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Sample records for adversely affect treatment

  1. Left ventricular concentric geometry during treatment adversely affects cardiovascular prognosis in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Muiesan, Maria Lorenza; Salvetti, Massimo; Monteduro, Cristina; Bonzi, Bianca; Paini, Anna; Viola, Sara; Poisa, Paolo; Rizzoni, Damiano; Castellano, Maurizio; Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico

    2004-04-01

    Left ventricular (LV) mass and geometry predict risk for cardiovascular events in hypertension. Regression of LV hypertrophy (LVH) may imply an important prognostic significance. The relation between changes in LV geometry during antihypertensive treatment and subsequent prognosis has not yet been determined. A total of 436 prospectively identified uncomplicated hypertensive subjects with a baseline and follow-up echocardiogram (last examination 72+/-38 months apart) were followed for an additional 42+/-16 months. Their family doctor gave antihypertensive treatment. After the last follow-up echocardiogram, a first cardiovascular event occurred in 71 patients. Persistence of LVH from baseline to follow-up was confirmed as an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality were significantly greater in patients with concentric (relative wall thickness > or =0.44) than in those with eccentric geometry (relative wall thickness <0.44) in patients presenting with LVH (P=0.002) and in those without LVH (P=0.002) at the follow-up echocardiogram. The incidence of cardiovascular events progressively increased from the first to the third tertile of LV mass index at follow-up (partition values 91 and 117 g/m2), but for a similar value of LV mass index it was significantly greater in those with concentric geometry (OR: 4.07; 95% CI: 1.49 to 11.14; P=0.004 in the second tertile; OR: 3.45; 95% CI: 1.62 to 7.32; P=0.001 in the third tertile; P<0.0001 in concentric versus eccentric geometry). Persistence or development of concentric geometry during follow-up may have additional prognostic significance in hypertensive patients with and without LVH. PMID:15007041

  2. Absence of heat treatment of serum for culture medium supplementation does not adversely affect the outcome of in-vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Imoedemhe, D A; Sigue, A B; Pacpaco, E L; Olazo, A B; Luciano, E C

    1994-09-01

    This study was carried out to determine if not heat-treating serum prior to use for medium supplementation adversely affected in-vitro fertilization (IVF) of human oocytes. Morphologically mature human oocytes derived from 135 patients undergoing IVF treatment were studied. A total of 504 oocytes were incubated, inseminated and the resulting pronuclear oocytes cultured further in Earle's balanced salt solution (EBSS) supplemented with 10% non-heat-treated serum. Comparisons of fertilization rate and embryonic development were made between these and 687 control oocytes derived from the same patients but incubated, inseminated and resulting pronuclear oocytes cultured further in EBSS supplemented with 10% heat-treated serum. The fertilization rate of 74.4% (375/504) of oocytes handled in serum-supplemented medium that had not been heat-treated was significantly better than the rate of 67.7% (465/687) for controls (P < 0.0125). The proportion of pronucleate oocytes that cleaved was also significantly better in the non-heat-treated serum group: 270/300 (90%) versus 307/375 (81.8%) (P < 0.0025). There was no significant difference in the proportion of embryos with four or more cells at the time of embryo transfer. The results show that the absence of heat treatment of serum used to supplement culture medium has no adverse effect on the fertilization rate and short-term embryo development in vitro; hence we suggest that serum heat treatment is an unnecessary procedure and could be abandoned. PMID:7836531

  3. Sirtuin Inhibition Adversely Affects Porcine Oocyte Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Ma, Rujun; Hu, Jin; Ding, Xiaolin; Xu, Yinxue

    2015-01-01

    Sirtuins have been implicated in diverse biological processes, including oxidative stress, energy metabolism, cell migration, and aging. Here, we employed Sirtuin inhibitors, nicotinamide (NAM) and Sirtinol, to investigate their effects on porcine oocyte maturation respectively. The rate of polar body extrusion in porcine oocytes decreased after treatment with NAM and Sirtinol, accompanied with the failure of cumulus cell expansion. We further found that NAM and Sirtinol significantly disrupted oocyte polarity, and inhibited the formation of actin cap and cortical granule-free domain (CGFD). Moreover, the abnormal spindles and misaligned chromosomes were readily detected during porcine oocyte maturation after treatment with NAM and Sirtinol. Together, these results suggest that Sirtuins are involved in cortical polarity and spindle organization in porcine oocytes. PMID:26176547

  4. FACTORS ADVERSELY AFFECTING AMPHIBIAN POPULATIONS IN THE US

    EPA Science Inventory

    Factors known or suspected to be adversely affecting native amphibian populations in the US were identified using information from species accounts written in a standardized format by multiple authors in a forthcoming book. Specific adverse factors were identified for 53 (58%) of...

  5. Parents' Psychiatric Issues May Adversely Affect Some Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adversely Affect Some Children History of antisocial disorder, suicide attempt or marijuana abuse showed the most effect, ... illness may be at higher risk for attempting suicide and/or engaging in violent behavior, a new ...

  6. Shrub clearing adversely affects the abundance of Ixodes ricinus ticks.

    PubMed

    Tack, Wesley; Madder, Maxime; Baeten, Lander; Vanhellemont, Margot; Verheyen, Kris

    2013-07-01

    In order to get a better understanding of the importance of vertical forest structure as a component of Ixodes ricinus tick habitat, an experiment was set up in a coniferous forest on sandy soils in northern Belgium. Ticks were sampled in six control and six treatment plots on various sampling occasions in 2008-2010. In the course of the study period, a moderate thinning was carried out in all plots and shrub clearing was performed in the treatment plots. Thinning had no effect on tick abundance, while shrub clearing had an adverse affect on the abundance of all three life stages (larva, nymph, adult) up to 2 years post-clearing. Our findings are especially relevant in the light of the ongoing efforts to improve vertical forest structure in Belgium and many other parts of Europe, which might create suitable habitats for ticks and change the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases. Also, our results indicate that shrub clearing could be applied as a tick control measure in recreational areas where there is a high degree of human-tick contact.

  7. Factors affecting the development of adverse drug reactions (Review article)

    PubMed Central

    Alomar, Muaed Jamal

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To discuss the effect of certain factors on the occurrence of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs). Data Sources A systematic review of the literature in the period between 1991 and 2012 was made based on PubMed, the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, EMBASE and IDIS. Key words used were: medication error, adverse drug reaction, iatrogenic disease factors, ambulatory care, primary health care, side effects and treatment hazards. Summary Many factors play a crucial role in the occurrence of ADRs, some of these are patient related, drug related or socially related factors. Age for instance has a very critical impact on the occurrence of ADRs, both very young and very old patients are more vulnerable to these reactions than other age groups. Alcohol intake also has a crucial impact on ADRs. Other factors are gender, race, pregnancy, breast feeding, kidney problems, liver function, drug dose and frequency and many other factors. The effect of these factors on ADRs is well documented in the medical literature. Taking these factors into consideration during medical evaluation enables medical practitioners to choose the best drug regimen. Conclusion Many factors affect the occurrence of ADRs. Some of these factors can be changed like smoking or alcohol intake others cannot be changed like age, presence of other diseases or genetic factors. Understanding the different effects of these factors on ADRs enables healthcare professionals to choose the most appropriate medication for that particular patient. It also helps the healthcare professionals to give the best advice to patients. Pharmacogenomics is the most recent science which emphasizes the genetic predisposition of ADRs. This innovative science provides a new perspective in dealing with the decision making process of drug selection. PMID:24648818

  8. Adversity before Conception Will Affect Adult Progeny in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shachar-Dadon, Alice; Schulkin, Jay; Leshem, Micah

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated whether adversity in a female, before she conceives, will influence the affective and social behavior of her progeny. Virgin female rats were either undisturbed (controls) or exposed to varied, unpredictable, stressors for 7 days (preconceptual stress [PCS]) and then either mated immediately after the end of the stress…

  9. The synthetic progestin megestrol acetate adversely affects zebrafish reproduction.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian; Wang, Qiangwei; Wang, Xianfeng; Li, Yonggang; Wen, Sheng; Liu, Shan; Ying, Guangguo; Guo, Yongyong; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2014-05-01

    Synthetic progestins contaminate the aquatic ecosystem, and may cause adverse health effects on aquatic organisms. Megestrol acetate (MTA) is present in the aquatic environment, but its possible effects on fish reproduction are unknown. In the present study, we investigated the endocrine disruption and impact of MTA on fish reproduction. After a pre-exposure period of 14 days, reproductively mature zebrafish (Danio rerio) (F0) were exposed to MTA at environmental concentrations (33, 100, 333, and 666 ng/L) for 21 days. Egg production was decreased in F0 fish exposed to MTA, with a significant decrease at 666 ng/L. The exposure significantly decreased the circulating concentrations of estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) in female fish or 11-keto testosterone (11-KT) in male fish. MTA exposure significantly downregulated the transcription of certain genes along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. MTA did not affect early embryonic development or hatching success in the F1 generation. The present study showed that MTA is a potent endocrine disruptor in fish, and short-term exposure to MTA could significantly affect reproduction in fish and negatively impact the fish population. PMID:24647012

  10. The synthetic progestin megestrol acetate adversely affects zebrafish reproduction.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian; Wang, Qiangwei; Wang, Xianfeng; Li, Yonggang; Wen, Sheng; Liu, Shan; Ying, Guangguo; Guo, Yongyong; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2014-05-01

    Synthetic progestins contaminate the aquatic ecosystem, and may cause adverse health effects on aquatic organisms. Megestrol acetate (MTA) is present in the aquatic environment, but its possible effects on fish reproduction are unknown. In the present study, we investigated the endocrine disruption and impact of MTA on fish reproduction. After a pre-exposure period of 14 days, reproductively mature zebrafish (Danio rerio) (F0) were exposed to MTA at environmental concentrations (33, 100, 333, and 666 ng/L) for 21 days. Egg production was decreased in F0 fish exposed to MTA, with a significant decrease at 666 ng/L. The exposure significantly decreased the circulating concentrations of estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) in female fish or 11-keto testosterone (11-KT) in male fish. MTA exposure significantly downregulated the transcription of certain genes along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. MTA did not affect early embryonic development or hatching success in the F1 generation. The present study showed that MTA is a potent endocrine disruptor in fish, and short-term exposure to MTA could significantly affect reproduction in fish and negatively impact the fish population.

  11. Does Ramadan Fasting Adversely Affect Cognitive Function in Young Females?

    PubMed Central

    Ghayour Najafabadi, Mahboubeh; Rahbar Nikoukar, Laya; Memari, Amir; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Beygi, Sara

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of Ramadan fasting on cognitive function in 17 female athletes. Data were obtained from participants of two fasting (n = 9) and nonfasting (n = 8) groups at three periods of the study (before Ramadan, at the third week in Ramadan, and after Ramadan). Digit span test (DST) and Stroop color test were employed to assess short-term memory and inhibition/cognitive flexibility at each time point. There were no significant changes for DST and Stroop task 1 in both groups, whereas Stroop task 2 and task 3 showed significant improvements in Ramadan condition (p < 0.05). Interference indices did not change significantly across the study except in post-Ramadan period of fasting group (p < 0.05). Group × week interaction was significant only for error numbers (p < 0.05). Athletes in nonfasting showed a significant decrease in number of errors in Ramadan compared to baseline (p < 0.05). The results suggest that Ramadan fasting may not adversely affect cognitive function in female athletes. PMID:26697263

  12. Migraine treatment: a chain of adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Veloso, Tiago Sousa; Cambão, Mariana Seixas

    2015-01-01

    This clinical vignette presents a 14 years old female, with a past medical history relevant only for migraine with typical aura of less than monthly frequency, complaining of a severe unilateral headache with rising intensity for the previous 4 h, associated with nausea, vomiting, photophobia and phonophobia. This episode of migraine with aura in a patient with recurrent migraine was complicated by side effects of medical diagnostic and therapeutic procedures (extrapyramidal symptoms, delirium, post-lumbar puncture headache, hospital admission) all of which could have been prevented-quaternary prevention. This case illustrates several important messages in migraine management: (1) use of acetaminophen is not based in high-quality evidence and better options exist; (2) among youngsters, domperidone should be preferred over metoclopramide because it does not cross the blood-brain barrier; (3) moderate to severe migraine crisis can be managed with triptans in teenagers over 12 years old; (4) it is important to recognize adverse drug effects; (5) harmful consequences of medical interventions do occur; (6) the school community must be informed about chronic diseases of the young.

  13. Why Does Military Combat Experience Adversely Affect Marital Relations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimbel, Cynthia; Booth, Alan

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation of ways in which combat decreases marital quality and stability. Results support three models: (1) factors propelling men into combat also make them poor marriage material; (2) combat causes problems that increase marital adversity; and (3) combat intensifies premilitary stress and antisocial behavior which then negatively…

  14. Managing nonteratogenic adverse reactions to isotretinoin treatment for acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Bridget K; Ritsema, Tamara S

    2015-07-01

    Isotretinoin is the strongest, most effective oral treatment for patients with severe acne vulgaris, with remission rates of 89% and higher. Because of its potency, isotretinoin causes many adverse reactions. This article reviews common and severe adverse reactions to isotretinoin and how providers can best manage these reactions. Because of inconclusive research on the correlation between isotretinoin and depression and irritable bowel syndrome, providers should ask patients about symptoms monthly. Prescribing micronized isotretinoin and starting at the lowest dose with gradual upward titration also can help reduce the incidence of adverse reactions.

  15. Genetic polymorphisms affect efficacy and adverse drug reactions of DMARDs in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling Ling; Yang, Sen; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Xue Jun

    2014-11-01

    Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and biological agents are critical in preventing the severe complications of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the outcome of treatment with these drugs in RA patients is quite variable and unpredictable. Drug-metabolizing enzymes (dihydrofolate reductase, cytochrome P450 enzymes, N-acetyltransferases, etc.), drug transporters (ATP-binding cassette transporters), and drug targets (tumor necrosis factor-α receptors) are coded for by variant alleles. These gene polymorphisms may influence the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and side effects of medicines. The cause for differences in efficacy and adverse drug reactions may be genetic variation in drug metabolism among individuals. Polymorphisms in drug transporter genes may change the distribution and excretion of medicines, and the sensitivity of the targets to drugs is strongly influenced by genetic variations. In this article, we review the genetic polymorphisms that affect the efficacy of DMARDs or the occurrence of adverse drug reactions associated with DMARDs in RA.

  16. 47 CFR 73.4157 - Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service. 73.4157 Section 73.4157 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION....4157 Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service. See Public Notice, FCC...

  17. 47 CFR 73.4157 - Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service. 73.4157 Section 73.4157 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION....4157 Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service. See Public Notice, FCC...

  18. Root-Zone Glyphosate Exposure Adversely Affects Two Ditch Species

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Lyndsay E.; Koontz, Melissa B.; Pezeshki, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Glyphosate, one of the most applied herbicides globally, has been extensively studied for its effects on non-target organisms. In the field, following precipitation, glyphosate runs off into agricultural ditches where it infiltrates into the soil and thus may encounter the roots of vegetation. These edge-of-field ditches share many characteristics with wetlands, including the ability to reduce loads of anthropogenic chemicals through uptake, transformation, and retention. Different species within the ditches may have a differential sensitivity to exposure of the root zone to glyphosate, contributing to patterns of abundance of ruderal species. The present laboratory experiment investigated whether two species commonly found in agricultural ditches in southcentral United States were affected by root zone glyphosate in a dose-dependent manner, with the objective of identifying a sublethal concentration threshold. The root zone of individuals of Polygonum hydropiperoides and Panicum hemitomon were exposed to four concentrations of glyphosate. Leaf chlorophyll content was measured, and the ratio of aboveground biomass to belowground biomass and survival were quantified. The findings from this study showed that root zone glyphosate exposure negatively affected both species including dose-dependent reductions in chlorophyll content. P. hydropiperdoides showed the greatest negative response, with decreased belowground biomass allocation and total mortality at the highest concentrations tested. PMID:24833234

  19. Urban sprawl and you: how sprawl adversely affects worker health.

    PubMed

    Pohanka, Mary; Fitzgerald, Sheila

    2004-06-01

    Urban sprawl, once thought of as just an environmental issue, is currently gaining momentum as an emerging public health issue worthy of research and political attention. Characteristics seen in sprawling communities include increasing traffic volumes; inadequate public transportation; pedestrian unfriendly streets; and the division of businesses, shops, and homes. These characteristics can affect health in many ways. Greater air pollution contributes to higher asthma and other lung disorder rates. An increased dependence on the automobile encourages a more sedentary lifestyle and can potentially contribute to obesity. The increased danger and stress of long commutes can lead to more accidents, anxiety, and social isolation. Occupational health nurses can become involved by promoting physical activity in the workplace, creating programs for injury prevention and stress management, becoming involved in political smart growth measures, and educating and encouraging colleagues to become active in addressing this issue.

  20. ABSENCE OF SCLEROSTIN ADVERSELY AFFECTS B CELL SURVIVAL

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Corey J.; Rueda, Randell; McLelland, Bryce; Collette, Nicole M.; Loots, Gabriela G.; Manilay, Jennifer O.

    2012-01-01

    Increased osteoblast activity in sclerostin-knockout (Sost−/−) mice results in generalized hyperostosis and bones with small bone marrow cavities due to hyperactive mineralizing osteoblast populations. Hematopoietic cell fate decisions are dependent on their local microenvironment, which contains osteoblast and stromal cell populations that support both hematopoietic stem cell quiescence and facilitate B cell development. In this study, we investigated whether high bone mass environments affect B cell development via the utilization of Sost−/− mice, a model of sclerosteosis. We found the bone marrow of Sost−/− mice to be specifically depleted of B cells, due to elevated apoptosis at all B cell developmental stages. In contrast, B cell function in the spleen was normal. Sost expression analysis confirmed that Sost is primarily expressed in osteocytes and is not expressed in any hematopoietic lineage, which indicated that the B cell defects in Sost−/− mice are non-cell autonomous and this was confirmed by transplantation of wildtype (WT) bone marrow into lethally irradiated Sost−/− recipients. WT→Sost−/− chimeras displayed a reduction in B cells, whereas reciprocal Sost−/−→WT chimeras did not, supporting the idea that the Sost−/− bone environment cannot fully support normal B cell development. Expression of the pre-B cell growth stimulating factor, Cxcl12, was significantly lower in bone marrow stromal cells of Sost−/− mice while the Wnt target genes Lef-1 and Ccnd1 remained unchanged in B cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate a novel role for Sost in the regulation of bone marrow environments that support B cells. PMID:22434688

  1. Regular treatment with formoterol for chronic asthma: serious adverse events

    PubMed Central

    Cates, Christopher J; Cates, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiological evidence has suggested a link between beta2-agonists and increases in asthma mortality. There has been much debate about possible causal links for this association, and whether regular (daily) long-acting beta2-agonists are safe. Objectives The aim of this review is to assess the risk of fatal and non-fatal serious adverse events in trials that randomised patients with chronic asthma to regular formoterol versus placebo or regular short-acting beta2-agonists. Search methods We identified trials using the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials. We checked websites of clinical trial registers for unpublished trial data and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) submissions in relation to formoterol. The date of the most recent search was January 2012. Selection criteria We included controlled, parallel design clinical trials on patients of any age and severity of asthma if they randomised patients to treatment with regular formoterol and were of at least 12 weeks’ duration. Concomitant use of inhaled corticosteroids was allowed, as long as this was not part of the randomised treatment regimen. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently selected trials for inclusion in the review. One author extracted outcome data and the second author checked them. We sought unpublished data on mortality and serious adverse events. Main results The review includes 22 studies (8032 participants) comparing regular formoterol to placebo and salbutamol. Non-fatal serious adverse event data could be obtained for all participants from published studies comparing formoterol and placebo but only 80% of those comparing formoterol with salbutamol or terbutaline. Three deaths occurred on regular formoterol and none on placebo; this difference was not statistically significant. It was not possible to assess disease-specific mortality in view of the small number of deaths. Non-fatal serious adverse events were significantly increased when

  2. Regular treatment with salmeterol for chronic asthma: serious adverse events

    PubMed Central

    Cates, Christopher J; Cates, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiological evidence has suggested a link between beta2-agonists and increases in asthma mortality. There has been much debate about possible causal links for this association, and whether regular (daily) long-acting beta2-agonists are safe. Objectives The aim of this review is to assess the risk of fatal and non-fatal serious adverse events in trials that randomised patients with chronic asthma to regular salmeterol versus placebo or regular short-acting beta2-agonists. Search methods We identified trials using the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials. We checked websites of clinical trial registers for unpublished trial data and FDA submissions in relation to salmeterol. The date of the most recent search was August 2011. Selection criteria We included controlled parallel design clinical trials on patients of any age and severity of asthma if they randomised patients to treatment with regular salmeterol and were of at least 12 weeks’ duration. Concomitant use of inhaled corticosteroids was allowed, as long as this was not part of the randomised treatment regimen. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently selected trials for inclusion in the review. One author extracted outcome data and the second checked them. We sought unpublished data on mortality and serious adverse events. Main results The review includes 26 trials comparing salmeterol to placebo and eight trials comparing with salbutamol. These included 62,815 participants with asthma (including 2,599 children). In six trials (2,766 patients), no serious adverse event data could be obtained. All-cause mortality was higher with regular salmeterol than placebo but the increase was not significant (Peto odds ratio (OR) 1.33 (95% CI 0.85 to 2.08)). Non-fatal serious adverse events were significantly increased when regular salmeterol was compared with placebo (OR 1.15 95% CI 1.02 to 1.29). One extra serious adverse event occurred over 28 weeks for every 188 people

  3. Grading dermatologic adverse events of cancer treatments: the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 4.0.

    PubMed

    Chen, Alice P; Setser, Ann; Anadkat, Milan J; Cotliar, Jonathan; Olsen, Elise A; Garden, Benjamin C; Lacouture, Mario E

    2012-11-01

    Dermatologic adverse events to cancer therapies have become more prevalent and may to lead to dose modifications or discontinuation of life-saving or prolonging treatments. This has resulted in a new collaboration between oncologists and dermatologists, which requires accurate cataloging and grading of side effects. The Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 4.0 is a descriptive terminology and grading system that can be used for uniform reporting of adverse events. A proper understanding of this standardized classification system is essential for dermatologists to properly communicate with all physicians caring for patients with cancer. PMID:22502948

  4. Early Life in a Barren Environment Adversely Affects Spatial Cognition in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Tahamtani, Fernanda M; Nordgreen, Janicke; Nordquist, Rebecca E; Janczak, Andrew M

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition in vertebrates is adversely affected by a lack of environmental complexity during early life. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies have tested the effect of early exposure to varying degrees of environmental complexity on specific components of spatial cognition in chickens. There are two main rearing systems for laying hens in the EU: aviaries and cages. These two systems differ from one another in environmental complexity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that rearing in a barren cage environment relative to a complex aviary environment causes long-lasting deficits in the ability to perform spatial tasks. For this purpose, 24 white Dekalb laying hens, half of which had been reared in an aviary system and the other half in a conventional cage system, were tested in a holeboard task. Birds from both treatment groups learnt the task; however, the cage-reared hens required more time to locate rewards and had poorer levels of working memory. The latter finding supports the hypothesis that rearing in a barren environment causes long-term impairment of short-term memory in chickens. PMID:26664932

  5. Early Life in a Barren Environment Adversely Affects Spatial Cognition in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Nordgreen, Janicke; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition in vertebrates is adversely affected by a lack of environmental complexity during early life. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies have tested the effect of early exposure to varying degrees of environmental complexity on specific components of spatial cognition in chickens. There are two main rearing systems for laying hens in the EU: aviaries and cages. These two systems differ from one another in environmental complexity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that rearing in a barren cage environment relative to a complex aviary environment causes long-lasting deficits in the ability to perform spatial tasks. For this purpose, 24 white Dekalb laying hens, half of which had been reared in an aviary system and the other half in a conventional cage system, were tested in a holeboard task. Birds from both treatment groups learnt the task; however, the cage-reared hens required more time to locate rewards and had poorer levels of working memory. The latter finding supports the hypothesis that rearing in a barren environment causes long-term impairment of short-term memory in chickens. PMID:26664932

  6. Exposure to serotonin adversely affects oligodendrocyte development and myelination in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lir-Wan; Bhatt, Abhay; Tien, Lu-Tai; Zheng, Baoying; Simpson, Kimberly L; Lin, Rick C S; Cai, Zhengwei; Kumar, Praveen; Pang, Yi

    2015-05-01

    patterns of contactin-associated protein (Caspr) clustering were observed at the sites of Node of Ranvier, suggesting that 5-HT exposure may affect other axon-derived factors for myelination. In summary, this is the first study to demonstrate that manipulation of serotonin levels affects OL development and myelination, which may contribute to altered neural connectivity noted in SSRIs-treated animals. The current in vitro study demonstrated that exposure to high level of serotonin (5-HT) led to aberrant oligodendrocyte (OL) development, cell injury, and myelination deficit. We propose that elevated extracellular serotonin levels in the fetal brain, such as upon the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy, may adversely affect OL development and/or myelination, thus contributing to altered neural connectivity seen in Autism Spectrum Disorders. OPC = oligodendrocyte progenitor cell.

  7. Family Adversity and Autonomic Reactivity Association With Immune Changes in HIV-Affected School Children

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Melanie; Wara, Diane; Saxton, Katherine; Truskier, Mary; Chesney, Margaret; Boyce, W. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore whether primary school entry is associated with changes in immune system parameters in HIV-affected children. HIV-affected children are vulnerable to psychosocial stressors, regardless of their own HIV serological status. Methods Data from 38 HIV+ and 29 HIV− children born to seropositive women were obtained before and after school entry. Measures included family adversity questionnaires, autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity (based on mean arterial responses to challenge tasks), and enumerative and functional changes in peripheral blood immune parameters. Results In comparison to children who were HIV−, children who were HIV+ at baseline had fewer CD4+ T lymphocytes (M = 916 vs. 1206 cells/mm3 × 103; F = 7.8, p = .007), more CD8+ cells (M = 1046 vs. 720 cells/mm3 ×103; F = 7.98, p = .006), and diminished NK cell cytotoxicity (M =−.29 vs. .41; F = 8.87, p = .004). School entry was associated with changes in immune parameters, but HIV status was not associated with the magnitude of changes. Changes in immune parameters following school entry were associated with family stress and pre school entry ANS reactivity. Highly ANS reactive children had either the greatest increase in CD8+ cells following school entry or the greatest decrease, depending upon reported levels of family adversity (B = 215.35; t = 3.74, p < .001). Changes in functional immune assays were significantly associated with the interactions between HIV status and ANS reactivity. Conclusions These results suggest that autonomic reactivity is associated with increased immunological sensitivity to adverse or challenging social contexts among children affected by HIV. PMID:23766380

  8. Evidence for Adverse Phonatory Change Following an Inhaled Combination Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Elizabeth; Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Voice problems are reported as a frequent side effect of inhaled combination (IC) treatments. The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate whether IC treatments are detrimental to phonation. We hypothesized that IC treatment would significantly increase phonation threshold pressure (PTP) and perceived phonatory effort (PPE),…

  9. 42 CFR 137.435 - Will an appeal adversely affect the Indian Tribe's rights in other compact, funding negotiations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... rights in other compact, funding negotiations, or construction project agreement? 137.435 Section 137.435... another compact, funding agreement, or construction project agreement. ... appeal adversely affect the Indian Tribe's rights in other compact, funding negotiations, or...

  10. 42 CFR 137.435 - Will an appeal adversely affect the Indian Tribe's rights in other compact, funding negotiations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... rights in other compact, funding negotiations, or construction project agreement? 137.435 Section 137.435... another compact, funding agreement, or construction project agreement. ... appeal adversely affect the Indian Tribe's rights in other compact, funding negotiations, or...

  11. 42 CFR 137.435 - Will an appeal adversely affect the Indian Tribe's rights in other compact, funding negotiations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... rights in other compact, funding negotiations, or construction project agreement? 137.435 Section 137.435... another compact, funding agreement, or construction project agreement. ... appeal adversely affect the Indian Tribe's rights in other compact, funding negotiations, or...

  12. 42 CFR 137.435 - Will an appeal adversely affect the Indian Tribe's rights in other compact, funding negotiations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... rights in other compact, funding negotiations, or construction project agreement? 137.435 Section 137.435... another compact, funding agreement, or construction project agreement. ... appeal adversely affect the Indian Tribe's rights in other compact, funding negotiations, or...

  13. 42 CFR 137.435 - Will an appeal adversely affect the Indian Tribe's rights in other compact, funding negotiations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... rights in other compact, funding negotiations, or construction project agreement? 137.435 Section 137.435... another compact, funding agreement, or construction project agreement. ... appeal adversely affect the Indian Tribe's rights in other compact, funding negotiations, or...

  14. Adverse events of acupuncture and occlusal splint therapy in the treatment of craniomandibular disorders.

    PubMed

    List, T; Helkimo, M

    1992-10-01

    Occlusal splint therapy and acupuncture have been found to provide positive treatment in a number of studies. As with other therapies, adverse events may occur. In this paper, adverse event refers to any reaction to a treatment besides the intended treatment effect--irrespective of any correlation between the treatment and the reaction. This reaction can be positive, as well as negative, to the patient. In the present study, 61 patients with craniomandibular dysfunction (CMD) were treated with acupuncture or occlusal splint therapy and the adverse events were carefully recorded. The results show that the profile of the adverse events differed between the two treatment modes. Acupuncture seemed to have adverse events of a more general nature, e.g., relaxed feeling, improved sleep, temporarily increased pain; whereas, adverse events of occlusal splint therapy seemed to be more locally related to the orofacial region, e.g., increased/decreased salivation and tension in the teeth. The majority of the patients responded positively to both treatment modalities. Only in a few cases did the patients consider the treatment uncomfortable. No serious adverse event or complication was observed in this study.

  15. Dietary restriction does not adversely affect bone geometry and mechanics in rapidly growing male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Jennifer; Lamothe, Jeremy M; Zernicke, Ronald F; Auer, Roland N; Reimer, Raylene A

    2005-02-01

    The present study assessed the effects of dietary restriction on tibial and vertebral mechanical and geometrical properties in 2-mo-old male Wistar rats. Two-month-old male Wistar rats were randomized to the ad libitum (n=8) or the 35% diet-restricted (DR) feeding group (n=9) for 5 mo. Tibiae and L6 vertebrae were dissected out for microcomputed tomography (microCT) scanning and subsequently fractured in biomechanical testing to determine geometrical and mechanical properties. The DR group had significantly lower mean tibial length, mass, area, and cross-sectional moment of inertia, as well as vertebral energy to maximal load. After adjustment for body mass, however, DR tibial mean maximal load and stiffness, and DR vertebral area, height, volume, and maximal load were significantly greater, relative to ad libitum means. No significant differences were found between the DR and ad libitum mineral ash fractions. Because the material properties of the tibiae between the two groups were not significantly different, presumably the material integrity of the bones was not adversely affected as a consequence of DR. The similar material characteristics were consistent with mineral ash fractions that were not different between the two groups. Vertebral maximal load and stiffness were not significant between the DR and ad libitum animals. Importantly, we show that a level of dietary restriction (35%) that is less severe than many studies (40%), and without micronutrient compensation does not adversely affect tibial and vertebral mechanical properties in young growing male rats when normalized for body mass. PMID:15585686

  16. FEMALE SEX AND DISCONTINUATION OF ISONIAZID DUE TO ADVERSE EFFECTS DURING THE TREATMENT OF LATENT TUBERCULOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Pettit, April C.; Bethel, James; Hirsch-Moverman, Yael; Colson, Paul W.; Sterling, Timothy R.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives To determine the rate of and risk factors for discontinuation of isoniazid due to adverse effects during the treatment of latent tuberculosis infection in a large, multi-site study. Methods The Tuberculosis Epidemiologic Studies Consortium (TBESC) conducted a prospective study from March 2007–September 2008 among adults initiating isoniazid for treatment of LTBI at 12 sites in the US and Canada. The relative risk for isoniazid discontinuation due to adverse effects was determined using negative binomial regression. Adjusted models were constructed using forward stepwise regression. Results Of 1,306 persons initiating isoniazid, 617 (47.2%, 95% CI 44.5–50.0%) completed treatment and 196 (15.0%, 95% CI 13.1–17.1%) discontinued due to adverse effects. In multivariable analysis, female sex (RR 1.67, 95% CI 1.32–2.10, p<0.001) and current alcohol use (RR 1.41, 95% CI 1.13–1.77, p=0.003) were independently associated with isoniazid discontinuation due to adverse effects. Conclusions The rate of discontinuation of isoniazid due to adverse effects was substantially higher than reported earlier. Women were at increased risk of discontinuing isoniazid due to adverse effects; close monitoring of women for adverse effects may be warranted. Current alcohol use was also associated with isoniazid discontinuation; counseling patients to abstain from alcohol could decrease discontinuation due to adverse effects. PMID:23845828

  17. Factors Affecting the Timing of Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reactions.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Masayuki; Imai, Shungo; Uehara, Keiko; Maruyama, Junya; Shimizu, Mikiko; Mochizuki, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated factors affecting the timing of signal detection by comparing variations in reporting time of known and unknown ADRs after initial drug release in the USA. Data on adverse event reactions (AERs) submitted to U.S. FDA was used. Six ADRs associated with 6 drugs (rosuvastatin, aripiprazole, teriparatide, telithromycin, exenatide, varenicline) were investigated: Changes in the proportional reporting ratio, reporting odds ratio, and information component as indexes of signal detection were followed every 3 months after each drugs release, and the time for detection of signals was investigated. The time for the detection of signal to be detected after drug release in the USA was 2-10 months for known ADRs and 19-44 months for unknown ones. The median lag time for known and unknown ADRs was 99.0-122.5 days and 185.5-306.0 days, respectively. When the FDA released advisory information on rare but potentially serious health risks of an unknown ADR, the time lag to report from the onset of ADRs to the FDA was shorter. This study suggested that one factor affecting signal detection time is whether an ADR was known or unknown at release. PMID:26641634

  18. Sexually Dimorphic Responses to Early Adversity: Implications for Affective Problems and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Pfaff, Donald

    2014-01-01

    During gestation, development proceeds at a pace that is unmatched by any other stage of the lifecycle. For these reason the human fetus is particularly susceptible not only to organizing influences, but also to pathogenic disorganizing influences. Growing evidence suggests that exposure to prenatal adversity leads to neurological changes that underlie lifetime risks for mental illness. Beginning early in gestation, males and females show differential developmental trajectories and responses to stress. It is likely that sex-dependent organization of neural circuits during the fetal period influences differential vulnerability to mental health problems. We consider in this review evidence that sexually dimorphic responses to early life stress are linked to two developmental disorders: affective problems (greater female prevalence) and autism spectrum disorder (greater male prevalence). Recent prospective studies illustrating the neurodevelopmental consequences of fetal exposure to stress and stress hormones for males and females are considered here. Plausible biological mechanisms including the role of the sexually differentiated placenta are discussed. We consider in this review evidence that sexually dimorphic responses to early life stress are linked to two sets of developmental disorders: affective problems (greater female prevalence) and autism spectrum disorders (greater male prevalence). PMID:25038479

  19. [Venous thromboembolism as an adverse effect of antipsychotic treatment].

    PubMed

    Bałkowiec-Iskra, Ewa; Cessak, Grzegorz; Kryńska, Łucja; Łoza, Bartosz; Wojnar, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Many studies, suggest an association between the use of antipsychotics (APs) and occurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Thromboembolism is often related to a significant r'iisk of disability or death. Despite many years of investigating the interrelationsbetween use of APs and VTE, they have not been specified yet. This paper aims to summarize reports on the VTE risk factors in patients using APs. Based on the analyzed clinical studies, meta-analyses and.data published by European Medicines Agency, it has been determined, that the main risk factors for VTE are duration of treatment and patient-related factors, such as gender, age, body mass, and physical activity. Current data do not allow to identify the prothrombotic potential for individual APs or indicate a higher risk for developing VTE in patients treated ' with newer atypical APs. Due to the complex pathogenesis of VTE it would benecessaryto perform large, comparative studies, allowing to identify precisely differences in prothrombotic potential of individual APs. It is necessary to specify products with the lowest VTE risk, what would be useful in the treatment of high-risk patients. All patients treated with APs should be assessed with the risk ofVTE and, if needed, appropriate prevention methods (including most of all the elimination of modifiable risk factors) should be implemented. Moreover, patients should be educated in scope of VTE prodromal symptoms. All patients with the higher VTE risk should be diagnosed as soon as possible and adequate treatment should be implemented.

  20. 30 CFR 285.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 285.816 Section 285.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU... other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? If environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility so as to endanger the safety or the environment, you...

  1. 42 CFR 137.445 - Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in other self-governance negotiations? 137.445 Section 137.445..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Appeals Appeals of An Immediate Reassumption of A Self-Governance Program § 137.445 Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect...

  2. 42 CFR 137.445 - Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in other self-governance negotiations? 137.445 Section 137.445..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Appeals Appeals of An Immediate Reassumption of A Self-Governance Program § 137.445 Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect...

  3. 42 CFR 137.445 - Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in other self-governance negotiations? 137.445 Section 137.445..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Appeals Appeals of An Immediate Reassumption of A Self-Governance Program § 137.445 Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect...

  4. 42 CFR 137.445 - Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in other self-governance negotiations? 137.445 Section 137.445..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Appeals Appeals of An Immediate Reassumption of A Self-Governance Program § 137.445 Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect...

  5. 42 CFR 137.445 - Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in other self-governance negotiations? 137.445 Section 137.445..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Appeals Appeals of An Immediate Reassumption of A Self-Governance Program § 137.445 Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect...

  6. Exposing physicians to reduced residency work hours did not adversely affect patient outcomes after residency.

    PubMed

    Jena, Anupam B; Schoemaker, Lena; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2014-10-01

    In 2003, work hours for physicians-in-training (residents) were capped by regulation at eighty hours per week, leading to the hotly debated but unexplored issue of whether physicians today are less well trained as a result of these work-hour reforms. Using a unique database of nearly all hospitalizations in Florida during 2000-09 that were linked to detailed information on the medical training history of the physician of record for each hospitalization, we studied whether hospital mortality and patients' length-of-stay varied according to the number of years a physician was exposed to the 2003 duty-hour regulations during his or her residency. We examined this database of practicing Florida physicians, using a difference-in-differences analysis that compared trends in outcomes of junior physicians (those with one-year post-residency experience) pre- and post-2003 to a control group of senior physicians (those with ten or more years of post-residency experience) who were not exposed to these reforms during their residency. We found that the duty-hour reforms did not adversely affect hospital mortality and length-of-stay of patients cared for by new attending physicians who were partly or fully exposed to reduced duty hours during their own residency. However, assessment of the impact of the duty-hour reforms on other clinical outcomes is needed.

  7. Neonicotinoid clothianidin adversely affects insect immunity and promotes replication of a viral pathogen in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Di Prisco, Gennaro; Cavaliere, Valeria; Annoscia, Desiderato; Varricchio, Paola; Caprio, Emilio; Nazzi, Francesco; Gargiulo, Giuseppe; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2013-11-12

    Large-scale losses of honey bee colonies represent a poorly understood problem of global importance. Both biotic and abiotic factors are involved in this phenomenon that is often associated with high loads of parasites and pathogens. A stronger impact of pathogens in honey bees exposed to neonicotinoid insecticides has been reported, but the causal link between insecticide exposure and the possible immune alteration of honey bees remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin negatively modulates NF-κB immune signaling in insects and adversely affects honey bee antiviral defenses controlled by this transcription factor. We have identified in insects a negative modulator of NF-κB activation, which is a leucine-rich repeat protein. Exposure to clothianidin, by enhancing the transcription of the gene encoding this inhibitor, reduces immune defenses and promotes the replication of the deformed wing virus in honey bees bearing covert infections. This honey bee immunosuppression is similarly induced by a different neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, but not by the organophosphate chlorpyriphos, which does not affect NF-κB signaling. The occurrence at sublethal doses of this insecticide-induced viral proliferation suggests that the studied neonicotinoids might have a negative effect at the field level. Our experiments uncover a further level of regulation of the immune response in insects and set the stage for studies on neural modulation of immunity in animals. Furthermore, this study has implications for the conservation of bees, as it will contribute to the definition of more appropriate guidelines for testing chronic or sublethal effects of pesticides used in agriculture.

  8. Neonicotinoid clothianidin adversely affects insect immunity and promotes replication of a viral pathogen in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Di Prisco, Gennaro; Cavaliere, Valeria; Annoscia, Desiderato; Varricchio, Paola; Caprio, Emilio; Nazzi, Francesco; Gargiulo, Giuseppe; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2013-11-12

    Large-scale losses of honey bee colonies represent a poorly understood problem of global importance. Both biotic and abiotic factors are involved in this phenomenon that is often associated with high loads of parasites and pathogens. A stronger impact of pathogens in honey bees exposed to neonicotinoid insecticides has been reported, but the causal link between insecticide exposure and the possible immune alteration of honey bees remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin negatively modulates NF-κB immune signaling in insects and adversely affects honey bee antiviral defenses controlled by this transcription factor. We have identified in insects a negative modulator of NF-κB activation, which is a leucine-rich repeat protein. Exposure to clothianidin, by enhancing the transcription of the gene encoding this inhibitor, reduces immune defenses and promotes the replication of the deformed wing virus in honey bees bearing covert infections. This honey bee immunosuppression is similarly induced by a different neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, but not by the organophosphate chlorpyriphos, which does not affect NF-κB signaling. The occurrence at sublethal doses of this insecticide-induced viral proliferation suggests that the studied neonicotinoids might have a negative effect at the field level. Our experiments uncover a further level of regulation of the immune response in insects and set the stage for studies on neural modulation of immunity in animals. Furthermore, this study has implications for the conservation of bees, as it will contribute to the definition of more appropriate guidelines for testing chronic or sublethal effects of pesticides used in agriculture. PMID:24145453

  9. Neonicotinoid clothianidin adversely affects insect immunity and promotes replication of a viral pathogen in honey bees

    PubMed Central

    Di Prisco, Gennaro; Cavaliere, Valeria; Annoscia, Desiderato; Varricchio, Paola; Caprio, Emilio; Nazzi, Francesco; Gargiulo, Giuseppe; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale losses of honey bee colonies represent a poorly understood problem of global importance. Both biotic and abiotic factors are involved in this phenomenon that is often associated with high loads of parasites and pathogens. A stronger impact of pathogens in honey bees exposed to neonicotinoid insecticides has been reported, but the causal link between insecticide exposure and the possible immune alteration of honey bees remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin negatively modulates NF-κB immune signaling in insects and adversely affects honey bee antiviral defenses controlled by this transcription factor. We have identified in insects a negative modulator of NF-κB activation, which is a leucine-rich repeat protein. Exposure to clothianidin, by enhancing the transcription of the gene encoding this inhibitor, reduces immune defenses and promotes the replication of the deformed wing virus in honey bees bearing covert infections. This honey bee immunosuppression is similarly induced by a different neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, but not by the organophosphate chlorpyriphos, which does not affect NF-κB signaling. The occurrence at sublethal doses of this insecticide-induced viral proliferation suggests that the studied neonicotinoids might have a negative effect at the field level. Our experiments uncover a further level of regulation of the immune response in insects and set the stage for studies on neural modulation of immunity in animals. Furthermore, this study has implications for the conservation of bees, as it will contribute to the definition of more appropriate guidelines for testing chronic or sublethal effects of pesticides used in agriculture. PMID:24145453

  10. Probabilities of adverse weather affecting transport in Europe: climatology and scenarios up to the 2050s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajda, A.; Tuomenvirta, H.; Jokinen, P.; Luomaranta, A.; Makkonen, L.; Tikanmäki, M.; Groenemeijer, P.; Saarikivi, P.; Michaelides, S.; Papadakis, M.; Tymvios, F.; Athanasatos, S.

    2012-04-01

    This paper provides the first comprehensive climatology of the adverse and extreme weather events affecting the European transport system by estimating the frequency (or probability) of phenomena for the present climate (1971-2000) and an overview of the projected changes in some of these extremes in the future climate until the 2050s. The research was carried out within the framework of the EWENT Project that addresses the European Union (EU) policies and strategies related to climate change, with a particular focus on extreme weather impacts on the EU transportation system. This project is funded by the Seventh Framework Programme (Transports, call ID FPT7-TPT-2008-RTD-1). The analyzed phenomena are wind, snow, blizzards, heavy precipitation, cold spells and heat waves. In addition, reduced visibility conditions determined by fog and dust events, small-scale phenomena affecting the transport system, such as thunderstorms, lightning, large hail and tornadoes and events damaging infrastructure of the transport system, have been considered. Frequency and probability analysis of past and present ex¬tremes were performed using observational and atmospheric reanalysis data. Future changes in the probability of severe events were assessed based on six regional climate model simulations produced in the FP6 ENSEMBLES project (http://www.ensembles-eu.org/). To facilitate the assessment of impacts and consequences of extreme phenomena on a continental level, the WP2 Deliverable introduces a regionalization of the European extreme phenomena, defining the climate zones with similarities in extreme phenomena. The projected changes as well as large natural variability in weather extremes on the transportation network will have impacts of both signs. The decline of extreme cold and snowfall over most of the continent implies a positive impact on road, rail, inland water and air transportation, e.g., by reducing snow removal. However, even with a general decreasing trend in

  11. 41 CFR 102-78.40 - What responsibilities do Federal agencies have when an undertaking adversely affects a historic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal agencies have when an undertaking adversely affects a historic or cultural property? 102-78.40... or cultural property? Federal agencies must not perform an undertaking that could alter, destroy, or modify an historic or cultural property until they have consulted with the SHPO and the Advisory...

  12. 41 CFR 102-78.40 - What responsibilities do Federal agencies have when an undertaking adversely affects a historic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... guidance on the protection of historic and cultural properties in 36 CFR part 800. ... Federal agencies have when an undertaking adversely affects a historic or cultural property? 102-78.40... (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 78-HISTORIC PRESERVATION Historic Preservation §...

  13. 50 CFR 402.45 - Alternative consultation on FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Counterpart Regulations Governing Actions by the U.S... that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat. 402.45 Section...

  14. 50 CFR 402.45 - Alternative consultation on FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Counterpart Regulations Governing Actions by the U.S... that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat. 402.45 Section...

  15. 50 CFR 402.45 - Alternative consultation on FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Counterpart Regulations Governing Actions by the U.S... that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat. 402.45 Section...

  16. Correlation of adverse effects of cisplatin administration in patients affected by solid tumours: A retrospective evaluation

    PubMed Central

    ASTOLFI, LAURA; GHISELLI, SARA; GUARAN, VALERIA; CHICCA, MILVIA; SIMONI, EDI; OLIVETTO, ELENA; LELLI, GIORGIO; MARTINI, ALESSANDRO

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatin is the most common antineoplastic drug used for the therapy of solid tumours. To date, researchers have focused on the dosage to be administered for each specific tumour, mainly considering the local adverse effects. The aim of this study was to correlate the severity of the adverse effects with: i) the dosage of cisplatin; ii) the specific site of the tumour; iii) the association with other drugs; and iv) the symptoms. We analysed data from 123 patients with 11 different tumour classes undergoing therapy from 2007 to 2008 at St. Anna Hospital (Ferrara, Italy), using the Spearman non-parametric correlation index. Even though significant correlations were found among the variables, the overall results showed that the main factor influencing the severity of the adverse effects was the dosage of cisplatin administered. PMID:23404427

  17. Periodontal treatment during pregnancy decreases the rate of adverse pregnancy outcome: a controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    SANT’ANA, Adriana Campos Passanezi; de CAMPOS, Marinele R.; PASSANEZI, Selma Campos; de REZENDE, Maria Lúcia Rubo; GREGHI, Sebastião Luiz Aguiar; PASSANEZI, Euloir

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of non-surgical treatment of periodontal disease during the second trimester of gestation on adverse pregnancy outcomes. Material and Methods Pregnant patients during the 1st and 2nd trimesters at antenatal care in a Public Health Center were divided into 2 groups: NIG – "no intervention" (n=17) or IG- "intervention" (n=16). IG patients were submitted to a non-surgical periodontal treatment performed by a single periodontist consisting of scaling and root planning (SRP), professional prophylaxis (PROPH) and oral hygiene instruction (OHI). NIG received PROPH and OHI during pregnancy and were referred for treatment after delivery. Periodontal evaluation was performed by a single trained examiner, blinded to periodontal treatment, according to probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), plaque index (PI) and sulcular bleeding index (SBI) at baseline and 35 gestational weeks-28 days post-partum. Primary adverse pregnancy outcomes were preterm birth (<37 weeks), low birth weight (<2.5 kg), late abortion (14-24 weeks) or abortion (<14 weeks). The results obtained were statistically evaluated according to OR, unpaired t test and paired t test at 5% significance level. Results No significant differences were observed between groups at baseline examination. Periodontal treatment resulted in stabilization of CAL and PI (p>0.05) at IG and worsening of all periodontal parameters at NIG (p<0.0001), except for PI. Significant differences in periodontal conditions of IG and NIG were observed at 2nd examination (p<0.001). The rate of adverse pregnancy outcomes was 47.05% in NIG and 6.25% in IG. Periodontal treatment during pregnancy was associated to a decreased risk of developing adverse pregnancy outcomes [OR=13.50; CI: 1.47-123.45; p=0.02]. Conclusions Periodontal treatment during the second trimester of gestation contributes to decrease adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:21552714

  18. [Examination of factors affecting efficacy and adverse effect, for the retrospective study of vancomycin hydrochloride (VCM)].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, M; Orii, T; Kobayashi, H; Hirono, S

    2001-08-01

    Vancomycin hydrochloride (VCM) is widely used for treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. However, this drug can cause sever adverse reactions, such as red neck syndrome, nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. Thus, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) was bringing into effect for well effectiveness and to prevent side effects. In Kanto Medical Center NTT EC, TDM of VCM has been brought into effect since 1994. The date were accumulated from 200 patients. In this study, the retrospective research was carried out based on 117 cases selected from the above accumulated data, and then several factors such as VCM inducing side effect, a therapeutic effect, and the forecast of pharmacokinetic parameter using laboratory data were examined. Consequently, the high blood concentration trough level, the high value after 1 to 2 hours infusion, and the extension of t1/2 were brought forward as a nephrotoxicity causing factor, and more over each laboratory data (BUN, Cr, GOT, GPT, gamma-GTP, T-BiL, ALP, LDH) was high before infusion of VCM in patients with renal dysfunction. High value T-Bil and lower value TP were brought forward in patients with hepatic dysfunction, and high eosinophils and high blood concentration were brought forward after 1 or 2 hours infusion. In relation to side effects, it was found that the outbreak rate of side effects is high in patients with a complication of hypertension or diabetes. The administration term was considered as a factor which influences the therapeutic effects. The unchanged effect was 10.9 +/- 7.9 days, the improved effect was 14.6 +/- 9.3 days, the remarkably improved effect was 17.7 +/- 14.1 days. As the administration term gets longer, the improvement rate was recognized to be an upward tendency. The difference in significant effects was recognized between unchanged and remarkably unchanged (p < 0.05) effects. As the forecast of pharmacokinetic parameter using the laboratory data, VCMt1/2 showed a

  19. Severe Affective and Behavioural Dysregulation Is Associated with Significant Psychosocial Adversity and Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jucksch, Viola; Salbach-Andrae, Harriet; Lenz, Klaus; Goth, Kirstin; Dopfner, Manfred; Poustka, Fritz; Freitag, Christine M.; Lehmkuhl, Gerd; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Holtmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Recently, a highly heritable behavioral phenotype of simultaneous deviance on the Anxious/Depressed, Attention Problems, and Aggressive Behavior syndrome scales has been identified on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL-Dysregulation Profile, CBCL-DP). This study aims to investigate psychosocial adversity and impairment of the CBCL-DP.…

  20. ADVERSE PRE- AND POSTNATAL EVENTS REPORTED TO FDA IN ASSOCIATION WITH MATERNAL ATENOLOL TREATMENT IN PREGNANCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atenolol is a beta-adrenoreceptor blocker used for treatment of hypertension in pregnancy. This study evaluates the reporting frequency of adverse pre- and postnatal outcomes in a series of 70 cases of maternal exposure during gestation, derived from 140 reports to FDA with Ateno...

  1. 30 CFR 585.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 585.816 Section 585.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU... affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? If environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility so as to endanger the safety or the environment, you must: (a) Submit a plan...

  2. 30 CFR 585.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 585.816 Section 585.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU... affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? If environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility so as to endanger the safety or the environment, you must: (a) Submit a plan...

  3. 30 CFR 585.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 585.816 Section 585.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU... affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? If environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility so as to endanger the safety or the environment, you must: (a) Submit a plan...

  4. Secreted biofilm factors adversely affect cellular wound healing responses in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jeffery Marano, Robert; Jane Wallace, Hilary; Wijeratne, Dulharie; William Fear, Mark; San Wong, Hui; O'Handley, Ryan

    2015-08-17

    Although most chronic wounds possess an underlying pathology, infectious agents also contribute. In many instances, pathogens exist as biofilms forming clusters surrounded by a secreted extracellular substance. We hypothesized that compounds secreted by biofilm bacteria may inhibit normal wound healing events including cell proliferation and migration. Conditioned media from two common bacterial species associated with chronic skin wounds and chronic tympanic membrane perforations, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were evaluated for their capacity to affect keratinocyte proliferation and migration. Additionally, proteomic analysis was performed to identify proteins within the biofilm conditioned media that may contribute to these observed effects. Biofilm conditioned media from both species inhibited proliferation in human tympanic membrane derived keratinocytes, whereas only biofilm conditioned media from S. aureus inhibited migration. Human epidermal keratinocytes were found to be more sensitive to the effects of the conditioned media resulting in high levels of cell death. Heat treatment and microfiltration suggested that S. aureus activity was due to a protein, while P. aeruginosa activity was more likely due to a small molecule. Proteomic analysis identified several proteins with putative links to delayed wound healing. These include alpha hemolysin, alcohol dehydrogenase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, lactate dehydrogenase and epidermal cell differentiation inhibitor.

  5. Secreted biofilm factors adversely affect cellular wound healing responses in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jeffery Marano, Robert; Jane Wallace, Hilary; Wijeratne, Dulharie; William Fear, Mark; San Wong, Hui; O'Handley, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Although most chronic wounds possess an underlying pathology, infectious agents also contribute. In many instances, pathogens exist as biofilms forming clusters surrounded by a secreted extracellular substance. We hypothesized that compounds secreted by biofilm bacteria may inhibit normal wound healing events including cell proliferation and migration. Conditioned media from two common bacterial species associated with chronic skin wounds and chronic tympanic membrane perforations, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were evaluated for their capacity to affect keratinocyte proliferation and migration. Additionally, proteomic analysis was performed to identify proteins within the biofilm conditioned media that may contribute to these observed effects. Biofilm conditioned media from both species inhibited proliferation in human tympanic membrane derived keratinocytes, whereas only biofilm conditioned media from S. aureus inhibited migration. Human epidermal keratinocytes were found to be more sensitive to the effects of the conditioned media resulting in high levels of cell death. Heat treatment and microfiltration suggested that S. aureus activity was due to a protein, while P. aeruginosa activity was more likely due to a small molecule. Proteomic analysis identified several proteins with putative links to delayed wound healing. These include alpha hemolysin, alcohol dehydrogenase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, lactate dehydrogenase and epidermal cell differentiation inhibitor. PMID:26278131

  6. Costs of managing adverse events in the treatment of first-line metastatic renal cell carcinoma: bevacizumab in combination with interferon-α2a compared with sunitinib

    PubMed Central

    Mickisch, G; Gore, M; Escudier, B; Procopio, G; Walzer, S; Nuijten, M

    2009-01-01

    Background: Bevacizumab plus interferon-α2a (IFN) prolongs progression-free survival to >10 months, which is comparable with sunitinib as first-line treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The two regimens have different tolerability profiles; therefore, costs for managing adverse events may be an important factor in selecting therapy. Methods: Costs of managing adverse events affecting patients with metastatic RCC eligible for treatment with bevacizumab plus IFN or sunitinib were evaluated using a linear decision analytical model. Management costs were calculated from the published incidence of adverse events and health-care costs for treating adverse events in the United Kingdom, Germany, France and Italy. Results: Adverse event management costs were higher for sunitinib than for bevacizumab plus IFN. The average cost per patient for the management of grade 3–4 adverse events was markedly lower with bevacizumab plus IFN compared with sunitinib in the United Kingdom (€1475 vs €804), Germany (€1785 vs €1367), France (€2590 vs €1618) and Italy (€891 vs €402). The main cost drivers were lymphopaenia, neutropaenia, thrombocytopaenia, leucopaenia and fatigue/asthaenia for sunitinib; and proteinuria, fatigue/asthaenia, bleeding, anaemia and gastrointestinal perforation for bevacizumab plus IFN. Conclusion: The costs of managing adverse events are lower for bevacizumab plus IFN than for sunitinib. The potential for cost savings should be considered when selecting treatments for RCC. PMID:19920817

  7. Persistent constipation and abdominal adverse events with newer treatments for constipation

    PubMed Central

    Sonu, Irene; Triadafilopoulos, George; Gardner, Jerry D

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical trials of several new treatments for opioid-induced constipation (OIC), chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) have focused on differences between subjects relieved of constipation with placebo and active treatment. Patients and clinicians however, are more interested in the probability these treatments provide actual relief of constipation and its associated symptoms. Methods We searched the medical literature using MEDLINE and Cochrane central register of controlled trials. Randomised, placebo-controlled trials that examined the use of methylnaltrexone, naloxegol, lubiprostone, prucalopride or linaclotide in adults with OIC, CIC and IBS-C were eligible for inclusion. The primary efficacy measure was relief of constipation. Adverse event data for abdominal symptoms were also analysed. Key results and findings 25 publications were included in our analyses. The proportion of constipated individuals with active treatment was significantly lower than the proportion with placebo; however, in 15 of these 20 trials analysed, a majority of patients remained constipated with active treatment. Analyses of adverse event data revealed that the percentage of participants who experienced abdominal pain, diarrhoea and flatulence with active treatment was higher than that with placebo in the majority of trials analysed. Conclusions Newer pharmacological treatments for constipation are superior to placebo in relieving constipation, but many patients receiving active treatment may remain constipated. In addition, all 5 of the treatments studied are accompanied by no change or a possible increase in the prevalence of abdominal symptoms, such as abdominal pain, diarrhoea and flatulence. PMID:27486521

  8. Efficacy and adverse effects of memantine treatment for Alzheimer's disease from randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jue; Jiang, Hong

    2015-09-01

    The role of memantine as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been controversial. In clinical trials, a high dropout rate and numerous adverse events associated with memantine have been observed. However, given the relative scarcity of effective treatments for AD it would seem prudent to re-examine existing evidence to determine whether or not memantine should be used. Eight databases were utilized for randomized controlled trials that were published prior to December 31, 2013 and were according with the inclusion criteria. Trial methods, clinical characteristics, outcomes, and adverse events were extracted and analyzed with Review Manager 5.2. We obtained 2293 studies and determined that 13 of those studies met the inclusion criteria. Memantine therapy showed significant benefits to cognition, mental state, activities of daily life, the clinician's global impression in term with MMSE, SIB, NPI, ADCS-ADL19, CIBIC-Plus, respectively. Memantine therapy did not significantly increase the incidence of total adverse events, serious adverse events, death but it did increase the risk for somnolence.

  9. Postpartum affective disorders: incidence and treatment.

    PubMed

    Ugarriza, D N

    1992-05-01

    1. Postpartum depression is a culture-bound syndrome found in Western societies. The lack of supportive rites and rituals for postpartum women shape depressive symptoms. 2. Postpartum depression is a term used for three distinct syndromes: postpartum "blues," postpartum psychosis, and postpartum depression. 3. Treatment issues surrounding each postpartum affective disorder are different and require education and support of family members as well as postpartum women.

  10. Neuromuscular adverse effects associated with systemic retinoid dermatotherapy: monitoring and treatment algorithm for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Chroni, Elisabeth; Monastirli, Alexandra; Tsambaos, Dionysios

    2010-01-01

    Although neuromuscular adverse effects represent significant clinical manifestations of hypervitaminosis A syndrome, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the potential neuromuscular toxicity of vitamin A derivatives (retinoids). Since isotretinoin and acitretin are currently the two most commonly used oral retinoids in systemic dermatotherapy, this review focuses exclusively on their neuromuscular adverse effects and proposes a neuromuscular algorithm for appropriate monitoring of patients treated with these two compounds. The most frequent CNS adverse effect associated with oral isotretinoin is headache, either as an independent adverse effect or as part of benign intracranial hypertension, which is additionally characterized by nausea and visual changes. Isolated cases of stiff-person-like syndrome, epileptic seizures and generalized muscle stiffness syndrome, possibly or probably related to oral treatment with isotretinoin, have also been reported. In addition, oral isotretinoin has reportedly been associated with muscular adverse effects that most frequently manifest as myalgia and stiffness and, in rare cases, as true myopathy or rhabdomyolysis. Creatine phosphokinase, a specific marker of muscle destruction, has been found to be elevated, occasionally by up to 100 times the normal value (with or without muscular symptoms and signs), in a variable percentage of patients receiving isotretinoin treatment and particularly in those undergoing vigorous physical exercise. Oral acitretin has been found to cause peripheral nerve dysfunction, particularly of sensory fibres, which in rare cases leads to clinically evident sensory disturbances. Less clear is the causal relationship between acitretin and benign intracranial hypertension or myopathy, whereas an isolated case of cranial nerve IV (oculomotor) palsy and a further case of thrombotic stroke during treatment with oral acitretin have been reported. Systemic diseases with involvement of nervous and

  11. Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutteling, Barbara M.; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50…

  12. Glaucoma-related Adverse Events in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS) : One Year Results

    PubMed Central

    Beck, AD; Freedman, SF; Lynn, MJ; Bothun, ED; Neely, D; Lambert, SR

    2012-01-01

    Objective To report the incidence of glaucoma and glaucoma suspects in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS). To evaluate risk factors for the development of a glaucoma-related adverse event in IATS in the first year of follow-up. Methods 114 infants with a unilateral congenital cataract were assigned to undergo cataract surgery between 1 to 6 months of age either with (IOL) or without IOL implantation (CL). Standardized definitions of glaucoma and glaucoma suspect were created and used in the IATS. Results Ten patients (9%) developed glaucoma and 4 patients (4%) were glaucoma suspects for a total of 14 patients (12%) with a glaucoma-related adverse event in the treated eye through the first year of follow-up. Five CL patients (9%) and 9 IOL patients (16%) developed a glaucoma-related adverse event. The odds of developing a glaucoma-related adverse event was 3.1 times higher for a child with persistent fetal vasculature (PFV), and 1.6 times higher for each month of age younger at cataract surgery. Conclusions Modern surgical techniques do not eliminate the early development of glaucoma following congenital cataract surgery with or without an intraocular lens. Younger patients with or without PFV seem more likely to develop a glaucoma-related adverse event in the first year of follow-up.Vigilance for the early development of glaucoma is needed following congenital cataract surgery, especially when surgery is performed during early infancy or with PFV. Five year follow-up data for the IATS will likely reveal more glaucoma-related adverse events. PMID:22084157

  13. Periodontal Treatment Reduces Risk of Adverse Respiratory Events in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Te-Chun; Chang, Pei-Ying; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Chia-Hung; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Treatment of periodontal diseases has been associated with benefit outcomes for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, no population-based cohort study has been conducted. We evaluated this relationship by retrospective cohort study using a large population data. Using the National Health Insurance claims data of Taiwan, we identified 5562 COPD patients with periodontal diseases who had received periodontal treatment as the treatment group. The comparison group was selected at a 1:1 ratio matched by the propensity score estimated with age, sex, date of COPD diagnosis and periodontal treatment, and comorbidities. Both groups were followed up for 5 years to compare risks of acute exacerbation, pneumonia, and acute respiratory failure. The incidence rates of adverse respiratory events were significantly lower in the treatment group than in the comparison group: 3.79 versus 4.21 per 100 person-years for emergency room visits, 2.75 versus 3.65 per 100 person-years for hospitalizations, and 0.66 versus 0.75 per 100 person-years for intensive care unit admissions. The treatment group also had a 37% reduced risk of deaths (1.81 vs 2.87 per 100 person-years), with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.57 (95% confidence interval 0.52–0.62). Periodontal treatment for COPD patients could reduce the risk of adverse respiratory events and mortality. The adequate periodontal health care is important for COPD patients with periodontal diseases. PMID:27196497

  14. 30 CFR 285.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 285.816 Section 285.816 Mineral Resources..., pipeline, or facility? If environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or...

  15. Adverse Drug Reaction Profile in Patients on Anti-tubercular Treatment Alone and in Combination with Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sadiq, Shamiya; Khajuria, Vijay; Mahajan, Annil; Singh, Jang B.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Adverse drug reactions are very common among patients on anti-tubercular treatment alone or in combination with highly active antiretroviral therapy but comparatively studied very less. Hence, the current study was done to evalaute the adverse drug reaction (ADR) profile in patients receiving anti-tubercular treatment (ATT) and ATT with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Materials and Methods A one year prospective, cross-sectional observational study was undertaken using suspected adverse drug data collection form available under Pharmacovigilance Programme of India. Results Seventy four patients receiving ATT & 32 patients on both ATT & HAART presented with 74 and 45 adverse drug events (ADE) respectively. Males were more affected than females in both the groups. DOTS category- 1 regimen was mostly responsible for ADE in both the groups. Epigastric pain was the most common ADE in TB patients, while anaemia was the most common presentation in TB with HIV group. On comparison, ADE rate of TB with HIV co-morbid patients was more (55.8%) than TB patients (0.36%) (p < 0.001). Urban population presented more with ADR in TB/HIV group unlike rural population in TB group (p<0.0001). Whereas, illiterate were more involved in TB group unlike literate in TB/HIV group (p<0.05). Type A reactions were more common in TB group (p < 0.001). Addition of drugs for the management of ADR events was more in TB/HIV group (p < 0.001) as compared to TB group. Rest all the parameters were comparable. Conclusion The study underscores that concomitant HAART and ATT, result in more ADRs in comparison to ATT alone demanding collaboration & integration of National AIDS Control programme and PvPI to enhance drug safety in this field. PMID:26557538

  16. Adverse effects and tolerability of medications for the treatment of tobacco use and dependence.

    PubMed

    Hays, J Taylor; Ebbert, Jon O

    2010-12-24

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death and disability in the world. Although gradually declining in most developed countries, the prevalence of tobacco use has increased among developing countries. Treatment for tobacco use and dependence is effective, although long-term abstinence rates remain disappointingly low. In response, new treatments continue to be developed. In addition, many of the pharmacotherapies that have been available for years have found new applications with the use of medication combinations, higher doses and a longer duration of therapy for approved medications. There are now seven medications (nicotine patch, nicotine gum, nicotine lozenge, nicotine inhaler, nicotine nasal spray, bupropion sustained release and varenicline) approved for tobacco dependence treatment in most countries, and many national and professional society practice guidelines recommend their use. Although each of the medications used for tobacco dependence treatment has been rigorously tested for efficacy and safety, broader experience in clinical trials and in observational population-based studies suggests that adverse events associated with these medications are relatively common. Since 2008, two of the medications (varenicline and bupropion) have come under increasing scrutiny because of reports of unexplained serious adverse events (SAEs), including behaviour change, depression, self-injurious thoughts and suicidal behaviour. To date, this association has not been shown to be caused by these medications, but concerns about medication safety continue. Prescribers require a working knowledge of the common adverse effects for all of these medications as well as a more detailed knowledge of the SAE potential. Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) has been rigorously tested in clinical trials for over 30 years. A number of adverse effects are commonly associated with NRT use, although SAEs are rare. The adverse effects associated with NRT are due to the

  17. Can aircraft noise less than or equal 115 to dBA adversely affect reproductive outcome in USAF women?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brubaker, P. A.

    1985-06-01

    It has been suggested, mainly through animal studies, that exposure to high noise levels may be associated with lower birth weight, reduced gestational length and other adverse reproductive outcomes. Few studies have been done on humans to show this association. The Air Force employs pregnant women in areas where there is a high potential for exposure to high noise levels. This study proposes a method to determine if there is an association between high frequency noise levels or = 115 dBA and adverse reproductive outcomes through a review of records and self-administered questionnaires in a case-comparison design. Prevelance rates will be calculated and a multiple logistic regression analysis computed for the independent variables that can affect reproduction.

  18. Elevated depressive affect is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes among African Americans with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Michael J.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Greene, Tom; Gassman, Jennifer J.; Wang, Xuelei; Brooks, Deborah H.; Charleston, Jeanne; Dowie, Donna; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Cooper, Lisa A.; Bruce, Marino A.; Kusek, John W.; Norris, Keith C.; Lash, James P.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the impact of elevated depressive affect on health outcomes among participants with hypertensive chronic kidney disease in the African-American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) Cohort Study. Elevated depressive affect was defined by Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) thresholds of 11 or more, above 14, and by 5-Unit increments in the score. Cox regression analyses were used to relate cardiovascular death/hospitalization, doubling of serum creatinine/end-stage renal disease, overall hospitalization, and all-cause death to depressive affect evaluated at baseline, the most recent annual visit (time-varying), or average from baseline to the most recent visit (cumulative). Among 628 participants at baseline, 42% had BDI-II scores of 11 or more and 26% had a score above 14. During a 5-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of cardiovascular death/hospitalization was significantly greater for participants with baseline BDI-II scores of 11 or more compared with those with scores <11. The baseline, time-varying, and cumulative elevated depressive affect were each associated with a significant higher risk of cardiovascular death/hospitalization, especially with a time-varying BDI-II score over 14 (adjusted HR 1.63) but not with the other outcomes. Thus, elevated depressive affect is associated with unfavorable cardiovascular outcomes in African Americans with hypertensive chronic kidney disease. PMID:21633409

  19. Long-term and preventative treatment for seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Westrin, Asa; Lam, Raymond W

    2007-01-01

    Recurrent major depressive disorder with regular seasonal patterns, commonly known as seasonal affective disorder (SAD), has evoked substantial research in the last two decades. It is now recognised that SAD is a common condition with prevalence rates between 0.4% and 2.9% of the general population, and that patients with SAD experience significant morbidity and impairment in psychosocial function. There is good evidence that bright light therapy and antidepressant medications are effective for the short-term treatment of SAD; however, given that SAD is characterised by recurrent major depressive episodes, long-term and maintenance treatment must be considered. Unfortunately, there are few studies of longer term (>8 weeks) and maintenance (preventative) treatments for SAD. The weight of evidence suggests that light therapy usually needs to be continued daily throughout the winter season because of rapid relapse when light is stopped too early in the treatment period. However, some studies support the use of antidepressants to continue the response from a brief (1-2 weeks) course of light therapy early in the depressive episode, as soon as the first symptoms emerge in autumn. Only small studies have examined preventative treatment (before onset of symptoms) with light therapy, all of which have methodological limitations. The best evidence for preventative treatment in SAD comes from antidepressant studies. Three large, randomised, placebo-controlled studies have shown that preventative treatment with bupropion XL reduces the recurrence rate of depressive episodes in patients with SAD. Given the limitations in the evidence base and the inconsistent recurrence rate of winter depressive episodes, clinical recommendations for long-term and preventative treatment must individualise treatment choices and weigh potential benefits against possible adverse effects. PMID:17927295

  20. Adverse childhood experiences associate to reduced glutamate levels in the hippocampus of patients affected by mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Sara; Locatelli, Clara; Falini, Andrea; Colombo, Cristina; Benedetti, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) can possibly permanently alter the stress response system, affect the glutamatergic system and influence hippocampal volume in mood disorders. The aim of the study is to investigate the association between glutamate levels in the hippocampus, measured through single proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), and ACE in patients affected by mood disorders and healthy controls. Higher levels of early stress associate to reduced levels of Glx/Cr in the hippocampus in depressed patients but not in healthy controls. Exposure to stress during early life could lead to a hypofunctionality of the glutamatergic system in the hippocampus of depressed patients. Abnormalities of glutamatergic signaling could then possibly underpin the structural and functional abnormalities observed in patients affected by mood disorders.

