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Sample records for adversely impact groundwater

  1. Reducing Adverse Impact: One City's Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Jeff

    Following a workshop on "Innovations in Employment Testing that Improve Validity and Reduce Adverse Impact," the City of Louisville (Kentucky) implemented a strategy to develop a comprehensive testing and recruiting program for police recruits. To improve candidate expectations and preparation, the following activities were undertaken:…

  2. Mitigation of adverse environmental and unavoidable impacts

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This portion of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report is a broad scope discussion of the mitigation of adverse environmental and unavoidable impacts. TVA will mitigate site specific environmental impacts from the construction and operation of new power facilities through a combination of planning, pollution prevention, and environmental controls. However, one of the most important mitigative measures associated with Energy Vision 2020 is the multi-attribute tradeoff method used for the evaluation. This method allowed proposed strategies to be reformated in order to reduce potential impacts.

  3. Adverse weather impacts on arable cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Damages due to extreme or adverse weather strongly depend on crop type, crop stage, soil conditions and management. The impact is largest during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar, and requires a modelling approach to capture the interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event. The hypothesis is that extreme and adverse weather events can be quantified and subsequently incorporated in current crop models. Since crop development is driven by thermal time and photoperiod, a regional crop model was used to examine the likely frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages. Risk profiles and associated return levels were obtained by fitting generalized extreme value distributions to block maxima for air humidity, water balance and temperature variables. The risk profiles were subsequently confronted with yields and yield losses for the major arable crops in Belgium, notably winter wheat, winter barley, winter oilseed rape, sugar beet, potato and maize at the field (farm records) to regional scale (statistics). The average daily vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) during the growing season is significantly lower (p < 0.001) and has a higher variability before 1988 than after 1988. Distribution patterns of VPD and ET0 have relevant impacts on crop yields. The response to rising temperatures depends on the crop's capability to condition its microenvironment. Crops short of water close their stomata, lose their evaporative cooling potential and ultimately become susceptible to heat stress. Effects of heat stress therefore have to be combined with moisture availability such as the precipitation deficit or the soil water balance. Risks of combined heat and moisture deficit stress appear during the summer. These risks are subsequently related to crop damage. The methodology of defining

  4. Mining's impact on groundwater assessed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detailed studies have indicated that groundwater is contaminated in the immediate vicinity of many mines in the eastern United States. However, no underground mines and very few refuse disposal areas have monitoring systems that can provide adequate warning of impending threats to groundwater quality.This was one of the conclusions of a 3-year study by Geraghty & Miller, Inc., a firm of consulting groundwater geologists and hydrologists based in Syosset, New York. The study focused on mines east of the 100th meridian. These mines will produce an estimated 1.1 billion tons of coal and 200 million tons of waste by 1985.

  5. Geospatial association between adverse birth outcomes and arsenic in groundwater in New Hampshire, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xun Shi,; Ayotte, Joseph; Akikazu Onda,; Stephanie Miller,; Judy Rees,; Diane Gilbert-Diamond,; Onega, Tracy L; Gui, Jiang; Karagas, Margaret R.; Moeschler, John B

    2015-01-01

    >10 µg/L. At the county level for younger mothers, positive r values prevail, but for older mothers, it is a mix. For both birth problems, the several most populous counties—with 60–80% of the state’s population and clustering at the southwest corner of the state—are largely consistent in having a positive r across different smoothing thresholds. We found evident spatial associations between the two adverse human reproductive outcomes and groundwater arsenic in New Hampshire, USA. However, the degree of associations and their sensitivity to different representations of arsenic level are variable. Generally, preterm birth has a stronger spatial association with groundwater arsenic than term LBW, suggesting an inconsistency in the impact of arsenic on the two reproductive outcomes. For both outcomes, younger maternal age has stronger spatial associations with groundwater arsenic.

  6. Impact of agriculture on groundwater in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldwell, C. R.; Burdon, D. J.; Sherwood, M.

    1983-03-01

    Ireland has large water resources. Only 5.3% of developable waters are as yet developed, to supply some 650 I/day/per capita to the population of some 3.37 million people. State of development varies in each of the seven water resources regions. Precipitation is fairly evenly distributed over the year, but the percentage infiltrating to form groundwater varies quite sharply. Some 61% of infiltration occurs in the four winter months November to February, when agricultural activities are low. Only 10% infiltrates in the four summer months, May to August, when agricultural activities are high. In all, annual groundwater amounts to some 24.8 km3, of which 50% is considered to be recoverable. Capital groundwater reserves must be large, but are unquantified. Under these conditions, the impact of agriculture on groundwater quantities is negligible. Of the annual extraction of some 170 × 106m3 of groundwater, some 66 × 106m3/year are used in different agricultural activities. Drainage operations, however, have effects on Irish groundwater. Such lands may overlie impermeable strata or pans, or may receive concealed or visible groundwater discharge. Their drainage will affect the groundwater in various ways. There has been a considerable impact of agriculture on groundwater quality. The effects on the atmosphere and on precipitation are not identifiable. Effects of diffuse infiltration are treated with respect to: (a) application of ground limestone (lime); (b) application of K.N.P. inorganic fertilizer; (c) spreading of organic slurries; (d) development of organic nitrogen in soils, mainly after ploughing of grasslands; and (e) residues from herbicides, fungicides, and pesticides. The infiltration of these substances spread on the land is closely related to the interaction between times of ground-water recharge and times of fertilizer application. Effects of concentrated infiltration are treated under seven sub-heads: (a) infiltration of polluted surface waters; (b

  7. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 100-D Ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.J.

    1993-07-01

    The 183-D Water Treatment Facility (WTF) discharges effluent to the 120-0-1 Ponds (100-D Ponds) located north of the 100-D Area perimeter fence. This report satisfies one of the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-17-00B as agreed by the US Department of Energy, Washington State Department of Ecology, and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-17-00B includes a requirement to assess impacts to groundwater from disposal of the 183-D WTF effluent to the 100-D Ponds. In addition, the 100-D Ponds are a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 treatment, storage, and disposal facility covered by the 100-D Ponds Closure Plan (DOE-RL 1993a). There is evidence of groundwater contamination, primarily nitrate, tritium, and chromium, in the unconfined aquifer beneath the 100-D Area and 100 Areas in general. The contaminant plumes are area wide and are a result of past-practice reactor and disposal operations in the 100-D Area currently being investigated as part of the 100-DR-1 and 100-HR-3 Operable Units (DOE-RL 1992b, 1992a). Based on current effluent conditions, continued operation of the 100-D Ponds will not adversely affect the groundwater quality in the 100-D Area. Monitoring wells near the pond have slightly higher alkaline pH values than wells in the rest of the area. Concentrations of known contaminants in these wells are lower than ambient 100-D Area groundwater conditions and exhibit a localized dilution effect associated with discharges to the pond. Hydraulic impact to the local groundwater system from these discharges is minor. The groundwater monitoring well network for the 100-D Ponds is adequate.

  8. Groundwater withdrawal impacts in a karst area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destephen, R. A.; Benson, C. P.

    1993-12-01

    During a 3000-gpm pump test on a groundwater supply well in Augusta County, Virginia, residential properties were impacted. The impacts included lowered farm pond water levels, development of a sinkhole, and water level decrease in residential wells. A study was performed to assess whether a lower design yield was possible with minimal impacts on adjacent property. This study included a 48-h 1500-gpm pump test that evaluated impacts due to: (1) sinkhole development and potential damage to homes, (2) loss of water in residential wells, and (3) water-quality degradation. Spring flows, residential well levels, survey monuments, and water quality were monitored. Groundwater and surface water testing included inorganic water-quality parameters and microbiological parameters. The latter included particulate analyses, Giardia cysts, and coliforms, which were used to evaluate the connection between groundwater and local surface waterbodies. Although results of the study indicated a low potential for structural damage due to future sinkhole activity, it showed that the water quality of some residential wells might be degraded. Because particulate analyses confirmed that groundwater into the supply well is under the direct influence of surface water, it was recommended that certain residents be placed on an alternate water supply prior to production pumping and that filtration be provided for the well in accordance with the Surface Water Treatment Rule. A mitigation plan was implemented. This plan included crack surveys, a long-term settlement station monitoring program, and limitation of the groundwater withdrawal rate to 1.0 million gallons per day (mgd) and maximum production rate to 1500 gpm.

  9. Uncertainty quantification of adverse human health effects from continuously released contaminant sources in groundwater systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarlenga, Antonio; de Barros, Felipe P. J.; Fiori, Aldo

    2016-10-01

    We propose a computationally efficient probabilistic modeling methodology to estimate the adverse effects on humans of exposure to contaminated groundwater. Our work is aligned with the standard suggested by the regulatory agencies and allows to propagate uncertainty from hydrogeological, toxicological and behavioral parameters to the final health risk endpoint. The problem under consideration consists of a contaminated aquifer supplying water to a population. Contamination stems from a continuous source that feeds a steady plume which constitutes the hazard source. This scenario is particularly suited for NAPL pollutants. The erratic displacement of the contaminant plume in groundwater, due to the spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity, is characterized within the Lagrangian stochastic framework which enables the complete probabilistic characterization of the contaminant concentration at an environmentally sensitive location. Following the probabilistic characterization of flow and transport, we quantify the adverse health effects on humans. The dose response assessment involves the estimation of the uncertain effects of the exposure to a given contaminant while accounting for the exposed individual's metabolism. The model integrates groundwater transport, exposure and human metabolism in a comprehensive probabilistic framework which allows the assessment of the risk probability through a novel simple analytical solution. Aside from its computational efficiency, the analytical features of the framework allows the assessment of uncertainty arising from the hydrogeological parameters.

  10. Childhood adversity impacts on brain subcortical structures relevant to depression.

    PubMed

    Frodl, Thomas; Janowitz, Deborah; Schmaal, Lianne; Tozzi, Leonardo; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Stein, Dan J; Veltman, Dick J; Wittfeld, Katharina; van Erp, Theo G M; Jahanshad, Neda; Block, Andrea; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Völzke, Henry; Lagopoulos, Jim; Hatton, Sean N; Hickie, Ian B; Frey, Eva Maria; Carballedo, Angela; Brooks, Samantha J; Vuletic, Daniella; Uhlmann, Anne; Veer, Ilya M; Walter, Henrik; Schnell, Knut; Grotegerd, Dominik; Arolt, Volker; Kugel, Harald; Schramm, Elisabeth; Konrad, Carsten; Zurowski, Bartosz; Baune, Bernhard T; van der Wee, Nic J A; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Thompson, Paul M; Hibar, Derrek P; Dannlowski, Udo; Grabe, Hans J

    2017-03-01

    Childhood adversity plays an important role for development of major depressive disorder (MDD). There are differences in subcortical brain structures between patients with MDD and healthy controls, but the specific impact of childhood adversity on such structures in MDD remains unclear. Thus, aim of the present study was to investigate whether childhood adversity is associated with subcortical volumes and how it interacts with a diagnosis of MDD and sex. Within the ENIGMA-MDD network, nine university partner sites, which assessed childhood adversity and magnetic resonance imaging in patients with MDD and controls, took part in the current joint mega-analysis. In this largest effort world-wide to identify subcortical brain structure differences related to childhood adversity, 3036 participants were analyzed for subcortical brain volumes using FreeSurfer. A significant interaction was evident between childhood adversity, MDD diagnosis, sex, and region. Increased exposure to childhood adversity was associated with smaller caudate volumes in females independent of MDD. All subcategories of childhood adversity were negatively associated with caudate volumes in females - in particular emotional neglect and physical neglect (independently from age, ICV, imaging site and MDD diagnosis). There was no interaction effect between childhood adversity and MDD diagnosis on subcortical brain volumes. Childhood adversity is one of the contributors to brain structural abnormalities. It is associated with subcortical brain abnormalities that are relevant to psychiatric disorders such as depression.

  11. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Groundwater in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, N. L.

    2011-12-01

    California's water resources are primarily from snowmelt runoff from the Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains. Depending on the year, Sierra Nevada snowmelt provides seventy percent of the water resources needed to sustain urban, agricultural, ecological, and other sector needs. With increasing temperatures due to climate change the Sierra Nevada snowmelt is occurring earlier and with decreasing snow cover area. Such change may mimic drought scenarios and dramatically alter water resource availability and management in California. A fundamental requirement for drought water management is knowledge of the total groundwater resources and the rate in which it is depleted. Application of remote sensed Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data represents an important new approach toward quantifying these values. The primary uncertainties are the spatial scale required for an accurate GRACE analysis and an insufficient number and frequency of well observations for ground-truth. In this study, an initial quantification of long-term droughts - an analogue for climate change related snowpack reduction - has been performed to illustrate the potential for subsurface storage to limit the adverse impacts of drought and snowpack reduction on water supply in the California. This includes estimates of the impacts of changes in groundwater levels, surface supply, and crop water demands. Analysis of California Central Valley impacts of sustained droughts are based on a series of specified reductions in net surface flows corresponding to historical 30% (below average), 50% (dry), and 70% (critically dry) effective reduction, for periods ranging from 10 to 60 years, and applied to the California Department of Water Resource's California Central Valley Groundwater-Surface Water Simulation Model. The impacts of the droughts are modeled for four different regions in the Central Valley, including the Sacramento Basin, Eastside, the San Joaquin Basin, and the Tulare Basin. Results

  12. Impacts of Groundwater Pumping on Regional and Global Water Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, Yoshihide

    2016-01-01

    Except frozen water in ice and glaciers (68%), groundwater is the world's largest distributed store of freshwater (30%), and has strategic importance to global food and water security. In this chapter, the most recent advances assessing human impact on regional and global groundwater resources are reviewed. This chapter critically evaluates the recently advanced modeling approaches quantifying the effect of groundwater pumping in regional and global groundwater resources and the evidence of feedback to the Earth system including sea-level rise associated with groundwater use. At last, critical challenges and opportunities are identified in the use of groundwater to adapt to growing food demand and uncertain climate.

  13. Groundwater Impacts of Radioactive Wastes and Associated Environmental Modeling Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Liu, Chongxuan

    2012-11-01

    This article provides a review of the major sources of radioactive wastes and their impacts on groundwater contamination. The review discusses the major biogeochemical processes that control the transport and fate of radionuclide contaminants in groundwater, and describe the evolution of mathematical models designed to simulate and assess the transport and transformation of radionuclides in groundwater.

  14. Groundwater Impact Assessment of Tailings Storage Facility, Western Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peksezer-Sayit, A.; Yazicigil, H.

    2015-12-01

    A tailings storage facility (TSF) is a fundamental part of the mining process and should be carefully designed and managed to prevent any adverse environmental effects. TSF is site-specific and its design criteria are determined by regulations. The new mine waste regulation for the deposition of hazardous waste in a tailings storage facility in Turkey enforces, from bottom to top, 0.5 m thick compacted clay layer with K less than or equal to 1X10-9 m/s , 2 mm thick HDPE geomembrane, and a protective natural material or geotextile. Although these criteria seem to be enough to prevent leakage from the base, in practice, manufacturing and application errors may cause leakage and subsequent contamination of groundwater. The purpose of this study is to assess potential impacts of leakage from the base of TSF on groundwater quality both in operational and post-closure period of a mine site in western Turkey. For this purpose, analytical and 2-D and 3-D numerical models are used together. The potential leakage rate of sulphate-bearing solution from the base of TSF is determined from analytical model. 2-D finite element models (SEEP/W and CTRAN/W) are used to simulate unsaturated flow conditions and advective-dispersive contaminant transport below the TSF under steady-state and transient conditions for the operating period. The long-term impacts of leakage from the base of TSF on groundwater resources are evaluated by 3-D numerical groundwater flow (MODFLOW) and contaminant transport models (MT3DMS). The model results suggest that sulphate-bearing solution leaking from the base of TSF can reach water table in about 290 years. Hence, during the operational period (i.e. 21 years), no interaction is expected between the solution and groundwater. Moreover, long-term simulation results show that about 500 years later, the sulphate concentration in groundwater will be below the maximum allowable limits (i.e. 250 mg/L).

  15. Groundwater resources impact assessment for triazine herbicides

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, E.; Barrett, M.R.; Behl, E.

    1996-10-01

    The Environmental Fate and Ground Water Branch of EPA`s Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) has conducted a Water Resources Impact Assessment of the potential for triazine herbicides to be transported to ground and surface waters (only ground-water is discussed in this paper). The herbicides discussed in this document include atrazine, cyanazine, simazine, and prometon. Part of OPP`s regulatory mission is to prevent contamination of ground and surface water resources resulting from the normal use of registered pesticides. OPP has recently produced several resource documents to support such activities at the federal, state, and local levels (e.g., the Pesticides and Ground-Water Strategy and the Pesticides in Ground Water Database). This Water Resources Impact Assessment will also be useful in assisting state and regional agencies in customizing risk reduction strategies and to implement proposed pollution prevention measures. Major conclusions include: Atrazine is the most frequently detected pesticide in ground water in virtually the entire Midwestern United States, and especially in Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, and Indiana. The Pesticides in Ground Water Database 1992 Report indicates that atrazine has been detected in 32 out of the 40 states that have reported monitoring data, and in 1,512 wells (6%) of the wells sampled. Based on EPA`s National Pesticide Survey (NPS), 4.7% of rural domestic drinking water wells in the U.S. (490,000 wells) are estimated to contain atrazine, mostly at concentrations less than 0.12 {mu}g/L (the MCL for atrazine is 3 {mu}g/L). Triazine herbicides other than atrazine (simazine, cyanazine, and prometon) have had much less impact on ground-water quality than atrazine, primarily because they are less intensively used.

  16. Impact of topography on groundwater salinization due to ocean surge inundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xuan; Yang, Jie; Graf, Thomas; Koneshloo, Mohammad; O'Neal, Michael A.; Michael, Holly A.

    2016-08-01

    Sea-level rise and increases in the frequency and intensity of ocean surges caused by climate change are likely to exacerbate adverse effects on low-lying coastal areas. The landward flow of water during ocean surges introduces salt to surficial coastal aquifers and threatens groundwater resources. Coastal topographic features (e.g., ponds, dunes, barrier islands, and channels) likely have a strong impact on overwash and salinization processes, but are generally highly simplified in modeling studies. To understand topographic impacts on groundwater salinization, we modeled a theoretical overwash event and variable-density groundwater flow and salt transport in 3-D using the fully coupled surface and subsurface numerical simulator, HydroGeoSphere. The model simulates the coastal aquifer as an integrated system considering overland flow, coupled surface and subsurface exchange, variably saturated flow, and variable-density groundwater flow. To represent various coastal landscape types, we simulated both synthetic fields and real-world coastal topography from Delaware, USA. The groundwater salinization assessment suggested that the topographic connectivity promoting overland flow controls the volume of aquifer that is salinized. In contrast, the amount of water that can be stored in surface depressions determines the amount of seawater that infiltrates the subsurface and the time for seawater to flush from the aquifer. Our study suggests that topography has a significant impact on groundwater salinization due to ocean surge overwash, with important implications for coastal land management and groundwater vulnerability assessment.

  17. Groundwater impacts associated with landfill gas migration at municipal solid waste landfill sites

    SciTech Connect

    Clister, W.; Janechek, A.; Hibbs, S.

    1998-07-01

    Many older municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are unlined and subsequently have become a source of local groundwater contamination. However, the adverse impact on the groundwater quality at such sites is not necessarily limited to that caused by leachate contamination of the underlying aquifer but also may include the effects of landfill gas (LFG) migration. Absorption of certain LFG components, particularly volatile organic compounds (VOCs), may occur at offsite locations when a LFG excursion front migrates into adjacent soils. When LFG management systems are installed at such sites, this problem is often eliminated.

  18. Groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stonestrom, David A.; Wohl, Ellen E.

    2016-01-01

    , including nutrients and dissolved oxygen. Groundwater withdrawals can negatively impact riparian habitats by depriving ecosystems of adequate fresh water and fragmenting communities when streams go dry. Biochemical reactions in shallow groundwater can remove anthropogenically elevated nitrogen compounds and reduce—but only to a point—the greening of waterways and shorelines with periphyton and harmful algal blooms. Groundwater extraction for beneficial use is increasingly limited by water-quality constraints imposed by naturally occurring and introduced substances. Overdrafting can cause land-surface subsidence, damaging buildings and roads and disrupting canals, sewers, and other gravity-flow conveyances. Increases in groundwater levels can cause soil salinization in dry regions and erosive sapping and flooding in wet regions. Coastal saltwater intrusion, groundwater flooding, salinization associated with groundwater-irrigated agriculture, induced seismicity from injected wastes, and the detrimental impacts of groundwater depletion are among the major environmental challenges of our time.

  19. Climate change impacts on groundwater and dependent ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kløve, Bjørn; Ala-Aho, Pertti; Bertrand, Guillaume; Gurdak, Jason J.; Kupfersberger, Hans; Kværner, Jens; Muotka, Timo; Mykrä, Heikki; Preda, Elena; Rossi, Pekka; Uvo, Cintia Bertacchi; Velasco, Elzie; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2014-10-01

    Aquifers and groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs) are facing increasing pressure from water consumption, irrigation and climate change. These pressures modify groundwater levels and their temporal patterns and threaten vital ecosystem services such as arable land irrigation and ecosystem water requirements, especially during droughts. This review examines climate change effects on groundwater and dependent ecosystems. The mechanisms affecting natural variability in the global climate and the consequences of climate and land use changes due to anthropogenic influences are summarised based on studies from different hydrogeological strata and climate zones. The impacts on ecosystems are discussed based on current findings on factors influencing the biodiversity and functioning of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The influence of changes to groundwater on GDE biodiversity and future threats posed by climate change is reviewed, using information mainly from surface water studies and knowledge of aquifer and groundwater ecosystems. Several gaps in research are identified. Due to lack of understanding of several key processes, the uncertainty associated with management techniques such as numerical modelling is high. The possibilities and roles of new methodologies such as indicators and modelling methods are discussed in the context of integrated groundwater resources management. Examples are provided of management impacts on groundwater, with recommendations on sustainable management of groundwater.

