than three-fold in patients with dementia. Inappropriate prescribing can be reduced by adherence to prescribing guidelines, suitable monitoring and regular medication review. Given the heterogeneity within the older population, providing individualized care is pivotal to preventing ADRs. PMID:25619317

  13. The College Student and Marijuana: Research Findings Concerning Adverse Biological and Psychological Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholi, Armand M., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    This paper focuses on current knowledge about adverse biological and psychological affects of marijuana use, with special reference to risks for college students. Short-term effects on intellectual functioning and perceptual-motor coordination and long-term effects on reproduction and motivation are highlighted. (PP)

  14. Survival regulation of leukemia stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yiguo; Li, Shaoguang

    2016-03-01

    Leukemia stem cells (LSCs) are a subpopulation cells at the apex of hierarchies in leukemia cells and responsible for disease continuous propagation. In this article, we discuss some cellular and molecular components, which are critical for LSC survival. These components include intrinsic signaling pathways and extrinsic microenvironments. The intrinsic signaling pathways to be discussed include Wnt/β-catenin signaling, Hox genes, Hh pathway, Alox5, and some miRNAs, which have been shown to play important roles in regulating LSC survival and proliferation. The extrinsic components to be discussed include selectins, CXCL12/CXCR4, and CD44, which involve in LSC homing, survival, and proliferation by affecting bone marrow microenvironment. Potential strategies for eradicating LSCs will also discuss. PMID:26686687

  15. The effects of increased constant incubation temperature and cumulative acute heat shock exposures on morphology and survival of Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) embryos.

    PubMed

    Lee, Abigail H; Eme, John; Mueller, Casey A; Manzon, Richard G; Somers, Christopher M; Boreham, Douglas R; Wilson, Joanna Y

    2016-04-01

    Increasing incubation temperatures, caused by global climate change or thermal effluent from industrial processes, may influence embryonic development of fish. This study investigates the cumulative effects of increased incubation temperature and repeated heat shocks on developing Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) embryos. We studied the effects of three constant incubation temperatures (2°C, 5°C or 8°C water) and weekly, 1-h heat shocks (+3°C) on hatching time, survival and morphology of embryos, as these endpoints may be particularly susceptible to temperature changes. The constant temperatures represent the predicted magnitude of elevated water temperatures from climate change and industrial thermal plumes. Time to the pre-hatch stage decreased as constant incubation temperature increased (148d at 2°C, 92d at 5°C, 50d at 8°C), but weekly heat shocks did not affect time to hatch. Mean survival rates and embryo morphometrics were compared at specific developmental time-points (blastopore, eyed, fin flutter and pre-hatch) across all treatments. Constant incubation temperatures or +3°C heat-shock exposures did not significantly alter cumulative survival percentage (~50% cumulative survival to pre-hatch stage). Constant warm incubation temperatures did result in differences in morphology in pre-hatch stage embryos. 8°C and 5°C embryos were significantly smaller and had larger yolks than 2°C embryos, but heat-shocked embryos did not differ from their respective constant temperature treatment groups. Elevated incubation temperatures may adversely alter Lake Whitefish embryo size at hatch, but weekly 1-h heat shocks did not affect size or survival at hatch. These results suggest that intermittent bouts of warm water effluent (e.g., variable industrial emissions) are less likely to negatively affect Lake Whitefish embryonic development than warmer constant incubation temperatures that may occur due to climate change. PMID:27033035

  16. Cutaneous adverse reactions of imatinib therapy in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia: A six-year follow up.

    PubMed

    Dervis, Emine; Ayer, Mesut; Akin Belli, Asli; Barut, Saime Gul

    2016-04-01

    Imatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor used in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Cutaneous adverse reactions of imatinib therapy have been reported in 7%-88.9% patients. We sought to evaluate the prevalence rates of cutaneous adverse reactions of imatinib therapy and to investigate the clinical and pathological characteristics of these reactions. Sixty-six patients (36 men, 30 women; age range 19-83 years) with CML treated with imatinib between 2008 and 2014 were included in the study. Clinical and pathological features of the adverse reactions were investigated. Cutaneous adverse reactions were the most common adverse effects of imatinib therapy and were seen in nine patients with a prevalence rate of 13.6%. The second most com