  1. Coralline algal physiology is more adversely affected by elevated temperature than reduced pH.

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Elizondo, Román Manuel; Enríquez, Susana

    2016-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the physiological responses of coralline algae to ocean acidification (OA) and global warming, by exposing algal thalli of three species with contrasting photobiology and growth-form to reduced pH and elevated temperature. The analysis aimed to discern between direct and combined effects, while elucidating the role of light and photosynthesis inhibition in this response. We demonstrate the high sensitivity of coralline algae to photodamage under elevated temperature and its severe consequences on thallus photosynthesis and calcification rates. Moderate levels of light-stress, however, were maintained under reduced pH, resulting in no impact on algal photosynthesis, although moderate adverse effects on calcification rates were still observed. Accordingly, our results support the conclusion that global warming is a stronger threat to algal performance than OA, in particular in highly illuminated habitats such as coral reefs. We provide in this study a quantitative physiological model for the estimation of the impact of thermal-stress on coralline carbonate production, useful to foresee the impact of global warming on coralline contribution to reef carbon budgets, reef cementation, coral recruitment and the maintenance of reef biodiversity. This model, however, cannot yet account for the moderate physiological impact of low pH on coralline calcification. PMID:26740396

  2. Coralline algal physiology is more adversely affected by elevated temperature than reduced pH.

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Elizondo, Román Manuel; Enríquez, Susana

    2016-01-07

    In this study we analyzed the physiological responses of coralline algae to ocean acidification (OA) and global warming, by exposing algal thalli of three species with contrasting photobiology and growth-form to reduced pH and elevated temperature. The analysis aimed to discern between direct and combined effects, while elucidating the role of light and photosynthesis inhibition in this response. We demonstrate the high sensitivity of coralline algae to photodamage under elevated temperature and its severe consequences on thallus photosynthesis and calcification rates. Moderate levels of light-stress, however, were maintained under reduced pH, resulting in no impact on algal photosynthesis, although moderate adverse effects on calcification rates were still observed. Accordingly, our results support the conclusion that global warming is a stronger threat to algal performance than OA, in particular in highly illuminated habitats such as coral reefs. We provide in this study a quantitative physiological model for the estimation of the impact of thermal-stress on coralline carbonate production, useful to foresee the impact of global warming on coralline contribution to reef carbon budgets, reef cementation, coral recruitment and the maintenance of reef biodiversity. This model, however, cannot yet account for the moderate physiological impact of low pH on coralline calcification.

  3. Coral and mollusc resistance to ocean acidification adversely affected by warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodolfo-Metalpa, R.; Houlbrèque, F.; Tambutté, É.; Boisson, F.; Baggini, C.; Patti, F. P.; Jeffree, R.; Fine, M.; Foggo, A.; Gattuso, J.-P.; Hall-Spencer, J. M.

    2011-09-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are expectedto decrease surface ocean pH by 0.3-0.5 units by 2100 (refs , ), lowering the carbonate ion concentration of surfacewaters. This rapid acidification is predicted to dramatically decrease calcification in many marine organisms. Reduced skeletal growth under increased CO2 levels has already been shown for corals, molluscs and many other marine organisms. The impact of acidification on the ability of individual species to calcify has remained elusive, however, as measuring net calcification fails to disentangle the relative contributions of gross calcification and dissolution rates on growth. Here, we show that corals and molluscs transplanted along gradients of carbonate saturation state at Mediterranean CO2 vents are able to calcify and grow at even faster than normal rates when exposed to the high CO2 levels projected for the next 300 years. Calcifiers remain at risk, however, owing to the dissolution of exposed shells and skeletons that occurs as pH levels fall. Our results show that tissues and external organic layers play a major role in protecting shells and skeletons from corrosive sea water, limiting dissolution and allowing organisms to calcify. Our combined field and laboratory results demonstrate that the adverse effects of global warming are exacerbated when high temperatures coincide with acidification.

  4. Coralline algal physiology is more adversely affected by elevated temperature than reduced pH

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez-Elizondo, Román Manuel; Enríquez, Susana

    2016-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the physiological responses of coralline algae to ocean acidification (OA) and global warming, by exposing algal thalli of three species with contrasting photobiology and growth-form to reduced pH and elevated temperature. The analysis aimed to discern between direct and combined effects, while elucidating the role of light and photosynthesis inhibition in this response. We demonstrate the high sensitivity of coralline algae to photodamage under elevated temperature and its severe consequences on thallus photosynthesis and calcification rates. Moderate levels of light-stress, however, were maintained under reduced pH, resulting in no impact on algal photosynthesis, although moderate adverse effects on calcification rates were still observed. Accordingly, our results support the conclusion that global warming is a stronger threat to algal performance than OA, in particular in highly illuminated habitats such as coral reefs. We provide in this study a quantitative physiological model for the estimation of the impact of thermal-stress on coralline carbonate production, useful to foresee the impact of global warming on coralline contribution to reef carbon budgets, reef cementation, coral recruitment and the maintenance of reef biodiversity. This model, however, cannot yet account for the moderate physiological impact of low pH on coralline calcification. PMID:26740396

  5. Weight Reduction in Athletes May Adversely Affect the Phagocytic Function of Monocytes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kono, Ichiro; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Study of the monocyte phagocytic function in nine competitive athletes before and after a two-week weight reduction (through calorie restriction) program revealed that their pre-program phagocytic activity was higher than in sedentary controls but decreased significantly after the program. This suggests calorie restriction may affect the human…

  6. Longitudinal in vivo tracking of adverse effects following topical steroid treatment.

    PubMed

    Bower, Andrew J; Arp, Zane; Zhao, Youbo; Li, Joanne; Chaney, Eric J; Marjanovic, Marina; Hughes-Earle, Angela; Boppart, Stephen A

    2016-05-01

    Topical steroids are known for their anti-inflammatory properties and are commonly prescribed to treat many adverse skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis. While these treatments are known to be effective, adverse effects including skin atrophy are common. In this study, the progression of these effects is investigated in an in vivo mouse model using multimodal optical microscopy. Utilizing a system capable of performing two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy (TPEF) of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) to visualize the epidermal cell layers and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy to identify collagen in the dermis, these processes can be studied at the cellular level. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is also utilized to image intracellular NADH levels to obtain molecular information regarding metabolic activity following steroid treatment. In this study, fluticasone propionate (FP)-treated, mometasone furoate (MF)-treated and untreated animals were imaged longitudinally using a custom-built multimodal optical microscope. Prolonged steroid treatment over the course of 21 days is shown to result in a significant increase in mean fluorescence lifetime of NADH, suggesting a faster rate of maturation of epidermal keratinocytes. Alterations to collagen organization and the structural microenvironment are also observed. These results give insight into the structural and biochemical processes of skin atrophy associated with prolonged steroid treatment. PMID:26739196

  7. Simulation of effects of botulinum toxin on muscular mechanics in time course of treatment based on adverse extracellular matrix adaptations.

    PubMed

    Turkoglu, Ahu N; Yucesoy, Can A

    2016-05-01

    BTX effects on muscular mechanics are highly important, but their mechanism and variability in due treatment course is not well understood. Recent modeling shows that partial muscle paralysis per se causes restricted sarcomere shortening due to muscle fiber-extracellular matrix (ECM) mechanical interactions. This leads to two notable acute-BTX effects compared to pre-BTX treatment condition: (1) enhanced potential of active force production of the non-paralyzed muscle parts, and (2) decreased muscle length range of force exertion (ℓrange). Recent experiments also indicate increased ECM stiffness of BTX treated muscle. Hence, altered muscle fiber-ECM interactions and BTX effects are plausible in due treatment course. Using finite element modeling, the aim was to test the following hypotheses: acute-BTX treatment effects elevate with increased ECM stiffness in the long-term, and are also persistent post-BTX treatment. Model results confirm these hypotheses and show that restricted sarcomere shortening effect becomes more pronounced in the long-term and is persistent or reversed (for longer muscle lengths) post-BTX treatment. Consequently, force production capacity of activated sarcomeres gets further enhanced in the long-term. Remarkably, such enhanced capacity becomes permanent for the entire muscle post-treatment. Shift of muscle optimum length to a shorter length is more pronounced in the long-term, some of which remains permanent post-treatment. Compared to Pre-BTX treatment, a narrower ℓrange (20.3%, 27.1% and 3.4%, acute, long-term and post-BTX treatment, respectively) is a consistent finding. We conclude that ECM adaptations can affect muscular mechanics adversely both during spasticity management and post-BTX treatment. Therefore, this issue deserves major future attention.

  8. CT and MR imaging findings of systemic complications occurring during pregnancy and puerperal period, adversely affected by natural changes

    PubMed Central

    Himoto, Yuki; Kido, Aki; Moribata, Yusaku; Yamaoka, Toshihide; Okumura, Ryosuke; Togashi, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic physiological and anatomical changes for delivery may adversely induce various specific non-obstetric complications during pregnancy and puerperal period. These complications can be fatal to both the mother and the fetus, thus a precise and early diagnosis ensued by an early treatment is essential. Along with ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have assumed an increasing role in the diagnosis. This article aims to discuss the pathophysiology of these complications, the indications for CT and MRI, and the imaging findings. PMID:26937442

  9. Identifying Adverse Effects of HIV Drug Treatment and Associated Sentiments Using Twitter

    PubMed Central

    Adrover, Cosme; Bodnar, Todd; Huang, Zhuojie

    2015-01-01

    Background Social media platforms are increasingly seen as a source of data on a wide range of health issues. Twitter is of particular interest for public health surveillance because of its public nature. However, the very public nature of social media platforms such as Twitter may act as a barrier to public health surveillance, as people may be reluctant to publicly disclose information about their health. This is of particular concern in the context of diseases that are associated with a certain degree of stigma, such as HIV/AIDS. Objective The objective of the study is to assess whether adverse effects of HIV drug treatment and associated sentiments can be determined using publicly available data from social media. Methods We describe a combined approach of machine learning and crowdsourced human assessment to identify adverse effects of HIV drug treatment solely on individual reports posted publicly on Twitter. Starting from a large dataset of 40 million tweets collected over three years, we identify a very small subset (1642; 0.004%) of individual reports describing personal experiences with HIV drug treatment. Results Despite the small size of the extracted final dataset, the summary representation of adverse effects attributed to specific drugs, or drug combinations, accurately captures well-recognized toxicities. In addition, the data allowed us to discriminate across specific drug compounds, to identify preferred drugs over time, and to capture novel events such as the availability of preexposure prophylaxis. Conclusions The effect of limited data sharing due to the public nature of the data can be partially offset by the large number of people sharing data in the first place, an observation that may play a key role in digital epidemiology in general. PMID:27227141

  10. Treatment of affective disorders in cardiac disease.

    PubMed

    Mavrides, Nicole; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2015-06-01

    Patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) commonly have syndromal major depression, and depression has been associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Prevalence of depression is between 17% and 47% in CVD patients. Pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic interventions have long been studied, and in general are safe and somewhat efficacious in decreasing depressive symptoms in patients with CVD. The impact on cardiac outcomes remains unclear. The evidence from randomized controlled clinical trials indicates that antidepressants, especially selective serotonin uptake inhibitors, are overwhelmingly safe, and likely to be effective in the treatment of depression in patients with CVD. This review describes the prevalence of depression in patients with CVD, the physiological links between depression and CVD, the treatment options for affective disorders, and the clinical trials that demonstrate efficacy and safety of antidepressant medications and psychotherapy in this patient population. Great progress has been made in understanding potential mediators between major depressive disorder and CVD--both health behaviors and shared biological risks such as inflammation.

  11. Depressing Antidepressant: Fluoxetine Affects Serotonin Neurons Causing Adverse Reproductive Responses in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Campos, Bruno; Rivetti, Claudia; Kress, Timm; Barata, Carlos; Dircksen, Heinrich

    2016-06-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely used antidepressants. As endocrine disruptive contaminants in the environment, SSRIs affect reproduction in aquatic organisms. In the water flea Daphnia magna, SSRIs increase offspring production in a food ration-dependent manner. At limiting food conditions, females exposed to SSRIs produce more but smaller offspring, which is a maladaptive life-history strategy. We asked whether increased serotonin levels in newly identified serotonin-neurons in the Daphnia brain mediate these effects. We provide strong evidence that exogenous SSRI fluoxetine selectively increases serotonin-immunoreactivity in identified brain neurons under limiting food conditions thereby leading to maladaptive offspring production. Fluoxetine increases serotonin-immunoreactivity at low food conditions to similar maximal levels as observed under high food conditions and concomitantly enhances offspring production. Sublethal amounts of the neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine known to specifically ablate serotonin-neurons markedly decrease serotonin-immunoreactivity and offspring production, strongly supporting the effect to be serotonin-specific by reversing the reproductive phenotype attained under fluoxetine. Thus, SSRIs impair serotonin-regulation of reproductive investment in a planktonic key organism causing inappropriately increased reproduction with potentially severe ecological impact. PMID:27128505

  12. Combining S-cone and luminance signals adversely affects discrimination of objects within backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Ben J.; Tsattalios, Konstantinos; Chakravarthi, Ramakrishna; Martinovic, Jasna

    2016-01-01

    The visual system processes objects embedded in complex scenes that vary in both luminance and colour. In such scenes, colour contributes to the segmentation of objects from backgrounds, but does it also affect perceptual organisation of object contours which are already defined by luminance signals, or are these processes unaffected by colour’s presence? We investigated if luminance and chromatic signals comparably sustain processing of objects embedded in backgrounds, by varying contrast along the luminance dimension and along the two cone-opponent colour directions. In the first experiment thresholds for object/non-object discrimination of Gaborised shapes were obtained in the presence and absence of background clutter. Contrast of the component Gabors was modulated along single colour/luminance dimensions or co-modulated along multiple dimensions simultaneously. Background clutter elevated discrimination thresholds only for combined S-(L + M) and L + M signals. The second experiment replicated and extended this finding by demonstrating that the effect was dependent on the presence of relatively high S-(L + M) contrast. These results indicate that S-(L + M) signals impair spatial vision when combined with luminance. Since S-(L + M) signals are characterised by relatively large receptive fields, this is likely to be due to an increase in the size of the integration field over which contour-defining information is summed. PMID:26856308

  13. Potential Adverse Effects of Amphetamine Treatment on Brain and Behavior: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Steven M.; Kuczenski, Ronald; McCracken, James T.; London, Edythe D.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Amphetamine stimulants have been used medically since early in the twentieth century, but they have a high abuse potential and can be neurotoxic. Although they have long been used effectively to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents, amphetamines are now being prescribed increasingly as maintenance therapy for ADHD and narcolepsy in adults, considerably extending the period of potential exposure. Effects of prolonged stimulant treatment have not been fully explored, and understanding such effects is a research priority 1. Because the pharmacokinetics of amphetamines differ between children and adults, reevaluation of the potential for adverse effects of chronic treatment of adults is essential. Findings Despite information on the effects of stimulants in laboratory animals, profound species differences in susceptibility to stimulant-induced neurotoxicity underscore the need for systematic studies of prolonged human exposure. Early amphetamine treatment has been linked to slowing in height and weight growth in some children. Because the number of prescriptions for amphetamines has increased several-fold over the past decade, an amphetamine-containing formulation is the most commonly prescribed stimulant in North America, and it is noteworthy that amphetamines are also the most abused prescription medications. Although early treatment does not increase risk for substance abuse, few studies have tracked the compliance and usage profiles of individuals who began amphetamine treatment as adults. Overall, there is concern about risk for slowed growth in young patients who are dosed continuously, and for substance abuse in patients first medicated in late adolescence or adulthood. Although most adult patients also use amphetamines effectively and safely, occasional case reports indicate that prescription use can produce marked psychological adverse events, including stimulant-induced psychosis. Assessments of central

  14. Discontinuation symptoms and taper/poststudy-emergent adverse events with desvenlafaxine treatment for major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Stuart A; Fava, Maurizio; Padmanabhan, Sudharshan K; Guico-Pabia, Christine J; Tourian, Karen A

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess discontinuation symptoms with desvenlafaxine (administered as desvenlafaxine succinate) treatment for major depressive disorder. Data were analyzed from nine 8-week, double-blind (DB), placebo-controlled studies of desvenlafaxine (50, 100, 200, or 400 mg/day; placebo, n = 319; desvenlafaxine, n = 578) and a relapse-prevention study [12-week, open-label (OL) 200 or 400 mg/day desvenlafaxine (n = 373); 6-month DB placebo (n = 73) or desvenlafaxine (n = 118)]. Rates of taper/poststudy-emergent adverse events were summarized. Discontinuation-Emergent Signs and Symptoms (DESS) checklist scores were analyzed in treatment completers at the end of OL and DB treatment. The most common (> or = 5%) taper/poststudy-emergent adverse events among desvenlafaxine patients were dizziness, nausea, headache, irritability, diarrhea, anxiety, abnormal dreams, fatigue, and hyperhidrosis. In the short-term studies, the highest DESS scores observed for desvenlafaxine groups occurred at first assessment after discontinuation of all active treatment (1.9-5.7). Desvenlafaxine 50- and 100-mg/day groups had significantly increased scores versus placebo (P values < or = 0.028). DESS scores increased significantly for patients discontinuing 12-week, OL desvenlafaxine 200 and 400 mg/day doses compared with those continuing desvenlafaxine (P values < or = 0.022). After the 6-month DB phase, DESS scores increased significantly compared with placebo for patients discontinuing 400 mg/day only (P = 0.029). In conclusion, cessation of desvenlafaxine use is associated with discontinuation symptoms after both short-term and long-term treatment.

  15. Nutrient supplementation may adversely affect maternal oral health--a randomised controlled trial in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Harjunmaa, Ulla; Järnstedt, Jorma; Dewey, Kathryn G; Ashorn, Ulla; Maleta, Kenneth; Vosti, Stephen A; Ashorn, Per

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional supplementation during pregnancy is increasingly recommended especially in low-resource settings, but its oral health impacts have not been studied. Our aim was to examine whether supplementation with multiple micronutrients (MMN) or small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements affects dental caries development or periodontal health in a rural Malawian population. The study was embedded in a controlled iLiNS-DYAD trial that enrolled 1391 pregnant women <20 gestation weeks. Women were provided with one daily iron-folic acid capsule (IFA), one capsule with 18 micronutrients (MMN) or one sachet of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) containing protein, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids and 21 micronutrients. Oral examination of 1024 participants was conducted and panoramic X-ray taken within 6 weeks after delivery. The supplement groups were similar at baseline in average socio-economic, nutritional and health status. At the end of the intervention, the prevalence of caries was 56.7%, 69.1% and 63.3% (P = 0.004), and periodontitis 34.9%, 29.8% and 31.2% (P = 0.338) in the IFA, MMN and LNS groups, respectively. Compared with the IFA group, women in the MMN group had 0.60 (0.18-1.02) and in the LNS group 0.59 (0.17-1.01) higher mean number of caries lesions. In the absence of baseline oral health data, firm conclusions on causality cannot be drawn. However, although not confirmatory, the findings are consistent with a possibility that provision of MMN or LNS may have increased the caries incidence in this target population. Because of the potential public health impacts, further research on the association between gestational nutrient interventions and oral health in low-income settings is needed.

  16. Pancreatic β-Cell Adaptive Plasticity in Obesity Increases Insulin Production but Adversely Affects Secretory Function.

    PubMed

    Alarcon, Cristina; Boland, Brandon B; Uchizono, Yuji; Moore, Patrick C; Peterson, Bryan; Rajan, Suryalekha; Rhodes, Olivia S; Noske, Andrew B; Haataja, Leena; Arvan, Peter; Marsh, Bradly J; Austin, Jotham; Rhodes, Christopher J

    2016-02-01

    Pancreatic β-cells normally produce adequate insulin to control glucose homeostasis, but in obesity-related diabetes, there is a presumed deficit in insulin production and secretory capacity. In this study, insulin production was assessed directly in obese diabetic mouse models, and proinsulin biosynthesis was found to be contrastingly increased, coupled with a significant expansion of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (without endoplasmic reticulum stress) and Golgi apparatus, increased vesicular trafficking, and a depletion of mature β-granules. As such, β-cells have a remarkable capacity to produce substantial quantities of insulin in obesity, which are then made available for immediate secretion to meet increased metabolic demand, but this comes at the price of insulin secretory dysfunction. Notwithstanding, it can be restored. Upon exposing isolated pancreatic islets of obese mice to normal glucose concentrations, β-cells revert back to their typical morphology with restoration of regulated insulin secretion. These data demonstrate an unrealized dynamic adaptive plasticity of pancreatic β-cells and underscore the rationale for transient β-cell rest as a treatment strategy for obesity-linked diabetes. PMID:26307586

  17. Folic Acid Supplementation Adversely Affects Chemosensitivity of Colon Cancer Cells to 5-fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Lisa; Yang, Michael; Sohn, Kyoung-Jin; Streutker, Catherine J; Grin, Andrea; Croxford, Ruth; Kim, Young-In

    2016-07-01

    Folic acid (FA) fortification and widespread supplemental use have significantly increased folate status in North America. Furthermore, >50% of colorectal cancer patients use FA supplement. The increased folate status may interfere with cancer chemotherapy. We investigated the effect of FA supplementation on chemosensitivity of human colon cancer cells to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) using a xenograft model. Mice harboring human HCT116 colon cancer xenografts were randomized to receive the control, or 4× or 12.5× supplemental levels of FA. Within each diet group, mice were randomized to receive 5-FU+leucovorin or saline and xenograft growth and characteristics were determined. The expression of genes involved in folate metabolism and cancer treatment was determined. FA supplementation and 5-FU significantly interacted to influence xenograft growth (P < 0.007). At the control level, 5-FU significantly inhibited the growth of the xenografts (P < 0.0001). However, at the 4× supplemental level, 5-FU-treated xenografts grew faster than untreated xenografts (P = 0.048) while at the 12.5× supplemental level, 5-FU exhibited no effect. Cell proliferation, degree of necrosis, and expression of the selected genes did not significantly differ by the supplemental levels of FA. Our data suggest that FA supplementation may be detrimental to 5-FU chemotherapy of colon cancer and pose public health concern.

  18. [Adverse efects of riluzole (Rilutek) in the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Roch-Torreilles, I; Camu, W; Hillaire-Buys, D

    2000-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly fatal degenerative disorder of the motoneurones which was without any effective therapy until 1997. Riluzole (Rilutek) has been the first patented drug used in its specific treatment. In order to evaluate the tolerability profile of this molecule, a Pharmacovigilance study was undertaken in the Department of Neurology B at the Montpellier University Hospital. A total of 153 patients were studied and all observed side-effects were listed in the French bank of Pharmacovigilance. Riluzole induced one or more adverse effects in 50.3 per cent of patients. The most frequent were gastrointestinal disturbances, hepatotoxicity and asthenia. Dermatological, haematological, neuropsychiatric and metabolic side-effects were also reported. This study shows an acceptable safety profile for riluzole. Due to its mode of action, riluzole could potentially be used in the treatment of other neurodegenerative diseases involving glutamate excitotoxicity. Subsequently, Pharmacovigilance will have to be carried out to establish the proper use of riluzole. PMID:10967703

  19. Bevacizumab for the treatment of post-stereotactic radiosurgery adverse radiation effect

    PubMed Central

    Fanous, Andrew A.; Fabiano, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adverse radiation effect (ARE) is one of the complications of stereotactic radiosurgery. Its treatment with conventional medications, such as corticosteroids, vitamin E, and pentoxifylline carries a high risk of failure, with up to 20% of lesions refractory to such medications. In addition, deep lesions and those occurring in patients with significant medical comorbidities may not be suitable for surgical resection. Bevacizumab is an antiangiogenic monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, a known mediator of cerebral edema. It can be used to successfully treat ARE. Case Description: An 85-year-old man with a history of small-cell lung cancer presented with metastatic disease to the brain. He underwent stereotactic radiosurgery to a brain metastasis involving the right external capsule. Three months later, the lesion had increased in size, with significant surrounding edema. The patient developed an adverse reaction to steroid treatment and had a poor response to treatment with pentoxifylline and vitamin E. He was deemed a poor surgical candidate because of his medical comorbidities. He was eventually treated with 3 doses of bevacizumab, and the treatment resulted in significant clinical improvement. Magnetic resonance imaging showed some decrease in the size of the lesion and significant decrease in the surrounding edema. Conclusions: Bevacizumab can be successfully used to treat ARE induced by stereotactic radiosurgery in patients with cerebral metastases. It is of particular benefit in patients considered unsuitable for surgical decompression. It is also beneficial in patients with poor tolerance to corticosteroids and in patients who do not respond to other medications. PMID:27583180

  20. Adverse Events During Immunotherapy Against Grass Pollen-Induced Allergic Rhinitis - Differences Between Subcutaneous and Sublingual Treatment.

    PubMed

    Aasbjerg, Kristian; Dalhoff, Kim Peder; Backer, Vibeke

    2015-08-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) triggered by grass pollen is a common disease, affecting millions of people worldwide. Treatment consists of symptom-alleviating drugs, such as topical corticosteroids or antihistamines. Another option is potentially curative immunotherapy, currently available as sublingual and subcutaneous treatment. We investigated the potential differences in the prevalence and severity of adverse events related to subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) against grass pollen-induced AR. A thorough literature search was performed with PubMed and EMBASE. The findings were compared with the available summaries of product characteristics (SPC) and with commercial pharmacology databases (Micromedex). The majority of available safety data originate from registered products of standardized allergens. A surprisingly large percentage of drugs, especially those used in the United States, have no systematically collected safety data. No sufficiently powered randomized trials comparing sublingual and subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) were available, but general safety assessments indicate that sublingual tablet treatment is safer than subcutaneous treatment. Not all commonly used immunotherapy drugs are officially registered, and not all have systematically collected safety data. This is especially true for older drugs used in the United States. In contrast, newer drugs that have undergone extensive clinical testing have better documentation, but unified collection of safety data is still lacking. Considering the evidence available, most drugs elicit similar side effects from the same organ systems, and symptoms from the sublingual drug classes are probably less severe. However, a head-to-head comparison of safety and efficacy is lacking.

  1. Effect of Diabetes Mellitus on Tuberculosis Treatment Outcome and Adverse Reactions in Patients Receiving Directly Observed Treatment Strategy in India: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Ali Nasir; Khayyam, Khalid Umer

    2016-01-01

    Despite successful implementation of directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS) in India, the growing number of diabetes mellitus (DM) patients appears to be a cause in the increasing tuberculosis (TB) incidence, affecting their management. In this regard, a prospective study was conducted on DOTS patients in three primary health care centers in urban slum region of South Delhi, India, to evaluate the effect of DM on sputum conversion, treatment outcome, and adverse drug reactions (ADR) due to anti-TB treatment. Eligible TB patients underwent blood glucose screening at treatment initiation. Disease presentation, clinical outcome, and ADRs were compared between patients of TB with and without DM. Out of 316 patients, the prevalence of DM was found to be 15.8%, in which 19.4% and 9.6% were PTB and EPTB patients, respectively. DM patients have observed higher sputum positivity (OR 1.247 95% CI; 0.539–2.886) at the end of 2-month treatment and poor outcome (OR 1.176 95% CI; 0.310–4.457) at the completion of treatment compared with non DM patients. Presence of DM was significantly associated (OR 3.578 95% CI; 1.114–11.494, p = 0.032) with the development of ADRs. DM influences the treatment outcome of PTB patients in our setting and also on the ADR incidence. PMID:27642601

  2. Effect of Diabetes Mellitus on Tuberculosis Treatment Outcome and Adverse Reactions in Patients Receiving Directly Observed Treatment Strategy in India: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Ali Nasir; Khayyam, Khalid Umer; Sharma, Manju

    2016-01-01

    Despite successful implementation of directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS) in India, the growing number of diabetes mellitus (DM) patients appears to be a cause in the increasing tuberculosis (TB) incidence, affecting their management. In this regard, a prospective study was conducted on DOTS patients in three primary health care centers in urban slum region of South Delhi, India, to evaluate the effect of DM on sputum conversion, treatment outcome, and adverse drug reactions (ADR) due to anti-TB treatment. Eligible TB patients underwent blood glucose screening at treatment initiation. Disease presentation, clinical outcome, and ADRs were compared between patients of TB with and without DM. Out of 316 patients, the prevalence of DM was found to be 15.8%, in which 19.4% and 9.6% were PTB and EPTB patients, respectively. DM patients have observed higher sputum positivity (OR 1.247 95% CI; 0.539-2.886) at the end of 2-month treatment and poor outcome (OR 1.176 95% CI; 0.310-4.457) at the completion of treatment compared with non DM patients. Presence of DM was significantly associated (OR 3.578 95% CI; 1.114-11.494, p = 0.032) with the development of ADRs. DM influences the treatment outcome of PTB patients in our setting and also on the ADR incidence. PMID:27642601

  3. Effect of Diabetes Mellitus on Tuberculosis Treatment Outcome and Adverse Reactions in Patients Receiving Directly Observed Treatment Strategy in India: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Ali Nasir; Khayyam, Khalid Umer

    2016-01-01

    Despite successful implementation of directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS) in India, the growing number of diabetes mellitus (DM) patients appears to be a cause in the increasing tuberculosis (TB) incidence, affecting their management. In this regard, a prospective study was conducted on DOTS patients in three primary health care centers in urban slum region of South Delhi, India, to evaluate the effect of DM on sputum conversion, treatment outcome, and adverse drug reactions (ADR) due to anti-TB treatment. Eligible TB patients underwent blood glucose screening at treatment initiation. Disease presentation, clinical outcome, and ADRs were compared between patients of TB with and without DM. Out of 316 patients, the prevalence of DM was found to be 15.8%, in which 19.4% and 9.6% were PTB and EPTB patients, respectively. DM patients have observed higher sputum positivity (OR 1.247 95% CI; 0.539–2.886) at the end of 2-month treatment and poor outcome (OR 1.176 95% CI; 0.310–4.457) at the completion of treatment compared with non DM patients. Presence of DM was significantly associated (OR 3.578 95% CI; 1.114–11.494, p = 0.032) with the development of ADRs. DM influences the treatment outcome of PTB patients in our setting and also on the ADR incidence.

  4. Treatment Needs and Adverse Events Related to Dental Treatment under General Anesthesia for Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rada, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism can be quite challenging to treat in a routine dental-office setting, especially when extensive dental treatment and disruptive behavioral issues exist. Individuals with autism may also be at higher risk for oral disease. Frequently, general anesthesia is the only method to facilitate completion of the needed dental…

  5. Adverse events in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: results from the DOTS-Plus initiative.

    PubMed

    Nathanson, E; Gupta, R; Huamani, P; Leimane, V; Pasechnikov, A D; Tupasi, T E; Vink, K; Jaramillo, E; Espinal, M A

    2004-11-01

    Adverse events associated with second-line drugs have been mentioned as obstacles in the management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Data on adverse events were collected from five DOTS-Plus sites in Estonia, Latvia, Peru (Lima), the Philippines (Manila) and the Russian Federation (Tomsk Oblast). The results show that among 818 patients enrolled on MDR-TB treatment only 2% of patients stopped treatment, but 30% required removal of the suspected drug(s) from the regimen due to adverse events. The study shows that adverse events are manageable in the treatment of MDR-TB in resource-limited settings provided that standard management strategies are applied. PMID:15581210

  6. Diagnosis and Treatment of Adverse Local Tissue Reactions at the Head-Neck Junction.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Herbert J

    2016-07-01

    Modular junctions in total hip arthroplasty are susceptible to mechanically assisted crevice corrosion, leading to the release of metal wear debris. Adverse local tissue reactions result from an immune-mediated biological reaction to this debris and can have a profound effect on the surrounding periarticular soft tissue envelope. Patients often present with pain or muscle weakness and demonstrate elevated serum cobalt and chromium levels. Serum inflammatory markers and synovial fluid tests help distinguish these reactions from deep infection in the majority of cases; however, the presence of amorphous material or fragmented cells can lead to difficulty in some cases. Advanced cross-sectional imaging is essential in establishing the diagnosis. Early revision surgery is generally the treatment of choice for symptomatic adverse local tissue reaction from corrosion at the modular head-neck junction. The existing stem is retained, and a new ceramic head is placed on the existing trunnion whenever possible. This strategy generally leads to short-term improvement of symptoms with reliable clinical outcomes; however, longer term results are presently lacking.

  7. Biological treatment in rheumatic diseases: results from a longitudinal surveillance: adverse events.

    PubMed

    Konttinen, L; Honkanen, V; Uotila, T; Pöllänen, J; Waahtera, M; Romu, M; Puolakka, K; Vasala, M; Karjalainen, A; Luukkainen, R; Nordström, D C

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the long-term safety and tolerability of biologicals in a clinical setting. Data on adverse events (AEs) have been collected over a 5-year period by means of detailed reports sent in to the National Register of Biological Treatment in Finland (ROB-FIN) and validated by information collected by the National Agency for Medicines. Three hundred and eight reports on AEs were filed, concerning a total of 248 patients; this corresponds to 17% of all patients in the ROB-FIN register who started biological treatments. Skin reactions and infections comprised 35 and 28% of the AEs, respectively. Some cases of tuberculosis and other infections, heart failure and demyelinating conditions were seen. Our work demonstrates no unexpected AEs in a Finnish patient cohort consisting of rheumatoid arthritis and spondylarthropathy patients, although many of them were treated with combination treatments in common use in Finland. Biological treatment appears safe in the hands of the Finnish rheumatologists.

  8. The cultivation of Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect non-target arthropods.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanyan; Feng, Yanjie; Ge, Yang; Tetreau, Guillaume; Chen, Xiaowen; Dong, Xuehui; Shi, Wangpeng

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic corn producing Cry1Ac toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provides effective control of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), and thus reduces insecticide applications. However, whether Bt corn exerts undesirable effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs) is still controversial. We conducted a 2-yr study in Shangzhuang Agricultural Experiment Station to assess the potential impact of Bt corn on field population density, biodiversity, community composition and structure of NTAs. On each sampling date, the total abundance, Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness index and Simpson's diversity index were not significantly affected by Bt corn as compared to non-Bt corn. The "sampling dates" had a significant effect on these indices, but no clear tendencies related to "Bt corn" or "sampling dates X corn variety" interaction were recorded. Principal response curve analysis of variance indicated that Bt corn did not alter the distribution of NTAs communities. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and distance analysis showed that Cry1Ac toxin exposure did not increase community dissimilarities between Bt and non-Bt corn plots and that the evolution of non-target arthropod community was similar on the two corn varieties. The cultivation of Bt corn failed to show any detrimental evidence on the density of non-target herbivores, predators and parasitoids. The composition of herbivores, predators and parasitoids was identical in Bt and non-Bt corn plots. Taken together, results from the present work support that Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect NTAs.

  9. Treatments of pelvic girdle pain in pregnant women: adverse effects of standard treatment, acupuncture and stabilising exercises on the pregnancy, mother, delivery and the fetus/neonate

    PubMed Central

    Elden, Helen; Ostgaard, Hans-Christian; Fagevik-Olsen, Monika; Ladfors, Lars; Hagberg, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Background Previous publications indicate that acupuncture is efficient for the treatment of pelvic girdle pain, PGP, in pregnant women. However, the use of acupuncture for PGP is rare due to insufficient documentation of adverse effects of this treatment in this specific condition. The aim of the present work was to assess adverse effects of acupuncture on the pregnancy, mother, delivery and the fetus/neonate in comparison with women that received stabilising exercises as adjunct to standard treatment or standard treatment alone. Methods In all, 386 women with PGP entered this controlled, single-blind trial. They were randomly assigned to standard treatment plus acupuncture (n = 125), standard treatment plus specific stabilising exercises (n = 131) or to standard treatment alone (n = 130) for 6 weeks. Acupuncture that may be considered strong was used and treatment was started as early as in the second trimester of pregnancy. Adverse effects were recorded during treatment and throughout the pregnancy. Influence on the fetus was measured with cardiotocography (CTG) before-during and after 43 acupuncture sessions in 43 women. A standardised computerized method to analyze the CTG reading numerically (Oxford 8000, Oxford, England) was used. After treatment, the women rated their overall experience of the treatment and listed adverse events if any in a questionnaire. Data of analgesia and oxytocin augmentation during labour, duration of labour, frequency of preterm birth, operative delivery, Apgar score, cord-blood gas/acid base balance and birth weight were also recorded. Results There were no serious adverse events after any of the treatments. Minor adverse events were common in the acupuncture group but women rated acupuncture favourably even despite this. The computerized or visually assessed CTG analyses of antenatal recordings in connection with acupuncture were all normal. Conclusion This study shows that acupuncture administered with a stimulation that may be

  10. Integrating Recent Data in Managing Adverse Events in the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gish, Robert G.; Abou-Alfa, Ghassan K.; Tong, Myron J.

    2010-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the United States, HCC is the main cause of death in patients with cirrhosis, and the incidence of this malignancy is on the rise. Because HCC is associated with a particularly poor prognosis, emphasis is placed on surveillance of high-risk patients. Early detection allows a greater chance of diagnosing HCC before it has spread, thus increasing the chances that the patient can be potentially cured with surgical techniques such as resection and transplantation. However, most cases of HCC are not diagnosed until at least some of the cancer has spread or multiple nodules exist. For these patients, treatment options include percutaneous and transarterial ablation, as well as systemic chemotherapy. Systemic therapy is now considered the standard of care for patients with advanced tumors. Traditional treatment was based on cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents, such as doxorubicin. This approach was associated with minimal benefit and a high rate of toxicity. Recently, targeted agents have proven more effective and safer in this setting. The oral multikinase inhibitor sorafenib is now approved for the treatment of unresectable HCC and is currently the only approved agent for advanced HCC. In order to maximize the benefit of sorafenib and other investigational agents for patients with advanced disease, effective interventions have been designed to mitigate their associated adverse events, such as hand-foot skin reactions and hypertension. PMID:22423222

  11. Infliximab in patients with psoriasis and other inflammatory diseases: evaluation of adverse events in the treatment of 168 patients*

    PubMed Central

    Antonio, João Roberto; Sanmiguel, Jessica; Cagnon, Giovana Viotto; Augusto, Marília Silveira Faeda; de Godoy, Moacir Fernandes; Pozetti, Eurides Maria Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Background Psoriasis is immune-mediated chronic inflammatory disease with preference for skin and joints. The skin involvement occurs by hyperproliferation and abnormal differentiation of keratinocytes. It is associated with comorbidities, mainly related to the clinical manifestations of the metabolic syndrome. Increased TNF-alpha expression (TNF-α) is related to its pathophysiology. Infliximab is an intravenous drug that acts neutralizing the biological activity of TNF-α and prevents the binding of the molecule to the target cell receptor, inhibiting cell proliferation of psoriasis and other diseases mediated by TNF-α. A lot of infusion reactions have been described in the literature. Objective To evaluate the adverse effects of intravenous treatment with infliximab, analyzing patients with psoriasis compared to those with other chronic inflammatory diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis). Method Analysis of medical records and adverse events of 168 patients undergoing infliximab infusion for psoriasis and chronic inflammatory diseases treatment. Results 168 patients who have used infliximab were evaluated, 24 had psoriasis and 144 had chronic inflammatory diseases. Only 2 (8.3%) patients with psoriasis showed adverse events requiring treatment discontinuation, and just 6 (4.2%) female patients with chronic inflammatory diseases experienced adverse events. Conclusion Infliximab is a safe drug, with a low percentage of adverse events and there were more adverse events in women with chronic inflammatory diseases and in patients who received more infliximab infusions. PMID:27438197

  12. Adverse Reaction of Sodium Hypochlorite during Endodontic Treatment of Primary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Panse, Amey Manohar; Gawali, Pritesh Namdeo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the most common and effective intracanal medicament used in root canal treatments, because of its low-cost and a very effective antimicrobial activity against microbiota of infected root canals. Sodium hypochlorite is an effective intracanal irrigant and is used in concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 5.25%. At these concentrations, it is highly hypertonic and strongly alkaline with pH 11 to 13. Despite its safe properties, serious complications can result from inadvertent use due to its cytotoxic features. Most of the complications are the result of accidental extrusion of the solution from the apical foramen or accessory canals or perforations into the periapical area. Although it is an effective solution for disinfection of root canal system, fewer incidence of complications are reported, especially in primary teeth. Present article highlights one of such cases of NaOCl accident and its successful management in a 4-year-old child. How to cite this article: Chaugule VB, Panse AM, Gawali PN. Adverse Reaction of Sodium Hypochlorite during Endo-dontic Treatment of Primary Teeth. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(2):153-156. PMID:26379387

  13. Acute Colonic Pseudo-obstruction: Defining the Epidemiology, Treatment, and Adverse Outcomes of Ogilvie's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ross, Samuel W; Oommen, Bindhu; Wormer, Blair A; Walters, Amanda L; Augenstein, Vedra A; Heniford, B Todd; Sing, Ronald F; Christmas, A Britton

    2016-02-01

    Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO) is a rare but often fatal disease. Herein, we present the largest study to date on ACPO. The National Inpatient Sample was queried for ACPO diagnoses from 1998 to 2011. Patients were analyzed by treatment into four groups: medical management (MM), colonoscopy alone [(endoscopy-only group) ENDO], surgery alone (SURG), or surgery and colonoscopy (SAC). Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of adverse outcomes by treatment group. There were 106,784 cases of ACPO: 96,657 (90.5%) MM, 2,915 (2.7%) ENDO, 6,731 (6.3%) SURG, and 481 (0.5%) SAC. The medical complication (45.7%), procedural complication (15.9%), and mortality rates (7.7%) were high. Increasing procedure invasiveness was independently associated with higher odds of medical complications, procedural complications, and death (P < 0.0125). The odds of death were significantly higher in the ENDO [odds ratio (OR) = 1.2], SURG (OR 1.4), and SAC (OR = 1.8) groups (P < 0.0125). Those who fail MM and require procedures have increasing morbidity and mortality with increasing invasiveness, likely reflecting the severity of their conditions.

  14. Adverse effects of shock waves and strategies for improved treatment in shock wave lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAteer, James A.; Evan, Andrew P.; Connors, Bret A.; Williams, James C.; Willis, Lynn R.

    2005-04-01

    Lithotripter SWs rupture blood vessels in the kidney. This acute trauma, accompanied by a fall in renal function, can lead to significant long-term effects such as profound scarring of the kidney cortex and renal papillaea permanent loss of functional renal mass. SWL has been linked to new-onset hypertension in some patients, and recent studies suggest that multiple lithotripsies can actually alter a patient's stone disease leading to formation of stones (brushite) that are harder to break. Cavitation and shear appear to play a role in stone breakage and tissue damage. Progress in understanding these mechanisms, and the renal response to SWs, has led to practical strategies to improve treatment. Slowing the SW-rate, or initiating treatment at low kV/power both improve stone breakage and reduce the number of potentially tissue-damaging SWs needed to achieve comminution. The observation that SWs cause transient vasoconstriction in the kidney has led to studies in pigs showing that a pre-conditioning dose of low-energy SWs significantly reduces trauma from subsequent high-energy SWs. Thus, SWs can induce adverse effects in the kidney, but what we have learned about the mechanisms of SW action suggests strategies that could make lithotripsy safer and more effective. [Work supported by NIH-DK43881, DK55674.

  15. The cultivation of Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect non-target arthropods.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanyan; Feng, Yanjie; Ge, Yang; Tetreau, Guillaume; Chen, Xiaowen; Dong, Xuehui; Shi, Wangpeng

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic corn producing Cry1Ac toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provides effective control of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), and thus reduces insecticide applications. However, whether Bt corn exerts undesirable effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs) is still controversial. We conducted a 2-yr study in Shangzhuang Agricultural Experiment Station to assess the potential impact of Bt corn on field population density, biodiversity, community composition and structure of NTAs. On each sampling date, the total abundance, Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness index and Simpson's diversity index were not significantly affected by Bt corn as compared to non-Bt corn. The "sampling dates" had a significant effect on these indices, but no clear tendencies related to "Bt corn" or "sampling dates X corn variety" interaction were recorded. Principal response curve analysis of variance indicated that Bt corn did not alter the distribution of NTAs communities. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and distance analysis showed that Cry1Ac toxin exposure did not increase community dissimilarities between Bt and non-Bt corn plots and that the evolution of non-target arthropod community was similar on the two corn varieties. The cultivation of Bt corn failed to show any detrimental evidence on the density of non-target herbivores, predators and parasitoids. The composition of herbivores, predators and parasitoids was identical in Bt and non-Bt corn plots. Taken together, results from the present work support that Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect NTAs. PMID:25437213

  16. The Cultivation of Bt Corn Producing Cry1Ac Toxins Does Not Adversely Affect Non-Target Arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanyan; Feng, Yanjie; Ge, Yang; Tetreau, Guillaume; Chen, Xiaowen; Dong, Xuehui; Shi, Wangpeng

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic corn producing Cry1Ac toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provides effective control of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), and thus reduces insecticide applications. However, whether Bt corn exerts undesirable effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs) is still controversial. We conducted a 2-yr study in Shangzhuang Agricultural Experiment Station to assess the potential impact of Bt corn on field population density, biodiversity, community composition and structure of NTAs. On each sampling date, the total abundance, Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness index and Simpson's diversity index were not significantly affected by Bt corn as compared to non-Bt corn. The “sampling dates” had a significant effect on these indices, but no clear tendencies related to “Bt corn” or “sampling dates X corn variety” interaction were recorded. Principal response curve analysis of variance indicated that Bt corn did not alter the distribution of NTAs communities. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and distance analysis showed that Cry1Ac toxin exposure did not increase community dissimilarities between Bt and non-Bt corn plots and that the evolution of non-target arthropod community was similar on the two corn varieties. The cultivation of Bt corn failed to show any detrimental evidence on the density of non-target herbivores, predators and parasitoids. The composition of herbivores, predators and parasitoids was identical in Bt and non-Bt corn plots. Taken together, results from the present work support that Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect NTAs. PMID:25437213

  17. Extreme Air Pollution Conditions Adversely Affect Blood Pressure and Insulin Resistance: The Air Pollution and Cardiometabolic Disease Study.

    PubMed

    Brook, Robert D; Sun, Zhichao; Brook, Jeffrey R; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Ruan, Yanping; Yan, Jianhua; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Rao, Xiaoquan; Duan, Fengkui; Sun, Lixian; Liang, Ruijuan; Lian, Hui; Zhang, Shuyang; Fang, Quan; Gu, Dongfeng; Sun, Qinghua; Fan, Zhongjie; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports that fine particulate matter adversely affects cardiometabolic diseases particularly in susceptible individuals; however, health effects induced by the extreme concentrations within megacities in Asia are not well described. We enrolled 65 nonsmoking adults with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the Beijing metropolitan area into a panel study of 4 repeated visits across 4 seasons since 2012. Daily ambient fine particulate matter and personal black carbon levels ranged from 9.0 to 552.5 µg/m(3) and 0.2 to 24.5 µg/m(3), respectively, with extreme levels observed during January 2013. Cumulative fine particulate matter exposure windows across the prior 1 to 7 days were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure elevations ranging from 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.7) to 2.7 (0.6-4.8) mm Hg per SD increase (67.2 µg/m(3)), whereas cumulative black carbon exposure during the previous 2 to 5 days were significantly associated with ranges in elevations in diastolic blood pressure from 1.3 (0.0-2.5) to 1.7 (0.3-3.2) mm Hg per SD increase (3.6 µg/m(3)). Both black carbon and fine particulate matter were significantly associated with worsening insulin resistance (0.18 [0.01-0.36] and 0.22 [0.04-0.39] unit increase per SD increase of personal-level black carbon and 0.18 [0.02-0.34] and 0.22 [0.08-0.36] unit increase per SD increase of ambient fine particulate matter on lag days 4 and 5). These results provide important global public health warnings that air pollution may pose a risk to cardiometabolic health even at the extremely high concentrations faced by billions of people in the developing world today. PMID:26573709

  18. Increased Fracture Collapse after Intertrochanteric Fractures Treated by the Dynamic Hip Screw Adversely Affects Walking Ability but Not Survival

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Christian; Gudushauri, Paata; Wong, Tak-Man; Lau, Tak-Wing; Pun, Terence; Leung, Frankie

    2016-01-01

    In osteoporotic hip fractures, fracture collapse is deliberately allowed by commonly used implants to improve dynamic contact and healing. The muscle lever arm is, however, compromised by shortening. We evaluated a cohort of 361 patients with AO/OTA 31.A1 or 31.A2 intertrochanteric fracture treated by the dynamic hip screw (DHS) who had a minimal follow-up of 3 months and an average follow-up of 14.6 months and long term survival data. The amount of fracture collapse and shortening due to sliding of the DHS was determined at the latest follow-up and graded as minimal (<1 cm), moderate (1-2 cm), or severe (>2 cm). With increased severity of collapse, more patients were unable to maintain their premorbid walking function (minimal collapse = 34.2%, moderate = 33.3%, severe = 62.8%, and p = 0.028). Based on ordinal regression of risk factors, increased fracture collapse was significantly and independently related to increasing age (p = 0.037), female sex (p = 0.024), A2 fracture class (p = 0.010), increased operative duration (p = 0.011), poor reduction quality (p = 0.000), and suboptimal tip-apex distance of >25 mm (p = 0.050). Patients who had better outcome in terms of walking function were independently predicted by younger age (p = 0.036), higher MMSE marks (p = 0.000), higher MBI marks (p = 0.010), better premorbid walking status (p = 0.000), less fracture collapse (p = 0.011), and optimal lag screw position in centre-centre or centre-inferior position (p = 0.020). According to Kaplan-Meier analysis, fracture collapse had no association with mortality from 2.4 to 7.6 years after surgery. In conclusion, increased fracture collapse after fixation of geriatric intertrochanteric fractures adversely affected walking but not survival. PMID:26955637

  19. Extreme Air Pollution Conditions Adversely Affect Blood Pressure and Insulin Resistance: The Air Pollution and Cardiometabolic Disease Study.

    PubMed

    Brook, Robert D; Sun, Zhichao; Brook, Jeffrey R; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Ruan, Yanping; Yan, Jianhua; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Rao, Xiaoquan; Duan, Fengkui; Sun, Lixian; Liang, Ruijuan; Lian, Hui; Zhang, Shuyang; Fang, Quan; Gu, Dongfeng; Sun, Qinghua; Fan, Zhongjie; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports that fine particulate matter adversely affects cardiometabolic diseases particularly in susceptible individuals; however, health effects induced by the extreme concentrations within megacities in Asia are not well described. We enrolled 65 nonsmoking adults with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the Beijing metropolitan area into a panel study of 4 repeated visits across 4 seasons since 2012. Daily ambient fine particulate matter and personal black carbon levels ranged from 9.0 to 552.5 µg/m(3) and 0.2 to 24.5 µg/m(3), respectively, with extreme levels observed during January 2013. Cumulative fine particulate matter exposure windows across the prior 1 to 7 days were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure elevations ranging from 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.7) to 2.7 (0.6-4.8) mm Hg per SD increase (67.2 µg/m(3)), whereas cumulative black carbon exposure during the previous 2 to 5 days were significantly associated with ranges in elevations in diastolic blood pressure from 1.3 (0.0-2.5) to 1.7 (0.3-3.2) mm Hg per SD increase (3.6 µg/m(3)). Both black carbon and fine particulate matter were significantly associated with worsening insulin resistance (0.18 [0.01-0.36] and 0.22 [0.04-0.39] unit increase per SD increase of personal-level black carbon and 0.18 [0.02-0.34] and 0.22 [0.08-0.36] unit increase per SD increase of ambient fine particulate matter on lag days 4 and 5). These results provide important global public health warnings that air pollution may pose a risk to cardiometabolic health even at the extremely high concentrations faced by billions of people in the developing world today.

  20. Endocrine disrupters and human health: could oestrogenic chemicals in body care cosmetics adversely affect breast cancer incidence in women?

    PubMed

    Harvey, Philip W; Darbre, Philippa

    2004-01-01

    In the decade that has elapsed since the suggestion that exposure of the foetal/developing male to environmental oestrogens could be the cause of subsequent reproductive and developmental effects in men, there has been little definitive research to provide conclusions to the hypothesis. Issues of exposure and low potency of environmental oestrogens may have reduced concerns. However, the hypothesis that chemicals applied in body care cosmetics (including moisturizers, creams, sprays or lotions applied to axilla or chest or breast areas) may be affecting breast cancer incidence in women presents a different case scenario, not least in the consideration of the exposure issues. The specific cosmetic type is not relevant but the chemical ingredients in the formulations and the application to the skin is important. The most common group of body care cosmetic formulation excipients, namely p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters or parabens, have been shown recently to be oestrogenic in vitro and in vivo and now have been detected in human breast tumour tissue, indicating absorption (route and causal associations have yet to be confirmed). The hypothesis for a link between oestrogenic ingredients in underarm and body care cosmetics and breast cancer is forwarded and reviewed here in terms of: data on exposure to body care cosmetics and parabens, including dermal absorption; paraben oestrogenicity; the role of oestrogen in breast cancer; detection of parabens in breast tumours; recent epidemiology studies of underarm cosmetics use and breast cancer; the toxicology database; the current regulatory status of parabens and regulatory toxicology data uncertainties. Notwithstanding the major public health issue of the causes of the rising incidence of breast cancer in women, this call for further research may provide the first evidence that environmental factors may be adversely affecting human health by endocrine disruption, because exposure to oestrogenic chemicals through application

  1. Systematic review and meta-analysis on the adverse events of rimonabant treatment: Considerations for its potential use in hepatology

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The cannabinoid-1 receptor blockers have been proposed in the management of obesity and obesity-related liver diseases (fatty liver as NAFLD or NASH). Due to increasing number of patients to be potentially treated and the need to assess the advantage of this treatment in terms of risk/benefit, we analyze the side events reported during the treatment with rimonabant by a systematic review and meta-analysis of all randomized controlled studies. Methods All published randomized controlled trials using rimonabant versus placebo in adult subjects were retrieved. Relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence interval for relevant adverse events and number needed to harm was calculated. Results Nine trials (n = 9635) were considered. Rimonabant 20 mg was associated with an increased risk of adverse event (RR 1.35; 95%CI 1.17-1.56), increased discontinuation rate (RR 1.79; 95%CI 1.35-2.38), psychiatric (RR 2.35; 95%CI 1.66-3.34), and nervous system adverse events (RR 2.35; 95%CI 1.49-3.70). The number needed to harm for psychiatric adverse events is 30. Conclusion Rimonabant is associated with an increased risk of adverse events. Despite of an increasing interest for its use on fatty liver, the security profile and efficacy it is needs to be carefully assessed before its recommendation. At present the use of rimonabant on fatty liver cannot be recommended. PMID:19818116

  2. Health care costs for prostate cancer patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy: treatment and adverse events

    PubMed Central

    Krahn, M.D.; Bremner, K.E.; Luo, J.; Alibhai, S.M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Serious adverse events have been associated with androgen deprivation therapy (adt) for prostate cancer (pca), but few studies address the costs of those events. Methods All pca patients (ICD-9-CM 185) in Ontario who started 90 days or more of adt or had orchiectomy at the age of 66 or older during 1995–2005 (n = 26,809) were identified using the Ontario Cancer Registry and drug and hospital data. Diagnosis dates of adverse events—myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome, congestive heart failure, stroke, deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, any diabetes, and fracture or osteoporosis—before and after adt initiation were determined from administrative data. We excluded patients with the same diagnosis before and after adt, and we allocated each patient’s time from adt initiation to death or December 31, 2007, into health states: adt (no adverse event), adt-ae (specified single adverse event), Multiple (>1 event), and Final (≤180 days before death). We used methods for Canadian health administrative data to estimate annual total health care costs during each state, and we examined monthly trends. Results Approximately 50% of 21,811 patients with no pre-adt adverse event developed 1 or more events after adt. The costliest adverse event state was stroke ($26,432/year). Multiple was the most frequent (n = 2,336) and the second most costly health state ($24,374/year). Costs were highest in the first month after diagnosis (from $1,714 for diabetes to $14,068 for myocardial infarction). Costs declined within 18 months, ranging from $784 per 30 days (diabetes) to $1,852 per 30 days (stroke). Adverse events increased the costs of adt by 100% to 265%. Conclusions The economic burden of adverse events is relevant to programs and policies from clinic to government, and that burden merits consideration in the risks and benefits of adt. PMID:24940106

  3. Affective psychosis following Accutane (isotretinoin) treatment.

    PubMed

    Barak, Yoram; Wohl, Yonit; Greenberg, Yifa; Bar Dayan, Yosefa; Friedman, Tali; Shoval, Gideon; Knobler, Haim Y

    2005-01-01

    Isotretinoin (Accutane) ranks in the top 10 of the US Food and Drug Administration's database of drugs associated with reports of depression and suicide attempts. However, this association is still controversial because up to 5.6% of patients with moderate acne may have pre-existing suicidal ideations, improvement of acne often reduces associated depression, and isotretinoin users are reportedly no more likely than those taking antibiotics for acne to have depression or commit suicide. We describe a series of cases of manic psychosis that developed in a 1-year period (2003) in association with isotretinoin treatment and resulted in suicidality and progression to long-standing psychosis. Cases were drawn from 500 soldiers who had been evaluated in a military specialists dermatology clinic for severe acne. Data were summarized from medical records of five severe acne patients treated by isotretinion during their compulsory military service. Data from their draft board examinations and service records, as well as repeated clinical assessments by certified psychiatrists at the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) Mental Health Department clinic, were evaluated. Five young adults developed manic psychosis within a mean of 7.6 months of exposure to isotretinoin. In three cases, this was accompanied by a suicide attempt, and in three cases, psychosis lasted for longer than 6 months. Either a personal history of obsessive-compulsive disorder, neurological insult or family history of a major psychiatric illness were present in all cases. The present case-series is suggestive of an increase in the likelihood of an association between exposure to isotretinion and manic psychosis. Associated risk factors were both family and personal history of psychiatric morbidity. Further studies are needed to establish our findings.

  4. Do social disadvantage and early family adversity affect the diurnal cortisol rhythm in infants? The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Saridjan, Nathalie S; Huizink, Anja C; Koetsier, Jitske A; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Mackenbach, Johan P; Hofman, Albert; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2010-02-01

    Dysregulation of diurnal cortisol secretion patterns may explain the link between adversities early in life and later mental health problems. However, few studies have investigated the influence of social disadvantage and family adversity on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis early in life. In 366 infants aged 12-20 months from the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort from fetal life onwards, parents collected saliva samples from their infant at 5 moments over the course of 1 day. The area under the curve (AUC), the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and the diurnal cortisol slope were calculated as different composite measures of the diurnal cortisol rhythm. Information about social disadvantage and early adversity was collected using prenatal and postnatal questionnaires. We found that older infants showed lower AUC levels; moreover, infants with a positive CAR were significantly older. Both the AUC and the CAR were related to indicators of social disadvantage and early adversity. Infants of low income families, in comparison to high income families, showed higher AUC levels and a positive CAR. Infants of mothers who smoked during pregnancy were also significantly more likely to show a positive CAR. Furthermore, infants of mothers experiencing parenting stress showed higher AUC levels. The results of our study show that effects of social disadvantage and early adversity on the diurnal cortisol rhythm are already observable in infants. This may reflect the influence of early negative life events on early maturation of the HPA axis. PMID:20006614

  5. Benefits of adversity?! How life history affects the behavioral profile of mice varying in serotonin transporter genotype

    PubMed Central

    Bodden, Carina; Richter, S. Helene; Schreiber, Rebecca S.; Kloke, Vanessa; Gerß, Joachim; Palme, Rupert; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Lewejohann, Lars; Kaiser, Sylvia; Sachser, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral profiles are influenced by both positive and negative experiences as well as the genetic disposition. Traditionally, accumulating adversity over lifetime is considered to predict increased anxiety-like behavior (“allostatic load”). The alternative “mismatch hypothesis” suggests increased levels of anxiety if the early environment differs from the later-life environment. Thus, there is a need for a whole-life history approach to gain a deeper understanding of how behavioral profiles are shaped. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of life history on the behavioral profile of mice varying in serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype, an established mouse model of increased anxiety-like behavior. For this purpose, mice grew up under either adverse or beneficial conditions during early phases of life. In adulthood, they were further subdivided so as to face a situation that either matched or mismatched the condition experienced so far, resulting in four different life histories. Subsequently, mice were tested for their anxiety-like and exploratory behavior. The main results were: (1) Life history profoundly modulated the behavioral profile. Surprisingly, mice that experienced early beneficial and later escapable adverse conditions showed less anxiety-like and more exploratory behavior compared to mice of other life histories. (2) Genotype significantly influenced the behavioral profile, with homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice displaying highest levels of anxiety-like and lowest levels of exploratory behavior. Our findings concerning life history indicate that the absence of adversity does not necessarily cause lower levels of anxiety than accumulating adversity. Rather, some adversity may be beneficial, particularly when following positive events. Altogether, we conclude that for an understanding of behavioral profiles, it is not sufficient to look at experiences during single phases of life, but the whole life history has to be considered

  6. Adverse events and treatment failure leading to discontinuation of recently approved antipsychotic drugs in schizophrenia: A network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tonin, Fernanda S; Piazza, Thais; Wiens, Astrid; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando; Pontarolo, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    Objective:We aimed to gather evidence of the discontinuation rates owing to adverse events or treatment failure for four recently approved antipsychotics (asenapine, blonanserin, iloperidone, and lurasidone).Methods: A systematic review followed by pairwise meta-analysis and mixed treatment comparison meta analysis(MTC) was performed, including randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the use of the above-mentioned drugs versus placebo in patients with schizophrenia. An electronic search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Scielo, the Cochrane Library, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts(January 2015). The included trials were at least single blinded. The main outcome measures extracted were discontinuation owing to adverse events and discontinuation owing to treatment failure.Results: Fifteen RCTs were identified (n = 5400 participants) and 13 of them were amenable for use in our meta-analyses. No significant differences were observed between any of the four drugs and placebo as regards discontinuation owing to adverse events, whether in pairwise meta-analysis or in MTC. All drugs presented a better profile than placebo on discontinuation owing to treatment failure, both in pairwise meta-analysis and MTC. Asenapine was found to be the best therapy in terms of tolerability owing to failure,while lurasidone was the worst treatment in terms of adverse events. The evidence around blonanserin is weak.Conclusion: MTCs allowed the creation of two different rank orders of these four antipsychotic drugs in two outcome measures. This evidence-generating method allows direct and indirect comparisons, supporting approval and pricing decisions when lacking sufficient, direct, head-to-head trials.

  7. Serious Adverse Events in Randomized Psychosocial Treatment Studies: Safety or Arbitrary Edicts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Roll, John M.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Ball, Samuel A.; Stitzer, Maxine; Peirce, Jessica M.; Blaine, Jack; Kirby, Kimberly C.; McCarty, Dennis; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2008-01-01

    Human subjects protection policies developed for pharmaceutical trials are now being widely applied to psychosocial intervention studies. This study examined occurrences of serious adverse events (SAEs) reported in multicenter psychosocial trials of the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network. Substance-abusing participants (N =…

  8. Therapeutic potential and adverse events of everolimus for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma - systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Kenya; Petrulionis, Marius; Lin, Shibo; Gao, Chao; Galli, Uwe; Richter, Susanne; Winkler, Susanne; Houben, Philipp; Schultze, Daniel; Hatano, Etsuro; Schemmer, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Everolimus is an orally administrated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor. Several large-scale randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have demonstrated the survival benefits of everolimus at the dose of 10 mg/day for solid cancers. Furthermore, mTOR-inhibitor-based immunosuppression is associated with survival benefits for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who have received liver transplantation. However, a low rate of tumor reduction and some adverse events have been pointed out. This review summarizes the antitumor effects and adverse events of everolimus and evaluates its possible application in advanced HCC. For the meta-analysis of adverse events, we used the RCTs for solid cancers. The odds ratios of adverse events were calculated using the Peto method. Manypreclinical studies demonstrated that everolimus had antitumor effects such as antiproliferation and antiangiogenesis. However, some differences in the effects were observed among in vivo animal studies for HCC treatment. Meanwhile, clinical studies demonstrated that the response rate of single-agent everolimus was low, though survival benefits could be expected. The meta-analysis revealed the odds ratios (95% confidence interval [CI]) of stomatitis: 5.42 [4.31-6.73], hyperglycemia: 3.22 [2.37-4.39], anemia: 3.34 [2.37-4.67], pneumonitis: 6.02 [3.95-9.16], aspartate aminotransferase levels: 2.22 [1.37-3.62], and serum alanine aminotransferase levels: 2.94 [1.72-5.02], respectively. Everolimus at the dose of 10 mg/day significantly increased the risk of the adverse events. In order to enable its application to the standard conventional therapies of HCC, further studies are required to enhance the antitumor effects and manage the adverse events of everolimus. PMID:24403259

  9. Managing treatment-related adverse events associated with egfr tyrosine kinase inhibitors in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hirsh, V.

    2011-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc) has the highest prevalence of all types of lung cancer, which is the second most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in Canada. The need for more effective and less toxic treatment options for nsclc has led to the development of agents targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (egfr)–mediated signalling pathway, such as egfr tyrosine kinase inhibitors (egfr-tkis). Although egfr-tkis are less toxic than traditional anti-neoplastic agents, they are commonly associated with acneiform-like rash and diarrhea. This review summarizes the clinical presentation and causes of egfr-tki–induced rash and diarrhea, and presents strategies for effective assessment, monitoring, and treatment of these adverse effects. Strategies to improve the management of egfr-tki–related adverse events should improve clinical outcomes, compliance, and quality of life in patients with advanced nsclc. PMID:21655159

  10. Which adverse effects influence the dropout rate in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment? Results for 50,824 patients

    PubMed Central

    Kostev, Karel; Rex, Juliana; Eith, Thilo; Heilmaier, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most frequently prescribed antidepressants due to their superior clinical efficacy, effectiveness, tolerability, and safety as compared to tricyclic antidepressants or monoamino oxidase inhibitors. However, despite these advantages SSRIs are still associated with a number of adverse drug reactions, especially in the early stages of treatment, which may lead to premature discontinuation of therapy in some cases. The aim of the present study was to assess the most common adverse drug reactions of SSRIs as well as their impact on dropout rate in a large study population. Patients and methods: Data for 50,824 patients treated for major depressive disorder with SSRIs for the first time was accessed via the Disease Analyzer database (IMS Health, Germany), providing information on SSRI adverse drug reactions and their influence on premature treatment discontinuation calculated by regression analysis. The presence of certain co-morbidities was also registered. Results: The mean age was 54.5 ± 19 years, two-thirds of the study population being female. The adverse effects mentioned most frequently were: “discomfort” of the digestive system (10%), sleep disorders (8.6%), and heart rhythm disorders (4%); however, these were of tolerable severity as they did not significantly influence the dropout rate. Contrary to that, somnolence and younger age (≤50 years) in particular increased the chance of premature treatment discontinuation, while patients suffering from cardiovascular risk factors or osteoporosis tended to adhere to the therapy. Conclusions: Overall, there is high tolerability for early SSRI treatment, whereas the occurrence of somnolence leads to discontinuation. PMID:25332703

  11. The Management of Acute Adverse Effects of Breast Cancer Treatment in General Practice: A Video-Vignette Study

    PubMed Central

    Pagey, Georgina; Halkett, Georgia; Pillai, Vinita; Meng, Xingqiong

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been a focus recently on the use of the Internet and email to deliver education interventions to general practitioners (GPs). The treatment of breast cancer may include surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and/or hormone treatment. These treatments may have acute adverse effects. GPs need more information on the diagnosis and management of specific adverse effects encountered immediately after cancer treatment. Objective The goal was to evaluate an Internet-based educational program developed for GPs to advise patients with acute adverse effects following breast cancer treatment. Methods During phase 1, participants viewed 6 video vignettes of actor-patients reporting 1 of 6 acute symptoms following surgery and chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy treatment. GPs indicated their diagnosis and proposed management through an online survey program. They received feedback about each scenario in the form of a specialist clinic letter, as if the patient had been seen at a specialist clinic after they had attended the GP. This letter incorporated extracts from local guidelines on the management of the symptoms presented. This feedback was sent to the GPs electronically on the same survey platform. In phase 2, all GPs were invited to manage similar cases as phase 1. Their proposed management was compared to the guidelines. McNemar test was used to compare data from phases 1 and 2, and logistic regression was used to explore the GP characteristics that were associated with inappropriate case management. Results A total of 50 GPs participated. Participants were younger and more likely to be female than other GPs in Australia. For 5 of 6 vignettes in phase 1, management was consistent with expert opinion in the minority of cases (6%-46%). Participant demographic characteristics had a variable effect on different management decisions in phase 1. The variables modeled explained 15%-28% of the differences observed. Diagnosis and management improved significantly

  12. Factors affecting the development of adverse drug reactions to β-blockers in hospitalized cardiac patient population

    PubMed Central

    Mugoša, Snežana; Djordjević, Nataša; Djukanović, Nina; Protić, Dragana; Bukumirić, Zoran; Radosavljević, Ivan; Bošković, Aneta; Todorović, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to undertake a study on the prevalence of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) poor metabolizer alleles (*3, *4, *5, and *6) on a Montenegrin population and its impact on developing adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of β-blockers in a hospitalized cardiac patient population. A prospective study was conducted in the Cardiology Center of the Clinical Center of Montenegro and included 138 patients who had received any β-blocker in their therapy. ADRs were collected using a specially designed questionnaire, based on the symptom list and any signs that could point to eventual ADRs. Data from patients’ medical charts, laboratory tests, and other available parameters were observed and combined with the data from the questionnaire. ADRs to β-blockers were observed in 15 (10.9%) patients. There was a statistically significant difference in the frequency of ADRs in relation to genetically determined enzymatic activity (P<0.001), with ADRs’ occurrence significantly correlating with slower CYP2D6 metabolism. Our study showed that the adverse reactions to β-blockers could be predicted by the length of hospitalization, CYP2D6 poor metabolizer phenotype, and the concomitant use of other CYP2D6-metabolizing drugs. Therefore, in hospitalized patients with polypharmacy CYP2D6 genotyping might be useful in detecting those at risk of ADRs. PMID:27536078

  13. Adverse reactions of Achilles tendon xanthomas in three hypercholesterolemic patients after treatment intensification with niacin and bile acid sequestrants.

    PubMed

    Lakey, Wanda C; Greyshock, Nicole; Guyton, John R

    2013-01-01

    Multiple cholesterol-reducing therapies have been shown to induce the regression of tendon xanthoma in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. We present 3 cases of adverse reactions in Achilles tendon xanthomas after the addition of niacin and bile acid sequestrants to ongoing statin therapy. Reduction in tendon dimensions and marked softening of xanthomas were interpreted as cholesterol removal from heavily infiltrated tissue sites. In 2 cases, changes in the xanthomas occurred despite only minor lipoprotein improvements, raising the possibility of direct drug effects in cholesterol-infiltrated tissue. Intriguingly, recent studies have described niacin receptor-mediated effects in macrophages. In summary, although adverse reactions in Achilles tendon xanthomas appear to be infrequent, clinicians should be aware of this phenomenon in their patients after intensifying lipid treatments, especially with the use of niacin in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. Xanthoma responses may provide clues to new pharmacologic effects in cholesterol-infiltrated tissues.

  14. Dyskinesia as a new adverse effect of hormonal treatment in West syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sukhudyan, Biayna G; Dimova, Petia S; Capuano, Alessandro; Vigevano, Federico

    2014-03-01

    West syndrome is an age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy. Despite potential side effects, hormonal therapy remains the main treatment for West syndrome. Here, we report on 10 patients receiving steroid treatment who presented with unusual, mostly hyperkinetic, movements. Facial grimacing, repetitive mouth opening, adduction and abduction of upper and lower extremities, and periodical strabismus in different combinations were observed in all patients, independent of formulation, dose, duration, and efficacy of treatment. Symptoms disappeared in sleep and reappeared immediately on arousal. Dyskinesias stopped gradually after a month of discontinuation of treatment. Repeated EEGs did not show corresponding epileptiform activity. We conclude that these abnormal movements can be attributed to side effects of hormonal treatment.

  15. Factors affecting response to biologic treatment in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Karczewski, Jacek; Poniedziałek, Barbara; Rzymski, Piotr; Adamski, Zygmunt

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease, affecting approximately 2-4% of the population in western countries. Patients with a more severe form of the disease are typically considered for systemic therapy, including biologics. In spite of the overall superiority of biologic agents, the treatment response may differ substantially among individual patients. As with other medical conditions, a range of factors contribute to response heterogeneity observed in psoriasis. Proper identification of these factors can significantly improve the therapeutic decisions. This review focuses on potential genetic and nongenetic factors that may affect the treatment response and outcomes in patients with psoriasis.