  20. Impacts of swine manure pits on groundwater quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapac, I.G.; Dey, W.S.; Roy, W.R.; Smyth, C.A.; Storment, E.; Sargent, S.L.; Steele, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Manure deep-pits are commonly used to store manure at confined animal feeding operations. However, previous to this study little information had been collected on the impacts of deep-pits on groundwater quality to provide science-based guidance in formulating regulations and waste management strategies that address risks to human health and the environment. Groundwater quality has been monitored since January 1999 at two hog finishing facilities in Illinois that use deep-pit systems for manure storage. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis and analyzed for inorganic and bacteriological constituent concentrations. The two sites are located in areas with geologic environments representing different vulnerabilities for local groundwater contamination. One site is underlain by more than 6 m of clayey silt, and 7-36 m of shale. Concentrations of chloride, ammonium, phosphate, and potassium indicated that local groundwater quality had not been significantly impacted by pit leakage from this facility. Nitrate concentrations were elevated near the pit, often exceeding the 10 mg N/l drinking water standard. Isotopic nitrate signatures suggested that the nitrate was likely derived from soil organic matter and fertilizer applied to adjacent crop fields. At the other site, sandstone is located 4.6-6.1 m below land surface. Chloride concentrations and ??15N and ??18O values of dissolved nitrate indicated that this facility may have limited and localized impacts on groundwater. Other constituents, including ammonia, potassium, phosphate, and sodium were generally at or less than background concentrations. Trace- and heavy-metal concentrations in groundwater samples collected from both facilities were at concentrations less than drinking water standards. The concentration of inorganic constituents in the groundwater would not likely impact human health. Fecal streptococcus bacteria were detected at least once in groundwater from all monitoring wells at both sites

  1. Impact of oil on groundwater chemical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brakorenko, N. N.

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the paper is to characterize the chemical composition of groundwater samples from the monitoring wells drilled in the petrol station areas within the vicinity of Tomsk. The level of contamination has increased since many macro - and microcomponent concentrations (such as petroleum products, chlorine, sulphates, carbon dioxide and lead, etc.) in groundwater samples of the present study is higher than that in previous period samples.

  2. Climate impact on groundwater systems: the past is the key to the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Ploeg, Martine; Cendón, Dioni; Haldorsen, Sylvi; Chen, Jinyao; Gurdak, Jason; Tujchneider, Ofelia; Vaikmäe, Rein; Purtschert, Roland; Chkir Ben Jemâa, Najiba

    2013-04-01

    Groundwater is a significant part of the global hydrological cycle and supplies fresh drinking water to almost half of the world's population. While groundwater supplies are buffered against short-term effects of climate variability, they can be impacted over longer time scales through changes in precipitation, ,evaporation, recharge rate, melting of glaciers or permafrost, vegetation, and land-use. Moreover, uncontrolled groundwater extraction has and will lead to irreversible depletion of fresh water resources in many areas. The impact of climate variability and groundwater extraction on the resilience of groundwater systems is still not fully understood (Green et al. 2011). Groundwater stores environmental and climatic information acquired during the recharge process, which integrates different signals, like recharge temperature, origin of precipitation, and dissolved constituents. This information can be used to estimate palaeo recharge temperatures, palaeo atmospheric dynamics and residence time of groundwater within the aquifer (Stute et al. 1995, Clark and Fritz 1997, Collon et al. 2000, Edmunds et al. 2003, Cartwright et al. 2007, Kreuzer et al. 2009, Currell et al. 2010, Raidla et al. 2012, Salem et al. 2012). The climatic signals incorporated by groundwater during recharge have the potential to provide a regionally integrated proxy of climatic variations at the time of recharge. Groundwater palaeoclimate information is affected by diffusion-dispersion processes (Davison and Airey, 1982) and/or water-rock interaction (Clark and Fritz, 1997), making palaeoclimate information deduced from groundwater inherently a low resolution record. While the signal resolution can be limited, recharge follows major climatic events, and more importantly, shows how those aquifers and their associated recharge varies under climatic forcing. While the characterization of groundwater resources, surface-groundwater interactions and their link to the global water cycle are an

  3. Impact of geochemical stressors on shallow groundwater quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    An, Y.-J.; Kampbell, D.H.; Jeong, S.-W.; Jewell, K.P.; Masoner, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    Groundwater monitoring wells (about 70 wells) were extensively installed in 28 sites surrounding Lake Texoma, located on the border of Oklahoma and Texas, to assess the impact of geochemical stressors to shallow groundwater quality. The monitoring wells were classified into three groups (residential area, agricultural area, and oil field area) depending on their land uses. During a 2-year period from 1999 to 2001 the monitoring wells were sampled every 3 months on a seasonal basis. Water quality assay consisted of 25 parameters including field parameters, nutrients, major ions, and trace elements. Occurrence and level of inorganics in groundwater samples were related to the land use and temporal change. Groundwater of the agricultural area showed lower levels of ferrous iron and nitrate than the residential area. The summer season data revealed more distinct differences in inorganic profiles of the two land use groundwater samples. There is a possible trend that nitrate concentrations in groundwater increased as the proportions of cultivated area increased. Water-soluble ferrous iron occurred primarily in water samples with a low dissolved oxygen concentration and/or a negative redox potential. The presence of brine waste in shallow groundwater was detected by chloride and conductivity in oil field area. Dissolved trace metals and volatile organic carbons were not in a form of concentration to be stressors. This study showed that the quality of shallow ground water could be related to regional geochemical stressors surrounding the lake. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of rehabilitation of Assiut barrage, Nile River, on groundwater rise in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawoud, Mohamed A.; El Arabi, Nahed E.; Khater, Ahmed R.; van Wonderen, Jan

    2006-08-01

    To make optimum use of the most vital natural resource of Egypt, the River Nile water, a number of regulating structures (in the form of dams and barrages) for control and diversion of the river flow have been constructed in this river since the start of the 20th century. One of these barrages is the Assiut barrage which will require considerable repairs in the near future. The design of the rehabilitation of the barrage includes a headpond with water levels maintained at a level approximately 0.60 m higher than the highest water level in the headpond of the present barrage. This development will cause an increase of the seepage flow from the river towards the adjacent agricultural lands, Assiut Town and villages. The increased head pond level might cause a rise of the groundwater levels and impedance of drainage outflows. The drainage conditions may therefore be adversely affected in the so-called impacted areas which comprise floodplains on both sides of the Nile for about 70 km upstream of the future barrage. A rise in the groundwater table, particularly when high river levels impede drainage, may result in waterlogging and secondary salinization of the soil profile in agricultural areas and increase of groundwater into cellars beneath buildings in the urban areas. In addition, a rise in the groundwater table could have negative impact on existing sanitation facilities, in particular in the areas which are served with septic tanks. The impacts of increasing the headpond level were assessed using a three-dimensional groundwater model. The mechanisms of interactions between the Nile River and the underlying Quaternary aquifer system as they affect the recharge/discharge processes are comprehensively outlined. The model has been calibrated for steady state and transient conditions against historical data from observation wells. The mitigation measures for the groundwater rise in the urban areas have been tested using the calibrated mode.

  5. Pre/post-closure assessment of groundwater pharmaceutical fate in a wastewater‑facility-impacted stream reach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.; Barber, Larry B.; Clark, Jimmy M.; Duris, Joseph; Foreman, William T.; Furlong, Edward T.; Givens, Carrie E.; Hubbard, Laura E.; Hutchinson, Kasey J.; Journey, Celeste; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical contamination of contiguous groundwater is a substantial concern in wastewater-impacted streams, due to ubiquity in effluent, high aqueous mobility, designed bioactivity, and to effluent-driven hydraulic gradients. Wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) closures are rare environmental remediation events; offering unique insights into contaminant persistence, long-term wastewater impacts, and ecosystem recovery processes. The USGS conducted a combined pre/post-closure groundwater assessment adjacent to an effluent-impacted reach of Fourmile Creek, Ankeny, Iowa, USA. Higher surface-water concentrations, consistent surface-water to groundwater concentration gradients, and sustained groundwater detections tens of meters from the stream bank demonstrated the importance of WWTF effluent as the source of groundwater pharmaceuticals as well as the persistence of these contaminants under effluent-driven, pre-closure conditions. The number of analytes (110 total) detected in surface water decreased from 69 prior to closure down to 8 in the first post-closure sampling event approximately 30 d later, with a corresponding 2 order of magnitude decrease in the cumulative concentration of detected analytes. Post-closure cumulative concentrations of detected analytes were approximately 5 times higher in proximal groundwater than in surface water. About 40% of the 21 contaminants detected in a downstream groundwater transect immediately before WWTF closure exhibited rapid attenuation with estimated half-lives on the order of a few days; however, a comparable number exhibited no consistent attenuation during the year-long post-closure assessment. The results demonstrate the potential for effluent-impacted shallow groundwater systems to accumulate pharmaceutical contaminants and serve as long-term residual sources, further increasing the risk of adverse ecological effects in groundwater and the near-stream ecosystem.

  6. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 284-WB Powerplant Ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.J.; Johnson, V.G.; Lindsey, K.A.

    1993-09-01

    As required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-17-00A), this report assesses the impact of wastewater discharged to the 284-WB Powerplant Ponds on groundwater quality. The assessment reported herein expands upon the initial analysis conducted between 1989 and 1990 for the Liquid Effluent Study Final Project Plan.

  7. Rural Land Use Impacts on Floodplain Shallow Groundwater Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellner, R. E.; Hubbart, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    The temperature of shallow groundwater is tightly coupled to aquatic ecosystem health and rates of subsurface geochemical processes. Shallow groundwater temperatures are understood to respond to soil surface temperatures, which in turn depend on climate and land use. To address gaps in knowledge concerning land use impacts on shallow groundwater quality, a bookended floodplain study was implemented in Hinkson Creek Watershed, central Missouri, USA to better understand rural land use impacts on shallow groundwater temperature (SGW). Study sites included a historic agricultural field (Ag) and remnant bottomland hardwood forest (BHF). Each site included nine piezometers equally spaced in an 80 x 80 m grid. Piezometers were equipped with pressure transducers to monitor SGW temperature and water level at 30 minute intervals during the 2011, 2012, and 2013 water years. Average SGW temperature during the three water years was 11.3 °C at both the Ag and BHF sites. However, the temperature range at the Ag site was 63% greater than the BHF. Results indicate a greater responsiveness to seasonal climate fluctuations in the SGW temperature of the Ag site where there was an absence of forest canopy. Average SGW temperatures at the Ag site were 11.8, 11.1, and 10.9 °C, for piezometer rows located 10, 50, and 90 m from the stream, respectively. Average shallow groundwater temperatures at the BHF site were 11.0, 11.8, and 11.2 °C, for piezometers located 10, 50, and 90 m from the stream, respectively. The range of SGW temperatures at the Ag site also decreased with increasing distance from stream, suggesting a distinct stream influence on Ag site SGW temperature. The 63% greater SGW temperature range indicates the Ag site may contribute warmer water to the stream, relative to the BHF. Results hold broad implications for land managers seeking to mitigate the impact of land use on floodplain processes and groundwater quality.

  8. Groundwater age for identification of baseline groundwater quality and impacts of land-use intensification - The National Groundwater Monitoring Programme of New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, Uwe; Daughney, Christopher J.

    2012-08-01

    SummaryWe identified natural baseline groundwater quality and impacts caused by land use intensification by relating groundwater chemistry with water age. Tritium, the most direct tracer for groundwater dating, including the time of water passage through the unsaturated zone, was overwhelmed over the recent decades by contamination from bomb-tritium from nuclear weapons testing in the early 1960s. In the Southern Hemisphere, this situation has changed now with the fading of the bomb-tritium, and tritium has become a tool for accurate groundwater dating. Tritium dating will become efficient also in the Northern Hemisphere over the next decade. Plotting hydrochemistry and field parameters versus groundwater age allowed us to identify those parameters that have increasing concentrations with age and are therefore from geological sources. These indicators for natural groundwater evolution are: Na, HCO3, SiO2, F, PO4, the redox-sensitive elements and compounds Fe, Mn, NH4, CH4, and pH and conductivity. In young groundwater that was recharged after the intensification of agriculture, nitrate, sulphate, CFC-11 and CFC-12, and pesticides are the most representative indicators for the impact of land-use intensification on groundwater quality, with 66% of the sites showing such an impact. Elevated concentrations of nitrate in oxic groundwater allowed us to reconstruct the timing and magnitude of the impact of land-use intensification on groundwater which in New Zealand occurred in two stages. Old pristine groundwater reflects the natural baseline quality. A transition to slightly elevated concentration due to low-intensity land-use was observed in groundwater recharged since around 1880. A sharp increase in nitrate and other agrochemicals due to high-intensity agriculture was observed in groundwater recharged since 1955. The threshold concentrations that distinguish natural baseline quality water from low-intensity land-use water, and low-intensity from high intensity land

  9. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 216-U-14 Ditch

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, K.M.; Lindsey, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    Groundwater impact assessments are conducted at liquid effluent receiving sites on the Hanford Site to determine hydrologic and contaminant impacts caused by discharging wastewater to the soil column. The assessments conducted are pursuant to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-17-00A and M-17-00B, as agreed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (Ecology et al. 1992). This report assesses impacts on the groundwater and vadose zone from wastewater discharged to the 216-U-14 Ditch. Contemporary effluent waste streams of interest are 242-S Evaporator Steam Condensate and UO{sub 3}/U Plant wastewater.

  10. SSAIS: A Program to Assess Adverse Impact in Multistage Selection Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Corte, Wilfried

    2004-01-01

    The article describes a Windows program to estimate the expected value and sampling distribution function of the adverse impact ratio for general multistage selections. The results of the program can also be used to predict the risk that a future selection decision will result in an outcome that reflects the presence of adverse impact. The method…

  11. Negative affect predicts adults' ratings of the current, but not childhood, impact of adverse childhood events.

    PubMed

    LaNoue, Marianna; Graeber, David A; Helitzer, Deborah L; Fawcett, Jan

    2013-10-01

    Adverse childhood events (ACE's) have been empirically related to a wide range of negative health and mental health outcomes. However, not all individuals who experience ACE's follow a trajectory of poor outcomes, and not all individuals perceive the impact of ACE's as necessarily negative. The purpose of this study was to investigate positive and negative affect as predictors of adults' ratings of both the childhood and adult impact of their childhood adversity. Self-report data on ACE experiences, including number, severity, and 'impact' were collected from 158 community members recruited on the basis of having adverse childhood experiences. Results indicated that, regardless of event severity and number of different types of adverse events experienced, high levels of negative affect were the strongest predictor of whether the adult impact of the adverse childhood events was rated as negative. All individuals rated the childhood impact of events the same. Implications are discussed.

  12. Groundwater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braids, Olin C.; Gillies, Nola P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of groundwater quality covering publications of 1977. This review includes: (1) sources of groundwater contamination; and (2) management of groundwater. A list of 59 references is also presented. (HM)

  13. Environmental impacts of open loop geothermal system on groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Koo-Sang; Park, Youngyun; Yun, Sang Woong; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2013-04-01

    Application of renewable energies such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves and geothermal heat has gradually increased to reduce emission of CO2 which is supplied from combustion of fossil fuel. The geothermal energy of various renewable energies has benefit to be used to cooling and heating systems and has good energy efficiency compared with other renewable energies. However, open loop system of geothermal heat pump system has possibility that various environmental problems are induced because the system directly uses groundwater to exchange heat. This study was performed to collect data from many documents such as papers and reports and to summarize environmental impacts for application of open loop system. The environmental impacts are classified into change of hydrogeological factors such as water temperature, redox condition, EC, change of microbial species, well contamination and depletion of groundwater. The change of hydrogeological factors can induce new geological processes such as dissolution and precipitation of some minerals. For examples, increase of water temperature can change pH and Eh. These variations can change saturation index of some minerals. Therefore, dissolution and precipitation of some minerals such as quartz and carbonate species and compounds including Fe and Mn can induce a collapse and a clogging of well. The well contamination and depletion of groundwater can reduce available groundwater resources. These environmental impacts will be different in each region because hydrogeological properties and scale, operation period and kind of the system. Therefore, appropriate responses will be considered for each environmental impact. Also, sufficient study will be conducted to reduce the environmental impacts and to improve geothermal energy efficiency during the period that a open loop system is operated. This work was supported by the Energy Efficiency and Resources of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning

  14. Assessment of nitrogen ceilings for Dutch agricultural soils to avoid adverse environmental impacts.

    PubMed

    de Vries, W; Kros, H; Oenema, O; Erisman, J W

    2001-11-09

    In the Netherlands, high traffic density and intensive animal husbandry have led to high emissions of reactive nitrogen (N) into the environment. This leads to a series of environmental impacts, including: (1) nitrate (NO3) contamination of drinking water, (2) eutrophication of freshwater lakes, (3) acidification and biodiversity impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, (4) ozone and particle formation affecting human health, and (5) global climate change induced by emissions of N2O. Measures to control reactive N emissions were, up to now, directed towards those different environmental themes. Here we summarize the results of a study to analyse the agricultural N problem in the Netherlands in an integrated way, which means that all relevant aspects are taken into account simultaneously. A simple N balance model was developed, representing all crucial processes in the N chain, to calculate acceptable N inputs to the farm (so-called N ceiling) and to the soil surface (application in the field) by feed concentrates, organic manure, fertiliser, deposition, and N fixation. The N ceilings were calculated on the basis of critical limits for NO 3 concentrations in groundwater, N concentrations in surface water, and ammonia (NH3) emission targets related to the protection of biodiversity of natural areas. Results show that in most parts of the Netherlands, except the western and the northern part, the N ceilings are limited by NH 3 emissions, which are derived from critical N loads for nature areas, rather than limits for both ground- and surface water. On the national scale, the N ceiling ranges between 372 and 858 kton year(-1) depending on the choice of critical limits. The current N import is 848 kton year(-1). A decrease of nearly 60% is needed to reach the ceilings that are necessary to protect the environment against all adverse impacts of N pollution from agriculture.

  15. CO2 Storage related Groundwater Impacts and Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Sebastian; Knopf, Stefan; May, Franz; Rebscher, Dorothee

    2016-03-01

    Injection of CO2 into the deep subsurface will affect physical and chemical conditions in the storage environment. Hence, geological CO2 storage can have potential impacts on groundwater resources. Shallow freshwater can only be affected if leakage pathways facilitate the ascent of CO2 or saline formation water. Leakage associated with CO2 storage cannot be excluded, but potential environmental impacts could be reduced by selecting suitable storage locations. In the framework of risk assessment, testing of models and scenarios against operational data has to be performed repeatedly in order to predict the long-term fate of CO2. Monitoring of a storage site should reveal any deviations from expected storage performance, so that corrective measures can be taken. Comprehensive R & D activities and experience from several storage projects will enhance the state of knowledge on geological CO2 storage, thus enabling safe storage operations at well-characterised and carefully selected storage sites while meeting the requirements of groundwater protection.

  16. Scenarios of bioenergy development impacts on regional groundwater withdrawals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Mitchell, Rob B.; Guan, Qingfeng; McCoy, Tim D.

    2013-01-01

    Irrigation increases agricultural productivity, but it also stresses water resources (Huffaker and Hamilton 2007). Drought and the potential for drier conditions resulting from climate change could strain water supplies in landscapes where human populations rely on finite groundwater resources for drinking, agriculture, energy, and industry (IPCC 2007). For instance, in the North American Great Plains, rowcrops are utilized for livestock feed, food, and bioenergy production (Cassman and Liska 2007), and a large portion is irrigated with groundwater from the High Plains aquifer system (McGuire 2011). Under projected future climatic conditions, greater crop water use requirements and diminished groundwater recharge rates could make rowcrop irrigation less feasible in some areas (Rosenberg et al. 1999; Sophocleous 2005). The Rainwater Basin region of south central Nebraska, United States, is an intensively farmed and irrigated Great Plains landscape dominated by corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) production (Bishop and Vrtiska 2008). Ten starch-based ethanol plants currently service the region, producing ethanol from corn grain (figure 1). In this study, we explore the potential of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a drought-tolerant alternative bioenergy feedstock, to impact regional annual groundwater withdrawals for irrigation under warmer and drier future conditions. Although our research context is specific to the Rainwater Basin and surrounding North American Great Plains, we believe the broader research question is internationally pertinent and hope that this study simulates similar research in other areas.

  17. Molecular signature of organic nitrogen in septic-impacted groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, William A.; Longnecker, Krista; Kroeger, Kevin D.; Kujawinski, Elizabeth B.

    2014-01-01

    Dissolved inorganic and organic nitrogen levels are elevated in aquatic systems due to anthropogenic activities. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) arises from various sources, and its impact could be more clearly constrained if specific sources were identified and if the molecular-level composition of DON were better understood. In this work, the pharmaceutical carbamazepine was used to identify septic-impacted groundwater in a coastal watershed. Using ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry data, the nitrogen-containing features of the dissolved organic matter in septic-impacted and non-impacted samples were compared. The septic-impacted groundwater samples have a larger abundance of nitrogen-containing formulas. Impacted samples have additional DON features in the regions ascribed as ‘protein-like’ and ‘lipid-like’ in van Krevelen space and have more intense nitrogen-containing features in a specific region of a carbon versus mass plot. These features are potential indicators of dissolved organic nitrogen arising from septic effluents, and this work suggests that ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry is a valuable tool to identify and characterize sources of DON.