  16. Impaired Glucose Tolerance or Newly Diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus Diagnosed during Admission Adversely Affects Prognosis after Myocardial Infarction: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    George, Anish; Bhatia, Raghav T.; Buchanan, Gill L.; Whiteside, Anne; Moisey, Robert S.; Beer, Stephen F.; Chattopadhyay, Sudipta; Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; John, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prognostic effect of newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus (NDM) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) post myocardial infarction (MI). Research Design and Methods Retrospective cohort study of 768 patients without preexisting diabetes mellitus post-MI at one centre in Yorkshire between November 2005 and October 2008. Patients were categorised as normal glucose tolerance (NGT n = 337), IGT (n = 279) and NDM (n = 152) on pre- discharge oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Primary end-point was the first occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) including cardiovascular death, non-fatal MI, severe heart failure (HF) or non-haemorrhagic stroke. Secondary end-points were all cause mortality and individual components of MACE. Results Prevalence of NGT, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), IGT and NDM changed from 90%, 6%, 0% and 4% on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) to 43%, 1%, 36% and 20% respectively after OGTT. 102 deaths from all causes (79 as first events of which 46 were cardiovascular), 95 non fatal MI, 18 HF and 9 non haemorrhagic strokes occurred during 47.2 ± 9.4 months follow up. Event free survival was lower in IGT and NDM groups. IGT (HR 1.54, 95% CI: 1.06–2.24, p = 0.024) and NDM (HR 2.15, 95% CI: 1.42–3.24, p = 0.003) independently predicted MACE free survival. IGT and NDM also independently predicted incidence of MACE. NDM but not IGT increased the risk of secondary end-points. Conclusion Presence of IGT and NDM in patients presenting post-MI, identified using OGTT, is associated with increased incidence of MACE and is associated with adverse outcomes despite adequate secondary prevention. PMID:26571120

  17. Serious adverse events in randomized psychosocial treatment studies: Safety or Arbitrary Edicts?

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Nancy M.; Roll, John M.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Ball, Samuel A.; Stitzer, Maxine; Peirce, Jessica M.; Blaine, Jack; Kirby, Kimberly C.; McCarty, Dennis; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2009-01-01

    Human subjects protection policies developed for pharmaceutical trials are now being widely applied to psychosocial intervention studies. This study examined occurrences of serious adverse events (SAEs) reported in multicenter psychosocial trials of the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network. Substance abusing participants (N=1,687) were randomized to standard care or standard care plus either contingency management or motivational enhancement. Twelve percent of participants experienced one or more SAEs during the 27,198 person-weeks of follow-up. Of the 260 SAEs recorded, none were judged by the Data Safety Monitoring Board to be study related, and there were no significant differences between experimental and control conditions in SAE incidence rates. These data underscore the need to reconsider the rationale behind, and appropriate methods for, monitoring safety during psychosocial therapy trials. PMID:19045975

  18. Evolution of pharmacological obesity treatments: focus on adverse side-effect profiles.

    PubMed

    Krentz, A J; Fujioka, K; Hompesch, M

    2016-06-01

    Pharmacotherapy directed toward reducing body weight may provide benefits for both curbing obesity and lowering the risk of obesity-associated comorbidities; however, many weight loss medications have been withdrawn from the market because of serious adverse effects. Examples include pulmonary hypertension (aminorex), cardiovascular toxicity, e.g. flenfluramine-induced valvopathy, stroke [phenylpropanolamine (PPA)], excess non-fatal cardiovascular events (sibutramine), and neuro-psychiatric issues (rimonabant; approved in Europe, but not in the USA). This negative experience has helped mould the current drug development and approval process for new anti-obesity drugs. Differences between the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency, however, in perceptions of risk-benefit considerations for individual drugs have resulted in discrepancies in approval and/or withdrawal of weight-reducing medications. Thus, two drugs recently approved by the FDA, i.e. lorcaserin and phentermine + topiramate extended release, are not available in Europe. In contrast, naltrexone sustained release (SR)/bupropion SR received FDA approval, and liraglutide 3.0 mg was recently approved in both the USA and Europe. Regulatory strategies adopted by the FDA to manage the potential for uncommon but potentially serious post-marketing toxicity include: (i) risk evaluation and mitigation strategy programmes; (ii) stipulating post-marketing safety trials; (iii) considering responder rates and limiting cumulative exposure by discontinuation if weight loss is not attained within a reasonable timeframe; and (iv) requiring large cardiovascular outcome trials before or after approval. We chronicle the adverse effects of anti-obesity pharmacotherapy and consider how the history of high-profile toxicity issues has shaped the current regulatory landscape for new and future weight-reducing drugs. PMID:26936802

  19. Adverse events after endovascular treatment of chronic cerebro-spinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ghezzi, A; Annovazzi, P; Amato, M P; Capello, E; Cavalla, P; Cocco, E; Falcini, M; Gallo, A; Patti, F; Perini, P; Rodegher, M E; Rovaris, M; Rottoli, M R; Comi, G

    2013-06-01

    Although it is debated whether chronic cerebro-spinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) plays a role in multiple sclerosis (MS) development, many patients undergo endovascular treatment (ET) of CCSVI. A study is ongoing in Italy to evaluate the clinical outcome of ET. Severe adverse events (AEs) occurred in 15/462 subjects at a variable interval after ET: jugular thrombosis in seven patients, tetraventricular hydrocephalus, stroke, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, status epilepticus, aspiration pneumonia, hypertension with tachicardia, or bleeding of bedsore in the remaining seven cases. One patient died because of myocardial infarction 10 weeks after ET. The risk of severe AEs related to ET for CCSVI must be carefully considered.

  20. Adverse effects reported in the use of gastroesophageal reflux disease treatments in children: a 10 years literature review

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Shlomi; Bueno de Mesquita, Mirjam; Mimouni, Francis B

    2015-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is commonly observed in children, particularly during the first year of life. Pharmacological therapy is mostly reserved for symptomatic infants diagnosed with GER disease (GERD), usually as defined in a recent consensus statement. The purpose of the present article was to review the reported adverse effects of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of paediatric GERD. We conducted this review using the electronic journal database Pubmed and Cochrane database systematic reviews using the latest 10-year period (1 January 2003 to 31 December 2012). Our search strategy included the following keywords: omeprazole, esomeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole, rabeprazole, rantidine, cimetidine, famotidine, nizatidine, domperidone, metoclopramide, betanechol, erythromycin, baclofen, alginate. We used Pubmed’s own filter of: ’child: birth–18 years’. All full articles were reviewed and we only included randomized controlled trials retrieved from our search. We addressed a summary of our search on a drug-by-drug basis with regard to its mechanism of action and clinical applications, and reviewed all of the adverse effects reported and the safety profile of each drug. Adverse effects have been reported in at least 23% of patients treated with histamine H2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) and 34% of those treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), and mostly include headaches, diarrhoea, nausea (H2RAs and PPIs) and constipation (PPIs). Acid suppression may place immune-deficient infants and children, or those with indwelling catheters, at risk for the development of lower respiratory tract infections and nosocomial sepsis. Prokinetic agents have many adverse effects, without major benefits to support their routine use. PMID:25752807

  1. Artesunate versus quinine in the treatment of severe imported malaria: comparative analysis of adverse events focussing on delayed haemolysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe malaria is a potentially life-threatening infectious disease. It has been conclusively shown that artesunate compared to quinine is superior in antiparasitic efficacy and in lowering mortality showing a better short-term safety profile. Regarding longer-term effects, reports of delayed haemolysis after parenteral artesunate for severe malaria in returning travellers have been published recently. So far, delayed haemolysis has not been described after the use of parenteral quinine. Methods In this retrospective study, all patients treated for severe malaria at the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf were included between 2006 and 2012. The primary endpoint was the proportion of delayed haemolysis in patients treated with quinine versus those who received artesunate. As secondary endpoint, the proportion of any adverse event was assessed. Results A total of 36 patients with severe malaria were included in the analysis. Of these, 16 patients contributed sufficient data to assess the endpoint delayed haemolysis. Twelve were treated primarily with intravenous quinine – with four patients having received intrarectal artesunate as an adjunct treatment – and five patients were treated primarily with artesunate. Five cases of delayed haemolysis could be detected – two in patients treated with quinine and intrarectal artesunate and three in patients treated with artesunate. No case of delayed haemolysis was detected in patients treated with quinine alone. While adverse events observed in patients treated with artesunate were limited to delayed haemolysis (three patients, 60%) and temporary deterioration in renal function (three patients, 60%), patients treated with quinine showed a more diverse picture of side effects with 22 patients (71%) experiencing at least one adverse event. The most common adverse events after quinine were hearing disturbances (12 patients, 37%), hypoglycaemia (10 patients, 32%) and cardiotoxicity (three patients, 14

  2. Questionnaire about the Adverse Events and Side Effects Following Botulinum Toxin A Treatment in Patients with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Blaszczyk, Izabela; Foumani, Nazli Poorsafar; Ljungberg, Christina; Wiberg, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) injections for treatment of spasticity in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) have been used for about two decades. The treatment is considered safe but a low frequency of adverse events (AE) has been reported. A good method to report AEs is necessary to verify the safety of the treatment. We decided to use an active surveillance of treatment-induced harm using a questionnaire we created. We studied the incidence of reported AEs and side effects in patients with CP treated with BoNT-A. We investigated the relationship between the incidence of AEs or side effects and gender, age, weight, total dose, dose per body weight, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and number of treated body parts. Seventy-four patients with CP participated in our study. In 54 (51%) of 105 BoNT-A treatments performed in 45 (61%) patients, there were 95 AEs and side effects reported, out of which 50 were generalized and/or focal distant. Severe AEs occurred in three patients (4%), and their BoNT-A treatment was discontinued. Consecutive collection of the AE and side-effect incidence using our questionnaire can increase the safety of BoNT-A treatment in patients with CP. PMID:26561833

  3. Assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent on fish reproduction utilizing the adverse outcome pathway conceptual framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are a known contributor of chemical mixture inputs into the environment. Whole effluent testing guidelines were developed to screen these complex mixtures for acute toxicity. However, efficient and cost-effective approaches for screenin...

  4. European LeukemiaNet recommendations for the management and avoidance of adverse events of treatment in chronic myeloid leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Steegmann, J L; Baccarani, M; Breccia, M; Casado, L F; García-Gutiérrez, V; Hochhaus, A; Kim, D-W; Kim, T D; Khoury, H J; Le Coutre, P; Mayer, J; Milojkovic, D; Porkka, K; Rea, D; Rosti, G; Saussele, S; Hehlmann, R; Clark, R E

    2016-01-01

    Most reports on chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) focus on efficacy, particularly on molecular response and outcome. In contrast, adverse events (AEs) are often reported as infrequent, minor, tolerable and manageable, but they are increasingly important as therapy is potentially lifelong and multiple TKIs are available. For this reason, the European LeukemiaNet panel for CML management recommendations presents an exhaustive and critical summary of AEs emerging during CML treatment, to assist their understanding, management and prevention. There are five major conclusions. First, the main purpose of CML treatment is the antileukemic effect. Suboptimal management of AEs must not compromise this first objective. Second, most patients will have AEs, usually early, mostly mild to moderate, and which will resolve spontaneously or are easily controlled by simple means. Third, reduction or interruption of treatment must only be done if optimal management of the AE cannot be accomplished in other ways, and frequent monitoring is needed to detect resolution of the AE as early as possible. Fourth, attention must be given to comorbidities and drug interactions, and to new events unrelated to TKIs that are inevitable during such a prolonged treatment. Fifth, some TKI-related AEs have emerged which were not predicted or detected in earlier studies, maybe because of suboptimal attention to or absence from the preclinical data. Overall, imatinib has demonstrated a good long-term safety profile, though recent findings suggest underestimation of symptom severity by physicians. Second and third generation TKIs have shown higher response rates, but have been associated with unexpected problems, some of which could be irreversible. We hope these recommendations will help to minimise adverse events, and we believe that an optimal management of them will be rewarded by better TKI compliance and thus better CML outcomes, together with better

  5. European LeukemiaNet recommendations for the management and avoidance of adverse events of treatment in chronic myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Steegmann, J L; Baccarani, M; Breccia, M; Casado, L F; García-Gutiérrez, V; Hochhaus, A; Kim, D-W; Kim, T D; Khoury, H J; Le Coutre, P; Mayer, J; Milojkovic, D; Porkka, K; Rea, D; Rosti, G; Saussele, S; Hehlmann, R; Clark, R E

    2016-08-01

    Most reports on chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) focus on efficacy, particularly on molecular response and outcome. In contrast, adverse events (AEs) are often reported as infrequent, minor, tolerable and manageable, but they are increasingly important as therapy is potentially lifelong and multiple TKIs are available. For this reason, the European LeukemiaNet panel for CML management recommendations presents an exhaustive and critical summary of AEs emerging during CML treatment, to assist their understanding, management and prevention. There are five major conclusions. First, the main purpose of CML treatment is the antileukemic effect. Suboptimal management of AEs must not compromise this first objective. Second, most patients will have AEs, usually early, mostly mild to moderate, and which will resolve spontaneously or are easily controlled by simple means. Third, reduction or interruption of treatment must only be done if optimal management of the AE cannot be accomplished in other ways, and frequent monitoring is needed to detect resolution of the AE as early as possible. Fourth, attention must be given to comorbidities and drug interactions, and to new events unrelated to TKIs that are inevitable during such a prolonged treatment. Fifth, some TKI-related AEs have emerged which were not predicted or detected in earlier studies, maybe because of suboptimal attention to or absence from the preclinical data. Overall, imatinib has demonstrated a good long-term safety profile, though recent findings suggest underestimation of symptom severity by physicians. Second and third generation TKIs have shown higher response rates, but have been associated with unexpected problems, some of which could be irreversible. We hope these recommendations will help to minimise adverse events, and we believe that an optimal management of them will be rewarded by better TKI compliance and thus better CML outcomes, together with better

  6. A Computational Study on the Effects of Dynamic Roughness Application to Separated Transitional Flows Affected by Adverse Pressure Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campitelli, Gennaro

    The study of transitional flows is considered crucial for many practical engineering applications. In fact, a comprehensive understanding of the laminar-turbulent transition phenomenon often helps to improve the overall performance of apparatuses such as airfoils, wind turbines, hulls and turbomachinery blades. In addition to understanding and prediction of transitional flows, active research continues in the area of boundary layer control, which includes control of phenomena such as flow separation and transition. For instance, optimum geometrical shaping may be followed by the adoption on the wall-surface of riblets to adjust pressure gradient and reduce drag. Further "flow control" may also be acquired by introducing active devices able to modify the flow field in order to accomplish a desired aerodynamic task. Such flow manipulation is often achieved by using time-dependent forcing mechanisms which promote natural instabilities amplifying the control effectiveness. Localized energy inputs such as Lorentz-force actuator, piezoelectric flaps and synthetic jets all produce a consistent boundary layer mixing enhancement with lift increase and drag abatement. The current numerical study attempts to demonstrate the efficacy of dynamic roughness (DR) on altering separated-reattached transitional flows under adverse pressure gradient. It has already been proven how DR, acting on the boundary sublayer perturbation, is able to suppress (partially or completely) the typical leading edge separation for an airfoil at different angles of attack. This makes DR particularly suitable for separated flow control applications where the shear layer reattaches presenting the characteristic laminar separation bubble. A numerical sensitivity study has been conducted with an efficient orthogonal design taking into account four different control parameters on three levels (actuation frequency, humps height, rows displacement, synchronization) to provide an optimum DR setup which limits

  7. The type B brevetoxin (PbTx-3) adversely affects development, cardiovascular function, and survival in Medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Colman, Jamie R; Ramsdell, John S

    2003-01-01

    Brevetoxins are produced by the red tide dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. The toxins are lipophilic polyether toxins that elicit a myriad of effects depending on the route of exposure and the target organism. Brevetoxins are therefore broadly toxic to marine and estuarine animals. By mimicking the maternal route of exposure to the oocytes in finfish, we characterized the adverse effects of the type B brevetoxin brevetoxin-3 (PbTx-3) on embryonic fish development and survival. The Japanese rice fish, medaka (Oryzias latipes), was used as the experimental model in which individual eggs were exposed via microinjection to various known concentrations of PbTx-3 dissolved in an oil vehicle. Embryos injected with doses exceeding 1.0 ng/egg displayed tachycardia, hyperkinetic twitches in the form of sustained convulsions, spinal curvature, clumping of the erythrocytes, and decreased hatching success. Furthermore, fish dosed with toxin were often unable to hatch in the classic tail-first fashion and emerged head first, which resulted in partial hatches and death. We determined that the LD(50) (dose that is lethal to 50% of the fish) for an injected dose of PbTx-3 is 4.0 ng/egg. The results of this study complement previous studies of the developmental toxicity of the type A brevetoxin brevetoxin-1 (PbTx-1), by illustrating in vivo the differing affinities of the two congeners for cardiac sodium channels. Consequently, we observed differing cardiovascular responses in the embryos, wherein embryos exposed to PbTx-3 exhibited persistent tachycardia, whereas embryos exposed to PbTx-1 displayed bradycardia, the onset of which was delayed. PMID:14644667

  8. The skin tissue is adversely affected by TNF-alpha blockers in patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis: a 5-year prospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Natalia P.; dos Reis Neto, Edgard Torres; Soares, Maria Roberta M. P.; Freitas, Daniele S.; Porro, Adriana; Ciconelli, Rozana M.; Pinheiro, Marcelo M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the incidence of and the main risk factors associated with cutaneous adverse events in patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis following anti-TNF-α therapy. METHODS: A total of 257 patients with active arthritis who were taking TNF-α blockers, including 158 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 87 with ankylosing spondylitis and 12 with psoriatic arthritis, were enrolled in a 5-year prospective analysis. Patients with overlapping or other rheumatic diseases were excluded. Anthropometric, socioeconomic, demographic and clinical data were evaluated, including the Disease Activity Score-28, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index and Psoriasis Area Severity Index. Skin conditions were evaluated by two dermatology experts, and in doubtful cases, skin lesion biopsies were performed. Associations between adverse cutaneous events and clinical, demographic and epidemiological variables were determined using the chi-square test, and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors. The significance level was set at p<0.05. RESULTS: After 60 months of follow-up, 71 adverse events (73.85/1000 patient-years) were observed, of which allergic and immune-mediated phenomena were the most frequent events, followed by infectious conditions involving bacterial (47.1%), parasitic (23.5%), fungal (20.6%) and viral (8.8%) agents. CONCLUSION: The skin is significantly affected by adverse reactions resulting from the use of TNF-α blockers, and the main risk factors for cutaneous events were advanced age, female sex, a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, disease activity and the use of infliximab. PMID:24141833

  9. Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Combination Pharmacotherapy, Adverse Effects, and Treatment of High-Risk Youth.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kiki D

    2016-01-01

    Treating bipolar disorder in pediatric patients is challenging because data from rigorous trials of pharmacotherapy in this population are still not plentiful enough. Furthermore, the treatment of children and adolescents is complicated by the frequent need to combine pharmacotherapies to address all bipolar symptoms as well as this population's elevated risk for experiencing side effects. Additionally, young patients with depressive episodes who are at high risk for developing bipolar disorder need careful treatment to prevent or delay the emergence of mania. Despite these challenges, clinicians should evaluate the existing pediatric literature, extrapolate evidence obtained from adult patients, and draw from clinical experience to guide treatment decisions for children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. PMID:27570929

  10. The use of targeted therapies in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: patient assessment, treatment administration, and management of adverse events

    PubMed Central

    Pavlakis, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Together with the use of novel oral targeted therapies, a multidisciplinary approach can be used to effectively treat patients with advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (pNETs). Here we review the integration of the oncology nurse to the newly developed oral treatment setting for patients with pNETs. From the outset, the nurse must be involved in various processes, including performance of baseline assessments (e.g. blood pathology, cardiac and lung function testing, patient history) and general medical observations, treatment administration, dietary guidance, evaluation of comorbidities, and review of concomitant medications. Patient education and establishment of a strong partnership in care before the start of pNET therapy ultimately increase treatment adherence and reduce potential toxicities. Regular review of general patient status and disease progression and continuous monitoring of adverse events also help enhance treatment outcomes and subsequently improve quality of life. Nurses’ knowledge of agent-specific toxicities and prompt, proactive management is a critical aspect of care. In essence, as the pNET treatment landscape evolves, the role of the healthcare professional in overall patient care must shift accordingly. PMID:23997829

  11. Do sedentary motives adversely affect physical activity? Adding cross-behavioural cognitions to the theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Blanchard, Chris M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether sedentary behavior cognitions explain physical activity (PA) intention and behavior when integrated within the theory of planned behavior framework (TPB). A random community sample of 206 adults and a sample of 174 undergraduate students completed measures of the TPB pertaining to PA and four popular leisure-time behaviors (TV viewing, computer use, sedentary hobbies, and sedentary socializing) and an adapted Godin Leisure-Time Exercize Questionnaire (community sample = cross-sectional, undergraduate sample = 2-week prospective). Results using ordinary least squares regression provided evidence that TV viewing intention explains additional variance in PA behavior, and affective attitude (community sample) and perceived behavioral control (undergraduate sample) towards TV viewing explains additional variance in PA intention even after controlling for PA-related TPB constructs. These results underscore the potential value of adding sedentary control interventions in concert with PA promotion.

  12. Diabetes in Pregnancy Adversely Affects the Expression of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β in the Hippocampus of Rat Neonates.

    PubMed

    Hami, Javad; Karimi, Razieh; Haghir, Hossein; Gholamin, Mehran; Sadr-Nabavi, Ariane

    2015-10-01

    Diabetes during pregnancy causes a wide range of neurodevelopmental and neurocognitive abnormalities in offspring. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is widely expressed during brain development and regulates multiple cellular processes, and its dysregulation is implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse neurodegenerative and psychological diseases. This study was designed to examine the effects of maternal diabetes on GSK-3β messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and phosphorylation in the developing rat hippocampus. Female rats were maintained diabetic from a week before pregnancy through parturition, and male offspring was killed immediately after birth. We found a significant bilateral upregulation of GSK-3β mRNA expression in the hippocampus of pups born to diabetic mothers at P0, compared to controls. Moreover, at the same time point, there was a marked bilateral increase in the phosphorylation level of GSK-3β in the diabetic group. Unlike phosphorylation levels, there was a significant upregulation in hippocampal GSK-3β mRNA expression in the insulin-treated group, when compared to controls. The present study revealed that diabetes during pregnancy strongly influences the regulation of GSK-3β in the right/left developing hippocampi. These dysregulations may be part of the cascade of events through which diabetes during pregnancy affects the newborn's hippocampal structure and function.

  13. Effect of the UK’s revised paracetamol poisoning management guidelines on admissions, adverse reactions and costs of treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, D Nicholas; Carroll, Robert; Pettie, Janice; Yamamoto, Takahiro; Elamin, Muhammad E M O; Peart, Lucy; Dow, Margaret; Coyle, Judy; Cranfield, Kristina R; Hook, Christopher; Sandilands, Euan A; Veiraiah, Aravindan; Webb, David; Gray, Alasdair; Dargan, Paul I; Wood, David M; Thomas, Simon H L; Dear, James W; Eddleston, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Aims In September 2012 the UK’s Commission on Human Medicines (CHM) recommended changes in the management of paracetamol poisoning: use of a single ‘100 mg l−1’ nomogram treatment line, ceasing risk assessment, treating all staggered/uncertain ingestions and increasing the duration of the initial acetylcysteine (NAC) infusion from 15 to 60 min. We evaluated the effect of this on presentation, admission, treatment, adverse reactions and costs of paracetamol poisoning. Methods Data were prospectively collected from adult patients presenting to three large UK hospitals from 3 September 2011 to 3 September 2013 (year before and after change). Infusion duration effect on vomiting and anaphylactoid reactions was examined in one centre. A cost analysis from an NHS perspective was performed for 90 000 patients/annum with paracetamol overdose. Results There were increases in the numbers presenting to hospital (before 1703, after 1854; increase 8.9% [95% CI 1.9, 16.2], P = 0.011); admitted (1060/1703 [62.2%] vs. 1285/1854 [69.3%]; increase 7.1% [4.0, 10.2], P < 0.001) and proportion treated (626/1703 [36.8%] vs. 926/1854 [50.0%]; increase: 13.2% [95% CI 10.0, 16.4], P < 0.001). Increasing initial NAC infusion did not change the proportion of treated patients developing adverse reactions (15 min 87/323 [26.9%], 60 min 145/514 [28.2%]; increase: 1.3% [95% CI –4.9, 7.5], P = 0.682). Across the UK the estimated cost impact is £8.3 million (6.4 million–10.2 million) annually, with a cost-per-life saved of £17.4 million (13.4 million–21.5 million). Conclusions The changes introduced by the CHM in September 2012 have increased the numbers of patients admitted to hospital and treated with acetylcysteine without reducing adverse reactions. A safety and cost-benefit review of the CHM guidance is warranted, including novel treatment protocols and biomarkers in the assessment of poisoning. PMID:24666324

  14. Factors affecting the duration of orthodontic treatment: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mavreas, Dimitrios; Athanasiou, Athanasios E

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the literature for articles referring exclusively to the duration of orthodontic therapy and to explore the various factors that could affect this. A Medline search from 1990 to the first week of March 2005 was conducted, the Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews was utilized, five orthodontic journals were hand searched, the abstracts of related articles were reviewed to search for any relevant studies that might have been missed, and the reference lists of the retrieved articles were hand assessed. Eligibility was determined by reading the reports identified by the search. The end result of this search provided 41 articles. Although there is a need for more conclusive research, the present review revealed several conclusions concerning the duration of orthodontic treatment: (1) there are indications that extraction treatment lasts longer than the non-extraction therapy; (2) age does not seem to play a role provided the patients are in the permanent dentition; (3) when Class II division 1 malocclusions are considered, there is evidence that the earlier the orthodontic treatment begins the longer its duration; (4) there is conflicting information regarding treatment duration within public health systems; (5) combined orthodontic-surgical treatment duration is variable and appears to be operator sensitive; (6) various factors, such as the technique employed, the skill and number of operators involved, the compliance of the patients, and the severity of the initial malocclusion, all seem to play a role; and (7) impacted maxillary canines appear to prolong treatment.

  15. Psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees

    PubMed Central

    Sonne, Charlotte; Carlsson, Jessica; Bech, Per; Vindbjerg, Erik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Elklit, Ask

    2016-01-01

    Background The effects of treatment in trials with trauma-affected refugees vary considerably not only between studies but also between patients within a single study. However, we know little about why some patients benefit more from treatment, as few studies have analysed predictors of treatment outcome. Objective The objective of the study was to examine possible psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees. Method The participants were 195 adult refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who were enrolled in a 6- to 7-month treatment programme at the Competence Centre for Transcultural Psychiatry (CTP), Denmark. The CTP Predictor Index used in the study included 15 different possible outcome predictors concerning the patients’ past, chronicity of mental health problems, pain, treatment motivation, prerequisites for engaging in psychotherapy, and social situation. The primary outcome measure was PTSD symptoms measured on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Other outcome measures included the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25, the WHO-5 Well-being Index, Sheehan Disability Scale, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales, the somatisation scale of the Symptoms Checklist-90, Global Assessment of Functioning scales, and pain rated on visual analogue scales. The relations between treatment outcomes and the total score as well as subscores of the CTP Predictor Index were analysed. Results Overall, the total score of the CTP Predictor Index was significantly correlated to pre- to post treatment score changes on the majority of the ratings mentioned above. While employment status was the only single item significantly correlated to HTQ-score changes, a number of single items from the CTP Predictor Index correlated significantly with changes in depression and anxiety symptoms, but the size of the correlation coefficients were modest. Conclusions The total score of the CTP Predictor Index correlated significantly with outcomes on most

  16. Cardiovascular Adverse Reactions During Antidepressant Treatment: A Drug Surveillance Report of German-Speaking Countries Between 1993 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Spindelegger, Christoph Josef; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Grohmann, Renate; Engel, Rolf; Greil, Waldemar; Konstantinidis, Anastasios; Agelink, Marcus Willy; Bleich, Stefan; Ruether, Eckart; Toto, Sermin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Antidepressants (ADs) are known to have the potential to cause various cardiovascular adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) were first revealed to be a possible source of cardiovascular ADRs. In recent years, newer classes of ADs were also suggested to have a higher risk of cardiovascular adverse effects. In particular, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were suspected to have the potential to induce QTc interval prolongation, and therefore increase the risk of ventricular arrhythmia. This descriptive study is based on the continuous pharmacovigilance program of German-speaking countries (Austria, Germany, and Switzerland), the Arzneimittelsicherheit in der Psychiatrie (AMSP), which assesses severe ADRs occurring in clinical routine situations. Methods: Of 169 278 psychiatric inpatients treated with ADs between 1993 and 2010, 198 cases of cardiovascular ADRs (0.12%) were analyzed. Results: Our study showed that the incidence rates of cardiovascular ADRs were highest during treatment with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (0.27%), TCAs (0.15%), and serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (0.14%); the risk of occurring during treatment with SSRIs (0.08%) was significantly lower. The noradrenergic and specific serotonergic AD mirtazapine (0.07%) had a significantly lower risk of cardiovascular ADRs than all other ADs. Severe hypotension was the most frequent ADR, followed by hypertension, arrhythmia, and in some rare cases heart failure. Conclusions: Despite certain limitations due to the AMSP study design, our observations on cardiovascular ADRs can contribute to a better knowledge of the cardiovascular risk profiles of antidepressants in the clinical routine setting. However, prospective studies are needed to verify our findings. PMID:25522416

  17. Behavioral family treatment for patients with bipolar affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Miklowitz, D J; Goldstein, M J

    1990-10-01

    Techniques of behavioral family management (BFM), which have been found to be highly effective in delaying relapse for schizophrenic patients when used as adjuncts to medication maintenance, are also applicable in the outpatient treatment of recently hospitalized bipolar, manic patients. The authors describe their adaptation of the educational, communication skills training, and problem-solving skills training modules of BFM to families containing a bipolar member. The observations that families of bipolar patients are often high functioning, and that these families seem to enjoy interchanges that are highly affective and spontaneous, led to certain modifications in the original BFM approach. The authors found it necessary to be (a) more flexible and less didactic, (b) more oriented toward dealing with affect and resistance to change, and (c) more focused on the patient's and family members' feelings about labeling, stigmatization, and medication usage. Research issues relevant to testing the efficacy of this approach are also discussed. PMID:2252468

  18. Seasonal Affective Disorder: An Overview of Assessment and Treatment Approaches.

    PubMed

    Melrose, Sherri

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal affective disorder or SAD is a recurrent major depressive disorder with a seasonal pattern usually beginning in fall and continuing into winter months. A subsyndromal type of SAD, or S-SAD, is commonly known as "winter blues." Less often, SAD causes depression in the spring or early summer. Symptoms center on sad mood and low energy. Those most at risk are female, are younger, live far from the equator, and have family histories of depression, bipolar disorder, or SAD. Screening instruments include the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ). Typical treatment includes antidepressant medications, light therapy, Vitamin D, and counselling. This paper provides an overview of SAD.

  19. Reinforcement sensitivity underlying treatment-seeking smokers' affect, smoking reinforcement motives, and affective responses.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yong; Robinson, Jason D; Engelmann, Jeffrey M; Lam, Cho Y; Minnix, Jennifer A; Karam-Hage, Maher; Wetter, David W; Dani, John A; Kosten, Thomas R; Cinciripini, Paul M

    2015-06-01

    Nicotine dependence has been suggested to be related to reinforcement sensitivity, which encompasses behavioral predispositions either to avoid aversive (behavioral inhibition) or to approach appetitive (behavioral activation) stimuli. Reinforcement sensitivity may shape motives for nicotine use and offer potential targets for personalized smoking cessation therapy. However, little is known regarding how reinforcement sensitivity is related to motivational processes implicated in the maintenance of smoking. Additionally, women and men differ in reinforcement sensitivity, and such difference may cause distinct relationships between reinforcement sensitivity and motivational processes for female and male smokers. In this study, the authors characterized reinforcement sensitivity in relation to affect, smoking-related reinforcement motives, and affective responses, using self-report and psychophysiological measures, in over 200 smokers before treating them. The Behavioral Inhibition/Activation Scales (BIS/BAS; Carver & White, 1994) was used to measure reinforcement sensitivity. In female and male smokers, BIS was similarly associated with negative affect and negative reinforcement of smoking. However, positive affect was positively associated with BAS Drive scores in male smokers, and this association was reversed in female smokers. BIS was positively associated with corrugator electromyographic reactivity toward negative stimuli and left frontal electroencephalogram alpha asymmetry. Female and male smokers showed similar relationships for these physiological measures. These findings suggest that reinforcement sensitivity underpins important motivational processes (e.g., affect), and gender is a moderating factor for these relationships. Future personalized smoking intervention, particularly among more dependent treatment-seeking smokers, may experiment to target individual differences in reinforcement sensitivity. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25621416

  20. Reinforcement sensitivity underlying treatment-seeking smokers' affect, smoking reinforcement motives, and affective responses.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yong; Robinson, Jason D; Engelmann, Jeffrey M; Lam, Cho Y; Minnix, Jennifer A; Karam-Hage, Maher; Wetter, David W; Dani, John A; Kosten, Thomas R; Cinciripini, Paul M

    2015-06-01

    Nicotine dependence has been suggested to be related to reinforcement sensitivity, which encompasses behavioral predispositions either to avoid aversive (behavioral inhibition) or to approach appetitive (behavioral activation) stimuli. Reinforcement sensitivity may shape motives for nicotine use and offer potential targets for personalized smoking cessation therapy. However, little is known regarding how reinforcement sensitivity is related to motivational processes implicated in the maintenance of smoking. Additionally, women and men differ in reinforcement sensitivity, and such difference may cause distinct relationships between reinforcement sensitivity and motivational processes for female and male smokers. In this study, the authors characterized reinforcement sensitivity in relation to affect, smoking-related reinforcement motives, and affective responses, using self-report and psychophysiological measures, in over 200 smokers before treating them. The Behavioral Inhibition/Activation Scales (BIS/BAS; Carver & White, 1994) was used to measure reinforcement sensitivity. In female and male smokers, BIS was similarly associated with negative affect and negative reinforcement of smoking. However, positive affect was positively associated with BAS Drive scores in male smokers, and this association was reversed in female smokers. BIS was positively associated with corrugator electromyographic reactivity toward negative stimuli and left frontal electroencephalogram alpha asymmetry. Female and male smokers showed similar relationships for these physiological measures. These findings suggest that reinforcement sensitivity underpins important motivational processes (e.g., affect), and gender is a moderating factor for these relationships. Future personalized smoking intervention, particularly among more dependent treatment-seeking smokers, may experiment to target individual differences in reinforcement sensitivity. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Glaucoma-related adverse events in the first five years after unilateral cataract removal in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Sharon F.; Lynn, Michael J.; Beck, Allen D.; Bothun, Erick D.; Orge, Faruk H.; Lambert, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Glaucoma-related adverse events constitute major sight-threatening complications of cataract removal in infancy, yet their relationship to aphakia versus primary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation remains unsettled. Objective To identify and characterize cases of glaucoma and glaucoma-related adverse events (glaucoma+glaucoma suspect) among children in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS) by the age of five years. Design, Setting, and Participants A multicenter randomized controlled trial of 114 infants with unilateral congenital cataract who were between age 1–6 months at surgery. Interventions Participants were randomized at cataract surgery to either primary IOL, or no IOL implantation (contact lens [CL]). Standardized definitions of glaucoma and glaucoma suspect were created for IATS and applied for surveillance and diagnosis. Main Outcome Measures Development of glaucoma and glaucoma+glaucoma suspect in operated eyes up to age five years, plus intraocular pressure, visual acuity, and axial length at age five years. Results Product limit estimates of the risk of glaucoma and glaucoma+glaucoma suspect at 4.8 years after surgery were 17% (95%CI=11%–25%) and 31% (95%CI=24%–41%), respectively. The CL and IOL groups were not significantly different for either outcome: glaucoma (hazard ratio(HR)=0.8[95%CI=0.3–2.0],p=0.62); glaucoma+glaucoma suspect: (HR=1.3[95%CI=0.6–2.5],p=0.58). Younger (versus older) age at surgery conferred increased risk of glaucoma (26% versus 9%, respectively at 4.8 years after surgery (HR=3.2[95%CI=1.2–8.3]), and smaller (versus larger) corneal diameter showed increased risk for glaucoma+glaucoma suspect (HR=2.5[95%CI=1.3–5.0]). Age and corneal diameter were significantly positively correlated. Glaucoma was predominantly open angle (19/20 cases, 95%), most eyes received medication (19/20, 95%), and 8/20 (40%) eyes had surgery. Conclusions and Relevance These results suggest that glaucoma-related adverse events

  2. The Role of Positive Affect in Pain and its Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Finan, Patrick H.; Garland, Eric L.

    2014-01-01

    This narrative review summarizes and integrates the available literature on PA and pain to: 1) Provide a brief overview of PA and summarize the key findings that have emerged in the study of PA and chronic pain; 2) Provide a theoretical foundation from which to understand how PA operates in the context of chronic pain; and 3) Highlight how the prevailing psychosocial treatments for chronic pain address PA in the therapeutic context, and offer suggestions for how future treatment development research can maximize the benefit of PA for patients with chronic pain. To that end, we review experimental studies that have assessed the association of evoked PA and pain sensitivity, as well as clinical studies that have assessed the association of naturally occurring PA and clinical pain in the context of chronic pain. The evidence suggests PA influences pain, over and above the influence of NA. We offer an “upward spiral” model of positive affect, resilience and pain self-management, which makes specific predictions that PA will buffer maladaptive cognitive and affective responses to pain, and promote active engagement in valued goals that enhance chronic pain self-management. PMID:24751543

  3. Modeling dropout from adverse event data: impact of dosing regimens across pregabalin trials in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Lalovic, Bojan; Hutmacher, Matt; Frame, Bill; Miller, Raymond

    2011-05-01

    Dizziness represents a major determinant of dropout in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder with pregabalin. Titration (dose escalation) regimens based on clinical judgment were implemented to mitigate this adverse event and reduce patient dropout across clinical trials. Dropout is an important treatment failure endpoint, which can be analyzed using time-to-event models that incorporate daily dosing or other time-varying information. A parametric discrete-time dropout model with daily dizziness severity score as a covariate afforded a systematic, model-based assessment of titration dosing strategies, with model predictions evaluated against corresponding nonparametric estimates. A Gompertz hazard function adequately described the decreasing dropout hazard over time for individuals with severe or moderate dizziness and a lower, constant hazard for individuals reporting no dizziness or mild dizziness. Predictive performance of the model was adequate based on external validation with an independent trial and other goodness-of-fit criteria. Prospective simulations highlight the utility of this approach in reducing dropout based on examination of untested titration scenarios for future generalized anxiety disorder or other trials.

  4. Evaluating the safety and efficacy of dextromethorphan/quinidine in the treatment of pseudobulbar affect

    PubMed Central

    Schoedel, Kerri A; Morrow, Sarah A; Sellers, Edward M

    2014-01-01

    Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) is a common manifestation of brain pathology associated with many neurological diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and traumatic brain injury. PBA is defined by involuntary and uncontrollable expressed emotion that is exaggerated and inappropriate, and also incongruent with the underlying emotional state. Dextromethorphan/quinidine (DM/Q) is a combination product indicated for the treatment of PBA. The quinidine component of DM/Q inhibits the cytochrome P450 2D6-mediated metabolic conversion of dextromethorphan to its active metabolite dextrorphan, thereby increasing dextromethorphan systemic bioavailability and driving the pharmacology toward that of the parent drug and away from adverse effects of the dextrorphan metabolite. Three published efficacy and safety studies support the use of DM/Q in the treatment of PBA; significant effects were seen on the primary end point, the Center for Neurologic Study-Lability Scale, as well as secondary efficacy end points and quality of life. While concentration–effect relationships appear relatively weak for efficacy parameters, concentrations of DM/Q may have an impact on safety. Some special safety concerns exist with DM/Q, primarily because of the drug interaction and QT prolongation potential of the quinidine component. However, because concentrations of dextrorphan (which is responsible for many of the parent drug’s side effects) and quinidine are lower than those observed in clinical practice with these drugs administered alone, some of the perceived safety issues may not be as relevant with this low dose combination product. However, since patients with PBA have a variety of other medical problems and are on numerous other medications, they may not tolerate DM/Q adverse effects, or may be at risk for drug interactions. Some caution is warranted when initiating DM/Q treatment, particularly in patients

  5. Antibiotic Treatment Affects Intestinal Permeability and Gut Microbial Composition in Wistar Rats Dependent on Antibiotic Class

    PubMed Central

    Tulstrup, Monica Vera-Lise; Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Carvalho, Vera; Linninge, Caroline; Ahrné, Siv; Højberg, Ole; Licht, Tine Rask; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotics are frequently administered orally to treat bacterial infections not necessarily related to the gastrointestinal system. This has adverse effects on the commensal gut microbial community, as it disrupts the intricate balance between specific bacterial groups within this ecosystem, potentially leading to dysbiosis. We hypothesized that modulation of community composition and function induced by antibiotics affects intestinal integrity depending on the antibiotic administered. To address this a total of 60 Wistar rats (housed in pairs with 6 cages per group) were dosed by oral gavage with either amoxicillin (AMX), cefotaxime (CTX), vancomycin (VAN), metronidazole (MTZ), or water (CON) daily for 10–11 days. Bacterial composition, alpha diversity and caecum short chain fatty acid levels were significantly affected by AMX, CTX and VAN, and varied among antibiotic treatments. A general decrease in diversity and an increase in the relative abundance of Proteobacteria was observed for all three antibiotics. Additionally, the relative abundance of Bifidobacteriaceae was increased in the CTX group and both Lactobacillaceae and Verrucomicrobiaceae were increased in the VAN group compared to the CON group. No changes in microbiota composition or function were observed following MTZ treatment. Intestinal permeability to 4 kDa FITC-dextran decreased after CTX and VAN treatment and increased following MTZ treatment. Plasma haptoglobin levels were increased by both AMX and CTX but no changes in expression of host tight junction genes were found in any treatment group. A strong correlation between the level of caecal succinate, the relative abundance of Clostridiaceae 1 family in the caecum, and the level of acute phase protein haptoglobin in blood plasma was observed. In conclusion, antibiotic-induced changes in microbiota may be linked to alterations in intestinal permeability, although the specific interactions remain to be elucidated as changes in permeability did

  6. Adverse events related to intravenous antibiotic therapy: a prospective observational study in the treatment of infective endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    De Paula, Débora Holanda Gonçalves; Tura, Bernardo Rangel; Lamas, Cristiane da Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Objective The goal of this prospective observational study was to identify adverse events (AEs) related to the use of intravenous access sites used for infective endocarditis (IE) treatment in a tertiary care hospital. Design This is an observational, analytical and prospective study on AEs resulting from the use of intravenous access sites in patients under antimicrobial treatment for IE. Patients enrolled in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis (ICE) study had their peripheral, short-term central catheters (CVC) and peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) monitored for AEs. Setting Tertiary care hospital for cardiac surgery in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Patients Patients over 14 years of age, hospitalised in 2009 and 2010 with possible or definite criteria for IE by the modified Duke criteria were included. Main outcome measures AEs related to intravenous catheters: erythema and infiltration, fever, obstruction, externalisation and blood stream infection. Results Thirty-seven episodes of IE in 35 patients were studied. Mean patient age was 44.32±15.2 years; 22 (63%) were men. The number of vascular catheters studied were 253, 148 of which were peripheral, 85 CVC (21 of which for haemodialysis) and 20 PICC. The most frequent AEs were ‘erythema’ and ‘infiltration’ for peripheral catheters, ‘fever’ for CVCs and ‘obstruction’ and ‘externalisation’ for PICCs. The number of catheter-days was 360 for peripheral catheters, 1.156 for CVC and 420 for PICC. Kaplan-Meier curves for CVC and PICC showed statistical difference for obstruction (p<0.001) in PICCs. More bacteraemia occurred in CVC compared with PICC. Conclusions The choice of intravenous access sites is critical in the treatment of IE. Close observation for AEs and stricter implementation of infection control measures and better manipulation of catheters are suggested. PMID:23103604

  7. Systematic Review of the Risk of Adverse Outcomes Associated with Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Inhibitors for the Treatment of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Faruque, Labib Imran; Lin, Meng; Battistella, Marisa; Wiebe, Natasha; Reiman, Tony; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Thomas, Chandra; Tonelli, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Background Anti-angiogenic therapy targeted at vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is now used to treat several types of cancer. We did a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to summarize the adverse effects of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors (VEGFi), focusing on those with vascular pathogenesis. Methods and Findings We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library until April 19, 2012 to identify parallel RCTs comparing a VEGFi with a control among adults with any cancer. We pooled the risk of mortality, vascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, and thromboembolism), hypertension and new proteinuria using random-effects models and calculated unadjusted relative risk (RR). We also did meta-regression and assessed publication bias. We retrieved 83 comparisons from 72 studies (n = 38,078) on 11 different VEGFi from 7901 identified citations. The risk of mortality was significantly lower among VEGFi recipients than controls (pooled RR 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.94 to 0.98, I2 = 0%, tau2 = 0; risk difference 2%). Compared to controls, VEGFi recipients had significantly higher risk of myocardial infarction (MI) (RR 3.54, 95% CI 1.61 to 7.80, I2 = 0%, tau2 = 0), arterial thrombotic events (RR 1.80, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.59, I2 = 0%, tau2 = 0); hypertension (RR 3.46, 95% CI 2.89 to 4.15, I2 = 58%, tau2 = 0.16), and new proteinuria (RR 2.51, 95% CI 1.60 to 3.94, I2 = 87%, tau2 = 0.65). The absolute risk difference was 0.8% for MI, 1% for arterial thrombotic events, 15% for hypertension and 12% for new proteinuria. Meta-regression did not suggest any statistically significant modifiers of the association between VEGFi treatment and any of the vascular events. Limitations include heterogeneity across the trials. Conclusions VEGFi increases the risk of MI, hypertension, arterial thromboembolism and proteinuria. The absolute magnitude of the excess risk appears

  8. Factors Affecting Response to Infertility Treatment: Case of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Peyromusavi, Fatemeh; Barouni, Mohsen; Naderi, Tayebeh; Shahravan, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Infertility affects both women and men in all the countries. Infertility often has profound long-term or short-term impacts on the people involved and puts them at risk of familial and social pressures. According to WHO estimates, between 8% and 12% of all the couples worldwide experience some form of infertility during their reproductive life, i.e. 50–80 million people are affected. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response to infertility treatment by taking into account factors such as age, hirsutism, menstruation and galactose among women in Kerman. Methodology: Of a total of 300 patient files evaluated 220 cases were flawless, of which the study factors were recorded. These data were estimated by Logit model. The dependent variable was the response to treatment (0 and 1) and the independent variables included age of men and women, hirsutism, menstruation, galactose, duration of the period no preventive measures were used and body mass index. After entering the data, model output was analyzed by using the STATA software. Results: The results showed that of all the model variables, female age (prob=0.0065), menstruation (prob=0.04), hirsutism (prob=0.02), marriage age (in months) (prob=0.02) and BMI were significant and other variables were not significant. McFadden analysis for goodness of fit was 0.92. Conclusion: The study results showed that women should pay more attention to variables such as BMI, menstruation quality (regular and irregular) and aging because clinical disregard of any of the above can have a significant impact on the individual’s fertility. PMID:26234994

  9. A Systematic Literature Review of Adverse Events Associated with Systemic Treatments Used in Advanced Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shahnaz; Hackshaw, Michelle D.; Oglesby, Alan; Kaye, James A.; Skolnik, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    This systematic literature review describes adverse events (AEs) among patients with soft tissue sarcoma (STS) who received second-line or later anticancer therapies. Searches were conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for studies of adults with advanced or metastatic STS who received systemic anticancer therapy before enrollment in a randomized-controlled trial of pazopanib, another targeted cancer agent, or cytotoxic chemotherapy. Of 204 publications identified, seven articles representing six unique studies met inclusion criteria. Additional safety results for pazopanib were identified on ClinicalTrials.gov. Hematologic toxicities were common with all therapies evaluated (pazopanib, trabectedin, dacarbazine ± gemcitabine, gemcitabine ± docetaxel, cyclophosphamide, and ifosfamide). Studies differed in AE type, timing of assessment, and outcomes reported, although patient populations and AE assessment timing were relatively similar for pazopanib and trabectedin. AEs that were more common with trabectedin than pazopanib were anemia, neutropenia, nausea/vomiting, and elevations in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. An AE that was more common with pazopanib than trabectedin was anorexia. Only the pazopanib study reported AE frequencies versus placebo. A planned meta-analysis was not feasible, as there was no common comparator. More well-designed studies that include common comparators are needed for comparison of safety effects among treatments for STS. PMID:27516726

  10. A Systematic Literature Review of Adverse Events Associated with Systemic Treatments Used in Advanced Soft Tissue Sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Colosia, Ann; Khan, Shahnaz; Hackshaw, Michelle D; Oglesby, Alan; Kaye, James A; Skolnik, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    This systematic literature review describes adverse events (AEs) among patients with soft tissue sarcoma (STS) who received second-line or later anticancer therapies. Searches were conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for studies of adults with advanced or metastatic STS who received systemic anticancer therapy before enrollment in a randomized-controlled trial of pazopanib, another targeted cancer agent, or cytotoxic chemotherapy. Of 204 publications identified, seven articles representing six unique studies met inclusion criteria. Additional safety results for pazopanib were identified on ClinicalTrials.gov. Hematologic toxicities were common with all therapies evaluated (pazopanib, trabectedin, dacarbazine ± gemcitabine, gemcitabine ± docetaxel, cyclophosphamide, and ifosfamide). Studies differed in AE type, timing of assessment, and outcomes reported, although patient populations and AE assessment timing were relatively similar for pazopanib and trabectedin. AEs that were more common with trabectedin than pazopanib were anemia, neutropenia, nausea/vomiting, and elevations in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. An AE that was more common with pazopanib than trabectedin was anorexia. Only the pazopanib study reported AE frequencies versus placebo. A planned meta-analysis was not feasible, as there was no common comparator. More well-designed studies that include common comparators are needed for comparison of safety effects among treatments for STS. PMID:27516726

  11. Assessing treatment benefit with competing risks not affected by the randomized treatment.

    PubMed

    Korn, Edward L; Dignam, James J; Freidlin, Boris

    2015-01-30

    The comparison of overall survival curves between treatment arms will always be of interest in a randomized clinical trial involving a life-shortening disease. In some settings, the experimental treatment is only expected to affect the deaths caused by the disease, and the proportion of deaths caused by the disease is relatively low. In these settings, the ability to assess treatment-effect differences between Kaplan-Meier survival curves can be hampered by the large proportion of deaths in both arms that are unrelated to the disease. To address this problem, frequently displayed are cause-specific survival curves or cumulative incidence curves, which respectively censor and immortalize events (deaths) not caused by the disease. However, the differences between the experimental and control treatment arms for these curves overestimate the difference between the overall survival curves for the treatment arms and thus could result in overestimation of the benefit of the experimental treatment for the patients. To address this issue, we propose new estimators of overall survival for the treatment arms that are appropriate when the treatment does not affect the non-disease-related deaths. These new estimators give a more precise estimate of the treatment benefit, potentially enabling future patients to make a more informed decision concerning treatment choice. We also consider the case where an exponential assumption allows the simple presentation of mortality rates as the outcome measures. Applications are given for estimating overall survival in a prostate-cancer treatment randomized clinical trial, and for estimating the overall mortality rates in a prostate-cancer screening trial. PMID:25363739

  12. Factors affecting the formation of alkylpyrazines during roasting treatment in natural and alkalinized cocoa powder.

    PubMed

    Serra Bonvehí, J; Ventura Coll, F

    2002-06-19

    The cocoa roasting process at different temperatures (at 125 and 135 degrees C for 3 min, plus 44 and 52 min, respectively, heating-up times) was evaluated by measuring the initial and final free amino acids distribution, flavor index, formol number, browning measurement, and alkylpyrazines content in 15 cocoa bean samples of different origins. These samples were also analyzed in manufactured cocoa powder. The effect of alkalinization of cocoa was studied. Results indicated that the final concentration and ratio of tetramethylpyrazine/trimethylpyrazine (TMP/TrMP) increased rapidly at higher roasting temperatures. The samples roasted with alkalies (pH between 7.20 and 7.92), such as sodium carbonate, or potassium plus air injected in the roaster during thermal treatment, exhibited a greater degree of brown color formation, but the amount of alkylpyrazines generated was adversely affected. The analysis of alpha-free amino acids at the end of the roasting process demonstrated the importance of the thermal treatment conditions and the pH values on nibs (cocoa bean cotyledons), liquor, or cocoa. Higher pH values led to a lower concentration of aroma and a higher presence of brown compounds.

  13. Adverse events in diabetic foot infections: a case control study comparing early versus delayed medical treatment after home remedies

    PubMed Central

    Cawich, Shamir O; Harnarayan, Patrick; Islam, Shariful; Budhooram, Steve; Ramsewak, Shivaa; Naraynsingh, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of conventional medical therapy in diabetic foot infections is to control infection, thereby reducing amputation rates, infectious morbidity, and death. Any delay incurred during a trial of home remedies could allow an infection to progress unchecked, increasing the risk of these adverse outcomes. This study sought to determine the effects of delayed operative interventions and amputations in these patients. Methods A questionnaire study targeting all consecutive patients admitted with diabetic foot infection was carried out over 1 year. Two groups were defined, ie, a medical therapy group comprising patients who sought medical attention after detecting their infection and a home remedy group comprising those who voluntarily chose to delay medical therapy in favor of home remedies. The patients were followed throughout their hospital admissions. We recorded the duration of hospitalization and number of operative debridements and amputations performed. Results There were 695 patients with diabetic foot infections, comprising 382 in the medical therapy group and 313 in the home remedy group. Many were previously hospitalized for foot infections in the medical therapy (78%) and home remedy (74.8%) groups. The trial of home remedies lasted for a mean duration of 8.9 days. The home remedy group had a longer duration of hospitalization (16.3 versus 8.5 days; P<0.001), more operative debridements (99.7% versus 94.5%; P<0.001), and more debridements per patient (2.85 versus 2.45; P<0.001). Additionally, in the home remedy group, there was an estimated increase in expenditure of US $10,821.72 US per patient and a trend toward more major amputations (9.3% versus 5.2%; P=0.073). Conclusion There are negative outcomes when patients delay conventional medical therapy in favour of home remedies to treat diabetic foot infections. These treatments need not be mutually exclusive. We encourage persons with diabetes who wish to try home remedies to seek medical

  14. Adverse obstetric outcomes after local treatment for cervical preinvasive and early invasive disease according to cone depth: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Athanasiou, Antonios; Paraskevaidi, Maria; Mitra, Anita; Kalliala, Ilkka; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre; Arbyn, Marc; Bennett, Phillip; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos

    2016-01-01

    treatment, the risk of preterm birth was higher in women who had undergone more than one treatment (13.2% v 4.1%; 3.78, 2.65 to 5.39) and with increasing cone depth (≤10-12 mm; 7.1% v 3.4%; 1.54, 1.09 to 2.18; ≥10-12 mm: 9.8% v 3.4%, 1.93, 1.62 to 2.31; ≥15-17 mm: 10.1% v 3.4%; 2.77, 1.95 to 3.93; ≥20 mm: 10.2% v 3.4%; 4.91, 2.06 to 11.68). The choice of comparison group affected the magnitude of effect. This was higher for external comparators, followed by internal comparators, and ultimately women with disease who did not undergo treatment. In women with untreated CIN and in pregnancies before treatment, the risk of preterm birth was higher than the risk in the general population (5.9% v 5.6%; 1.24, 1.14 to 1.35). Spontaneous preterm birth, premature rupture of the membranes, chorioamnionitis, low birth weight, admission to neonatal intensive care, and perinatal mortality were also significantly increased after treatment. Conclusions Women with CIN have a higher baseline risk for prematurity. Excisional and ablative treatment further increases that risk. The frequency and severity of adverse sequelae increases with increasing cone depth and is higher for excision than for ablation. PMID:27469988

  15. Adverse effects of stromal vascular fraction during regenerative treatment of the intervertebral disc: observations in a goat model.

    PubMed

    Detiger, Suzanne E L; Helder, Marco N; Smit, Theodoor H; Hoogendoorn, Roel J W

    2015-09-01

    Stromal vascular fraction (SVF), an adipose tissue-derived heterogeneous cell mixture containing, among others, multipotent adipose stromal cells (ASCs) and erythrocytes, has proved beneficial for a wide range of applications in regenerative medicine. We sought to establish intervertebral disc (IVD) regeneration by injecting SVF intradiscally during a one-step surgical procedure in an enzymatically (Chondroitinase ABC; cABC) induced goat model of disc degeneration. Unexpectedly, we observed a severe inflammatory response that has not been described before, including massive lymphocyte infiltration, neovascularisation and endplate destruction. A second study investigated two main suspects for these adverse effects: cABC and erythrocytes within SVF. The same destructive response was observed in healthy goat discs injected with SVF, thereby eliminating cABC as a cause. Density gradient removal of erythrocytes and ASCs purified by culturing did not lead to adverse effects. Following these observations, we incorporated an extra washing step in the SVF harvesting protocol. In a third study, we applied this protocol in a one-step procedure to a goat herniation model, in which no adverse responses were observed either. However, upon intradiscal injection of an identically processed SVF mixture into our goat IVD degeneration model during a fourth study, the adverse effects surprisingly occurred again. Despite our quest for the responsible agent, we eventually could not identify the mechanism through which the observed destructive responses occurred. Although we cannot exclude that the adverse effects are species-dependent or model-specific, we advertise caution with the clinical application of autologous SVF injections into the IVD until the responsible agent(s) are identified. PMID:25682272

  16. [Factors affecting the treatment results with pulmonary tuberculosis patients].

    PubMed

    Berezovskiĭ, B A; Salobaĭ, R Iu; Marchak, V V; Popova, I I; Zakopaĭlo, G G; Kucher, V A; Vasylyk, V U; Mikheĭ, L V

    1991-12-01

    A study is presented of the effect of social factors on the outcomes of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with freshly detected disease mainly in rural localities in 1985-1989. The outcomes of treatment depended mainly on the form and extension of the pathological process and terms of treatment. It was also established that the outcomes of tuberculosis are also influenced by unfavourable social factors which are more pronounced in persons with an extensive process. Treatment results were better in women with higher education than in similarly educator men. Among agricultural workers treatment efficacy was worse than among office workers and housewives. Life in the family effects more favourably treatment results than single life. Treatment results were worse in those living in unsatisfactory conditions, engaged in hard physical work, suffering of concomitant diseases and bad habits.

  17. Psychiatric Morbidity and Other Factors Affecting Treatment Adherence in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pachi, Argiro; Bratis, Dionisios; Moussas, Georgios; Tselebis, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    As the overall prevalence of TB remains high among certain population groups, there is growing awareness of psychiatric comorbidity, especially depression and its role in the outcome of the disease. The paper attempts a holistic approach to the effects of psychiatric comorbidity to the natural history of tuberculosis. In order to investigate factors associated with medication nonadherence among patients suffering from tuberculosis, with emphasis on psychopathology as a major barrier to treatment adherence, we performed a systematic review of the literature on epidemiological data and past medical reviews from an historical perspective, followed by theoretical considerations upon the relationship between psychiatric disorders and tuberculosis. Studies reporting high prevalence rates of psychiatric comorbidity, especially depression, as well as specific psychological reactions and disease perceptions and reviews indicating psychiatric complications as adverse effects of anti-TB medication were included. In sum, data concerning factors affecting medication nonadherence among TB patients suggested that better management of comorbid conditions, especially depression, could improve the adherence rates, serving as a framework for the effective control of tuberculosis, but further studies are necessary to identify the optimal way to address such issues among these patients. PMID:23691305

  18. [Mental health of children, adolescents and young adults--part 1: prevalence, illness persistence, adversities, service use, treatment delay and consequences].

    PubMed

    Lambert, M; Bock, T; Naber, D; Löwe, B; Schulte-Markwort, M; Schäfer, I; Gumz, A; Degkwitz, P; Schulte, B; König, H H; Konnopka, A; Bauer, M; Bechdolf, A; Correll, C; Juckel, G; Klosterkötter, J; Leopold, K; Pfennig, A; Karow, A

    2013-11-01

    Numerous birth-control studies, epidemiological studies, and observational studies have investigated mental health and health care in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, including prevalence, age at onset, adversities, illness persistence, service use, treatment delay and course of illness. Moreover, the impact of the burden of illness, of deficits of present health care systems, and the efficacy and effectiveness of early intervention services on mental health were evaluated. According to these data, most mental disorders start during childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. Many children, adolescents and young adults are exposed to single or multiple adversities, which increase the risk for (early) manifestations of mental diseases as well as for their chronicity. Early-onset mental disorders often persist into adulthood. Service use by children, adolescents and young adults is low, even lower than for adult patients. Moreover, there is often a long delay between onset of illness and first adequate treatment with a variety of linked consequences for a poorer psychosocial prognosis. This leads to a large burden of illness with respect to disability and costs. As a consequence several countries have implemented so-called "early intervention services" at the interface of child and adolescent and adult psychiatry. Emerging studies show that these health-care structures are effective and efficient. Part 1 of the present review summarises the current state of mental health in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, including prevalence, age at onset, adversities, illness persistence, service use, and treatment delay with consequences.

  19. Factors affecting treatment decisions and satisfaction of owners of cats with cancer.

    PubMed

    Slater, M R; Barton, C L; Rogers, K S; Peterson, J L; Harris, C K; Wallace, K

    1996-04-15

    Cancer in cats is being diagnosed with increasing frequency. Euthanasia or an active intervention such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery are treatment choices for the owner at diagnosis of the cat's disease. In this study, 2 interviews with cat owners, one soon after diagnosis of cancer in the cat and one 6 months later, were used to identify owner characteristics associated with a decision of euthanasia or intervention, to identify factors associated with an owner's satisfaction with euthanasia or intervention, and to evaluate inappropriate expectations of the owners who selected an intervention. The study included 89 owners from 3 referral hospitals. In logistic regression analysis, significant factors were not found that affected the owner's decision to euthanatize the cat versus intervene. Satisfaction with the decision to euthanatize the cat was associated with the ability of the cat to groom itself, eat, and play at the first interview. Among owners who selected an intervention, 4 combinations of factors were associated with being satisfied. The first combination was clinic of origin (CLIN), having a live cat at the 6-month follow-up interview (LIVE), and understanding the number of return visits required for the intervention. The second was CLIN, LIVE, and type and frequency of adverse effects from the intervention at the 6-month interview. The third was CLIN, LIVE, and feeling guilty at the 6-month interview. The fourth was CLIN, LIVE, and whether the cat had a good or excellent quality of life at the first interview. Thirty percent (21/69) of the owners tended to overestimate their cats' life expectancy. Owners also felt they had reasonably accurate estimations of adverse effects of treatment and number of return visits, but underestimated the costs required for an intervention. For owners who elect an intervention, a reminder from the veterinarian that emotional upheavals may develop even after the decision has been made is important. To

  20. Offering a forage crop at pasture did not adversely affect voluntary cow traffic or milking visits in a pasture-based automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Scott, V E; Kerrisk, K L; Garcia, S C

    2016-03-01

    Feed is a strong incentive for encouraging cows in automatic milking systems (AMS) to voluntarily move around the farm and achieve milkings distributed across the 24 h day. It has been reported that cows show preferences for some forages over others, and it is possible that offering preferred forages may increase cow traffic. A preliminary investigation was conducted to determine the effect of offering a forage crop for grazing on premilking voluntary waiting times in a pasture-based robotic rotary system. Cows were offered one of two treatments (SOYBEAN or GRASS) in a cross-over design. A restricted maximum likelihood procedure was used to model voluntary waiting times. Mean voluntary waiting time was 45.5±6.0 min, with no difference detected between treatments. High and mid-production cows spent 55 min/milking for low-production cows, whereas waiting time increased as queue length increased. Voluntary waiting time was 23% and 80% longer when cows were fetched from the paddock or had a period of forced waiting before volunteering for milking, respectively. The time it took cows to return to the dairy since last exiting was not affected by treatment, with a mean return time of 13.7±0.6 h. Although offering SOYBEAN did not encourage cows to traffic more readily through the premilking yard, the concept of incorporating forage crops in AMS still remains encouraging if the aim is to increase the volume or quantity of home-grown feed rather than improving cow traffic.

  1. Infusion site adverse events in breast cancer patients receiving highly emetic chemotherapy with prophylactic anti-emetic treatment with aprepitant and fosaprepitant: A retrospective comparison

    PubMed Central

    TSUDA, TAKASHI; KYOMORI, CHISATO; MIZUKAMI, TAKURO; TANIYAMA, TOMOKO; IZAWA, NAOKI; HORIE, YOSHIKI; HIRAKAWA, MAMI; OGURA, TAKASHI; NAKAJIMA, TAKAKO EGUCHI; TSUGAWA, KOICHIRO; BOKU, NARIKAZU

    2016-01-01

    The incidences of infusion site adverse events in chemotherapy regimens, including anthracyclines with either fosaprepitant or aprepitant as the anti-emetic, were not highlighted in the randomized trial comparing aprepitant and fosaprepitant. The present retrospective analysis was performed in breast cancer patients receiving anthracycline-containing chemotherapy, a combination of epirubicin and cyclophosphamide with or without 5-fluorouracil as the adjuvant or neoadjuvant, at the outpatient infusion center of St. Marianna University Hospital (Kawasaki, Japan). Infusion site adverse events were retrospectively compared between the 3 months prior to and three months following switching from 3 day oral administration of aprepitant to intravenous infusion of fosaprepitant. A total of 62 patients were included in the aprepitant group and 38 in the fosaprepitant group. Of these patients, 26 (42%) in the aprepitant group and 36 patients (96%) in the fosaprepitant group experienced any grade of infusion site adverse events at least once (P<0.001). As an anti-emetic treatment for chemotherapy using anthracyclines, fosaprepitant may be associated with a higher risk of infusion site adverse events compared with aprepitant. PMID:27073673

  2. Does Orthodontic Treatment Affect the Alveolar Bone Density?

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian-Hong; Huang, Heng-Li; Liu, Chien-Feng; Wu, Jay; Li, Yu-Fen; Tsai, Ming-Tzu; Hsu, Jui-Ting

    2016-03-01

    Few studies involving human participants have been conducted to investigate the effect of orthodontic treatment on alveolar bone density around the teeth. Our previous study revealed that patients who received 6 months of active orthodontic treatment exhibited an ∼24% decrease in alveolar bone density around the teeth. However, after an extensive retention period following orthodontic treatment, whether the bone density around the teeth can recover to its original state from before the treatment remains unclear, thus warranting further investigation.The purpose of this study was to assess the bone density changes around the teeth before, during, and after orthodontic treatment.Dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used to measure the changes in bone density around 6 teeth in the anterior maxilla (maxilla central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines) of 8 patients before and after orthodontic treatment. Each patient underwent 3 dental CBCT scans: before treatment (T0); at the end of 7 months of active orthodontic treatment (T1); after several months (20-22 months) of retention (T2). The Friedman test was applied to evaluate the changes in the alveolar bone density around the teeth according to the 3 dental CBCT scans.From T0 to T1, a significant reduction in bone density was observed around the teeth (23.36 ± 10.33%); by contrast, a significant increase was observed from T1 to T2 (31.81 ± 23.80%). From the perspective of the overall orthodontic treatment, comparing the T0 and T2 scans revealed that the bone density around the teeth was relatively constant (a reduction of only 0.75 ± 19.85%). The results of the statistical test also confirmed that the difference in bone density between T0 and T2 was nonsignificant.During orthodontic tooth movement, the alveolar bone density around the teeth was reduced. However, after a period of bone recovery, the reduced bone density recovered to its previous state from before the orthodontic treatment

  3. Does Orthodontic Treatment Affect the Alveolar Bone Density?

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jian-Hong; Huang, Heng-Li; Liu, Chien-Feng; Wu, Jay; Li, Yu-Fen; Tsai, Ming-Tzu; Hsu, Jui-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Few studies involving human participants have been conducted to investigate the effect of orthodontic treatment on alveolar bone density around the teeth. Our previous study revealed that patients who received 6 months of active orthodontic treatment exhibited an ∼24% decrease in alveolar bone density around the teeth. However, after an extensive retention period following orthodontic treatment, whether the bone density around the teeth can recover to its original state from before the treatment remains unclear, thus warranting further investigation. The purpose of this study was to assess the bone density changes around the teeth before, during, and after orthodontic treatment. Dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used to measure the changes in bone density around 6 teeth in the anterior maxilla (maxilla central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines) of 8 patients before and after orthodontic treatment. Each patient underwent 3 dental CBCT scans: before treatment (T0); at the end of 7 months of active orthodontic treatment (T1); after several months (20–22 months) of retention (T2). The Friedman test was applied to evaluate the changes in the alveolar bone density around the teeth according to the 3 dental CBCT scans. From T0 to T1, a significant reduction in bone density was observed around the teeth (23.36 ± 10.33%); by contrast, a significant increase was observed from T1 to T2 (31.81 ± 23.80%). From the perspective of the overall orthodontic treatment, comparing the T0 and T2 scans revealed that the bone density around the teeth was relatively constant (a reduction of only 0.75 ± 19.85%). The results of the statistical test also confirmed that the difference in bone density between T0 and T2 was nonsignificant. During orthodontic tooth movement, the alveolar bone density around the teeth was reduced. However, after a period of bone recovery, the reduced bone density recovered to its previous state from before the

  4. Parameters affecting the formation of perfluoroalkyl acids during wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Guerra, P; Kim, M; Kinsman, L; Ng, T; Alaee, M; Smyth, S A

    2014-05-15

    This study examined the fate and behaviour of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in liquid and solid samples from five different wastewater treatment types: facultative and aerated lagoons, chemically assisted primary treatment, secondary aerobic biological treatment, and advanced biological nutrient removal treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest data set from a single study available in the literature to date for PFAAs monitoring study in wastewater treatment. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the predominant PFAA in wastewater with levels from 2.2 to 150ng/L (influent) and 1.9 to 140ng/L (effluent). Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) was the predominant compound in primary sludge, waste biological sludge, and treated biosolids with concentrations from 6.4 to 2900ng/g dry weight (dw), 9.7 to 8200ng/gdw, and 2.1 to 17,000ng/gdw, respectively. PFAAs were formed during wastewater treatment and it was dependant on both process temperature and treatment type; with higher rates of formation in biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) operating at longer hydraulic retention times and higher temperatures. PFAA removal by sorption was influenced by different sorption tendencies; median log values of the solid-liquid distribution coefficient estimated from wastewater biological sludge and final effluent were: PFOS (3.73)>PFDA (3.68)>PFNA (3.25)>PFOA (2.49)>PFHxA (1.93). Mass balances confirmed the formation of PFAAs, low PFAA removal by sorption, and high PFAA levels in effluents. PMID:24691135

  5. Antenatal glucocorticoid treatment affects hippocampal development in mice.

    PubMed

    Noorlander, Cornelle W; Tijsseling, Deodata; Hessel, Ellen V S; de Vries, Willem B; Derks, Jan B; Visser, Gerard H A; de Graan, Pierre N E

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic glucocorticoids are administered to pregnant women at risk for preterm delivery, to enhance fetal lung maturation. The benefit of this treatment is well established, however caution is necessary because of possible unwanted side effects on development of different organ systems, including the brain. Actions of glucocorticoids are mediated by corticosteroid receptors, which are highly expressed in the hippocampus, a brain structure involved in cognitive functions. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of a single antenatal dexamethasone treatment on the development of the mouse hippocampus. A clinically relevant dose of dexamethasone (0.4 mg/kg) was administered to pregnant mice at embryonic day 15.5 and the hippocampus was analyzed from embryonic day 16 until adulthood. We investigated the effects of dexamethasone treatment on anatomical changes, apoptosis and proliferation in the hippocampus, hippocampal volume and on total body weight. Our results show that dexamethasone treatment reduced body weight and hippocampal volume transiently during development, but these effects were no longer detected at adulthood. Dexamethasone treatment increased the number of apoptotic cells in the hippocampus until birth, but postnatally no effects of dexamethasone treatment on apoptosis were found. During the phase with increased apoptosis, dexamethasone treatment reduced the number of proliferating cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. The number of proliferative cells was increased at postnatal day 5 and 10, but was decreased again at the adult stage. This latter long-term and negative effect of antenatal dexamethasone treatment on the number of proliferative cells in the hippocampus may have important implications for hippocampal network function.

  6. Programmatic and Communication Issues in Relation to Serious Adverse Events Following Ivermectin Treatment in areas Co-endemic for Onchocerciasis and Loiasis

    PubMed Central

    Haselow, Nancy J; Akame, Julie; Evini, Cyrille; Akongo, Serge

    2003-01-01

    In areas co-endemic for loiasis and onchocerciasis, the classic Community-Directed Treatment using ivermectin (Mectizan®) must be adapted as additional program activities, better communication and tighter control of ivermectin stocks are required to minimize risk and manage serious adverse events following ivermectin treatment in patients co-infected with Loa loa. The importance of these serious adverse events on community participation in onchocerciasis control efforts has not been adequately studied. Program implementers do not as of yet fully understand the psychological impact of serious adverse events on communities and therefore have not designed communication strategies that adequately address the real concerns of community members. It is clear, however, that along with an effective case detection and management strategy, a reinforced communication strategy will be required to motivate at least 65% of the total population in onchocerciasis and loiasis co-endemic areas to participate in the treatment program and to take ivermectin over an extended period. This strategy must be based on research undertaken at the community level in order to address the concerns, fears and issues associated with adverse events due to ivermectin – to ensure that communities believe that the benefits of taking ivermectin outweigh the risks. In addition to an overall increase in the time required to sustain onchocerciasis control programs in co-endemic areas, each aspect of the reinforced program and communication strategy – rapid epidemiological assessments, materials development, training, advocacy, community sensitization and mobilization, case management and counselling, supervision, monitoring and evaluation will require additional resources and support from all stakeholders concerned. PMID:14975067

  7. Vaccenic acid and trans fatty acid isomers from partially hydrogenated oil both adversely affect LDL cholesterol: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence of the adverse effects of industrially-produced trans fatty acids (iTFA) on risk of cardiovascular disease is consistent and well documented in the scientific literature; however, the cardiovascular effects of naturally-occurring TFA synthesized in ruminant animals (rTFA), such as vaccenic ...

  8. Biological treatments affect the chemical composition of coffee pulp.

    PubMed

    Ulloa Rojas, J B; Verreth, J A J; Amato, S; Huisman, E A

    2003-09-01

    Biological treatments were applied to fresh coffee pulp (CoP) to improve its nutritive value for monogastric animals by reducing its content of cellulose and antinutritional factors (ANFs) such as total phenols, tannins and caffeine. Treatments were: (1) ensiling with 0, 50 and 100 gkg(-1) molasses for 2 and 3 months, (2) aerobic decomposition for 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days, (3) aerobic bacterial inoculation (Bacillus sp.) for 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Ensiled CoP (E-CoP) showed higher fat and ash contents than oven-dried-CoP (OD-CoP; P<0.05). Similarly, true protein values tended to increase. The cellulose and total phenols levels of E-CoP were lower than OD-CoP (P<0.05). The E-CoP tannins levels tended to be lower than OD-CoP whereas caffeine levels remained unaffected. Improvement in the nutritional quality of E-CoP was associated with higher fat and protein contents and reduction of cellulose, total phenols and tannins. The aerobic decomposition treatment improved the nutritional quality of CoP by increasing true protein and fat contents. In addition, total phenols, tannins, caffeine and cellulose contents were reduced by an increase in treatment time (P<0.05). Bacterial treatment increased the protein content of CoP after 21 days (from 137 to 392 gkg(-1)) and decreased it after 28 days. Cellulose, total phenols, tannins and caffeine contents reduced with an increase in time of bacterial degradation. Bacterial treatment improved the CoP quality by increasing protein content and reducing cellulose and ANFs, especially after 21 days of treatment. Both the aerobic decomposition (after 21-28 days) and the aerobic bacterial degradation of CoP (after 21 days) appeared more suitable to improve the nutritional quality of CoP than the ensiling.

  9. Genetic factors affecting patient responses to pancreatic cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fotopoulos, George; Syrigos, Konstantinos; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the exocrine pancreas is a malignancy with a high lethal rate. Surgical resection is the only possible curative mode of treatment. Metastatic pancreatic cancer is incurable with modest results from the current treatment options. New genomic information could prove treatment efficacy. An independent review of PubMed and ScienceDirect databases was performed up to March 2016, using combinations of terms such pancreatic exocrine cancer, chemotherapy, genomic profile, pancreatic cancer pharmacogenomics, genomics, molecular pancreatic pathogenesis, and targeted therapy. Recent genetic studies have identified new markers and therapeutic targets. Our current knowledge of pancreatic cancer genetics must be further advanced to elucidate the molecular basis and pathogenesis of the disease, improve the accuracy of diagnosis, and guide tailor-made therapies. PMID:27708512

  10. Long-lasting adverse effects after short-term low-dose treatment with metoclopramide for vomiting.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Eilif; Diskin, Arthur L

    2014-01-01

    Metoclopramide is commonly used to treat vomiting caused by seasickness and acute gastroenteritis on cruise ships and serious adverse effects have not been reported from use at sea. We report severe long-lasting adverse effects in a young female seafarer following short-term, low-dose use of metoclopramide. During rough seas a 25-year-old female musician on a cruise vessel presented with nausea and vomiting. She was given intramuscular metoclopramide 10 mg and diphenhydramine 25 mg. Vomiting stopped after the injections, but she felt tired, confused and dizzy. She then had been taking metoclopramide 5-10 mg a day, but stopped after a total per oral dose of 30 mg as she developed disturbing symptoms that she related to the medication, including dizziness, anxiety, fatigue, depression and involuntary movements (twitches, jerks, ticks, and tremors of the eyelids, tongue, neck, fingers, arms and legs). Neurological examination, blood tests, electrocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain were all normal. Although gradually reduced in strength and frequency, the adverse effects were very disturbing for about 10 months, but at 13 months she was almost fully recovered. For many years numerous vomiting sea travellers have been successfully treated with a single parenteral 10 mg dose of metoclopramide. There are no obvious reasons why our previously healthy patient experienced such serious and long-lasting side effects after low-dose, short-term metoclopramide administration. Until more is known, metoclopramide should be reserved for debilitating cases - and only be given after other remedies have been tried and found ineffective. PMID:24677122

  11. Fludarabine plus alemtuzumab (FA) front-line treatment in young patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and an adverse biologic profile.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Francesca R; Molica, Stefano; Laurenti, Luca; Cortelezzi, Agostino; Carella, Angelo M; Zaja, Francesco; Chiarenza, Annalisa; Angrilli, Francesco; Nobile, Francesco; Marasca, Roberto; Musolino, Caterina; Brugiatelli, Maura; Piciocchi, Alfonso; Vignetti, Marco; Fazi, Paola; Gentile, Giuseppe; De Propris, Maria S; Della Starza, Irene; Marinelli, Marilisa; Chiaretti, Sabina; Del Giudice, Ilaria; Nanni, Mauro; Albano, Francesco; Cuneo, Antonio; Guarini, Anna; Foà, Robin

    2014-02-01

    In 45, ≤ 60 years old patients with CLL and an adverse biologic profile, a front-line treatment with Fludarabine and Campath (Alemtuzumab(®)) was given. The overall response rate was 75.5%, the complete response rate (CR) 24.4% with the lowest CR rates, 16.7% and 8.3%, in 11q and 17p deleted cases. The 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival were 42.5% and 79.9%, respectively. PFS was significantly influenced by CLL duration, beta2-microglobulin, and improved by post-remissional stem cell transplantation. Front-line fludarabine and alemtuzumab showed a manageable safety profile and evidence of a benefit in a small series of CLL patients with adverse biologic features.

  12. Kava for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder RCT: analysis of adverse reactions, liver function, addiction, and sexual effects.

    PubMed

    Sarris, J; Stough, C; Teschke, R; Wahid, Z T; Bousman, C A; Murray, G; Savage, K M; Mouatt, P; Ng, C; Schweitzer, I

    2013-11-01

    Presently, little is known about a number issues concerning kava (Piper methysticum), including (i) whether kava has any withdrawal or addictive effects; (ii) if genetic polymorphisms of the cytochrome (CYP) P450 2D6 liver enzyme moderates any potential adverse effects; and (iii) if medicinal application of kava has any negative or beneficial effect on sexual function and experience. The study design was a 6-week, double-blind, randomized controlled trial (n = 75) involving chronic administration of kava (one tablet of kava twice per day; 120 mg of kavalactones per day, titrated in non-response to two tablets of kava twice per day; 240 mg of kavalactones) or placebo for participants with generalized anxiety disorder. Results showed no significant differences across groups for liver function tests, nor were there any significant adverse reactions that could be attributed to kava. No differences in withdrawal or addiction were found between groups. Interesting, kava significantly increased female's sexual drive compared to placebo (p = 0.040) on a sub-domain of the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX), with no negative effects seen in males. Further, it was found that there was a highly significant correlation between ASEX reduction (improved sexual function and performance) and anxiety reduction in the whole sample.

  13. Negative Effects of Psychological Treatments: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Negative Effects Questionnaire for Monitoring and Reporting Adverse and Unwanted Events

    PubMed Central

    Kottorp, Anders; Boettcher, Johanna; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2016-01-01

    Research conducted during the last decades has provided increasing evidence for the use of psychological treatments for a number of psychiatric disorders and somatic complaints. However, by focusing only on the positive outcomes, less attention has been given to the potential of negative effects. Despite indications of deterioration and other adverse and unwanted events during treatment, little is known about their occurrence and characteristics. Hence, in order to facilitate research of negative effects, a new instrument for monitoring and reporting their incidence and impact was developed using a consensus among researchers, self-reports by patients, and a literature review: the Negative Effects Questionnaire. Participants were recruited via a smartphone-delivered self-help treatment for social anxiety disorder and through the media (N = 653). An exploratory factor analysis was performed, resulting in a six-factor solution with 32 items, accounting for 57.64% of the variance. The derived factors were: symptoms, quality, dependency, stigma, hopelessness, and failure. Items related to unpleasant memories, stress, and anxiety were experienced by more than one-third of the participants. Further, increased or novel symptoms, as well as lack of quality in the treatment and therapeutic relationship rendered the highest self-reported negative impact. In addition, the findings were discussed in relation to prior research and other similar instruments of adverse and unwanted events, giving credence to the items that are included. The instrument is presently available in eleven different languages and can be freely downloaded and used from www.neqscale.com. PMID:27331907

  14. Negative Effects of Psychological Treatments: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Negative Effects Questionnaire for Monitoring and Reporting Adverse and Unwanted Events.

    PubMed

    Rozental, Alexander; Kottorp, Anders; Boettcher, Johanna; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2016-01-01

    Research conducted during the last decades has provided increasing evidence for the use of psychological treatments for a number of psychiatric disorders and somatic complaints. However, by focusing only on the positive outcomes, less attention has been given to the potential of negative effects. Despite indications of deterioration and other adverse and unwanted events during treatment, little is known about their occurrence and characteristics. Hence, in order to facilitate research of negative effects, a new instrument for monitoring and reporting their incidence and impact was developed using a consensus among researchers, self-reports by patients, and a literature review: the Negative Effects Questionnaire. Participants were recruited via a smartphone-delivered self-help treatment for social anxiety disorder and through the media (N = 653). An exploratory factor analysis was performed, resulting in a six-factor solution with 32 items, accounting for 57.64% of the variance. The derived factors were: symptoms, quality, dependency, stigma, hopelessness, and failure. Items related to unpleasant memories, stress, and anxiety were experienced by more than one-third of the participants. Further, increased or novel symptoms, as well as lack of quality in the treatment and therapeutic relationship rendered the highest self-reported negative impact. In addition, the findings were discussed in relation to prior research and other similar instruments of adverse and unwanted events, giving credence to the items that are included. The instrument is presently available in eleven different languages and can be freely downloaded and used from www.neqscale.com.

  15. Negative Effects of Psychological Treatments: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Negative Effects Questionnaire for Monitoring and Reporting Adverse and Unwanted Events.

    PubMed

    Rozental, Alexander; Kottorp, Anders; Boettcher, Johanna; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2016-01-01

    Research conducted during the last decades has provided increasing evidence for the use of psychological treatments for a number of psychiatric disorders and somatic complaints. However, by focusing only on the positive outcomes, less attention has been given to the potential of negative effects. Despite indications of deterioration and other adverse and unwanted events during treatment, little is known about their occurrence and characteristics. Hence, in order to facilitate research of negative effects, a new instrument for monitoring and reporting their incidence and impact was developed using a consensus among researchers, self-reports by patients, and a literature review: the Negative Effects Questionnaire. Participants were recruited via a smartphone-delivered self-help treatment for social anxiety disorder and through the media (N = 653). An exploratory factor analysis was performed, resulting in a six-factor solution with 32 items, accounting for 57.64% of the variance. The derived factors were: symptoms, quality, dependency, stigma, hopelessness, and failure. Items related to unpleasant memories, stress, and anxiety were experienced by more than one-third of the participants. Further, increased or novel symptoms, as well as lack of quality in the treatment and therapeutic relationship rendered the highest self-reported negative impact. In addition, the findings were discussed in relation to prior research and other similar instruments of adverse and unwanted events, giving credence to the items that are included. The instrument is presently available in eleven different languages and can be freely downloaded and used from www.neqscale.com. PMID:27331907

  16. Treatments affecting maturation and germination of American chestnut somatic embryos.

    PubMed

    Robichaud, Rodney L; Lessard, Veronica C; Merkle, Scott A

    2004-08-01

    The effects of amino acids, abscisic acid (ABA), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and elevated sucrose were tested on the maturation and germination of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) somatic embryos. Somatic embryos from three lines were matured over an eight week period through a two-stage process. After maturation, somatic embryos were randomly divided into three groups to measure dry weight/ fresh weight ratios, starch levels, and germination rates. Prior to transfer to germination medium, somatic embryos received a four week cold treatment. While some treatments with amino acids, elevated sucrose, PEG or ABA increased either dry weight/fresh weight ratios, starch content or both, only addition of 25mM L-asparagine significantly increased germination rate and taproot length, and this response was only obtained with one of the three lines tested. Six plants survived the transfer to potting mix, acclimatization to greenhouse conditions and field planting. PMID:15384407

  17. Treatments affecting maturation and germination of American chestnut somatic embryos.

    PubMed

    Robichaud, Rodney L; Lessard, Veronica C; Merkle, Scott A

    2004-08-01

    The effects of amino acids, abscisic acid (ABA), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and elevated sucrose were tested on the maturation and germination of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) somatic embryos. Somatic embryos from three lines were matured over an eight week period through a two-stage process. After maturation, somatic embryos were randomly divided into three groups to measure dry weight/ fresh weight ratios, starch levels, and germination rates. Prior to transfer to germination medium, somatic embryos received a four week cold treatment. While some treatments with amino acids, elevated sucrose, PEG or ABA increased either dry weight/fresh weight ratios, starch content or both, only addition of 25mM L-asparagine significantly increased germination rate and taproot length, and this response was only obtained with one of the three lines tested. Six plants survived the transfer to potting mix, acclimatization to greenhouse conditions and field planting.

  18. Factors affecting the performance of stormwater treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Carleton, J N; Grizzard, T J; Godrej, A N; Post, H E

    2001-04-01

    Data from 35 studies on 49 wetland systems used to treat stormwater runoff or runoff-impacted surface waters were examined and compared in order to identify any obvious trends that may aid future stormwater treatment wetland design efforts. Despite the intermittent nature of hydrologic and pollutant inputs from stormwater runoff, our analysis demonstrates that steady-state first-order plug-flow models commonly used to analyze wastewater treatment wetlands can be adapted for use with stormwater wetlands. Long-term pollutant removals are analyzed as functions of long-term mean hydraulic loading rate and nominal detention time. First-order removal rate constants for total phosphorus, ammonia, and nitrate generated in this fashion are demonstrated to be similar to values reported in the literature for wastewater treatment wetlands. Constituent removals are also demonstrated via regression analyses to be functions of the ratio of wetland area to watershed area. Resulting equations between these variables can be used as preliminary design tools in the absence of more site-specific details, with the understanding that they should be employed cautiously. PMID:11317903

  19. In vitro fertilisation treatment and factors affecting success.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jack Yu Jen; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2012-12-01

    The efficacy of assisted reproductive technologies has improved significantly over the past decades. The main indications for in vitro fertilisation include tubal obstruction, severe male-factor infertility, severe endometriosis, ovulatory dysfunction, diminished ovarian reserve, and infertility of unexplained cause. In vitro fertilisation has also become an effective treatment option for couples wishing to undergo pre-implantation genetic diagnosis or screening, and for those wishing to cryopreserve their oocytes or embryos for preservation of fertility. The management of women in late reproductive age poses a major challenge; the optimum in vitro fertilisation treatment for poor responders remains elusive. The success of in vitro fertilisation treatment can be optimised by taking an individualised, patient-centered approach to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Key components involve selection of an appropriate controlled ovarian protocol, close-cycle monitoring, adjustment of gonadotropin dosage to avoid hyper-response, and individualised timing of human chorionic gonadotropin injection. Future directions of assisted reproductive technologies include development of non-invasive embryo selection methods, use of transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and time-lapse imaging technologies.

  20. The factors affecting effectiveness of treatment in phages therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ly-Chatain, Mai Huong

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the use of lytic bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents controlling pathogenic bacteria has appeared as a promising new alternative strategy in the face of growing antibiotic resistance which has caused problems in many fields including medicine, veterinary medicine, and aquaculture. The use of bacteriophages has numerous advantages over traditional antimicrobials. The effectiveness of phage applications in fighting against pathogenic bacteria depends on several factors such as the bacteriophages/target bacteria ratio, the mode and moment of treatment, environmental conditions (pH, temperature...), the neutralization of phage and accessibility to target bacteria, amongst others. This report presents these factors and the challenges involved in developing phage therapy applications. PMID:24600439

  1. Women and Alcoholism: How a Male-as-Norm Bias Affects Research, Assessment, and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Dina

    1994-01-01

    Contends that comprehensive discussion of women's alcoholism must include understanding of how male-as-norm bias has affected alcoholism research, assessment, and treatment. Summarizes how male-as-norm bias has affected research on women's alcoholism and shaped perceptions of women's alcoholic behavior and their responses to treatment. (Author/NB)

  2. Two cases of overlap severe cutaneous adverse reactions to benznidazole treatment for asymptomatic Chagas disease in a nonendemic country.

    PubMed

    González-Ramos, J; Noguera-Morel, L; Tong, H Y; Ramírez, E; Ruiz-Bravo, E; Bellón, T; Cabañas, R; Cachafeiro, L; Herranz-Pinto, P

    2016-09-01

    Chagas disease is a parasitosis endemic to South America. It is normally treated with benznidazole as first choice, which has been associated with numerous cutaneous reactions. However, very few benznidazole-associated severe cutaneous adverse reactions have been reported to date. The rise of Chagas disease in nonendemic countries represents a growing public health challenge. We report two patients who met the criteria for drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome and Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis according to the RegiSCAR scoring systems. They were thus deemed overlapping cases, with a lymphocyte transformation test positive for benznidazole. Both required intensive care unit admission and both survived. Considering the rising application of this drug for trypanosomiasis in immigrant populations, clinicians should be aware of this newly reported, potentially life-threatening risk. PMID:26851874

  3. Antimicrobial-related severe adverse events during treatment of bone and joint infection due to methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Valour, Florent; Karsenty, Judith; Bouaziz, Anissa; Ader, Florence; Tod, Michel; Lustig, Sébastien; Laurent, Frédéric; Ecochard, René; Chidiac, Christian; Ferry, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged antimicrobial therapy is recommended for methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bone and joint infections (BJI), but its safety profile and risk factors for severe adverse events (SAE) in clinical practice are unknown. We addressed these issues in a retrospective cohort study (2001 to 2011) analyzing antimicrobial-related SAE (defined according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events) in 200 patients (male, 62%; median age, 60.8 years [interquartile range {IQR}, 45.5 to 74.2 years]) with MSSA BJI admitted to a reference regional center with acute (66%) or chronic arthritis (7.5%), osteomyelitis (9.5%), spondylodiscitis (16%), or orthopedic device-related infections (67%). These patients received antistaphylococcal therapy for a median of 26.6 weeks (IQR, 16.8 to 37.8 weeks). Thirty-eight SAE occurred in 30 patients (15%), with a median time delay of 34 days (IQR, 14.75 to 60.5 days), including 10 patients with hematologic reactions, 9 with cutaneomucosal reactions, 6 with acute renal injuries, 4 with hypokalemia, and 4 with cholestatic hepatitis. The most frequently implicated antimicrobials were antistaphylococcal penicillins (ASP) (13 SAE/145 patients), fluoroquinolones (12 SAE/187 patients), glycopeptides (9 SAE/101 patients), and rifampin (7 SAE/107 patients). Kaplan-Meier curves and stepwise binary logistic regression analyses were used to determine the risk factors for the occurrence of antimicrobial-related SAE. Age (odds ratio [OR], 1.479 for 10-year increase; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.116 to 1.960; P = 0.006) appeared to be the only independent risk factor for SAE. In patients receiving ASP or rifampin, daily dose (OR, 1.028; 95% CI, 1.006 to 1.051; P = 0.014) and obesity (OR, 8.991; 95% CI, 1.453 to 55.627; P = 0.018) were associated with the occurrence of SAE. The high rate of SAE and their determinants highlighted the importance of the management and follow-up of BJI, with particular attention to be paid to

  4. Efficacy and adverse events of azacitidine in the treatment of hemodialysis patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yoshihiro, Tomoyasu; Muta, Tsuyoshi; Aoki, Kenichi; Shimamoto, Syo; Tamura, Yasuhisa; Ogawa, Ryosuke

    2016-08-01

    We describe two hemodialysis patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) treated with azacitidine. A 65-year-old woman (case 1) received azacitidine at 75 mg/m(2) for 7 days, and a 52-year-old man (case 2) with liver cirrhosis received a 70% dose of azacitidine. Both cases developed grade 4 cytopenia, but they achieved transfusion independence after 3 and 2 courses, and the durations of remission were 10 and 11 months, respectively. Case 1 had the complication of febrile neutropenia (FN) twice during the 1(st) and 2(nd) courses, but continued to receive azacitidine treatment thereafter. Case 2 developed infectious peritonitis during the sixth course, and azacitidine treatment was thus discontinued. After a 4-month treatment interruption, he became transfusion-dependent, and re-induction of azacitidine was successful. Of note, the course of case 1 was complicated by erythema nodosum on admission, which then disappeared after one course of azacitidine treatment. The mean durations of hospitalization were 17.5 and 23 days per course of azacitidine treatment, respectively. Though there are few reports of azacitidine treatment for hemodialysis patients with high-risk MDS, we advocate administering azacitidine to such patients, while paying close attention to the dose intensity of azacitidine and taking prompt action to manage infectious complications. PMID:27599416

  5. Bibliotherapy Treatment for Children with Adjustment Difficulties: A Comparison of Affective and Cognitive Bibliotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betzalel, Nurit; Shechtman, Zipora

    2010-01-01

    This study compared outcomes following cognitive and affective bibliotherapy treatment with 79 children and adolescents in a residential home in Israel. Treatment children were compared to a control-no treatment group from the same home. Anxiety was measured through a self-report measure (Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale; Reynolds &…

  6. Ozone treatment affects pigment precursor metabolism in pine seedlings.

    PubMed

    Shamay, Y.; Raskin, V. I.; Brandis, A. S.; Steinberger, H. E.; Marder, J. B.; Schwartz, A.

    2001-06-01

    Five-week-old seedlings of Pinus halepensis Mill. and Pinus brutia Ten. were exposed to air polluted with ozone (O3) (250 nl l-1, 12 h day-1 for 4 days) or to ambient air containing ca 10-20 nl l-1 O3, in the light (180 &mgr;mol m-2 s-1 photosynthetic photon flux density [PPFD], 12 h day-1) and then fed for 24 h in the light (100 &mgr;mol m-2 s-1 PPFD) with various radioactive precursors of chlorophyll (Chl) and carotene biosynthesis: 5-[4-14C]-aminolevulinic acid (14C-ALA), L-[14C(U)]-glutamic acid (14C-Glu), or D,L-[2-14C]-mevalonic acid (14C-MVA). Pigments were then extracted from cotyledons and fully expanded needles. Chl a and carotene were separated by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography and their specific activities were determined. 14C-ALA and 14C-Glu labels were incorporated into Chl a and carotene. Exposure to O3 did not inhibit incorporation of 14C-ALA into Chl a molecules, but hydrolysis of Chl a showed that O3 inhibited phytol labelling of Chl a. Labelling of carotene was also inhibited by O3, but not when 14C-MVA was used as the label. These data suggest that O3 treatment inhibits (directly or indirectly) the biosynthesis of isoprenoids from products of ALA and Glu metabolism in the plastid, but not from MVA in the cytosol. This inhibition was more prominent when 14C-ALA was used as the label than when 14C-Glu was the labelling precursor. A significant increase in pheophorbide a, a tetrapyrrole component of Chl a labelling, and a concomitant decrease in phytol labelling was observed following incubation of O3-treated pine seedlings with 14C-ALA and 14C-Glu. Stronger inhibition of carotene biosynthesis and activation of Chl a tetrapyrrole labelling by 14C-ALA (in comparison with 14C-Glu) indicated that exposure to O3 inhibits the conversion of ALA to Glu as the first step in ALA catabolism. These results also suggested a more intensive Glu metabolism (in comparison with ALA) for carotene biosynthesis in the cytosol, as

  7. Ozone treatment affects pigment precursor metabolism in pine seedlings.

    PubMed

    Shamay, Y.; Raskin, V. I.; Brandis, A. S.; Steinberger, H. E.; Marder, J. B.; Schwartz, A.

    2001-06-01

    Five-week-old seedlings of Pinus halepensis Mill. and Pinus brutia Ten. were exposed to air polluted with ozone (O3) (250 nl l-1, 12 h day-1 for 4 days) or to ambient air containing ca 10-20 nl l-1 O3, in the light (180 &mgr;mol m-2 s-1 photosynthetic photon flux density [PPFD], 12 h day-1) and then fed for 24 h in the light (100 &mgr;mol m-2 s-1 PPFD) with various radioactive precursors of chlorophyll (Chl) and carotene biosynthesis: 5-[4-14C]-aminolevulinic acid (14C-ALA), L-[14C(U)]-glutamic acid (14C-Glu), or D,L-[2-14C]-mevalonic acid (14C-MVA). Pigments were then extracted from cotyledons and fully expanded needles. Chl a and carotene were separated by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography and their specific activities were determined. 14C-ALA and 14C-Glu labels were incorporated into Chl a and carotene. Exposure to O3 did not inhibit incorporation of 14C-ALA into Chl a molecules, but hydrolysis of Chl a showed that O3 inhibited phytol labelling of Chl a. Labelling of carotene was also inhibited by O3, but not when 14C-MVA was used as the label. These data suggest that O3 treatment inhibits (directly or indirectly) the biosynthesis of isoprenoids from products of ALA and Glu metabolism in the plastid, but not from MVA in the cytosol. This inhibition was more prominent when 14C-ALA was used as the label than when 14C-Glu was the labelling precursor. A significant increase in pheophorbide a, a tetrapyrrole component of Chl a labelling, and a concomitant decrease in phytol labelling was observed following incubation of O3-treated pine seedlings with 14C-ALA and 14C-Glu. Stronger inhibition of carotene biosynthesis and activation of Chl a tetrapyrrole labelling by 14C-ALA (in comparison with 14C-Glu) indicated that exposure to O3 inhibits the conversion of ALA to Glu as the first step in ALA catabolism. These results also suggested a more intensive Glu metabolism (in comparison with ALA) for carotene biosynthesis in the cytosol, as

  8. High d(+)-fructose diet adversely affects testicular weight gain in weaning rats─protection by moderate d(+)-glucose diet.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    The use of high D(+)-fructose corn syrup has increased over the past several decades in the developed countries, while overweight and obesity rates and the related diseases have risen dramatically. However, we found that feeding a high D(+)-fructose diet (80% D(+)-fructose as part of the diet) to weaning rats for 21 days led to reduced food intake (50% less, P < 0.0001) and thus delayed the weight gains in the body (40% less, P < 0.0001) and testes (40% less, P < 0.0001) compared to the no D(+)-fructose diet. We also challenged a minimum requirement of dietary D(+)-glucose for preventing the adverse effects of D(+)-fructose, such as lower food intake and reduction of body weight and testicular weight; the minimum requirement of D(+)-glucose was ≈23% of the diet. This glucose amount may be the minimum requirement of exogenous glucose for reducing weight gain. PMID:23935370

  9. [Incidence and therapeutic relevance of the adverse effects of antidepressive agents within the scope of ambulatory neurologic treatment].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, L G; Schüssler, G; Linden, M; Müller-Oerlinghausen, B

    1988-04-01

    Within a postmarketing drug surveillance study the incidence and relevance of ADRs leading to drug discontinuation in therapy of depressed outpatients were examined. In addition, corresponding drug prescribing patterns of patients under routine treatment conditions were recorded. It was found that most psychiatric outpatients were able to identify common ADRs and to differentiate them from the underlying illnesses and comedication. Low-dose therapy was confirmed as routine treatment in the majority of psychiatric outpatients. No differences regarding age, sex, and dosage could be found between patients with further drug intake and those who stopped their antidepressant medication because of ADRs. Such events had been recorded in 11.5% of patients with first prescriptions made by the treating physicians in a monitoring of three months. However, only 0.3% of patients on long-term therapy (that had been initiated at treatment terms preceding the monitoring period) experienced an ADR indicating a decreased risk for drug discontinuation (because of ADR) the longer the patient was on treatment. Knowing ADR(-profiles) of prescribed drugs by treating psychiatrist may aid the treatment of compliance or prevention of ADRs. PMID:3384381

  10. Measurement of affective state during chronic nicotine treatment and withdrawal by affective taste reactivity in mice: the role of endocannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Wing, Victoria C; Cagniard, Barbara; Murphy, Niall P; Shoaib, Mohammed

    2009-10-01

    Despite tobacco being highly addictive, it is unclear if nicotine has significant affective properties. To address this, we studied taste reactions to gustatory stimuli, palatable sucrose and unpalatable quinine, which are believed to reflect ongoing affective state. Taste reactivity was assessed during chronic nicotine administration and spontaneous withdrawal and the role of the endogenous cannabinoids was also investigated. C57BL6J mice were implanted with intraoral fistula to allow passive administration of solutions. In the first study, taste reactivity was tracked throughout chronic vehicle or nicotine (12 mg/kg/day) infusion via osmotic minipumps and spontaneous withdrawal following removal of minipumps. In the second study, the endocannabinoid CB1-receptor antagonist AM251 (1, 3 and 10mg/kg, intraperitoneal) or vehicle was acutely administered before taste reactivity measurement during chronic nicotine administration. Chronic nicotine treatment and spontaneous withdrawal did not influence taste reactions to sucrose or quinine. AM251 decreased positive reactions to sucrose and increased negative reactions to quinine. The effects of AM251 were respectively attenuated and enhanced in nicotine infused mice. These results suggest chronic nicotine exposure and withdrawal has no apparent affective sequelae, as probed by taste reactivity, and thus may not explain the difficulty tobacco-users have in achieving abstinence. In contrast, endocannabinoids elevate affective state in drug-naïve animals and changes in endogenous endocannabinoid tone may underlie compensations in affective state during chronic nicotine exposure. PMID:19540830

  11. Linezolid Induced Adverse Drug Reactions - An Update.

    PubMed

    Kishor, Kamal; Dhasmana, Neha; Kamble, Shashank Shivaji; Sahu, Roshan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Treatment regimen recommended for resistant tuberculosis consists of various drugs and these drugs are prescribed for at least 12-15 months. Such a long duration therapy and high dose of antibiotics result in adverse drug reactions (ADRs). ADRs may lead to various complications in disease management like replacement of drugs, dose increment, therapy withdrawal, etc. Linezolid is one of those drugs, practiced as an anti-mycobacterial agent and it is an important member of drug regimen for MDR and XDR tuberculosis. Linezolid is a broad spectrum antibiotic known for its unique mechanism of inhibition of resistant pathogenic strains. However, it causes serious adverse effects like thrombocytopenia, optic neuropathy, peripheral neuropathy, lactic acidosis, etc. Literature suggests that Linezolid can cause severe ADRs which affect patient compliance and hinder in therapy to a larger extent. Recent studies confirm the possibility of ADRs to be predicted with genetic make-up of individuals. To effectively deliver the available treatment regimen and ensure patient compliance, it is important to manage ADRs more efficiently. The role of pharmacogenomics in reducing adverse drug effects has been recently explored. In the present review, we discussed about Linezolid induced adverse drug reactions, mechanisms and genetic associations. PMID:26424176

  12. Clozapine Treatment of Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia: Evaluation of Effectiveness, Adverse Effects, and Long-Term Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sporn, Alexandra L.; Vermani, Anoop; Greenstein, Deanna K.; Bobb, Aaron J.; Spencer, Edgar P.; Clasen, Liv S.; Tossell, Julia W.; Stayer, Catherine C.; Gochman, Peter A.; Lenane, Marge C.; Rapoport, Judith L.; Gogtay, Nitin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Clozapine is a unique atypical antipsychotic with superior efficacy in treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Plasma concentration of clozapine and its major metabolite N-desmethylclozapine (NDMC) as well as the ratio of NDMC to clozapine have been reported to be predictors of clozapine response. Here we evaluate these as well as other…

  13. Temporary treatment during primary HIV infection does not affect virologic response to subsequent long-term treatment.

    PubMed

    Grijsen, Marlous L; Wit, Ferdinand W N M; Jurriaans, Suzanne; Kroon, Frank P; Schippers, Emile F; Koopmans, Peter; Gras, Luuk; Lange, Joep M A; Prins, Jan M

    2014-01-01

    Temporary cART during primary HIV-infection (PHI) did not select for drug resistance mutations after treatment interruption and did not affect the subsequent virological response to long-term cART. Our data demonstrate that fear of drug resistance development is not a valid argument to refrain from temporary early treatment during PHI.

  14. Adverse Obstetric and Perinatal Outcomes following Treatment of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Haggar, Fatima A.; Pereira, Gavin; Preen, David; Holman, C. D'Arcy; Einarsdottir, Kristjana

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate obstetric and perinatal outcomes among female survivors of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancers and their offspring. Methods Using multivariate analysis of statewide linked data, outcomes of all first completed pregnancies (n = 1894) in female survivors of AYA cancer diagnosed in Western Australia during the period 1982–2007 were compared with those among females with no cancer history. Comparison pregnancies were matched by maternal age-group, parity and year of delivery. Results Compared with the non-cancer group, female survivors of AYA cancer had an increased risk of threatened abortion (adjusted relative risk 2.09, 95% confidence interval 1.51–2.74), gestational diabetes (2.65, 2.08–3.57), pre-eclampsia (1.32, 1.04–1.87), post-partum hemorrhage (2.83, 1.92–4.67), cesarean delivery (2.62, 2.22–3.04), and maternal postpartum hospitalization>5 days (3.01, 1.72–5.58), but no excess risk of threatened preterm delivery, antepartum hemorrhage, premature rupture of membranes, failure of labor to progress or retained placenta. Their offspring had an increased risk of premature birth (<37 weeks: 1.68, 1.21–2.08), low birth weight (<2500 g: 1.51, 1.23–2.12), fetal growth restriction (3.27, 2.45–4.56), and neonatal distress indicated by low Apgar score (<7) at 1 minute (2.83, 2.28–3.56), need for resuscitation (1.66, 1.27–2.19) or special care nursery admission (1.44, 1.13–1.78). Congenital abnormalities and perinatal deaths (intrauterine or ≤7 days of birth) were not increased among offspring of survivors. Conclusion Female survivors of AYA cancer have moderate excess risks of adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes arising from subsequent pregnancies that may require additional surveillance or intervention. PMID:25485774

  15. Adverse Renal, Endocrine, Hepatic, and Metabolic Events during Maintenance Mood Stabilizer Treatment for Bipolar Disorder: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Marston, Louise; Walters, Kate; Geddes, John R.; King, Michael; Osborn, David P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is limited, poorly characterized information about adverse events occurring during maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. We aimed to determine adverse event rates during treatment with lithium, valproate, olanzapine, and quetiapine. Methods and Findings We conducted a propensity score adjusted cohort study using nationally representative United Kingdom electronic health records from January 1, 1995, until December 31, 2013. We included patients who had a diagnosis of bipolar disorder and were prescribed lithium (n = 2148), valproate (n = 1670), olanzapine (n = 1477), or quetiapine (n = 1376) as maintenance mood stabilizer treatment. Adverse outcomes were chronic kidney disease, thyroid disease, hypercalcemia, weight gain, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and hepatotoxicity. The propensity score included important demographic, physical health, and mental health predictors of drug treatment allocation. The median duration of drug treatment was 1.48 y (interquartile range 0.64–3.43). Compared to patients prescribed lithium, those taking valproate, olanzapine, and quetiapine had reduced rates of chronic kidney disease stage 3 or more severe, following adjustment for propensity score, age, and calendar year, and accounting for clustering by primary care practice (valproate hazard ratio [HR] 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45–0.69; p < 0.001, olanzapine HR 0.57; 95% CI 0.45–0.71; p < 0.001, quetiapine HR 0.62; 95% CI 0.47–0.80; p < 0.001). Hypothyroidism was reduced in those taking valproate (HR 0.60; 95% CI 0.40–0.89; p = 0.012) and olanzapine (HR 0.48; 95% CI 0.29–0.77; p = 0.003), compared to those taking lithium. Rates of new onset hyperthyroidism (valproate HR 0.24; 95% CI 0.09–0.61; p = 0.003, olanzapine HR 0.31; 95% CI 0.13–0.73; p = 0.007) and hypercalcemia (valproate HR 0.25; 95% CI 0.10–0.60; p = 0.002, olanzapine HR 0.32; 95% CI 0.14–0.76; p = 0.008, quetiapine HR 0.23; 95% CI 0.07

  16. Migration, neighborhoods, and networks: approaches to understanding how urban environmental conditions affect syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Egan, James E; Frye, Victoria; Kurtz, Steven P; Latkin, Carl; Chen, Minxing; Tobin, Karin; Yang, Cui; Koblin, Beryl A

    2011-04-01

    Adopting socioecological, intersectionality, and lifecourse theoretical frameworks may enhance our understanding of the production of syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM). From this perspective, we present preliminary data from three related studies that suggest ways in which social contexts may influence the health of MSM. The first study, using cross-sectional data, looked at migration of MSM to the gay resort area of South Florida, and found that amount of time lived in the area was associated with risk behaviors and HIV infection. The second study, using qualitative interviews, observed complex interactions between neighborhood-level social environments and individual-level racial and sexual identity among MSM in New York City. The third study, using egocentric network analysis with a sample of African American MSM in Baltimore, found that sexual partners were more likely to be found through face-to-face means than the Internet. They also observed that those who co-resided with a sex partner had larger networks of people to depend on for social and financial support, but had the same size sexual networks as those who did not live with a partner. Overall, these findings suggest the need for further investigation into the role of macro-level social forces on the emotional, behavioral, and physical health of urban MSM.

  17. Migration, Neighborhoods, and Networks: Approaches to Understanding How Urban Environmental Conditions Affect Syndemic Adverse Health Outcomes Among Gay, Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Egan, James E.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Latkin, Carl; Chen, Minxing; Tobin, Karin; Yang, Cui; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2011-01-01

    Adopting socioecological, intersectionality, and lifecourse theoretical frameworks may enhance our understanding of the production of syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM). From this perspective, we present preliminary data from three related studies that suggest ways in which social contexts may influence the health of MSM. The first study, using cross-sectional data, looked at migration of MSM to the gay resort area of South Florida, and found that amount of time lived in the area was associated with risk behaviors and HIV infection. The second study, using qualitative interviews, observed complex interactions between neighborhood-level social environments and individual-level racial and sexual identity among MSM in New York City. The third study, using egocentric network analysis with a sample of African American MSM in Baltimore, found that sexual partners were more likely to be found through face-to-face means than the Internet. They also observed that those who co-resided with a sex partner had larger networks of people to depend on for social and financial support, but had the same size sexual networks as those who did not live with a partner. Overall, these findings suggest the need for further investigation into the role of macro-level social forces on the emotional, behavioral, and physical health of urban MSM. PMID:21369730

  18. Rock glacier outflows may adversely affect lakes: lessons from the past and present of two neighboring water bodies in a crystalline-rock watershed.

    PubMed

    Ilyashuk, Boris P; Ilyashuk, Elena A; Psenner, Roland; Tessadri, Richard; Koinig, Karin A

    2014-06-01

    Despite the fact that rock glaciers are one of the most common geomorphological expressions of mountain permafrost, the impacts of their solute fluxes on lakes still remain largely obscure. We examined water and sediment chemistry, and biota of two neighboring water bodies with and without a rock glacier in their catchments in the European Alps. Paleolimnological techniques were applied to track long-term temporal trends in the ecotoxicological state of the water bodies and to establish their baseline conditions. We show that the active rock glacier in the mineralized catchment of Lake Rasass (RAS) represents a potent source of acid rock drainage that results in enormous concentrations of metals in water, sediment, and biota of RAS. The incidence of morphological abnormalities in the RAS population of Pseudodiamesa nivosa, a chironomid midge, is as high as that recorded in chironomid populations inhabiting sites heavily contaminated by trace metals of anthropogenic origin. The incidence of morphological deformities in P. nivosa of ∼70% persisted in RAS during the last 2.5 millennia and was ∼40% in the early Holocene. The formation of RAS at the toe of the rock glacier most probably began at the onset of acidic drainage in the freshly deglaciated area. The present adverse conditions are not unprecedented in the lake's history and cannot be associated exclusively with enhanced thawing of the rock glacier in recent years.

  19. Migration, neighborhoods, and networks: approaches to understanding how urban environmental conditions affect syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Egan, James E; Frye, Victoria; Kurtz, Steven P; Latkin, Carl; Chen, Minxing; Tobin, Karin; Yang, Cui; Koblin, Beryl A

    2011-04-01

    Adopting socioecological, intersectionality, and lifecourse theoretical frameworks may enhance our understanding of the production of syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM). From this perspective, we present preliminary data from three related studies that suggest ways in which social contexts may influence the health of MSM. The first study, using cross-sectional data, looked at migration of MSM to the gay resort area of South Florida, and found that amount of time lived in the area was associated with risk behaviors and HIV infection. The second study, using qualitative interviews, observed complex interactions between neighborhood-level social environments and individual-level racial and sexual identity among MSM in New York City. The third study, using egocentric network analysis with a sample of African American MSM in Baltimore, found that sexual partners were more likely to be found through face-to-face means than the Internet. They also observed that those who co-resided with a sex partner had larger networks of people to depend on for social and financial support, but had the same size sexual networks as those who did not live with a partner. Overall, these findings suggest the need for further investigation into the role of macro-level social forces on the emotional, behavioral, and physical health of urban MSM. PMID:21369730

  20. Rock Glacier Outflows May Adversely Affect Lakes: Lessons from the Past and Present of Two Neighboring Water Bodies in a Crystalline-Rock Watershed

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that rock glaciers are one of the most common geomorphological expressions of mountain permafrost, the impacts of their solute fluxes on lakes still remain largely obscure. We examined water and sediment chemistry, and biota of two neighboring water bodies with and without a rock glacier in their catchments in the European Alps. Paleolimnological techniques were applied to track long-term temporal trends in the ecotoxicological state of the water bodies and to establish their baseline conditions. We show that the active rock glacier in the mineralized catchment of Lake Rasass (RAS) represents a potent source of acid rock drainage that results in enormous concentrations of metals in water, sediment, and biota of RAS. The incidence of morphological abnormalities in the RAS population of Pseudodiamesa nivosa, a chironomid midge, is as high as that recorded in chironomid populations inhabiting sites heavily contaminated by trace metals of anthropogenic origin. The incidence of morphological deformities in P. nivosa of ∼70% persisted in RAS during the last 2.5 millennia and was ∼40% in the early Holocene. The formation of RAS at the toe of the rock glacier most probably began at the onset of acidic drainage in the freshly deglaciated area. The present adverse conditions are not unprecedented in the lake’s history and cannot be associated exclusively with enhanced thawing of the rock glacier in recent years. PMID:24804777

  1. Synthetic progestins medroxyprogesterone acetate and dydrogesterone and their binary mixtures adversely affect reproduction and lead to histological and transcriptional alterations in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanbin; Castiglioni, Sara; Fent, Karl

    2015-04-01

    Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and dydrogesterone (DDG) are synthetic progestins widely used in human and veterinary medicine. Although aquatic organisms are exposed to them through wastewater and animal farm runoff, very little is known about their effects in the environment. Here we provide a comprehensive analysis of the responses of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to MPA, DDG, and their binary mixtures at measured concentrations between 4.5 and 1663 ng/L. DDG and both mixtures impaired reproductive capacities (egg production) of breeding pairs and led to histological alterations of ovaries and testes and increased gonadosomatic index. Transcriptional analysis of up to 28 genes belonging to different pathways demonstrated alterations in steroid hormone receptors, steroidogenesis enzymes, and specifically, the circadian rhythm genes, in different organs of adult zebrafish and eleuthero-embryos. Alterations occurred even at environmentally relevant concentrations of 4.5-4.8 ng/L MPA, DDG and the mixture in eleuthero-embryos and at 43-89 ng/L in adult zebrafish. Additionally, the mixtures displayed additive effects in most but not all parameters in adults and eleuthero-embryos, suggesting concentration addition. Our data suggest that MPA and DDG and their mixtures induce multiple transcriptional responses at environmentally relevant concentrations and adverse effects on reproduction and gonad histology at higher levels.

  2. Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis During Dronedarone Treatment: First Report of a Severe Serious Adverse Event Of A New Antiarrhythmic Drug.

    PubMed

    Gecks, Thomas; Prochnau, Dirk; Franz, Marcus; Jung, Christian; Kühnert, Helmut; Schliemann, Sibylle; Figulla, Hans Rainer

    2015-10-01

    A 77-year-old female patient with symptomatic atrial fibrillation with fast ventricular rate despite conventional antiarrhythmic therapy was treated with dronedarone. Five days later, she developed a maculopapulous exanthema and small flaccid blisters, which spread over the common integument predominantly located on the dorsal trunk. Over few days, the patient showed a severe epidermal necrolysis of approximately 30 % of the body area and ultimately died in multiorgan failure. Here, we report a rare case of toxic epidermal necrolysis during treatment with dronedarone leading to patient death.

  3. Dapsone in the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris: adverse effects and its importance as a corticosteroid sparing agent*

    PubMed Central

    Quaresma, Maria Victória; Bernardes Filho, Fred; Hezel, Janaína; Peretti, Murilo Calvo; Kac, Bernard Kawa; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna

    2015-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune disease characterized by suprabasal blisters with acantholysis, which has a fatal course in a large number of untreated patients. Systemic corticosteroid therapy is considered first-line therapy. Adjuvant treatment with the goal of sparing corticosteroids include, among others, dapsone. This drug is not without side effects and its use requires clinical and laboratory control. We present a patient with PV initially managed with suboptimal dose of prednisone, evolving into drug-induced hepatitis after introduction of dapsone. PMID:26312673

  4. Patients affected by premature ejaculation due to glans hypersensitivity refuse circumcision as a potential definite treatment for their problem.

    PubMed

    Gallo, L

    2014-05-01

    The diagnosis of premature ejaculation (PE) was based on a score > 8 at the PEDT five-item questionnaire. Local anaesthetic treatment (LAT) was the first-line therapy. Subjects who obtained a normalisation of EPDT score (≤8) were considered responders to LAT and even affected by lifelong PE due glans hypersensitivity. We proposed to patients not completely satisfied with LAT to undergo circumcision as a potential definitive treatment for PE. All patients received exhaustive information about potential benefits, limitations and complications. In case of refusal, each man was asked for the reasons of his choice. A total of 152 patients were recruited. Hundred and twenty-four patients among 152 (81.6%) positively responded to LAT. Among the 124 LAT responders, 21 (17%) were completely satisfied. The remaining 103 men experienced adverse reactions. It was proposed to such patients if they would be interested to a definitive form of treatment to resolve their problem. All the patients responded positively to this question. Only four patients among them (3.9%) accepted. The remaining 99 (96.1%) refused providing the following reasons of their choice: absence of guarantees 82.8%; irreversibility of the procedure creating a permanent body alteration 75.7%; costs of the procedure 12.1%; fear of potential complications 7%.

  5. [An Elderly Patient with Metastatic Breast Cancer Who Developed Severe Adverse Events such as Stomatitis and Interstitial Pneumonia after Everolimus plus Exemestane Treatment].

    PubMed

    Sakiyama, Kana; Yoshida, Takashi; Goto, Yoshinari; Kimura, Morihiko

    2016-06-01

    An 80-year-old woman was diagnosed with right breast cancer with clinical Stage IIIA 6 years previously. She underwent mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection. The pathological diagnosis was invasive micropapillary carcinoma with lymph node involvement. Immunohistochemically, the tumor was positive for estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, and negative for HER2. Postoperatively, the patient was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, 5-fluorouracil, and paclitaxel, followed by endocrine therapy with letrozole. Four years after surgery, she experienced a recurrence of breast cancer in the thoracic wall, and was treated with exemestane, toremifene, and fulvestrant for 1 year and 5 months. However, she developed carcinomatous pleurisy and was treated with eribulin. This last treatment was ineffective. Subsequently, she received combination therapy with everolimus and exemestane. Although the pleural effusion reduced markedly after 5 weeks, stomatitis, diarrhea, melena, and interstitial pneumonia occurred as adverse events. The symptoms improved after drug discontinuation and steroid therapy. The combination therapy with everolimus and exemestane is a prospective therapy for hormone-resistant recurrent breast cancer, but the management of adverse events is very important. PMID:27306814

  6. 2.45-GHz microwave irradiation adversely affects reproductive function in male mouse, Mus musculus by inducing oxidative and nitrosative stress.

    PubMed

    Shahin, S; Mishra, V; Singh, S P; Chaturvedi, C M

    2014-05-01

    Electromagnetic radiations are reported to produce long-term and short-term biological effects, which are of great concern to human health due to increasing use of devices emitting EMR especially microwave (MW) radiation in our daily life. In view of the unavoidable use of MW emitting devices (microwaves oven, mobile phones, Wi-Fi, etc.) and their harmful effects on biological system, it was thought worthwhile to investigate the long-term effects of low-level MW irradiation on the reproductive function of male Swiss strain mice and its mechanism of action. Twelve-week-old mice were exposed to non-thermal low-level 2.45-GHz MW radiation (CW for 2 h/day for 30 days, power density = 0.029812 mW/cm(2) and SAR = 0.018 W/Kg). Sperm count and sperm viability test were done as well as vital organs were processed to study different stress parameters. Plasma was used for testosterone and testis for 3β HSD assay. Immunohistochemistry of 3β HSD and nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) was also performed in testis. We observed that MW irradiation induced a significant decrease in sperm count and sperm viability along with the decrease in seminiferous tubule diameter and degeneration of seminiferous tubules. Reduction in testicular 3β HSD activity and plasma testosterone levels was also noted in the exposed group of mice. Increased expression of testicular i-NOS was observed in the MW-irradiated group of mice. Further, these adverse reproductive effects suggest that chronic exposure to nonionizing MW radiation may lead to infertility via free radical species-mediated pathway. PMID:24490664

  7. 2.45-GHz microwave irradiation adversely affects reproductive function in male mouse, Mus musculus by inducing oxidative and nitrosative stress.

    PubMed

    Shahin, S; Mishra, V; Singh, S P; Chaturvedi, C M

    2014-05-01

    Electromagnetic radiations are reported to produce long-term and short-term biological effects, which are of great concern to human health due to increasing use of devices emitting EMR especially microwave (MW) radiation in our daily life. In view of the unavoidable use of MW emitting devices (microwaves oven, mobile phones, Wi-Fi, etc.) and their harmful effects on biological system, it was thought worthwhile to investigate the long-term effects of low-level MW irradiation on the reproductive function of male Swiss strain mice and its mechanism of action. Twelve-week-old mice were exposed to non-thermal low-level 2.45-GHz MW radiation (CW for 2 h/day for 30 days, power density = 0.029812 mW/cm(2) and SAR = 0.018 W/Kg). Sperm count and sperm viability test were done as well as vital organs were processed to study different stress parameters. Plasma was used for testosterone and testis for 3β HSD assay. Immunohistochemistry of 3β HSD and nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) was also performed in testis. We observed that MW irradiation induced a significant decrease in sperm count and sperm viability along with the decrease in seminiferous tubule diameter and degeneration of seminiferous tubules. Reduction in testicular 3β HSD activity and plasma testosterone levels was also noted in the exposed group of mice. Increased expression of testicular i-NOS was observed in the MW-irradiated group of mice. Further, these adverse reproductive effects suggest that chronic exposure to nonionizing MW radiation may lead to infertility via free radical species-mediated pathway.

  8. Factors that Affect Treatment Expectations of Outpatients with Substance Use Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raylu, Namrata; Kaur, Inderjit

    2012-01-01

    The study assessed treatment expectations (TE) of outpatients with substance use problems as well as factors that affect their TE. Participants were 200 outpatients presenting at three community based substance abuse treatment services. Results of general linear modelling analyses showed that outpatients with substance use problems have higher…

  9. Improving overall survival and overcoming adverse prognosis in the treatment of cytogenetically high-risk multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Mateos, María-Victoria; Gutierrez, Norma C.; Rajkumar, S. Vincent; San Miguel, Jesús F.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a heterogeneous disease with certain genetic features [eg, t(4;14), del17p] associated with worse outcome. The introduction of thalidomide, lenalidomide, and bortezomib has dramatically improved the outlook for patients with MM, but their relative benefit (or harm) for different genetic patient subgroups remains unclear. Unfortunately, the small number of patients in each subgroup frequently limits the analysis of high-risk patients enrolled in clinical trials. Strategies that result in survival of high-risk genetic subgroups approximating that of patients lacking high-risk features are said to overcome the poor prognostic impact of these high-risk features. This outcome has been difficult to achieve, and studies in this regard have so far been limited by inadequate sample size. In contrast, strategies that compare the survival of high-risk genetic subgroups randomized to different treatment arms can identify approaches that improve survival. This type of analysis is clinically useful, even if the absolute gains do not improve outcomes to levels seen in patients without high-risk cytogenetics. Reviewing available data in high-risk MM from this perspective, it appears that bortezomib has frequently been associated with improved survival, whereas thalidomide maintenance has sometimes been associated with a shorter survival. PMID:23165477

  10. Endocrine care of transpeople part I. A review of cross-sex hormonal treatments, outcomes and adverse effects in transmen.

    PubMed

    Meriggiola, Maria Cristina; Gava, Giulia

    2015-11-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) is characterized by discomfort with the assigned or birth gender and the urge to live as a member of the desired sex. The goal of medical and surgical treatment is to improve the well-being and quality of life of transpeople. The acquisition of phenotypic features of the desired gender requires the use of cross-sex hormonal therapy (CHT). Adult transmen are treated with testosterone to induce virilization. In adolescents with severe and persistent GD, consideration can be given to arresting puberty at Tanner Stage II and if dysphoria persists, CHT is generally started after 16 years of age. Currently available short- and long-term safety studies suggest that CHT is reasonably safe in transmen. Monitoring of transmen should be more frequent during the first year of cross-sex hormone administration reducing to once or twice per year thereafter. Long-term monitoring after sex reassignment surgery (SRS) includes annual check-ups as are carried out for natal hypogonadal men. In elderly transmen, special attention should be paid to haematocrit in particular. Screening for breast and cervical cancer should be continued in transmen not undergoing SRS.

  11. Exposure to coal combustion residues during metamorphosis elevates corticosterone content and adversely affects oral morphology, growth, and development in Rana sphenocephala

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.D.; Peterson, V.A.; Mendonca, M.T.

    2009-01-15

    Coal combustion residues (CCRs) are documented to negatively impact oral morphology, growth, and development in larval amphibians. It is currently unclear what physiological mechanisms may mediate these effects. Corticosterone, a glucocorticoid hormone, is a likely mediator because when administered exogenously it, like CCRs, also negatively influences oral morphology, growth, and development in larval amphibians. In an attempt to identify if corticosterone mediates these effects, we raised larval Southern Leopard Frogs, Rana sphenocephala, on either sand or CCR substrate and documented effects of sediment type on whole body corticosterone, oral morphology, and time to and mass at key metamorphic stages. Coal combustion residue treated tadpoles contained significantly more corticosterone than controls throughout metamorphosis. However, significantly more oral abnormalities occurred early in metamorphosis when differences in corticosterone levels between treatments were minimal. Overall, CCR-treated tadpoles took significantly more time to transition between key stages and gained less mass between stages than controls, but these differences between treatments decreased during later stages when corticosterone differences between treatments were greatest. Our results suggest endogenous increase in corticosterone content and its influence on oral morphology, growth and development is more complex than previously thought.

  12. Dynamic association between negative affect and alcohol lapses following alcohol treatment.

    PubMed

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Villarroel, Nadia Aracelliz

    2009-08-01

    Clinical research has found a strong association between negative affect and returning to alcohol use after a period of abstinence. Yet little is known about the probability of a lapse given a particular level of negative affect or whether there is a reciprocal relationship between negative affect and alcohol use across time. The goal of the current study was to examine the association between negative affect and drinking behavior in the 1st year following alcohol treatment. The authors applied an associative latent transition analysis to the Project MATCH outpatient data (n = 952) and then replicated the model in the Project MATCH aftercare data (n = 774). Changes in drinking following treatment were significantly associated with current and prior changes in negative affect, and changes in negative affect were related to prior changes in drinking (effect size range = 0.13-0.33). The results supported the hypothesis that negative affect and alcohol lapses are dynamically linked and suggest that targeting the relationship between negative affect and alcohol use could greatly decrease the probability of lapses and improve alcohol treatment outcomes. PMID:19634957

  13. Glucose-lowering treatment of type 2 diabetes. Part II--Glucose-lowering drugs after metformin: a choice based largely on adverse effects.

    PubMed

    2015-05-01

    fractures and heart failure. The long-term adverse effects of gliptins are poorly documented and may include an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. These risks are not offset by any proven clinical efficacy; patients should therefore not be exposed to these drugs. When they are combined with metformin, two injectable GLP-1 analogues, exenatide and liraglutide, have a glucose-lowering potency similar to one or two daily insulin injections. They have the advantage of inducing weight loss, without increasing the risk of hypoglycaemia. Gastrointestinal adverse effects such as nausea are frequent at the beginning of treatment. A possible increase in the risk of pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer and thyroid cancer has not been ruled out. Gliflozins reduce HbA1c by 0.6-0.7% on average. These drugs are already known to have a burdensome adverse effect profile despite their relatively recent market introduction. There are also safety signals concerning serious long-term adverse effects. Patients should not be exposed to these risks. PMID:26034806

  14. Training of affect recognition in schizophrenia patients with violent offences: behavioral treatment effects and electrophysiological correlates.

    PubMed

    Luckhaus, Christian; Frommann, Nicole; Stroth, Sanna; Brinkmeyer, Jürgen; Wölwer, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Violent offenders with schizophrenia have a particularly poor performance level in facial affect recognition. Nineteen male schizophrenia patients, who had been committed to psychiatric hospital detention because of violent offences and lack of criminal responsibility, were recruited to receive the Training of Affect Recognition (TAR). Performance in the Pictures of Facial Affect (PFA)-test and event-related potentials (ERPs) were registered in a pre-post-treatment design. TAR was feasible with a very high treatment effect (Cohen's d = 1.88), which persisted for 2 months post-treatment. ERPs remained unchanged post- vs. pre-treatment, while low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) revealed activation decreases in left-hemispheric parietal-temporal-occipital regions at 172 msec and activation increases in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate at 250 msec. Possibly, violent offenders with schizophrenia are particularly amenable to TAR because of a high level of dysfunction at baseline. Post- vs. pre-treatment changes of neural activity (LORETA) may mirror a gain of efficiency in structural face decoding and a shift towards a more reflective mode of emotional face decoding, relying on increased frontal brain activity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) -data from another study further supports this notion. TAR treatment might enable subjects with schizophrenia and a disposition to violence to reach a higher degree of deliberation of their reactive behavior to facial affect stimuli.

  15. Selective mass treatment with ivermectin to control intestinal helminthiases and parasitic skin diseases in a severely affected population.

    PubMed Central

    Heukelbach, Jörg; Winter, Benedikt; Wilcke, Thomas; Muehlen, Marion; Albrecht, Stephan; de Oliveira, Fabíola Araújo Sales; Kerr-Pontes, Lígia Regina Sansigolo; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the short-term and long-term impact of selective mass treatment with ivermectin on the prevalence of intestinal helminthiases and parasitic skin diseases in an economically depressed community in north-east Brazil. METHODS: An intervention was carried out in a traditional fishing village in north-east Brazil where the population of 605 is heavily affected by ectoparasites and enteroparasites. The prevalence of intestinal helminths was determined by serial stool examination and the prevalence of parasitic skin diseases by clinical inspection. A total of 525 people out of a target population of 576 were treated at baseline. The majority of these were treated with ivermectin (200 microg/kg with a second dose given after 10 days). If ivermectin was contraindicated, participants were treated with albendazole or mebendazole for intestinal helminths or with topical deltamethrin for ectoparasites. Follow-up examinations were performed at 1 month and 9 months after treatment. FINDINGS: Prevalence rates of intestinal helminthiases before treatment and at 1 month and 9 months after mass treatment were: hookworm disease 28.5%, 16.4% and 7.7%; ascariasis 17.1%, 0.4% and 7.2%; trichuriasis 16.5%, 3.4% and 9.4%; strongyloidiasis 11.0%, 0.6% and 0.7%; and hymenolepiasis 0.6%; 0.4% and 0.5%, respectively. Prevalence rates of parasitic skin diseases before treatment and 1 month and 9 months after mass treatment were: active pediculosis 16.1%, 1.0% and 10.3%; scabies 3.8%, 1.0% and 1.5%; cutaneous larva migrans 0.7%, 0% and 0%; tungiasis 51.3%, 52.1% and 31.2%, respectively. Adverse events occurred in 9.4% of treatments. They were all of mild to moderate severity and were transient. CONCLUSION: Mass treatment with ivermectin was an effective and safe means of reducing the prevalence of most of the parasitic diseases prevalent in a poor community in north-east Brazil. The effects of treatment lasted for a prolonged period of time. PMID:15375445

  16. Calcification rates of the Caribbean reef-building coral Siderastrea siderea adversely affected by both seawater warming and CO2-induced ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, K. M.; Connolly, B. D.; Westfield, I. T.; Chow, E.; Castillo, K. D.; Ries, J. B.

    2013-05-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts that atmospheric pCO2 will increase to ca. 550-950 ppm by the end of the century, primarily due to the anthropogenic combustion of fossil fuels, deforestation, and cement production. This is predicted to cause SST to increase by 1-3 °C and seawater pH to decrease by 0.1-0.3 units. Laboratory studies have shown that warming depresses calcification rates of scleractinian corals and that acidification yields mixed effects on coral calcification. With both warming and ocean acidification predicted for the next century, we must constrain the interactive effects of these two CO2-induced stressors on scleractinian coral calcification. Here, we present the results of experiments designed to assess the response of the scleractinian coral Siderastrea siderea to both ocean warming and acidification. Coral fragments (12/tank) were reared for 60 days under three temperatures (25.1± 0.02 °C, 28.0± 0.02 °C, 31.8± 0.02 °C) at near modern pCO2 (436 ± 7) and near the highest IPCC estimate for atmospheric pCO2 for the year 2100 AD (883 ± 16). Each temperature and pCO2 treatment was executed in triplicate and contained similarly sized S. Siderea fragments obtained from the same suite of coral colonies equitably distributed amongst the nearshore, backreef, and forereef zones of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System off the coast of southern Belize. Individual coral fragments were hand fed Artemia sp. to satiation twice weekly. Weekly seawater samples (250 ml) were collected and analyzed for dissolved inorganic carbon via coulometry and total alkalinity via closed-cell potentiometric titration. Seawater pCO2, pH, carbonate ion concentration, bicarbonate ion concentration, aqueous CO2, and aragonite saturation state (ΩA) were calculated with the program CO2SYS. Under near-modern atmospheric pCO2 of ca. 436 ± 7 ppm, seawater warming from 25 to 28 to 32°C caused coral calcification rates (estimated from change in

  17. Cigarette smoking adversely affects disease activity and disease-specific quality of life in patients with Crohn’s disease at a tertiary referral center

    PubMed Central

    Quezada, Sandra M; Langenberg, Patricia; Cross, Raymond K

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Smoking has a negative impact on disease activity in Crohn’s disease (CD). Smoking may also affect the quality of life, but this has not been evaluated using validated measures over time. We assessed the relationship between smoking and disease-specific quality of life over time in a tertiary referral inflammatory bowel disease cohort. Patients and methods Retrospective cohort study from July 2004 to July 2009 in patients with CD identified from the University of Maryland, Baltimore, Institutional Review Board-approved University of Maryland School of Medicine Inflammatory Bowel Disease Program database. Smoking status was classified as current, former, and never. Age was categorized as <40 years, 40–59 years, and ≥60 years. Index visit disease activity and quality of life was measured with the Harvey–Bradshaw index, and the Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (SIBDQ). Repeated measures linear regression was used to assess the association between smoking and quality of life over time after adjustment for confounding variables. Results A total of 608 patients were included, of whom 42% were male; 80% were Caucasian; 22% were current smokers; 24% were former smokers; and 54% were never smokers. Over time, adjusted Harvey–Bradshaw index scores declined in all patients, but current smokers had consistently higher scores. After adjustment for sex, age, and disease duration, never smokers had higher mean SIBDQ scores at index visit compared to former and current smokers (P<0.0001); all increased over time but SIBDQ scores for never smokers remained consistently highest. Conclusion Smoking has a negative impact on disease activity and quality of life in patients with CD. Prospects of improved disease activity and quality of life should be proposed as an additional incentive to encourage smoking cessation in patients with CD. PMID:27703391

  18. Attachment and affect regulation: a framework for family treatment of conduct disorder.

    PubMed

    Keiley, Margaret K

    2002-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD), a pervasive adolescent disorder with clinically significant antisocial behaviors, has been a difficult syndrome to treat successfully. Recently, research on affect regulation and attachment has suggested that attachment and affect regulation strategies may underlie the development of conduct disorder in adolescents, implying that attention to these factors might improve family treatment for CD. In this review of the research literature, I discuss the role of attachment and affect regulation in the development and treatment of CD. In addition, I present information about the framework, intervention protocol, and preliminary evidence of effectiveness of an attachment- and affect regulation-based intervention that has been developed and implemented with multiple-family groups of parents and incarcerated adolescents.

  19. Persistence of DNMT3A R882 mutations during remission does not adversely affect outcomes of patients with acute myeloid leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Bhavana; Eisfeld, Ann-Kathrin; Nicolet, Deedra; Mrózek, Krzysztof; Blachly, James S.; Orwick, Shelley; Lucas, David M.; Kohlschmidt, Jessica; Blum, William; Kolitz, Jonathan E.; Stone, Richard M.; Bloomfield, Clara D.; Byrd, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Somatic mutation of the DNMT3A gene at the arginine R882 site is common in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). The prognostic significance of DNMT3A R882 mutation clearance, using traditional diagnostic next generation sequencing (NGS) methods, during complete remission (CR) in AML patients is controversial. We examined the impact of clearing DNMT3A R882 mutations at diagnosis to the detectable threshold of <3% during CR on outcome in 56 adult AML patients. Mutational remission, defined as clearance of pre-treatment DNMT3A R882 and all other AML-associated mutations to a variant allele frequency <3%, occurred in 14 patients whereas persistent DNMT3A R882 mutations were observed in 42 patients. There were no significant differences in disease-free or overall survival between patients with and without DNMT3A R882 mutation clearance. Patients with persistent DNMT3A R882 who cleared all other AML mutations and did not acquire new mutations (n = 30), trended towards longer disease-free survival (1·6 vs. 0·6 years, P = 0·06) than patients with persistence of DNMT3A R882, in addition to other mutations or acquisition of new AML-associated mutations, such as those in TET2, JAK2, ASXL1 and TP53 (n = 12). These data demonstrate that DNMT3A R882 mutations, as assessed by traditional NGS methods, persist in the majority of AML patients in CR. PMID:27476855

  20. Characterization and management of dermatologic adverse events with the NovoTTF-100A System, a novel anti-mitotic electric field device for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Lacouture, Mario E; Davis, Mary Elizabeth; Elzinga, Grace; Butowski, Nicholas; Tran, David; Villano, John L; DiMeglio, Lucianna; Davies, Angela M; Wong, Eric T

    2014-06-01

    The NovoTTF-100A System (NovoTTF™ Therapy, Novocure Inc.) is a device that delivers alternating electric fields (TTFields) to tumor cells and interferes with mitosis. It is approved for use as monotherapy for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma (rGB). TTFields are delivered through insulated transducer arrays applied onto the shaved scalp and connected to a battery-operated field generator. The occurrence of dermatologic adverse events (dAEs) is primarily due to the continuous contact between the array-related components and the scalp for periods of 3-4 days (together with other risk factors). These dAEs may include allergic and irritant dermatitis, mechanical lesions, ulcers, and skin infection. The incidence of dAEs in the phase III trial (n = 116) was 16% (2% grade 2, 0% grade 3/4); the post-marketing surveillance program (n = 570) revealed 156 (21.8%) dAEs with some patients reporting more than one event. Prophylactic strategies for dAEs include proper shaving and cleansing of the scalp and array relocation. Treatment-based strategies are AE-specific and include topical or oral antibiotics, topical corticosteroids, and isolation of affected skin areas from adhesives and pressure. The addition of skin care strategies to the NovoTTF-100A System use will maximize adherence to therapy while maintaining quality of life, all of which contribute to the therapeutic benefit of NovoTTF Therapy in rGB. PMID:24794308

  1. A case of hydroxyurea-induced leg ulcer after definitive treatment suspension in a patient affected by thrombocythemia: effectiveness of a new collagenase.

    PubMed

    Fioramonti, Paolo; Fino, Pasquale; Parisi, Paola; Scuderi, Nicolo; Onesti, Maria G

    2012-01-01

    Hydroxyurea (HU) is an antitumor agent effective in the treatment of myeloproliferative disorders. It is usually well-tolerated and has low toxicity but its use is associated with several adverse cutaneous effects. Among them, leg ulcers have been noted in association with long-term administration. Poor response to traditional local and systemic therapy is a typical feature of HU-induced leg ulcers, and discontinuation of the drug is often required to achieve complete wound healing. We present a case of circumferential HU-induced leg ulcer in a patient affected by essential thrombocythemia, in which the lesion occured after the definitive suspension of the treatment. We propose a conservative management with a new collagenase (Bionect Start®) for skin lesions in this type of patient, for whom a surgical treatment could be more complicated, due to the underlying disease.

  2. Hydrologic Treatments Affect Gaseous Carbon Loss From Organic Soils, Twitchell Island, California, October 1995-December 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Robin L.; Hastings, Lauren; Fujii, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Subsidence of organic soils in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, has increased the potential for levee failure and flooding in the region. Because oxidation of the peat soils is a primary cause of subsidence, reversion of affected lands to wetlands has been proposed as a mitigation tool. To test this hypothesis, three 10 x 10 meter enclosures were built on Twitchell Island in the Delta and managed as different wetland habitats. Emissions of carbon dioxide and methane were measured in situ from October 1995 through December 1997, from the systems that developed under the different water-management treatments. Treatments included a seasonal control (SC) under current island management conditions; reverse flooding (RF), where the land is intentionally flooded from early dry season until midsummer; permanent shallow flooding (F); and a more deeply flooded, open-water (OW) treatment. Hydrologic treatments affected microbial processes, plant community and temperature dynamics which, in turn, affected carbon cycling. Water-management treatments with a period of flooding significantly decreased gaseous carbon emissions compared to the seasonal control. Permanent flooding treatments showed significantly higher methane fluxes than treatments with some period of aerobic conditions. Shallow flooding treatments created conditions that support cattail [Typha species (spp.)] marshes, while deep flooding precluded emergent vegetation. Carbon inputs to the permanent shallow flooding treatment tended to be greater than the measured losses. This suggests that permanent shallow flooding has the greatest potential for managing subsidence of these soils by generating organic substrate more rapidly than is lost through decomposition. Carbon input estimates of plant biomass compared to measurements of gaseous carbon losses indicate the potential for mitigation of subsidence through hydrologic management of the organic soils in the area.