  18. Impact of Climate Change on Soil and Groundwater Chemistry Subject to Process Waste Land Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNab, W. W.

    2013-12-01

    Nonhazardous aqueous process waste streams from food and beverage industry operations are often discharged via managed land application in a manner designed to minimize impacts to underlying groundwater. Process waste streams are typically characterized by elevated concentrations of solutes such as ammonium, organic nitrogen, potassium, sodium, and organic acids. Land application involves the mixing of process waste streams with irrigation water which is subsequently applied to crops. The combination of evapotranspiration and crop salt uptake reduces the downward mass fluxes of percolation water and salts. By carefully managing application schedules in the context of annual climatological cycles, growing seasons, and process requirements, potential adverse environmental impacts to groundwater can be mitigated. However, climate change poses challenges to future process waste land application efforts because the key factors that determine loading rates - temperature, evapotranspiration, seasonal changes in the quality and quantity of applied water, and various crop factors - are all likely to deviate from current averages. To assess the potential impact of future climate change on the practice of land application, coupled process modeling entailing transient unsaturated fluid flow, evapotranspiration, crop salt uptake, and multispecies reactive chemical transport was used to predict changes in salt loading if current practices are maintained in a warmer, drier setting. As a first step, a coupled process model (Hydrus-1D, combined with PHREEQC) was calibrated to existing data sets which summarize land application loading rates, soil water chemistry, and crop salt uptake for land disposal of process wastes from a food industry facility in the northern San Joaquin Valley of California. Model results quantify, for example, the impacts of evapotranspiration on both fluid flow and soil water chemistry at shallow depths, with secondary effects including carbonate mineral

  19. The impact of storativity on mixing in fluctuating groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pool, M.; Post, V.; Simmons, C. T.

    2013-12-01

    Mixing and dispersion in groundwater systems are dominated by spatial heterogeneity and temporal flow fluctuations. It has been found that fluctuations parallel to the main flow directions only mildly impact on solute dispersion and have little influence on mixing if the medium is homogeneous (de Dreuzy et al., 2007; Kinzelbach and Ackerer, 1986; Goode and Konikow, 1990). However, most these findings were obtained under the pseudo steady state assumption, that is zero storativity, which implies an instantaneous flow response to hydraulic perturbation. With non-zero storativity, fluctuations in the flow boundary conditions propagate through the aquifer with a finite speed, which leads to a more complex time-dependent flow field. This is particularly important for tidally dominated coastal aquifers where accurate quantification of mixing is essential for achieving ground-water sustainability. The strategic objective of this study is to identify the interplay between temporal fluctuations, storativity and mixing. We perform two and three-dimensional simulations of transient flow and solute transport under velocity-dependent local scale dispersion. Mixing is characterized by the spatial moments of concentration. The enhanced solute mixing is quantified by an apparent dispersion coefficient. We systematically analyze the dependence of this dispersion coefficient on fluctuation amplitude, period, as well as storativity. Most importantly, we find that solute dispersion increases consistently with storativity. This may have important implications for the understanding of mixing and reaction processes in unconfined groundwater systems. References: -de Dreuzy, J-R. ; Carrera, J. ; Dentz, M. ; Le Borgne, T. (2012) Asymptotic dispersion for two-dimensional highly heterogeneous permeability fields under temporally fluctuating flow, Water Resour. Res., 48, W01532 -Kinzelbach, W., and P. Ackerer (1986), Mode'isation de la propagation d'un contaminant dans un champ d

  20. Evaluating the impact of climate change on groundwater resources in a small Mediterranean watershed.

    PubMed

    Ertürk, Ali; Ekdal, Alpaslan; Gürel, Melike; Karakaya, Nusret; Guzel, Cigdem; Gönenç, Ethem

    2014-11-15

    Western Mediterranean Region of Turkey is subject to considerable impacts of climate change that may adversely affect the water resources. Decrease in annual precipitation and winter precipitation as well as increase in temperatures are observed since 1960s. In this study, the impact of climate change on groundwater resources in part of Köyceğiz-Dalyan Watershed was evaluated. Evaluation was done by quantifying the impacts of climate change on the water budget components. Hydrological modeling was conducted with SWAT model which was calibrated and validated successfully. Climate change and land use scenarios were used to calculate the present and future climate change impacts on water budgets. According to the simulation results, almost all water budget components have decreased. SWAT was able to allocate less irrigation water because of the decrease of overall water due to the climate change. This resulted in an increase of water stressed days and temperature stressed days whereas crop yields have decreased according to the simulation results. The results indicated that lack of water is expected to be a problem in the future. In this manner, investigations on switching to more efficient irrigation methods and to crops with less water consumption are recommended as adaptation measures to climate change impacts.

  1. Investigating landfill-impacted groundwater seepage into headwater streams using stable carbon isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atekwana, E. A.; Krishnamurthy, R. V.

    2004-07-01

    The impact of landfill contaminated groundwater along a reach of a small stream adjacent to a municipal landfill was investigated using stable carbon isotopes as a tracer. Groundwater below the stream channel, groundwater seeping into the stream, groundwater from the stream banks and stream water were sampled and analysed for dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and the isotope ratio of DIC (13CDIC). Representative samples of groundwater seeping into the stream were collected using a device (a seepage well) specifically designed for collecting samples of groundwater seeping into shallow streams with soft sediments. The DIC and 13CDIC of water samples ranged from 52 to 205 mg C/L and -16.9 to +5.7 relative to VPDB standard, respectively. Groundwater from the stream bank adjacent to the landfill and some samples of groundwater below the stream channel and seepage into the stream showed evidence of 13C enriched DIC (δ13CDIC = -2.3 to +5.7), which we attribute to landfill impact. Stream water and groundwater from the stream bank opposite the landfill did not show evidence of landfill carbon (δ13CDIC = -10.0 to -16.9). A simple mixing model using DIC and δ13CDIC showed that groundwater below the stream and groundwater seeping into the stream could be described as a mixture of groundwater with a landfill carbon signature and uncontaminated groundwater. This study suggests that the hyporheic zone at the stream-groundwater interface probably was impacted by landfill contaminated groundwater and may have significant ecological implications for this ecotone.

  2. Groundwater impact assessment for the 216-U-17 Crib, 200 West Area

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, S.P.; Johnson, V.G.; Kline, N.W.

    1993-06-01

    As required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement milestone M-17-00A), this report assesses the impact to groundwater from discharge of process condensate to the ground at the 216-U-17 Crib. The assessment considers impacts associated with moisture movement through soil beneath the crib and the potential transport of contaminants to the groundwater.

  3. Short and long-term impacts of different groundwater regimes on water balance components of shallow groundwater sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Ottfried; Fahle, Marcus; Kaiser, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Water management of shallow groundwater table sites is often the subject of discussions between different interest groups. In many cases these sites have a protection status but at the same time they are important for agricultural land use. The most controversial subject is the manipulation of the water tables which is done by a complex system of streams, ditches and weirs. The target water levels that the interest groups aim for differ in height and in time. The groups present different arguments to justify their targets. However, knowledge about the effects of the different water levels on the water budget components is still limited but it is of great importance to find compromises in water resources management that are satisfying for the different groups involved. We used groundwater lysimeters to investigate the impact of different water level regimes on the water balance. The lysimeters are installed directly within a typical shallow water table site. In contrast to common groundwater lysimeters they can use the inflow and outflow to the lysimeter to control the lower boundary condition. Compared to standard groundwater lysimeters, this enables the simulation of additional groundwater management options and results in a more natural behavior of the groundwater level and the water balance components in the lysimeter. Our results show that the groundwater regimes have different effects on the water balance components, both in the short-term and the long-term. Evapotranspiration (ET) increases with higher water levels but only if the vegetation is adapted to these conditions. The abrupt increase of the groundwater level resulted in lower ET values in the first year. After the transition of the vegetation to more wetland typical species in the following years the variants with the highest water levels had always the highest ET. It is a typical long-term effect of the groundwater regime. In the short-term the meteorological conditions have the largest impact on

  4. Modeling the Factors Impacting Pesticide Concentrations in Groundwater Wells.

    PubMed

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Binning, Philip J; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Bjerg, Poul L

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of pumping, hydrogeology, and pesticide characteristics on pesticide concentrations in production wells using a reactive transport model in two conceptual hydrogeologic systems; a layered aquifer with and without a stream present. The pumping rate can significantly affect the pesticide breakthrough time and maximum concentration at the well. The effect of the pumping rate on the pesticide concentration depends on the hydrogeology of the aquifer; in a layered aquifer, a high pumping rate resulted in a considerably different breakthrough than a low pumping rate, while in an aquifer with a stream the effect of the pumping rate was insignificant. Pesticide application history and properties have also a great impact on the effect of the pumping rate on the concentration at the well. The findings of the study show that variable pumping rates can generate temporal variability in the concentration at the well, which helps understanding the results of groundwater monitoring programs. The results are used to provide guidance on the design of pumping and regulatory changes for the long-term supply of safe groundwater. The fate of selected pesticides is examined, for example, if the application of bentazone in a region with a layered aquifer stops today, the concentration at the well can continue to increase for 20 years if a low pumping rate is applied. This study concludes that because of the rapid response of the pesticide concentration at the drinking water well due to changes in pumping, wellhead management is important for managing pesticide concentrations.

  5. Impacts of afforestation on groundwater resources and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Alistair; Chapman, Deborah

    2001-07-01

    Plans to double the proportion of land under forest cover in Ireland by the year 2035 have been initiated. The plan, primarily financially driven, ignores potential environmental impacts of forestry, particularly impacts on groundwater resources and quality. Since groundwater supplies almost 25% of Ireland's total potable water, these impacts are important. Field investigations indicate that afforestation leads to a reduction in runoff by as much as 20%, mainly due to interception of rainfall by forest canopies. Clearfelling has the opposite impact. Implications are that uncoordinated forestry practices can potentially exacerbate flooding. Groundwater recharge is affected by forestry, largely due to greater uptake of soil water by trees and to increased water-holding capacity of forest soils, arising from higher organic contents. Recharge rates under forests can be reduced to one tenth that under grass or heathland. Groundwater quality may be affected by enhanced acidification and nitrification under forests, due partly to scavenging of atmospheric pollutants by forest canopies, and partly to greater deposition of highly acid leaf litter. The slower recharge rates of groundwater under forests lead to significant delays in manifestation of deterioration in groundwater quality. Résumé. Des plans sont à l'étude pour doubler la proportion du couvert forestier en Irlande d'ici à 2035. Le plan, primitivement déterminé sur une base financière, ignore les impacts environnementaux potentiels de la foresterie, et particulièrement les impacts sur les ressources en eau souterraine et leur qualité. Du fait que les eaux souterraines satisfont presque 25% du total de l'eau potable de l'Irlande, ces impacts sont importants. Les études de terrain montrent que le reboisement conduit à une réduction du ruissellement d'au moins 20%, principalement à cause d'une interception de la pluie par le couvert forestier. Les coupes ont un impact contraire. Les implications sont

  6. Impact Of Groundwater Discharge On Contaminant Behavior In Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    The discharge of groundwater into surface water may influence the concentrations and availability of contaminants in sediments. There are three predominant pathways by which groundwater may affect the characteristics of contaminated sediments: 1) direct contribution of contamin...

  7. Urban groundwater age modeling under unconfined condition - Impact of underground structures on groundwater age: Evidence of a piston effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attard, Guillaume; Rossier, Yvan; Eisenlohr, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, underground structures are shown to have a major influence on the groundwater mean age distribution described as a dispersive piston effect. Urban underground development does not occur without impacts on subsoil resources. In particular, groundwater resources can be vulnerable and generate disturbances when this space is exploited. Groundwater age spatial distribution data are fundamental for resource management as it can provide operational sustainability indicators. However, the application of groundwater age modeling is neglected regarding the potential effect of underground structures in urban areas. A three dimensional modeling approach was conducted to quantify the impact of two underground structures: (1) an impervious structure and (2) a draining structure. Both structures are shown to cause significant mixing processes occurring between shallow and deeper aquifers. The design technique used for draining structures is shown to have the greatest impact, generating a decrease in mean age of more than 80% under the structure. Groundwater age modeling is shown to be relevant for highlighting the role played by underground structures in advective-dispersive flows in urban areas.

  8. Impact of early life adversity on EMG stress reactivity of the trapezius muscle

    PubMed Central

    Luijcks, Rosan; Vossen, Catherine J.; Roggeveen, Suzanne; van Os, Jim; Hermens, Hermie J.; Lousberg, Richel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Human and animal research indicates that exposure to early life adversity increases stress sensitivity later in life. While behavioral markers of adversity-induced stress sensitivity have been suggested, physiological markers remain to be elucidated. It is known that trapezius muscle activity increases during stressful situations. The present study examined to what degree early life adverse events experienced during early childhood (0–11 years) and adolescence (12–17 years) moderate experimentally induced electromyographic (EMG) stress activity of the trapezius muscles, in an experimental setting. In a general population sample (n = 115), an anticipatory stress effect was generated by presenting a single unpredictable and uncontrollable electrical painful stimulus at t = 3 minutes. Subjects were unaware of the precise moment of stimulus delivery and its intensity level. Linear and nonlinear time courses in EMG activity were modeled using multilevel analysis. The study protocol included 2 experimental sessions (t = 0 and t = 6 months) allowing for examination of reliability. Results show that EMG stress reactivity during the stress paradigm was consistently stronger in people with higher levels of early life adverse events; early childhood adversity had a stronger moderating effect than adolescent adversity. The impact of early life adversity on EMG stress reactivity may represent a reliable facet that can be used in both clinical and nonclinical studies. PMID:27684800

  9. Impact of childhood adversities on the short-term course of illness in psychotic spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Schalinski, Inga; Fischer, Yolanda; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2015-08-30

    Accumulating evidence indicates an impact of childhood adversities on the severity and course of mental disorders, whereas this impact on psychotic disorders remains to be specified. Effects of childhood adversities on comorbidity, on symptom severity of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and global functioning across four months (upon admission, 1 and 4 months after initial assessment), as well as the course of illness (measured by the remission rate, number of re-hospitalizations and dropout rate) were evaluated in 62 inpatients with psychotic spectrum disorders. Adverse experiences (of at least 1 type) were reported by 73% of patients. Patients with higher overall level of childhood adversities (n=33) exhibited more co-morbid disorders, especially alcohol/substance abuse and dependency, and higher dropout rates than patients with a lower levels of adverse experiences (n=29), together with higher levels of positive symptoms and symptoms of excitement and disorganization. Emotional and physical neglect were particularly related to symptom severity. Results suggest that psychological stress in childhood affects the symptom severity and, additionally, a more unfavorable course of disorder in patients diagnosed with psychoses. This impact calls for its consideration in diagnostic assessment and psychiatric care.

  10. On the impact of adverse pressure gradient on the supersonic turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian-Cheng; Wang, Zhen-Guo; Zhao, Yu-Xin

    2016-11-01

    By employing the particle image velocimetry, the mean and turbulent characteristics of a Mach 2.95 turbulent boundary layer are experimentally investigated without the impact of curvature. The physical mechanism with which the streamwise adverse pressure gradient affects the supersonic boundary layer is revealed. The data are compared to that of the concave boundary layer with similar streamwise distributions of wall static pressure to clarify the separate impacts of the adverse pressure gradient and the concave curvature. The logarithmic law is observed to be well preserved for both of the cases. The dip below the logarithmic law is not observed in present investigation. Theoretical analysis indicates that it could be the result of compromise between the opposite impacts of the compression wave and the increased turbulent intensity. Compared to the zero pressure gradient boundary layer, the principal strain rate and the turbulent intensities are increased by the adverse pressure gradient. The shear layer formed due the hairpin packets could be sharpened by the compression wave, which leads to higher principal strain rate and the associated turbulent level. Due to the additional impact of the centrifugal instability brought by the concave wall, even higher turbulent intensities than that of the adverse pressure gradient case are introduced. The existence of velocity modes within the zero pressure gradient boundary layer suggests that the large scale motions are statistically well organized. The generation of new velocity modes due to the adverse pressure gradient indicates that the turbulent structure is changed by the adverse pressure gradient, through which more turbulence production that cannot be effectively predicted by the Reynolds-stress transport equations could be brought.

  11. The Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Other Forms of Childhood Adversity on Adulthood Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Betty

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the independent impact of child sexual abuse on five dimensions of adulthood parenting after controlling for other forms of childhood adversity in a predominantly African-American sample of mothers receiving public assistance (N = 483). An analysis of data previously collected as part of the Illinois Families Study Child…

  12. 25 CFR 170.109 - How do the Secretaries prevent discrimination or adverse impacts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How do the Secretaries prevent discrimination or adverse impacts? 170.109 Section 170.109 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND... Consultation, Collaboration, Coordination § 170.109 How do the Secretaries prevent discrimination or...

  13. 25 CFR 170.110 - How can State and local governments prevent discrimination or adverse impacts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How can State and local governments prevent discrimination or adverse impacts? 170.110 Section 170.110 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Eligibility Consultation, Collaboration, Coordination § 170.110 How can State and local governments...

  14. The Risk of Adverse Impact in Selections Based on a Test with Known Effect Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Corte, Wilfried; Lievens, Filip

    2005-01-01

    The authors derive the exact sampling distribution function of the adverse impact (AI) ratio for single-stage, top-down selections using tests with known effect sizes. Subsequently, it is shown how this distribution function can be used to determine the risk that a future selection decision on the basis of such tests will result in an outcome that…

  15. Assessing the Impact of Chlorinated-Solvent Sites on Metropolitan Groundwater Resources

    PubMed Central

    Brusseau, Mark L.; Narter, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Chlorinated-solvent compounds are among the most common groundwater contaminants in the U.S.A. The majority of the many sites contaminated by chlorinated-solvent compounds are located in metropolitan areas, and most such areas have one or more chlorinated-solvent contaminated sites. Thus, contamination of groundwater by chlorinated-solvent compounds may pose a potential risk to the sustainability of potable water supplies for many metropolitan areas. The impact of chlorinated-solvent sites on metropolitan water resources was assessed for Tucson, AZ, by comparing the aggregate volume of extracted groundwater for all pump-and-treat systems associated with contaminated sites in the region to the total regional groundwater withdrawal. The analysis revealed that the aggregate volume of groundwater withdrawn for the pump-and-treat systems operating in Tucson, all of which are located at chlorinated-solvent contaminated sites, was 20% of the total groundwater withdrawal in the city for the study period. The treated groundwater was used primarily for direct delivery to local water supply systems or for reinjection as part of the pump-and-treat system. The volume of the treated groundwater used for potable water represented approximately 13% of the total potable water supply sourced from groundwater, and approximately 6% of the total potable water supply. This case study illustrates the significant impact chlorinated-solvent contaminated sites can have on groundwater resources and regional potable-water supplies. PMID:24116872

  16. Modeling the impact of the nitrate contamination on groundwater at the groundwater body scale : The Geer basin case study (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouyere, S.; Orban, P.; Hérivaux, C.

    2009-12-01

    In the next decades, groundwater managers will have to face regional degradation of the quantity and quality of groundwater under pressure of land-use and socio-economic changes. In this context, the objectives of the European Water Framework Directive require that groundwater be managed at the scale of the groundwater body, taking into account not only all components of the water cycle but also the socio-economic impact of these changes. One of the main challenges remains to develop robust and efficient numerical modeling applications at such a scale and to couple them with economic models, as a support for decision support in groundwater management. An integrated approach between hydrogeologists and economists has been developed by coupling the hydrogeological model SUFT3D and a cost-benefit economic analysis to study the impact of agricultural practices on groundwater quality and to design cost-effective mitigation measures to decrease nitrate pressure on groundwater so as to ensure the highest benefit to the society. A new modeling technique, the ‘Hybrid Finite Element Mixing Cell’ approach has been developed for large scale modeling purposes. The principle of this method is to fully couple different mathematical and numerical approaches to solve groundwater flow and solute transport problems. The mathematical and numerical approaches proposed allows an adaptation to the level of local hydrogeological knowledge and the amount of available data. In combination with long time series of nitrate concentrations and tritium data, the regional scale modelling approach has been used to develop a 3D spatially distributed groundwater flow and solute transport model for the Geer basin (Belgium) of about 480 km2. The model is able to reproduce the spatial patterns of nitrate concentrations together nitrate trends with time. The model has then been used to predict the future evolution of nitrate trends for two types of scenarios: (i) a “business as usual scenario

  17. Assessment of groundwater input and water quality changes impacting natural vegetation in the Loxahatchee River and floodplain ecosystem, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, William H.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; McPherson, Benjamin F.; Hedgepath, Marion; Lerch, Harry E.; Reich, Christopher; Torres, Arturo E.; Corum, Margo D.; Roberts, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    The Loxahatchee River and Estuary are small, shallow, water bodies located in southeastern Florida. Historically, the Northwest Branch (Fork) of the Loxahatchee River was primarily a freshwater system. In 1947, the river inlet at Jupiter was dredged for navigation and has remained permanently open since that time. Drainage patterns within the basin have also been altered significantly due to land development, road construction (e.g., Florida Turnpike), and construction of the C-18 and other canals. These anthropogenic activities along with sea level rise have resulted in significant adverse impacts on the ecosystem over the last several decades, including increased saltwater encroachment and undesired vegetation changes in the floodplain. The problem of saltwater intrusion and vegetation degradation in the Loxahatchee River may be partly induced by diminished freshwater input, from both surface water and ground water into the River system. The overall objective of this project was to assess the seasonal surface water and groundwater interaction and the influence of the biogeochemical characteristics of shallow groundwater and porewater on vegetation health in the Loxahatchee floodplain. The hypothesis tested are: (1) groundwater influx constitutes a significant component of the overall flow of water into the Loxahatchee River; (2) salinity and other chemical constituents in shallow groundwater and porewater of the river floodplain may affect the distribution and health of the floodplain vegetation.

  18. Interaction between groundwater and trees in an arid site: Potential impacts of climate variation and groundwater abstraction on trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Lihe; Zhou, Yangxiao; Huang, Jinting; Wenninger, Jochen; Zhang, Eryong; Hou, Guangcai; Dong, Jiaqiu

    2015-09-01

    The understanding of the interaction between groundwater and trees is vital for sustainable groundwater use and maintenance of a healthy ecosystem in arid regions. The short- and long-term groundwater contribution to tree water use was investigated using the HYDRUS-1D model and stable isotopes. For the short-term simulation, the ratio between the actual transpiration (Ta) and potential transpiration (Tp) approached almost ∼1.0 due to the constant groundwater uptake. The results from the short-term simulation indicated that the groundwater contribution to tree water use ranged between 53% and 56% in the dry season (May-June) and 16-19% in the wet period (August-September). Isotopic analysis indicated that groundwater contributed to 45% of plant water use in the dry season, decreasing to 4-12% during the wet period. Because of canopy interception and transpiration, groundwater recharge only occurred after heavy rainfall and accounted for 3-8% of the total heavy rainfall. For the long-term simulation, Ta/Tp ranged between 0.91 and 1.00 except in 2007 (0.78), when the water table declined because of groundwater abstraction. In the scenario simulation for deep water table conditions caused by anthropogenic activities, Ta/Tp ranged between 0.09 and 0.40 (mean = 0.22) that is significantly lower than the values in the natural conditions. In conclusion, vegetation restoration in arid zones should be cautious as over-planting of trees will decrease the groundwater recharge and potentially cause a rapid drop in water table levels, which in turn may result in the death of planted trees. Trees adapt to arid regions by adopting root patterns that allow soil water uptake by shallow roots and groundwater use by deep roots, thus climatic variation itself may not bring severe negative impact on trees. However, anthropogenic activities, such as groundwater abstraction, will result in significant water table decline that will reduce actual transpiration of trees significantly

  19. Isotope hydrology of deep groundwater in Syria: renewable and non-renewable groundwater and paleoclimate impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Charideh, A.; Kattaa, B.

    2016-02-01

    The Regional Deep Cretaceous Aquifer (RDCA) is the principal groundwater resource in Syria. Isotope and hydrochemical data have been used to evaluate the geographic zones in terms of renewable and non-renewable groundwater and the inter-relation between current and past recharge. The chemical and isotopic character of groundwater together with radiometric 14C data reflect the existence of three different groundwater groups: (1) renewable groundwater, in RDCA outcropping areas, in western Syria along the Coastal and Anti-Lebanon mountains. The mean δ18O value (-7.2 ‰) is similar to modern precipitation with higher 14C values (up to 60-80 pmc), implying younger groundwater (recent recharge); (2) semi-renewable groundwater, which is located in the unconfined section of the RDCA and parallel to the first zone. The mean δ18O value (-7.0 ‰) is also similar to modern precipitation with a 14C range of 15-45 pmc; (3) non-renewable groundwater found in most of the Syrian interior, where the RDCA becomes confined. A considerable depletion in δ18O (-8.0 ‰) relative to the modern rainfall and low values of 14C (<15 pmc) suggest that the large masses of deep groundwater are non-renewable and related to an older recharge period. The wide scatter of all data points around the two meteoric lines in the δ18O-δ2H diagram indicates considerable variation in recharge conditions. There is limited renewable groundwater in the mountain area, and most of the stored deep groundwater in the RDCA is non-renewable, with corrected 14C ages varying between 10 and 35 Kyr BP.

  20. The impact of groundwater depletions on groundwater surface water interactions and streamflow across the contiguous US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condon, L. E.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past 50 years, connections between climate change and streamflow trends have been observed in many regions of the Western US. However, much of the work to detect climate change signals in historical hydrologic records has focused on surface water changes in relatively undeveloped basins. While this is necessary to isolate any climate change signal from uncertain water management operations, it also excludes interactions with the concurrent human development that has occurred over the last 100 years. In highly utilized groundwater systems, such as the High Plains Aquifer, groundwater mining has already been linked to streamflow depletions at local to regional scales; but no prior studies have evaluated the role of groundwater declines in historical changes of groundwater surface water interactions at the continental scale. Here we isolate the influence of groundwater depletions from water management operations (e.g. irrigation and surface water diversions) to systematically evaluate how subsurface storage losses alter large-scale hydrologic interactions. Using a fully integrated groundwater surface water model of the contiguous US we simulate dynamic equilibrium conditions of a predevelopment system and a system with groundwater depletions equivalent to all of the groundwater development of the 20th century. Results illustrate the effect of persistent drawdown on streamflows, recharge and groundwater surface water exchanges across many spatial scales. In addition, we run transient simulations to evaluate the effect of these shifts on seasonal surface water variability. Simulations demonstrate the widespread trends in groundwater surface water interactions that have already resulted from ubiquitous groundwater mining in the United States and the potential for such changes to influence future response to climate variability.

  1. Assessing the impact of preload on pyrite-rich sediment and groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Karikari-Yeboah, Ohene; Addai-Mensah, Jonas

    2017-02-01

    Pyrite-rich sediments would, invariably, undergo redox reactions which would lead to acidic aqueous environment containing solubilized toxic metal species. When such sediments are subjected to preload, a technique employed by geotechnical engineers to improve the load-bearing capacity of highly compressible formation, transient flow of pore water, accompanied by acidity transfer, would occur as a response. Despite the concomitant environmental and socio-economic significance, to date, there has been limited interdisciplinary research on the underpinning geotechnical engineering and geo-environmental science issues for pyrite-rich sediments under preload. In this study, we investigate the effect of pyrite-rich sediment pore water transfer under preload surcharge on the receiving environment and the impact on the groundwater speciation and quality. Sediment samples were obtained at close depth intervals from boreholes established within pristine areas and those subjected to the preload application. Soil and pore water samples were subjected to solid/solution speciation, moisture contents, soil pH and the Atterberg Limits' analyses using standard analytical techniques and methods. Standpipes were also installed in the boreholes for groundwater sampling and in situ monitoring of water quality parameters. It is shown that the imposition of preload surcharge over pyritic sediment created a reducing environment rich in SO4(2-), iron oxide minerals and organic matter. This reducing environment fostered organic carbon catabolism to generate excess pyrite and bicarbonate alkalinity, which would invariably impact adversely on soil quality and plant growth. These were accompanied by increase in pH, dissolved Al, Ca, Mg and K species beneath the surcharge.

  2. Uncertainties in estimates of the impact of recent climate variations on groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzyuba, A. V.; Zektser, I. S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective and subjective uncertainties in modern estimates of the impact of long-term climate variations on the subsurface runoff and groundwater reserves are discussed. It is shown that the assessment of groundwater reserves should take into consideration the insufficient reliability of the main hydrogeological parameters and estimates of their likely changes. Therefore, the prediction of the influence of climate changes on groundwater reserves and its regime is now impossible. The mechanism of the natural floral damping of possible changes in the groundwater replenishment and temperature-moisture regime of large regions determined by climate changes due to the growing greenhouse gas concentration in the troposphere is described for the first time.

  3. Impact of Preservation of Subsoil Water Act on Groundwater Depletion: The Case of Punjab, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Amarnath; Mishra, Ashok K.; Verma, Geetanjali

    2016-07-01

    Indian states like Punjab and Haryana, epicenters of the Green Revolution, are facing severe groundwater shortages and falling water tables. Recognizing it as a serious concern, the Government of Punjab enacted the Punjab Preservation of Subsoil Water Act in 2009 (or the 2009 act) to slow groundwater depletion. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of this policy on groundwater depletion, using panel data from 1985 to 2011. Results from this study find a robust effect of the 2009 act on reducing groundwater depletion. Our models for pre-monsoon, post-monsoon, and overall periods of analysis find that since implementation of the 2009 act, groundwater tables have improved significantly. Second, our study reveals that higher shares of tube wells per total cropped area and increased population density have led to a significant decline in the groundwater tables. On the other hand, rainfall and the share of area irrigated by surface water have had an augmenting effect on groundwater resources. In the two models, pre-monsoon and post-monsoon, this study shows that seasonality plays a key role in determining the groundwater table in Punjab. Specifically, monsoon rainfall has a very prominent impact on groundwater.

  4. Assessment of groundwater quality in Puri City, India: an impact of anthropogenic activities.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Ritesh; Khobragade, Puja; Mohapatra, P K

    2011-06-01

    Puri City is situated on the east coast of India and receives water supply only from the groundwater sources demarcated as water fields. The objective of this paper is to assess and evaluate the groundwater quality due to impact of anthropogenic activities in the city. Groundwater samples were collected from the water fields, hand pumps, open wells, and open water bodies during post-monsoon 2006 and summer 2007. Groundwater quality was evaluated with drinking water standards as prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standards and Environmental Protection Agency to assess the suitability. The study indicated seasonal variation of water-quality parameters within the water fields and city area. Groundwater in the water fields was found to be suitable for drinking after disinfection. While in city area, groundwater quality was impacted by onsite sanitary conditions. The study revealed that groundwater quality was deteriorated due to the discharge of effluent from septic tanks, soak pits, pit latrines, discharges of domestic wastewater in leaky drains, and leachate from solid waste dumpsite. Based on observed groundwater quality, various mitigation measures were suggested to protect the water fields and further groundwater contamination in the city.

  5. Evaluating impacts of subdivision density on shallow groundwater in Southeastern Wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rayne, T.W.; Bradbury, K.R.

    2011-01-01

    Using simple numerical groundwater flow models, we tested the impacts of suburban developments on groundwater levels and discharge to streams. We used lot sizes of 1, 3 and 5 acres (4000, 12,000 and 20,000 m2) with one domestic well per lot that pumped water from shallow aquifers. Our modelling showed that pumping had little impact on water levels and groundwater discharge to streams if the developed area is of a moderate size. However, domestic wells had the potential to impact local groundwater levels and baseflows in large developments. In township-wide development scenarios of 1-acre (4000 m2) lots, simulated drawdowns beneath developed areas ranged from 1 to 18 ft (0.3 to 5.5 m), and baseflow reductions ranged from 20 to 40%. Impacts generally were inversely proportional to lot size, recharge rate and hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer materials. Developments using individual domestic wells have the potential to impact local groundwater levels and surface water features. The impacts can range from negligible to severe, depending on local hydrogeologic conditions and on whether wastewater is recharged onsite or is removed from the basin. An assessment of groundwater impacts should be a part of the planning process for all suburban developments. ?? 2011 University of Newcastle upon Tyne.

  6. Zonal management of multi-purposes groundwater utilization based on water quality and impact on the aquifer.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Ching-Fang; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater is widely used for drinking, irrigation, and aquaculture in the Pingtung Plain, Southwestern Taiwan. The overexploitation and poor quality of groundwater in some areas of the Pingtung Plain pose great challenges for the safe use and sustainable management of groundwater resources. Thus, establishing an effective management plan for multi-purpose groundwater utilization in the Pingtung Plain is imperative. Considerations of the quality of the groundwater and potential impact on the aquifer of groundwater exploitation are paramount to multi-purpose groundwater utilization management. This study proposes a zonal management plan for the multi-purpose use of groundwater in the Pingtung Plain. The zonal management plan is developed by considering the spatial variability of the groundwater quality and the impact on the aquifer, which is defined as the ratio of the actual groundwater extraction rate to transmissivity. A geostatistical Kriging approach is used to spatially delineate the safe zones based on the water quality standards applied in the three groundwater utilization sectors. Suitable zones for the impact on the aquifer are then spatially determined. The evaluation results showing the safe water quality zones for the three types of utilization demands and suitable zones for the impact on aquifer are integrated to create a zonal management map for multi-purpose groundwater utilization which can help government administrators to establish a water resource management strategy for safe and sustainable use of groundwater to meet multi-purpose groundwater utilization requirements in the Pingtung Plain.

  7. Salinity Impacts on Agriculture and Groundwater in Delta Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, D.; Salehin, M.; Jairuddin, M.; Saleh, A. F. M.; Rahman, M. M.; Parks, K. E.; Haque, M. A.; Lázár, A. N.; Payo, A.

    2015-12-01

    Delta regions are attractive for high intensity agriculture due to the availability of rich sedimentary soils and of fresh water. Many of the world's tropical deltas support high population densities which are reliant on irrigated agriculture. However environmental changes such as sea level rise, tidal inundation and reduced river flows have reduced the quantity and quality of water available for successful agriculture. Additionally, anthropogenic influences such as the over abstraction of ground water and the increased use of low quality water from river inlets has resulted in the accumulation of salts in the soils which diminishes crop productivity. Communities based in these regions are usually reliant on the same water for drinking and cooking because surface water is frequently contaminated by commercial and urban pollution. The expansion of shallow tube well systems for drinking water and agricultural use over the last few decades has resulted in mobilisation of salinity in the coastal and estuarine fringes. Sustainable development in delta regions is becoming constrained by water salinity. However salinity is often studied as an independent issue by specialists working in the fields of agriculture, community water supply and groundwater. The lack of interaction between these disciplines often results in corrective actions being applied to one sector without fully assessing the effects of these actions on other sectors. This paper describes a framework for indentifying the causes and impacts of salinity in delta regions based on the source-pathway-receptor framework. It uses examples and scenarios from the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta in Bangladesh together with field measurements and observations made in vulnerable coastal communities. The paper demonstrates the importance of creating an holistic understanding of the development and management of water resources to reduce the impact of salinity in fresh water in delta regions.

  8. Impact of hurricanes storm surges on the groundwater resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Biersel, T. P.; Carlson, D.A.; Milner, L.R.

    2007-01-01

    Ocean surges onto coastal lowlands caused by tropical and extra tropical storms, tsunamis, and sea level rise affect all coastal lowlands and present a threat to drinking water resources of many coastal residents. In 2005, two such storms, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita struck the Gulf Coast of the US. Since September 2005, water samples have been collected from water wells impacted by the hurricanes' storm surges along the north shore of Lake Pontchartrain in southeastern Louisiana. The private and public water wells tested were submerged by 0.6-4.5 m of surging saltwater for several hours. The wells' casing and/or the associated plumbing were severely damaged. Water samples were collected to determine if storm surge water inundated the well casing and, if so, its effect on water quality within the shallow aquifers of the Southern Hills Aquifer System. In addition, the samples were used to determine if the impact on water quality may have long-term implication for public health. Laboratory testing for several indicator parameters (Ca/Mg, Cl/Si, chloride, boron, specific conductance and bacteria) indicates that surge water entered water wells' casing and the screened aquifer. Analysis of the groundwater shows a decrease in the Ca/Mg ratio right after the storm and then a return toward pre-Katrina values. Chloride concentrations were elevated right after Katrina and Rita, and then decreased downward toward pre-Katrina values. From September 2005 to June 2006, the wells showed improvement in all the saltwater intrusion indicators. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Elucidating hydraulic fracturing impacts on groundwater quality using a regional geospatial statistical modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Burton, Taylour G; Rifai, Hanadi S; Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Carlton, Doug D; Fontenot, Brian E; Schug, Kevin A

    2016-03-01

    Hydraulic fracturing operations have been viewed as the cause of certain environmental issues including groundwater contamination. The potential for hydraulic fracturing to induce contaminant pathways in groundwater is not well understood since gas wells are completed while isolating the water table and the gas-bearing reservoirs lay thousands of feet below the water table. Recent studies have attributed ground water contamination to poor well construction and leaks in the wellbore annulus due to ruptured wellbore casings. In this paper, a geospatial model of the Barnett Shale region was created using ArcGIS. The model was used for spatial analysis of groundwater quality data in order to determine if regional variations in groundwater quality, as indicated by various groundwater constituent concentrations, may be associated with the presence of hydraulically fractured gas wells in the region. The Barnett Shale reservoir pressure, completions data, and fracture treatment data were evaluated as predictors of groundwater quality change. Results indicated that elevated concentrations of certain groundwater constituents are likely related to natural gas production in the study area and that beryllium, in this formation, could be used as an indicator variable for evaluating fracturing impacts on regional groundwater quality. Results also indicated that gas well density and formation pressures correlate to change in regional water quality whereas proximity to gas wells, by itself, does not. The results also provided indirect evidence supporting the possibility that micro annular fissures serve as a pathway transporting fluids and chemicals from the fractured wellbore to the overlying groundwater aquifers.

  10. Impacts of Groundwater Recharge from Rubber Dams on the Hydrogeological Environment in Luoyang Basin, China

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Shaogang; Liu, Baiwei; Liu, Huamin; Wang, Shidong; Wang, Lixin

    2014-01-01

    In the rubber dam's impact area, the groundwater total hardness (TH) has declined since 2000, ultimately dropping to 100–300 mg/L in 2012. pH levels have shown no obvious changes. NH4-N concentration in the groundwater remained stable from 2000 to 2006, but it increased from 2007 to 2012, with the largest increase up to 0.2 mg/L. NO3-N concentration in the groundwater generally declined in 2000–2006 and then increased from 2007; the largest increase was to 10 mg/L in 2012. Total dissolved solids (TDS) of the groundwater showed a general trend of decline from 2000 to 2009, but levels increased after 2010, especially along the south bank of the Luohe River where the largest increase recorded was approximately 100 mg/L. This study has shown that the increases in the concentrations of NH4-N and NO3-N were probably caused by changes in groundwater levels. Nitrates adsorbed by the silt clay of aeration zone appear to have entered the groundwater through physical and chemical reactions. TDS increased because of groundwater evaporation and some soluble ions entered the groundwater in the unsaturated zone. The distance of the contaminant to the surface of the aquifer became shorter due to the shallow depth of groundwater, resulting in the observed rise in pollutant concentrations more pronounced. PMID:25126593

  11. Climate change impact on shallow groundwater conditions in Hungary: Conclusions from a regional modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, Attila; Marton, Annamária; Tóth, György; Szöcs, Teodóra

    2016-04-01

    A quantitative methodology has been developed for the calculation of groundwater table based on measured and simulated climate parameters. The aim of the study was to develop a toolset which can be used for the calculation of shallow groundwater conditions for various climate scenarios. This was done with the goal of facilitating the assessment of climate impact and vulnerability of shallow groundwater resources. The simulated groundwater table distributions are representative of groundwater conditions at the regional scale. The introduced methodology is valid for modelling purposes at various scales and thus represents a versatile tool for the assessment of climate vulnerability of shallow groundwater bodies. The calculation modules include the following: 1. A toolset to calculate climate zonation from climate parameter grids, 2. Delineation of recharge zones (Hydrological Response Units, HRUs) based on geology, landuse and slope conditions, 3. Calculation of percolation (recharge) rates using 1D analytical hydrological models, 4. Simulation of the groundwater table using numerical groundwater flow models. The applied methodology provides a quantitative link between climate conditions and shallow groundwater conditions, and thus can be used for assessing climate impacts. The climate data source applied in our calculation comprised interpolated daily climate data of the Central European CARPATCLIM database. Climate zones were determined making use of the Thorntwaite climate zonation scheme. Recharge zones (HRUs) were determined based on surface geology, landuse and slope conditions. The HELP hydrological model was used for the calculation of 1D water balance for hydrological response units. The MODFLOW numerical groundwater modelling code was used for the calculation of the water table. The developed methodology was demonstrated through the simulation of regional groundwater table using spatially averaged climate data and hydrogeological properties for various time

  12. Impact of groundwater use as heat energy on coastal ecosystem and fisheries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Makoto

    2016-04-01

    Demands for groundwater as a heat energy source to melt snow is increasing in many coastal snowy areas in Japan because of the lack of laborers for snow removal and the abundance of groundwater resources. The temperature of groundwater is relatively higher in winter than that of the air and river water, therefore it is a useful heat source to melt snow. However, groundwater is also beneficial for the coastal ecosystem and fishery production because of the nutrient discharge by submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), which is one of the water and dissolved material pathways from land to the ocean. Therefore, groundwater is involved in the tradeoff and management conflict existing between energy and food (fisheries). In this study, the impact of groundwater, used as a heat energy source for the melting of snow accumulated on roads, on the coastal ecosystem and fisheries has been analyzed in the snowy areas of Obama City, Fukui Prefecture, Japan. Positive correlation has been found between primary production rates in Obama Bay and radon concentrations which show the magnitude of the submarine groundwater discharge. Therefore, the increase in groundwater pumping on land reduces fishery production in the ocean. Results of 3D numerical simulations of the basin scale groundwater model show a reduction of SGD by 5 percent due to an increase in groundwater pumping by 1.5 times. This reduction of SGD caused a 3.7 ton decrease in fishery production under the aforementioned assumptions. The groundwater-energy-fishery nexus was found in Obama Bay, Japan and the tradeoff between water and food was evaluated.

  13. Bioenergy feedstock development scenarios & potential impacts on regional groundwater withdrawals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Availability of ample groundwater supplies for irrigation can increase the productive potential of agricultural landscapes; however, excessive withdrawals threaten sustainable use, and shortages could be exacerbated by drier future conditions in some regions. Throughout the North American Great Pla...

  14. Impact of climate on groundwater recharge in the crystalline basement rocks aquifer of Northern Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koffi, K. V.