  3. Coding of adverse events of suicidality in clinical study reports of duloxetine for the treatment of major depressive disorder: descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Tendal, Britta; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Lundh, Andreas; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of coding and coding conventions on summaries and tabulations of adverse events data on suicidality within clinical study reports. Design Systematic electronic search for adverse events of suicidality in tables, narratives, and listings of adverse events in individual patients within clinical study reports. Where possible, for each event we extracted the original term reported by the investigator, the term as coded by the medical coding dictionary, medical coding dictionary used, and the patient’s trial identification number. Using the patient’s trial identification number, we attempted to reconcile data on the same event between the different formats for presenting data on adverse events within the clinical study report. Setting 9 randomised placebo controlled trials of duloxetine for major depressive disorder submitted to the European Medicines Agency for marketing approval. Data sources Clinical study reports obtained from the EMA in 2011. Results Six trials used the medical coding dictionary COSTART (Coding Symbols for a Thesaurus of Adverse Reaction Terms) and three used MedDRA (Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities). Suicides were clearly identifiable in all formats of adverse event data in clinical study reports. Suicide attempts presented in tables included both definitive and provisional diagnoses. Suicidal ideation and preparatory behaviour were obscured in some tables owing to the lack of specificity of the medical coding dictionary, especially COSTART. Furthermore, we found one event of suicidal ideation described in narrative text that was absent from tables and adverse event listings of individual patients. The reason for this is unclear, but may be due to the coding conventions used. Conclusion Data on adverse events in tables in clinical study reports may not accurately represent the underlying patient data because of the medical dictionaries and coding conventions used. In clinical study reports, the

  4. How will surface treatments affect the translucency of porcelain laminate veneers?

    PubMed Central

    Turgut, Sedanur; Ayaz, Elif Aydogan; Korkmaz, Fatih Mehmet; Ulusoy, Kıvanç Utku; Bagis, Yildirim Hakan

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether surface treatments affect the translucency of laminate veneers with different shades and thicknesses. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 224 disc-shaped ceramic veneers were prepared from A1, A3, HT (High Translucent) and HO (High Opaque) shades of IPS e.max Press (Ivoclar Vivadent) with 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm thicknesses. The ceramics were divided into four groups for surface treatments. Group C: no surface treatments; Group HF: etched with hydrofluoric acid; Group SB: sandblasted with 50-µm Al2O3; and Group L; irradiated with an Er;YAG laser. A translucent shade of resin cement (Rely X Veneer, 3M ESPE) was chosen for cementation. The color values of the veneers were measured with a colorimeter and translucency parameter (TP) values were calculated. A three-way ANOVA with interactions for TP values was performed and Bonferroni tests were used when appropriate (α=0.05). RESULTS There were significant interactions between the surface treatments, ceramic shades and thicknesses (P=.001). For the 0.5-mm-thick specimens there were significant differences after the SB and L treatments. There was no significant difference between the HF and C treatments for any shades or thicknesses (P>.05). For the 1-mm-thick ceramics, there was only a significant difference between the L and C treatments for the HT shade ceramics (P=.01). There were also significant differences between the SB and C treatments except not for the HO shades (P=.768). CONCLUSION The SB and L treatments caused laminate veneers to become more opaque; however, HF treatment did not affect the TP values. When the laminate veneers were thinner, both the shade of the ceramic and the SB and laser treatments had a greater effect on the TP values. PMID:24605200

  5. Complex treatment of trophic affections with vascular patients using monochromatic red light and hyperbaric oxygenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babkina, Zinaida M.; Vasilyev, Mikhail V.; Zakharov, Vyacheslav P.; Nikolayev, Viktor V.; Babkin, Vasily I.; Samoday, Valery G.; Zon, Boris A.; Pakhomov, Gennady V.; Naskidashvili, Vasily I.; Kumin, Anatoly A.

    1996-11-01

    Monochromatic red light irradiation therapy of trophic skin affections with vascular patients permits to receive positive results with small wounds. A combination of monochromatic red light and hyperbaric oxygenation is most perspective when conducting a complex therapy of trophic wounds not more than 40 mm2 and allows to diminish time of treatment almost two times.

  6. Adverse ocular reactions to drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Spiteri, M. A.; James, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    Drugs acting on various parts of the body may also affect the eye insidiously. Increased awareness of such drug toxicity by the prescribing doctor should encourage him to consider effects on the cornea, lens, retina, optic nerve and elsewhere when checking the patient's progress. The following review concerns adverse ocular effects of systemic drug administration. PMID:6356101

  7. Adverse reactions to antiepileptic drugs: a follow-up study of 355 patients with chronic antiepileptic drug treatment. Collaborative Group for Epidemiology of Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    Three hundred fifty-five patients receiving chronic antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment were followed in 15 university and hospital centers for an average of 11 months to assess the effects of intensive monitoring of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) on the frequency of reports and on the overall management of epilepsy. One hundred forty-eight patients (41.6%) had one or more ADRs during the entire follow-up period. ADRs were reported by 31% of patients at admission and by 20% at last visit, with a downward trend in the number of reports. Concurrently, the number of patients who were seizure-free rose from 24.5 to 42.8%. During the observation period, the number of prescriptions fell from 640 to 568, mostly for phenobarbital (PB), phenytoin (PHT), and valproate (VPA). The outcome of the most common ADR was only partially related to drug changes. Even with the limitations of the unstandardized criteria used for ADR reporting, the present study shows that intensive monitoring of drug-related clinical events is not only a valuable tool to provide a comprehensive survey of drug toxicity in clinical practice, but is also an educational effort to improve the quality of care for patients with epilepsy. PMID:3191896

  8. Patient-reported adverse effects of high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone treatment: a prospective web-based multi-center study in multiple sclerosis patients with a relapse.

    PubMed

    Jongen, Peter Joseph; Stavrakaki, Ioanna; Voet, Bernard; Hoogervorst, Erwin; van Munster, Erik; Linssen, Wim H; Sinnige, Ludovicus G; Verhagen, Wim I; Visser, Leo H; van der Kruijk, Ruud; Verheul, Freek; Boringa, Jan; Heerings, Marco; Gladdines, Werner; Lönnqvist, Fredrik; Gaillard, Pieter

    2016-08-01

    In a prospective multi-center observational study, we evaluated the frequency, severity, and impact on activities of daily living (ADL) of adverse effects (AEs) of high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone (IVMP) in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with a relapse. Online self-report questionnaires stating IVMP's most common AEs were completed at baseline, the 2nd day of treatment, and 1 day and 1 week after treatment. Eighty-five patients were included, 66 completed the baseline questionnaire, and 59 completed at least one post-baseline questionnaire. Patients reported on average 4 (median) AEs; two (3.4 %) reported no AE. Most frequent was change in taste (61 %), facial flushing (61 %), sick/stomach pain (53 %), sleep disturbance (44 %), appetite change (37 %), agitation (36 %), and behavioral changes (36 %). Of all AEs, 34.3 % were severe and 37.9 % impacted on ADL. A 3-day course resulted in 4 (median) AEs and a 5-day course in 7. All patients with high disease impact had two or more AEs, compared with 79 % of those with low impact (p < 0.01). Of patients with high disability, 45 % had severe AEs, compared with 16 % of those with low disability. Severe central nervous system (CNS)-related AEs occurred two times more frequently in patients with high disease impact, and two-and-a-half times more frequently in patients with high disability. Therefore, in virtually all patients, high-dose IVMP leads to AEs, with about one of three AEs being severe with impact on ADL. Patients with high disease impact or high disability may experience more (severe) AEs, due to a higher occurrence of severe CNS-related AEs. PMID:27272956

  9. Clinical picture, epidemiology and outcome of Loa-associated serious adverse events related to mass ivermectin treatment of onchocerciasis in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Boussinesq, Michel; Gardon, Jacques; Gardon-Wendel, Nathalie; Chippaux, Jean-Philippe

    2003-01-01

    In August 2002, 65 cases of Loa-associated neurological Serious Adverse Events were reported after ivermectin treatment. The first signs, occurring within the 12–24 hours following treatment, included fatigue, generalized arthralgia, and sometimes agitation, mutism, and incontinence. Disorders of consciousness, including coma, generally appeared between 24 and 72 hours, and showed a rapid variation with time. The most frequent objective neurological signs were extrapyramidal. The patients presented with haemorrhages of the conjunctiva and of the retina. Biological examinations showed a massive Loa microfilaruria, the passage of Loa microfilariae into the cerebrospinal fluid, haematuria, and an increase in the C-reactive protein, all of which have been correlated with the high intensity of the initial Loa microfilaraemia. Eosinophil counts decreased dramatically within the first 24 hours, and then rose again rapidly. Electroencephalograms suggested the existence of a diffuse pathological process within the first weeks; the abnormalities disappearing after 3–6 months. Death may occur when patients are not properly managed, i.e. in the absence of good nursing. However, some patients who recovered showed sequelae such as aphasia, episodic amnesia, or extrapyramidal signs. The main risk factor for these encephalopathies is the intensity of the initial Loa microfilaraemia. The disorders of consciousness may occur when there are >50,000 Loa microfilariae per ml. The possible roles of co-factors, such as Loa strains, genetic predisposition of individuals, co-infestations with other parasites, or alcohol consumption, seem to be minor but they should be considered. The mechanisms of the post-ivermectin Loa-related encephalopathies should be investigated to improve the management of patients developing the condition. PMID:14975061

  10. Sitagliptin treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes does not affect CD4+ T-cell activation.

    PubMed

    White, Perrin C; Chamberlain-Shea, Heidi; de la Morena, Maria-Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4) inhibitors have recently become widely used for treating type 2 diabetes, but in meta-analyses are associated with a mildly increased risk of all-cause infections. CD26 is a cell-surface form of DPP4 which can costimulate T-cell proliferation, raising the possibility that DPP4 inhibitors might adversely affect immune function. To address this issue in an observational study, two groups of 20 subjects each were recruited from a private endocrinology practice; one group consisted of type 2 diabetes patients treated for at least 6 months with the DPP4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, whereas patients in the other group had never been treated with this agent. The groups were similar with regard to sex and racial composition, body mass index, hemoglobin A(1c), and use of other medications for diabetes, but the sitagliptin group was slightly older. A blood sample from each patient was analyzed for CD4+ T-cell activation in response to phytohemagglutinin using adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-stimulated bioluminescence. There was not a significant difference in T-cell activation between the treatment groups (median, 419 and 481 ng/ml ATP in the groups that were and were not treated with sitagliptin, respectively). Thus the observed increased rate of infection in diabetic patients treated with sitagliptin cannot be explained by a major effect on T-cell activation. Randomized studies, preferably using several assays of immune function, should be performed to confirm and extend these findings.

  11. Relationships of Childhood Adverse Experiences With Mental Health and Quality of Life at Treatment Start for Adult Refugees Traumatized by Pre-Flight Experiences of War and Human Rights Violations

    PubMed Central

    Opaas, Marianne; Varvin, Sverre

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adverse and potentially traumatic experiences (PTEs) in childhood were examined among 54 adult refugee patients with pre-flight PTEs of war and human rights violations (HRVs) and related to mental health and quality of life at treatment start. Extent of childhood PTEs was more strongly related to mental health and quality of life than the extent of war and HRV experiences. Childhood PTEs were significantly related to arousal and avoidance symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to quality of life, whereas pre-flight war and HRV experiences were significantly related to reexperiencing symptoms of PTSD only. Within childhood adversities, experiences of family violence and external violence, but not of loss and illness, were significantly related to increased mental health symptoms and reduced quality of life. These results point to the importance of taking childhood adverse experiences into account in research and treatment planning for adult refugees with war and HRVs trauma. PMID:26103604

  12. Relationships of Childhood Adverse Experiences With Mental Health and Quality of Life at Treatment Start for Adult Refugees Traumatized by Pre-Flight Experiences of War and Human Rights Violations.

    PubMed

    Opaas, Marianne; Varvin, Sverre

    2015-09-01

    Adverse and potentially traumatic experiences (PTEs) in childhood were examined among 54 adult refugee patients with pre-flight PTEs of war and human rights violations (HRVs) and related to mental health and quality of life at treatment start. Extent of childhood PTEs was more strongly related to mental health and quality of life than the extent of war and HRV experiences. Childhood PTEs were significantly related to arousal and avoidance symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to quality of life, whereas pre-flight war and HRV experiences were significantly related to reexperiencing symptoms of PTSD only. Within childhood adversities, experiences of family violence and external violence, but not of loss and illness, were significantly related to increased mental health symptoms and reduced quality of life. These results point to the importance of taking childhood adverse experiences into account in research and treatment planning for adult refugees with war and HRVs trauma. PMID:26103604

  13. Relationships of Childhood Adverse Experiences With Mental Health and Quality of Life at Treatment Start for Adult Refugees Traumatized by Pre-Flight Experiences of War and Human Rights Violations.

    PubMed

    Opaas, Marianne; Varvin, Sverre

    2015-09-01

    Adverse and potentially traumatic experiences (PTEs) in childhood were examined among 54 adult refugee patients with pre-flight PTEs of war and human rights violations (HRVs) and related to mental health and quality of life at treatment start. Extent of childhood PTEs was more strongly related to mental health and quality of life than the extent of war and HRV experiences. Childhood PTEs were significantly related to arousal and avoidance symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to quality of life, whereas pre-flight war and HRV experiences were significantly related to reexperiencing symptoms of PTSD only. Within childhood adversities, experiences of family violence and external violence, but not of loss and illness, were significantly related to increased mental health symptoms and reduced quality of life. These results point to the importance of taking childhood adverse experiences into account in research and treatment planning for adult refugees with war and HRVs trauma.

  14. Vaccine Adverse Events

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability ( ... Center for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  15. Reverse Engineering Adverse Outcome Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, Edward; Chipman, J.K.; Edwards, Stephen; Habib, Tanwir; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Ronald C.; Van Aggelen, Graham; Vulpe, Chris; Antczak, Philipp; Loguinov, Alexandre

    2011-01-30

    The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or poorly characterized, mechanisms of action. We describe the application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, metabolic, signaling) to characterize adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis in fathead minnows. Gene expression changes in fathead minnow ovaries in response to 7 different chemicals, over different times, doses, and in vivo versus in vitro conditions were captured in a large data set of 868 arrays. We examined potential AOPs of the antiandrogen flutamide using two mutual information theory methods, ARACNE and CLR to infer gene regulatory networks and potential adverse outcome pathways. Representative networks from these studies were used to predict a network path from stressor to adverse outcome as a candidate AOP. The relationship of individual chemicals to an adverse outcome can be determined by following perturbations through the network in response to chemical treatment leading to the nodes associated with the adverse outcome. Identification of candidate pathways allows for formation of testable hypotheses about key biologic processes, biomarkers or alternative endpoints, which could be used to monitor an adverse outcome pathway. Finally, we identify the unique challenges facing the application of this approach in ecotoxicology, and attempt to provide a road map for the utilization of these tools. Key Words: mechanism of action, toxicology, microarray, network inference

  16. Adverse effects of anabolic steroids.

    PubMed

    Hickson, R C; Ball, K L; Falduto, M T

    1989-01-01

    Anabolic steroids are used therapeutically for various disorders and as ergogenic aids by athletes to augment strength, muscular development, and to enhance performance. There is a wide range of concomitant temporary and permanent adverse effects with steroid administration. Several well-documented adverse actions of these hormones may develop rapidly within several weeks or less (i.e. altered reproductive function) or require up to several years of steroid intake (i.e. liver carcinoma). More recent studies indicate that glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, increased cardiovascular disease risk profiles, cerebral dangers, musculoskeletal injuries, prostate cancer, psychosis and schizophrenic episodes, among others, accompany anabolic steroid intake. There is, at present, no evidence to support the claim that athletes are less susceptible to adverse effects than those individuals receiving hormone treatment in a clinical setting. Based on the available information which has accumulated primarily from cross-sectional, short term longitudinal, and case studies, there is a need: (a) to develop a comprehensive battery of specific and sensitive markers of adverse effects, particularly those that would be able to detect the onset of adverse actions; and (b) to conduct controlled long term longitudinal studies in order to fully understand the extensiveness and mechanisms involved in the occurrence of adverse effects.

  17. Er:YAG Laser Dental Treatment of Patients Affected by Epidermolysis Bullosa

    PubMed Central

    Galeotti, Angela; D'Antò, Vincenzo; Gentile, Tina; Giancristoforo, Simona; Romeo, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Er:YAG laser used for treating hard dental tissue in patients with epidermolysis bullosa (EB). Methods. We report two cases of EB in which an Er:YAG laser was used for conservative treatments. In the first case, the Er:YAG laser (2,940 μm, 265 mJ, 25 Hz) was used to treat caries on a deciduous maxillary canine in an 8-year-old male patient affected by dystrophic EB. In the second case, we treated a 26-year-old female patient, affected by junctional EB, with generalized enamel hypoplasia, and an Er:YAG laser (2,940 μm, 265 mJ, 25 Hz) was used to remove the damaged enamel on maxillary incisors. Results. The use of the Er:YAG laser, with the appropriate energy, was effective in the selective removal of carious tissue and enamel hypoplasia. During dental treatment with the Er:YAG laser, patients required only a few interruptions due to the absence of pain, vibration, and noise. Conclusions. Laser treatment of hard dental tissues is a valuable choice for patients affected by EB since it is less invasive compared to conventional treatment, resulting in improved patient compliance. PMID:25431688

  18. Ischemic Compression After Trigger Point Injection Affect the Treatment of Myofascial Trigger Points

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo A; Oh, Ki Young; Choi, Won Hyuck

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of trigger point injection with or without ischemic compression in treatment of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle. Methods Sixty patients with active myofascial trigger points in upper trapezius muscle were randomly divided into three groups: group 1 (n=20) received only trigger point injections, group 2 (n=20) received trigger point injections with 30 seconds of ischemic compression, and group 3 (n=20) received trigger point injections with 60 seconds of ischemic compression. The visual analogue scale, pressure pain threshold, and range of motion of the neck were assessed before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 1 week after treatment. Korean Neck Disability Indexes were assessed before treatment and 1 week after treatment. Results We found a significant improvement in all assessment parameters (p<0.05) in all groups. But, receiving trigger point injections with ischemic compression group showed significant improvement as compared with the receiving only trigger point injections group. And no significant differences between receiving 30 seconds of ischemic compression group and 60 seconds of ischemic compression group. Conclusion This study demonstrated the effectiveness of ischemic compression for myofascial trigger point. Trigger point injections combined with ischemic compression shows better effects on treatment of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle than the only trigger point injections therapy. But the duration of ischemic compression did not affect treatment of myofascial trigger point. PMID:24020035

  19. Reversible Ototoxicity: A Rare Adverse Reaction of Liposomal Amphotericin-B Used for the Treatment of Antimony-Resistant Visceral Leishmaniasis in an Elderly Male

    PubMed Central

    Das, PC; Kandel, Ramesh; Sikka, Kapil; Dey, AB

    2014-01-01

    Amphotericin-B, a broad spectrum antifungal agent, has been known to cause adverse effects such as nephrotoxicity and infusion-related side effects such as fever, chills, rigor, and arthralgias. However, ototoxicity as an adverse effect of Amphotericin-B has not yet been reported in medical literature. We here report a case of a reversible form of ototoxicity induced by liposomal Amphotericin-B (L-AmB). PMID:25093006

  20. Factors affecting treatment adherence to atomoxetine in ADHD: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Treuer, Tamás; Méndez, Luis; Montgomery, William; Wu, Shenghu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the literature related to research about the factors affecting treatment adherence and discontinuation of atomoxetine in pediatric, adolescent, and adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Medline was systematically searched using the following prespecified terms: "ADHD", "Adherence", "Compliance", "Discontinuation", and "Atomoxetine". We identified 31 articles that met all inclusion and exclusion criteria. The findings from this review indicate that persistence and adherence to atomoxetine treatment were generally high. Factors found to influence adherence and nonadherence to atomoxetine treatment in ADHD in this review include age, sex, the definition of response used, length of treatment, initial dose of treatment, comorbid conditions, and reimbursement. Tolerability was cited as an important reason for treatment discontinuation. More research is needed to understand those factors that can help to identify patients at risk for poor adherence and interventions that could improve treatment adherence early in the stage of this illness to secure a better long-term prognosis.

  1. Factors affecting treatment adherence to atomoxetine in ADHD: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Treuer, Tamás; Méndez, Luis; Montgomery, William; Wu, Shenghu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the literature related to research about the factors affecting treatment adherence and discontinuation of atomoxetine in pediatric, adolescent, and adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Medline was systematically searched using the following prespecified terms: "ADHD", "Adherence", "Compliance", "Discontinuation", and "Atomoxetine". We identified 31 articles that met all inclusion and exclusion criteria. The findings from this review indicate that persistence and adherence to atomoxetine treatment were generally high. Factors found to influence adherence and nonadherence to atomoxetine treatment in ADHD in this review include age, sex, the definition of response used, length of treatment, initial dose of treatment, comorbid conditions, and reimbursement. Tolerability was cited as an important reason for treatment discontinuation. More research is needed to understand those factors that can help to identify patients at risk for poor adherence and interventions that could improve treatment adherence early in the stage of this illness to secure a better long-term prognosis. PMID:27217754

  2. Mechanisms of Behavioral and Affective Treatment Outcomes in a Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Boys.

    PubMed

    Burke, Jeffrey D; Loeber, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Evidence for effective treatment for behavioral problems continues to grow, yet evidence about the effective mechanisms underlying those interventions has lagged behind. The Stop Now and Plan (SNAP) program is a multicomponent intervention for boys between 6 and 11. This study tested putative treatment mechanisms using data from 252 boys in a randomized controlled trial of SNAP versus treatment as usual. SNAP includes a 3 month group treatment period followed by individualized intervention, which persisted through the 15 month study period. Measures were administered in four waves: at baseline and at 3, 9 and 15 months after baseline. A hierarchical linear modeling strategy was used. SNAP was associated with improved problem-solving skills, prosocial behavior, emotion regulation skills, and reduced parental stress. Prosocial behavior, emotion regulation skills and reduced parental stress partially mediated improvements in child aggression. Improved emotion regulation skills partially mediated treatment-related child anxious-depressed outcomes. Improvements in parenting behaviors did not differ between treatment conditions. The results suggest that independent processes may drive affective and behavioral outcomes, with some specificity regarding the mechanisms related to differing treatment outcomes.

  3. Factors affecting treatment adherence to atomoxetine in ADHD: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Treuer, Tamás; Méndez, Luis; Montgomery, William; Wu, Shenghu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the literature related to research about the factors affecting treatment adherence and discontinuation of atomoxetine in pediatric, adolescent, and adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Medline was systematically searched using the following prespecified terms: “ADHD”, “Adherence”, “Compliance”, “Discontinuation”, and “Atomoxetine”. We identified 31 articles that met all inclusion and exclusion criteria. The findings from this review indicate that persistence and adherence to atomoxetine treatment were generally high. Factors found to influence adherence and nonadherence to atomoxetine treatment in ADHD in this review include age, sex, the definition of response used, length of treatment, initial dose of treatment, comorbid conditions, and reimbursement. Tolerability was cited as an important reason for treatment discontinuation. More research is needed to understand those factors that can help to identify patients at risk for poor adherence and interventions that could improve treatment adherence early in the stage of this illness to secure a better long-term prognosis. PMID:27217754

  4. The direct and interactive effects of physical abuse severity and negative affectivity on length of psychiatric hospitalization: evidence of differential reactivity to adverse environments in psychiatrically high-risk youth.

    PubMed

    Comas, Michelle; Valentino, Kristin; Bridgett, David J; Hayden, Lisa C

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the interactive influence of multiple factors (i.e., physical abuse severity and negative affectivity) in predicting youth's inpatient psychiatric length of stay (LOS), extending previous research focused on identification of only single LOS predictors. Elevated physical abuse severity was hypothesized to predict longer youth LOS, and negative affectivity was anticipated to exacerbate this relationship. This study included 42 youth. Clinicians rated youth temperament, whereas physical abuse severity and LOS were coded from youth medical records. Controlling for other previously determined predictors of LOS (i.e., age, gender, and GAF), moderation analyses confirmed hypotheses, revealing a temperament by environment interaction. Specifically, physical abuse severity was positively associated with LOS only in the context of high negative affectivity. Findings highlighted the importance of disentangling the interactive effects of multiple factors in predicting LOS. Moreover, critical clinical implications involving prioritized trauma assessment and treatment for inpatient youth are discussed.

  5. Short-term oleoyl-estrone treatment affects capacity to manage lipids in rat adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Anna; Noé, Véronique; Ciudad, Carlos J; Romero, M Mar; Remesar, Xavier; Esteve, Montserrat

    2007-01-01

    Background Short-term OE (oleoyl-estrone) treatment causes significant decreases in rat weight mainly due to adipose tissue loss. The aim of this work was to determine if OE treatment affects the expression of genes that regulate lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue. Results Gene expression in adipose tissue from female treated rats (48 hours) was analysed by hybridization to cDNA arrays and levels of specific mRNAs were determined by real-time PCR. Treatment with OE decreased the expression of 232 genes and up-regulated 75 other genes in mesenteric white adipose tissue. The use of real-time PCR validate that, in mesenteric white adipose tissue, mRNA levels for Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) were decreased by 52%, those of Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS) by 95%, those of Hormone Sensible Lipase (HSL) by 32%, those of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (ACC) by 92%, those of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b) by 45%, and those of Fatty Acid Transport Protein 1 (FATP1) and Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein (FABP4) by 52% and 49%, respectively. Conversely, Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNFα) values showed overexpression (198%). Conclusion Short-term treatment with OE affects adipose tissue capacity to extract fatty acids from lipoproteins and to deal with fatty acid transport and metabolism. PMID:17725831

  6. Applications of Text Messaging, and Bibliotherapy for Treatment of Patients Affected by Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Taleban, Roya; Zamani, Ahmadreza; Moafi, Mohammad; Jiryaee, Nasrin; Khadivi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intensity of depressive symptoms could be exacerbated due to the paucity of appropriate treatments. We assessed the effectiveness of bibliotherapy and text messaging, which aimed at amelioration of patient's behavior and consciousness, which could lead to suicide prevention. Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial implemented in rural health centers of Isfahan district (Iran). Health centers were assigned in three trials consisting of the booklet, text messaging, and control groups. Each group consisted of 70 patients. Inclusion criteria were being affected by depressive symptom, <18 years, and cell phone accessibility. Mental retardation, drug and alcohol abuse, visual disability, dementia, suicide attempt history, electrotherapy, and receiving psychological interventions were our not met criteria. Our patient outcomes comprised intensity of depressive symptom and treatment compliance. The first two trials were requested to study instructive booklets in 30 days while the second cohort was demanded to study the booklet in accordance with the daily delivered text messaging. Results: Out of 210 individuals, 198 patients finished this study. The intensity of depressive symptom was significantly affected through time and group factors as well as time-group interaction (F = 12.30, P < 0.001). Based on treatment compliance, the interactive effect of group factor and the time factor was statistically significant. Conclusions: It seems that bibliotherapy could efficiently decrease the intensity of depressive symptoms. Nevertheless, in comparison with our booklet trial, the text messaging group achieved neither durable nor significant success; thus, bibliotherapy could be utilized as a complementary methodology aiming depression treatment. PMID:27076884

  7. Light treatment improves sleep quality and negative affectiveness in high arctic residents during winter.

    PubMed

    Paul, Michel A; Love, Ryan J; Hawton, Andrea; Brett, Kaighley; McCreary, Donald R; Arendt, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    The seasonal extremes of photoperiod in the high Arctic place particular strain on the human circadian system, which leads to trouble sleeping and increased feelings of negative affect in the winter months. To qualify for our study, potential participants had to have been at Canadian Forces Station (CFS) Alert (82° 30' 00″ N) for at least 2 weeks. Subjects filled out questionnaires regarding sleep difficulty, psychological well-being and mood and wore Actigraphs to obtain objective sleep data. Saliva was collected at regular intervals on two occasions, 2 weeks apart, to measure melatonin and assess melatonin onset. Individuals with a melatonin rhythm that was in disaccord with their sleep schedule were given individualized daily light treatment interventions based on their pretreatment salivary melatonin profile. The light treatment prescribed to seven of the twelve subjects was effective in improving sleep quality both subjectively, based on questionnaire results, and objectively, based on the actigraphic data. The treatment also caused a significant reduction in negative affect among the participants. Since the treatment is noninvasive and has minimal associated side effects, our results support the use of the light visors at CFS Alert and other northern outposts during the winter for individuals who are experiencing sleep difficulty or low mood. PMID:25580574

  8. How medical treatment affects mean platelet volume as a cardiovascular risk marker in polycystic ovary syndrome?

    PubMed

    Kabil Kucur, Suna; Gozukara, Ilay; Aksoy, Aysenur; Uludag, Eda U; Keskin, Havva; Kamalak, Zeynep; Carlioglu, Ayse

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent disease with many potential long-term metabolic and cardiovascular risks if not managed appropriately. Mean platelet volume (MPV) is a marker associated with adverse cardiovascular events. In this study, we aimed to investigate MPV levels under ethinyl estradiol/cyproterone acetate or metformin therapy for the previous 6 months in PCOS. A total of 114 individuals [metformin treatment (n = 18), ethinyl estradiol/cyproterone acetate treatment (n = 29), newly diagnosed PCOS patient with no treatment (n = 35), and control group of eumenorrheic healthy individuals (n = 32)] were included in the current study. Hematologic parameters other than MPV were similar in all groups. The MPV value was significantly higher in the newly diagnosed PCOS patients compared with the other three groups independent of age, BMI, and C-reactive protein level in multiple regression analysis (P < 0.01). The MPV value of control group was comparable to the groups under ethinyl estradiol/cyproterone acetate or metformin therapy (P = 1.0). There was no statistically significant difference in the white blood cell count among the groups. The MPV values were positively correlated with the homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance and Ferriman-Gallwey Score (P = 0.044, r = 0.261; P = 0.037, r = 0.229, respectively). Ethinyl estradiol/cyproterone acetate and metformin similarly appear to decrease MPV, a marker of cardiovascular risk. Therefore, a possible beneficial effect of ethinyl estradiol/cyproterone acetate and metformin on long-term cardiovascular morbidities in PCOS may be suggested.

  9. [Cutaneous adverse effects of TNFalpha antagonists].

    PubMed

    Failla, V; Sabatiello, M; Lebas, E; de Schaetzen, V; Dezfoulian, B; Nikkels, A F

    2012-01-01

    The TNFalpha antagonists, including adalimumab, etanercept and infliximab, represent a class of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs. Although cutaneous adverse effects are uncommon, they are varied. There is no particular risk profile to develop cutaneous adverse effects. The principal acute side effects are injection site reactions and pruritus. The major long term cutaneous side effects are infectious and inflammatory conditions. Neoplastic skin diseases are exceptional. The association with other immunosuppressive agents can increase the risk of developing cutaneous adverse effects. Some adverse effects, such as lupus erythematosus, require immediate withdrawal of the biological treatment, while in other cases temporary withdrawal is sufficient. The majority of the other cutaneous adverse effects can be dealt without interrupting biologic treatment. Preclinical and clinical investigations revealed that the new biologics, aiming IL12/23, IL23 and IL17, present a similar profile of cutaneous adverse effects, although inflammatory skin reactions may be less often encountered compared to TNFalpha antagonists.

  10. Pre-treatment with puerarin affects pharmacokinetics of warfarin, but not clopidogrel, in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, An-Chang; Zhao, Li-Xia; Yu, Shu-Wen; Lou, Hong-Xiang

    2015-04-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effects of puerarin pre-treatment on the pharmacokinetics of the oral anticoagulant agent warfarin and the antiplatelet agent clopidogrel in rats. In the treatment group, rats was gavaged with warfarin or clopidogrel after repeated treatment with puerarin at intraperitoneal doses of 20, 60, or 200 mg·kg(-1) for 7 days, while rats in the control group were administrated only with the same dose warfarin or clopidogrel. Plasma samples were obtained at the prescribed times and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results showed that rats treated with puerarin at all the test doses of 20, 60 and 200 mg·kg(-1) were found to affect the pharmacokinetics of warfarin, but not clopidogrel, suggesting a potential herb-drug interaction between puerarin and warfarin. PMID:25908622

  11. State of the art psychopharmacological treatment options in seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Mesut; Batmaz, Sedat; Songur, Emrah; Oral, Esat Timuçin

    2016-03-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is defined as a subtype of mood disorders in DSM 5, and it is characterized by a seasonal onset. SAD is proposed to be related to the seasonal changes in naturally occurring light, and the use of bright light therapy for depressive symptoms has been shown to reduce them in placebo controlled trials. Cognitive behavioral therapy has also been demonstrated to be effective in SAD. This review article aims to focus on the psychopharmacological treatment options for SAD. According to clinical trial results, first line treatment options seem to be sertraline and fluoxetine, and are well tolerated by the patients. There is some evidence that other antidepressants (e.g. bupropion) might be effective as well. Although clinical trials have shown that some of these antidepressants may be of benefit, a recent review has concluded that there is not enough evidence to support the use of any of these agents for the treatment of SAD yet. Moreover, more studies are still needed to evaluate the effectiveness of other treatment options, e.g., propranolol, melatonin, hypericum, etc. In addition to the above proposed treatments, patients with seasonal depressive symptoms should thoroughly be evaluated for any cues of bipolarity, and their treatment should be planned accordingly.

  12. Prepubertal tamoxifen treatment affects development of heifer reproductive tissues and related signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Al Naib, A; Tucker, H L M; Xie, G; Keisler, D H; Bartol, F F; Rhoads, R P; Akers, R M; Rhoads, M L

    2016-07-01

    Prepubertal exposure of the developing ovaries and reproductive tract (RT) to estrogen or xenoestrogens can have acute and long-term consequences that compromise the reproductive performance of cattle. This research examined effects of the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen (TAM) on gene and protein abundance in prepubertal ovaries and RT, with a particular focus on signaling pathways that affect morphology. Tamoxifen was administered to Holstein heifer calves (n=8) daily (0.3mg/kg subcutaneously) from 28 to 120 d of age, when tissues were collected. Control calves (n=7) received an equal volume of excipient. Weight, gross measurements, and samples of reproductive tissues were collected, and protein and mRNA were extracted from snap-frozen samples of vagina, cervix, uterus, oviduct, ovary, and liver. Neither estradiol nor insulin-like growth factor I (IGFI) concentrations in the serum were affected by TAM treatment. Tamoxifen treatment reduced ovarian weight independently from effects on antral follicle populations, as there was no difference in visible antral follicle numbers on the day of collection. Estrogen receptor α (ESR1) and β (ESR2) mRNA, ESR1 protein, IGFI, progesterone receptor, total growth hormone receptor, WNT4, WNT5A, and WNT7A mRNA, in addition to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphorylated MAPK proteins were affected differently depending on the tissue examined. However, neither IGFI receptor mRNA nor protein abundance were affected by TAM treatment. Results indicate that reproductive development in prepubertal Holstein heifer calves is TAM-sensitive, and that bovine RT and ovarian development are supported, in part, by estrogen receptor-dependent mechanisms during the period studied here. Potential long-term consequences of such developmental disruption remain to be defined. PMID:27085397

  13. B-cell depletion inhibits arthritis in a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model, but does not adversely affect humoral responses in a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccination model.

    PubMed

    Dunussi-Joannopoulos, Kyri; Hancock, Gerald E; Kunz, Arthur; Hegen, Martin; Zhou, Xiaochuan X; Sheppard, Barbara J; Lamothe, Jennifer; Li, Evelyn; Ma, Hak-Ling; Hamann, Philip R; Damle, Nitin K; Collins, Mary

    2005-10-01

    We report the development of a mouse B cell-depleting immunoconjugate (anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody [mAb] conjugated to calicheamicin) and its in vivo use to characterize the kinetics of CD22+ B-cell depletion and reconstitution in murine primary and secondary lymphoid tissues. The effect of B-cell depletion was further studied in a murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model and a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccination model. Our results show that (1) the immunoconjugate has B-cell-specific in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity; (2) B-cell reconstitution starts in the bone marrow and spleen around day 30 after depletion and is completed in all tissues tested by day 50; (3) B-cell depletion inhibits the development of clinical and histologic arthritis in the CIA model; (4) depletion of type II collagen antibody levels is not necessary for clinical and histologic prevention of CIA; and (5) B-cell depletion does not adversely affect memory antibody responses after challenge nor clearance of infectious virus from lungs in the RSV vaccination model. These results demonstrate for the first time that only B-cell reduction but not type II collagen antibody levels correlate with the prevention of arthritis and represent key insights into the role of CD22-targeted B-cell depletion in mouse autoimmunity and vaccination models.

  14. Facial affect processing deficits in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis of antipsychotic treatment effects

    PubMed Central

    Kempton, Matthew J; Mehta, Mitul A

    2015-01-01

    Social cognition, including emotion processing, is a recognised deficit observed in patients with schizophrenia. It is one cognitive domain which has been emphasised as requiring further investigation, with the efficacy of antipsychotic treatment on this deficit remaining unclear. Nine studies met our criteria for entry into a meta-analysis of the effects of medication on facial affect processing, including data from 1162 patients and six antipsychotics. Overall we found a small, positive effect (Hedge’s g = 0.13, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.21, p = 0.002). In a subgroup analysis this was statistically significant for atypical, but not typical, antipsychotics. It should be noted that the pooled sample size of the typical subgroup was significantly lower than the atypical. Meta-regression analyses revealed that age, gender and changes in symptom severity were not moderating factors. For the small, positive effect on facial affect processing, the clinical significance is questionable in terms of treating deficits in emotion identification in schizophrenia. We show that antipsychotic medications are poor at improving facial affect processing compared to reducing symptoms. This highlights the need for further investigation into the neuropharmacological mechanisms associated with accurate emotion processing, to inform treatment options for these deficits in schizophrenia. PMID:25492885

  15. In-vitro fertilisation treatment: factors affecting its results and outcome.

    PubMed

    Qublan, H S; Malkawi, H Y; Tahat, Y A; Areidah, S; Nusair, B; Khreisat, B M; Al-Quraan, G; Abu-Assaf, A; Hadaddein, M F; Abu-Jassar, H

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine factors affecting results and outcome of in-vitro fertilisation (IVF). In this retrospective study, a total of 891 infertile women underwent IVF/ICSI cycles at the King Hussein Medical Center (KHMC) between January 2001 and December 2002. Conventional IVF treatment was performed in 64.6% of women and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in 35.4%, using a standardised long luteal protocol. Pregnancy rate was analysed according to age, type of infertility, cause of infertility, duration of infertility, number of eggs collected and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. A total of 126 cycles (14.1%) were cancelled. Among 765 cycles continued, fertilisation rate was 73.9%, implantation rate was 15.1% and pregnancy rate was 29.8%. Pregnant women had a multiple pregnancy rate of 28.9%, abortion rate of 13.6% and ectopic pregnancy rate of 1.3%. Duration and type of infertility had no significant effect on the pregnancy rate. Factors which appear to affect significantly the outcome of treatment include the woman's age, cause of infertility, basal concentrations of FSH, adequate ovarian responsiveness and the number of eggs collected. In some cases with poor outcome, the understanding of these factors may predict the results and lead to the development of new strategies to improve the outcome of IVF treatment.

  16. Pharmacogenomics of adverse drug reactions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in identifying genetic risk factors for idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions in the past 30 years. These reactions can affect various tissues and organs, including liver, skin, muscle and heart, in a drug-dependent manner. Using both candidate gene and genome-wide association studies, various genes that make contributions of varying extents to each of these forms of reactions have been identified. Many of the associations identified for reactions affecting the liver and skin involve human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes and for reactions relating to the drugs abacavir and carbamazepine, HLA genotyping is now in routine use prior to drug prescription. Other HLA associations are not sufficiently specific for translation but are still of interest in relation to underlying mechanisms for the reactions. Progress on non-HLA genes affecting adverse drug reactions has been less, but some important associations, such as those of SLCO1B1 and statin myopathy, KCNE1 and drug-induced QT prolongation and NAT2 and isoniazid-induced liver injury, are considered. Future prospects for identification of additional genetic risk factors for the various adverse drug reactions are discussed. PMID:23360680

  17. Candida speciation, antifungal treatment and adverse events in pediatric invasive candidiasis: results from 441 infections in a prospective, multi-national study.

    PubMed

    Palazzi, Debra L; Arrieta, Antonio; Castagnola, Elio; Halasa, Natasha; Hubbard, Sydney; Brozovich, Ava A; Fisher, Brian T; Steinbach, William J

    2014-12-01

    A multi-national prospective study of pediatric patients with invasive candidiasis between August 2007 and September 2012 was performed and included 441 infections. Variation in infecting Candida species and antifungals used was noted between US and non-US sites. Antifungal-associated adverse events were most common with polyene use. PMID:24892850

  18. [Affective disorders and their treatment during pregnancy and after birth -- a review].

    PubMed

    Félegyházy, Zsolt; Adler, Mats

    2013-03-01

    Treatment and management of affective disorders associated with pregnancy is still an underemphasized field receiving little attention, furthermore, it is burdened with misinformation as well as incomplete or missing knowledge. Professionals of related fields (psychiatrists, obstetrician-gynecologists) often provide patients with contradicting information or, due to their lack of sufficient knowledge, keep referring the patient for information between different services. However, there is an increasing amount of data and information available, suitable for drawing conclusions and making it possible to provide adequate and credible counselling and information for pregnant women or family planning couples. In the present paper we aim to facilitate this process by reviewing the currently available information.

  19. GaAs wafer overlay performance affected by annealing heat treatment: II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Black, Iain

    2002-07-01

    Further analysis on how wafer distortion affecting the overlay performance during annealing treatment in GaAs wafer fabrication was conducted quantitatively using MONO-LITH software. The experimental results were decomposed as wafer translation, scaling at X and Y direction, rotation and orthogonality. The grid residual was used to describe non- correctable distortion of the wafers, which fits the equations given below: Residual equals Measured - Modeled, which is not a modeled component. The Vector Map displays distribution of error vectors over the wafer or field for various components or overall effect. Based on the component analysis that the misalignment caused by translation and scaling can be compensated by heat treatment if the wafer is placed at a favorable orientation. This can help mitigate the effects of substrate quality in manufactory.

  20. Factors affecting treatment outcomes in drug-resistant tuberculosis cases in the Northern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Elliott, E; Draper, H R; Baitsiwe, P; Claassens, M M

    2014-09-21

    The Northern Cape Province has low cure rates (21%) for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). We audited the programme to identify factors affecting treatment outcomes. Cases admitted to two drug-resistant TB units from 2007 to 2009 had data extracted from clinical folders. Unfavourable treatment outcomes were found in 58% of the 272 cases. A multivariable regression analysis found that male sex was associated with unfavourable outcome (P = 0.009). Weight at diagnosis (P < 0.001) and oral drug adherence (P < 0.001) were also associated with an unfavourable outcome; however, injectable drug adherence was not (P = 0.395). Positive baseline smear and human immunodeficiency virus positive status were not associated with unfavourable outcome. Shorter, more patient-friendly regimens may go a long way to improving adherence and outcomes.

  1. 40 CFR 141.82 - Description of corrosion control treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adversely affected other water treatment processes when used by another water system with comparable water... ineffective or adversely affects other water quality treatment processes. (5) The water system shall evaluate the effect of the chemicals used for corrosion control treatment on other water quality...

  2. Factors affecting cognitive remediation response in schizophrenia: the role of COMT gene and antipsychotic treatment.

    PubMed

    Bosia, Marta; Zanoletti, Andrea; Spangaro, Marco; Buonocore, Mariachiara; Bechi, Margherita; Cocchi, Federica; Pirovano, Adele; Lorenzi, Cristina; Bramanti, Placido; Smeraldi, Enrico; Cavallaro, Roberto

    2014-06-30

    Cognitive remediation is the best available tool to treat cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and has evidence of biological validity; however results are still heterogeneous and significant predictors are lacking. Previous studies showed that cognitive remediation is able to induce changes in PFC function and dopaminergic transmission and thus the study of possible sources of variability at these levels (i.e. antipsychotic treatments and genetic variability) might help to gain a deeper understanding of neurobiological correlates and translate into optimization and personalization of interventions. In the present study, we analyzed the interaction between pharmacological treatment (clozapine vs typical/atypical D2 blockers) and COMT rs4680 polymorphism on cognitive changes after cognitive remediation therapy, in a sample of 98 clinically stabilized patients with schizophrenia. The General Linear Model showed a significant interaction of pharmacological treatment and COMT polymorphism on the improvement in "Symbol Coding" subtest, a global measure of speed of processing. Post-hoc analysis revealed a significant difference between COMT genotypes, when treated with D2 blockers, with worse results among Val/Val patients. These preliminary results suggest that genetic variability, influencing prefrontal dopamine, might affect individual capacity to improve with different patterns, depending on antipsychotic treatment. PMID:24656901

  3. Factors affecting cognitive remediation response in schizophrenia: the role of COMT gene and antipsychotic treatment.

    PubMed

    Bosia, Marta; Zanoletti, Andrea; Spangaro, Marco; Buonocore, Mariachiara; Bechi, Margherita; Cocchi, Federica; Pirovano, Adele; Lorenzi, Cristina; Bramanti, Placido; Smeraldi, Enrico; Cavallaro, Roberto

    2014-06-30

    Cognitive remediation is the best available tool to treat cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and has evidence of biological validity; however results are still heterogeneous and significant predictors are lacking. Previous studies showed that cognitive remediation is able to induce changes in PFC function and dopaminergic transmission and thus the study of possible sources of variability at these levels (i.e. antipsychotic treatments and genetic variability) might help to gain a deeper understanding of neurobiological correlates and translate into optimization and personalization of interventions. In the present study, we analyzed the interaction between pharmacological treatment (clozapine vs typical/atypical D2 blockers) and COMT rs4680 polymorphism on cognitive changes after cognitive remediation therapy, in a sample of 98 clinically stabilized patients with schizophrenia. The General Linear Model showed a significant interaction of pharmacological treatment and COMT polymorphism on the improvement in "Symbol Coding" subtest, a global measure of speed of processing. Post-hoc analysis revealed a significant difference between COMT genotypes, when treated with D2 blockers, with worse results among Val/Val patients. These preliminary results suggest that genetic variability, influencing prefrontal dopamine, might affect individual capacity to improve with different patterns, depending on antipsychotic treatment.

  4. The impact on students of adverse experiences during medical school.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Tim J; Gill, Denzil J; Fitzjohn, Julie; Palmer, Claire L; Mulder, Roger T

    2006-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the consequences for, and coping method used by, medical students who experienced adverse experiences during their training. A nationwide questionnaire based census of all current medical students in New Zealand. The response rate was 83% (1384/1660). Two-thirds of students had at least one adverse experience, with humiliation being the most common and having the greatest adverse impact. Unwanted sexual advances, unfair treatment on the basis of gender or race had a lesser impact for most students. Most students took several hours or several days to get over an adverse episode and most commonly they then avoided that person or department. Around one half sought help. Only one-quarter felt it motivated their learning while one-sixth felt it made them consider leaving medical school. The most common perpetrators were senior doctors or nurses. Unwanted sexual advances were most common from other students or from patients. Humiliation is the experience that affected students the most and had a significant adverse effect on learning. There is a disturbing rate of unacceptable practice within medical schools, not all of which is from doctors. PMID:16707293

  5. Reliability of adverse symptom event reporting by clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuelin; Coffey, Charles W.; Sit, Laura; Shaw, Mary; Lavene, Dawn; Bennett, Antonia V.; Fruscione, Mike; Rogak, Lauren; Hay, Jennifer; Gönen, Mithat; Schrag, Deborah; Basch, Ethan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Adverse symptom event reporting is vital as part of clinical trials and drug labeling to ensure patient safety and inform risk–benefit decision making. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of adverse event reporting of different clinicians for the same patient for the same visit. Methods A retrospective reliability analysis was completed for a sample of 393 cancer patients (42.8% men; age 26–91, M = 62.39) from lung (n = 134), prostate (n = 113), and Ob/Gyn (n = 146) clinics. These patients were each seen by two clinicians who independently rated seven Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) symptoms. Twenty-three percent of patients were enrolled in therapeutic clinical trials. Results The average time between rater evaluations was 68 min. Intraclass correlation coefficients were moderate for constipation (0.50), diarrhea (0.58), dyspnea (0.69), fatigue (0.50), nausea (0.52), neuropathy (0.71), and vomiting (0.46). These values demonstrated stability over follow-up visits. Two-point differences, which would likely affect treatment decisions, were most frequently seen among symptomatic patients for constipation (18%), vomiting (15%), and nausea (8%). Conclusion Agreement between different clinicians when reporting adverse symptom events is moderate at best. Modification of approaches to adverse symptom reporting, such as patient self-reporting, should be considered. PMID:21984468

  6. Urbanicity, social adversity and psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, Andreas; Deserno, Lorenz; Reininghaus, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in research on geographical variation in the incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses. In this paper, we review the evidence on variation in incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in terms of place, as well as the individual- and area-level factors that account for this variation. We further review findings on potential mechanisms that link adverse urban environment and psychosis. There is evidence from earlier and more recent studies that urbanicity is associated with an increased incidence of schizophrenia and non-affective psychosis. In addition, considerable variation in incidence across neighbourhoods has been observed for these disorders. Findings suggest it is unlikely that social drift alone can fully account for geographical variation in incidence. Evidence further suggests that the impact of adverse social contexts – indexed by area-level exposures such as population density, social fragmentation and deprivation – on risk of psychosis is explained (confounding) or modified (interaction) by environmental exposures at the individual level (i.e., cannabis use, social adversity, exclusion and discrimination). On a neurobiological level, several studies suggest a close link between social adversity, isolation and stress on the one hand, and monoamine dysfunction on the other, which resembles findings in schizophrenia patients. However, studies directly assessing correlations between urban stress or discrimination and neurobiological alterations in schizophrenia are lacking to date. PMID:24096775

  7. Psychiatric adverse effects of pediatric corticosteroid use.

    PubMed

    Drozdowicz, Linda B; Bostwick, J Michael

    2014-06-01

    Corticosteroids, highly effective drugs for myriad disease states, have considerable neuropsychiatric adverse effects that can manifest in cognitive disorders, behavioral changes, and frank psychiatric disease. Recent reviews have summarized these effects in adults, but a comprehensive review on corticosteroid effects in children has not been published since 2005. Here, we systematically review articles published since then that, we find, naturally divide into 3 main areas: (1) chronic effects of acute prenatal and neonatal exposure associated with prematurity and congenital conditions; (2) immediate behavioral effects of acute exposure via oncological protocols; and (3) acute behavioral effects of sporadic use in children and adolescents with other conditions. PsycInfo, MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus were queried to identify articles reporting psychiatric adverse effects of corticosteroids in pediatric patients. Search terms included corticosteroids, adrenal cortex hormones, steroid psychosis, substance-induced psychoses, glucocorticoids, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, prednisone, adverse effects, mood disorders, mental disorders, psychosis, psychotic, psychoses, side effect, chemically induced, emotions, affective symptoms, toxicity, behavior, behavioral symptoms, infant, child, adolescent, pediatric, paediatric, neonatal, children, teen, and teenager. Following guidelines for systematic reviews from the Potsdam Consultation on Meta-Analysis, we have found it difficult to draw specific conclusions that are more than general impressions owing to the quality of the available studies. We find a mixed picture with neonates exposed to dexamethasone, with some articles reporting eventual deficits in neuropsychiatric functioning and others reporting no effect. In pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, corticosteroid use appears to correlate with negative psychiatric and behavioral effects. In children treated with corticosteroids for noncancer conditions

  8. Prenatal Thyroxine Treatment Disparately Affects Peripheral and Amygdala Thyroid Hormone Levels

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Pradeep K.; Sittig, Laura J.; Andrus, Brian M.; Schaffer, Daniel J.; Batra, Kanchi K.; Redei, Eva E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary A prenatal hypothyroid state is associated with behavioral abnormalities in adulthood. Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) rats exhibit hypothyroidism and increased depressive and anxiety-like behaviors. Thus, the WKY could illuminate the mechanisms by which the reversal of developmental hypothyroidism in humans and animals results in adult behavioral improvement. We examined the outcome of maternal thyroxine (T4) treatment on thyroid hormone-regulated functions and adult behavior of the WKY offspring. Pregnant WKY dams completed gestation with and without T4 administration and their adult male offspring were tested. Measures included depressive and anxiety-like behaviors, and thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations in both plasma and specific brain regions. In addition, the expression of two proteins affecting thyroid hormone trafficking and metabolism, monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT-8) and iodothyronine deiodinase type III (Dio3), and of several behavior-altering molecules, glucocorticoid receptor (GR), prepro-thyrotropin releasing hormone (prepro-TRH) and corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), were determined in the hippocampus and amygdala of the offspring. Prenatal T4 treatment of WKYs did not affect adult depressive behavior but increased anxiety-like behavior and decreased plasma levels of THs. In the hippocampus of males treated with T4 in utero, Dio3 and MCT-8 protein levels were increased, while in the amygdala, there were increases of free T4, MCT-8, GR, prepro-TRH protein and CRH mRNA levels. These results show that T4 administration in utero programs adult peripheral and amygdalar thyroid hormone levels divergently, and that the resulting upregulation of anxiety-related genes in the amygdala could be responsible for the exacerbated anxiety-like behavior seen in WKYs after prenatal T4 treatment. PMID:20005050

  9. Power generation and oil sands process-affected water treatment in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeongdong; Liu, Yang

    2014-10-01

    Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), a product of bitumen isolation in the oil sands industry, is a source of pollution if not properly treated. In present study, OSPW treatment and voltage generation were examined in a single chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) under the effect of inoculated carbon source and temperature. OSPW treatment with an anaerobic sludge-inoculated MFC (AS-MFC) generated 0.55 ± 0.025 V, whereas an MFC inoculated with mature-fine tailings (MFT-MFC) generated 0.41 ± 0.01 V. An additional carbon source (acetate) significantly improved generated voltage. The voltage detected increased to 20-23% in MFCs when the condition was switched from ambient to mesophilic. The mesophilic condition increased OSPW treatment efficiency in terms of lowering the chemical oxygen demand and acid-extractable organics. Pyrosequencing analysis of microbial consortia revealed that Proteobacteria were the most abundant in MFCs and microbial communities in the AS-MFC were more diverse than those in the MFT-MFC.

  10. Assessment of post-contamination treatments affecting different bonding stages to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Elkassas, Dina; Arafa, Abla

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effect of cleansing treatments following saliva and blood contamination at different bonding stages to dentin. Materials and Methods: Labial surfaces of 168 permanent maxillary central incisors were ground flat exposing superficial dentin. Specimens were divided into: uncontaminated control (A), contamination after etching (B), contamination after adhesive application (C), contamination after adhesive polymerization (D). Groups were further subdivided according to cleansing treatments into: rinsing (B1, C1, D1), re-etching (B2, D3), sodium hypochlorite application (B3), ethyl alcohol application (C2), acetone application (C3), rinsing and rebonding (D2), re-etching and rebonding (D4). Composite microcylinders were bonded to treated substrates and shear loaded micro-shear bond strength (μSBS) until failure and treated surfaces were examined with scanning electron microscope. Debonded surfaces were classified as adhesive, cohesive or mixed failure. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test. Results: The μSBS values were ranked as follow; Group B: A > B3 > B2 > B1 > B, Group C: A > C3 > C2 > C1 > C, Group D: A > D4 > D1 = D2 ≥ D3. Debonded surfaces showed adhesive failure in Group B while cohesive failure in Groups C and D. Conclusions: Cleansing treatments differ according to bonding step; re-etching then rebonding suggested if etched substrate or polymerized adhesive were contaminated while acetone application decontaminated affected unpolymerized adhesive. PMID:27403048

  11. External Resistances Applied to MFC Affect Core Microbiome and Swine Manure Treatment Efficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Vilajeliu-Pons, Anna; Bañeras, Lluis; Puig, Sebastià; Molognoni, Daniele; Vilà-Rovira, Albert; Hernández-del Amo, Elena; Balaguer, Maria D.; Colprim, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can be designed to combine water treatment with concomitant electricity production. Animal manure treatment has been poorly explored using MFCs, and its implementation at full-scale primarily relies on the bacterial distribution and activity within the treatment cell. This study reports the bacterial community changes at four positions within the anode of two almost identically operated MFCs fed swine manure. Changes in the microbiome structure are described according to the MFC fluid dynamics and the application of a maximum power point tracking system (MPPT) compared to a fixed resistance system (Ref-MFC). Both external resistance and cell hydrodynamics are thought to heavily influence MFC performance. The microbiome was characterised both quantitatively (qPCR) and qualitatively (454-pyrosequencing) by targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The diversity of the microbial community in the MFC biofilm was reduced and differed from the influent swine manure. The adopted electric condition (MPPT vs fixed resistance) was more relevant than the fluid dynamics in shaping the MFC microbiome. MPPT control positively affected bacterial abundance and promoted the selection of putatively exoelectrogenic bacteria in the MFC core microbiome (Sedimentibacter sp. and gammaproteobacteria). These differences in the microbiome may be responsible for the two-fold increase in power production achieved by the MPPT-MFC compared to the Ref-MFC. PMID:27701451

  12. Estimation of the growth kinetic parameters of Bacillus cereus spores as affected by pulsed light treatment.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Juan S; de Fernando, Gonzalo García; Hierro, Eva; Hospital, Xavier F; Ordóñez, Juan A; Fernández, Manuela

    2015-06-01

    Quantitative microbial risk assessment requires the knowledge of the effect of food preservation technologies on the growth parameters of the survivors of the treatment. This is of special interest in the case of the new non-thermal technologies that are being investigated for minimal processing of foods. This is a study on the effect of pulsed light technology (PL) on the lag phase of Bacillus cereus spores surviving the treatment and the maximum growth rate (μmax) of the survivors after germination. The D value was estimated as 0.35 J/cm(2) and our findings showed that PL affected the kinetic parameters of the microorganism. A log linear relationship was observed between the lag phase and the intensity of the treatment. Increasing the lethality lengthened the mean lag phase and proportionally increased its variability. A polynomial regression was fitted between the μmax of the survivors and the inactivation achieved. The μmax decreased as intensity increased. From these data, and their comparison to published results on the effect of heat and e-beam irradiation on B. cereus spores, it was observed that the shelf-life of PL treated foods would be longer than those treated with heat and similar to irradiated ones. These findings offer information of interest for the implementation of PL for microbial decontamination in the food industry. PMID:25755081

  13. The drinking water treatment process as a potential source of affecting the bacterial antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiaohui; Ma, Xiaolin; Xu, Fengming; Li, Jing; Zhang, Hang; Xiao, Xiang

    2015-11-15

    Two waterworks, with source water derived from the Huangpu or Yangtze River in Shanghai, were investigated, and the effluents were plate-screened for antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) using five antibiotics: ampicillin (AMP), kanamycin (KAN), rifampicin (RFP), chloramphenicol (CM) and streptomycin (STR). The influence of water treatment procedures on the bacterial antibiotic resistance rate and the changes that bacteria underwent when exposed to the five antibiotics at concentration levels ranging from 1 to 100 μg/mL were studied. Multi-drug resistance was also analyzed using drug sensitivity tests. The results indicated that bacteria derived from water treatment plant effluent that used the Huangpu River rather than the Yangtze River as source water exhibited higher antibiotic resistance rates against AMP, STR, RFP and CM but lower antibiotic resistance rates against KAN. When the antibiotic concentration levels ranged from 1 to 10 μg/mL, the antibiotic resistance rates of the bacteria in the water increased as water treatment progressed. Biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration played a key role in increasing the antibiotic resistance rate of bacteria. Chloramine disinfection can enhance antibiotic resistance. Among the isolated ARB, 75% were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Ozone oxidation, BAC filtration and chloramine disinfection can greatly affect the relative abundance of bacteria in the community.

  14. Neuronal Dysregulation in Stroke-Associated Pseudobulbar Affect (PBA): Diagnostic Scales and Current Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Lapchak, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Until recently there was little understanding of the exact pathophysiology and treatment choices for stroke patients with Pseudobulbar affect (PBA). PBA is typically characterized by outbursts or uncontrollable laughing or crying and in the majority of patients, the outbursts being involuntary and incompatible with the patients’ emotional state. PBA is a behavioral syndrome reported to be displayed in 28–52% of stroke patients with first or multiple strokes, and incidence may be higher in patients who have had prior stroke events, and higher in females. There is typically involvement of glutaminergic, serotoninergic and dopaminergic neuronal circuits of the corticolimbic-subcorticothalamic-pontocerebellar network. PBA is now understood to be a disinhibition syndrome in which specific pathways involving serotonin and glutamate are disrupted or modulated causing reduced cortical inhibition of a cerebellar/brainstem-situated “emotional” laughing or crying focal center. Stroke-induced disruption of one or more neuronal pathway circuits may “disinhibit” voluntary laughing and crying making the process involuntary. With a “new” treatment currently being marketed to treat PBA patients, this article will delve into the neurological and physiological basis for PBA in stroke, and review progress with the diagnosis and treatment of PBA. PMID:26693049

  15. Estimation of the growth kinetic parameters of Bacillus cereus spores as affected by pulsed light treatment.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Juan S; de Fernando, Gonzalo García; Hierro, Eva; Hospital, Xavier F; Ordóñez, Juan A; Fernández, Manuela

    2015-06-01

    Quantitative microbial risk assessment requires the knowledge of the effect of food preservation technologies on the growth parameters of the survivors of the treatment. This is of special interest in the case of the new non-thermal technologies that are being investigated for minimal processing of foods. This is a study on the effect of pulsed light technology (PL) on the lag phase of Bacillus cereus spores surviving the treatment and the maximum growth rate (μmax) of the survivors after germination. The D value was estimated as 0.35 J/cm(2) and our findings showed that PL affected the kinetic parameters of the microorganism. A log linear relationship was observed between the lag phase and the intensity of the treatment. Increasing the lethality lengthened the mean lag phase and proportionally increased its variability. A polynomial regression was fitted between the μmax of the survivors and the inactivation achieved. The μmax decreased as intensity increased. From these data, and their comparison to published results on the effect of heat and e-beam irradiation on B. cereus spores, it was observed that the shelf-life of PL treated foods would be longer than those treated with heat and similar to irradiated ones. These findings offer information of interest for the implementation of PL for microbial decontamination in the food industry.

  16. Adverse Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan; Arumugham, Shyam Sundar; Thirthalli, Jagadisha

    2016-09-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment commonly used for depression and other major psychiatric disorders. We discuss potential adverse effects (AEs) associated with ECT and strategies for their prevention and management. Common acute AEs include headache, nausea, myalgia, and confusion; these are self-limiting and are managed symptomatically. Serious but uncommon AEs include cardiovascular, pulmonary, and cerebrovascular events; these may be minimized with screening for risk factors and by physiologic monitoring. Although most cognitive AEs of ECT are short-lasting, troublesome retrograde amnesia may rarely persist. Modifications of and improvements in treatment techniques minimize cognitive and other AEs. PMID:27514303

  17. Sperm treatment affects capacitation parameters and penetration ability of ejaculated and epididymal boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Matás, C; Sansegundo, M; Ruiz, S; García-Vázquez, F A; Gadea, J; Romar, R; Coy, P

    2010-11-01

    This work was designed to study how this ability is affected by different sperm treatments routinely used for in vitro fertilization (IVF) assay. In this study, boar sperm samples from epididymal or ejaculated origin were processed by three different methods: left unwashed (NW group), washed in Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline supplemented with 0.1% BSA (BSA group), and washed on a Percoll(®) gradient (PERCOLL group). After preparation of semen samples, changes in motility patterns were studied by CASA, calcium uptake by spectrofluorimetry, and ROS generation, spontaneous acrosome reaction, and lipid disorder by means of flow cytometry. Finally IVF assays were also performed with the different semen samples and penetrability results evaluated at 2 and 4 h post insemination (hpi). Independently of the sperm treatment, epididymal spermatozoa showed higher values of progressive motility, percentage of live cells with low lipid disorder, and penetration ability at 4 hpi than the corresponding ejaculated spermatozoa. Ejaculated spermatozoa showed higher levels of calcium uptake, ROS generation and percentage of spontaneous acrosome reaction than epididymal sperm. Regarding sperm treatments, PERCOLL group showed the highest values for some motility parameters (linearity of the curvilinear trajectory, straightness, and average path velocity/curvilinear velocity), ROS generation and penetration ability at 2 and 4 hpi; however this same group showed the lowest values for sperm curvilinear velocity and lateral head displacement. From all experimental groups, ejaculated-PERCOLL-treated spermatozoa showed the highest fertilization ability after 2 hpi. Results suggest that capacitation pathways can be regulated by suitable treatments making the ejaculated sperm able to reach capacitation and fertilize oocytes in similar levels than epididymal spermatozoa, although most of the studied capacitation-associated changes do not correlate with this ability. PMID:20688369

  18. Fascioliasis and Intestinal Parasitoses Affecting Schoolchildren in Atlixco, Puebla State, Mexico: Epidemiology and Treatment with Nitazoxanide

    PubMed Central

    Zumaquero-Ríos, José Lino; Sarracent-Pérez, Jorge; Rojas-García, Raúl; Rojas-Rivero, Lázara; Martínez-Tovilla, Yaneth; Valero, María Adela; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Background The Atlixco municipality, Puebla State, at a mean altitude of 1840 m, was selected for a study of Fasciola hepatica infection in schoolchildren in Mexico. This area presents permanent water collections continuously receiving thaw water from Popocatepetl volcano (5426 m altitude) through the community supply channels, conforming an epidemiological scenario similar to those known in hyperendemic areas of Andean countries. Methodology and Findings A total of 865 6–14 year-old schoolchildren were analyzed with FasciDIG coproantigen test and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation technique, and quantitatively assessed with Kato-Katz. Fascioliasis prevalences ranged 2.94–13.33% according to localities (mean 5.78%). Intensities were however low (24–384 epg). The association between fascioliasis and the habit of eating raw vegetables was identified, including watercress and radish with pronouncedly higher relative risk than lettuce, corncob, spinach, alfalfa juice, and broccoli. Many F. hepatica-infected children were coinfected by other parasites. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Ascaris lumbricoides infection resulted in risk factors for F. hepatica infection. Nitazoxanide efficacy against fascioliasis was 94.0% and 100% after first and second treatment courses, respectively. The few children, for whom a second treatment course was needed, were concomitantly infected by moderate ascariasis burdens. Its efficacy was also very high in the treatment of E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. intestinalis, B. hominis, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis. A second treatment course was needed for all children affected by ancylostomatids. Conclusions Fascioliasis prevalences indicate this area to be mesoendemic, with isolated hyperendemic foci. This is the first time that a human fascioliasis endemic area is described in North America. Nitazoxanide appears as an appropriate

  19. Sperm treatment affects capacitation parameters and penetration ability of ejaculated and epididymal boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Matás, C; Sansegundo, M; Ruiz, S; García-Vázquez, F A; Gadea, J; Romar, R; Coy, P

    2010-11-01

    This work was designed to study how this ability is affected by different sperm treatments routinely used for in vitro fertilization (IVF) assay. In this study, boar sperm samples from epididymal or ejaculated origin were processed by three different methods: left unwashed (NW group), washed in Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline supplemented with 0.1% BSA (BSA group), and washed on a Percoll(®) gradient (PERCOLL group). After preparation of semen samples, changes in motility patterns were studied by CASA, calcium uptake by spectrofluorimetry, and ROS generation, spontaneous acrosome reaction, and lipid disorder by means of flow cytometry. Finally IVF assays were also performed with the different semen samples and penetrability results evaluated at 2 and 4 h post insemination (hpi). Independently of the sperm treatment, epididymal spermatozoa showed higher values of progressive motility, percentage of live cells with low lipid disorder, and penetration ability at 4 hpi than the corresponding ejaculated spermatozoa. Ejaculated spermatozoa showed higher levels of calcium uptake, ROS generation and percentage of spontaneous acrosome reaction than epididymal sperm. Regarding sperm treatments, PERCOLL group showed the highest values for some motility parameters (linearity of the curvilinear trajectory, straightness, and average path velocity/curvilinear velocity), ROS generation and penetration ability at 2 and 4 hpi; however this same group showed the lowest values for sperm curvilinear velocity and lateral head displacement. From all experimental groups, ejaculated-PERCOLL-treated spermatozoa showed the highest fertilization ability after 2 hpi. Results suggest that capacitation pathways can be regulated by suitable treatments making the ejaculated sperm able to reach capacitation and fertilize oocytes in similar levels than epididymal spermatozoa, although most of the studied capacitation-associated changes do not correlate with this ability.

  20. Factors affecting treatment efficacy in social phobia: the use of video feedback and individual vs. group formats.

    PubMed

    Aderka, Idan M

    2009-01-01

    This meta-analysis assessed two potential moderators of treatment efficacy in social phobia: video feedback, and treatment format (i.e., individual vs. group). Eighteen recent (2000-2006) trials including a total of 511 participants were sampled. Effect sizes (Cohen's d's) were calculated for each trial while correcting for measurement error. The Q statistic was used to test (a) heterogeneity across trials and (b) potential moderators. Results indicated that use of video feedback was not a moderator of treatment efficacy and did not significantly affect effect sizes. In contrast, treatment format was a moderator of treatment efficacy such that individual treatments reported larger effect sizes and lower attrition rates compared with group treatments. The results suggest that individual treatments in social phobia may be superior to group treatments irrespective of treatment type. PMID:18599263

  1. Phase III LDR rule proposes new treatment standards CWA/SDWA systems affected

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    On March 2, 1995, EPA took one more step toward fulfilling statutory/judicial mandates regarding the RCRA land disposal restrictions (LDR) program. Among the most significant aspects of this so-called Phase III LDR rule is the proposal of treatment standards for characteristic wastes managed in systems regulated by the Clean Water Act (CWA) and in Class I injection wells regulated under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). These regulations would also apply to zero-discharge systems that treat waste-water in a manner equivalent to that used by CWA dischargers (i.e., CWA-equivalent systems). According to EPA, promulgation of the proposed requirements could affect a large number of facilities that may be forced to treat their wastes for underlying hazardous constituents prior to disposal. 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  2. Myo-Inositol in the Treatment of Teenagers Affected by PCOS

    PubMed Central

    Barbakadze, Ludmila; Kvashilava, Nana

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To compare the effectiveness of myo-inositol (MI) and oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) in monotherapy and MI in combination with OCPs in the treatment of teenagers affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods. 61 adolescent girls aged 13–19 years, with PCOS, were involved in the prospective, open-label study. Patients were randomized into three groups: I group, 20 patients receiving drospirenone 3 mg/ethinyl estradiol 30 μg; II group, 20 patients receiving 4 g myo-inositol plus 400 mg folic acid; III group, 21 patients receiving both medications. Results. After receiving MI significant reduction in weight, BMI, glucose, C-peptide, insulin, HOMA-IR, FT, and LH was detected. The levels of SHBG, TT, FAI, DHEA-S, and AMH did not change statistically significantly. After receiving OCPs weight and BMI slightly increased, but metabolic parameters did not change. Combination of MI and OCPs did not change weight and BMI, but reduction in C-peptide, insulin, and HOMA-IR was detected. TT, FT, FAI, DHEA-S, LH, and AMH levels decreased and SHBG increased. Conclusions. Administration of MI is a safe and effective method to prevent and correct metabolic disorders in teenagers affected by PCOS. With combination of MI and OCPs antiandrogenic effects are enhanced, negative impact of OCPs on weight gain is balanced, and metabolic profile is improved.