    2015-12-01

    Water is the cornerstone of human life and for all economic developments. West Africa and specifically Ghana are no exception to this reality.Northern Ghana is characterized by a semi-arid climate, with prolonged dry season (7 months of very few rainfall) leading to the drying up of many rivers and streams. In addition, rainfall is highly variable in space and time. Therefore, surface water is unreliable and insufficient to meet the water demands for socio-economic development in this area. As a result, the area is heavily dependent on groundwater for domestic water supply as well as for dry season irrigation of vegetables (cash crops).However, aquifers in northern Ghana are dominantly the hard rock type (Crystalline basement rock). This aquifer has no primary porosity and may not be able to sustain the increasing demand on the resource. Further, climate change may worsen the situation as recharge is dependent on rainfall in northern Ghana. Therefore, it is important to understand exactly how climate change will impact on recharge to the groundwater for sustainable development and management of the resource.Previous groundwater studies in Northern Ghana barely analyzed the combined impacts of Climate change on the recharge to the groundwater. This research is aimed at determining the current relationship between groundwater recharge and rainfall and to use the relationships to determine the impacts of changes in climate on the groundwater recharge. The results will inform plans and strategies for sustainably managing groundwater resources in Ghana and the Volta basin.

  15. Evaluation of groundwater chemistry and its impact on drinking and irrigation water quality in the eastern part of the Central Arabian graben and trough system, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi, Faisal K.; Mogren, Saad; Mukhopadhyay, Manoj; Ibrahim, Elkhedr

    2016-08-01

    The present study deals with the assessment of groundwater with respect to the main hydrological processes controlling its chemistry and its subsequent impact on groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purposes in the eastern part of the Central Arabian graben and trough system. Groundwater samples were collected from 73 bore wells tapping the Cretaceous Biyadh and Wasia sandstone aquifers. The main groundwater facies in the area belong to the mixed Casbnd Mgsbnd SO4/Cl type and the SO4sbnd Cl type. Prolonged rock water interaction has resulted in high TDS (average of 2131 mg/l) and high EC (average of 2725 μS/cm) of the groundwater. The average nitrate (56.38 mg/l) value in the area is higher than the WHO prescribed limits of 50 mg/l in drinking water and is attributed to agricultural activities. The Drinking Water Quality Index (DWQI) shows that 33% of the water samples fall within the excellent to good category whereas the remaining samples fall in the poor to unsuitable for drinking category. In terms of Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Sodium percentage (Na %) and Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) the groundwater is suitable for irrigation however the high salinity values can adversely affect the plant physiology.

  16. Shattering world assumptions: A prospective view of the impact of adverse events on world assumptions.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Eric R; Boals, Adriel

    2016-05-01

    Shattered Assumptions theory (Janoff-Bulman, 1992) posits that experiencing a traumatic event has the potential to diminish the degree of optimism in the assumptions of the world (assumptive world), which could lead to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder. Prior research assessed the assumptive world with a measure that was recently reported to have poor psychometric properties (Kaler et al., 2008). The current study had 3 aims: (a) to assess the psychometric properties of a recently developed measure of the assumptive world, (b) to retrospectively examine how prior adverse events affected the optimism of the assumptive world, and (c) to measure the impact of an intervening adverse event. An 8-week prospective design with a college sample (N = 882 at Time 1 and N = 511 at Time 2) was used to assess the study objectives. We split adverse events into those that were objectively or subjectively traumatic in nature. The new measure exhibited adequate psychometric properties. The report of a prior objective or subjective trauma at Time 1 was related to a less optimistic assumptive world. Furthermore, participants who experienced an intervening objectively traumatic event evidenced a decrease in optimistic views of the world compared with those who did not experience an intervening adverse event. We found support for Shattered Assumptions theory retrospectively and prospectively using a reliable measure of the assumptive world. We discuss future assessments of the measure of the assumptive world and clinical implications to help rebuild the assumptive world with current therapies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Hydrochemistry of urban groundwater, Seoul, Korea: the impact of subway tunnels on groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Chae, Gi-Tak; Yun, Seong-Taek; Choi, Byoung-Young; Yu, Soon-Young; Jo, Ho-Young; Mayer, Bernhard; Kim, Yun-Jong; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2008-10-23

    Hydrogeologic and hydrochemical data for subway tunnel seepage waters in Seoul (Republic of Korea) were examined to understand the effect of underground tunnels on the degradation of urban groundwater. A very large quantity of groundwater (up to 63 million m3 year(-1)) is discharged into subway tunnels with a total length of 287 km, resulting in a significant drop of the local groundwater table and the abandonment of groundwater wells. For the tunnel seepage water samples (n = 72) collected from 43 subway stations, at least one parameter among pathogenic microbes (total coliform, heterotrophic bacteria), dissolved Mn and Fe, NH4+, NO3(-), turbidity, and color exceeded the Korean Drinking Water Standards. Locally, tunnel seepage water was enriched in dissolved Mn (avg. 0.70 mg L(-1), max. 5.58 mg L(-1)), in addition to dissolved Fe, NH4+, and pathogenic microbes, likely due to significant inflow of sewage water from broken or leaking sewer pipes. Geochemical modeling of redox reactions was conducted to simulate the characteristic hydrochemistry of subway tunnel seepage. The results show that variations in the reducing conditions occur in urban groundwater, dependent upon the amount of organic matter-rich municipal sewage contaminating the aquifer. The organic matter facilitates the reduction and dissolution of Mn- and Fe-bearing solids in aquifers and/or tunnel construction materials, resulting in the successive increase of dissolved Mn and Fe. The present study clearly demonstrates that locally significant deterioration of urban groundwater is caused by a series of interlinked hydrogeologic and hydrochemical changes induced by underground tunnels.

  18. Precipitation and Air Temperature Impact on Seasonal Variations of Groundwater Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitola, Ilva; Vircavs, Valdis; Abramenko, Kaspars; Lauva, Didzis; Veinbergs, Arturs

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify seasonal effects of precipitation and temperature on groundwater level changes in monitoring stations of the Latvia University of Agriculture - Mellupīte, Bērze and Auce. Groundwater regime and level fluctuations depend on climatic conditions such as precipitation intensity, evapotranspiration, surface runoff and drainage, as well as other hydrological factors. The relationship between precipitation, air temperature and groundwater level fluctuations could also lead and give different perspective of possible changes in groundwater quality. Using mathematical statistics and graphic-analytic methods it is concluded that autumn and winter precipitation has the dominant impact on groundwater level fluctuations, whereas spring and summer season fluctuations are more dependent on the air temperature.

  19. The impact of food and agricultural policies on groundwater use in Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aw-Hassan, Aden; Rida, Fadel; Telleria, Roberto; Bruggeman, Adriana

    2014-05-01

    During the last three decades, the expansion of irrigation using both surface water and groundwater resources has had an important positive impact on Syria’s agricultural production. It is an example of success in achieving food policy objectives, but it has also introduced the challenge of groundwater sustainability. This paper examines the trends in groundwater abstraction for irrigation and the effect of government policies, including input subsidies - such as the diesel fuel subsidy and the crop procurement price support. The fuel subsidy is an important driving force in groundwater depletion and over-abstraction. This analysis examines the interaction between policy signals and the use and allocation of water by farmers. The rapid decline in groundwater resources shows the limitations of this agricultural development strategy and questions its sustainability unless policies change and the rate of abstraction is changed so as not exceed the recharge rate.

  20. The psychological impact of chronic environmental adversity: Responding to prolonged drought.

    PubMed

    Stain, Helen J; Kelly, Brian; Carr, Vaughan J; Lewin, Terry J; Fitzgerald, Michael; Fragar, Lyn

    2011-12-01

    The health effects of chronic environmental adversity have received insufficient attention, particularly those associated with the psychological impact of drought. Resilience or adaptive response to drought has received even less attention than vulnerability factors. This research examined factors associated with drought impact in rural and remote Australian communities. In 2008 postal surveys were completed by 302 adults (mean age 53 years; 57% female, 77% married) living in rural areas of prolonged drought exposure. Outcome measures were: (i) psychological distress (Kessler 10) and (ii) an index of concern or worry about drought. A range of predictor variables were assessed: adaptability (hopefulness, neuroticism), other adverse events, personal support and community connectedness, and sense of place, as a measure of connection to the local environment. Predictors of drought related worry differed from those associated with psychological distress levels. The former included socio-economic factors (living on a farm [Odds Ratio, OR 3.09], current employment [OR 3.64]), personal psychological characteristics (neuroticism [OR 1.29]), and greater connection with the environment (sense of place [OR 1.05]). On the other hand, psychological distress was associated chiefly with personal factors, such as higher neuroticism [OR 1.92], lower levels of hopefulness [OR 0.28], and lower perceived social support and community connectedness [OR 0.39]. Practical financial, employment and family factors were identified as important elements of drought impact, as to a lesser extent was sense of place, reflecting a confrontation with the consequences of chronic environmental degradation, while personal hopefulness may help mitigate the psychological impact of such adversity.

  1. Impact of Adverse Events Following Immunization in Viet Nam in 2013 on chronic hepatitis B infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi; Wiesen, Eric; Diorditsa, Sergey; Toda, Kohei; Duong, Thi Hong; Nguyen, Lien Huong; Nguyen, Van Cuong; Nguyen, Tran Hien

    2016-02-03

    Adverse Events Following Immunization in Viet Nam in 2013 led to substantial reductions in hepatitis B vaccination coverage (both the birth dose and the three-dose series). In order to estimate the impact of the reduction in vaccination coverage on hepatitis B transmission and future mortality, a widely-used mathematical model was applied to the data from Viet Nam. Using the model, we estimated the number of chronic infections and deaths that are expected to occur in the birth cohort in 2013 and the number of excessive infections and deaths attributable to the drop in immunization coverage in 2013. An excess of 90,137 chronic infections and 17,456 future deaths were estimated to occur in the 2013 birth cohort due to the drop in vaccination coverage. This analysis highlights the importance of maintaining high vaccination coverage and swiftly responding to reported Adverse Events Following Immunization in order to regain consumer confidence in the hepatitis B vaccine.

  2. Climate change impact on freshwater resources in a deltaic environment: A groundwater modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matiatos, Ioannis; Alexopoulos, John D.; Panagopoulos, Andreas; Nastos, Panagiotis T.; Kotsopoulos, Spyros; Ghionis, George; Poulos, Serafim

    2016-04-01

    Climate change is expected to affect the hydrological cycle, altering seawater level and groundwater recharge to coastal aquifers with various other associated impacts on natural ecosystems and human activities. As the sustainable use of groundwater resources is a great challenge for many countries in the world, groundwater modeling has become a very useful and well established tool for studying groundwater management problems. This study investigates the impacts of climate change on the groundwater of the deltaic plain of River Pinios (Central Greece). Geophysical data processing indicates that the phreatic aquifer extends mainly in the central and northern parts of the region. A one-layer transient groundwater flow and contaminant mass transport model of the aquifer system is calibrated and validated. Impacts of climate change were evaluated by incorporating the estimated recharge input and sea level change of different future scenarios within the simulation models. The most noticeable and consistent result of the climate change impact simulations is a prominent sea water intrusion in the coastal aquifer mainly as a result of sea level change which underlines the need for a more effective planning of environmental measures.

  3. Groundwater quality and its health impact: An assessment of dental fluorosis in rural inhabitants of the Main Ethiopian Rift.

    PubMed

    Rango, Tewodros; Kravchenko, Julia; Atlaw, Behailu; McCornick, Peter G; Jeuland, Marc; Merola, Brittany; Vengosh, Avner

    2012-08-01

    This study aims to assess the link between fluoride content in groundwater and its impact on dental health in rural communities of the Ethiopian Rift. A total of 148 water samples were collected from two drainage basins within the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER). In the Ziway-Shala basin in particular, wells had high fluoride levels (mean: 9.4±10.5mg/L; range: 1.1 to 68 mg/L), with 48 of 50 exceeding the WHO drinking water guideline limit of 1.5mg/L. Total average daily intake of fluoride from drinking groundwater (calculated per weight unit) was also found to be six times higher than the No-Observed-Adverse-Effects-Level (NOAEL) value of 0.06 mg/kg/day. The highest fluoride levels were found in highly-alkaline (pH of 7 to 8.9) groundwater characterized by high salinity; high concentrations of sodium (Na⁺), bicarbonate (HCO₃⁻), and silica (SiO₂); and low concentrations of calcium (Ca²⁺). A progressive Ca²⁺ decrease along the groundwater flow path is associated with an increase of fluoride in the groundwater. The groundwater quality problem is also coupled with the presence of other toxic elements, such as arsenic (As) and uranium (U). The health impact of fluoride was evaluated based on clinical examination of dental fluorosis (DF) among local residents using the Thylstrup and Fejerskov index (TFI). In total, 200 rural inhabitants between the ages of 7 and 40 years old using water from 12 wells of fluoride range of 7.8-18 mg/L were examined. Signs of DF (TF score of ≥ 1) were observed in all individuals. Most of the teeth (52%) recorded TF scores of 5 and 6, followed by TF scores of 3 and 4 (30%), and 8.4% had TF scores of 7 or higher. Sixty percent of the teeth exhibited loss of the outermost enamel. Within the range of fluoride contents, we did not find any correlation between fluoride content and DF. Finally, preliminary data suggest that milk intake has contributed to reducing the severity of DF. The study highlights the apparent positive role of

  4. Projected impacts of climate change on farmers' extraction of groundwater from crystalline aquifers in South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrant, Sylvain; Caballero, Yvan; Perrin, Jérome; Gascoin, Simon; Dewandel, Benoit; Aulong, Stéphanie; Dazin, Fabrice; Ahmed, Shakeel; Maréchal, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Local groundwater levels in South India are falling alarmingly. In the semi-arid crystalline Deccan plateau area, agricultural production relies on groundwater resources. Downscaled Global Climate Model (GCM) data are used to force a spatially distributed agro-hydrological model in order to evaluate Climate Change (CC) effects on local groundwater extraction (GWE). The slight increase of precipitation may alleviate current groundwater depletion on average, despite the increased evaporation due to warming. Nevertheless, projected climatic extremes create worse GWE shortages than for present climate. Local conditions may lead to opposing impacts on GWE, from increases to decreases (+/-20 mm/year), for a given spatially homogeneous CC forcing. Areas vulnerable to CC in terms of irrigation apportionment are thus identified. Our results emphasize the importance of accounting for local characteristics (water harvesting systems and maximal aquifer capacity versus GWE) in developing measures to cope with CC impacts in the South Indian region.

  5. Projected impacts of climate change on farmers' extraction of groundwater from crystalline aquifers in South India

    PubMed Central

    Ferrant, Sylvain; Caballero, Yvan; Perrin, Jérome; Gascoin, Simon; Dewandel, Benoit; Aulong, Stéphanie; Dazin, Fabrice; Ahmed, Shakeel; Maréchal, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Local groundwater levels in South India are falling alarmingly. In the semi-arid crystalline Deccan plateau area, agricultural production relies on groundwater resources. Downscaled Global Climate Model (GCM) data are used to force a spatially distributed agro-hydrological model in order to evaluate Climate Change (CC) effects on local groundwater extraction (GWE). The slight increase of precipitation may alleviate current groundwater depletion on average, despite the increased evaporation due to warming. Nevertheless, projected climatic extremes create worse GWE shortages than for present climate. Local conditions may lead to opposing impacts on GWE, from increases to decreases (+/−20 mm/year), for a given spatially homogeneous CC forcing. Areas vulnerable to CC in terms of irrigation apportionment are thus identified. Our results emphasize the importance of accounting for local characteristics (water harvesting systems and maximal aquifer capacity versus GWE) in developing measures to cope with CC impacts in the South Indian region. PMID:24424295

  6. Fluorides in groundwater and its impact on health.

    PubMed

    Shailaja, K; Johnson, Mary Esther Cynthia

    2007-04-01

    Fluoride is a naturally occurring toxic mineral present in drinking water and causes yellowing of teeth, tooth problems etc. Fluorspar, Cryolite and Fluorapatite are the naturally occurring minerals, from which fluoride finds its path to groundwater through infiltration. In the present study two groundwater samples, Station I and Station II at Hyderabad megacity, the capital of Andhra Pradesh were investigated for one year from January 2001 to December 2001. The average fluoride values were 1.37 mg/l at Station I and 0.91 mg/l at Station II. The permissible limit given by BIS (1983) 0.6-1.2 mg/l and WHO (1984) 1.5 mg/l for fluoride in drinking water. The groundwaters at Station I exceeded the limit while at Station II it was within the limits. The study indicated that fluoride content of 0.5 mg/l is sufficient to cause yellowing of teeth and dental problems.

  7. Geo - hydrological investigations and impact of water harvesting structures on groundwater potential in Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Suryanarayana, K V; Krishnaiah, S; Khokalay, Murthy Rao V

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, the data pertaining to the rainfall, its departure from normal, moving mean rainfall, depth of water levels in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, groundwater availability, groundwater utilization and impact of storage of water in large water bodies are analyzed graphically. The results indicate that the groundwater is over exploited in many places in Anantapur District (India). The groundwater levels found fluctuating, when compared the observations in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Hence, it is concluded that the construction of water harvesting structures at suitable locations will have a definite impact on the groundwater potential in Anantapur District.

  8. Mother-offspring dialogue in early pregnancy: impact of adverse environment on pregnancy maintenance and neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Alison J

    2011-07-01

    The mother-offspring dialogue begins even before implantation and is essential to signal pregnancy, establish robust contact, and maintain embryo growth and development. Any circumstance that disrupts the dialogue risks pregnancy problems. A new look at how stress impacts on pregnancy involves its adverse effects on the key pregnancy hormones of progesterone and prolactin. These effects have far-reaching consequences on pregnancy maintenance, maternal anxiety and embryo programming. This review focuses on early pregnancy and how stress might compromise the multi-layer, two-way communication between mother and embryo.

  9. Estimation of impacts on groundwater quality in an urban area of Ljubljana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janža, Mitja; Prestor, Joerg; Pestotnik, Simona; Jamnik, Brigita

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater is a major source of drinking water supply in many cities worldwide. It is relatively stable and better-protected water resource compared to surface water and will have a vital role in assuring water-supply security in the future. In urbanized catchments numerous human activities (e.g. settling, industry, traffic, agriculture) take place which pose a threat to groundwater quality. For sustainable management of urban groundwater resources an integrated and adaptive approach based on continuous monitoring supported by modeling is needed. The aim of presented study was to develop a model of environmental pressures and impacts on Ljubljansko polje aquifer which is the main source exploited for the public drinking water supply of the city of Ljubljana. It is based on estimation of contaminants emissions from different sources, coupled with numerical transport modelling which is used to assess the impact on groundwater quality. The model was built up on detailed analysis of nitrogen mass balance and validated with monitoring data - concentration measurements of relevant chemical parameters. Based on the model simulations impacts of different sources of pollution on groundwater quality was estimated and priority of measures for improvement of chemical status of groundwater was defined.

  10. Impact of peatland drainage and restoration on esker groundwater resources: modeling future scenarios for management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Pekka M.; Ala-aho, Pertti; Doherty, John; Kløve, Bjørn

    2014-08-01

    Esker aquifers are common groundwater bodies in Europe. Management of these aquifers should take account of the sustainability of groundwater-dependent ecosystems and land use in an integrated way. An unconfined esker aquifer in northern Finland was modelled with MODFLOW to determine how groundwater resources are impacted by the surrounding peatland drainage scheme and to simulate scenarios for possible drainage restoration. The impacts of groundwater abstraction and climate change were also simulated. A calibration-constrained Monte Carlo method was used to provide information on the uncertainties associated with model predictions. The results suggest that peatland drainage in the vicinity of eskers can have a significant role in lowering the water table, even though climate variability may mask these impacts. Drainage restoration by filling the ditches might have positive impacts on the aquifer water levels. Comparison of water-table changes caused by peatland drainage with the changes brought by water abstraction and climate variability helped to quantify impacts of different land-use scenarios and facilitated discussion with the local stakeholders. Based on this study, more attention should be devoted to peatland drainage schemes in integrated groundwater management of esker aquifers.

  11. Reducing the environmental impacts of reverse osmosis desalination by using brackish groundwater resources.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Ivan; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo Rodríguez

    2008-02-01

    The aim of the present work is to find out whether or not, and to what extent, the environmental impacts of reverse osmosis desalination are reduced when brackish groundwater is used instead of sea water. In order to answer this question, the Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is used, and two water production plants are compared. The brackish groundwater scenario is based on a plant located in Almería (southern Spain), while the sea water scenario is based on literature data. Four impact categories and two environmental indicators, one of them related to brine discharge, are included. The results show that the key life-cycle issue of brackish groundwater desalination is electricity consumption, and since this is substantially reduced with regard to using sea water, the life-cycle impacts are found to be almost 50% lower. An uncertainty analysis based on Monte-Carlo simulation shows that these environmental savings are significant for all impact categories. Potential local impacts provoked by brine discharge are also found to be lower, due to a reduced content of salts. It is concluded that, when and wherever possible, exploitation of brackish groundwater resources should be assigned priority to sea water resources as an input for reverse osmosis desalination, although it must be taken into account that groundwater, as opposed to sea water, is a limited resource.

  12. [Groundwater].

    PubMed

    González De Posada, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    From the perspective of Hydrogeology, the concept and an introductory general typology of groundwater are established. From the perspective of Geotechnical Engineering works, the physical and mathematical equations of the hydraulics of permeable materials, which are implemented, by electric analogical simulation, to two unique cases of global importance, are considered: the bailing during the construction of the dry dock of the "new shipyard of the Bahia de Cádiz" and the waterproofing of the "Hatillo dam" in the Dominican Republic. From a physical fundamental perspective, the theories which are the subset of "analogical physical theories of Fourier type transport" are related, among which the one constituted by the laws of Adolf Fick in physiology occupies a historic role of some relevance. And finally, as a philosophical abstraction of so much useful mathematical process, the one which is called "the Galilean principle of the mathematical design of the Nature" is dealt with.

  13. Assessing planetary and regional nitrogen boundaries related to food security and adverse environmental impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, Wim; Kros, Hans; Kroeze, Carolien; Seitzinger, Sybil

    2014-05-01

    In this presentation, we first discuss the concept of -, governance interest in- and criticism on planetary boundaries, specifically with respect to the nitrogen (N) cycle. We then systematically evaluate the criticism and argue that planetary N boundaries need to include both the benefits and adverse impacts of reactive N (Nr) and the spatial variability of Nr impacts, in terms of shortage and surplus, being main arguments for not deriving such boundaries. Next, we present an holistic approach for an updated planetary N boundary by considering the need to: (i) avoid adverse impacts of elevated Nr emissions to water, air and soils, and (ii) feed the world population in an adequate way. The derivation of a planetary N boundary, in terms of anthropogenic fixation of di-nitrogen (N2) by growing legumes and production of N fertilizer, is illustrated by (i) identification of multiple threat N indicators and setting critical limits for them, (ii) back calculating critical N losses from critical limits for N indicators, while accounting for the spatial variability of indicators and their exceedance and (iii) back calculating critical N fixation rates from critical N losses. The derivation of the needed planetary N fixation is assessed from the global population, the recommended dietary N consumption per capita and the N use efficiency in the complete chain from N fixation to N consumption. Results of example applications show that the previously suggested planetary N boundary of 25% of the current value is too low in view of needed N fixation and also unnecessary in view of most environmental impacts. We also illustrate the impacts of changes in the N use efficiency on planetary boundaries in terms of critical N fixation rates.

  14. Adverse reaction to irrigation with povidone-iodine after deep-impacted, lower third molar extraction.

    PubMed

    Sammartino, G; Tia, M; Tete, S; Perillo, L; Trosino, O

    2012-01-01

    Povidone-iodine is most commonly used worldwide because of its germicidal activity, relatively low irritancy or toxicity and low cost. Frequently, povidone-iodine is used as a topical antiseptic for treating and preventing wound infection. In rare cases skin irritation or iododerma-like eruption could represent possible adverse effects due to the oxidative effects of iodine and allergic hypersensitivity reaction. In this report we describe a case of a massive adverse reaction to the irrigation of surgical wound dehiscence with 10 percent povidone-iodine solution after deep-impacted, lower third molar extraction. This reaction was related to a central neurotrophic reflex involving three trigeminal branches and probably due to peripheral chemical insult of mandible nerve. This adverse reaction determined a severe edema and diffuse skin lesions, involving the whole left side of the face mimicking an iododerma-like eruption. These violent symptoms were solved after 60 days. Furthermore, we report a small permanent skin scar in the zygomatic area and transient alterations of facial sensitivity on the affected side which completely disappeared in 6 months.

  15. Impact of Groundwater Flow and Energy Load on Multiple Borehole Heat Exchangers.

    PubMed

    Dehkordi, S Emad; Schincariol, Robert A; Olofsson, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The effect of array configuration, that is, number, layout, and spacing, on the performance of multiple borehole heat exchangers (BHEs) is generally known under the assumption of fully conductive transport. The effect of groundwater flow on BHE performance is also well established, but most commonly for single BHEs. In multiple-BHE systems the effect of groundwater advection can be more complicated due to the induced thermal interference between the boreholes. To ascertain the influence of groundwater flow and borehole arrangement, this study investigates single- and multi-BHE systems of various configurations. Moreover, the influence of energy load balance is also examined. The results from corresponding cases with and without groundwater flow as well as balanced and unbalanced energy loads are cross-compared. The groundwater flux value, 10(-7) m/s, is chosen based on the findings of previous studies on groundwater flow interaction with BHEs and thermal response tests. It is observed that multi-BHE systems with balanced loads are less sensitive to array configuration attributes and groundwater flow, in the long-term. Conversely, multi-BHE systems with unbalanced loads are influenced by borehole array configuration as well as groundwater flow; these effects become more pronounced with time, unlike when the load is balanced. Groundwater flow has more influence on stabilizing loop temperatures, compared to array characteristics. Although borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) systems have a balanced energy load function, preliminary investigation on their efficiency shows a negative impact by groundwater which is due to their dependency on high temperature gradients between the boreholes and surroundings.

  16. Scenario modelling of drainage impact of a groundwater-dependent heath ecosystem, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batelaan, Okke; El-Rawy, Mustafa; Schneidewind, Uwe; De Becker, Piet

    2013-04-01

    Groundwater dependent heathlands are valuable ecosystems in need of protection (Habitats Directive, 92/43/EEC). Over the last 15 years the groundwater table below a military area near Houthalen-Helchteren in the North-East of Belgium has been lowered by a network of drainage ditches to improve on-site military operability and to intensify nearby agriculture. Dewatering has lead to a gradual deterioration of the local NATURA 2000 ecosystem that includes wet and dry heathlands, transition mires and depression bogs. The studied area is located on the Campine Plateau about 70-80 m above sea level and covers an area of roughly 2200 ha. The local unconfined aquifer has a thickness of about 200 m and consists of several layers of Quaternary and Tertiary sands and fine gravels and occasional local clay lenses. To analyze the impact of the presence of the system of drainage ditches on the groundwater table, percentage of time of open water in the area, and occurrence of valuable ecosystems a multi-layer transient (1990-2010) groundwater model and coupled simple vegetation prediction model has been set-up. The MODFLOW 2005 groundwater model combined geological and hydrogeological data from regional groundwater models with local time-series of water level observations, groundwater abstraction data and monthly recharge estimates from the WetSpass model. Satisfying model calibration was achieved using UCODE-2005 and the Double Constrained Method. Simulated time series maps of the groundwater table were used to calculated for depressions the percentage of time that open water was present. The time series were also summarized in indicator maps as 'average groundwater level', 'average spring groundwater level', 'average highest groundwater level' and 'average lowest groundwater level', the last one was used to drive a decision rule for the occurrence 4 different habitat types. 19 scenarios considering varying options for adjustment of the drainage network were simulated and

  17. Impact of Water Withdrawals from Groundwater and Surface Water on Continental Water Storage Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doell, Petra; Hoffmann-Dobrev, Heike; Portmann, Felix T.; Siebert, Stefan; Eicker, Annette; Rodell, Matthew; Strassberg, Gil

    2011-01-01

    Humans have strongly impacted the global water cycle, not only water flows but also water storage. We have performed a first global-scale analysis of the impact of water withdrawals on water storage variations, using the global water resources and use model WaterGAP. This required estimation of fractions of total water withdrawals from groundwater, considering five water use sectors. According to our assessment, the source of 35% of the water withdrawn worldwide (4300 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002) is groundwater. Groundwater contributes 42%, 36% and 27% of water used for irrigation, households and manufacturing, respectively, while we assume that only surface water is used for livestock and for cooling of thermal power plants. Consumptive water use was 1400 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002. It is the sum of the net abstraction of 250 cubic km/yr of groundwater (taking into account evapotranspiration and return flows of withdrawn surface water and groundwater) and the net abstraction of 1150 km3/yr of surface water. Computed net abstractions indicate, for the first time at the global scale, where and when human water withdrawals decrease or increase groundwater or surface water storage. In regions with extensive surface water irrigation, such as Southern China, net abstractions from groundwater are negative, i.e. groundwater is recharged by irrigation. The opposite is true for areas dominated by groundwater irrigation, such as in the High Plains aquifer of the central USA, where net abstraction of surface water is negative because return flow of withdrawn groundwater recharges the surface water compartments. In intensively irrigated areas, the amplitude of seasonal total water storage variations is generally increased due to human water use; however, in some areas, it is decreased. For the High Plains aquifer and the whole Mississippi basin, modeled groundwater and total water storage variations were compared with estimates of groundwater storage variations based on

  18. Annual Research Review: Positive adjustment to adversity -Trajectories of minimal-impact resilience and emergent resilience

    PubMed Central

    Bonanno, George A.; Diminich, Erica D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Research on resilience in the aftermath of potentially traumatic life events is still evolving. For decades researchers have documented resilience in children exposed to corrosive early environments, such as poverty or chronic maltreatment. Relatively more recently the study of resilience has migrated to the investigation of isolated and potentially traumatic life events (PTE) in adults. Methods In this article we first consider some of the key differences in the conceptualization of resilience following chronic adversity versus resilience following single-incident traumas, and then describe some of the misunderstandings that have developed about these constructs. To organize our discussion we introduce the terms emergent resilience and minimal-impact resilience to represent trajectories positive adjustment in these two domains, respectively. Results We focused in particular on minimal-impact resilience, and reviewed recent advances in statistical modeling of latent trajectories that have informed the most recent research on minimal-impact resilience in both children and adults and the variables that predict it, including demographic variables, exposure, past and current stressors, resources, personality, positive emotion, coping and appraisal, and flexibility in coping and emotion regulation. Conclusions The research on minimal impact resilience is nascent. Further research is warranted with implications for a multiple levels of analysis approach to elucidate the processes that may mitigate or modify the impact of a PTE at different developmental stages. PMID:23215790

  19. Impact of Water Resorts Development along Laguna de Bay on Groundwater Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jago-on, K. A. B.; Reyes, Y. K.; Siringan, F. P.; Lloren, R. B.; Balangue, M. I. R. D.; Pena, M. A. Z.; Taniguchi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid urbanization and land use changes in areas along Laguna de Bay, one of the largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia, have resulted in increased economic activities and demand for groundwater resources from households, commerce and industries. One significant activity that can affect groundwater is the development of the water resorts industry, which includes hot springs spas. This study aims to determine the impact of the proliferation of these water resorts in Calamba and Los Banos, urban areas located at the southern coast of the lake on the groundwater as a resource. Calamba, being the "Hot Spring Capital of the Philippines", presently has more than 300 resorts, while Los Banos has at least 38 resorts. Results from an initial survey of resorts show that the swimming pools are drained/ changed on an average of 2-3 times a week or even daily during peak periods of tourist arrivals. This indicates a large demand on the groundwater. Monitoring of actual groundwater extraction is a challenge however, as most of these resorts operate without water use permits. The unrestrained exploitation of groundwater has resulted to drying up of older wells and decrease in hot spring water temperature. It is necessary to strengthen implementation of laws and policies, and enhance partnerships among government, private sector groups, civil society and communities to promote groundwater sustainability.

  20. Hydrogeochemical signatures and evolution of groundwater impacted by the Bayan Obo tailing pond in northwest China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiang; Deng, Hailin; Zheng, Chunmiao; Cao, Guoliang

    2016-02-01

    Uncontrolled leakage from mine tailing ponds can pose a serious environmental threat. Groundwater quality in a semi-arid region with extensive worries about the leakage from one of world's largest tailing ponds is studied herein through an integrated hydrogeochemical analysis and multivariate statistical analysis. Results show that elevated concentrations of NO2(-), B, Mn, NH4(+), F(-), and SO4(2-) in groundwater were probably caused by leakage from the tailing pond and transported with the regional groundwater flow towards downstream Yellow River. While NO2(-) contamination is only limited to areas close to the pond, high B concentrations persist within the contaminated plume originating from the tailing pond. Our current study shows that there is no geochemical evidence for U and Th contamination in groundwater due to leakage from the Bayan Obo tailing pond. Combining effects which includes regional variations, pond leaking and downstream mixing, mineral precipitation and dissolution, redox processes, ion exchange processes and agricultural activities, controlled groundwater hydrogeochemical signatures in the studied area. This study demonstrate that an increase in knowledge of evolution of groundwater quality by integrating field hydrochemical data and multivariate statistical analysis will help understand major water-rock interactions and provide a scientific basis for protection and rational utilization of groundwater resources in this and other tailing-impacted areas.

  1. Cognitive predictors and age-based adverse impact among business executives.

    PubMed

    Klein, Rachael M; Dilchert, Stephan; Ones, Deniz S; Dages, Kelly D

    2015-09-01

    Age differences on measures of general mental ability and specific cognitive abilities were examined in 2 samples of job applicants to executive positions as well as a mix of executive/nonexecutive positions to determine which predictors might lead to age-based adverse impact in making selection and advancement decisions. Generalizability of the pattern of findings was also investigated in 2 samples from the general adult population. Age was negatively related to general mental ability, with older executives scoring lower than younger executives. For specific ability components, the direction and magnitude of age differences depended on the specific ability in question. Older executives scored higher on verbal ability, a measure most often associated with crystallized intelligence. This finding generalized across samples examined in this study. Also, consistent with findings that fluid abilities decline with age, older executives scored somewhat lower on figural reasoning than younger executives, and much lower on a letter series test of inductive reasoning. Other measures of inductive reasoning, such as Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, also showed similar age group mean differences across settings. Implications for employee selection and adverse impact on older job candidates are discussed.

  2. Defining "adverse environmental impact" and making paragraph 316(b) decisions: a fisheries management approach.

    PubMed

    Bailey, David E; Bulleit, Kristy A N

    2002-05-17

    The electric utility industry has developed an approach for decisionmaking that includes a definition of Adverse Environmental Impact (AEI) and an implementation process. The definition of AEI is based on lessons from fishery management science and analysis of the statutory term "adverse environmental impact" and is consistent with current natural resource management policy. The industry has proposed a definition focusing on "unacceptable risk to the population"s ability to sustain itself, to support reasonably anticipated commercial or recreational harvests, or to perform its normal ecological function." This definition focuses not on counting individual fish or eggs cropped by the various uses of a water body, but on preserving populations of aquatic organisms and their functions in the aquatic community. The definition recognizes that assessment of AEI should be site-specific and requires both a biological decision and a balancing of diverse societal values. The industry believes that the definition of AEI should be implemented in a process that will maximize the overall societal benefit of the paragraph 316(b) decision by considering the facility"s physical location, design, and operation, as well as the local biology. The approach considers effects on affected fish and shellfish populations and the benefits of any necessary best technology available (BTA) alternatives. This is accomplished through consideration of population impacts, which conversely allows consideration of the benefits of any necessary BTA modifications. This in turn allows selection of BTAs that will protect potentially affected populations in a cost-effective manner. The process also employs risk assessment with stakeholder participation, in accordance with EPA's Guidelines for Ecological Risk Assessment. The information and tools are now available to make informed decisions about site-specific impacts that will ensure protection of aquatic ecosystems and best serve the public interest.

  3. Key Factors for Determining Risk of Groundwater Impacts Due to Leakage from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Susan; Keating, Elizabeth; Mansoor, Kayyum; Dai, Zhenue; Sun, Yunwei; Trainor-Guitton, Whitney; Brown, Chris; Bacon, Diana

    2014-01-06

    The National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) is developing a science-based toolset for the analysis of potential impacts to groundwater chemistry from CO2 injection (www.netldoe.gov/nrap). The toolset adopts a stochastic approach in which predictions address uncertainties in shallow underwater and leakage scenarios. It is derived from detailed physics and chemistry simulation results that are used to train more computationally efficient models,l referred to here as reduced-order models (ROMs), for each component system. In particular, these tools can be used to help regulators and operators understand the expected sizes and longevity of plumes in pH, TDS, and dissolved metals that could result from a leakage of brine and/or CO2 from a storage reservoir into aquifers. This information can inform, for example, decisions on monitoring strategies that are both effective and efficient. We have used this approach to develop predictive reduced-order models for two common types of reservoirs, but the approach could be used to develop a model for a specific aquifer or other common types of aquifers. In this paper we describe potential impacts to groundwater quality due to CO2 and brine leakage, discuss an approach to calculate thresholds under which "no impact" to groundwater occurs, describe the time scale for impact on groundwater, and discuss the probability of detecting a groundwater plume should leakage occur.

  4. Plant transpiration and groundwater dynamics in water-limited climates: Impacts of hydraulic redistribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiangyu; Liang, Xu; Lin, Jeen-Shang

    2016-06-01

    The role of groundwater in sustaining plant transpiration constitutes an important but not well-understood aspect of the interactions between groundwater, vegetation, the land surface, and the atmosphere. The effect of the hydraulic redistribution (HR) process by plant roots on the interplay between plant transpiration and groundwater dynamics under water-limited climates is investigated by using the Variable Infiltration Capacity Plus (VIC+) land surface model. Numerical experiments, with or without explicitly considering HR, are conducted on soil columns over a range of groundwater table depths (GWTDs) under different vegetative land covers, soil types, and precipitation conditions. When HR is not included, this study obtains transpiration-GWTD relationships consistent with those from watershed studies that do not include HR. When HR is included, the transpiration-GWTD relationships are modified. The modification introduced by HR is manifested in the soil moisture of the root zone. The mechanism of HR is explained by detailing the roles of the hydraulically redistributed water, the upward diffusion of soil water, and the daytime root uptake. We have found that HR is particularly important in water-limited climates under which plants have high transpiration demand. At the beginning stage of a dry period, HR modulates the severe impacts that climate has on plant transpiration. Only after a prolonged dry period, impacts of HR are lessened when the groundwater table drops below the depth of water uptake by roots and are diminished when plant transpiration is decoupled from groundwater dynamics.

  5. Modeling the impacts of dryland agricultural reclamation on groundwater resources in Northern Egypt using sparse data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switzman, Harris; Coulibaly, Paulin; Adeel, Zafar

    2015-01-01

    Demand for freshwater in many dryland environments is exerting negative impacts on the quality and availability of groundwater resources, particularly in areas where demand is high due to irrigation or industrial water requirements to support dryland agricultural reclamation. Often however, information available to diagnose the drivers of groundwater degradation and assess management options through modeling is sparse, particularly in low and middle-income countries. This study presents an approach for generating transient groundwater model inputs to assess the long-term impacts of dryland agricultural land reclamation on groundwater resources in a highly data-sparse context. The approach was applied to the area of Wadi El Natrun in Northern Egypt, where dryland reclamation and the associated water use has been aggressive since the 1960s. Statistical distributions of water use information were constructed from a variety of sparse field and literature estimates and then combined with remote sensing data in spatio-temporal infilling model to produce the groundwater model inputs of well-pumping and surface recharge. An ensemble of groundwater model inputs were generated and used in a 3D groundwater flow (MODFLOW) of Wadi El Natrun's multi-layer aquifer system to analyze trends in water levels and water budgets over time. Validation of results against monitoring records, and model performance statistics demonstrated that despite the extremely sparse data, the approach used in this study was capable of simulating the cumulative impacts of agricultural land reclamation reasonably well. The uncertainty associated with the groundwater model itself was greater than that associated with the ensemble of well-pumping and surface recharge estimates. Water budget analysis of the groundwater model output revealed that groundwater recharge has not changed significantly over time, while pumping has. As a result of these trends, groundwater was estimated to be in a deficit of

  6. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 216-S-26 Crib, 200 West Area

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, J.W.; Evelo, S.D.; Alexander, D.J.

    1993-11-01

    This report assesses the impact of wastewater discharged to the 216-S-26 Crib on groundwater quality. The 216-S-26 Crib, located in the southern 200 West Area, has been in use since 1984 to dispose of liquid effluents from the 222-S Laboratory Complex. The 222-S Laboratory Complex effluent stream includes wastewater from four sources: the 222-S Laboratory, the 219-S Waste Storage Facility, the 222-SA Chemical Standards Laboratory, and the 291-S Exhaust Fan Control House and Stack. Based on assessment of groundwater chemistry and flow data, contaminant transport predictions, and groundwater chemistry data, the 216-S-26 Crib has minimal influence on groundwater contamination in the southern 200 West Area.

  7. Potential approaches to the management of third-party impacts from groundwater transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skurray, James H.; Pannell, David J.

    2012-08-01

    Groundwater extraction can have varied and diffuse effects. Negative external effects may include costs imposed on other groundwater users and on surrounding ecosystems. Environmental damages are commonly not reflected in market transactions. Groundwater transfers have the potential to cause spatial redistribution, concentration, and qualitative transformation of the impacts from pumping. An economically and environmentally sound groundwater transfer scheme would ensure that marginal costs from trades do not exceed marginal benefits, accounting for all third-party impacts, including those of a non-monetary nature as well as delayed effects. This paper proposes a menu of possible management strategies that would help preclude unacceptable impacts by restricting transfers with certain attributes, ideally ensuring that permitted transfers are at least welfare-neutral. Management tools would require that transfers limit or reduce environmental impacts, and provide for the compensation of financial impacts. Three management tools are described. While these tools can limit impacts from a given level of extraction, they cannot substitute for sustainable overall withdrawal limits. Careful implementation of transfer limits and exchange rates, and the strategic use of management area boundaries, may enable a transfer system to restrict negative externalities mainly to monetary costs. Provision for compensation of these costs could be built into the system.

  8. Impacts on groundwater due to land application of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, A.J.

    1984-06-01

    The project was designed to demonstrate the potential benefits of utilizing sewage sludge as a soil conditioner and fertilizer on Sassafras sandy loam soil. Aerobically digested, liquid sewage sludge was applied to the soil at rates of 0, 22.4, and 44.8 Mg of dry solids/ha for three consecutive years between 1978 and 1981. Groundwater, soil, and crop contamination levels were monitored to establish the maximum sewage solids loading rate that could be applied without causing environmental deterioration. The results indicate that application of 22.4 Mg of dry solids/ha of sludge is the upper limit to ensure protection of the groundwater quality on the site studied. Application rates at or slightly below 22.4 Mg of dry solids/ha are sufficient for providing plant nutrients for the dent corn and rye cropping system utilized in the study.