  3. Myo-Inositol in the Treatment of Teenagers Affected by PCOS.

    PubMed

    Pkhaladze, Lali; Barbakadze, Ludmila; Kvashilava, Nana

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To compare the effectiveness of myo-inositol (MI) and oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) in monotherapy and MI in combination with OCPs in the treatment of teenagers affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods. 61 adolescent girls aged 13-19 years, with PCOS, were involved in the prospective, open-label study. Patients were randomized into three groups: I group, 20 patients receiving drospirenone 3 mg/ethinyl estradiol 30 μg; II group, 20 patients receiving 4 g myo-inositol plus 400 mg folic acid; III group, 21 patients receiving both medications. Results. After receiving MI significant reduction in weight, BMI, glucose, C-peptide, insulin, HOMA-IR, FT, and LH was detected. The levels of SHBG, TT, FAI, DHEA-S, and AMH did not change statistically significantly. After receiving OCPs weight and BMI slightly increased, but metabolic parameters did not change. Combination of MI and OCPs did not change weight and BMI, but reduction in C-peptide, insulin, and HOMA-IR was detected. TT, FT, FAI, DHEA-S, LH, and AMH levels decreased and SHBG increased. Conclusions. Administration of MI is a safe and effective method to prevent and correct metabolic disorders in teenagers affected by PCOS. With combination of MI and OCPs antiandrogenic effects are enhanced, negative impact of OCPs on weight gain is balanced, and metabolic profile is improved. PMID:27635134

  4. Myo-Inositol in the Treatment of Teenagers Affected by PCOS

    PubMed Central

    Barbakadze, Ludmila; Kvashilava, Nana

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To compare the effectiveness of myo-inositol (MI) and oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) in monotherapy and MI in combination with OCPs in the treatment of teenagers affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods. 61 adolescent girls aged 13–19 years, with PCOS, were involved in the prospective, open-label study. Patients were randomized into three groups: I group, 20 patients receiving drospirenone 3 mg/ethinyl estradiol 30 μg; II group, 20 patients receiving 4 g myo-inositol plus 400 mg folic acid; III group, 21 patients receiving both medications. Results. After receiving MI significant reduction in weight, BMI, glucose, C-peptide, insulin, HOMA-IR, FT, and LH was detected. The levels of SHBG, TT, FAI, DHEA-S, and AMH did not change statistically significantly. After receiving OCPs weight and BMI slightly increased, but metabolic parameters did not change. Combination of MI and OCPs did not change weight and BMI, but reduction in C-peptide, insulin, and HOMA-IR was detected. TT, FT, FAI, DHEA-S, LH, and AMH levels decreased and SHBG increased. Conclusions. Administration of MI is a safe and effective method to prevent and correct metabolic disorders in teenagers affected by PCOS. With combination of MI and OCPs antiandrogenic effects are enhanced, negative impact of OCPs on weight gain is balanced, and metabolic profile is improved. PMID:27635134

  5. Affect Intensity and Phasic REM Sleep in Depressed Men before and after Treatment with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nofzinger, Eric A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Explored relationship between daytime affect and REM (rapid eye movement) sleep in 45 depressed men before and after treatment with cognitive-behavioral therapy and in control group of 43 healthy subjects. For depressed subjects only, intensity of daytime affect correlated significantly and positively with phasic REM sleep measures at pre- and…

  6. Managing adverse effects of glaucoma medications

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma is a chronic, progressive disease in which retinal ganglion cells disappear and subsequent, gradual reductions in the visual field ensues. Glaucoma eye drops have hypotensive effects and like all other medications are associated with adverse effects. Adverse reactions may either result from the main agent or from preservatives used in the drug vehicle. The preservative benzalkonium chloride, is one such compound that causes frequent adverse reactions such as superficial punctate keratitis, corneal erosion, conjunctival allergy, and conjunctival injection. Adverse reactions related to main hypotensive agents have been divided into those affecting the eye and those affecting the entire body. In particular, β-blockers frequently cause systematic adverse reactions, including bradycardia, decrease in blood pressure, irregular pulse and asthma attacks. Prostaglandin analogs have distinctive local adverse reactions, including eyelash bristling/lengthening, eyelid pigmentation, iris pigmentation, and upper eyelid deepening. No systemic adverse reactions have been linked to prostaglandin analog eye drop usage. These adverse reactions may be minimized when they are detected early and prevented by reducing the number of different eye drops used (via fixed combination eye drops), reducing the number of times eye drops are administered, using benzalkonium chloride-free eye drops, using lower concentration eye drops, and providing proper drop instillation training. Additionally, a one-time topical medication can be given to patients to allow observation of any adverse reactions, thereafter the preparation of a topical medication with the fewest known adverse reactions can be prescribed. This does require precise patient monitoring and inquiries about patient symptoms following medication use. PMID:24872675

  7. Collateral Adverse Outcomes After Lumbar Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Alan H; Gundle, Kenneth; Hart, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Collateral adverse outcomes are the expected or unavoidable results of a procedure that is performed in a standard manner and typically experienced by the patient. Collateral adverse outcomes do not result from errors, nor are they rare. Collateral adverse outcomes occur as the direct result of a surgical procedure and must be accepted as a trade-off to attain the intended benefits of the surgical procedure. As such, collateral adverse outcomes do not fit into the traditional definition of a complication or adverse event. Examples of collateral adverse outcomes after lumbar spine arthrodesis include lumbar stiffness, postoperative psychological stress, postoperative pain, peri-incisional numbness, paraspinal muscle denervation, and adjacent-level degeneration. Ideally, a comparison of interventions for the treatment of a clinical condition should include information on both the negative consequences (expected and unexpected) and potential benefits of the treatment options. The objective evaluation and reporting of collateral adverse outcomes will provide surgeons with a more complete picture of invasive interventions and, thus, the improved ability to assess alternative treatment options. PMID:27049197

  8. Aggressive experience affects the sensitivity of neurons towards pharmacological treatment in the hypothalamic attack area.

    PubMed

    Haller, J; Abrahám, I; Zelena, D; Juhász, G; Makara, G B; Kruk, M R

    1998-09-01

    Early investigators of brain stimulation-evoked complex behaviours (attack, escape, feeding, self-grooming, sexual behaviour) reported that experience may affect the behavioural outcome of brain stimulation. This intriguing example of functional neuronal plasticity was later totally neglected. The present experiment investigated the behavioural outcome of in vivo microdialysis perfusion of the glutamate agonist kainate and/or the GABAA antagonist bicuculline into the hypothalamic attack area (HAA) of (1) animals naive to dyadic encounters; (2) animals with a recent aggressive experience (the probe being implanted 6-24 h after the last of a series of dyadic encounters); and (3) animals with an earlier aggressive experience (probe being implanted 2 weeks after the last aggressive experience). On the experimental day, rats received two 5-min infusions during a dyadic encounter lasting 35 min with an unknown opponent. Flow rate was 1.5-2 microliters/min, drug concentrations were 1.8 x 10(-5) and 1.5 x 10(-5) M for kainate and bicuculline, respectively. Behaviour was analysed before, during and after perfusions. Only the combined kainate + bicuculline treatment had significant effects on behaviour at the doses studied. A significant increase in aggressive behaviour was elicited only in animals with a recent aggressive experience, while naive animals and with an earlier experience responded to the treatments by grooming. These results appear to support early observations indicating that one important aspect of brain stimulation effects is previous experience. PMID:9832932

  9. Adverse events associated with the use of cervical manipulation and mobilization for the treatment of neck pain in adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Carlesso, Lisa C; Gross, Anita R; Santaguida, P Lina; Burnie, Stephen; Voth, Sandra; Sadi, Jackie

    2010-10-01

    Adverse events (AE) are a concern for practitioners utilizing cervical manipulation or mobilization. While efficacious, these techniques are associated with rare but serious adverse events. Five bibliographic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, PEDro, AMED, EMBASE) and the gray literature were searched from 1998 to 2009 for any AE associated with cervical manipulation or mobilization for neck pain. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective or cross-sectional observational studies were included. Two independent reviewers conducted study selection, method quality assessment and data abstraction. Pooled relative risks (RR) were calculated. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane system, a modified Critical Appraisal Skills Program form and the McHarm scale to assess the reporting of harms. Seventeen of 76 identified citations resulted in no major AE. Two pooled estimates for minor AE found transient neurological symptoms [RR 1.96 (95% CI: 1.09-3.54) p < 0.05]; and increased neck pain [RR 1.23 (95% CI: 0.85-1.77) p > .05]. Forty-four studies (58%) were excluded for not reporting AE. No definitive conclusions can be made due to a small number of studies, weak association, moderate study quality, and notable ascertainment bias. Improved reporting of AE in manual therapy trials as recommended by the CONSORT statement extension on harms reporting is warranted.

  10. Positive Affect Stimulation and Sustainment (PASS) Module for Depressed Mood: A preliminary investigation of treatment-related effects.

    PubMed

    McMakin, Dana L; Siegle, Greg J; Shirk, Stephen R

    2011-06-01

    Positive affective functioning (PAF) is critical to the development, course and treatment of depressive symptoms. Targeting key features of PAF during treatment may provide a new angle through which to improve affective functioning and reduce symptoms. The current study was a treatment development trial for the Positive Affect Stimulation and Sustainment (PASS) Module. PASS is conceptualized as a means of capitalizing on positive events (e.g. planned through behavioral activation) by enhancing and sustaining positive affective states through savoring, and establishing positive attributions and expectancies. Participants were 27 female college students with dysphoric symptoms. There was a moderate effect of PASS on depressive symptoms. There was also a significant within session increase in positive affect from pre to post session among the PASS group, relative to active control; and a significant decrease in positive affect from pre (baseline) to post (follow-up) treatment among the control group, relative to PASS. Results provide preliminary evidence for the efficacy of the treatment module among young adults with depressed mood, and lay the foundation for future research.

  11. Chronic Treatment with Ivabradine Does Not Affect Cardiovascular Autonomic Control in Rats.

    PubMed

    Silva, Fernanda C; Paiva, Franciny A; Müller-Ribeiro, Flávia C; Caldeira, Henrique M A; Fontes, Marco A P; de Menezes, Rodrigo C A; Casali, Karina R; Fortes, Gláucia H; Tobaldini, Eleonora; Solbiati, Monica; Montano, Nicola; Dias Da Silva, Valdo J; Chianca, Deoclécio A

    2016-01-01

    A low resting heart rate (HR) would be of great benefit in cardiovascular diseases. Ivabradine-a novel selective inhibitor of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide gated (HCN) channels- has emerged as a promising HR lowering drug. Its effects on the autonomic HR control are little known. This study assessed the effects of chronic treatment with ivabradine on the modulatory, reflex and tonic cardiovascular autonomic control and on the renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). Male Wistar rats were divided in 2 groups, receiving intraperitoneal injections of vehicle (VEH) or ivabradine (IVA) during 7 or 8 consecutive days. Rats were submitted to vessels cannulation to perform arterial blood pressure (AP) and HR recordings in freely moving rats. Time series of resting pulse interval and systolic AP were used to measure cardiovascular variability parameters. We also assessed the baroreflex, chemoreflex and the Bezold-Jarish reflex sensitivities. To better evaluate the effects of ivabradine on the autonomic control of the heart, we performed sympathetic and vagal autonomic blockade. As expected, ivabradine-treated rats showed a lower resting (VEH: 362 ± 16 bpm vs. IVA: 260 ± 14 bpm, p = 0.0005) and intrinsic HR (VEH: 369 ± 9 bpm vs. IVA: 326 ± 11 bpm, p = 0.0146). However, the chronic treatment with ivabradine did not change normalized HR spectral parameters LF (nu) (VEH: 24.2 ± 4.6 vs. IVA: 29.8 ± 6.4; p > 0.05); HF (nu) (VEH: 75.1 ± 3.7 vs. IVA: 69.2 ± 5.8; p > 0.05), any cardiovascular reflexes, neither the tonic autonomic control of the HR (tonic sympathovagal index; VEH: 0.91± 0.02 vs. IVA: 0.88 ± 0.03, p = 0.3494). We performed the AP, HR and RSNA recordings in urethane-anesthetized rats. The chronic treatment with ivabradine reduced the resting HR (VEH: 364 ± 12 bpm vs. IVA: 207 ± 11 bpm, p < 0.0001), without affecting RSNA (VEH: 117 ± 16 vs. IVA: 120 ± 9 spikes/s, p = 0.9100) and mean arterial pressure (VEH: 70 ± 4 vs. IVA: 77 ± 6 mmHg, p

  12. Chronic Treatment with Ivabradine Does Not Affect Cardiovascular Autonomic Control in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Fernanda C.; Paiva, Franciny A.; Müller-Ribeiro, Flávia C.; Caldeira, Henrique M. A.; Fontes, Marco A. P.; de Menezes, Rodrigo C. A.; Casali, Karina R.; Fortes, Gláucia H.; Tobaldini, Eleonora; Solbiati, Monica; Montano, Nicola; Dias Da Silva, Valdo J.; Chianca, Deoclécio A.

    2016-01-01

    A low resting heart rate (HR) would be of great benefit in cardiovascular diseases. Ivabradine—a novel selective inhibitor of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide gated (HCN) channels- has emerged as a promising HR lowering drug. Its effects on the autonomic HR control are little known. This study assessed the effects of chronic treatment with ivabradine on the modulatory, reflex and tonic cardiovascular autonomic control and on the renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). Male Wistar rats were divided in 2 groups, receiving intraperitoneal injections of vehicle (VEH) or ivabradine (IVA) during 7 or 8 consecutive days. Rats were submitted to vessels cannulation to perform arterial blood pressure (AP) and HR recordings in freely moving rats. Time series of resting pulse interval and systolic AP were used to measure cardiovascular variability parameters. We also assessed the baroreflex, chemoreflex and the Bezold-Jarish reflex sensitivities. To better evaluate the effects of ivabradine on the autonomic control of the heart, we performed sympathetic and vagal autonomic blockade. As expected, ivabradine-treated rats showed a lower resting (VEH: 362 ± 16 bpm vs. IVA: 260 ± 14 bpm, p = 0.0005) and intrinsic HR (VEH: 369 ± 9 bpm vs. IVA: 326 ± 11 bpm, p = 0.0146). However, the chronic treatment with ivabradine did not change normalized HR spectral parameters LF (nu) (VEH: 24.2 ± 4.6 vs. IVA: 29.8 ± 6.4; p > 0.05); HF (nu) (VEH: 75.1 ± 3.7 vs. IVA: 69.2 ± 5.8; p > 0.05), any cardiovascular reflexes, neither the tonic autonomic control of the HR (tonic sympathovagal index; VEH: 0.91± 0.02 vs. IVA: 0.88 ± 0.03, p = 0.3494). We performed the AP, HR and RSNA recordings in urethane-anesthetized rats. The chronic treatment with ivabradine reduced the resting HR (VEH: 364 ± 12 bpm vs. IVA: 207 ± 11 bpm, p < 0.0001), without affecting RSNA (VEH: 117 ± 16 vs. IVA: 120 ± 9 spikes/s, p = 0.9100) and mean arterial pressure (VEH: 70 ± 4 vs. IVA: 77 ± 6 mm

  13. Relationships between changes in sustained fronto-striatal connectivity and positive affect in major depression resulting from antidepressant treatment.

    PubMed

    Heller, Aaron S; Johnstone, Tom; Light, Sharee N; Peterson, Michael J; Kolden, Gregory G; Kalin, Ned H; Davidson, Richard J

    2013-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Deficits in positive affect and their neural bases have been associated with major depression. However, whether reductions in positive affect result solely from an overall reduction in nucleus accumbens activity and fronto-striatal connectivity or the additional inability to sustain engagement of this network over time is unknown. The authors sought to determine whether treatment-induced changes in the ability to sustain nucleus accumbens activity and fronto-striatal connectivity during the regulation of positive affect are associated with gains in positive affect. METHOD Using fMRI, the authors assessed the ability to sustain activity in reward-related networks when attempting to increase positive emotion during performance of an emotion regulation paradigm in 21 depressed patients before and after 2 months of antidepressant treatment. Over the same interval, 14 healthy comparison subjects underwent scanning as well. RESULTS After 2 months of treatment, self-reported positive affect increased. The patients who demonstrated the largest increases in sustained nucleus accumbens activity over the 2 months were those who demonstrated the largest increases in positive affect. In addition, the patients who demonstrated the largest increases in sustained fronto-striatal connectivity were also those who demonstrated the largest increases in positive affect when controlling for negative affect. None of these associations were observed in healthy comparison subjects. CONCLUSIONS Treatment-induced change in the sustained engagement of fronto-striatal circuitry tracks the experience of positive emotion in daily life. Studies examining reduced positive affect in a variety of psychiatric disorders might benefit from examining the temporal dynamics of brain activity when attempting to understand changes in daily positive affect.

  14. Adverse Effects of Psychotropic Medications: A Call to Action.

    PubMed

    Mago, Rajnish

    2016-09-01

    Adverse effects are common, bothersome, and a leading cause of discontinuation of treatment. The methodology for evaluating adverse effects of medications has been greatly neglected, however, especially in comparison to the methodology for assessment of efficacy of medications. Existing methods for assessment and reporting of adverse effects have important limitations leading to lack of much-needed data related to adverse effects. Lastly, there is little systematic research into management of most adverse effects. A series of recommendations are made in this article about how to improve identification, assessment, reporting, and management of adverse effects. PMID:27514294

  15. Adverse reactions to cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Gendler, E

    1987-06-01

    Adverse reactions to cosmetics can be irritant or allergic and are most often caused by fragrances or preservatives. Preservatives include formaldehyde, formaldehyde releasers, and parabens. Other agents that cause allergy are paraphenylenediamine in hair dyes and toluene sulfonamide formaldehyde resin in nail polishes.

  16. Scientists Trace Adversity's Toll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    The stress of a spelling bee or a challenging science project can enhance a student's focus and promote learning. But the stress of a dysfunctional or unstable home life can poison a child's cognitive ability for a lifetime, according to new research. Those studies show that stress forms the link between childhood adversity and poor academic…

  17. Foraging at wastewater treatment works affects brown adipose tissue fatty acid profiles in banana bats

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kate; van Aswegen, Sunet; Schoeman, M. Corrie; Claassens, Sarina; Jansen van Rensburg, Peet; Naidoo, Samantha; Vosloo, Dalene

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study we tested the hypothesis that the decrease in habitat quality at wastewater treatment works (WWTW), such as limited prey diversity and exposure to the toxic cocktail of pollutants, affect fatty acid profiles of interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBrAT) in bats. Further, the antioxidant capacity of oxidative tissues such as pectoral and cardiac muscle may not be adequate to protect those tissues against reactive molecules resulting from polyunsaturated fatty acid auto-oxidation in the WWTW bats. Bats were sampled at two urban WWTW, and two unpolluted reference sites in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Brown adipose tissue (BrAT) mass was lower in WWTW bats than in reference site bats. We found lower levels of saturated phospholipid fatty acids and higher levels of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids in WWTW bats than in reference site bats, while C18 desaturation and n-6 to n-3 ratios were higher in the WWTW bats. This was not associated with high lipid peroxidation levels in pectoral and cardiac muscle. Combined, these results indicate that WWTW bats rely on iBrAT as an energy source, and opportunistic foraging on abundant, pollutant-tolerant prey may change fatty acid profiles in their tissue, with possible effects on mitochondrial functioning, torpor and energy usage. PMID:26740572

  18. Treatment Factors Affecting Longitudinal Quality of Life in New Onset Pediatric Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Ingerski, Lisa M.; Rausch, Joseph R.; Glauser, Tracy A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Recognizing the importance of patient-reported outcomes, this longitudinal, prospective study examined: Changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) over seven months following antiepileptic drug (AED) initiation and the relationship of seizures, AED side-effects, and AED type to HRQOL. Method Parents of 124 children with newly diagnosed epilepsy completed measures of HRQOL and side-effects at each clinic visit. Treatment information was also collected. Results HRQOL remained stable over time; however, seizures and AED side-effects significantly affected multiple HRQOL domains. Higher seizure activity was associated with decreased Physical HRQOL. Side-effects were negatively associated with all HRQOL domains. Children taking carbamazepine who experienced higher side-effects early in therapy demonstrated declining emotional functioning compared to children experiencing no/some side-effects. Conclusions AED side-effects, AED type, and seizure frequency were associated with longitudinal HRQOL in children with newly-diagnosed epilepsy. Routine assessment of AED side-effects and HRQOL may be useful for clinical decision making. PMID:21278379

  19. Therapeutic use of dextromethorphan: key learnings from treatment of pseudobulbar affect.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ariel; Panitch, Hillel

    2007-08-15

    A variety of neurological conditions and disease states are accompanied by pseudobulbar affect (PBA), an emotional disorder characterized by uncontrollable outbursts of laughing and crying. The causes of PBA are unclear but may involve lesions in neural circuits regulating the motor output of emotional expression. Several agents used in treating other psychiatric disorders have been applied in the treatment of PBA with some success but data are limited and these agents are associated with unpleasant side effects due to nonspecific activity in diffuse neural networks. Dextromethorphan (DM), a widely used cough suppressant, acts at receptors in the brainstem and cerebellum, brain regions implicated in the regulation of emotional output. The combination of DM and quinidine (Q), an enzyme inhibitor that blocks DM metabolism, has recently been tested in phase III clinical trials in patients with multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and was both safe and effective in palliating PBA symptoms. In addition, clinical studies pertaining to the safety and efficacy of DM/Q in a variety of neurological disease states are ongoing. PMID:17433820

  20. Adverse effects of fillers and their histopathology.

    PubMed

    Haneke, Eckart

    2014-12-01

    Injectable fillers nowadays represent a pillar in facial rejuvenation and make a significant contribution to the success of the treatment. Despite their obvious benefits, a wide range of possible complications such as immediate, late, delayed, temporary, or irreversible adverse effects have to be respected. Differentiating the various filler materials, these effects are assigned to histopathology findings and currently available treatment options.

  1. Adverse effects of fillers and their histopathology.

    PubMed

    Haneke, Eckart

    2014-12-01

    Injectable fillers nowadays represent a pillar in facial rejuvenation and make a significant contribution to the success of the treatment. Despite their obvious benefits, a wide range of possible complications such as immediate, late, delayed, temporary, or irreversible adverse effects have to be respected. Differentiating the various filler materials, these effects are assigned to histopathology findings and currently available treatment options. PMID:25536126

  2. Cognitive and Affective Predictors of Treatment Outcome in Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Shireen L.; Vogt, Dawne S.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined cognitive and affective predictors of treatment dropout and treatment efficacy in Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) and Prolonged Exposure (PE) for PTSD. Study participants were women with PTSD from a sexual assault who received at least one session of either treatment (n=145) as part of a randomized clinical trial. Results revealed that younger age, lower intelligence, and less education were associated with higher treatment dropout, whereas higher depression and guilt at pretreatment were associated with greater improvement in PTSD symptomatology. Results by treatment condition indicated that women with higher anger at pretreatment were more likely to drop out of PE and that older women in PE and younger women in CPT had the best overall outcomes. These findings have implications for efforts to enhance treatment efficacy and retention in CBT treatment protocols. PMID:19595295

  3. Cognitive and affective predictors of treatment outcome in Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Shireen L; Vogt, Dawne S; Resick, Patricia A

    2009-09-01

    This study examined cognitive and affective predictors of treatment dropout and treatment efficacy in Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) and Prolonged Exposure (PE) for PTSD. Study participants were women with PTSD from a sexual assault who received at least one session of either treatment (n = 145) as part of a randomized clinical trial. Results revealed that younger age, lower intelligence, and less education were associated with higher treatment dropout, whereas higher depression and guilt at pretreatment were associated with greater improvement in PTSD symptomatology. Results by treatment condition indicated that women with higher anger at pretreatment were more likely to dropout of PE and that older women in PE and younger women in CPT had the best overall outcomes. These findings have implications for efforts to enhance treatment efficacy and retention in CBT treatment protocols. PMID:19595295

  4. Adverse effects of common medications on male fertility.

    PubMed

    Samplaski, Mary K; Nangia, Ajay K

    2015-07-01

    An increasing number of patients require long-term medication regimens at a young age, but the adverse effects of medications on male reproduction are often inadequately considered, recognized and investigated. Medications can affect male reproduction through central hormonal effects, direct gonadotoxic effects, effects on sperm function or on sexual function. For example, exogenous testosterone inhibits spermatogenesis through central suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal hormonal axis. 5α-reductase inhibitors can impair sexual function, decrease semen volume and negatively affect sperm parameters, depending on dose and treatment duration. α-Blockers might decrease seminal emission and cause retrograde ejaculation, depending on the receptor specificity and dose of the agent. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors seem to have variable effects based on the isoform inhibited and evidence is conflicting. Antihypertensive and psychotropic agents can affect sperm, sexual function and hormonal parameters. For antibiotics, the literature on effects on sperm and sperm function is limited and dated. Many chemotherapeutic agents have a direct gonadotoxic effect, depending on agents used, dosing and number of treatment cycles. Overall, many medications commonly used in urology can have effects on male fertility (mostly reversible) but conclusive evidence in humans is often limited. Men should be counselled appropriately about potential drug-related adverse effects on their fertility.

  5. Effect on short- and long-term major adverse cardiac events of statin treatment in patients with acute myocardial infarction and renal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sang Yup; Bae, Eun Hui; Choi, Joon Seok; Kim, Chang Seong; Park, Jeong Woo; Ma, Seong Kwon; Jeong, Myung Ho; Kim, Soo Wan

    2012-05-15

    The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) reduce major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and mortality in patients with acute coronary syndrome. We investigated the effectiveness of statin therapy in reducing MACE in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and renal dysfunction (RD). In the present retrospective study of 12,853 patients with AMI, the patients were categorized into 4 groups: group I, statin therapy and no RD (estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)); group II, neither statin therapy nor RD; group III, statin therapy and RD; group IV, no statin therapy but RD. The primary end points were death and complications during the hospital course. The secondary end points were MACE during 1 year of follow-up after AMI. Significant differences in the composite MACE during 12 months of follow-up were observed among the 4 groups (group I, 11.7%; group II, 19.0%; group III, 26.7%; and group IV, 45.5%; p <0.001). In a Cox proportional hazards model, mortality at 12 months increased stepwise from group II to IV compared to group I. Moreover, MACE-free survival in the severe RD group (estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) was also greater in the statin-treated group. In conclusion, statin therapy reduced MACE at 1 year of follow-up in patients with AMI regardless of RD.

  6. Submandibular gland tumors. Adverse histologic factors and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Weber, R S; Byers, R M; Petit, B; Wolf, P; Ang, K; Luna, M

    1990-09-01

    We reviewed our 41-year experience with tumors of the submandibular gland to determine what factors influence outcome and their implications for treatment. The most common benign neoplasm was pleomorphic adenoma (21), while among malignant tumors the adenoid cystic variety (37) predominated. For the 86 patients who had malignant tumors, the 2- and 5-year survivals by the life table method were 82% and 69%, respectively. For patients with malignant tumors, histology, size, perineural invasion, and prior treatment did not affect overall survival. Factors adversely affecting outcome were extraglandular soft-tissue extension and lymph node metastasis. Local-regional control was enhanced in patients with soft-tissue extension if they were treated by surgery followed by radiotherapy rather than by surgery alone.

  7. Dynamic Association between Negative Affect and Alcohol Lapses following Alcohol Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Villarroel, Nadia Aracelliz

    2009-01-01

    Clinical research has found a strong association between negative affect and returning to alcohol use after a period of abstinence. Yet little is known about the probability of a lapse given a particular level of negative affect or whether there is a reciprocal relationship between negative affect and alcohol use across time. The goal of the…

  8. Loving-kindness in the treatment of traumatized refugees and minority groups: a typology of mindfulness and the nodal network model of affect and affect regulation.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Devon E; Ojserkis, Rebecca A; Jalal, Baland; Peou, Sonith; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2013-08-01

    This article discusses how loving-kindness can be used to treat traumatized refugees and minority groups, focusing on examples from our treatment, culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy (CA-CBT). To show how we integrate loving-kindness with other mindfulness interventions and why loving-kindness should be an effective therapeutic technique, we present a typology of mindfulness states and the Nodal Network Model (NNM) of Affect and Affect Regulation. We argue that mindfulness techniques such as loving-kindness are therapeutic for refugees and minority populations because of their potential for increasing emotional flexibility, decreasing rumination, serving as emotional regulation techniques, and forming part of a new adaptive processing mode centered on psychological flexibility. We present a case to illustrate the clinical use of loving-kindness within the context of CA-CBT.

  9. Adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs in Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Damasceno, Glauciene Santana; Guaraldo, Lusiele; Engstrom, Elyne Montenegro; Filha, Mariza Miranda Theme; Santos, Reinaldo Souza-; Vasconcelos, Ana Gloria Godoi; Rozenfeld, Suely

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to characterize and estimate the frequency of adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs in the population treated at the Centro de Saúde Escola Germano Sinval Faria, a primary health care clinic in Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro City, and to explore the relationship between adverse drug reactions and some of the patients' demographic and health characteristics. METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted via patient record review of incident cases between 2004 and 2008. RESULTS: Of the 176 patients studied, 41.5% developed one or more adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs, totaling 126 occurrences. The rate of adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs was higher among women, patients aged 50 years or older, those with four or more comorbidities, and those who used five or more drugs. Of the total reactions, 71.4% were mild. The organ systems most affected were as follows: the gastrointestinal tract (29.4%), the skin and appendages (21.4%), and the central and peripheral nervous systems (14.3%). Of the patients who experienced adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs, 65.8% received no drug treatment for their adverse reactions, and 4.1% had one of the antituberculosis drugs suspended because of adverse reactions. “Probable reactions” (75%) predominated over “possible reactions” (24%). In the study sample, 64.3% of the reactions occurred during the first two months of treatment, and most (92.6%) of the reactions were ascribed to the combination of rifampicin + isoniazid + pyrazinamide (Regimen I). A high dropout rate from tuberculosis treatment (24.4%) was also observed. CONCLUSION: This study suggests a high rate of adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs. PMID:23644852

  10. The Impact of Inherited Thrombophilia Types and Low Molecular Weight Heparin Treatment on Pregnancy Complications in Women with Previous Adverse Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Aracic, Nada; Roje, Damir; Jakus, Ivana Alujevic; Bakotin, Marinela

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the distribution of births and spontaneous abortions, first-trimester abortion (FTA) and mid-trimester abortion (MTA), in untreated (n=128) and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) treated pregnancies (n=50) of the same women with inherited thrombophilias and adverse pregnancy outcome (APO) in previous pregnancies. We particularly investigated the impact of LMWH on reducing the pregnancy complications in two thrombophilia types, "Conventional" and "Novel". Materials and Methods 50 women with inherited thrombophilia (26 Conventional and 24 Novel) and APO in previous pregnancies were included in the study. Conventional group included factor V Leiden (FVL), prothrombin G20210A (PT) mutations and antithrombin (AT), protein S (PS), and protein C (PC) deficiency, while the Novel group included methylentetrahydrofolate-reductase (MTHFR), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) polymorphism. APO was defined as one of the following: preterm birth (PTB), fetal growth restriction (FGR), preeclampsia (PE), intrauterine fetal death (IUFD), placental abruption (PA) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Results There was no difference in distribution of births and spontaneous abortions between Conventional and Novel thrombophilia in untreated pregnancies (χ2=2.7; p=0.100) and LMWH treated pregnancies (χ2=0.442; p=0.506). In untreaed pregnancies thrombophilia type did not have any impact on the frequency of FTA and MTA (χ2=0.14; p=0.711). In birth-ended pregnancies LMWH treatement reduced the incidence of IUFD (p=0.011) in Conventional and FGR, IUFD, and PTB in Novel thrombophilia group. Conclusion The equal impact of two thrombophilia types on the pregnancy outcomes and a more favorable effect of LMWH therapy on pregnancy complications in Novel thrombophilia group point the need for Novel thrombophilias screening and the future studies on this issue should be recommended. PMID:27401656

  11. Polymorphisms in the UGT1A1 gene predict adverse effects of irinotecan in the treatment of gynecologic cancer in Japanese patients.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, Akira; Zama, Takeru; Akahane, Tomoko; Nomura, Hiroyuki; Kataoka, Fumio; Saito, Koichiro; Okubo, Keisuke; Tominaga, Eiichiro; Makita, Kazuya; Susumu, Nobuyuki; Kosaki, Kenjiro; Tanigawara, Yusuke; Aoki, Daisuke

    2013-12-01

    Irinotecan is a key chemotherapeutic drug used to treat many tumors, including cervical and ovarian cancers; however, irinotecan can cause toxicity, particularly in the presence of uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) gene polymorphisms, which are associated with reduced enzyme activity. Here, we investigated the prevalence of three different variants of UGT1A1 (UGT1A1*6, UGT1A1*27 and UGT1A1*28) and their relationships with irinotecan-induced adverse events in patients with gynecologic cancer, who are treated with lower doses of irinotecan than patients with other types of solid tumors. Fifty-three female patients treated with irinotecan and 362 female patients not treated with irinotecan were screened for UGT1A1*6, UGT1A1*27 and UGT1A1*28. Homozygosity for UGT1A1*6 or heterozygosity for UGT1A1*6/*28 was associated with a high risk of severe absolute neutrophil count decrease or diarrhea (odds ratios: 16.03 and 31.33, respectively). In contrast, serum bilirubin levels were not associated with irinotecan toxicity. Homozygosity for UGT1A1*6/*6 and heterozygosity for UGT1A1*6/*28 were associated with an increased risk of absolute neutrophil count and/or diarrhea in Japanese gynecologic cancer patients, despite the lower doses of irinotecan used in these patients. UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A1*28 are potential predictors of severe absolute neutrophil decrease and diarrhea caused by low-dose irinotecan in gynecologic cancer patients. PMID:24088669

  12. Adverse reactions to cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Dogra, A; Minocha, Y C; Kaur, S

    2003-01-01

    Adverse reaction to cosmetics constitute a small but significant number of cases of contact dermatitis with varied appearances. These can present as contact allergic dermatitis, photodermatitis, contact irritant dermatitis, contact urticaria, hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentation or depigmentation, hair and nail breakage. Fifty patients were included for the study to assess the role of commonly used cosmetics in causing adverse reactions. It was found that hair dyes, lipsticks and surprisingly shaving creams caused more reaction as compared to other cosmetics. Overall incidence of contact allergic dermatitis seen was 3.3% with patients own cosmetics. Patch testing was also done with the basic ingredients and showed positive results in few cases where casual link could be established. It is recommended that labeling of the cosmetics should be done to help the dermatologists and the patients to identify the causative allergen in cosmetic preparation.

  13. A Preliminary Examination of Negative Affect, Emotion Dysregulation, and Risky Behaviors among Military Veterans in Residential Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicole H.; Williams, Daniel C.; Connolly, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Substance use disorder (SUD) is highly prevalent among military populations and associated with a wide range of negative outcomes. The goal of the present study was to explicate the relations among negative affect, emotion dysregulation, and urges to engage in risky behaviors among military veterans in residential SUD treatment. Emotion dysregulation (overall and three dimensions: access to emotion regulation strategies, impulse control, and emotional awareness) mediated the relation between negative affect and urges to engage in risky behaviors. Findings highlight the potential utility of treatments targeting emotion dysregulation in reducing risky behaviors among military veterans with SUD. PMID:27088056

  14. Bioaccessibility of Pb from Ammunition in Game Meat Is Affected by Cooking Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mateo, Rafael; Baos, Ana R.; Vidal, Dolors; Camarero, Pablo R.; Martinez-Haro, Monica; Taggart, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The presence of lead (Pb) ammunition residues in game meat has been widely documented, yet little information exists regarding the bioaccessibility of this Pb contamination. We study how cooking treatment (recipe) can affect Pb bioaccessibility in meat of animals hunted with Pb ammunition. Methodology/Principal Findings We used an in vitro gastrointestinal simulation to study bioaccessibility. The simulation was applied to meat from red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) hunted with Pb shot pellets and cooked using various traditional Spanish game recipes involving wine or vinegar. Total Pb concentrations in the meat were higher in samples with visible Pb ammunition by X-ray (mean±SE: 3.29±1.12 µg/g w.w.) than in samples without this evidence (1.28±0.61 µg/g). The percentage of Pb that was bioaccessible within the simulated intestine phase was far higher in meat cooked with vinegar (6.75%) and wine (4.51%) than in uncooked meat (0.7%). Risk assessment simulations using our results transformed to bioavailability and the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic model (IEUBK; US EPA) show that the use of wine instead of vinegar in cooking recipes may reduce the percentage of children that would be expected to have >10 µg/dl of Pb in blood from 2.08% to 0.26% when game meat represents 50% of the meat in diet. Conclusions/Significance Lead from ammunition in game meat is more bioaccessible after cooking, especially when using highly acidic recipes. These results are important because existing theoretical models regarding Pb uptake and subsequent risk in humans should take such factors into account. PMID:21264290

  15. Early life adversity and the epigenetic programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function.

    PubMed

    Anacker, Christoph; O'Donnell, Kieran J; Meaney, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    We review studies with human and nonhuman species that examine the hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms, particularly those affecting the expression of genes implicated in stress responses, mediate the association between early childhood adversity and later risk of depression. The resulting studies provide evidence consistent with the idea that social adversity, particularly that involving parent-offspring interactions, alters the epigenetic state and expression of a wide range of genes, the products of which regulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function. We also address the challenges for future studies, including that of the translation of epigenetic studies towards improvements in treatments.

  16. Adverse effects of cannabis.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis, Cannabis sativa L., is used to produce a resin that contains high levels of cannabinoids, particularly delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are psychoactive substances. Although cannabis use is illegal in France and in many other countries, it is widely used for its relaxing or euphoric effects, especially by adolescents and young adults. What are the adverse effects of cannabis on health? During consumption? And in the long term? Does cannabis predispose users to the development of psychotic disorders? To answer these questions, we reviewed the available evidence using the standard Prescrire methodology. The long-term adverse effects of cannabis are difficult to evaluate. Since and associated substances, with or without the user's knowledge. Tobacco and alcohol consumption, and particular lifestyles and behaviours are often associated with cannabis use. Some traits predispose individuals to the use of psychoactive substances in general. The effects of cannabis are dosedependent.The most frequently report-ed adverse effects are mental slowness, impaired reaction times, and sometimes accentuation of anxiety. Serious psychological disorders have been reported with high levels of intoxication. The relationship between poor school performance and early, regular, and frequent cannabis use seems to be a vicious circle, in which each sustains the other. Many studies have focused on the long-term effects of cannabis on memory, but their results have been inconclusive. There do not * About fifteen longitudinal cohort studies that examined the influence of cannabis on depressive thoughts or suicidal ideation have yielded conflicting results and are inconclusive. Several longitudinal cohort studies have shown a statistical association between psychotic illness and self-reported cannabis use. However, the results are difficult to interpret due to methodological problems, particularly the unknown reliability of self-reported data. It has not been possible to

  17. Adverse effects of cannabis.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis, Cannabis sativa L., is used to produce a resin that contains high levels of cannabinoids, particularly delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are psychoactive substances. Although cannabis use is illegal in France and in many other countries, it is widely used for its relaxing or euphoric effects, especially by adolescents and young adults. What are the adverse effects of cannabis on health? During consumption? And in the long term? Does cannabis predispose users to the development of psychotic disorders? To answer these questions, we reviewed the available evidence using the standard Prescrire methodology. The long-term adverse effects of cannabis are difficult to evaluate. Since and associated substances, with or without the user's knowledge. Tobacco and alcohol consumption, and particular lifestyles and behaviours are often associated with cannabis use. Some traits predispose individuals to the use of psychoactive substances in general. The effects of cannabis are dosedependent.The most frequently report-ed adverse effects are mental slowness, impaired reaction times, and sometimes accentuation of anxiety. Serious psychological disorders have been reported with high levels of intoxication. The relationship between poor school performance and early, regular, and frequent cannabis use seems to be a vicious circle, in which each sustains the other. Many studies have focused on the long-term effects of cannabis on memory, but their results have been inconclusive. There do not * About fifteen longitudinal cohort studies that examined the influence of cannabis on depressive thoughts or suicidal ideation have yielded conflicting results and are inconclusive. Several longitudinal cohort studies have shown a statistical association between psychotic illness and self-reported cannabis use. However, the results are difficult to interpret due to methodological problems, particularly the unknown reliability of self-reported data. It has not been possible to

  18. Client Preferences Affect Treatment Satisfaction, Completion, and Clinical Outcome: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Bennett, Charles B.; Trentacosta, Christopher J.; McLear, Caitlin

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis on the effects of client preferences on treatment satisfaction, completion, and clinical outcome. Our search of the literature resulted in 34 empirical articles describing 32 unique clinical trials that either randomized some clients to an active choice condition (shared decision making condition or choice of treatment) or assessed client preferences. Clients who were involved in shared decision making, chose a treatment condition, or otherwise received their preferred treatment evidenced higher treatment satisfaction (ESd = .34; p < .001), increased completion rates (ESOR = 1.37; ESd = .17; p < .001), and superior clinical outcome (ESd = .15; p < .0001), compared to clients who were not involved in shared decision making, did not choose a treatment condition, or otherwise did not receive their preferred treatment. Although the effect sizes are modest in magnitude, they were generally consistent across several potential moderating variables including study design (preference versus active choice), psychoeducation (informed versus uninformed), setting (inpatient versus outpatient), client diagnosis (mental health versus other), and unit of randomization (client versus provider). Our findings highlight the clinical benefit of assessing client preferences, providing treatment choices when two or more efficacious options are available, and involving clients in treatment-related decisions when treatment options are not available. PMID:25189522

  19. Vaccine adverse events.

    PubMed

    Follows, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Millions of adults are vaccinated annually against the seasonal influenza virus. An undetermined number of individuals will develop adverse events to the influenza vaccination. Those who suffer substantiated vaccine injuries, disabilities, and aggravated conditions may file a timely, no-fault and no-cost petition for financial compensation under the National Vaccine Act in the Vaccine Court. The elements of a successful vaccine injury claim are described in the context of a claim showing the seasonal influenza vaccination was the cause of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

  20. [Adverse events prevention ability].

    PubMed

    Aparo, Ugo Luigi; Aparo, Andrea

    2007-03-01

    The issue of how to address medical errors is the key to improve the health care system performances. Operational evidence collected in the last five years shows that the solution is only partially linked to future technological developments. Cultural and organisational changes are mandatory to help to manage and drastically reduce the adverse events in health care organisations. Classical management, merely based on coordination and control, is inadequate. Proactive, self-organising network based structures must be put in place and managed using adaptive, fast evolving management tools. PMID:17484160

  1. [Adverse events prevention ability].

    PubMed

    Aparo, Ugo Luigi; Aparo, Andrea

    2007-03-01

    The issue of how to address medical errors is the key to improve the health care system performances. Operational evidence collected in the last five years shows that the solution is only partially linked to future technological developments. Cultural and organisational changes are mandatory to help to manage and drastically reduce the adverse events in health care organisations. Classical management, merely based on coordination and control, is inadequate. Proactive, self-organising network based structures must be put in place and managed using adaptive, fast evolving management tools.

  2. Influence of a Dissection Video Clip on Anxiety, Affect, and Self-Efficacy in Educational Dissection: A Treatment Study

    PubMed Central

    Randler, Christoph; Demirhan, Eda; Wüst-Ackermann, Peter; Desch, Inga H.

    2016-01-01

    In science education, dissections of animals are an integral part of teaching, but they often evoke negative emotions. We aimed at reducing negative emotions (anxiety, negative affect [NA]) and increasing positive affect (PA) and self-efficacy by an experimental intervention using a predissection video to instruct students about fish dissection. We compared this treatment with another group that watched a life history video about the fish. The participants were 135 students studying to become biology teachers. Seventy received the treatment with the dissection video, and 65 viewed the life history video. We applied a pre/posttest treatment-comparison design and used the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the State–Trait–Anxiety Inventory for State (STAI-S), and a self-efficacy measure three times: before the lesson (pretest), after the film treatment (posttest 1), and after the dissection (posttest 2). The dissection film group scored higher in PA, NA, and state anxiety (STAI-S) after the dissection video treatment and higher in self-efficacy after the dissection. The life history group showed no differences between the pretest and posttest 1. The dissection film has clear benefits—increasing PA and self-efficacy—that come at the cost of higher NA and higher STAI-S. PMID:27290738

  3. When idols look into the future: fair treatment modulates the affective forecasting error in talent show candidates.

    PubMed

    Feys, Marjolein; Anseel, Frederik

    2015-03-01

    People's affective forecasts are often inaccurate because they tend to overestimate how they will feel after an event. As life decisions are often based on affective forecasts, it is crucial to find ways to manage forecasting errors. We examined the impact of a fair treatment on forecasting errors in candidates in a Belgian reality TV talent show. We found that perceptions of fair treatment increased the forecasting error for losers (a negative audition decision) but decreased it for winners (a positive audition decision). For winners, this effect was even more pronounced when candidates were highly invested in their self-view as a future pop idol whereas for losers, the effect was more pronounced when importance was low. The results in this study point to a potential paradox between maximizing happiness and decreasing forecasting errors. A fair treatment increased the forecasting error for losers, but actually made them happier. PMID:24548171

  4. When idols look into the future: fair treatment modulates the affective forecasting error in talent show candidates.

    PubMed

    Feys, Marjolein; Anseel, Frederik

    2015-03-01

    People's affective forecasts are often inaccurate because they tend to overestimate how they will feel after an event. As life decisions are often based on affective forecasts, it is crucial to find ways to manage forecasting errors. We examined the impact of a fair treatment on forecasting errors in candidates in a Belgian reality TV talent show. We found that perceptions of fair treatment increased the forecasting error for losers (a negative audition decision) but decreased it for winners (a positive audition decision). For winners, this effect was even more pronounced when candidates were highly invested in their self-view as a future pop idol whereas for losers, the effect was more pronounced when importance was low. The results in this study point to a potential paradox between maximizing happiness and decreasing forecasting errors. A fair treatment increased the forecasting error for losers, but actually made them happier.

  5. Do postfire mulching treatments affect plant community recovery in California coastal sage scrub lands?

    PubMed

    McCullough, Sarah A; Endress, Bryan A

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the use of postfire mulch treatments to stabilize slopes and reduce soil erosion in shrubland ecosystems has increased; however, the potential effects on plant recovery have not been examined. To evaluate the effects of mulching treatments on postfire plant recovery in southern California coastal sage scrub, we conducted a field experiment with three experimental treatments, consisting of two hydromulch products and an erosion control blanket, plus a control treatment. The area burned in 2007, and treatments were applied to six plot blocks before the 2008 growing season. Treatment effects on plant community recovery were analyzed with a mixed effects ANOVA analysis using a univariate repeated measures approach. Absolute plant cover increased from 13 to 90% by the end of the second growing season, and the mean relative cover of exotic species was 32%. The two hydromulch treatments had no effect on any plant community recovery response variable measured. For the erosion control blanket treatment, the amount of bare ground cover at the end of the second growing season was significantly lower (P = 0.01), and greater shrub height was observed (P < 0.01). We conclude that postfire mulch treatments did not provide either a major benefit or negative impact to coastal sage scrub recovery on the study area.

  6. [Stomatal response of spring wheat and related affecting factors under different irrigation treatment].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Feng-Yun; Chai, Shou-Xi

    2010-01-01

    Taking three spring wheat cultivars as test materials, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different irrigation treatments on the stomatal conductance of the cultivars during their growth period, with the relationships between the stomatal conductance and the environmental factors analyzed. On the basis of winter irrigation with 1800 m3 x hm(-2) of water, three irrigation treatments, i. e., irrigating three times (T1), two times (T2), and once (T3) during spring wheat growth period, were installed, with 1050 m3 x hm(-2) of irrigation water each time. All irrigation treatments had greater effects on the stomatal conductance, which was decreased with the decreasing times of irrigation, and varied with the cultivars. From jointing stage to florescence, the stomatal conductance in all treatments had the same variation trend, i. e., decreased after an initial increase, and reached the peak at heading stage. After florescence, difference occurred among the treatments. In treatment T1, the stomatal conductance of all test cultivars increased after an initial decrease; in treatment T2, the variation patterns of stomatal conductance differed with cultivars; while in treatment T3, the conductance of all cultivars decreased all along. Among the environmental factors, relative atmospheric humidity had the greatest effects on the stomatal conductance, and their correlation coefficient in treatments T2 and T3 reached significant (0.82) and very significant (0.92* *), respectively. The stomatal regulation mechanism of spring wheat adapting to water deficit in Hexi corridor was of feedback manner.

  7. Screening for adverse events.

    PubMed

    Karson, A S; Bates, D W

    1999-02-01

    Adverse events (AEs) in medical patients are common, costly, and often preventable. Development of quality improvement programs to decrease the number and impact of AEs demands effective methods for screening for AEs on a routine basis. Here we describe the impact, types, and potential causes of AEs and review various techniques for identifying AEs. We evaluate the use of generic screening criteria in detail and describe a recent study of the sensitivity and specificity of individual generic screening criteria and combinations of these criteria. In general, the most sensitive screens were the least specific and no small sub-set of screens identified a large percentage of adverse events. Combinations of screens that were limited to administrative data were the least expensive, but none were particularly sensitive, although in practice they might be effective since routine screening is currently rarely done. As computer systems increase in sophistication sensitivity will improve. We also discuss recent studies that suggest that programs that screen for and identify AEs can be useful in reducing AE rates. While tools for identifying AEs have strengths and weaknesses, they can play an important role in organizations' quality improvement portfolios. PMID:10468381

  8. Chylous Ascites: A Rare Adverse Effect of Methimazole Treatment for Grave's Disease—A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Tawfik; Schneider, Ronen

    2015-01-01

    A 40-year-old woman was admitted due to an urticarial rash that was attributed to recent onset of methimazole treatment for a diagnosis of Grave's disease. The patient had no prior significant medical history and used no medications, including over-the-counter or herbal medications. Her sister had Grave's disease. On admission, the patient received corticosteroids with improvement in her rash. On the second day of the hospitalization, the patient complained of abdominal discomfort. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a large amount of new onset ascites. Peritoneal tap yielded a milky fluid with high triglyceride level (12.2 mmol/L or 1080 mg/dL), consistent with chylous ascites. After discontinuation of the methimazole, the ascites disappeared. The patient later underwent therapeutic thyroidectomy, after which all features of thyrotoxicosis had improved. PMID:26366308

  9. How Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment Unit Director Activities May Affect Provision of Community Outreach Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Alexander, Jeffrey; Green, Sherri

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Community outreach services play an important role in infectious disease prevention and engaging drug users not currently in treatment. However, fewer than half of US substance abuse treatment units provide these services and many have little financial incentive to do so. Unit directors generally have latitude about scope of services,…

  10. Treatment Preferences Affect the Therapeutic Alliance: Implications for Randomized Controlled Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iacoviello, Brian M.; McCarthy, Kevin Scott; Barrett, Marna S.; Rynn, Moira; Gallop, Robert; Barber, Jacques P.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of treatment preferences on the development of the therapeutic alliance was investigated. Seventy-five patients were followed while participating in a randomized controlled trial comparing supportive-expressive psychotherapy with sertraline or pill placebo in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Therapeutic alliance was…

  11. Alkaline peroxide treatment induces acquired unruly hair by apparently affecting distinct macrofibrils.

    PubMed

    Nawa, Teppei; Kawaguchi, Aiko; Kitano, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Toshihiko; Fujinami, So; Asao, Naoki; Nakajima, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Individual hairs can be inherently curly; however, bleach treatment can cause damaged hairs to acquire a curl, a phenomenon we term acquired unintentional unruly hair. Because there have been no reports concerning acquired unintentional unruly hair, the influence of bleach treatment with alkaline peroxide that produce this phenomenon was investigated. First, it was validated that the radius of curvature in many curly hairs is reduced upon bleach treatment. Next, the influence of bleach treatment on the mechanical properties of inner components was studied by the force curve method using atomic force microscopy. This measurement revealed four types of macrofibrils-on the orthocortex- or the paracortex-like structure, and on the concave or the convex side-have different mechanical properties. Macrofibrils on the orthocortex-like structure on the convex side were especially influenced by alkaline peroxide treatment, and may be particularly important to acquired unintentional unruly hair.

  12. Alkaline peroxide treatment induces acquired unruly hair by apparently affecting distinct macrofibrils.

    PubMed

    Nawa, Teppei; Kawaguchi, Aiko; Kitano, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Toshihiko; Fujinami, So; Asao, Naoki; Nakajima, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Individual hairs can be inherently curly; however, bleach treatment can cause damaged hairs to acquire a curl, a phenomenon we term acquired unintentional unruly hair. Because there have been no reports concerning acquired unintentional unruly hair, the influence of bleach treatment with alkaline peroxide that produce this phenomenon was investigated. First, it was validated that the radius of curvature in many curly hairs is reduced upon bleach treatment. Next, the influence of bleach treatment on the mechanical properties of inner components was studied by the force curve method using atomic force microscopy. This measurement revealed four types of macrofibrils-on the orthocortex- or the paracortex-like structure, and on the concave or the convex side-have different mechanical properties. Macrofibrils on the orthocortex-like structure on the convex side were especially influenced by alkaline peroxide treatment, and may be particularly important to acquired unintentional unruly hair. PMID:23931089

  13. P-glycoprotein activity in the blood-brain barrier is affected by virus-induced neuroinflammation and antipsychotic treatment.

    PubMed

    Doorduin, Janine; de Vries, Erik F J; Dierckx, Rudi A; Klein, Hans C

    2014-10-01

    A large percentage of schizophrenic patients respond poorly to antipsychotic treatment. This could be explained by inefficient drug transport across the blood-brain barrier due to P-glycoprotein mediated efflux. P-glycoprotein activity and expression in the blood-brain barrier can be affected by inflammation and pharmacotherapy. We therefore investigated the effect of herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) induced neuroinflammation and antipsychotic treatment on P-glycoprotein activity. Rats were inoculated with HSV-1 or PBS (control) on day 0 and treated with saline, clozapine or risperidone from day 0 up until day 4 post-inoculation. Positron emission tomography with the P-glycoprotein substrate [11C]verapamil was used to assess P-glycoprotein activity at day 6 post-inoculation. Disease symptoms in HSV-1 inoculated rats increased over time and were not significantly affected by treatment. The volume of distribution (VT) of [11C]verapamil was significantly lower (10-22%) in HSV-1 inoculated rats than in control rats. In addition, antipsychotic treatment significantly affected the VT of [11C]verapamil in all brain regions, although this effect was drug dependent. In fact, VT of [11C]verapamil was significantly increased (22-39%) in risperidone treated rats in most brain regions when compared to clozapine treated rats and in midbrain when compared to saline treated rats. No interaction between HSV-1 inoculation and antipsychotic treatment on VT of [11C]verapamil was found. In this study we demonstrated that HSV-1 induced neuroinflammation increased and risperidone treatment decreased P-glycoprotein activity. This finding is of importance for the understanding of treatment resistance in schizophrenia, and warrants further investigation of the underlying mechanism and the importance in clinical practice.

  14. Pharmacogenomics of statins: understanding susceptibility to adverse effects

    PubMed Central

    Kitzmiller, Joseph P; Mikulik, Eduard B; Dauki, Anees M; Murkherjee, Chandrama; Luzum, Jasmine A

    2016-01-01

    Statins are a cornerstone of the pharmacologic treatment and prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerotic disease is a predominant cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Statins are among the most commonly prescribed classes of medications, and their prescribing indications and target patient populations have been significantly expanded in the official guidelines recently published by the American and European expert panels. Adverse effects of statin pharmacotherapy, however, result in significant cost and morbidity and can lead to nonadherence and discontinuation of therapy. Statin-associated muscle symptoms occur in ~10% of patients on statins and constitute the most commonly reported adverse effect associated with statin pharmacotherapy. Substantial clinical and nonclinical research effort has been dedicated to determining whether genetics can provide meaningful insight regarding an individual patient’s risk of statin adverse effects. This contemporary review of the relevant clinical research on polymorphisms in several key genes that affect statin pharmacokinetics (eg, transporters and metabolizing enzymes), statin efficacy (eg, drug targets and pathways), and end-organ toxicity (eg, myopathy pathways) highlights several promising pharmacogenomic candidates. However, SLCO1B1 521C is currently the only clinically relevant pharmacogenetic test regarding statin toxicity, and its relevance is limited to simvastatin myopathy. PMID:27757045

  15. Low Temperature Treatment Affects Concentration and Distribution of Chrysanthemum Stunt Viroid in Argyranthemum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhibo; Lee, YeonKyeong; Sivertsen, Astrid; Skjeseth, Gry; Haugslien, Sissel; Clarke, Jihong Liu; Wang, Qiao-Chun; Blystad, Dag-Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) can infect Argyranthemum and cause serious economic loss. Low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture has been applied to eradicate viroids from their hosts, but without success in eliminating CSVd from diseased Argyranthemum. The objectives of this work were to investigate (1) the effect of low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture on elimination of CSVd, (2) the effect of low temperature treatment on CSVd distribution pattern in shoot apical meristem (SAM), and (3) CSVd distribution in flowers and stems of two infected Argyranthemum cultivars. After treatment with low temperature combined with meristem tip culture, two CSVd-free plants were found in 'Border Dark Red', but none in 'Yellow Empire'. With the help of in situ hybridization, we found that CSVd distribution patterns in the SAM showed no changes in diseased 'Yellow Empire' following 5°C treatment, compared with non-treated plants. However, the CSVd-free area in SAM was enlarged in diseased 'Border Dark Red' following prolonged 5°C treatment. Localization of CSVd in the flowers and stems of infected 'Border Dark Red' and 'Yellow Empire' indicated that seeds could not transmit CSVd in these two cultivars, and CSVd existed in phloem. Results obtained in the study contributed to better understanding of the distribution of CSVd in systemically infected plants and the combination of low temperature treatment and meristem tip culture for production of viroid-free plants. PMID:26973607

  16. Low Temperature Treatment Affects Concentration and Distribution of Chrysanthemum Stunt Viroid in Argyranthemum

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhibo; Lee, YeonKyeong; Sivertsen, Astrid; Skjeseth, Gry; Haugslien, Sissel; Clarke, Jihong Liu; Wang, Qiao-Chun; Blystad, Dag-Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) can infect Argyranthemum and cause serious economic loss. Low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture has been applied to eradicate viroids from their hosts, but without success in eliminating CSVd from diseased Argyranthemum. The objectives of this work were to investigate (1) the effect of low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture on elimination of CSVd, (2) the effect of low temperature treatment on CSVd distribution pattern in shoot apical meristem (SAM), and (3) CSVd distribution in flowers and stems of two infected Argyranthemum cultivars. After treatment with low temperature combined with meristem tip culture, two CSVd-free plants were found in ‘Border Dark Red’, but none in ‘Yellow Empire’. With the help of in situ hybridization, we found that CSVd distribution patterns in the SAM showed no changes in diseased ‘Yellow Empire’ following 5°C treatment, compared with non-treated plants. However, the CSVd-free area in SAM was enlarged in diseased ‘Border Dark Red’ following prolonged 5°C treatment. Localization of CSVd in the flowers and stems of infected ‘Border Dark Red’ and ‘Yellow Empire’ indicated that seeds could not transmit CSVd in these two cultivars, and CSVd existed in phloem. Results obtained in the study contributed to better understanding of the distribution of CSVd in systemically infected plants and the combination of low temperature treatment and meristem tip culture for production of viroid-free plants. PMID:26973607

  17. Access and Completion of a Web-Based Treatment in a Population-Based Sample of Tornado-Affected Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Price, Matthew; Yuen, Erica; Davidson, Tatiana M.; Hubel, Grace; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Although web-based treatments have significant potential to assess and treat difficult to reach populations, such as trauma-exposed adolescents, the extent that such treatments are accessed and used is unclear. The present study evaluated the proportion of adolescents who accessed and completed a web-based treatment for post-disaster mental health symptoms. Correlates of access and completion were examined. A sample of 2,000 adolescents living in tornado-affected communities was assessed via structured telephone interview and invited to a web-based treatment. The modular treatment addressed symptoms of PTSD, depression, and alcohol and tobacco use. Participants were randomized to experimental or control conditions after accessing the site. Overall access for the intervention was 35.8%. Module completion for those who accessed ranged from 52.8% to 85.6%. Adolescents with parents who used the Internet to obtain health-related information were more likely to access the treatment. Adolescent males were less likely to access the treatment. Future work is needed to identify strategies to further increase the reach of web-based treatments to provide clinical services in a post-disaster context. PMID:25622071

  18. Access and completion of a Web-based treatment in a population-based sample of tornado-affected adolescents.

    PubMed

    Price, Matthew; Yuen, Erica K; Davidson, Tatiana M; Hubel, Grace; Ruggiero, Kenneth J

    2015-08-01

    Although Web-based treatments have significant potential to assess and treat difficult-to-reach populations, such as trauma-exposed adolescents, the extent that such treatments are accessed and used is unclear. The present study evaluated the proportion of adolescents who accessed and completed a Web-based treatment for postdisaster mental health symptoms. Correlates of access and completion were examined. A sample of 2,000 adolescents living in tornado-affected communities was assessed via structured telephone interview and invited to a Web-based treatment. The modular treatment addressed symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and alcohol and tobacco use. Participants were randomized to experimental or control conditions after accessing the site. Overall access for the intervention was 35.8%. Module completion for those who accessed ranged from 52.8% to 85.6%. Adolescents with parents who used the Internet to obtain health-related information were more likely to access the treatment. Adolescent males were less likely to access the treatment. Future work is needed to identify strategies to further increase the reach of Web-based treatments to provide clinical services in a postdisaster context.

  19. Access and completion of a Web-based treatment in a population-based sample of tornado-affected adolescents.

    PubMed

    Price, Matthew; Yuen, Erica K; Davidson, Tatiana M; Hubel, Grace; Ruggiero, Kenneth J

    2015-08-01

    Although Web-based treatments have significant potential to assess and treat difficult-to-reach populations, such as trauma-exposed adolescents, the extent that such treatments are accessed and used is unclear. The present study evaluated the proportion of adolescents who accessed and completed a Web-based treatment for postdisaster mental health symptoms. Correlates of access and completion were examined. A sample of 2,000 adolescents living in tornado-affected communities was assessed via structured telephone interview and invited to a Web-based treatment. The modular treatment addressed symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and alcohol and tobacco use. Participants were randomized to experimental or control conditions after accessing the site. Overall access for the intervention was 35.8%. Module completion for those who accessed ranged from 52.8% to 85.6%. Adolescents with parents who used the Internet to obtain health-related information were more likely to access the treatment. Adolescent males were less likely to access the treatment. Future work is needed to identify strategies to further increase the reach of Web-based treatments to provide clinical services in a postdisaster context. PMID:25622071

  20. The Useage of Opioids and their Adverse Effects in Gastrointestinal Practice: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Khansari, MahmoudReza; Sohrabi, MasourReza; Zamani, Farhad

    2013-01-01

    Opium is one of the oldest herbal medicines currently used as an analgesic, sedative and antidiarrheal treatment. The effects of opium are principally mediated by the μ-, κ- and δ-opioid receptors. Opioid substances consist of all natural and synthetic alkaloids that are derived from opium. Most of their effects on gastrointestinal motility and secretion result from suppression of neural activity. Inhibition of gastric emptying, increase in sphincter tone, changes in motor patterns, and blockage of peristalsis result from opioid use. Common adverse effects of opioid administration include sedation, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, constipation, dependency and tolerance, and respiratory depression. The most common adverse effect of opioid use is constipation. Although stool softeners are frequently used to decrease opioid-induced bowel dysfunction, however they are not efficacious. Possibly, the use of specific opioid receptor antagonists is a more suitable approach. Opioid antagonists, both central and peripheral, could affect gastrointestinal function and visceromotor sensitivity, which suggests an important role for endogenous opioid peptides in the control of gastrointestinal physiology. Underlying diseases or medications known to influence the central nervous system (CNS) often accelerate the opioid’s adverse effects. However, changing the opioid and/or route of administration could also decrease their adverse effects. Appropriate patient selection, patient education and discussion regarding potential adverse effects may assist physicians in maximizing the effectiveness of opioids, while reducing the number and severity of adverse effects. PMID:24829664

  1. ISMP Adverse Drug Reactions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this feature is to heighten awareness of specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discuss methods of prevention, and promote reporting of ADRs to the US Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) MedWatch program (800-FDA-1088). If you have reported an interesting, preventable ADR to MedWatch, please consider sharing the account with our readers. Write to Dr. Mancano at ISMP, 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite 200, Horsham, PA 19044 (phone: 215-707-4936; e-mail: mmancano@temple.edu). Your report will be published anonymously unless otherwise requested. This feature is provided by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) in cooperation with the FDA’s MedWatch program and Temple University School of Pharmacy. ISMP is an FDA MedWatch partner. PMID:24421544

  2. Inaccurate perception of asthma symptoms: a cognitive-affective framework and implications for asthma treatment.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Thomas; Verleden, Geert; De Peuter, Steven; Van Diest, Ilse; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2009-06-01

    Inaccurate perception of respiratory symptoms is often found in asthma patients. Typically, patients who inaccurately perceive asthma symptoms are divided into underperceivers and overperceivers. In this paper we point out that this division is problematic. We argue that little evidence exists for a trait-like stability of under- and overperception and that accuracy of respiratory symptom perception is highly variable within persons and strongly influenced by contextual information. Particularly, expectancy and affective cues appear to have a powerful influence on symptom accuracy. Based on these findings and incorporating recent work on associative learning, attention and mental representations in anxiety and symptom perception, we propose a cognitive-affective model of symptom perception in asthma. The model can act as a framework to understand both normal perception as well as under- and overperception of asthma symptoms and can guide the development of affect-related interventions to improve perceptual accuracy, asthma control and quality of life in asthma patients. PMID:19285771

  3. Quality and antioxidant properties on sweet cherries as affected by preharvest salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids treatments.

    PubMed

    Giménez, María José; Valverde, Juan Miguel; Valero, Daniel; Guillén, Fabián; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Serrano, María; Castillo, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    The effects of salicylic acid (SA) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatments during on-tree cherry growth and ripening on fruit quality attributes, especially those related with the content on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity were analysed in this research. For this purpose, two sweet cherry cultivars, 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', were used and SA or ASA treatments, at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mM concentrations, were applied at three key points of fruit development (pit hardening, initial colour changes and onset of ripening). These treatments increased fruit weight and ameliorated quality attributes at commercial harvest, and led to cherries with higher concentration in total phenolics and in total anthocyanins, as well as higher antioxidant activity, in both hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions. Thus, preharvest treatments with SA or ASA could be promising tools to improve sweet cherry quality and health beneficial effects for consumers. PMID:24799232

  4. Quality and antioxidant properties on sweet cherries as affected by preharvest salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids treatments.

    PubMed

    Giménez, María José; Valverde, Juan Miguel; Valero, Daniel; Guillén, Fabián; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Serrano, María; Castillo, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    The effects of salicylic acid (SA) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatments during on-tree cherry growth and ripening on fruit quality attributes, especially those related with the content on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity were analysed in this research. For this purpose, two sweet cherry cultivars, 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', were used and SA or ASA treatments, at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mM concentrations, were applied at three key points of fruit development (pit hardening, initial colour changes and onset of ripening). These treatments increased fruit weight and ameliorated quality attributes at commercial harvest, and led to cherries with higher concentration in total phenolics and in total anthocyanins, as well as higher antioxidant activity, in both hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions. Thus, preharvest treatments with SA or ASA could be promising tools to improve sweet cherry quality and health beneficial effects for consumers.

  5. Repeated treatment with oxytocin promotes hippocampal cell proliferation, dendritic maturation and affects socio-emotional behavior.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Vidaña, Dalinda Isabel; Chan, Ngai-Man Jackie; Chan, Alan H L; Hui, Katy K Y; Lee, Sylvia; Chan, Hoi-Yi; Law, Yuen Shan; Sze, Mei Yi; Tsui, Wai-Ching Sarah; Fung, Timothy K H; Lau, Benson Wui-Man; Lai, Cynthia Y Y

    2016-10-01

    Rewarding social behaviors including positive social interactions and sexual behaviors are shown to regulate adult neurogenesis, but the underlying biological mechanisms remain elusive. Oxytocin, a neurohypophysial hormone secreted after exposure to social interaction or sexual behaviors, has a profound role in the formation of social bonding and regulation of emotional distress. While the acute effect of oxytocin was usually studied, relatively scarce evidence showed the behavioral consequence of repeated oxytocin treatment. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of repeated oxytocin treatment on hippocampal cell proliferation, dendritic maturation of new born neurons and social/emotional behaviors. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received treatment with either vehicle or oxytocin (1mg/kg) daily for two weeks. Behavioral tests revealed that oxytocin increased social behaviors and reduced the anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Cell proliferation, differentiation and the dendritic complexity of new born neurons in the hippocampus were promoted by oxytocin treatment. Depression- and anxiety-like behaviors were induced by repeated treatment of corticosterone (40mg/kg) for two weeks while oxytocin treatment reversed the behavioral disturbances. Suppression of cell proliferation caused by corticosterone was reverted by oxytocin treatment in which cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and dendritic complexity increased. The present findings reveal that oxytocin not only enhances cell proliferation, but also promotes the development of the new neurons which is associated with the induction of positive emotional and social behaviors. The results also suggest that oxytocin may be a potential therapeutic agent for treatment of emotional and social dysfunction. PMID:27418343

  6. Investigation of parameters affecting treatment time in MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'Djin, W. A.; Burtnyk, M.; Chopra, R.; Bronskill, M. J.

    2010-03-01

    MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy shows promise for minimally invasive treatment of localized prostate cancer. Real-time MR temperature feedback enables the 3D control of thermal therapy to define an accurate region within the prostate. Previous in-vivo canine studies showed the feasibility of this method using transurethral planar transducers. The aim of this simulation study was to reduce the procedure time, while maintaining treatment accuracy by investigating new combinations of treatment parameters. A numerical model was used to simulate a multi-element heating applicator rotating inside the urethra in 10 human prostates. Acoustic power and rotation rate were varied based on the feedback of the temperature in the prostate. Several parameters were investigated for improving the treatment time. Maximum acoustic power and rotation rate were optimized interdependently as a function of prostate radius and transducer operating frequency, while avoiding temperatures >90° C in the prostate. Other trials were performed on each parameter separately, with the other parameter fixed. The concept of using dual-frequency transducers was studied, using the fundamental frequency or the 3rd harmonic component depending on the prostate radius. The maximum acoustic power which could be used decreased as a function of the prostate radius and the frequency. Decreasing the frequency (9.7-3.0 MHz) or increasing the power (10-20 W.cm-2) led to treatment times shorter by up to 50% under appropriate conditions. Dual-frequency configurations, while helpful, tended to have less impact on treatment times. Treatment accuracy was maintained and critical adjacent tissues like the rectal wall remained protected. The interdependence between power and frequency may require integrating multi-parametric functions inside the controller for future optimizations. As a first approach, however, even slight modifications of key parameters can be sufficient to reduce treatment time.

  7. Improvement of Oxidative and Metabolic Parameters by Cellfood Administration in Patients Affected by Neurodegenerative Diseases on Chelation Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fulgenzi, Alessandro; Giuseppe, Rachele De; Bamonti, Fabrizia; Ferrero, Maria Elena

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This prospective pilot study aimed at evaluating the effects of therapy with antioxidant compounds (Cellfood, and other antioxidants) on patients affected by neurodegenerative diseases (ND), who displayed toxic metal burden and were subjected to chelation treatment with the chelating agent calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CaNa2EDTA or EDTA). Methods. Two groups of subjects were studied: (a) 39 patients affected by ND and (b) 11 subjects unaffected by ND (controls). The following blood parameters were analyzed before and after three months' treatment with chelation + Cellfood or chelation + other antioxidants: oxidative status (reactive oxygen species, ROS; total antioxidant capacity, TAC; oxidized LDL, oxLDL; glutathione), homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate. Results. After 3-months' chelation + Cellfood administration oxLDL decreased, ROS levels were significantly lower, and TAC and glutathione levels were significantly higher than after chelation + other antioxidants treatment, both in ND patients and in controls. Moreover, homocysteine metabolism had also improved in both groups. Conclusions. Chelation + Cellfood treatment was more efficient than chelation + other antioxidants improving oxidative status and homocysteine metabolism significantly in ND patients and controls. Although limited to a small number of cases, this study showed how helpful antioxidant treatment with Cellfood was in improving the subjects' metabolic conditions. PMID:25114898

  8. Effect of Preweld Heat Treatment on the Microstructure of Heat-Affected Zone (HAZ) and Weldability of Inconel 939 Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Albarrán, M. A.; Martínez, D. I.; Díaz, E.; Díaz, J. C.; Guzman, I.; Saucedo, E.; Guzman, A. Ma.

    2014-04-01

    The effect of two preweld heat treatments on the final microstructure of a heat-affected zone (HAZ) and its effect on the weldability of the superalloy Inconel 939 have been analyzed. The HAZ cracking related to the mechanical driving force criteria during the cooling cycle was directly influenced by the strain state at this zone. Heat treatments result in the formation of (1) irregular γ' precipitates (more negative misfits) which showed higher strain (high density of interfacial dislocations) and (2) spherical precipitates (near-zero misfits) which as a result of their structure improve weldability by reducing weld HAZ cracking considerably.

  9. Comparing a Cognitive Model and Phototherapy in the Treatment of Seasonal Affective Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantz, Sandra

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is characterized by recurrent major depression or bipolar disorder that occurs annually, usually later in fall as the daylight hours decrease, and that alternates with euthymic or hypomanic moods in the spring and summer. Pioneering research by Dr. Norman Rosenthal and associates has found phototherapy to be…

  10. Child-focused treatment of pediatric OCD affects parental behavior and family environment.

    PubMed

    Gorenstein, Gabriela; Gorenstein, Clarice; de Oliveira, Melaine Cristina; Asbahr, Fernando Ramos; Shavitt, Roseli Gedanke

    2015-09-30

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of child-focused pediatric OCD treatment on parental anxiety, family accommodation and family environment. Forty-three parents (72.1% female, mean age±SD=43.1±5.6 years) were evaluated at baseline and after their children's (n=33, 54.5% female, mean age±SD=12.9±2.7 years) randomized treatment with Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy or fluoxetine for 14 weeks. Validated instruments were administered by trained clinicians. Parents were assessed with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Family Accommodation Scale (FAS) and the Family Environment Scale (FES). The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale was administered to children. Significant findings after the children's treatment include decreased family accommodation levels (participation, modification and distress/consequences domains); increased cohesion and active-recreational components of the family environment. In addition, changes in the FAS distress/consequences and the FES cohesion subscores were correlated with the children's clinical improvement. These results suggest that child-focused OCD treatment may have a positive impact on family accommodation and family environment. Future studies should further clarify the reciprocal influences of pediatric OCD treatment and family factors.