  9. Beneath the surface of global change: Impacts of climate change on groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Timothy R.; Taniguchi, Makoto; Kooi, Henk; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Hiscock, Kevin M.; Treidel, Holger; Aureli, Alice

    2011-08-01

    SummaryGlobal change encompasses changes in the characteristics of inter-related climate variables in space and time, and derived changes in terrestrial processes, including human activities that affect the environment. As such, projected global change includes groundwater systems. Here, groundwater is defined as all subsurface water including soil water, deeper vadose zone water, and unconfined and confined aquifer waters. Potential effects of climate change combined with land and water management on surface waters have been studied in some detail. Equivalent studies of groundwater systems have lagged behind these advances, but research and broader interest in projected climate effects on groundwater have been accelerating in recent years. In this paper, we provide an overview and synthesis of the key aspects of subsurface hydrology, including water quantity and quality, related to global change. Adaptation to global change must include prudent management of groundwater as a renewable, but slow-feedback resource in most cases. Groundwater storage is already over-tapped in many regions, yet available subsurface storage may be a key to meeting the combined demands of agriculture, industry, municipal and domestic water supply, and ecosystems during times of shortage. The future intensity and frequency of dry periods combined with warming trends need to be addressed in the context of groundwater resources, even though projections in space and time are fraught with uncertainty. Finally, potential impacts of groundwater on the global climate system are largely unknown. Research to improve our understanding of the joint behaviors of climate and groundwater is needed, and spin-off benefits on each discipline are likely.

  10. Impact of sample size on variation of adverse events and preventable adverse events: systematic review on epidemiology and contributing factors

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Astrid; Albers, Bernhard; Schrappe, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To perform a systematic review of the frequency of (preventable) adverse events (AE/PAE) and to analyse contributing factors, such as sample size, settings, type of events, terminology, methods of collecting data and characteristics of study populations. Review methods Search of Medline and Embase from 1995 to 2007. Included were original papers with data on the frequency of AE or PAE, explicit definition of study population and information about methods of assessment. Results were included with percentages of patients having one or more AE/PAE. Extracted data enclosed contributing factors. Data were abstracted and analysed by two researchers independently. Results 156 studies in 152 publications met our inclusion criteria. 144/156 studies reported AE, 55 PAE (43 both). Sample sizes ranged from 60 to 8 493 876 patients (median: 1361 patients). The reported results for AE varied from 0.1% to 65.4%, and for PAE from 0.1% to 33.9%. Variation clearly decreased with increasing sample size. Estimates did not differ according to setting, type of event or terminology. In studies with fewer than 1000 patients, chart review prevailed, whereas surveys with more than 100 000 patients were based mainly on administrative data. No effect of patient characteristics was found. Conclusions The funnel-shaped distribution of AE and PAE rates with sample size is a probable consequence of variation and can be taken as an indirect indicator of study validity. A contributing factor may be the method of data assessment. Further research is needed to explain the results when analysing data by types of event or terminology. PMID:20679137

  11. Groundwater salinity in a floodplain forest impacted by saltwater intrusion.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, David A; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael

    2014-11-15

    Coastal wetlands occupy a delicate position at the intersection of fresh and saline waters. Changing climate and watershed hydrology can lead to saltwater intrusion into historically freshwater systems, causing plant mortality and loss of freshwater habitat. Understanding the hydrological functioning of tidally influenced floodplain forests is essential for advancing ecosystem protection and restoration goals, however finding direct relationships between hydrological inputs and floodplain hydrology is complicated by interactions between surface water, groundwater, and atmospheric fluxes in variably saturated soils with heterogeneous vegetation and topography. Thus, an alternative method for identifying common trends and causal factors is required. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a time series dimension reduction technique, models temporal variation in observed data as linear combinations of common trends, which represent unexplained common variability, and explanatory variables. DFA was applied to model shallow groundwater salinity in the forested floodplain wetlands of the Loxahatchee River (Florida, USA), where altered watershed hydrology has led to changing hydroperiod and salinity regimes and undesired vegetative changes. Long-term, high-resolution groundwater salinity datasets revealed dynamics over seasonal and yearly time periods as well as over tidal cycles and storm events. DFA identified shared trends among salinity time series and a full dynamic factor model simulated observed series well (overall coefficient of efficiency, Ceff=0.85; 0.52≤Ceff≤0.99). A reduced multilinear model based solely on explanatory variables identified in the DFA had fair to good results (Ceff=0.58; 0.38≤Ceff≤0.75) and may be used to assess the effects of restoration and management scenarios on shallow groundwater salinity in the Loxahatchee River floodplain.

  12. Climate change impacts on the temperature and magnitude of groundwater discharge from shallow, unconfined aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurylyk, Barret L.; MacQuarrie, Kerry T.B; Voss, Clifford I.

    2014-01-01

    Cold groundwater discharge to streams and rivers can provide critical thermal refuge for threatened salmonids and other aquatic species during warm summer periods. Climate change may influence groundwater temperature and flow rates, which may in turn impact riverine ecosystems. This study evaluates the potential impact of climate change on the timing, magnitude, and temperature of groundwater discharge from small, unconfined aquifers that undergo seasonal freezing and thawing. Seven downscaled climate scenarios for 2046–2065 were utilized to drive surficial water and energy balance models (HELP3 and ForHyM2) to obtain future projections for daily ground surface temperature and groundwater recharge. These future surface conditions were then applied as boundary conditions to drive subsurface simulations of variably saturated groundwater flow and energy transport. The subsurface simulations were performed with the U.S. Geological Survey finite element model SUTRA that was recently modified to include the dynamic freeze-thaw process. The SUTRA simulations indicate a potential rise in the magnitude (up to 34%) and temperature (up to 3.6°C) of groundwater discharge to the adjacent river during the summer months due to projected increases in air temperature and precipitation. The thermal response of groundwater to climate change is shown to be strongly dependent on the aquifer dimensions. Thus, the simulations demonstrate that the thermal sensitivity of aquifers and baseflow-dominated streams to decadal climate change may be more complex than previously thought. Furthermore, the results indicate that the probability of exceeding critical temperature thresholds within groundwater-sourced thermal refugia may significantly increase under the most extreme climate scenarios.

  13. Climate change impacts on the temperature and magnitude of groundwater discharge from shallow, unconfined aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurylyk, Barret L.; MacQuarrie, Kerry T. B.; Voss, Clifford I.

    2014-04-01

    Cold groundwater discharge to streams and rivers can provide critical thermal refuge for threatened salmonids and other aquatic species during warm summer periods. Climate change may influence groundwater temperature and flow rates, which may in turn impact riverine ecosystems. This study evaluates the potential impact of climate change on the timing, magnitude, and temperature of groundwater discharge from small, unconfined aquifers that undergo seasonal freezing and thawing. Seven downscaled climate scenarios for 2046-2065 were utilized to drive surficial water and energy balance models (HELP3 and ForHyM2) to obtain future projections for daily ground surface temperature and groundwater recharge. These future surface conditions were then applied as boundary conditions to drive subsurface simulations of variably saturated groundwater flow and energy transport. The subsurface simulations were performed with the U.S. Geological Survey finite element model SUTRA that was recently modified to include the dynamic freeze-thaw process. The SUTRA simulations indicate a potential rise in the magnitude (up to 34%) and temperature (up to 3.6°C) of groundwater discharge to the adjacent river during the summer months due to projected increases in air temperature and precipitation. The thermal response of groundwater to climate change is shown to be strongly dependent on the aquifer dimensions. Thus, the simulations demonstrate that the thermal sensitivity of aquifers and baseflow-dominated streams to decadal climate change may be more complex than previously thought. Furthermore, the results indicate that the probability of exceeding critical temperature thresholds within groundwater-sourced thermal refugia may significantly increase under the most extreme climate scenarios.

  14. Comparative metagenomics reveals impact of contaminants on groundwater microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Hemme, Christopher L; Tu, Qichao; Shi, Zhou; Qin, Yujia; Gao, Weimin; Deng, Ye; Nostrand, Joy D Van; Wu, Liyou; He, Zhili; Chain, Patrick S G; Tringe, Susannah G; Fields, Matthew W; Rubin, Edward M; Tiedje, James M; Hazen, Terry C; Arkin, Adam P; Zhou, Jizhong

    2015-01-01

    To understand patterns of geochemical cycling in pristine versus contaminated groundwater ecosystems, pristine shallow groundwater (FW301) and contaminated groundwater (FW106) samples from the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Center (OR-IFRC) were sequenced and compared to each other to determine phylogenetic and metabolic difference between the communities. Proteobacteria (e.g., Burkholderia, Pseudomonas) are the most abundant lineages in the pristine community, though a significant proportion ( >55%) of the community is composed of poorly characterized low abundance (individually <1%) lineages. The phylogenetic diversity of the pristine community contributed to a broader diversity of metabolic networks than the contaminated community. In addition, the pristine community encodes redundant and mostly complete geochemical cycles distributed over multiple lineages and appears capable of a wide range of metabolic activities. In contrast, many geochemical cycles in the contaminated community appear truncated or minimized due to decreased biodiversity and dominance by Rhodanobacter populations capable of surviving the combination of stresses at the site. These results indicate that the pristine site contains more robust and encodes more functional redundancy than the stressed community, which contributes to more efficient nutrient cycling and adaptability than the stressed community.

  15. Comparative metagenomics reveals impact of contaminants on groundwater microbiomes

    SciTech Connect

    Hemme, Christopher L.; Tu, Qichao; Shi, Zhou; Qin, Yujia; Gao, Weimin; Deng, Ye; Nostrand, Joy D. Van; Wu, Liyou; He, Zhili; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Fields, Matthew W.; Rubin, Edward M.; Tiedje, James M.; Hazen, Terry C.; Arkin, Adam P.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2015-10-31

    To understand patterns of geochemical cycling in pristine versus contaminated groundwater ecosystems, pristine shallow groundwater (FW301) and contaminated groundwater (FW106) samples from the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Center (OR-IFRC) were sequenced and compared to each other to determine phylogenetic and metabolic difference between the communities. Proteobacteria (e.g., Burkholderia, Pseudomonas) are the most abundant lineages in the pristine community, though a significant proportion ( >55%) of the community is composed of poorly characterized low abundance (individually <1%) lineages. The phylogenetic diversity of the pristine community contributed to a broader diversity of metabolic networks than the contaminated community. In addition, the pristine community encodes redundant and mostly complete geochemical cycles distributed over multiple lineages and appears capable of a wide range of metabolic activities. In contrast, many geochemical cycles in the contaminated community appear truncated or minimized due to decreased biodiversity and dominance by Rhodanobacter populations capable of surviving the combination of stresses at the site. In conclusion, these results indicate that the pristine site contains more robust and encodes more functional redundancy than the stressed community, which contributes to more efficient nutrient cycling and adaptability than the stressed community.

  16. Comparative metagenomics reveals impact of contaminants on groundwater microbiomes

    PubMed Central

    Hemme, Christopher L.; Tu, Qichao; Shi, Zhou; Qin, Yujia; Gao, Weimin; Deng, Ye; Nostrand, Joy D. Van; Wu, Liyou; He, Zhili; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Fields, Matthew W.; Rubin, Edward M.; Tiedje, James M.; Hazen, Terry C.; Arkin, Adam P.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2015-01-01

    To understand patterns of geochemical cycling in pristine versus contaminated groundwater ecosystems, pristine shallow groundwater (FW301) and contaminated groundwater (FW106) samples from the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Center (OR-IFRC) were sequenced and compared to each other to determine phylogenetic and metabolic difference between the communities. Proteobacteria (e.g., Burkholderia, Pseudomonas) are the most abundant lineages in the pristine community, though a significant proportion ( >55%) of the community is composed of poorly characterized low abundance (individually <1%) lineages. The phylogenetic diversity of the pristine community contributed to a broader diversity of metabolic networks than the contaminated community. In addition, the pristine community encodes redundant and mostly complete geochemical cycles distributed over multiple lineages and appears capable of a wide range of metabolic activities. In contrast, many geochemical cycles in the contaminated community appear truncated or minimized due to decreased biodiversity and dominance by Rhodanobacter populations capable of surviving the combination of stresses at the site. These results indicate that the pristine site contains more robust and encodes more functional redundancy than the stressed community, which contributes to more efficient nutrient cycling and adaptability than the stressed community. PMID:26583008

  17. Comparative metagenomics reveals impact of contaminants on groundwater microbiomes

    DOE PAGES

    Hemme, Christopher L.; Tu, Qichao; Shi, Zhou; ...

    2015-10-31

    To understand patterns of geochemical cycling in pristine versus contaminated groundwater ecosystems, pristine shallow groundwater (FW301) and contaminated groundwater (FW106) samples from the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Center (OR-IFRC) were sequenced and compared to each other to determine phylogenetic and metabolic difference between the communities. Proteobacteria (e.g., Burkholderia, Pseudomonas) are the most abundant lineages in the pristine community, though a significant proportion ( >55%) of the community is composed of poorly characterized low abundance (individually <1%) lineages. The phylogenetic diversity of the pristine community contributed to a broader diversity of metabolic networks than the contaminated community. In addition, themore » pristine community encodes redundant and mostly complete geochemical cycles distributed over multiple lineages and appears capable of a wide range of metabolic activities. In contrast, many geochemical cycles in the contaminated community appear truncated or minimized due to decreased biodiversity and dominance by Rhodanobacter populations capable of surviving the combination of stresses at the site. In conclusion, these results indicate that the pristine site contains more robust and encodes more functional redundancy than the stressed community, which contributes to more efficient nutrient cycling and adaptability than the stressed community.« less

  18. Deterministic modelling of the cumulative impacts of underground structures on urban groundwater flow and the definition of a potential state of urban groundwater flow: example of Lyon, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attard, Guillaume; Rossier, Yvan; Winiarski, Thierry; Cuvillier, Loann; Eisenlohr, Laurent

    2016-08-01

    Underground structures have been shown to have a great influence on subsoil resources in urban aquifers. A methodology to assess the actual and the potential state of the groundwater flow in an urban area is proposed. The study develops a three-dimensional modeling approach to understand the cumulative impacts of underground infrastructures on urban groundwater flow, using a case in the city of Lyon (France). All known underground structures were integrated in the numerical model. Several simulations were run: the actual state of groundwater flow, the potential state of groundwater flow (without underground structures), an intermediate state (without impervious structures), and a transient simulation of the actual state of groundwater flow. The results show that underground structures fragment groundwater flow systems leading to a modification of the aquifer regime. For the case studied, the flow systems are shown to be stable over time with a transient simulation. Structures with drainage systems are shown to have a major impact on flow systems. The barrier effect of impervious structures was negligible because of the small hydraulic gradient of the area. The study demonstrates that the definition of a potential urban groundwater flow and the depiction of urban flow systems, which involves understanding the impact of underground structures, are important issues with respect to urban underground planning.

  19. Evaluating the human impact on groundwater quality discharging into a coastal reef lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.; Hernandez-Terrones, L.; Soto, M.; Lecossec, A.; Monroy-Rios, E.

    2008-12-01

    The Eastern coast of the Yucatan Peninsula has the fastest growth rate in Mexico and groundwater is the only source of drinking water in the region. The consequences of the lack of proper infrastructure to collect and treat wastewater and the impact of human activities on the quality of groundwater are addressed. The groundwater in the coastal aquifer of Quintana Roo (SE Mexico) discharges directly into the ocean. In addition, the coral reef of the Eastern Yucatan Peninsula is part of the Mesoamerican Coral Reef System, one of the largest in the world. The interaction of the reef-lagoon hydraulics with the coastal aquifer of Puerto Morelos (NE Yucatan Peninsula), and a major input of NH4, SO4, SiO2, as a consequence of the use of septic tanks and the lack of modern wastewater treatment plants are presented. No seasonal parameters differences were observed, suggesting that groundwater composition reaching the reef lagoon is not changing seasonally. A conceptual model of the coastal aquifer was developed, in order to explain how the human activities are impacting directly on the groundwater quality that, potentially, will have a direct impact on the coral reef. The protection and conservation of coral reefs must be directly related with a policy of sound management of coastal aquifers and wastewater treatment.

  20. Impact of river restoration on groundwater - surface water - interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurth, Anne-Marie; Schirmer, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Since the end of the 19th century, flood protection was increasingly based on the construction of impermeable dams and side walls (BWG, 2003). In spite of providing flood protection, these measures also limited the connectivity between the river and the land, restricted the area available for flooding, and hampered the natural flow dynamics of the river. Apart from the debilitating effect on riverine ecosystems due to loss of habitats, these measures also limited bank filtration, inhibited the infiltration of storm water, and affected groundwater-surface water-interactions. This in turn had a profound effect on ecosystem health, as a lack of groundwater-surface water interactions led to decreased cycling of pollutants and nutrients in the hyporheic zone and limited the moderation of the water temperature (EA, 2009). In recent decades, it has become apparent that further damages to riverine ecosystems must be prohibited, as the damages to ecology, economy and society surmount any benefits gained from exploiting them. Nowadays, the restoration of rivers is a globally accepted means to restore ecosystem functioning, protect water resources and amend flood protection (Andrea et al., 2012; Palmer et al., 2005; Wortley et al., 2013). In spite of huge efforts regarding the restoration of rivers over the last 30 years, the question of its effectiveness remains, as river restorations often reconstruct a naturally looking rather than a naturally functioning stream (EA, 2009). We therefore focussed our research on the effectiveness of river restorations, represented by the groundwater-surface water-interactions. Given a sufficiently high groundwater level, a lack of groundwater-surface water-interactions after restoration may indicate that the vertical connectivity in the stream was not fully restored. In order to investigate groundwater-surface water-interactions we determined the thermal signature on the stream bed and in +/- 40 cm depth by using Distributed Temperature

  1. The impact of adverse events on health care costs for older adults undergoing nonelective abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Jonathan G.; Davis, Philip J.B.; Levy, Adrian R.; Molinari, Michele; Johnson, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Postoperative complications have been identified as an important and potentially preventable cause of increased hospital costs. While older adults are at increased risk of experiencing complications and other adverse events, very little research has specifically examined how these events impact inpatient costs. We sought to examine the association between postoperative complications, hospital mortality and loss of independence and direct inpatient health care costs in patients 70 years or older who underwent nonelective abdominal surgery. Methods We prospectively enrolled consecutive patients 70 years or older who underwent nonelective abdominal surgery between July 1, 2011, and Sept. 30, 2012. Detailed patient-level data were collected regarding demographics, diagnosis, treatment and outcomes. Patient-level resource tracking was used to calculate direct hospital costs (2012 $CDN). We examined the association between complications, hospital mortality and loss of independence cost using multiple linear regression. Results During the study period 212 patients underwent surgery. Overall, 51.9% of patients experienced a nonfatal complication (32.5% minor and 19.4% major), 6.6% died in hospital and 22.6% experienced a loss of independence. On multivariate analysis nonfatal complications (p < 0.001), hospital mortality (p = 0.021) and loss of independence at discharge (p < 0.001) were independently associated with health care costs. These adverse events respectively accounted for 30%, 4% and 10% of the total costs of hospital care. Conclusion Adverse events were common after abdominal surgery in older adults and accounted for 44% of overall costs. This represents a substantial opportunity for better patient outcomes and cost savings with quality improvement strategies tailored to the needs of this high-risk surgical population. PMID:26999476

  2. IMPACT OF LEATHER PROCESSING INDUSTRIES ON CHROMIUM CONCENTRATION IN GROUNDWATER SOUTH OF CHENNAI CITY, INDIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elango, L.; Brindha, K.; G. Rajesh, V.

    2009-12-01

    The groundwater quality is under threat due to disposal of effluents from a number of industries. Poor practice of treatment of wastes from tanning industries or leather processing industries lead to pollution of groundwater. This study was carried out with the objective of assessing the impact of tanneries on groundwater quality in Chromepet area which is a part of the metropolitan area of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. This area serves as the home town for a number of small and large scale tanning industries. People in certain parts of this area depend on the groundwater for their domestic needs as there is no piped drinking water supply system. Topographically this region is generally flat with gentle slope towards east and north east. The charnockite rocks occur as basement at the depth of about 15m from the surface of this area. Weathered charnockite rock occurs at the depth from 7m to 15m from the ground surface. The upper layer consists of loamy soil. Groundwater occurs in the unconfined condition at a depth from 0.5m to 5m. Thirty six groundwater samples were collected during March 2008 and the groundwater samples were analysed for their heavy metal (chromium) content using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) recommended the maximum permissible limit of chromium in drinking water as 0.05 mg/l. Considering this, it was found that 86% of the groundwater samples possessed concentration of chromium above the maximum permissible limit recommended by BIS. The tanneries use chrome sulphate to strengthen the leather and make it water repellent. The excess of chromium gets washed off and remains in the wastewater. This wastewater is disposed into open uncovered drains either untreated or after partial treatment. Thus the chromium leaches through the soil and reaches the groundwater table. Apart from this, there is also huge quantity of solid waste resulting from the hides and skins which are dumped off without suitable treatment. The

  3. Pathogens in Dairy Farming: Source Characterization and Groundwater Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwill, E. R.; Watanabe, N.; Li, X.; Hou, L.; Harter, T.; Bergamaschi, B.