  11. How does the radiation therapist affect the cancer patients' experience of the radiation treatment?

    PubMed

    Egestad, H

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies of head and neck cancer patients going through radiation treatment have shown the treatment causes great physical as well as psychosocial problems. Although previous research acknowledges the needs of cancer patients, there is a lack of literature regarding the patient's perspective about radiation therapy. Studies have rarely focused on the whole experience of radiation treatment. The aim of this study was to illuminate how head and neck cancer patients' encounters with radiation therapists influence patients' experiences going through radiation therapy. The study was conducted via qualitative interviews, using a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. Eleven cancer patients were treated with radiation therapy. This study showed that encounters with radiation therapists have a significant influence on patients' experiences. Cancer patients' contact with radiation therapists can lead to increases or decreases in existential anxiety. When patients experience that the radiation therapist is professionally competent, the existential anxiety decreases. When the radiation therapist make time to build relationships and take responsibility for treatment and side effects, this creates a feeling of security and the treatment is easier to review. The study may indicate that the patients' existential anxiety increases when the radiation therapist shows professional incompetence. PMID:23731059

  12. Thermal treatment of bentonite reduces aflatoxin b1 adsorption and affects stem cell death.

    PubMed

    Nones, Janaína; Nones, Jader; Riella, Humberto Gracher; Poli, Anicleto; Trentin, Andrea Gonçalves; Kuhnen, Nivaldo Cabral

    2015-10-01

    Bentonites are clays that highly adsorb aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and, therefore, protect human and animal cells from damage. We have recently demonstrated that bentonite protects the neural crest (NC) stem cells from the toxicity of AFB1. Its protective effects are due to the physico-chemical properties and chemical composition altered by heat treatment. The aim of this study is to prepare and characterize the natural and thermal treatments (125 to 1000 °C) of bentonite from Criciúma, Santa Catarina, Brazil and to investigate their effects in the AFB1 adsorption and in NC cell viability after challenging with AFB1. The displacement of water and mineralogical phases transformations were observed after the thermal treatments. Kaolinite disappeared at 500 °C and muscovite and montmorillonite at 1000 °C. Slight changes in morphology, chemical composition, and density of bentonite were observed. The adsorptive capacity of the bentonite particles progressively reduced with the increase in temperature. The observed alterations in the structure of bentonite suggest that the heat treatments influence its interlayer distance and also its adsorptive capacity. Therefore, bentonite, even after the thermal treatment (125 to 1000 °C), is able to increase the viability of NC stem cells previously treated with AFB1. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of bentonite in preventing the toxic effects of AFB1.

  13. Shade treatment affects structure and recovery of invasive C4 African grass Echinochloa pyramidalis

    PubMed Central

    López Rosas, Hugo; Moreno-Casasola, Patricia; Espejel González, Verónica E

    2015-01-01

    Echinochloa pyramidalis (Lam.) Hitchc. & Chase is an African grass with C4 photosynthesis, high biomass production, and high vegetative propagation that is tolerant to grazing and able to grow in flooded and dry conditions. Thus, it is highly invasive in tropical freshwater marshes where it is intentionally planted by ranchers to increase cattle production. This invasion is reducing plant biodiversity by increasing the invader's aerial coverage, changing wetland hydrology and causing soil physicochemical changes such as vertical accretion. Reducing the dominance of this species and increasing the density of native wetland species is a difficult, expensive, and time-consuming process. We applied a series of disturbance treatments aimed at eliminating E. pyramidalis and recovering the native vegetation of a partially invaded freshwater marsh. Treatments included physical (cutting, soil disking, transplanting individuals of the key native species Sagittaria lancifolia subsp. media (Micheli) Bogin, and/or reducing light with shade mesh) and/or chemical (spraying Round-Up™ herbicide) disturbances. At the end of the experiment, four of the five treatments used were effective in increasing the cover and biomass of native species and reducing that of E. pyramidalis. The combination of these treatments should be used to generate a proposal for the restoration of tropical wetlands invaded by non-native grasses. A promising treatment is using soil disked to soften the soil and destroy belowground structures such as roots and rhizomes. This treatment would be more promising if combined with the use of shade cloth. If it is desirable not to impact the soil or if there is not enough budget to make an effort to include active restoration disking soil, the use of shade cloth will suffice, although the recovery of native vegetation will be slower. PMID:25859337

  14. Treatment parameters affecting the response of normal brain to photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qun; Chopp, Michael; Dereski, Mary O.; Wilson, Brian C.; Patterson, Michael S.; Kessel, David; Heads, Larry; Hetzel, Fred W.

    1993-06-01

    Different aspects of photodynamic therapy in normal rat brain tissue have been studied, in an effort to understand and improve the dosimetry of this new modality in treatment of brain tumors. dosimetry parameters, including light energy dose, fluence rate and beam size, and drug dosage were studied. PDT induced lesion depth in brain was measured as a biological endpoint. Effective attenuation depth and absolute light fluence rate distribution under superficial irradiation were measured using invasive optical probes. Photosensitizer uptake was quantified using HPLC analysis. The results indicate that normal brain have a high intrinsic sensitivity to PDT treatment, based on the estimated photodynamic threshold.

  15. ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS IN THE ORAL CAVITY.

    PubMed

    Boras, Vanja Vučićević; Andabak-Rogulj, Ana; Brailo, Vlaho; Šimunković, Sonja Kraljević; Gabrić, Dragana; Vrdoljak, Danko Velimir

    2015-06-01

    Every medication may lead to adverse effects, even when used in standard doses and mode of application. In the oral cavity, adverse effects may affect every part of oral mucosa and are the result of medications taken either locally or systemically. Oral adverse reactions to drugs are not typical and therefore sometimes not easy to recognize. On diagnosing adverse side effects in the oral cavity, experienced clinician will usually diagnose the condition on the basis of detailed medical history and clinical finding. However, the only objective evidence for the offending drug is 're-challenge', i.e. exposure to the drug after its discontinuation. It carries a huge risk of anaphylactic reaction; therefore it has to be performed in a controlled hospital setting. Therapy is based on immediate exclusion of the offending drug and, if lesions are present in the oral cavity, topical or systemic corticosteroid therapy is prescribed. This article gives a review of patients with oral adverse drug reactions referred to the Department of Oral Medicine in Zagreb.

  16. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder and Comorbid Affective Disorder: A Pilot Matched Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Thekiso, Thekiso B; Murphy, Philip; Milnes, Jennie; Lambe, Kathryn; Curtin, Aisling; Farren, Conor K

    2015-11-01

    This study examined whether acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) enhances treatment as usual (TAU) in improving treatment outcomes in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid affective disorder. Fifty-two participants were included in the study, of whom 26 were patients with AUD and either depression or bipolar disorder treated with ACT group therapy in parallel with TAU (inpatient integrated treatment) and 26 were matched controls who had received TAU alone. Drinking and craving outcomes were total alcohol abstinence, cumulative abstinence duration (CAD) and Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) scores at 3 and 6 months postintervention. Affective and anxiety outcomes were Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores at these follow-ups. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Retention rates were high: 100% of the ACT group were followed up at 3 and 6 months; 92.3% and 84.6% of the TAU alone group were followed up at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Patients in the ACT group reported significantly higher CAD at 3 and 6 months, significantly lower BDI and BAI scores at 3 and 6 months, and significantly lower OCDS scores at 3 months, than those who received only TAU. No other significant differences in treatment outcomes were found between the groups. ACT provides added benefit to TAU in improving drinking, craving, depression and anxiety outcomes in patients with AUD and comorbid affective disorder. Most treatment improvements were sustained over a 6-month follow-up period. PMID:26520216

  17. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder and Comorbid Affective Disorder: A Pilot Matched Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Thekiso, Thekiso B; Murphy, Philip; Milnes, Jennie; Lambe, Kathryn; Curtin, Aisling; Farren, Conor K

    2015-11-01

    This study examined whether acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) enhances treatment as usual (TAU) in improving treatment outcomes in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid affective disorder. Fifty-two participants were included in the study, of whom 26 were patients with AUD and either depression or bipolar disorder treated with ACT group therapy in parallel with TAU (inpatient integrated treatment) and 26 were matched controls who had received TAU alone. Drinking and craving outcomes were total alcohol abstinence, cumulative abstinence duration (CAD) and Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) scores at 3 and 6 months postintervention. Affective and anxiety outcomes were Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores at these follow-ups. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Retention rates were high: 100% of the ACT group were followed up at 3 and 6 months; 92.3% and 84.6% of the TAU alone group were followed up at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Patients in the ACT group reported significantly higher CAD at 3 and 6 months, significantly lower BDI and BAI scores at 3 and 6 months, and significantly lower OCDS scores at 3 months, than those who received only TAU. No other significant differences in treatment outcomes were found between the groups. ACT provides added benefit to TAU in improving drinking, craving, depression and anxiety outcomes in patients with AUD and comorbid affective disorder. Most treatment improvements were sustained over a 6-month follow-up period.

  18. Adverse reactions and tolerability of high-dose sublingual allergen immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Moral, Angel; Moreno, Victoria; Girón, Francisco; El-Qutob, David; Moure, José D; Alcántara, Manuel; Padial, Antonia; Oehling, Alberto G; Millán, Carmen; de la Torre, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Background Sublingual allergen immunotherapy is an effective treatment against allergic respiratory disease. Many studies have shown the safety of this type of therapy, although the factors that might affect the tolerability of high-dose sublingual immunotherapy have not been well established. The aim of this study was to determine the factors that affect the tolerability of sublingual allergen immunotherapy. Patients and methods A total of 183 subjects aged ≥5 years, diagnosed with allergic rhinitis with/without mild to moderate asthma due to sensitization to grass, olive pollen, or mites, were included in this open, retrospective, multicentric, noninterventional study. Sublingual immunotherapy was administered for at least 3 months. Results The most frequent adverse reaction was oral pruritus (13.7% of the patients). Most of the reactions were local (84.7%) and immediate (93.5%) and occurred during the initiation phase (60.6%). All reactions were mild to moderate in severity. No serious adverse reactions were registered. When comparing factors with potential influence on the occurrence of adverse reactions, the results between the groups of subjects with and without adverse reactions showed no statistically significant differences in sex (P=0.6417), age (P=0.1801), years since the disease was first diagnosed (P=0.3800), treatment composition (P=0.6946), polysensitization (P=0.1730), or clinical diagnosis (P=0.3354). However, it was found that treatment duration had a statistically significant influence (3 months, >3 months: P=0.0442) and the presence of asthma was close to statistical significance (P=0.0847). Conclusion In our study, treatment duration is significantly associated with the occurrence of adverse reactions after the administration of high doses of sublingual allergen immunotherapy. PMID:27418842

  19. Preharvest herbicide treatments affect black bean desiccation, yield, and canned bean color

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field trial was conducted near Richville, Michigan in 2013 and 2014 to evaluate the effects of preharvest herbicide treatments on desiccation, yield, and canned black bean quality and color. Three Type II black bean varieties, Zorro, Eclipse, and Zenith, were planted on two different dates in each...

  20. Biological Effects of a Root Conditioning Treatment on Periodontally Affected Teeth--An In Vitro Analysis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Aline Cristina; Moura, Camilla Christian Gomes; Ferreira, Jessica Afonso; Magalhães, Denildo de; Dechichi, Paula; Soares, Priscilla Barbosa Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluated the root surfaces modifications resulted by application of different chemicals agents, and their influence on the fibrin network and fibroblasts attachment. From 96 anterior mandibular human extracted incisor teeth, 192 dentin blocks of buccal and lingual surface were obtained and randomly divided into 6 groups: Cont- control group, which received no treatment; Root surface scaling and root planing (Srp); Citric acid-Srp; EDTA-Srp; Tetracycline capsule-Srp; Tetracycline gel-Srp. After dentin treatments the specimens were analyzed as follows: 1) demineralization level and residues of the product by scanning electron microscopy (SEM); 2) adhesion of blood components after 20 min of surface treatment by SEM; 3) fibroblast attachment after 24 h by SEM; 4) cell metabolism after 24 h by MTT assay. Data were analyzed using Fisher Exact, One-way ANOVA test followed by Dunn's test, Tukey test and Dunnett test (α=0.05). Citric acid, EDTA and Tetracycline gel resulted in adequate demineralization with no completely smear layer and smear plug removal on root dentin surface. Tetracycline capsule produced great tetracycline residues with several demineralization areas. Tetracycline gel and EDTA groups presented more fibroblast fixation than other experimental groups. The highest mean blood clot adhesion score was observed in roots treated with tetracycline gel. EDTA and Tetracycline gel surface treatment removed the smear layer over dentin surface and promoted adhesion of fibrin network and fibroblast cells attachment.

  1. The CTRB1/2 locus affects diabetes susceptibility and treatment via the incretin pathway.

    PubMed

    't Hart, Leen M; Fritsche, Andreas; Nijpels, Giel; van Leeuwen, Nienke; Donnelly, Louise A; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Alssema, Marjan; Fadista, Joao; Carlotti, Françoise; Gjesing, Anette P; Palmer, Colin N A; van Haeften, Timon W; Herzberg-Schäfer, Silke A; Simonis-Bik, Annemarie M C; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Helmer, Quinta; Deelen, Joris; Guigas, Bruno; Hansen, Torben; Machicao, Fausto; Willemsen, Gonneke; Heine, Robert J; Kramer, Mark H H; Holst, Jens J; de Koning, Eelco J P; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Pedersen, Oluf; Groop, Leif; de Geus, Eco J C; Slagboom, P Eline; Boomsma, Dorret I; Eekhoff, Elisabeth M W; Pearson, Ewan R; Diamant, Michaela

    2013-09-01

    The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) promotes glucose homeostasis and enhances β-cell function. GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, which inhibit the physiological inactivation of endogenous GLP-1, are used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Using the Metabochip, we identified three novel genetic loci with large effects (30-40%) on GLP-1-stimulated insulin secretion during hyperglycemic clamps in nondiabetic Caucasian individuals (TMEM114; CHST3 and CTRB1/2; n = 232; all P ≤ 8.8 × 10(-7)). rs7202877 near CTRB1/2, a known diabetes risk locus, also associated with an absolute 0.51 ± 0.16% (5.6 ± 1.7 mmol/mol) lower A1C response to DPP-4 inhibitor treatment in G-allele carriers, but there was no effect on GLP-1 RA treatment in type 2 diabetic patients (n = 527). Furthermore, in pancreatic tissue, we show that rs7202877 acts as expression quantitative trait locus for CTRB1 and CTRB2, encoding chymotrypsinogen, and increases fecal chymotrypsin activity in healthy carriers. Chymotrypsin is one of the most abundant digestive enzymes in the gut where it cleaves food proteins into smaller peptide fragments. Our data identify chymotrypsin in the regulation of the incretin pathway, development of diabetes, and response to DPP-4 inhibitor treatment. PMID:23674605

  2. Measures of Affect and Nicotine Dependence Predict Differential Response to Smoking Cessation Treatments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelman, Diane C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Randomly assigned smokers (n=126) to six-session smoking cessation treatments consisting of skills training or support counseling strategies and nicotine gum or rapid smoking nicotine exposure strategies. Counseling and nicotine strategies were completely crossed; all four combinations resulted in equivalent one-year abstinence rates. Treatments…

  3. Transcranial magnetotherapy in the complex treatment of affective disorders in patients with alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Staroverov, A T; Vil'yanov, V B; Raigorodskii, Yu M; Rogozina, M A

    2009-06-01

    Transcranial magnetotherapy (TMT) was used in 32 patients with alcoholism (study group) on the background of basal treatment (nootropes, hepatoprotectors, vitamin/mineral formulations, etc.). The influence of this treatment was compared with a control group (30 subjects), in which TMT was replaced with an appropriate (placebo) procedure. All patients, who were aged from 35 to 64 years, had second-degree alcoholism with disease durations of 4-12 years. Patients were in a post-abstinence state during the treatment period. Courses of TMT consisted of 10 daily procedures with exposures of 10-20 min. Somatic, neurological, and laboratory studies were performed before and after treatment and included cardiointervalography, electroencephalography, assessments of the state of the autonomic nervous system, and use of psychometric scales to evaluate levels of anxiety and depression. TMT was followed by improvements in wellbeing, mood, and sleep, with increases in physical exercise tolerance and decreases in alcohol craving in 75% of patients in the study group and 30% of patients in the control group. Improvements in patients' status were supported by paraclinical investigations (electrophysiological, measures of the state of the autonomic nervous system, etc.) and psychometric scales. PMID:19430982

  4. Do Pharmacological and Behavioral Interventions Differentially Affect Treatment Outcome for Children with Social Phobia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharfstein, Lindsay A.; Beidel, Deborah C.; Rendon Finnell, Laura; Distler, Aaron; Carter, Nathan T.

    2011-01-01

    In a randomized trial for children with social phobia (SP), Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children (SET-C; a treatment consisting of exposure and social skills training) and fluoxetine were more effective than pill placebo in reducing social distress and behavioral avoidance, but only SET-C demonstrated significantly improved overall social…

  5. How Attendance and Quality of Participation Affect Treatment Response to Parent Management Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nix, Robert L.; Bierman, Karen L.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether attendance and quality of participation in parent management training predicted treatment response. Data were from 445 parents (55% minority, 62% single; almost all of low socioeconomic status) who had 1st-grade children with severe conduct problems. Quality of participation in weekly parent groups was based on group…

  6. Timing and rate of Chaparral treatment affects tall fescue seedhead development and pasture plant densities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The herbicide Chaparral™ has been shown to suppress seedhead development in tall fescue (Neotyphodium coenophialum) pastures and reduce the symptoms of tall fescue toxicosis in cattle. However, little is known about the logistics of herbicide treatment on tall fescue pastures. The objective of thi...

  7. Ruby laser for treatment of tattoos: technical considerations affecting clinical use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, Robert E.

    1990-06-01

    Recent clinical research on the use of ruby lasers for the treatment of tattoos and FIlk approval of a commercial system have renewed interest in this device. In this paper the principles of Q-switched ruby laser operation are reviewed, and potential sources of error in the estimation of delivered fluence are discussed.

  8. Factors Affecting Mortality and Treatment Completion of Tuberculosis Patients in Isfahan Province from 2006 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Shahrezaei, Marzieh; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Farid, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regarding cases of infectious diseases tuberculosis (TB) is the most important cause of death and according to the DALY criteria, this disease has the seventh position in global disease ranking. In this study, we aim to determine the risk factors, which have a significant effect on the treatment completion and mortality of TB patients. Methods: This study is a retrospective cohort study. The sample is made up of registered TB patients in the Isfahan Province from 2006 to 2011. Information of the patients was collected from their files in health centers in the Isfahan Province. Variables such as age, sex, weight, nationality, residence, type of TB, imprisonment, human immunodeficiency virus, TB case were measured. Descriptive statistics (including frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation) and statistical analysis (including Cox proportional hazard model) were used. Results: The result showed that imprisonment (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.76, P = 0.019), age (HR = 4.44, P = 0.001) and the TB case (HR = 2.73, P = 0.037) of pulmonary TB had significant impacts on mortality of the patients, also in the case of treatment completion, the TB case (HR = 0.34, P < 0.001) proved to have a significant impact on completion of the treatment. Type of extra-pulmonary TB in extra-pulmonary TB patients also had an effect on treatment completion. Conclusions: We can conclude that factors such as age, imprisonment, TB case and type of extra-pulmonary TB are effective on the treatment completion and mortality of the patients. It may be useful for policy makers to make more control of high-risk patients. PMID:26445638

  9. Adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Reiser, Sarah J; McMillan, Katherine A; Wright, Kristi D; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2014-03-01

    Childhood experiences are thought to predispose a person to the development of health anxiety later in life. However, there is a lack of research investigating the influence of specific adverse experiences (e.g., childhood abuse, household dysfunction) on this condition. The current study examined the cumulative influence of multiple types of childhood adversities on health anxiety in adulthood. Adults 18-59 years of age (N=264) completed a battery of measures to assess adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs (i.e., negative affect and trait anxiety). Significant associations were observed between adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicted that adverse childhood experiences were predictive of health anxiety in adulthood; however, the unique contribution of these experience were no longer significant following the inclusion of the other variables of interest. Subsequently, mediation analyses indicated that both negative affect and trait anxiety independently mediated the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood. Increased exposure to adverse childhood experiences is associated with higher levels of health anxiety in adulthood; this relationship is mediated through negative affect and trait anxiety. Findings support the long-term negative impact of cumulative adverse childhood experiences and emphasize the importance of addressing negative affect and trait anxiety in efforts to prevent and treat health anxiety. PMID:24011493

  10. The B-3 ethylene response factor MtERF1-1 mediates resistance to a subset of root pathogens in Medicago truncatula without adversely affecting symbiosis with rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jonathan P; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Gleason, Cynthia; Oliver, Richard P; Singh, Karam B

    2010-10-01

    The fungal necrotrophic pathogen Rhizoctonia solani is a significant constraint to a range of crops as diverse as cereals, canola, and legumes. Despite wide-ranging germplasm screens in many of these crops, no strong genetic resistance has been identified, suggesting that alternative strategies to improve resistance are required. In this study, we characterize moderate resistance to R. solani anastomosis group 8 identified in Medicago truncatula. The activity of the ethylene- and jasmonate-responsive GCC box promoter element was associated with moderate resistance, as was the induction of the B-3 subgroup of ethylene response transcription factors (ERFs). Genes of the B-1 subgroup showed no significant response to R. solani infection. Overexpression of a B-3 ERF, MtERF1-1, in Medicago roots increased resistance to R. solani as well as an oomycete root pathogen, Phytophthora medicaginis, but not root knot nematode. These results indicate that targeting specific regulators of ethylene defense may enhance resistance to an important subset of root pathogens. We also demonstrate that overexpression of MtERF1-1 enhances disease resistance without apparent impact on nodulation in the A17 background, while overexpression in sickle reduced the hypernodulation phenotype. This suggests that under normal regulation of nodulation, enhanced resistance to root diseases can be uncoupled from symbiotic plant-microbe interactions in the same tissue and that ethylene/ERF regulation of nodule number is distinct from the defenses regulated by B-3 ERFs. Furthermore, unlike the stunted phenotype previously described for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ubiquitously overexpressing B-3 ERFs, overexpression of MtERF1-1 in M. truncatula roots did not show adverse effects on plant development.

  11. Adverse effects of antihypertensive drugs.

    PubMed

    Husserl, F E; Messerli, F H

    1981-09-01

    Early essential hypertension is asymptomatic and should remain so throughout treatment. In view of the increasing number of available antihypertensive agents, clinicians need to become familiar with the potential side effects of these drugs. By placing more emphasis on non-pharmacological treatment (sodium restriction, weight loss, exercise) and thoroughly evaluating each case in particular, the pharmacological regimen can be optimally tailored to the patient's needs. Potential side effects should be predicted and can often be avoided; if they become clinically significant they should be rapidly recognised and corrected. These side effects can be easily remembered in most instances, as they fall into 3 broad categories: (a) those caused by an exaggerated therapeutic effect; (b) those due to a non-therapeutic pharmacological effect; and (c) those caused by a non-therapeutic, non-pharmacological effect probably representing idiosyncratic reactions. This review focuses mainly on adverse effects of the second and third kind. Each group of drugs in general shares the common side effects of the first two categories, while each individual drug has its own idiosyncratic side effects.

  12. Nandrolone decanoate treatment affects sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase function in skinned rat slow- and fast-twitch fibres.

    PubMed

    Bouhlel, Aicha; Joumaa, Wissam H; Léoty, Claude

    2003-09-01

    The effects of anabolic-androgenic steroid administration on the function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) pump were investigated in chemically skinned fibres from the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles of sedentary rats. Twenty male rats were divided into two groups, one group received an intramuscular injection of nandrolone decanoate (15 mg x kg(-1)) weekly for 8 weeks, the second received similar weekly doses of vehicle (sterile peanut oil). Compared with control muscles, nandrolone decanoate treatment reduced SR Ca(2+) loading in EDL and soleus fibres by 49% and 29%, respectively. In control and treated muscles, the rate of Ca(2+) leakage depended on the quantity of Ca(2+) loaded. Furthermore, for similar SR Ca(2+) contents, the Ca(2+) leakage rate was not significantly modified by nandrolone decanoate treatment. Nandrolone decanoate treatment thus affects Ca (2+) uptake by the SR in a fibre-type dependent manner.

  13. Treatment with eldecalcitol positively affects mineralization, microdamage, and collagen crosslinks in primate bone.

    PubMed

    Saito, Mitsuru; Grynpas, Marc D; Burr, David B; Allen, Matthew R; Smith, Susan Y; Doyle, Nancy; Amizuka, Norio; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Kida, Yoshikuni; Marumo, Keishi; Saito, Hitoshi

    2015-04-01

    Eldecalcitol (ELD), an active form of vitamin D analog approved for the treatment of osteoporosis in Japan, increases lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD), suppresses bone turnover markers, and reduces fracture risk in patients with osteoporosis. We have previously reported that treatment with ELD for 6 months improved the mechanical properties of the lumbar spine in ovariectomized (OVX) cynomolgus monkeys. ELD treatment increased lumbar BMD, suppressed bone turnover markers, and reduced histomorphometric parameters of both bone formation and resorption in vertebral trabecular bone. In this study, we elucidated the effects of ELD on bone quality (namely, mineralization, microarchitecture, microdamage, and bone collagen crosslinks) in OVX cynomolgus monkeys in comparison with OVX-vehicle control monkeys. Density fractionation of bone powder prepared from lumbar vertebrae revealed that ELD treatment shifted the distribution profile of bone mineralization to a higher density, and backscattered electron microscopic imaging showed improved trabecular bone connectivity in the ELD-treated groups. Higher doses of ELD more significantly reduced the amount of microdamage compared to OVX-vehicle controls. The fractionated bone powder samples were divided according to their density, and analyzed for collagen crosslinks. Enzymatic crosslinks were higher in both the high-density (≥2.0 mg/mL) and low-density (<2.0 mg/mL) fractions from the ELD-treated groups than in the corresponding fractions in the OVX-vehicle control groups. On the other hand, non-enzymatic crosslinks were lower in both the high- and low-density fractions. These observations indicated that ELD treatment stimulated the enzymatic reaction of collagen crosslinks and bone mineralization, but prevented non-enzymatic reaction of collagen crosslinks and accumulation of bone microdamage. Bone anti-resorptive agents such as bisphosphonates slow down bone remodeling so that bone mineralization, bone microdamage

  14. Glaucoma eye drops adverse skin reactions.

    PubMed

    Cantisani, Carmen; Ambrifi, Marina; Frascani, Federica; Fazia, Gilda; Paolino, Giovanni; Lisi, Roberto; Calvieri, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The term "Glaucoma" is used to describe a number of diseases of the eye characterized by a particular form of optic nerve damage that is often associated with high intraocular pressure (IOP). The open-angle glaucoma is the most common form that is also referred to as chronic glaucoma. This is described as an optic neuropathy with multifactorial nature in which there is a loss of characteristics of the optic nerve fibers. Therapeutic options for the treatment of this disease are different, you can take advantage of eye drops, laser therapy and conventional surgery or more combined treatments. Medicated eye drops are the most common way to treat glaucoma. Although eye drops are widely used, adverse reactions are not frequently observed and described. In particular, the adverse skin reactions are not frequently described in the literature, but often seen in dermatologic clinic, we reported their skin reactions and possible alternative treatments described in literature and their patent applications. PMID:25487259

  15. Biofilm layers affect the treatment outcomes of NaF and Nano-hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, M; He, L B; Exterkate, R A M; Cheng, L; Li, J Y; Ten Cate, J M; Crielaard, W; Deng, D M

    2015-04-01

    During caries formation, dental biofilms function not only as acid producers but also as reservoirs and diffusion barriers for active caries-preventive components. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of biofilms as a stagnant layer on the efficacy of NaF and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA). Biofilms of Streptococcus mutans C180-2 were formed on the surfaces of artificially demineralized enamel in an active attachment biofilm model. After 2 days of biofilm formation, the model was subjected to a pH-cycling schedule, together with a control group without biofilms. Specimens were treated for 5 min twice daily with water, a 10% nHA slurry, or 18.4 mM NaF. At the end of the pH-cycling period, the biofilms were removed for the determination of the viable counts, the lactic acid production, and the calcium content. The mineral changes in the demineralized enamel blocks were analyzed by transversal microradiography. No differences in the biofilm viable counts and lactic acid production were found in the different treatment groups. The mean calcium content of the biofilms in the nHA group was 60.7 ± 15.3 mmol/g wet weight, which was approximately 8-fold higher than in the other 2 groups. The application of NaF resulted in net remineralization, but in the presence of a biofilm, net demineralization was observed. In contrast, nHA treatment reduced further demineralization compared with the water treatment, but the presence of a biofilm enhanced this effect. In conclusion, the presence of biofilms clearly influenced the treatment outcomes of anticaries products. Biofilms could either enhance or impede their efficacy. This result implies that biofilms should be included in the in vitro tests for the preclinical screening of caries-protective agents. PMID:25576469

  16. Biofilm layers affect the treatment outcomes of NaF and Nano-hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, M; He, L B; Exterkate, R A M; Cheng, L; Li, J Y; Ten Cate, J M; Crielaard, W; Deng, D M

    2015-04-01

    During caries formation, dental biofilms function not only as acid producers but also as reservoirs and diffusion barriers for active caries-preventive components. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of biofilms as a stagnant layer on the efficacy of NaF and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA). Biofilms of Streptococcus mutans C180-2 were formed on the surfaces of artificially demineralized enamel in an active attachment biofilm model. After 2 days of biofilm formation, the model was subjected to a pH-cycling schedule, together with a control group without biofilms. Specimens were treated for 5 min twice daily with water, a 10% nHA slurry, or 18.4 mM NaF. At the end of the pH-cycling period, the biofilms were removed for the determination of the viable counts, the lactic acid production, and the calcium content. The mineral changes in the demineralized enamel blocks were analyzed by transversal microradiography. No differences in the biofilm viable counts and lactic acid production were found in the different treatment groups. The mean calcium content of the biofilms in the nHA group was 60.7 ± 15.3 mmol/g wet weight, which was approximately 8-fold higher than in the other 2 groups. The application of NaF resulted in net remineralization, but in the presence of a biofilm, net demineralization was observed. In contrast, nHA treatment reduced further demineralization compared with the water treatment, but the presence of a biofilm enhanced this effect. In conclusion, the presence of biofilms clearly influenced the treatment outcomes of anticaries products. Biofilms could either enhance or impede their efficacy. This result implies that biofilms should be included in the in vitro tests for the preclinical screening of caries-protective agents.

  17. The Phytoestrogen Genistein Affects Breast Cancer Cells Treatment Depending on the ERα/ERβ Ratio.

    PubMed

    Pons, Daniel Gabriel; Nadal-Serrano, Mercedes; Torrens-Mas, Margalida; Oliver, Jordi; Roca, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Genistein (GEN) is a phytoestrogen found in soybeans. GEN exerts its functions through its interaction with the estrogen receptors (ER), ERα and ERβ, and we previously reported that the ERα/ERβ ratio is an important factor to consider in GEN-treated breast cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GEN in breast cancer cells with different ERα/ERβ ratio: MCF-7 (high ratio), T47D (low ratio), and MCF-7 overexpressing ERβ (MCF7 + ERβ) treated with cisplatin (CDDP), paclitaxel (PTX) or tamoxifen (TAM). Cell viability, ROS production, autophagy, apoptosis, antioxidant enzymes protein levels, and cell cycle were analyzed. GEN treatment provoked an increase in cell viability in MCF-7 cells and in the antioxidant enzymes protein levels in combination with the cytotoxic agents, decreasing ROS production (CDDP + GEN and TAM+GEN) and autophagy (TAM + GEN) or apoptosis (CDDP + GEN and TAM + GEN). Moreover GEN treatment enhanced the cell cycle S phase entry in CDDP+GEN- and TAM + GEN-treated MCF-7 cells and, in the case of CDDP + GEN, increased the proportion of cells in the G2/M phase and decreased it in the subG0 /G1 phase. Otherwise, in the T47D and MCF7 + ERβ cells the combination of GEN with cytotoxic treatments did not cause significant changes in these parameters, even TAM + GEN-treated T47D cells showed less cell viability due to an increment in the autophagy. In conclusion, GEN consumption may be counterproductive in those patients receiving anticancer treatment with a high ERα/ERβ ratio diagnosed breast cancer and it could be harmless or even beneficial in those patients with a lower ERα/ERβ ratio breast cancer cells.

  18. Does psychiatric comorbidity in alcohol-dependent patients affect treatment outcome?

    PubMed

    Mann, Karl; Hintz, Thomas; Jung, Martin

    2004-06-01

    Comorbidity in alcohol research refers to the presence of alcohol dependency and another major psychiatric disorder. The existence of additional disorders may have consequences for treatment planning and success. The aims of this paper are therefore: 1) to give an overview on prevalence rates in studies with representative cohorts and hospital-based samples; 2) to report results on gender differences and 3) to determine the impact of comorbidity on treatment outcome. Comorbidity was examined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) in N = 118 (61 male and 57 female) alcohol-dependent patients who were socially well integrated. Results show that 65% of the female patients but only 28% of the male patients had a lifetime history of additional psychiatric disorders. Significantly more phobic/anxiety disorders, mood disorders occur in female patients. One year after inpatient treatment, overall 39% had suffered a relapse. More detailed analysis revealed that 55% of the non-comorbid but only 28% of the comorbid women suffered a relapse, thus contradicting our initial hypothesis that comorbid patients have a poorer prognosis with regard to their alcohol dependence. Male comorbid (40.9%) and non-comorbid (35.3%) patients showed no significant differences regarding relapse rates.

  19. Laboratory assessment of factors affecting soil clogging of soil aquifer treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Pavelic, P; Dillon, P J; Mucha, M; Nakai, T; Barry, K E; Bestland, E

    2011-05-01

    In this study the effect of soil type, level of pre-treatment, ponding depth, temperature and sunlight on clogging of soil aquifer treatment (SAT) systems was evaluated over an eight week duration in constant temperature and glasshouse environments. Of the two soil types tested, the more permeable sand media clogged more than the loam, but still retained an order of magnitude higher absolute permeability. A 6- to 8-fold difference in hydraulic loading rates was observed between the four source water types tested (one potable water and three recycled waters), with improved water quality resulting in significantly higher infiltration. Infiltration rates for ponding depths of 30 cm and 50 cm were higher than 10 cm, although for 50 cm clogging rates were higher due to greater compaction of the clogging layer. Overall, physical clogging was more significant than other forms of clogging. Microbial clogging becomes increasingly important when the particulate concentrations in the source waters are reduced through pre-treatment and for finer textured soils due to the higher specific surface area of the media. Clogging by gas binding took place in the glasshouse but not in the lab, and mechanical clogging associated with particle rearrangement was evident in the sand media but not in the loam. These results offer insight into the soil, water quality and operating conditions needed to achieve viable SAT systems.

  20. An ontology for factors affecting tuberculosis treatment adherence behavior in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ogundele, Olukunle Ayodeji; Moodley, Deshendran; Pillay, Anban W; Seebregts, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Adherence behavior is a complex phenomenon influenced by diverse personal, cultural, and socioeconomic factors that may vary between communities in different regions. Understanding the factors that influence adherence behavior is essential in predicting which individuals and communities are at risk of nonadherence. This is necessary for supporting resource allocation and intervention planning in disease control programs. Currently, there is no known concrete and unambiguous computational representation of factors that influence tuberculosis (TB) treatment adherence behavior that is useful for prediction. This study developed a computer-based conceptual model for capturing and structuring knowledge about the factors that influence TB treatment adherence behavior in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Methods An extensive review of existing categorization systems in the literature was used to develop a conceptual model that captured scientific knowledge about TB adherence behavior in SSA. The model was formalized as an ontology using the web ontology language. The ontology was then evaluated for its comprehensiveness and applicability in building predictive models. Conclusion The outcome of the study is a novel ontology-based approach for curating and structuring scientific knowledge of adherence behavior in patients with TB in SSA. The ontology takes an evidence-based approach by explicitly linking factors to published clinical studies. Factors are structured around five dimensions: factor type, type of effect, regional variation, cross-dependencies between factors, and treatment phase. The ontology is flexible and extendable and provides new insights into the nature of and interrelationship between factors that influence TB adherence. PMID:27175067

  1. Analysis of soybean root proteins affected by gibberellic acid treatment under flooding stress.

    PubMed

    Oh, Myeong Won; Nanjo, Yohei; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-01-01

    Flooding is a serious abiotic stress for soybean because it restricts growth and reduces grain yields. To investigate the effect of gibberellic acid (GA) on soybean under flooding stress, root proteins were analyzed using a gel-free proteomic technique. Proteins were extracted from the roots of 4-days-old soybean seedlings exposed to flooding stress in the presence and absence of exogenous GA3 for 2 days. A total of 307, 324, and 250 proteins were identified from untreated, and flooding-treated soybean seedlings without or with GA3, respectively. Secondary metabolism- and cell-related proteins, and proteins involved in protein degradation/synthesis were decreased by flooding stress; however, the levels of these proteins were restored by GA3 supplementation under flooding. Fermentation- and cell wall-related proteins were not affected by GA3 supplementation. Furthermore, putative GA-responsive proteins, which were identified by the presence of a GA-responsive element in the promoter region, were less abundant by flooding stress; however, these proteins were more abundant by GA3 supplementation under flooding. Taken together, these results suggest that GA3 affects the abundance of proteins involved in secondary metabolism, cell cycle, and protein degradation/synthesis in soybeans under flooding stress. PMID:24702262

  2. N2O emission from organic barley cultivation as affected by green manure treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, S.; Hansen, S.; Bleken, M.; Dörsch, P.

    2012-04-01

    Legumes are an important source of nitrogen in stockless organic cereal production. However, substantial amounts of N can be lost from legume-grass leys prior to or after incorporation as green manure (GM). Here we report N2O emissions from a field experiment in SE Norway exploring different green manure management strategies: mulching versus removal of grass-clover herbage during a whole growing season and replacement as biogas residue to a subsequent barley crop. Grass-clover ley had significantly higher N2O emissions as compared with a non fertilized cereal reference during the GM year (2009). Mulching of herbage induced significantly more N2O emission (+ 0.37 kg N2O-N ha-1) throughout the growing season than removing herbage. In spring 2010, all plots were ploughed (with and without GM) resulting in generally higher N2O emissions during barley production. Addition of biogas residue (80 kg N ha-1) in 2010 to previously non mulched GM and unfertilized cereal plots (2009) had no significant effect on cumulative N2O emissions relative to a treatment receiving the same amount of N in form of mulched aboveground GM. Ley management (mulching vs. removing biomass in 2009) had no effect on N2O emissions during barley production in 2010. In general, organic amendments (previously mulched or harvested GM, biorest) increased N2O emissions relative to a reference treatment with low mineral N fertilisation (80 kg N ha-1). Organic cereal production emitted 95 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain, which was substantially higher than in the reference treatment with 80 kg mineral N fertilization in 2010 (47 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain).

  3. FOURTH GRADERS’ REPORTS OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLE INTAKE AT SCHOOL LUNCH: DOES TREATMENT ASSIGNMENT AFFECT ACCURACY?

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Kathleen Fleege; Kohler, Connie L.; McClure, Leslie A.; Franklin, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Dietary interventions with children often use self-reported data to assess efficacy despite that objective methods rarely support self-report findings in validation studies. This study compared fourth graders’ self-reported to observed lunch fruit and vegetable intake to determine if the accuracy of self-reported intake varied by treatment condition Design Matched randomized follow-up design examined three treatment groups (high and low intensity interventions and control) post-intervention. Subjects/Setting 379 middle-school children participating in a randomized controlled trial of a school-based fruit and vegetable intervention were observed during school lunch one day and asked to recall intake the following day. Main Outcome Measures Food items were coded as: “match,” “omission,” or “intrusion.” Students were classified as “accurate” if all food items matched, otherwise “inaccurate.” Matched foods’ portions were compared for accuracy. Servings were computed for total fruit and vegetable intake. Analyses Accuracy for fruits and vegetables were compared in separate analyses and tested for multiple potential associates: treatment condition, gender, race, BMI, subsidized meal eligibility, school district, fruit/vegetable availability, age and test scores. Fitted multivariable regression models included variables found to be significant in univariate or chi square analyses. Results Variables found to be significant for fruit item accuracy were availability at lunch, BMI, and subsidized lunch eligibility. For vegetable item accuracy, availability at lunch was significant. No differences were found for food portions or for efficacy of the intervention between the two methods of dietary data collection: observation and self-report. Conclusion Condition assignment did not bias recalled fruit and vegetable intakes among fourth graders. PMID:19103321

  4. Milk fever and alert downer cows: Does hypophosphatemia affect the treatment response?

    PubMed Central

    Ménard, Laurent; Thompson, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to identify factors that place a dairy cow with uncomplicated milk fever (MF) at significant risk of becoming an alert downer cow (ADC) and to verify if these factors could be used to predict treatment outcome. Recumbent MF cows were examined before treatment and 52 were excluded due to complications. In all, histories and pretreatment serum samples were taken and the serum of 86 cows was analyzed for electrolyte levels (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and potassium). In total, 36 of the 86 samples were from ADCs and 50 from animals that responded to MF treatment (MFT). A binary-two-factor logistic model determined that a MF cow with a phosphorus pretreatment level of ≥ 0.9 mmol/L was 12 times more likely not to become an ADC than one with a phosphorus level < 0.9 mmol/L (CI: 6.3,23.1). Also, a binary multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that a MF cow with a pretreatment calcium level ≥ 1.7 mmol/L was 14 times more likely to become an ADC than one with a serum level < 1.7 mmol/L (CI: 2.0,98). Age and the other serum electrolytes were not statistically significant risk factors at the 0.05 level. The rigorous pretreatment examination and stringent adherence to protocol reduced ADC misclassification and fostered the strong association between single factor serum phosphorus levels and ADCs. By using a cutoff level of serum phosphorus at ≥ 0.9 mmol/L, a practitioner could correctly predict that 95% of the MFs would not become ADCs and, therefore, this level would be a useful pretreatment predictor. PMID:17542366

  5. Clinical and Pharmacogenetic Factors Affecting Neonatal Bilirubinemia Following Atazanavir Treatment of Mothers During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shu-Pang; Conradie, Francesca; Zorrilla, Carmen D.; Josipovic, Deirdre; Botes, Mariëtte; Osiyemi, Olayemi; Hardy, Hélène; Bertz, Richard; McGrath, Donnie

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A theoretical concern exists that atazanavir (ATV) use during pregnancy may exacerbate physiologic neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. The aim of this substudy was to evaluate patterns of neonatal bilirubin following ATV/ritonavir (RTV) treatment of pregnant mothers and clinical and pharmacogenetic factors that may correlate. The design involved a subanalysis of study AI424182, a multicenter, open-label, prospective, single-arm Phase I study. The study had two treatment arms: (1) ATV/RTV 300/100 mg once daily or (2) ATV/RTV 400/100 mg once daily, both in combination with zidovudine/lamivudine 300/150 mg twice daily. Total bilirubin was assessed at baseline, each visit, and delivery day for mothers and on days 1 (delivery day), 3, 5, and 7 and weeks 2 and 6 for neonates. Blood samples were obtained for UGT1A1 genotyping and ATV cord blood concentration. Bilirubin elevation of any grade occurred in 14/40 neonates (35%). All Grade 3 to 4 bilirubin abnormalities (n=7) occurred after day 14. The pattern of neonatal bilirubin levels reported was consistent with neonatal physiologic elevations of bilirubin. Little correlation was observed between either maternal bilirubin levels over the last 4 weeks of pregnancy (including delivery) or ATV cord concentration and neonatal bilirubin. There was a significant association between UGT1A1 genotype and bilirubin grade in the maternal population (p=0.0006) but not neonates (p=0.49). Neither neonatal UGT1A1 genotype nor cord blood ATV concentration is a good predictor of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. ATV/RTV treatment of mothers does not appear to exacerbate neonatal physiologic hyperbilirubinemia. PMID:23782005

  6. Clinical and pharmacogenetic factors affecting neonatal bilirubinemia following atazanavir treatment of mothers during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Eley, Timothy; Huang, Shu-Pang; Conradie, Francesca; Zorrilla, Carmen D; Josipovic, Deirdre; Botes, Mariëtte; Osiyemi, Olayemi; Hardy, Hélène; Bertz, Richard; McGrath, Donnie

    2013-10-01

    A theoretical concern exists that atazanavir (ATV) use during pregnancy may exacerbate physiologic neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. The aim of this substudy was to evaluate patterns of neonatal bilirubin following ATV/ritonavir (RTV) treatment of pregnant mothers and clinical and pharmacogenetic factors that may correlate. The design involved a subanalysis of study AI424182, a multicenter, open-label, prospective, single-arm Phase I study. The study had two treatment arms: (1) ATV/RTV 300/100 mg once daily or (2) ATV/RTV 400/100 mg once daily, both in combination with zidovudine/lamivudine 300/150 mg twice daily. Total bilirubin was assessed at baseline, each visit, and delivery day for mothers and on days 1 (delivery day), 3, 5, and 7 and weeks 2 and 6 for neonates. Blood samples were obtained for UGT1A1 genotyping and ATV cord blood concentration. Bilirubin elevation of any grade occurred in 14/40 neonates (35%). All Grade 3 to 4 bilirubin abnormalities (n=7) occurred after day 14. The pattern of neonatal bilirubin levels reported was consistent with neonatal physiologic elevations of bilirubin. Little correlation was observed between either maternal bilirubin levels over the last 4 weeks of pregnancy (including delivery) or ATV cord concentration and neonatal bilirubin. There was a significant association between UGT1A1 genotype and bilirubin grade in the maternal population (p=0.0006) but not neonates (p=0.49). Neither neonatal UGT1A1 genotype nor cord blood ATV concentration is a good predictor of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. ATV/RTV treatment of mothers does not appear to exacerbate neonatal physiologic hyperbilirubinemia. PMID:23782005

  7. Antidepressant treatment differentially affects the phenotype of high and low stress reactive mice.

    PubMed

    Surget, Alexandre; Van Nieuwenhuijzen, Petra S; Heinzmann, Jan-Michael; Knapman, Alana; McIlwrick, Silja; Westphal, Willy-Paul; Touma, Chadi; Belzung, Catherine

    2016-11-01

    Modelling key endophenotypes can be a powerful approach to gain insight into mechanisms underlying the aetiology and pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. Based on evidence of stress hormone system dysregulations in depression, the Stress Reactivity (SR) mouse model has been generated by a selective breeding approach for extremes in HPA axis reactivity, resulting in high (HR), intermediate (IR) and low (LR) reactive mice. The characterisation of their phenotypic alterations has highlighted many similarities of HR and LR mice with the melancholic and atypical depression, respectively. We therefore aimed to examine whether the antidepressant fluoxetine (10 mg/kg/day i.p., 4-5 weeks) can ameliorate the phenotypic characteristics of HR and LR mice in neuroendocrine functions (HPA axis basal activity, stress reactivity, negative feedback), emotional reactivity/coping-strategy (open field, forced swim tests), spatial learning/memory (Morris water-maze) and hippocampal neurogenesis. Line differences in HPA axis reactivity were maintained under fluoxetine treatment. However, we observed fluoxetine effects on glucocorticoid-induced negative feedback, stress-coping behaviours, cognitive functions and neurogenesis. Specifically, our results revealed line-dependent consequences of fluoxetine treatment: (1) an amelioration of the 'melancholic-like' features of HR mice (reversing the negative feedback resistance, the hyperactive coping style and the memory deficits; increasing hippocampal neurogenesis); (2) an exacerbation of the phenotypic deviations of LR mice (increasing their pronounced negative feedback and passive coping style). Thus, these findings support the predictive validity of antidepressant treatment in the HR mouse line and emphasize the translational value of the SR mouse model for the development of therapeutic strategies based on endophenotype-driven classifications.

  8. Factors affecting the performance of microbial fuel cells for sulfide and vanadium (V) treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao-Gang; Zhou, Shun-Gui; Zhao, Hua-Zhang; Shi, Chun-Hong; Kong, Ling-Cai; Sun, Juan-Juan; Yang, Yang; Ni, Jin-Ren

    2010-02-01

    Sulfide and vanadium (V) are pollutants commonly found in wastewaters. A novel approach has been investigated using microbial fuel cell (MFC) technologies by employing sulfide and V(V) as electron donor and acceptor, respectively. This results in oxidizing sulfide and deoxidizing V(V) simultaneously. A series of operating parameters as initial concentration, conductivity, pH, external resistance were carefully examined. The results showed that these factors greatly affected the performance of the MFCs. The average removal rates of about 82.2 and 26.1% were achieved within 72 h operation for sulfide and V(V), respectively, which were accompanied by the maximum power density of about 614.1 mW m(-2) under all tested conditions. The products generated during MFC operation could be deposited, resulting in removing sulfide and V(V) from wastewaters thoroughly.

  9. Overland flow generation mechanisms affected by topsoil treatment: Application to soil conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Paloma, Hueso; Juan Francisco, Martinez-Murillo; Damian, Ruiz-Sinoga Jose; Hanoch, Lavee

    2015-04-01

    Hortonian overland-flow is responsible for significant amounts of soil loss in Mediterranean geomorphological systems. Restoring the native vegetation is the most effective way to control runoff and sediment yield. During the seeding and plant establishment, vegetation cover may be better sustained if soil is amended with an external source. Four amendments were applied in an experimental set of plots: straw mulching (SM); mulch with chipped branches of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis L.) (PM); TerraCotten hydroabsobent polymers (HP); sewage sludge (RU); and control (C). Plots were afforested following the same spatial pattern, and amendments were mixed with the soil at the rate 10 Mg ha-1. This research demonstrates the role played by the treatments in overland flow generation mechanism (runoff, overland flow and soil moisture along the soil profile). The general overland flow characteristics showed that in the C plots the average overland flow was 8.0 ± 22.0 l per event, and the HP plots produced a similar mean value (8.1 ± 20.1 l). The average overland flow per event was significantly less for soil amended with SM, PM or RU (2.7 ± 8.3 l; 1.3 ± 3.5 l and 2.2 ± 5.9 l, respectively). There was a similar trend with respect to the maximum overland flow. The mean sediment yield per event was relatively high in the C and HP plots (8.6 ± 27.8 kg and 14.8 ± 43.4 kg, respectively), while significantly lower values were registered in the SM, PM and RU plots (0.4 ± 1.0 kg; 0.2 ± 0.3 kg and 0.2 ± 0.3 kg, respectively). Very similar trends were found for the maximum sediment yield. Regarding to the soil moisture values, there was a difference in the trends between the C and HP plots and the SM, PM and RU plots. In the C and HP plots the general trend was for a decrease in soil moisture downward through the soil profile, while in the SM, PM and RU plots the soil moisture remained relatively constant or increased, except for the RU treatment in which the soil moisture

  10. Creep properties of PWC-11 base metal and weldments as affected by heat treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Titran, R.H.; Moore, T.J.; Grobstein, T.L.

    1994-09-01

    In a preliminary study using single specimens for each condition, PWC-11 (a niobium-base alloy with a nominal composition of Nb-1%Zr-0.1%C) was creep tested at 1350 K and 40 MPa. Base metal specimens and specimens with transverse electrode beam welds were tested with and without a 1000 hr, 1350 K aging treatment prior to testing. In the annealed condition (1 hr at 1755 K + 2 hr at 1475 K), the base metal exhibited superior creep strength compared to the aged condition, reaching 1 percent strain in 3480 hr. A 1000 hr, 1350 K aging treatment prior to creep testing had a severe detrimental effect on creep strength of the base metal and transverse electron beam weldments, reducing the time to attain 1 percent strain by an order of magnitude. Extrapolated temperature compensated creep rates indicate that the present heat of PWC-11 may be four times as creep resistance as similarly tested Nb-1%Zr. The extrapolated stress to achieve 1 percent creep strain in 7 yr at 1350 K is 0.6 MPa for annealed Nb-1%Zr and 2.8 MPa for annealed and aged PWC-11 base metal with and without a transverse electron beam weld.

  11. Creep properties of PWC-11 base metal and weldments as affected by heat treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, R. H.; Moore, T. J.; Grobstein, T. L.

    1986-01-01

    In a preliminary study using single specimens for each condition, PWC-11 (a niobium-base alloy with a nominal composition of Nb-1%Zr-0.1%C) was creep tested at 1350 K and 40 MPa. Base metal specimens and specimens with transverse electron beam welds were tested with and without a 1000 hr, 1350 K aging treatment prior to testing. In the annealed condition (1 hr at 1755 K + 2 hr at 1475 K), the base metal exhibited superior creep strength compared to the nonaged condition, reaching 1 percent strain in 3480 hr. A 1000 hr, 1350 K aging treatment prior to creep testing had a severe detrimental effect on creep strength of the base metal and transverse electron beam weldments, reducing the time to attain 1 percent strain by an order of magnitude. Extrapolated temperature compensated creep rates indicate that the present heat of PWC-11 may be four times as creep resistant as similarly tested Nb-1%Zr. The extrapolated stress to achieve 1 percent creep strain in 7 yr at 1350 K is 2.7 MPa for annealed Nb-1%Zr and 12 MPa for annealed and aged PWC-11 base metal with and without a transverse electron beam weld.

  12. How does family drug treatment court participation affect child welfare outcomes?

    PubMed

    Gifford, Elizabeth Joanne; Eldred, Lindsey Morgan; Vernerey, Allison; Sloan, Frank Allen

    2014-10-01

    Parental substance use is a risk factor for child maltreatment. Family drug treatment courts (FDTCs) have emerged in the United States as a policy option to treat the underlying condition and promote family preservation. This study examines the effectiveness of FDTCs in North Carolina on child welfare outcomes. Data come from North Carolina records from child protection services, court system, and birth records. Three types of parental participation in a FDTC are considered: referral, enrolling, and completing an FDTC. The sample includes 566 children who were placed into foster care and whose parents participated in a FDTC program. Findings indicate that children of parents who were referred but did not enroll or who enrolled but did not complete had longer stays in foster care than children of completers. Reunification rates for children of completers were also higher. Outcomes for children in the referred and enrolled groups did not differ in the multivariate analyses. While effective substance use treatment services for parents may help preserve families, future research should examine factors for improving participation and completion rates as well as factors involved in scaling programs so that more families are served.

  13. The adverse health effects of chronic cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Hall, Wayne; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the most probable of the adverse health effects of regular cannabis use sustained over years, as indicated by epidemiological studies that have established an association between cannabis use and adverse outcomes; ruled out reverse causation; and controlled for plausible alternative explanations. We have also focused on adverse outcomes for which there is good evidence of biological plausibility. The focus is on those adverse health effects of greatest potential public health significance--those that are most likely to occur and to affect a substantial proportion of regular cannabis users. These most probable adverse effects of regular use include a dependence syndrome, impaired respiratory function, cardiovascular disease, adverse effects on adolescent psychosocial development and mental health, and residual cognitive impairment.

  14. pH and solute concentration of suspension media affect the outcome of high hydrostatic pressure treatment of Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Koseki, Shigenobu; Yamamoto, Kazutaka

    2006-09-01

    The effect of pH and solute concentration of suspension media on high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) induced inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes (approximate 10(8) CFU/ml) was investigated by the using treatment between 300 MPa and 600 MPa at 25 degrees C for 10 min. The suspension media used in this study represented different concentrations (0.1% to 10%) of buffered peptone water (BPW) with an adjusted pH of 4 to 7. An increase in the concentration of BPW resulted in a decreased HHP-induced inactivation of L. monocytogenes that was dependent on the pH of the medium. HHP-treatment at 300 MPa showed no bactericidal effect at neutral pH regardless of the BPW concentration. When the pH of BPW (0.1% to 5%) was reduced to 4, L. monocytogenes was completely inactivated (more than an 8 log cycle reduction) with a HHP-treatment of at least 300 MPa. HHP-treatment above 400 MPa completely inactivated L. monocytogenes in a relatively dilute BPW (0.1% and 1%) with an adjusted pH below 6. While only a 2 log cycle reduction was observed in 10% BPW at the pH ranging from 5 to 7 after treatment with 600 MPa, L. monocytogenes in 10% BPW at pH 4 was completely inactivated. Even though a significant bactericidal effect of HHP-treatment was not observed when applied with a low pressure such as 300 MPa or suspended in higher BPW at neutral pH, a reduction of the pH greatly affected the HHP-induced inactivation of L. monocytogenes. These results indicated that information concerning the pH of food or media would greatly assist an optimization of HHP-treatment for the inactivation of bacteria.

  15. Bisphosphonate Treatment in a Patient Affected by MPS IVA with Osteoporotic Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Tummolo, Albina; Gabrielli, Orazio; Gaeta, Alberto; Masciopinto, Maristella; Zampini, Lucia; Pavone, Luigi Michele; Di Natale, Paola; Papadia, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Morquio A syndrome (Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA) (MPS IVA) is a rare inherited metabolic disorder characterized by the defective degradation of keratan sulfate and chondroitin-6-sulfate. Classically, MPS IVA patients present with severe multisystemic involvement and have a short life expectancy. Attenuated forms with clinical features limited to minor skeletal abnormalities and short stature have also been described, sometimes associated to an early-onset osteoporotic phenotype. No treatment with allogenic bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy is currently available for Morquio A syndrome, and enzyme replacement therapy is under evaluation. We report a case of MPS IVA, who manifested tardily attenuated phenotype and significant bone mass reduction, which was treated with a bisphosphonate (BPN), resulting in an improvement of X-ray skeletal aspects and functional bone performance. We suggest that the use of bisphosphonates may be an interesting supportive therapeutic option for Morquio A patients with osteoporotic phenotype, but further studies involving more patients are necessary to confirm our findings.

  16. Experimentally studied dynamic dose interplay does not meaningfully affect target dose in VMAT SBRT lung treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Stambaugh, Cassandra; Nelms, Benjamin E.; Dilling, Thomas; Stevens, Craig; Latifi, Kujtim; Zhang, Geoffrey; Moros, Eduardo; Feygelman, Vladimir

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: The effects of respiratory motion on the tumor dose can be divided into the gradient and interplay effects. While the interplay effect is likely to average out over a large number of fractions, it may play a role in hypofractionated [stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT)] treatments. This subject has been extensively studied for intensity modulated radiation therapy but less so for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), particularly in application to hypofractionated regimens. Also, no experimental study has provided full four-dimensional (4D) dose reconstruction in this scenario. The authors demonstrate how a recently described motion perturbation method, with full 4D dose reconstruction, is applied to describe the gradient and interplay effects during VMAT lung SBRT treatments.Methods: VMAT dose delivered to a moving target in a patient can be reconstructed by applying perturbations to the treatment planning system-calculated static 3D dose. Ten SBRT patients treated with 6 MV VMAT beams in five fractions were selected. The target motion (motion kernel) was approximated by 3D rigid body translation, with the tumor centroids defined on the ten phases of the 4DCT. The motion was assumed to be periodic, with the period T being an average from the empirical 4DCT respiratory trace. The real observed tumor motion (total displacement ≤8 mm) was evaluated first. Then, the motion range was artificially increased to 2 or 3 cm. Finally, T was increased to 60 s. While not realistic, making T comparable to the delivery time elucidates if the interplay effect can be observed. For a single fraction, the authors quantified the interplay effect as the maximum difference in the target dosimetric indices, most importantly the near-minimum dose (D{sub 99%}), between all possible starting phases. For the three- and five-fractions, statistical simulations were performed when substantial interplay was found.Results: For the motion amplitudes and periods obtained from

  17. A proteomic analysis of rice seed germination as affected by high temperature and ABA treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-Jun; Xu, Heng-Heng; Wang, Wei-Qing; Li, Ni; Wang, Wei-Ping; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2015-05-01

    Seed germination is a critical phase in the plant life cycle, but the specific events associated with seed germination are still not fully understood. In this study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry to investigate the changes in the proteome during imbibition of Oryza sativa seeds at optimal temperature with or without abscisic acid (ABA) and high temperature (germination thermoinhibition) to further identify and quantify key proteins required for seed germination. A total of 121 protein spots showed a significant change in abundance (1.5-fold increase/decrease) during germination under all conditions. Among these proteins, we found seven proteins specifically associated with seed germination including glycosyl hydrolases family 38 protein, granule-bound starch synthase 1, Os03g0842900 (putative steroleosin-B), N-carbamoylputrescine amidase, spermidine synthase 1, tubulin α-1 chain and glutelin type-A; and a total of 20 imbibition response proteins involved in energy metabolism, cell growth, cell defense and storage proteins. High temperature inhibited seed germination by decreasing the abundance of proteins involved in methionine metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, energy metabolism, reserve degradation, protein folding and stress responses. ABA treatment inhibited germination and decreased the abundance of proteins associated with methionine metabolism, energy production and cell division. Our results show that changes in many biological processes including energy metabolism, protein synthesis and cell defense and rescue occurred as a result of all treatments, while enzymes involved in methionine metabolism and weakening of cell wall specifically accumulated when the seeds germinated at the optimal temperature.

  18. Surface applied water treatment residuals affect bioavailable phosphorus losses in Florida sands.

    PubMed

    Oladeji, Olawale O; O'Connor, George A; Brinton, Scott R

    2008-09-01

    Water treatment residuals (WTR) can reduce runoff P loss and surface co-application of P-sources and WTR is a practical way of land applying the residuals. In a rainfall simulation study, we evaluated the effects of surface co-applied P-sources and an Al-WTR on runoff and leacheate bioavailable P (BAP) losses from a Florida sand. Four P-sources, namely poultry manure, Boca Raton biosolids (high water-soluble P), Pompano biosolids (moderate water-soluble P), and triple super phosphate (TSP) were surface applied at 56 and 224 kg P ha(-1) (by weight) to represent low and high soil P loads typical of P- and N-based amendments rates. The treatments further received surface applied WTR at 0 or 10 g WTR kg(-1) soil. BAP loss masses were greater in leachate (16.4-536 mg) than in runoff (0.91-46 mg), but were reduced in runoff and leachate by surface applied WTR. Masses of total BAP lost in the presence of surface applied WTR were less than approximately 75% of BAP losses in the absence of WTR. Total BAP losses from each of the organic sources applied at N-based rates were not greater than P loss from TSP applied at a P-based rate. The BAP loss at the N-based rate of moderate water-soluble P-source (Pompano biosolids) was not greater than BAP losses at the P-based rates of other organic sources tested. The hazards of excess P from applying organic P-sources at N-based rates are not greater than observed at P-based rates of mineral fertilizer. Results suggest that management of the environmental P hazards associated with N-based rates of organic materials in Florida sands is possible by either applying P-sources with WTR or using a moderate water-soluble P-source.

  19. Clonorchis sinensis Co-infection Could Affect the Disease State and Treatment Response of HBV Patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan; Chen, Tingjin; Kong, Xiangzhan; Sun, Hengchang; Yu, Xinbing; Xu, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) is considered to be an important parasitic zoonosis because it infects approximately 35 million people, while approximately 15 million were distributed in China. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health issue. Two types of pathogens have the potential to cause human liver disease and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Concurrent infection with HBV and C. sinensis is often observed in some areas where C. sinensis is endemic. However, whether C. sinensis could impact HBV infection or vice versa remains unknown. Principal Findings Co-infection with C. sinensis and HBV develops predominantly in males. Co-infected C. sinensis and HBV patients presented weaker liver function and higher HBV DNA titers. Combination treatment with antiviral and anti-C. sinensis drugs in co-infected patients could contribute to a reduction in viral load and help with liver function recovery. Excretory-secretory products (ESPs) may, in some ways, increase HBV viral replication in vitro. A mixture of ESP and HBV positive sera could induce peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to produce higher level of Th2 cytokines including IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 compared to HBV alone, it seems that due to presence of ESP, the cytokine production shift towards Th2. C. sinensis/HBV co-infected patients showed higher serum IL-6 and IL-10 levels and lower serum IFN-γ levels. Conclusions/Significance Patients with concomitant C. sinensis and HBV infection presented weaker liver function and higher HBV DNA copies. In co-infected patients, the efficacy of anti-viral treatment was better in patients who were prescribed with entecavir and praziquantel than entecavir alone. One possible reason for the weaker response to antiviral therapies in co-infected patients was the shift in cytokine production from Th1 to Th2 that may inhibit viral clearance. C. sinensis/HBV co-infection could exacerbate the imbalance of Th1/Th2 cytokine. PMID:27348302

  20. Oral muscles are progressively affected in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: implications for dysphagia treatment.

    PubMed

    van den Engel-Hoek, Lenie; Erasmus, Corrie E; Hendriks, Jan C M; Geurts, Alexander C H; Klein, Willemijn M; Pillen, Sigrid; Sie, Lilian T; de Swart, Bert J M; de Groot, Imelda J M

    2013-05-01

    Dysphagia is reported in advanced stages of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The population of DMD is changing due to an increasing survival. We aimed to describe the dysphagia in consecutive stages and to assess the underlying mechanisms of dysphagia in DMD, in order to develop mechanism based recommendations for safe swallowing. In this cross-sectional study, participants were divided into: early and late ambulatory stage (AS, n = 6), early non-ambulatory stage (ENAS, n = 7), and late non-ambulatory stage (LNAS, n = 11). Quantitative oral muscle ultrasound was performed to quantify echo intensity. Swallowing was assessed with a video fluoroscopic swallow study, surface electromyography (sEMG) of the submental muscle group and tongue pressure. Differences in outcome parameters among the three DMD stages were tested with analysis of variance. Oral muscles related to swallowing were progressively affected, starting in the AS with the geniohyoid muscle. Tongue (pseudo) hypertrophy was found in 70 % of patients in the ENAS and LNAS. Oral phase problems and post-swallow residue were observed, mostly in the LNAS with solid food. sEMG and tongue pressure data of swallowing solid food revealed the lowest sEMG amplitude, the longest duration and lowest tongue pressure in the LNAS. In case of swallowing problems in DMD, based on the disturbed mechanisms of swallowing, it is suggested to (1) adjust meals in terms of less solid food, and (2) drink water after meals to clear the oropharyngeal area.

  1. Adverse Reactions to Hallucinogenic Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Roger E. , Ed.

    This reports a conference of psychologists, psychiatrists, geneticists and others concerned with the biological and psychological effects of lysergic acid diethylamide and other hallucinogenic drugs. Clinical data are presented on adverse drug reactions. The difficulty of determining the causes of adverse reactions is discussed, as are different…

  2. Denaturation and Oxidative Stability of Hemp Seed (Cannabis sativa L.) Protein Isolate as Affected by Heat Treatment.

    PubMed

    Raikos, Vassilios; Duthie, Garry; Ranawana, Viren

    2015-09-01

    The present study investigated the impact of heat treatments on the denaturation and oxidative stability of hemp seed protein during simulated gastrointestinal digestion (GID). Heat-denatured hemp protein isolate (HPI) solutions were prepared by heating HPI (2 mg/ml, pH 6.8) to 40, 60, 80 and 100 °C for 10 min. Heat-induced denaturation of the protein isolates was monitored by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Heating HPI at temperatures above 80 °C significantly reduced solubility and led to the formation of large protein aggregates. The isolates were then subjected to in vitro GID and the oxidative stability of the generated peptides was investigated. Heating did not significantly affect the formation of oxidation products during GID. The results suggest that heat treatments should ideally remain below 80 °C if heat stability and solubility of HPI are to be preserved. PMID:26142888

  3. Follow-up of patients affected by manganese-induced Parkinsonism after treatment with CaNa2EDTA.

    PubMed

    Herrero Hernandez, Elena; Discalzi, Gianluigi; Valentini, Consuelo; Venturi, Fabrizio; Chiò, Adriano; Carmellino, Caterina; Rossi, Luigi; Sacchetti, Anna; Pira, Enrico

    2006-05-01

    In the period of 1998-2004, seven workers affected by manganese-induced Parkinsonism were diagnosed, studied and treated with CaNa2EDTA at our Occupational Health Ward. Biological markers, as well as magnetic resonance imaging and clinical examinations, were used to assess the disease trend. Those workers still employed were immediately removed from exposure. Our results seem to confirm that very good clinical, biological and neuroradiological results can be obtained by timely removal from exposure and chelating treatment, and that amelioration can persist in time. Manganism is, however, a severe condition that can also progress independent of further exposure. Therefore, chelating treatment can be a great aid in overt manganism, but particular attention must be paid to primary prevention, as this disease should now be totally preventable and definitely merits eradication. PMID:16271769

  4. Denaturation and Oxidative Stability of Hemp Seed (Cannabis sativa L.) Protein Isolate as Affected by Heat Treatment.

    PubMed

    Raikos, Vassilios; Duthie, Garry; Ranawana, Viren

    2015-09-01

    The present study investigated the impact of heat treatments on the denaturation and oxidative stability of hemp seed protein during simulated gastrointestinal digestion (GID). Heat-denatured hemp protein isolate (HPI) solutions were prepared by heating HPI (2 mg/ml, pH 6.8) to 40, 60, 80 and 100 °C for 10 min. Heat-induced denaturation of the protein isolates was monitored by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Heating HPI at temperatures above 80 °C significantly reduced solubility and led to the formation of large protein aggregates. The isolates were then subjected to in vitro GID and the oxidative stability of the generated peptides was investigated. Heating did not significantly affect the formation of oxidation products during GID. The results suggest that heat treatments should ideally remain below 80 °C if heat stability and solubility of HPI are to be preserved.

  5. Overland flow generation mechanisms affected by topsoil treatment: Application to soil conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso-González, P.; Ruiz-Sinoga, J. D.; Martínez-Murillo, J. F.; Lavee, H.

    2015-01-01

    Hortonian overland-flow is responsible for significant amounts of soil loss in Mediterranean geomorphological systems. Restoring the native vegetation is the most effective way to control runoff and sediment yield. During the seeding and plant establishment, vegetation cover may be better sustained if soil is amended with an external source. Four amendments were applied in an experimental set of plots: straw mulching (SM); mulch with chipped branches of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis L.) (PM); TerraCottem hydroabsorbent polymer (HP); and sewage sludge (RU). Plots were afforested following the same spatial pattern, and amendments were mixed with the soil at the rate 10 Mg ha- 1. This research demonstrates the role played by the treatments in overland flow generation mechanism. On one hand, the high macroporosity of SM and PM, together with the fact that soil moisture increased with depth, explains weak overland flow and thus low sediment yield due to saturation conditions. Therefore, regarding overland flow and sediment yield, RU behaves similarly to SM and PM. On the other hand, when HP was applied, overland flow developed quickly with relatively high amounts. This, together with the decrease downward in soil moisture along the soil profile, proved that mechanisms of overland flow are of the Hortonian type.

  6. Issues related to symptomatic and disease-modifying treatments affecting cognitive and neuropsychiatric comorbidities of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Brooks-Kayal, Amy R; Bath, Kevin G; Berg, Anne T; Galanopoulou, Aristea S; Holmes, Gregory L; Jensen, Frances E; Kanner, Andres M; O'Brien, Terence J; Whittemore, Vicky H; Winawer, Melodie R; Patel, Manisha; Scharfman, Helen E

    2013-08-01

    Many symptoms of neurologic or psychiatric illness--such as cognitive impairment, depression, anxiety, attention deficits, and migraine--occur more frequently in people with epilepsy than in the general population. These diverse comorbidities present an underappreciated problem for people with epilepsy and their caregivers because they decrease quality of life, complicate treatment, and increase mortality. In fact, it has been suggested that comorbidities can have a greater effect on quality of life in people with epilepsy than the seizures themselves. There is increasing recognition of the frequency and impact of cognitive and behavioral comorbidities of epilepsy, highlighted in the 2012 Institute of Medicine report on epilepsy. Comorbidities have also been acknowledged, as a National Institutes of Health (NIH) Benchmark area for research in epilepsy. However, relatively little progress has been made in developing new therapies directed specifically at comorbidities. On the other hand, there have been many advances in understanding underlying mechanisms. These advances have made it possible to identify novel targets for therapy and prevention. As part of the International League Against Epilepsy/American Epilepsy Society workshop on preclinical therapy development for epilepsy, our working group considered the current state of understanding related to terminology, models, and strategies for therapy development for the comorbidities of epilepsy. Herein we summarize our findings and suggest ways to accelerate development of new therapies. We also consider important issues to improve research including those related to methodology, nonpharmacologic therapies, biomarkers, and infrastructure.

  7. Occurrence and transport of pharmaceuticals in a karst groundwater system affected by domestic wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Einsiedl, Florian; Radke, Michael; Maloszewski, Piotr

    2010-09-20

    The occurrence of two pharmaceuticals, ibuprofen and diclofenac, in a vulnerable karst groundwater system was investigated. The hydrogeology of the karst system was identified by collecting (3)H samples in groundwater over 27years and by performing tracer tests. The isotopes and tracer data were interpreted by mathematical modeling to estimate the mean transit time of water and to characterize the hydrogeological flow paths in the groundwater system. By this approach, a mean (3)H transit time of 4.6 years for the fissured-porous karst aquifer was determined, whereas the fast flowing water in the conduit system showed a mean transit time of days. Both pharmaceuticals which infiltrated along sinkholes and small streams into the karst system were detected in concentrations of up to approximately 1 microg/L in effluent water of the wastewater treatment plants. Diclofenac was present in most samples collected from four springs discharging the karst groundwater to the rivers Altmühl and Anlauter in concentrations between 3.6 and 15.4 ng/L. In contrast, ibuprofen was rarely detected in groundwater. The results of this study suggest that both pharmaceuticals move into the fractured system of the karst system and go into storage. Thus dilution processes are the dominant control on the concentrations of both pharmaceuticals in the fractured system, whereas biodegradation is likely less important.

  8. Occurrence and transport of pharmaceuticals in a karst groundwater system affected by domestic wastewater treatment plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einsiedl, Florian; Radke, Michael; Maloszewski, Piotr

    2010-09-01

    The occurrence of two pharmaceuticals, ibuprofen and diclofenac, in a vulnerable karst groundwater system was investigated. The hydrogeology of the karst system was identified by collecting 3H samples in groundwater over 27 years and by performing tracer tests. The isotopes and tracer data were interpreted by mathematical modeling to estimate the mean transit time of water and to characterize the hydrogeological flow paths in the groundwater system. By this approach, a mean 3H transit time of 4.6 years for the fissured-porous karst aquifer was determined, whereas the fast flowing water in the conduit system showed a mean transit time of days. Both pharmaceuticals which infiltrated along sinkholes and small streams into the karst system were detected in concentrations of up to approximately 1 μg/L in effluent water of the wastewater treatment plants. Diclofenac was present in most samples collected from four springs discharging the karst groundwater to the rivers Altmühl and Anlauter in concentrations between 3.6 and 15.4 ng/L. In contrast, ibuprofen was rarely detected in groundwater. The results of this study suggest that both pharmaceuticals move into the fractured system of the karst system and go into storage. Thus dilution processes are the dominant control on the concentrations of both pharmaceuticals in the fractured system, whereas biodegradation is likely less important.

  9. Eculizumab treatment during pregnancy does not affect the complement system activity of the newborn.

    PubMed

    Hallstensen, Randi Fykse; Bergseth, Grethe; Foss, Stian; Jæger, Steinar; Gedde-Dahl, Tobias; Holt, Jan; Christiansen, Dorte; Lau, Corinna; Brekke, Ole-Lars; Armstrong, Elina; Stefanovic, Vedran; Andersen, Jan Terje; Sandlie, Inger; Mollnes, Tom Eirik

    2015-04-01

    Eculizumab is a humanized IgG2/4 chimeric anti-complement C5 antibody used to treat patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) or atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether or not the complement activity in newborns from pregnant women who receive eculizumab is impaired. A novel eculizumab-C5 complex (E-C5) specific assay was developed and revealed that two newborns carried only 6-7% of the E-C5 detected in their eculizumab-treated PNH mothers. Serum from the pregnant women completely lacked terminal complement pathway activity, whereas the complement activity in the serum of the newborns was completely normal. Data from the pregnant women and their newborns were compared with that of healthy age-matched female controls and healthy newborns, as well as a non-treated pregnant woman with PNH and her newborn. These all showed normal complement activity without detectable E-C5 complexes. Furthermore, absence of eculizumab or E-C5 in the newborn could not be explained by lack of eculizumab binding to the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), as eculizumab bound strongly to the receptor in vitro. In conclusion, despite binding to FcRn neither eculizumab nor E-C5 accumulates in fetal plasma, and eculizumab treatment during pregnancy does not impair the complement function in the newborn.

  10. Factors affecting population of filamentous bacteria in wastewater treatment plants with nutrients removal.

    PubMed

    Miłobędzka, Aleksandra; Witeska, Anna; Muszyński, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous population in activated sludge and key operational parameters of full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with bulking problems representative for Poland were investigated with quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization. Statistical analyses revealed few relationships between operational parameters and biovolume of filamentous bacteria. Sludge age was not only positively correlated with abundance of Chloroflexi (parametric correlation and principal component analysis (PCA)), but also differentiated Microthrix population (analysis of variance (ANOVA)). Phylum Chloroflexi and pH presented a negative relation during the study (PCA). ANOVA showed that pH of influent and sludge volume index (SVI) differentiated abundance of types 0803 and 1851 of Chloroflexi and candidate division TM7. SVI increased along with higher abundance of Microthrix (positive parametric and non-parametric correlations and positive relation in PCA). Biovolumes of morphotypes 0803 and 1851 of Chloroflexi were differentiated by organic matter in influent, also by nutrients in the case of Chloroflexi type 1851. Chemical and biological oxygen demands (COD and BOD5, respectively) were negatively correlated with Microthrix. COD also differentiated the abundance of Haliscomenobacter hydrossis. Results of the study can be used to prevent WWTPs from excessive proliferation of filamentous bacteria and operational problems caused by them--bulking and foaming of activated sludge. PMID:26901721

  11. Factors affecting population of filamentous bacteria in wastewater treatment plants with nutrients removal.

    PubMed

    Miłobędzka, Aleksandra; Witeska, Anna; Muszyński, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous population in activated sludge and key operational parameters of full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with bulking problems representative for Poland were investigated with quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization. Statistical analyses revealed few relationships between operational parameters and biovolume of filamentous bacteria. Sludge age was not only positively correlated with abundance of Chloroflexi (parametric correlation and principal component analysis (PCA)), but also differentiated Microthrix population (analysis of variance (ANOVA)). Phylum Chloroflexi and pH presented a negative relation during the study (PCA). ANOVA showed that pH of influent and sludge volume index (SVI) differentiated abundance of types 0803 and 1851 of Chloroflexi and candidate division TM7. SVI increased along with higher abundance of Microthrix (positive parametric and non-parametric correlations and positive relation in PCA). Biovolumes of morphotypes 0803 and 1851 of Chloroflexi were differentiated by organic matter in influent, also by nutrients in the case of Chloroflexi type 1851. Chemical and biological oxygen demands (COD and BOD5, respectively) were negatively correlated with Microthrix. COD also differentiated the abundance of Haliscomenobacter hydrossis. Results of the study can be used to prevent WWTPs from excessive proliferation of filamentous bacteria and operational problems caused by them--bulking and foaming of activated sludge.

  12. Sonoporation of Cervical Carcinoma Cells Affected with E6-Oncoprotein for the Treatment of Uterine Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curiel, Laura; Lee, Kyle; Pichardo, Samuel; Zehbe, Ingeborg

    2010-03-01

    Cervical cancer has been identified as the third leading cause of average years of life lost per person dying of cancer. Since essentially all cervical cancers contain copies of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA, we propose a treatment that targets HPV-infected cells using strategies that re-introduce normal functions into the infected cells while sparing healthy cells. We propose the use of focused ultrasound in combination with microbubbles as means to deliver antibodies against the E6 protein present only in HPV positive cells. We conducted in vitro studies with cell cultures of SiHa cervical carcinoma cells seeded into Opticell™ chambers. An in-house ultrasound excitation apparatus was used to control and explore the optimal acoustic parameters in order to maximize delivery. We first validated the possibility of delivering the EX-EGFP-M02 vector (Genecopoeia) into the cells; 1.2 μL of activated microbubbles (Definity®) and 50 μg of the vector were mixed in media and then injected into the Opticell™ chamber. We used 32 μs pulses at a central frequency of 930 KHz with a repetition frequency of 1.5 kHz and total exposure duration of 30 s; six pressure values were tested (0 to 1 MPa). Fluorescence imaging was used to determine the levels of intracellular proteins and assess delivery. The delivery of an anti-α-Tubulin antibody was next tested and confirmed that the delivery into HPV16 positive cells was successful.

  13. Adverse reactions to injectable soft tissue fillers.

    PubMed

    Requena, Luis; Requena, Celia; Christensen, Lise; Zimmermann, Ute S; Kutzner, Heinz; Cerroni, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, injections with filler agents are often used for wrinkle-treatment and soft tissue augmentation by dermatologists and plastic surgeons. Unfortunately, the ideal filler has not yet been discovered and all of them may induce adverse reactions. Quickly biodegradable or resorbable agents may induce severe complications, but they will normally disappear spontaneously in a few months. Slowly biodegradable or nonresorbable fillers may give rise to severe reactions that show little or no tendency to spontaneous improvement. They may appear several years after the injection, when the patient does not remember which product was injected, and treatment is often insufficient. In this review, we discuss the most commonly used fillers, their most frequent adverse reactions as well as the characteristic histopathologic findings that allow the identification of the injected filler agent. In conclusion, histopathologic study remains as the gold standard technique to identify the responsible filler.

  14. Progression pattern and adverse events with bevacizumab in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Mamo, A.; Baig, A.; Azam, M.; Rho, Y.S.; Sahebjam, S.; Muanza, T.; Owen, S.; Petrecca, K.; Guiot, M.C.; Al-Shami, J.; Sharma, R.; Kavan, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of bevacizumab in the management of glioblastoma multiforme (gbm) remains controversial. In Canada, bevacizumab is approved for the treatment of recurrent gbm. We describe a pattern of progression across treatment lines in gbm. Methods During 2008–2014, 64 patients diagnosed with gbm were treated with bevacizumab at McGill University hospitals. Of those patients, 30 (46.9%) received bevacizumab in the first line (B1L), and 34 (53.1%) received it in the second line and beyond (B2L+). The average length of treatment with bevacizumab was 24.4 weeks (range: 0–232.7 weeks). The patterns of progression were categorized as local, distant, diffuse, multifocal, or multi-pattern. Results Local progression was seen in 46.7% of B1L patients and 26.5% of B2L+ patients, distant in 3.3% and 2.9%, diffuse in 20% and 47%, multifocal in 10% and 8.8%, and multi-pattern in 3.3% and 11.8%. No differences between the groups were observed for the distant (p = 0.3) or diffuse (p = 0.4) patterns. Grades 3 and 4 adverse events in the B1L and B2L+ groups were fatigue (33.3% vs. 17.6% respectively), hypertension (26.7% vs. 5.9%), thrombocytopenia (26.7% vs. 11.8%), neutropenia (26.7% vs. 11.8%), anemia (23.3% vs. 11.8%), leucopenia (20% vs. 8.8%), deep vein thrombosis (23.3% vs. 5.9%), seizure (16.7% vs. 8.8%), brain hemorrhage (6.7% vs. <1%), and delayed wound healing (6.7% vs. 2.9%). More total grades 3 and 4 adverse events occurred in the B1L group (p = 0.000519). Conclusions In our cohort, patterns of progression were not different in B1L and B2L+ patients. Moreover, both groups experienced similar adverse events, although more grades 3 and 4 events occurred in the B1L group, implying that severe adverse events in B1L patients could negatively affect survival outcomes.

  15. The Use of Fish Oil with Warfarin Does Not Significantly Affect either the International Normalised Ratio or Incidence of Adverse Events in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and Deep Vein Thrombosis: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Pryce, Rebecca; Bernaitis, Nijole; Davey, Andrew K.; Badrick, Tony; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Warfarin is a leading anticoagulant in the management of atrial fibrillation (AF) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Drug interactions influence the safety of warfarin use and while extensive literature exists regarding the effect on warfarin control and bleeding incidence with many medicines, there is little evidence on the influence of complementary medicines. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of fish and krill oil supplementation on warfarin control and bleeding incidence in AF and DVT patients. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted utilising patient information from a large private pathology clinic. AF and DVT patients receiving long-term warfarin therapy (>30 days) at the clinic and taking fish and krill oil supplements were eligible for study inclusion. Results: Of the 2081 patients assessed, a total of 573 warfarin users met the inclusion criteria with 145 patients in the fish and krill oil group (supplement group) and 428 patients in the control group. Overall, it was found that fish and krill oils did not significantly alter warfarin time in therapeutic range (TTR) or bleeding incidence, even when compared by gender. Conclusion: Omega-3 supplementation with fish and krill oil does not significantly affect long-term warfarin control and bleeding and thromboembolic events when consumed concurrently in patients managed at an anticoagulation clinic. PMID:27657121

  16. Structure and Activity Changes of Phytohemagglutinin from Red Kidney Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Affected by Ultrahigh-Pressure Treatments.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yunjun; Liu, Cencen; Zhao, Mouming; Cui, Chun; Ren, Jiaoyan

    2015-11-01

    Phytohemagglutin (PHA), purified from red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) by Affi-Gel blue affinity chromatography, was subjected to ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) treatment (150, 250, 350, and 450 MPa). The purified PHA lost its hemagglutination activity after 450 MPa treatment and showed less pressure tolerance than crude PHA. However, the saccharide specificity and α-glucosidase inhibition activity of the purified PHA did not change much after UHP treatment. Electrophoresis staining by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) manifested that the glycone structure of purified PHA remained stable even after 450 MPa pressure treatment. However, electrophoresis staining by Coomassie Blue as well as circular dichroism (CD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) assay proved that the protein unit structure of purified PHA unfolded when treated at 0-250 MPa but reaggregates at 250-450 MPa. Therefore, the hemagglutination activity tends to be affected by the protein unit structure, while the stability of the glycone structure contributed to the remaining α-glucosidase inhibition activity.

  17. Aminolevulinic Acid-Photodynamic Therapy of Basal Cell Carcinoma and Factors Affecting the Response to Treatment: A Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tehranchinia, Zohreh; Rahimi, Hoda; Ahadi, Mahsa Seyed; Ahadi, Maral Seyed

    2013-01-01

    Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common type of skin cancer in humans. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive therapeutic modality that may be considered as a valuable treatment option for BCC. This study was designed with the aim of evaluating the efficacy of PDT in treatment of BCC and factors that may affect the response rate. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 12 patients (28 BCC lesions) who were treated with aminulevulinic acid (ALA)-PDT, monthly, up to 6 sessions and the clinical response, cosmetic results, and possible side effects were evaluated. Results: The study was performed on 28 BCC lesions from 12 patients. Complete response was achieved in 9 (32.1%) lesions. Complete response rate was higher in younger patients (P < 0.01) and those with smaller lesions (P < 0.001). Superficial type also had significant higher response rate (P < 0.05). Patients with history of radiotherapy for the treatment of tinea capitis in childhood showed less response (P < 0.05). Cosmetic results were excellent or good in 77.5% cases. After 6 months of follow-up, none of the resolved lesions recurred. Conclusion: PDT would be a good therapeutic option in treatment of BCC with acceptable efficacy and low side effects. Younger patients, superficial BCCs, and smaller lesions show better response to ALA-PDT. History of radiotherapy may be associated with a lower response rate. PMID:23919025

  18. Structure and Activity Changes of Phytohemagglutinin from Red Kidney Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Affected by Ultrahigh-Pressure Treatments.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yunjun; Liu, Cencen; Zhao, Mouming; Cui, Chun; Ren, Jiaoyan

    2015-11-01

    Phytohemagglutin (PHA), purified from red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) by Affi-Gel blue affinity chromatography, was subjected to ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) treatment (150, 250, 350, and 450 MPa). The purified PHA lost its hemagglutination activity after 450 MPa treatment and showed less pressure tolerance than crude PHA. However, the saccharide specificity and α-glucosidase inhibition activity of the purified PHA did not change much after UHP treatment. Electrophoresis staining by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) manifested that the glycone structure of purified PHA remained stable even after 450 MPa pressure treatment. However, electrophoresis staining by Coomassie Blue as well as circular dichroism (CD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) assay proved that the protein unit structure of purified PHA unfolded when treated at 0-250 MPa but reaggregates at 250-450 MPa. Therefore, the hemagglutination activity tends to be affected by the protein unit structure, while the stability of the glycone structure contributed to the remaining α-glucosidase inhibition activity. PMID:26416299

  19. Adverse Stress, Hippocampal Networks, and Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Sarah M.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2009-01-01

    Recent clinical data have implicated chronic adverse stress as a potential risk factor in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and data also suggest that normal, physiological stress responses may be impaired in AD. It is possible that pathology associated with AD causes aberrant responses to chronic stress, due to potential alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Recent work in rodent models of AD suggests that chronic adverse stress exacerbates the cognitive deficits and hippocampal pathology that are present in the AD brain. This review summarizes recent findings obtained in experimental AD models regarding the influence of chronic adverse stress on the underlying cellular and molecular disease processes including the potential role of glucocorticoids. Emerging findings suggest that both AD and chronic adverse stress affect hippocampal neural networks in a similar fashion. We describe alterations in hippocampal plasticity that occur in both chronic stress and AD including dendritic remodeling, neurogenesis and long-term potentiation. Finally, we outline potential roles for oxidative stress and neurotrophic factor signaling as key determinants of the impact of chronic stress on the plasticity of neural networks and AD pathogenesis. PMID:19943124

  20. SU-E-J-175: Comparison of the Treatment Reproducibility of Tumors Affected by Breathing Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Adamczyk, M; Piotrowski, T; Adamczyk, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of the dose distribution simulations was to form a global idea of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) realization, by its comparison to three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) delivery for tumors affected by respiratory motion. Methods: In the group of 10patients both 3DCRT and IMRT plans were prepared.For each field the motion kernel was generated with the largest movement amplitude of 4;6 and 8mm.Additionally,the sets of reference measurements were made in no motion conditions(0 mm).The evaluation of plan delivery,using a diode array placed on moving platform,was based on the Gamma Index analysis with distance to agreement of 3mm and dose difference of 3%. Results: IMRT plans tended to spare doses delivered to lungs compared to 3DCRT.Nonetheless,analyzed volumes showed no significant difference between the static and dynamic techniques,except for the volumes of both lungs receiving 10 and 15Gy.After adding the components associated with the respiratory movement,all IMRT lung parameters evaluated for the ipsilateral,contralateral and both lungs together,revealed considerable differences between the 0vs.6, 0vs.8 and 4vs.8-mm amplitudes.Similar results were obtained for the 3DCRT lung measurements,but without significance between the 0vs.6-mm amplitude.Taking into account the CTV score parameter in 3DCRT and IMRT plans,there was no statistically significant difference between the motion patterns with the smallest amplitudes.The differences were found for the 8-mm amplitude when it was compared both with static conditions and 4-mm amplitude (for 3DCRT) and between 0vs.6, 0vs.8 and 4vs.8-mm amplitudes (for IMRT).All accepted and measured 3DCRT and IMRT doses to spinal cord,esophagus and heart were always below the QUANTEC limits. Conclusion: The application of IMRT technique in lung radiotherapy affords possibilities for reducing the lung doses.For maximal amplitudes of breathing trajectory below 4mm,the disagreement between CTV

  1. Factors affecting adherence to evidence-based guidelines in the treatment of URI, sinusitis, and pharyngitis

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Andrew; Alweis, Richard; Scheirer, Jorge; Schamel, Shannon; Wasser, Tom; Levingood, Kris

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Sinus infections, sore throats, and upper respiratory tract infections (URI) are common reasons patients seek medical care. Well-established treatment guidelines exist for prescribing antibiotics in these clinical scenarios, but are not often followed. Objective The objective of this study is to determine practice patterns related to prescribing antibiotics for sinusitis, URI, and pharyngitis. The main hypothesis is that attending physicians improve their adherence to antibiotic guidelines with a learner present. Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed on patients treated for URI, sinusitis, and pharyngitis at an ambulatory faculty practice. The use of relevant ICD-9 codes from January 1, 2008 to January 30, 2012 resulted in 1,548 patient encounters which were reviewed for guideline adherence. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression was performed for each outcome variable to determine if they influence antibiotic adherence. Variables studied were physician, presence of a learner, BMI, age, gender, day of the week, month, diabetes, immunosuppression, and COPD. Results Multivariate analysis showed the statistically significant variables were age (p=0.038) for pharyngitis and provider (p=0.013) for URI. There were no significant findings for sinusitis. Guideline adherence was 24% in patients with pharyngitis, 42% in acute sinusitis, 79% in URI, and 57% overall. Conclusion Guideline adherence varies depending on the treating physician and decreases when treating younger patients with pharyngitis. The presence of a learner did not improve prescribing habits. The reason for these findings remain unclear, but considerations for improvement could include following antibiotic adherence as a quality measure, giving patients handouts educating them about the impact of overprescribing antibiotics, and further education amongst faculty and residents about adhering to nationally recognized guidelines. PMID:23882403

  2. MORTALITY DURING TREATMENT: FACTORS AFFECTING THE SURVIVAL OF OILED, REHABILITATED COMMON MURRES (URIA AALGE).

    PubMed

    Duerr, Rebecca S; Ziccardi, Michael H; Massey, J Gregory

    2016-07-01

    After major oil spills, hundreds to thousands of live stranded birds enter rehabilitative care. To target aspects of rehabilitative efforts for improvement and to evaluate which initial physical examination and biomedical parameters most effectively predict survival to release, medical records were examined from 913 Common Murres ( Uria aalge ; COMUs) oiled during the November 2001-January 2003 oil spill associated with the sunken S.S. Jacob Luckenbach off San Francisco, California, US. Results showed that 52% of all deaths occurred during the first 2 days of treatment. Birds stranding closest to the wreck had greater amounts of oil on their bodies than birds stranding farther away. More heavily oiled birds were in better clinical condition than birds with lesser amounts of oil, as shown by higher body mass (BM), packed cell volumes (PCV), total plasma protein (TP), and higher survival proportions. Additionally, BM, PCV, TP, and body temperature were positively correlated. For comparison, medical records from all nonoiled COMUs admitted for rehabilitation at the same facility during 2007-09 (n=468) were examined, and these variables were also found to be positively correlated. Oiled birds with BM under 750 g had approximately 5% lower PCV than BM-matched nonoiled COMUs. More heavily oiled COMUs may be in better condition than less oiled birds because heavily oiled birds must beach themselves immediately to avoid drowning and hypothermia, whereas lightly oiled birds may postpone beaching until exhausted due to extreme body catabolism. The strong relationship of PCV to BM regardless of oiling provides evidence that anemia commonly encountered in oiled seabirds may be a sequela to overall loss of body condition rather than solely due to toxic effects of oiling. Clinical information garnered in this study provides guidance for triage decisions during oil spills. PMID:27187030

  3. Culture change in addictions treatment: a targeted training and technical assistance initiative affects tobacco-related attitudes and beliefs in addiction treatment settings.

    PubMed

    Perka, Edward J

    2011-11-01

    Targeted training and technical assistance can have a major impact on the attitudes and beliefs of addiction service providers with respect to the treatment of tobacco dependency. Major gains have been made with the general public since the mid-1960s with respect to the reduction of tobacco use behavior and tobacco-related diseases. Tobacco use continues to be a major public health problem, and tobacco control initiatives are significantly affecting public attitudes and norms regarding tobacco use. There is, however, a specific population that has not benefited from these gains and, in fact, has been encouraged to continue smoking rather than make an attempt to quit. Individuals with a substance use disorder and/or mental health disorder have a much higher percentage of tobacco use than the general population, resulting in major health disparities. The addiction treatment and recovery community has lagged behind the general public in addressing tobacco use. New York State's project, "Integrating Tobacco Use Interventions Into Chemical Dependence Services," is a model that demonstrates how innovative regulations, and training and technical assistance developed specifically for addiction service providers, can initiate culture change with respect to tobacco use within addiction treatment settings, resulting in improved treatment outcomes and longer term stable recovery.

  4. Consumption of low-fat dairy foods for 6 months improves insulin resistance without adversely affecting lipids or bodyweight in healthy adults: a randomized free-living cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Given the highly debated role of dairy food consumption in modulating biomarkers of metabolic syndrome, this study was conducted to examine the influence of long-term (6 month) dairy consumption on metabolic parameters in healthy volunteers under free-living conditions without energy restriction. Methods Twenty-three healthy subjects completed a randomized, crossover trial of 12 months. Participants consumed their habitual diets and were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: a high dairy supplemented group instructed to consume 4 servings of dairy per day (HD); or a low dairy supplemented group limited to no more than 2 servings of dairy per day (LD). Baseline, midpoint, and endpoint metabolic responses were examined. Results Endpoint measurements of body weight and composition, energy expenditure, blood pressure, blood glucose, and blood lipid and lipoprotein responses did not differ (p > 0.05) between the LD and HD groups. HD consumption improved (p < 0.05) plasma insulin (-9%) and insulin resistance (-11%, p = 0.03) as estimated by HOMA-IR compared with the LD group. Conclusions Study results suggest that high dairy consumption (4 servings/d) may improve insulin resistance without negatively impacting bodyweight or lipid status under free-living conditions. Trial registration Trial registration: NCT01761955 PMID:23638799

  5. A multilevel analysis of factors affecting pocket probing depth in patients responding differently to periodontal treatment.

    PubMed

    Axtelius, B; Söderfeldt, B; Attström, R

    1999-02-01

    3 distinct levels are involved in the periodontal inflammatory process: site, tooth, and individual. By focusing attention on the levels in the population, multilevel or hierarchical modelling (MLM) enables the researcher to understand where and how the effects at the levels involved are occurring. The aim of this paper is therefore to analyse the progression of periodontal disease using analytical models that consider the level hierarchy. 22 patients with periodontitis, in previous reports described as either non-responsive or responsive to periodontal treatment, were investigated. In the multilevel modelling method (MLM), the site pocket probing depth (PPD) is summarised in 3 parameters: the overall mean, the between-individual variance, and the within-individual, between-site variance. The model can readily be extended to include independent variables for sites, teeth and individuals. If these variables are important determinants of PPD, their inclusion in the model will lead to a reduction in residual variances between sites, teeth and individuals. The PPDs were used for construction of a PPD change variable (cPPD). This variable, together with the final registrations of PPD (fPPD) alone, were used as dependent variables in the MLM. Independent predictor variables, 12 on site-level, 3 on tooth-level, and 19 on individual-level, were constructed. The total number of sites assessed was 2236 distributed on 559 teeth in 22 subjects. Initially, a fixed, fully unconditional model (models A and E) was assessed, where no predictor variables were specified at any level. Different random-intercept models (B-D, F-H) were then calculated where the independent variables were inserted in blocks relating to each level. The variance components at all 3 levels were significantly larger than zero. This indicates that MLM is recommended for analysing the present data. The inserted predictors showed 100% sensitivity relating to the subject-level variance. Subsequent testing of the

  6. Acaricide treatment affects viral dynamics in Varroa destructor-infested honey bee colonies via both host physiology and mite control.

    PubMed

    Locke, Barbara; Forsgren, Eva; Fries, Ingemar; de Miranda, Joachim R

    2012-01-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies are declining, and a number of stressors have been identified that affect, alone or in combination, the health of honey bees. The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, honey bee viruses that are often closely associated with the mite, and pesticides used to control the mite population form a complex system of stressors that may affect honey bee health in different ways. During an acaricide treatment using Apistan (plastic strips coated with tau-fluvalinate), we analyzed the infection dynamics of deformed wing virus (DWV), sacbrood virus (SBV), and black queen cell virus (BQCV) in adult bees, mite-infested pupae, their associated Varroa mites, and uninfested pupae, comparing these to similar samples from untreated control colonies. Titers of DWV increased initially with the onset of the acaricide application and then slightly decreased progressively coinciding with the removal of the Varroa mite infestation. This initial increase in DWV titers suggests a physiological effect of tau-fluvalinate on the host's susceptibility to viral infection. DWV titers in adult bees and uninfested pupae remained higher in treated colonies than in untreated colonies. The titers of SBV and BQCV did not show any direct relationship with mite infestation and showed a variety of possible effects of the acaricide treatment. The results indicate that other factors besides Varroa mite infestation may be important to the development and maintenance of damaging DWV titers in colonies. Possible biochemical explanations for the observed synergistic effects between tau-fluvalinate and virus infections are discussed.

  7. Acaricide Treatment Affects Viral Dynamics in Varroa destructor-Infested Honey Bee Colonies via both Host Physiology and Mite Control

    PubMed Central

    Forsgren, Eva; Fries, Ingemar; de Miranda, Joachim R.

    2012-01-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies are declining, and a number of stressors have been identified that affect, alone or in combination, the health of honey bees. The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, honey bee viruses that are often closely associated with the mite, and pesticides used to control the mite population form a complex system of stressors that may affect honey bee health in different ways. During an acaricide treatment using Apistan (plastic strips coated with tau-fluvalinate), we analyzed the infection dynamics of deformed wing virus (DWV), sacbrood virus (SBV), and black queen cell virus (BQCV) in adult bees, mite-infested pupae, their associated Varroa mites, and uninfested pupae, comparing these to similar samples from untreated control colonies. Titers of DWV increased initially with the onset of the acaricide application and then slightly decreased progressively coinciding with the removal of the Varroa mite infestation. This initial increase in DWV titers suggests a physiological effect of tau-fluvalinate on the host's susceptibility to viral infection. DWV titers in adult bees and uninfested pupae remained higher in treated colonies than in untreated colonies. The titers of SBV and BQCV did not show any direct relationship with mite infestation and showed a variety of possible effects of the acaricide treatment. The results indicate that other factors besides Varroa mite infestation may be important to the development and maintenance of damaging DWV titers in colonies. Possible biochemical explanations for the observed synergistic effects between tau-fluvalinate and virus infections are discussed. PMID:22020517

  8. Adverse events of monoclonal antibodies used for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Guan, Mei; Zhou, Yan-Ping; Sun, Jin-Lu; Chen, Shu-Chang

    2015-01-01

    In 1997, the first monoclonal antibody (MoAb), the chimeric anti-CD20 molecule rituximab, was approved by the US Food and Drug administration for use in cancer patients. Since then, the panel of MoAbs that are approved by international regulatory agencies for the treatment of hematopoietic and solid malignancies has continued to expand, currently encompassing a stunning amount of 20 distinct molecules for 11 targets. We provide a brief scientific background on the use of MoAbs in cancer therapy, review all types of monoclonal antibodies-related adverse events (e.g., allergy, immune-related adverse events, cardiovascular adverse events, and pulmonary adverse events), and discuss the mechanism and treatment of adverse events. PMID:26075239

  9. Adverse Events of Monoclonal Antibodies Used for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Mei; Zhou, Yan-Ping; Sun, Jin-Lu; Chen, Shu-Chang

    2015-01-01

    In 1997, the first monoclonal antibody (MoAb), the chimeric anti-CD20 molecule rituximab, was approved by the US Food and Drug administration for use in cancer patients. Since then, the panel of MoAbs that are approved by international regulatory agencies for the treatment of hematopoietic and solid malignancies has continued to expand, currently encompassing a stunning amount of 20 distinct molecules for 11 targets. We provide a brief scientific background on the use of MoAbs in cancer therapy, review all types of monoclonal antibodies-related adverse events (e.g., allergy, immune-related adverse events, cardiovascular adverse events, and pulmonary adverse events), and discuss the mechanism and treatment of adverse events. PMID:26075239

  10. Treatment with Anti-HMGB1 Monoclonal Antibody Does Not Affect Lupus Nephritis in MRL/lpr Mice

    PubMed Central

    Schaper, Fleur; van Timmeren, Mirjan M; Petersen, Arjen; Horst, Gerda; Bijl, Marc; Limburg, Pieter C; Westra, Johanna; Heeringa, Peter

    2016-01-01

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear DNA binding protein that acts as an alarmin when secreted. HMGB1 is increased in systemic lupus erythematosus and might represent a potential therapeutic target. We investigated whether treatment with an anti-HMGB1 antibody affects the development of lupus nephritis in MRL/lpr mice. Seven-week-old MRL/lpr mice were injected intraperitoneally twice weekly for 10 wks with 50 μg monoclonal anti-HMGB1 (2G7, mouse IgG2b) (n = 12) or control antibody (n = 11). Control MRL/MPJ mice (n = 10) were left untreated. Every 2 wks, blood was drawn and urine was collected at wk 7, 11 and 17. Mice were sacrificed at 17 wks for complete disease evaluation. Plasma HMGB1 and anti-HMGB1 levels were increased in MRL/lpr mice compared with control MRL/MPJ mice. There were no differences in albuminuria, urine HMGB1 and plasma levels of complement C3, anti-dsDNA and proinflammatory cytokines between untreated and treated mice at any time point. Lupus nephritis of mice treated with anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) was classified as class III (n = 3) and class IV (n = 9), while mice treated with control mAb were classified as class II (n = 4), class III (n = 2) and class IV (n = 5). IgG and C3 deposits in kidneys were similar in mice treated with anti-HMGB1 mAb or control mAb. In conclusion, treatment with monoclonal anti–HMGB-1 antibody 2G7 does not affect development of lupus nephritis, disease progression or proinflammatory cytokine levels in MRL/lpr mice. This result indicates that blocking of HMGB1 by this neutralizing antibody does not affect lupus nephritis in MRL/lpr mice. PMID:26837069

  11. Zinc treatment increases the titre of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ in Huanglongbing-affected citrus plants while affecting the bacterial microbiomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB)-affected citrus often display zinc deficiency symptoms. In this study, supplemental zinc was applied to citrus to determine its effect on Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) titer, HLB symptoms, and leaf microbiome. HLB-affected citrus were treated with various amounts of zi...

  12. Treatment outcome and factors affecting time to recovery in children with severe acute malnutrition treated at outpatient therapeutic care program

    PubMed Central

    Mengesha, Melkamu Merid; Deyessa, Negussie; Tegegne, Balewgizie Sileshi; Dessie, Yadeta

    2016-01-01

    Background The outpatient therapeutic care program (OTP) of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) has been decentralized to health post level in Ethiopia since 2008–2009. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding treatment outcomes and factors related to the duration of stay on treatment after its decentralization to health post level. Objective This study was aimed to assess treatment outcome and factors affecting time to recovery in children with SAM treated at OTP. Design Health facility–based retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from 348 patient cards. The outcome variable was time to recovery. Descriptive analysis was done using percentages for categorical data and mean/median for continuous variables. A robust method of analyzing time to event data, the Cox proportional-hazard regression, was used. All statistical tests in this study are declared significant at p<0.05. Result 89.1% of children with kwashiorkor and 69.4% of children with marasmus were recovered. Of the total children studied, 22% were readmitted cases. The median time of recovery was 35 days for children with kwashiorkor and 49 days for children with marasmus. Children older than 3 years were 33% less likely to achieve nutritional recovery [adjusted hazard ratio, AHR=0.67, 95% confidence interval, CI (0.46, 0.97)]. Similarly, marasmic children stayed longer on treatment [AHR=0.42, 95% CI (0.32, 0.56)]. However, children who gained Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) ≥ 0.24 mm/day were 59% more likely to recover faster [AHR=1.59, 95% CI (1.23, 2.06)]. Conclusions Close monitoring of weight and MUAC gain to assess nutritional improvement with due emphasis given to children with lower admission weight, children of age 3 years and above and marasmic children will have a positive effect on treatment duration and outcome. PMID:27396484

  13. Adverse effects of general anaesthetics.

    PubMed

    Berthoud, M C; Reilly, C S

    1992-01-01

    This review deals with the adverse reactions associated with general anaesthetic agents in current use. These reactions fall into 2 categories; those which are more common, predictable and often closely related, and those which are rare, unpredictable and carry a high mortality. Both inhalational and intravenous anaesthetic agents affect the central nervous and cardio-respiratory systems in a dose-related manner. Neuronal inhibition results in decreasing levels of consciousness and depression of the medullary vital centres which can lead to cardiorespiratory failure. Both groups of agents have some depressant effect on the myocardium and vascular smooth muscle leading to a fall in cardiac output and hypotension. Centrally-mediated respiratory depression is common to both groups and the inhalational agents have a direct effect on lung physiology. The most important idiosyncratic reactions to the volatile agents are malignant hyperpyrexia and 'halothane hepatitis'. Malignant hyperpyrexia has an incidence of 1:12,000 with a mortality of about 24%. It is triggered most often by halothane together with suxamethonium. Post halothane hepatic necrosis is rare. Evidence points to 2 distinct syndromes; direct toxicity from the products of reductive metabolism, and a more serious illness, immunologically mediated via haptens formed by liver proteins and the products of oxidative metabolism. Prolonged nitrous oxide exposure can cause bone marrow depression and life-threatening pressure effects by expansion of air-filled spaces within the body. The idiosyncratic reactions to the intravenous agents include anaphylactoid reactions (which are rare) and triggering of acute porphyria. Etomidate is immunologically 'clean', but it inhibits cortisol synthesis. PMID:1418699

  14. Troubled families and individualised solutions: an institutional discourse analysis of alcohol and drug treatment practices involving affected others.

    PubMed

    Selbekk, Anne Schanche; Sagvaag, Hildegunn

    2016-09-01

    Research shows that members of the families with patients suffering from alcohol and other drug-related issues (AOD) experience stress and strain. An important question is, what options do AOD treatment have for them when it comes to support? To answer this, we interviewed directors and clinicians from three AOD treatment institutions in Norway. The study revealed that family-oriented practices are gaining ground as a 'going concern'. However, the relative position of family-orientation in the services, is constrained and shaped by three other going concerns related to: (i) discourse on health and illness, emphasising that addiction is an individual medical and psychological phenomenon, rather than a relational one; (ii) discourse on rights and involvement, emphasising the autonomy of the individual patient and their right to define the format of their own treatment; and (iii) discourse on management, emphasising the relationship between cost and benefit, where family-oriented practices are defined as not being cost-effective. All three discourses are connected to underpin the weight placed on individualised practices. Thus, the findings point to a paradox: there is a growing focus on the needs of children and affected family members, while the possibility of performing integrated work on families is limited.

  15. [Adverse effects of antidepressive agents in hospitalized geriatric patients].

    PubMed

    Korínková, V; Kolibás, E; Králová, M; Novotný, V; Konceoj, V A; Pjatnickij, A N; Andrusenkova, M P

    1992-11-01

    The frequency, intensity and profile of adverse effects of antidepressants was studied in elderly patients. The series consisted of 102 patients with depression admitted to hospitals in Bratislava and Moscow. The adverse effects of amitriptyline (Amitriptylin Spofa) and maprotiline (Ludiomil Ciba-Geigy) were compared. The assessment done on days 0, 7, and 28 of treatment showed that xerostomia had the highest occurrence rate with both preparations studied. In patients treated with amitriptyline adverse effects were more severe and were recorded more frequently, requiring treatment withdrawal in 3 patients. The overall intensity of adverse effects was significantly higher with amitriptyline (p < 0.05). In the group of patients treated with amitriptyline the adverse effects were more marked in those with severe somatic pathology. The risk of amitriptyline treatment in elderly patients is being emphasized along with the need for monitoring and correcting adverse effects of the treatment. Although maprotiline exhibited a lower occurrence rate of adverse effects, cardiac functions should be regularly checked in patients with preexisting cardiac pathology. (Tab. 2, Fig. 3, Ref. 6.).

  16. Comparison of treatment costs of grade 3/4 adverse events associated with erlotinib or pemetrexed maintenance therapy for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in Germany, France, Italy, and Spain.

    PubMed

    Banz, Kurt; Bischoff, Helge; Brunner, Matthias; Chouaid, Christos; de Castro Carpeño, Javier; de Marinis, Filippo; Grossi, Francesco; Vergnenègre, Alain; Walzer, Stefan

    2011-12-01

    Objective of this indirect economic comparison was to estimate and compare management costs of grade 3/4 adverse events (AEs) reported for first-line erlotinib or pemetrexed maintenance therapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The economic analysis was performed for Germany, France, Italy and Spain. Types and incidences of reported grade 3/4 AEs observed with erlotinib or pemetrexed maintenance therapy were retrieved from two recently published placebo-controlled trials. Country-specific estimates on standard treatment algorithms and incremental medical resource utilization associated with each of the reported grade 3/4 AEs have been obtained from clinical oncologists practicing in the four countries and co-authoring this article. The resource use items were subsequently assigned country-specific tariffs to estimate total per-patients costs associated with the AE profiles of the two compared maintenance regimens. For the economic analysis a customized economic spreadsheet model was employed. Our comparison shows lower total average per-patient AE management costs for erlotinib than for pemetrexed maintenance therapy in all four studied countries. Total estimated cost savings per patient in favour of erlotinib amount to € 121, € 237, € 106, and € 119 for Germany, France, Italy and Spain, respectively. These AE cost savings for erlotinib when compared to pemetrexed represent a decrease by 80%, 71%, 94%, and 82%, respectively. The study also discovered considerable differences in AE management costs across countries which are primarily due to differences in clinician's estimates of hospitalization referral rates. Erlotinib maintenance therapy in patients with advanced NSCLC causes lower AE management costs than pemetrexed maintenance therapy indicating a potentially superior tolerability profile. PMID:21592611

  17. Evaluation of adverse reactions to contrast media in the hospital

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, J-H; Kim, E-Y

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine and analyse the characteristics of contrast media adverse reactions (CM-ARs) reported in a hospital. Methods: A retrospective review of CM-ARs from the electronic spontaneous adverse drug reaction (ADR) report system between January 2011 and August 2012 was conducted. CM-ARs were evaluated in terms of causality, severity, preventability and affected organs. Also, agreement and correlation among the tools used to evaluate CM-ARs were analysed. Results: The overall reaction rate was 1.5% (n = 286). In total, 269 CM-ARs were identified. For ADR causality, 96.7% (n = 260) and 98.5% (n = 265) were evaluated as “probable” ADR using the Naranjo probability scale and the World Health Organization–Uppsala Monitoring Centre causality categories, whereas 98.1% (n = 264) were evaluated as “certain” with Korean algorithm v. II. Of these, 91.4% (n = 246) were mild in severity and 96.7% (n = 260) were unpreventable. Most patients (n = 233, 86.7%) could be managed with observation and/or simple treatment. The most frequent reaction (n = 383, 79.5%) was dermatological. Spearman's correlation coefficient was 0.667 (p < 0.01), and the agreement was 98.1% between the Naranjo scale and the World Health Organization–Uppsala Monitoring Centre categories. No relationship was seen between CM-AR severity and gender or between in- and outpatients. Conclusion: In our study, most CM-ARs were mild and managed with simple treatment. However, as the number of patients undergoing CT procedures continues to increase, it is essential to identify and observe patients at risk for CM-ARs to prevent severe ADRs. Advances in knowledge: Continuous careful review of reporting and treatment protocols of CM-ARs is needed to prevent morbidity and mortality. PMID:24191123

  18. Gestational stress and fluoxetine treatment differentially affect plasticity, methylation and serotonin levels in the PFC and hippocampus of rat dams.

    PubMed

    Gemmel, Mary; Rayen, Ine; van Donkelaar, Eva; Loftus, Tiffany; Steinbusch, Harry W; Kokras, Nikolaos; Dalla, Christina; Pawluski, Jodi L

    2016-07-01

    Women are more likely to develop depression during childbearing years with up to 20% of women suffering from depression during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. Increased prevalence of depression during the perinatal period has resulted in frequent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant treatment; however the effects of such medications on the maternal brain remain limited. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of the SSRI medication, fluoxetine, on neurobiological differences in the maternal brain. To model aspects of maternal depression, gestational stress was used. Sprague-Dawley rat dams were exposed to either gestational stress and/or fluoxetine (5mg/kg/day) to form the following four groups: 1. Control+Vehicle, 2. Stress+Vehicle, 3. Control+Fluoxetine, and 4. Stress+Fluoxetine. At weaning maternal brains were collected. Main findings show that gestational stress alone increased synaptophysin and serotonin metabolism in the cingulate cortex2 region of the cortex while fluoxetine treatment after stress normalized these effects. In the hippocampus, fluoxetine treatment, regardless of gestational stress exposure, decreased both global measures of methylation in the dentate gyrus, as measured by Dnmt3a immunoreactivity, as well as serotonin metabolism. No further changes in synaptophysin, PSD-95, or Dnmt3a immunoreactivity were seen in the cortical or hippocampal areas investigated. These findings show that gestational stress and SSRI medication affect the neurobiology of the maternal brain in a region-specific manner. This work adds to a much needed area of research aimed at understanding neurobiological changes associated with maternal depression and the role of SSRI treatment in altering these changes in the female brain.

  19. Affects, agency, and self-regulation: complexity theory in the treatment of children with anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Phyllis

    2005-01-01

    In an increasingly unsettled and violent world, with swelling numbers of children who are abused, abandoned, or neglected, emotionally if not physically, and an increasing population of aggressive preschool children with anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders who cannot be contained in ordinary settings, psychoanalysts can make a contribution. Early intervention is essential. In very early childhood, new procedural memories for interacting with others and for regulating affects can be formed more easily than they can ever be again. Intervention should aim toward helping the child develop a sense of agency, establish moral standards, assume self-responsibility, and attain the capacity for emotional regulation. The principles of complex dynamic systems can inform psychoanalytic treatment strategies, as demonstrated with five children whose cases are presented.

  20. Popliteal artery injuries in an urban trauma center with a rural catchment area: do delays in definitive treatment affect amputation?

    PubMed

    Simmons, Jon D; Gunter, Joseph W; Schmieg, Robert E; Manley, Justin D; Rushton, Fred W; Porter, John M; Mitchell, Marc E

    2011-11-01

    Extended length of time from injury to definitive vascular repair is considered to be a predictor of amputation in patients with popliteal artery injuries. In an urban trauma center with a rural catchment area, logistical issues frequently result in treatment delays, which may affect limb salvage after vascular trauma. We examined how known risk factors for amputation after popliteal trauma are affected in a more rural environment, where patients often experience delays in definitive surgical treatment. All adult patients admitted to the Level I trauma center, the University of Mississippi Medical Center, with a popliteal artery injury between January 2000 and December of 2007 were identified. Demographic information management and outcome data were collected. Body mass index, mangled extremity severity score (MESS), Guistilo open fracture score, injury severity score, and time from injury to vascular repair were examined. Fifty-one patients with popliteal artery injuries (53% blunt and 47% penetrating) were identified, all undergoing operative repair. There were nine amputations (17.6%) and one death. Patients requiring amputation had a higher MESS, 7.8 versus 5.3 (P < 0.01), and length of stay, 43 versus 15 days (P < 0.01), compared with those with successful limb salvage. Body mass index, injury severity score, Guistilo open fracture score, or time from injury to repair were not different between the two groups. Patients with a blunt mechanism of injury had a slightly higher amputation rate compared with those with penetrating trauma, 25.9 per cent versus 8.3 per cent (P = non significant). MESS, though not perfect, is the best predictor of amputation in patients with popliteal artery injuries. Morbid obesity is not a significant predictor for amputation in patients with popliteal artery injuries. Time from injury to repair of greater than 6 hours was not predictive of amputation. This study further demonstrates that a single scoring system should be used with

  1. Effect of homogenization heat treatment on the microstructure and heat- affected zone microfissuring in welded cast alloy 718

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiao; Chaturvedi, M. C.; Richards, N. L.

    1996-03-01

    The effect of homogenization temperature on microfissuring in the heat-affected zones of electronwelded cast INCONEL 718 has been studied. The material was homogenized at various temperatures in the range of 1037 ° to 1163 ° and air-cooled. The homogenized material was then electron-beam welded by the bead-on-plate welding technique. The microstructures and microfissuring in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) were evaluated by analytical scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The grain boundary segregation of various elements was evaluated by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). It was observed that the total crack length (TCL) of microfissures first decreases with homogenization temperature and then increases, with a minimum occurring in the specimen heat treated at 1163 °. This trend coincides with the variation in segregation of B at grain boundaries with homogenization temperature and has been explained by equilibrium and nonequilibrium segregation of B to grain boundaries during the homogenization heat treatment. No other element was observed to segregate at the grain boundaries. The variation in volume fraction of phases like δ-Ni3Nb, MC carbide, and Laves phases does not follow the same trend as that observed for TCL and B segregation at the grain boundaries. Therefore, microfissuring in HAZ of welded cast INCONEL 718 is attributed to the segregation of B at the grain boundaries.

  2. Improving outcomes for caregivers through treatment of young people affected by war: a randomized controlled trial in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Salhi, Carmel; Hann, Katrina; Kellie, Jim; Kamara, Alimamy; Salomon, Joshua A; Kim, Jane J; Betancourt, Theresa S

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To measure the benefits to household caregivers of a psychotherapeutic intervention for adolescents and young adults living in a war-affected area. Methods Between July 2012 and July 2013, we carried out a randomized controlled trial of the Youth Readiness Intervention – a cognitive–behavioural intervention for war-affected young people who exhibit depressive and anxiety symptoms and conduct problems – in Freetown, Sierra Leone. Overall, 436 participants aged 15–24 years were randomized to receive the intervention (n = 222) or care as usual (n = 214). Household caregivers for the participants in the intervention arm (n = 101) or control arm (n = 103) were interviewed during a baseline survey and again, if available (n = 155), 12 weeks later in a follow-up survey. We used a burden assessment scale to evaluate the burden of care placed on caregivers in terms of emotional distress and functional impairment. The caregivers’ mental health – i.e. internalizing, externalizing and prosocial behaviour – was evaluated using the Oxford Measure of Psychosocial Adjustment. Difference-in-differences multiple regression analyses were used, within an intention-to-treat framework, to estimate the treatment effects. Findings Compared with the caregivers of participants of the control group, the caregivers of participants of the intervention group reported greater reductions in emotional distress (scale difference: 0.252; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.026–0.4782) and greater improvements in prosocial behaviour (scale difference: 0.249; 95% CI: 0.012–0.486) between the two surveys. Conclusion A psychotherapeutic intervention for war-affected young people can improve the mental health of their caregivers. PMID:26668435

  3. Analysis and stability of carotenoids in the flowers of daylily (Hemerocallis disticha) as affected by various treatments.

    PubMed

    Tai, C Y; Chen, B H

    2000-12-01

    The analysis and stability of carotenoids in the flowers of daylily (Hemerocallis disticha) as affected by soaking and drying treatments were studied. The various carotenoids in the flowers of daylily were analyzed using a reversed-phase C(30) HPLC column and a mobile phase of methanol/methylene chloride/2-propanol (89:1:10, v/v/v) with methanol/methylene chloride (45:55, v/v) as sample solvent. Twenty-one pigments were resolved, of which 14 carotenoids were identified, including neoxanthin, violaxanthin, violeoxanthin, lutein-5,6-epoxide, lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, all-trans-beta-carotene, and their cis isomers, based on spectral characteristics and Q ratios. Prior to hot-air-drying (50 degrees C) or freeze-drying, some of the daylily flowers were subjected to soaking in a sodium sulfite solution (1%) for 4 h. Under either the hot-air- or the freeze-drying treatment, the amounts of most carotenoids were higher in the soaked daylily flowers than in those that were not soaked. With hot-air-drying, the amount of cis carotenoids showed a higher yield in soaked samples than in nonsoaked samples. However, with freeze-drying, only a minor change of each carotenoid was observed for both soaked and nonsoaked samples. Also, air-drying resulted in a higher loss of carotenoids than freeze-drying. PMID:11312769

  4. Improvement in depression scores after 1 hour of light therapy treatment in patients with seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Gloria M; Nijjar, Gagan Virk; Langenberg, Patricia; Johnson, Mary A; Khabazghazvini, Baharak; Sleemi, Aamar; Vaswani, Dipika; Lapidus, Manana; Manalai, Partam; Tariq, Muhammad; Acharya, Monika; Cabassa, Johanna; Snitker, Soren; Postolache, Teodor T

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate possible rapid effects of light therapy on depressed mood in patients with seasonal affective disorder. Participants received 1 hour of bright light therapy and 1 hour of placebo dim red light in a randomized order crossover design. Depressed mood was measured at baseline and after each hour of light treatment using two self-report depression scales (Profile of Mood States-Depression-Dejection [POMS-D] subscale and the Beck Depression Inventory II [BDI-II]). When light effects were grouped for the two sessions, there was significantly greater reduction in self-report depression scores by -1.3 (p = 0.02) on the BDI-II and -1.2 (p = 0.02) on the POMS-D. A significant but modest improvement was detected after a single active light session. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to document an immediate improvement with light treatment using a placebo-controlled design with a clinical sample of depressed individuals.

  5. Hospital treatment, mortality and healthcare costs in relation to socioeconomic status among people with bipolar affective disorder

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Ling-Ling; Chen, Yu-Chun; Kuo, Kuei-Hong; Chang, Chin-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence regarding the relationships between the socioeconomic status and long-term outcomes of individuals with bipolar affective disorder (BPD) is lacking. Aims We aimed to estimate the effects of baseline socioeconomic status on longitudinal outcomes. Method A national cohort of adult participants with newly diagnosed BPD was identified in 2008. The effects of personal and household socioeconomic status were explored on outcomes of hospital treatment, mortality and healthcare costs, over a 3-year follow-up period (2008–2011). Results A total of 7987 participants were recruited. The relative risks of hospital treatment and mortality were found elevated for the ones from low-income households who also had higher healthcare costs. Low premium levels did not correlate with future healthcare costs. Conclusions Socioeconomic deprivation is associated with poorer outcome and higher healthcare costs in BPD patients. Special care should be given to those with lower socioeconomic status to improve outcomes with potential benefits of cost savings in the following years. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © 2016 The Royal College of Psychiatrists. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703748

  6. Factors affecting adherence to treatment and follow-up of burns in children: A single centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Sener, Mustafa Talip; Aydın, Osman Enver; Ançı, Yuksel; Kara, Murat; Tan, Onder; Kok, Ahmet Nezih

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Children are prone to burn injury. Burns can be seen as a part of child abuse. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors affecting adherence to the treatment of burn patients, and to emphasize the role of the physician in identifying children's non-accidental burn injuries. Materials and Methods: Children who were hospitalized in the burn unit were analyzed retrospectively. Results were assessed for significance using the Chi-square test. Results: A total of 189 patients were included. Some patients (n = 52; 27.5%) were discharged against medical advice (DAMA) before completion of treatment. Although we could not demonstrate a relationship between non-accidental etiology and DAMA group, it was significant that these patients did not contact the outpatient clinic after discharge. It was evident from records that two of these cases were abused. The reasoning of the parents in the DAMA group for the early discharge was siblings at home, financial and accommodation problems. Conclusion: Although burns in children commonly occur due to an accident, each burn case should be examined for a non-accidental etiology and findings suggesting abuse should be noted. Physicians should be alert for the detection of signs of burn related child abuse. PMID:26807393

  7. Core Concepts Involving Adverse Psychotropic Drug Effects: Assessment, Implications, and Management.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Joseph F; Ernst, Carrie L

    2016-09-01

    Adverse effects from psychiatric drugs can profoundly influence treatment adherence and outcomes. Good care involves addressing adverse effects no differently than any other component of treatment. Knowledge about adverse effect assessment and management fosters a proper context that helps clinicians not sacrifice a drug's potential therapeutic benefits because of greater concerns about its tolerability. This article provides an overview of basic concepts related to the assessment and management of suspected adverse effects from psychotropic drugs. Key points are discussed regarding clinical, pharmacogenetic, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic risk factors for treatment-emergent adverse effects, alongside recommendations for their systematic assessment. PMID:27514295

  8. Development of the triage, monitoring and treatment Handbook for Members of the Public Affected by Radiological Terrorism - A European Response

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, P.; Rojas-Palma, C.

    2007-07-01

    European national emergency response plans have long been focused on accidents at nuclear power plants. Recently, the possible threats by disaffected groups have shifted the focus to being prepared also for malevolent use of radiation that are aimed at creating disruption and panic in the society. The casualties will most likely be members of the public. According to the scenario, the number of affected people can vary from a few to mass casualties. The radiation exposure can range from very low to substantial, possibly combined with conventional injuries. There is a need to develop practicable tools for the adequate response to such acts and more specifically to address European guidelines for triage, monitoring and treatment of exposed people. Although European countries have developed emergency response plans for nuclear accidents they have not all made plans for handling malevolent use of radioactive material. Indeed, there is a need to develop practical guidance on emergency response and medical treatment of the public affected by malevolent acts. Generic guidance on this topic has been published by international organisations. They are, however, not operational documents to be used in emergency situations. The Triage, Monitoring and Treatment (TMT) Handbook aims to strengthen the European ability to efficiently respond to malevolent acts in terms of protecting and treating exposed people. Part of the Handbook is also devoted to public information and communication issues which would contribute to public reassurance in emergency situations. The Handbook will be drafted by European and international experts before it is circulated to all emergency response institutions in Europe that would be a part of the handling of malevolent acts using radioactive material. The institutions would be given a 6 months consultation time with encouragement to test the draft Handbook in national exercises. A workshop will allow feedback from these end users on the content

  9. Race, racism, and racial disparities in adverse birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Tyan Parker

    2008-06-01

    While the biologic authenticity of race remains a contentious issue, the social significance of race is indisputable. The chronic stress of racism and the social inequality it engenders may be underlying social determinants of persistent racial disparities in health, including infant mortality, preterm delivery, and low birth weight. This article describes the problem of racial disparities in adverse birth outcomes; outlines the multidimensional nature of racism and the pathways by which it may adversely affect health; and discusses the implications for clinical practice.

  10. Neuropsychiatric Adverse Effects of Amphetamine and Methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Harro, Jaanus

    2015-01-01

    Administration of amphetamine and methamphetamine can elicit psychiatric adverse effects at acute administration, binge use, withdrawal, and chronic use. Most troublesome of these are psychotic states and aggressive behavior, but a large variety of undesirable changes in cognition and affect can be induced. Adverse effects occur more frequently with higher dosages and long-term use. They can subside over time but some persist long-term. Multiple alterations in the gray and white matter of the brain assessed as changes in tissue volume or metabolism, or at molecular level, have been associated with amphetamine and methamphetamine use and the psychiatric adverse effects, but further studies are required to clarify their causal role, specificity, and relationship with preceding states and traits and comorbidities. The latter include other substance use disorders, mood and anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and antisocial personality disorder. Amphetamine- and methamphetamine-related psychosis is similar to schizophrenia in terms of symptomatology and pathogenesis, and these two disorders share predisposing genetic factors.

  11. Stroke and TIA survivors' cognitive beliefs and affective responses regarding treatment and future stroke risk differentially predict medication adherence and categorised stroke risk.

    PubMed

    Phillips, L Alison; Diefenbach, Michael A; Abrams, Jessica; Horowitz, Carol R

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive beliefs and affective responses to illness and treatment are known to independently predict health behaviours. The purpose of the current study is to assess the relative importance of four psychological domains - specifically, affective illness, cognitive illness, affective treatment and cognitive treatment - for predicting stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) survivors' adherence to stroke prevention medications as well as their objective, categorised stroke risk. We assessed these domains among stroke/TIA survivors (n = 600), and conducted correlation and regression analyses with concurrent and prospective outcomes to determine the relative importance of each cognitive and affective domain for adherence and stroke risk. As hypothesised, patients' affective treatment responses explained the greatest unique variance in baseline and six-month adherence reports (8 and 5%, respectively, of the variance in adherence, compared to 1-3% explained by other domains). Counter to hypotheses, patients' cognitive illness beliefs explained the greatest unique variance in baseline and six-month objective categorised stroke risk (3 and 2%, respectively, compared to 0-1% explained by other domains). Results indicate that domain type (i.e. cognitive and affective) and domain referent (illness and treatment) may be differentially important for providers to assess when treating patients for stroke/TIA. More research is required to further distinguish between these domains and their relative importance for stroke prevention. PMID:25220292

  12. Diphtheria toxin treatment of Pet-1-Cre floxed diphtheria toxin receptor mice disrupts thermoregulation without affecting respiratory chemoreception

    PubMed Central

    Cerpa, Verónica; Gonzalez, Amalia; Richerson, George B.

    2014-01-01

    In genetically-modified Lmx1bf/f/p mice, selective deletion of LMX1B in Pet-1 expressing cells leads to failure of embryonic development of serotonin (5-HT) neurons. As adults, these mice have a decreased hypercapnic ventilatory response and abnormal thermoregulation. This mouse model has been valuable in defining the normal role of 5-HT neurons, but it is possible that developmental compensation reduces the severity of observed deficits. Here we studied mice genetically modified to express diphtheria toxin receptors (DTR) on Pet-1 expressing neurons (Pet-1-Cre/Floxed DTR or Pet1/DTR mice). These mice developed with a normal complement of 5-HT neurons. As adults, systemic treatment with 2 – 35 μg diphtheria toxin (DT) reduced the number of tryptophan hydroxylase immunoreactive (TpOH-ir) neurons in the raphe nuclei and ventrolateral medulla by 80%. There were no effects of DT on baseline ventilation (VE) or the ventilatory response to hypercapnia or hypoxia. At an ambient temperature (TA) of 24°C, all Pet1/DTR mice dropped their body temperature (TB) below 35°C after DT treatment, but the latency was shorter in males than females (3.0 ± 0.37 vs 4.57 ± 0.29 days, respectively; p < 0.001). One week after DT treatment, mice were challenged by dropping TA from 37°C to 24°C, which caused TB to decrease more in males than in females (29.7 ± 0.31°C vs 33.0 ± 1.3°C, p < 0.01). We conclude that the 20% of 5-HT neurons that remain after DT treatment in Pet1/DTR mice are sufficient to maintain normal baseline breathing and a normal response to CO2, while those affected include some essential for thermoregulation, in males more than females. In comparison to models with deficient embryonic development of 5-HT neurons, acute deletion of 5-HT neurons in adults leads to a greater defect in thermoregulation, suggesting that significant developmental compensation can occur. PMID:25171790

  13. Intra-articular corticosteroids in the treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Safety, efficacy, and features affecting outcome. A comprehensive review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Gotte, Alisa Carman

    2009-01-01

    Intra-articular corticosteroid injection (IACI) has been used in the treatment of inflammatory arthritis in adults for over fifty years. Over the last two decades, IACI has become an important tool in the management of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), particularly in the oligoarthritis subset of JIA. Many factors may affect the efficacy of this treatment modality, although the majority of evidence on this topic is anecdotal, nonconvincing, or conflicting. The review examines the rationale, efficacy, safety, and application of the use of IACI in the treatment of JIA, focusing on factors that affect the outcome following IACI.

  14. Rare and very rare adverse effects of clozapine

    PubMed Central

    De Fazio, Pasquale; Gaetano, Raffaele; Caroleo, Mariarita; Cerminara, Gregorio; Maida, Francesca; Bruno, Antonio; Muscatello, Maria Rosaria; Moreno, Maria Jose Jaén; Russo, Emilio; Segura-García, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Clozapine (CLZ) is the drug of choice for the treatment of resistant schizophrenia; however, its suitable use is limited by the complex adverse effects’ profile. The best-described adverse effects in the literature are represented by agranulocytosis, myocarditis, sedation, weight gain, hypotension, and drooling; nevertheless, there are other known adverse effects that psychiatrists should readily recognize and manage. This review covers the “rare” and “very rare” known adverse effects of CLZ, which have been accurately described in literature. An extensive search on the basis of predefined criteria was made using CLZ and its combination with adverse effects as keywords in electronic databases. Data show the association between the use of CLZ and uncommon adverse effects, including ischemic colitis, paralytic ileus, hematemesis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, priapism, urinary incontinence, pityriasis rosea, intertriginous erythema, pulmonary thromboembolism, pseudo-pheochromocytoma, periorbital edema, and parotitis, which are influenced by other variables including age, early diagnosis, and previous/current pharmacological therapies. Some of these adverse effects, although unpredictable, are often manageable if promptly recognized and treated. Others are serious and potentially life-threatening. However, an adequate knowledge of the drug, clinical vigilance, and rapid intervention can drastically reduce the morbidity and mortality related to CLZ treatment. PMID:26273202

  15. Rosuvastatin Treatment Affects Both Basal and Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion in INS-1 832/13 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Salunkhe, Vishal A.; Elvstam, Olof; Eliasson, Lena; Wendt, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Rosuvastatin is a member of the statin family. Like the other statins it is prescribed to lower cholesterol levels and thereby reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. Rosuvastatin lowers the cholesterol levels by inhibiting the key enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) in the cholesterol producing mevalonate pathway. It has been recognized that apart from their beneficial lipid lowering effects, statins also exhibit diabetogenic properties. The molecular mechanisms behind these remain unresolved. To investigate the effects of rosuvastatin on insulin secretion, we treated INS-1 832/13 cells with varying doses (20 nM to 20 μM) of rosuvastatin for 48 h. At concentrations of 2 μM and above basal insulin secretion was significantly increased. Using diazoxide we could determine that rosuvastatin did not increase basal insulin secretion by corrupting the KATP channels. Glucose-induced insulin secretion on the other hand seemed to be affected differently at different rosuvastatin concentrations. Rosuvastatin treatment (20 μM) for 24–48 h inhibited voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, which lead to reduced depolarization-induced exocytosis of insulin-containing granules. At lower concentrations of rosuvastatin (≤ 2 μM) the stimulus-secretion coupling pathway was intact downstream of the KATP channels as assessed by the patch clamp technique. However, a reduction in glucose-induced insulin secretion could be observed with rosuvastatin concentrations as low as 200 nM. The inhibitory effects of rosuvastatin on glucose-induced insulin secretion could be reversed with mevalonate, but not squalene, indicating that rosuvastatin affects insulin secretion through its effects on the mevalonate pathway, but not through the reduction of cholesterol biosynthesis. Taken together, these data suggest that rosuvastatin has the potential to increase basal insulin secretion and reduce glucose-induced insulin secretion. The latter is possibly an unavoidable

  16. Rosuvastatin Treatment Affects Both Basal and Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion in INS-1 832/13 Cells.

    PubMed

    Salunkhe, Vishal A; Elvstam, Olof; Eliasson, Lena; Wendt, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Rosuvastatin is a member of the statin family. Like the other statins it is prescribed to lower cholesterol levels and thereby reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. Rosuvastatin lowers the cholesterol levels by inhibiting the key enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) in the cholesterol producing mevalonate pathway. It has been recognized that apart from their beneficial lipid lowering effects, statins also exhibit diabetogenic properties. The molecular mechanisms behind these remain unresolved. To investigate the effects of rosuvastatin on insulin secretion, we treated INS-1 832/13 cells with varying doses (20 nM to 20 μM) of rosuvastatin for 48 h. At concentrations of 2 μM and above basal insulin secretion was significantly increased. Using diazoxide we could determine that rosuvastatin did not increase basal insulin secretion by corrupting the KATP channels. Glucose-induced insulin secretion on the other hand seemed to be affected differently at different rosuvastatin concentrations. Rosuvastatin treatment (20 μM) for 24-48 h inhibited voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, which lead to reduced depolarization-induced exocytosis of insulin-containing granules. At lower concentrations of rosuvastatin (≤ 2 μM) the stimulus-secretion coupling pathway was intact downstream of the KATP channels as assessed by the patch clamp technique. However, a reduction in glucose-induced insulin secretion could be observed with rosuvastatin concentrations as low as 200 nM. The inhibitory effects of rosuvastatin on glucose-induced insulin secretion could be reversed with mevalonate, but not squalene, indicating that rosuvastatin affects insulin secretion through its effects on the mevalonate pathway, but not through the reduction of cholesterol biosynthesis. Taken together, these data suggest that rosuvastatin has the potential to increase basal insulin secretion and reduce glucose-induced insulin secretion. The latter is possibly an unavoidable

  17. Fewer adverse effects with doxycycline than with minocycline.

    PubMed

    2009-10-01

    (1) In mid-2008 the French National Pharmacovigilance Committee examined spontaneous reports of adverse effects observed during tetracycline therapy; (2) When sales figures are taken into account, reports were more frequent with minocycline than with doxycycline. The proportion of severe adverse effects was also higher with minocycline than with doxycycline; (3) Life-threatening hypersensitivity reactions and autoimmune adverse effects were more frequent with minocycline than with doxycycline; (4) In practice, minocycline has a less favourable risk-benefit balance than doxycycline, particularly in the treatment of acne.

  18. Adverse effects of equine rabies immune gobulin.

    PubMed

    Wilde, H; Chomchey, P; Prakongsri, S; Puyaratabandhu, P; Chutivongse, S

    1989-02-01

    Following a recently published prospective study of 485 recipients of equine rabies immune globulin (ERIG) manufactured by Pasteur Vaccins (Paris), this paper reports a study of 323 postexposure rabies patients receiving ERIG manufactured by the Swiss Vaccine and Serum Institute (Berna). It is concluded that there may be significant differences in adverse reaction rates, reflecting differing manufacturing or purification processes and protein content. Further studies of different ERIG products and of different lots of the same product are needed while ERIG remains an essential component of postexposure rabies treatment in developing countries.

  19. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Hallucinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, C.L.; Dube, S.R.; Felitti, V.J.; Anda, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: Little information is available about the contribution of multiple adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to the likelihood of reporting hallucinations. We used data from the ACE study to assess this relationship. Methods:: We conducted a survey about childhood abuse and household dysfunction while growing up, with questions about health…

  20. Cutaneous adverse reactions specific to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lupu, I; Voiculescu, VM; Bacalbasa, N; Prie, BE; Cojocaru, I; Giurcaneanu, C

    2015-01-01

    Classical antineoplastic therapy is encumbered by extensively studied adverse reactions, most often of systemic nature. The emergence of new generations of anticancer treatments, including epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors, besides improving the response to treatment and the survival rate, is accompanied by the occurrence of new specific side effects, incompletely studied. These side effects are most often cutaneous (hand foot syndrome, acneiform reactions), and in some cases are extremely severe, requiring dose reduction or drug discontinuation. The prevention of the cutaneous adverse effects and their treatment require a close collaboration between the oncologist and the dermatologist. The occurrence of some of these skin adverse effects may be a favorable prognostic factor for the response to the cancer treatment and the overall survival. Abbreviations: EGFR = epidermal growth factor receptors; EGFRI = epidermal growth factor receptors inhibitors PMID:26361513

  1. The negative bone effects of the disease and of chronic corticosteroid treatment in premenopausal women affected by rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fassio, A; Idolazzi, L; Jaber, M A; Dartizio, C; Viapiana, O; Rossini, M; Gatti, D

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a well-known extra-articular complication in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The chronic corticosteroid treatment, the functional impairment associated with RA and the disease itself appear to be the most relevant determinants. Most of the previous studies involved postmenopausal women, in whom the estrogenic deficiency might amplify the negative effect towards bone of both RA and corticosteroid therapy. We decided to evaluate bone health in a cohort of premenopausal RA patients. The study population includes 47 premenopausal women attending our outpatient clinic for RA and twice as many healthy age-matched control women selected from the hospital personnel. The bone density at the spine and femoral neck were significantly lower in patients with RA as compared with controls. When spine bone mineral density (BMD) values were adjusted for the cumulative glucocorticoid (GC) dose alone and for the cumulative GC dose plus body mass index (BMI) the mean differences between two groups decreased but they remained statistically significant. We found no difference when the spine BMD was adjusted for cumulative GC dose, BMI and health assessment questionnaire. The difference in femoral neck BMD remained statistically significant also after all the same adjustments. In conclusion, our study shows that a BMD deficiency is frequent also in premenopausal women affected by RA, especially at femoral site and that the main determinants of this bone loss are not only the disease-related weight loss, corticosteroid therapy and functional impairment, but also the systemic effects of the disease itself. PMID:27608794

  2. Examining substance use and affective processes as multivariate risk factors associated with overweight body mass among treatment-seeking smokers.

    PubMed

    Farris, Samantha G; Zvolensky, Michael J; Robles, Zuzuky; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking and obesity are two major public health problems. However, factors related to the underlying risk for being overweight are not well established. Certain demographic, smoking, and psychological factors have been linked to overweight/obese body mass. The current study examined a multivariate risk model, stratified by gender, in order to better explicate the nature of overweight body mass among daily smokers. In a sample of treatment-seeking smokers (n = 395), among males and females, (1) older age, (2) stronger expectancies about the weight/appetite control effects of smoking, (3) greater smoking-based inflexibility/avoidance due to smoking-related sensations, and (4) less problematic alcohol use, were associated with being overweight. Additionally, among males, having a tobacco-related medical problem and higher tolerance for physical discomfort aided in the discriminant function model for classifying smokers as overweight. Together, numerous cognitive-affective vulnerabilities and smoking processes may be targetable and potentially inform weight-related prevention programs among smokers. PMID:25263545

  3. Proliferation rate but not mismatch repair affects the long-term response of colon carcinoma cells to 5FU treatment.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, B; Hanski, M L; Zeitz, M; Hanski, C

    2012-07-01

    The role of mismatch repair (MMR) in the response of colon carcinoma cells to 5-fluorouracil (5FU) is not well understood. In most of the in vitro studies only short-term response was investigated. We focussed here on the influence of MMR status on the mechanism of the short- and long-term response to clinically relevant 5FU concentrations by using isogenic or semiisogenic cell line pairs expressing/nonexpressing the hMLH1 protein, an important component of the MMR system. We show that the lower survival of MMR-proficient than of MMR-deficient cells in the clonogenic survival assay is due to a more frequent early cell arrest and to subsequent senescence. By contrast, the long-term cell growth after treatment, which is also affected by long-term arrest and senescence, is independent from the MMR status. The over