    2007-12-01

    Intense animal husbandry is of growing concern as a potential contamination source of enteric pathogens as well as antibiotics. To assess the public health risk from pathogens and their hydrologic pathways, we hypothesize that the animal farm is not a homogeneous diffuse source, but that pathogen loading to the soil and, therefore, to groundwater varies significantly between the various management units of a farm. A dairy farm, for example, may include an area with calf hutches, corrals for heifers of various ages, freestalls and exercise yards for milking cows, separate freestalls for dry cows, a hospital barn, a yard for collection of solid manure, a liquid manure storage lagoon, and fields receiving various amounts of liquid and solid manure. Pathogen shedding and, hence, therapeutic and preventive pharmaceutical treatments vary between these management units. We are implementing a field reconnaissance program to determine the occurrence of three different pathogens ( E. coli, Salmonella, Campylobacter) and one indicator organism ( Enterococcus) at the ground-surface and in shallow groundwater of seven different management units on each of two farms, and in each of four seasons (spring/dry season, summer/irrigation season, fall/dry season, winter/rainy season). Initial results indicate that significant differences exist in the occurrence of these pathogens between management units and between organisms. These differences are weakly reflected in their occurrence in groundwater, despite the similarity of the shallow geologic environment across these sites. Our results indicate the importance of differentiating sources within a dairy farm and the importance of understanding subsurface transport processes for these pathogens.

  4. Caregiver traumatization adversely impacts young children's mental representations on the MacArthur Story Stem Battery.

    PubMed

    Schechter, Daniel S; Zygmunt, Annette; Coates, Susan W; Davies, Mark; Trabka, Kimberly; McCaw, Jaime; Kolodji, Ann; Robinson, Joann

    2007-09-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of maternal exposure to family violence, maltreatment, and related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on young children's mental representations of self and caregivers. Participant mothers (n=24) and children (n=25) were recruited from a referred sample when they were 4-7 years old. Maternal report and child story stem narratives were used. Mother's experience of domestic violence and severity of violence-related PTSD symptoms robustly predicted more dysregulated aggression, attentional bias to danger and distress, as well as more avoidance of and withdrawal from conflicts presented in the children's story stems. Less narrative coherence was also noted. Traumatized mothers experience and symptoms prior to their child's turning 4 years old adversely affected their child's mental representations from 4-7 years.

  5. Impact of climate changes during the last 5 million years on groundwater in basement aquifers.

    PubMed

    Aquilina, Luc; Vergnaud-Ayraud, Virginie; Les Landes, Antoine Armandine; Pauwels, Hélène; Davy, Philippe; Pételet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Labasque, Thierry; Roques, Clément; Chatton, Eliot; Bour, Olivier; Ben Maamar, Sarah; Dufresne, Alexis; Khaska, Mahmoud; Le Gal La Salle, Corinne; Barbecot, Florent

    2015-09-22

    Climate change is thought to have major effects on groundwater resources. There is however a limited knowledge of the impacts of past climate changes such as warm or glacial periods on groundwater although marine or glacial fluids may have circulated in basements during these periods. Geochemical investigations of groundwater at shallow depth (80-400 m) in the Armorican basement (western France) revealed three major phases of evolution: (1) Mio-Pliocene transgressions led to marine water introduction in the whole rock porosity through density and then diffusion processes, (2) intensive and rapid recharge after the glacial maximum down to several hundred meters depths, (3) a present-day regime of groundwater circulation limited to shallow depth. This work identifies important constraints regarding the mechanisms responsible for both marine and glacial fluid migrations and their preservation within a basement. It defines the first clear time scales of these processes and thus provides a unique case for understanding the effects of climate changes on hydrogeology in basements. It reveals that glacial water is supplied in significant amounts to deep aquifers even in permafrosted zones. It also emphasizes the vulnerability of modern groundwater hydrosystems to climate change as groundwater active aquifers is restricted to shallow depths.

  6. Impacts of a large Sahelian city on groundwater hydrodynamics and quality: example of Niamey (Niger)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassane, Aïssata B.; Leduc, Christian; Favreau, Guillaume; Bekins, Barbara A.; Margueron, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The management of groundwater resources is very important in the semiarid Sahel region, which is experiencing rapid urban development. Impacts of urbanization on groundwater resources were investigated in the unconfined aquifer of the Continental Terminal beneath the city of Niamey, Niger, using water level and chemical data. Hydrodynamic and chemical changes are best described by a combination of factors including the historical development of the city, current land use, water-table depth and topography. Seasonal groundwater recharge occurs with high spatial variability, as indicated by water-level monitoring in all wells, but there was no interannual trend over the 5-year study period. Groundwater salinity shows high spatial variability and a minor rising trend. The highest salinity is in the old city centre, with Na-NO3 dominant, and it increases seasonally with recharge. Salinity is much lower and more variable in the suburbs (Ca-HCO3, Ca-NO3, and Na-NO3 dominant). Nitrate is the main ionic contaminant and is seasonally or permanently above the international guidelines for drinking water quality in 36 % of sampled wells, with a peak value of 112 mg L-1 NO3-N (8 meq L-1). Comparison of urban and rural sites indicates a long-term increase in groundwater recharge and nitrate enrichment in the urban area with serious implications for groundwater management in the region.

  7. Environmental impact of municipal dumpsite leachate on ground-water quality in Jawaharnagar, Rangareddy, Telangana, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soujanya Kamble, B.; Saxena, Praveen Raj

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the impact of dumpsite leachate on ground-water quality of Jawaharnagar village. Leachate and ground-water samples were investigated for various physico-chemical parameters viz., pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-), carbonates (CO3 2-), bicarbonates (HCO3 -), nitrates (NO3 -), and sulphates (SO4 2-) during dry and wet seasons in 2015 and were reported. The groundwater was hard to very hard in nature, and the concentrations of total dissolved solids, chlorides, and nitrates were found to be exceeding the permissible levels of WHO drinking water quality standards. Piper plots revealed that the dominant hydrochemical facies of the groundwater were of calcium chloride (CaCl2) type and alkaline earths (Ca2+ and Mg2+) exceed the alkali (Na+ and SO4 2-), while the strong acids (Cl- and SO4 2-) exceed the weak acids (CO3 2- and HCO3 -). According to USSL diagram, all the ground-water samples belong to high salinity and low-sodium type (C3S1). Overall, the ground-water samples collected around the dumpsite were found to be polluted and are unfit for human consumption but can be used for irrigation purpose with heavy drainage and irrigation patterns to control the salinity.

  8. Impact of climate changes during the last 5 million years on groundwater in basement aquifers

    PubMed Central

    Aquilina, Luc; Vergnaud-Ayraud, Virginie; Les Landes, Antoine Armandine; Pauwels, Hélène; Davy, Philippe; Pételet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Labasque, Thierry; Roques, Clément; Chatton, Eliot; Bour, Olivier; Ben Maamar, Sarah; Dufresne, Alexis; Khaska, Mahmoud; La Salle, Corinne Le Gal; Barbecot, Florent

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is thought to have major effects on groundwater resources. There is however a limited knowledge of the impacts of past climate changes such as warm or glacial periods on groundwater although marine or glacial fluids may have circulated in basements during these periods. Geochemical investigations of groundwater at shallow depth (80–400 m) in the Armorican basement (western France) revealed three major phases of evolution: (1) Mio-Pliocene transgressions led to marine water introduction in the whole rock porosity through density and then diffusion processes, (2) intensive and rapid recharge after the glacial maximum down to several hundred meters depths, (3) a present-day regime of groundwater circulation limited to shallow depth. This work identifies important constraints regarding the mechanisms responsible for both marine and glacial fluid migrations and their preservation within a basement. It defines the first clear time scales of these processes and thus provides a unique case for understanding the effects of climate changes on hydrogeology in basements. It reveals that glacial water is supplied in significant amounts to deep aquifers even in permafrosted zones. It also emphasizes the vulnerability of modern groundwater hydrosystems to climate change as groundwater active aquifers is restricted to shallow depths. PMID:26392383

  9. Impact of diffuse nitrate pollution sources on groundwater quality--some examples from Czechoslovakia.

    PubMed Central

    Benes, V; Pĕkný, V; Skorepa, J; Vrba, J

    1989-01-01

    In several regions of Czechoslovakia with intensive agricultural production, the correlation between the amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied and the nitrate content in groundwater has been recognized. Nitrate pollution of groundwater is considered to be the most serious source of nonpoint pollution in Czechoslovakia. A program of research into the effects of farming activities on groundwater quality in Czechoslovakia is under way on experimental fields (20 to 30 hectares) and, simultaneously, in regions in which shallow, vulnerable aquifers occur. The importance of the soil organic matter's stability for maintaining the groundwater quality is emphasized. Research based on nitrogen and organic carbon balance has shown that the restoration of a soil-groundwater system is a complicated process that usually requires changes in the extent and intensity of agricultural activities and consistent attention to the effects produced by natural conditions. Regional investigation of the impact of farming on shallow aquifers in the fluvial deposits of the Elbe River in Bohemia has proved the hydrochemical instability and vertical hydrochemical heterogeneity of these aquifers. The WASTEN deterministic model was used for modeling the transport and transformation of various types of inorganic fertilizers. The input data is based on laboratory and field measurements. Special topics are the verification of model calculations and the time and spatial variability of input data with respect to the unsaturated zone. The research results are being used for making regional and national agro-groundwater managerial schemes more precise, as well as for decision-making. PMID:2559844

  10. Surrogate species selection for assessing potential adverse environmental impacts of genetically engineered plants on non-target organisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most regulatory authorities require that developers of genetically engineered insect-resistant (GEIR) crops evaluate the potential for these crops to have adverse impacts on valued non-target organisms (NTOs), i.e., organisms not intended to be controlled by the trait. In many cases, impacts to NTOs...

  11. Do Verbal Interactions with Infants during Electronic Media Exposure Mitigate Adverse Impacts on Their Language Development as Toddlers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Brockmeyer, Carolyn A.; Dreyer, Benard P.; Fierman, Arthur H.; Berkule-Silberman, Samantha B.; Tomopoulos, Suzy

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether verbal interactions between mothers and their 6-month-old infants during media exposure ("media verbal interactions") might have direct positive impacts, or mitigate any potential adverse impacts of media exposure, on language development at 14 months. For 253 low-income mother-infant dyads…

  12. The Impact of an Open Loop Geothermal System with Multiple Wells on Groundwater Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susanto, S.

    2015-12-01

    As the demand of groundwater as a source of energy has increased in recent years, the Upper Carbonate Aquifer beneath the City of Winnipeg is heavily utilized for cooling and heating. Majority open loop systems discharge thermal wastewater into the aquifer and increase the groundwater temperature. A numerical model was developed to study the impact of a geothermal system with multiple wells located in the Tuxedo area on groundwater temperature. Analysis was performed using SEAWAT with GUI Visual MODFLOW. Surface elevation, model boundary and wells locations were developed using ArcGIS. The model was run in steady state flow for static water level calibration and in transient mode for calibration using data of a pumping test. Preliminary investigation with three years simulation predicts a 600 m by 660 m area of temperature increase. Groundwater temperature in production wells will increase 0.5°C within 2 years and 1°C within 3 years. Factors that influence the temperature changes and its distribution in the groundwater are production flow rate, recharge flow rate, groundwater flow, return water distribution into recharge wells, distance between production wells and recharge wells, spacing between recharge wells, and layout of geothermal pumping wells. The simulated and observed temperature increase is mainly caused by higher production rate for cooling than for heating. The result from this study will strongly contribute knowledge in the development of a 3D numerical model of the Upper Carbonate Aquifer beneath the City of Winnipeg to investigate the impact of geothermal systems to the groundwater temperature.

  13. Perched-Water Analysis Related to Deep Vadose Zone Contaminant Transport and Impact to Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Oostrom, Martinus; Truex, Michael J.; Carroll, KC; Chronister, Glen B.

    2013-11-15

    Perched-water conditions have been observed in the vadose zone above a fine-grained zone that is located just a few meters above the water table beneath the B-complex at the Hanford Site. The perched water, containing elevated concentrations of uranium and technetium-99, is important to consider in evaluating the future flux of contaminated water into the groundwater. A study was conducted to examine the perched-water conditions and quantitatively evaluate 1) factors that control perching behavior, 2) contaminant flux toward groundwater, and, 3) associated groundwater impact. Based on the current vertical transport pathways and large areal extent of the perched system, the evaluation was conducted using a one-dimensional (1-D) analysis. Steady-state scoping calculations showed that the perching-layer hydraulic conductivity is likely to be up to two orders of magnitude less than the base case value obtained from Hanford site literature. Numerical flow and transport simulations provided both steady-state and transient system estimates of water and contaminant behavior and were used to further refine the range of conditions consistent with current observations of perched water height and to provide estimates of future water and contaminant flux to groundwater. With a recharge rate of 6 cm/yr, representative of current disturbed surface conditions, contaminant flux from the perched water occurs over a time interval of tens of years. However, if the recharge rate is 0.35 cm/yr, representative of returning recharge to pre-Hanford Site levels, the contaminant flux into the groundwater is spread over hundreds of years. It was also demonstrated that removal of perched water by pumping would reduce the flux of water (and associated contaminants) to the groundwater, thereby impacting the long-term rate of contaminant movement to the groundwater.

  14. A groundwater perspective on the river basin management plan for central Portugal - developing a methodology to assess the potential impact of N fertilizers on groundwater bodies.

    PubMed

    Mendes, M P; Ribeiro, L; Nascimento, J; Condesso de Melo, T; Stigter, T Y; Buxo, A

    2012-01-01

    The Water Framework Directive establishes that the river basin management plans must have a summary of the pressures and impacts of human activities, such as agriculture, on the chemical and quantitative status of groundwater bodies. In order to identify those areas where a potential impact from agricultural activities on groundwater bodies exists, but currently lacking groundwater monitoring data, a methodology was developed that combines the use of gross nitrogen balance values with the results of a specific vulnerability assessment index. A farm management efficiency parameter is added, to identify the factors that contribute to nitrogen use efficiency and to assess the near-future scenarios. This methodology allows the identification of significant pressures that may be responsible for a groundwater body failing good status where there is no representative monitoring network.

  15. Review: Impact of underground structures on the flow of urban groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attard, Guillaume; Winiarski, Thierry; Rossier, Yvan; Eisenlohr, Laurent

    2016-02-01

    Property economics favours the vertical development of cities but flow of groundwater can be affected by the use of underground space in them. This review article presents the state of the art regarding the impact of disturbances caused by underground structures (tunnels, basements of buildings, deep foundations, etc.) on the groundwater flow in urban aquifers. The structures built in the underground levels of urban areas are presented and organised in terms of their impact on flow: obstacle to the flow or disturbance of the groundwater budget of the flow system. These two types of disturbance are described in relation to the structure area and the urban area. The work reviewed shows, on one hand, the individual impacts of different urban underground structures, and on the other, their cumulative impacts on flow, using real case studies. Lastly, the works are placed in perspective regarding the integration of underground structures with the aim of operational management of an urban aquifer. The literature presents deterministic numerical modelling as a tool capable of contributing to this aim, in that it helps to quantify the effect of an underground infrastructure project on groundwater flow, which is crucial for decision-making processes. It can also be an operational decision-aid tool for choosing construction techniques or for formulating strategies to manage the water resource.

  16. 25 CFR 170.110 - How can State and local governments prevent discrimination or adverse impacts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and adverse effects on tribes and Native American populations. (b) Examples of adverse effects include... excessive access to culturally or religiously sensitive areas; (3) Negatively affecting natural resources, trust resources, tribal businesses, religious, and cultural sites; (4) Harming indigenous plants...

  17. Anammox Coupled With Nitrification Impacts a Saline, High Ammonia Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, L. A.; Landkamer, L.; Peterson, D. M.; Metzler, D.

    2007-05-01

    High amounts of ammonia (130 to 2200 mg-N/l) in a saline environment (TDS = 10-20 g/l) are present in a groundwater plume adjacent to the Colorado River near Moab, Utah. Ammonia levels sufficient to affect aquatic life have been observed in limited sections of the river adjacent to the site, which has prompted interim treatment efforts. Microcosm studies were performed to assess the potential for microbial transformations of ammonia in the hyporheic zone sediment and the effect of ground/river-water mixing on transformations. Experiments were conducted using sub-riverbed sediment and mixtures of groundwater (290 mg-N/L ammonia) and river water (100%, 50% and 10% plume water) in anaerobic and aerobic environments. Aqueous NH4+, NO2-, NO3-, pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were monitored over 38 days. Interestingly, the ammonia concentration decreased in all microcosms (29% to 100%) with the highest removal occurring in the oxic microcosms. Total nitrogen removal ranged from 27% to 83%. Three lines of evidence suggest that anammox occurred in the anaerobic microcosms: 1) NH4+ concentrations decreased, 2) little change in DOC occurred and 3) DIC decreased. DIC should increase if denitrification were the dominant process. It is possible that small amounts of O2 diffused into the microcosms, driving some nitrification that supplied NO2- for anammox. In the aerobic microcosms, denitrification or anammox occurred in addition to nitrification because nitrate did not accumulate in general. Again, we believe anammox occurred because of DOC and DIC trends. In the aerobic 10% groundwater microcosm, NO3- accumulated once the ammonia concentration became low and the nitrate level stabilized after the ammonia was gone. This also indicated that anammox was the dominant process because denitrification should not stop due to ammonia depletion. The aerobic microcosms were only agitated twice per week, which would allow the sediments to become

  18. Selection of spatial scale for assessing impacts of groundwater-based water supply on freshwater resources.

    PubMed

    Hybel, A-M; Godskesen, B; Rygaard, M

    2015-09-01

    Indicators of the impact on freshwater resources are becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of urban water systems. To reveal the importance of spatial resolution, we investigated how the choice of catchment scale influenced the freshwater impact assessment. Two different indicators were used in this study: the Withdrawal-To-Availability ratio (WTA) and the Water Stress Index (WSI). Results were calculated for three groundwater based Danish urban water supplies (Esbjerg, Aarhus, and Copenhagen). The assessment was carried out at three spatial levels: (1) the groundwater body level, (2) the river basin level, and (3) the regional level. The assessments showed that Copenhagen's water supply had the highest impact on the freshwater resource per cubic meter of water abstracted, with a WSI of 1.75 at Level 1. The WSI values were 1.64 for Aarhus's and 0.81 for Esbjerg's water supply. Spatial resolution was identified as a major factor determining the outcome of the impact assessment. For the three case studies, WTA and WSI were 27%-583% higher at Level 1 than impacts calculated for the regional scale. The results highlight that freshwater impact assessments based on regional data, rather than sub-river basin data, may dramatically underestimate the actual impact on the water resource. Furthermore, this study discusses the strengths and shortcomings of the applied indicator approaches. A sensitivity analysis demonstrates that although WSI has the highest environmental relevance, it also has the highest uncertainty, as it requires estimations of non-measurable environmental water requirements. Hence, the development of a methodology to obtain more site-specific and relevant estimations of environmental water requirements should be prioritized. Finally, the demarcation of the groundwater resource in aquifers remains a challenge for establishing a consistent method for benchmarking freshwater impacts caused by groundwater abstraction.

  19. Analysis of the impacts of well yield and groundwater depth on irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, T.; Brozović, N.; Butler, A. P.

    2015-04-01

    Previous research has found that irrigation water demand is relatively insensitive to water price, suggesting that increased pumping costs due to declining groundwater levels will have limited effects on agricultural water management practices. However, non-linear changes in well yields as aquifer saturated thickness is reduced may have large impacts on irrigated production that are currently neglected in projections of the long-term sustainability of groundwater-fed irrigation. We conduct empirical analysis of observation data and numerical simulations for case studies in Nebraska, USA, to compare the impacts of changes in well yield and groundwater depth on agricultural production. Our findings suggest that declining well pumping capacities reduce irrigated production areas and profits significantly, whereas increased pumping costs reduce profits but have minimal impacts on the intensity of groundwater-fed irrigation. We suggest, therefore, that management of the dynamic relationship between well yield and saturated thickness should be a core component of policies designed to enhance long-term food security and support adaptation to climate change.

  20. Groundwater and surface-water interactions and impacts of human activities in the Hailiutu catchment, northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhi; Zhou, Yangxiao; Wenninger, Jochen; Uhlenbrook, Stefan; Wang, Xusheng; Wan, Li

    2017-02-01

    The interactions between groundwater and surface water have been significantly affected by human activities in the semi-arid Hailiutu catchment, northwest China. Several methods were used to investigate the spatial and temporal interactions between groundwater and surface water. Isotopic and chemical analyses of water samples determined that groundwater discharges to the Hailiutu River, and mass balance equations were employed to estimate groundwater seepage rates along the river using chemical profiles. The hydrograph separation method was used to estimate temporal variations of groundwater discharges to the river. A numerical groundwater model was constructed to simulate groundwater discharges along the river and to analyze effects of water use in the catchment. The simulated seepage rates along the river compare reasonably well with the seepage estimates derived from a chemical profile in 2012. The impacts of human activities (river-water diversion and groundwater abstraction) on the river discharge were analyzed by calculating the differences between the simulated natural groundwater discharge and the measured river discharge. Water use associated with the Hailiutu River increased from 1986 to 1991, reached its highest level from 1992 to 2000, and decreased from 2001 onwards. The reduction of river discharge might have negative impacts on the riparian ecosystem and the water availability for downstream users. The interactions between groundwater and surface water as well as the consequences of human activities should be taken into account when implementing sustainable water resources management in the Hailiutu catchment.

  1. Tetracycline residues and tetracycline resistance genes in groundwater impacted by swine production facilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mackie, R.I.; Koike, S.; Krapac, I.; Chee-Sanford, J.; Maxwell, Susan; Aminov, R.I.

    2006-01-01

    Antibiotics are used at therapeutic levels to treat disease; at slightly lower levels as prophylactics; and at low, subtherapeutic levels for growth promotion and improvement of feed efficiency. Over 88% of swine producers in the United States gave antimicrobials to grower/finisher pigs in feed as a growth promoter in 2000. It is estimated that ca. 75% of antibiotics are not absorbed by animals and are excreted in urine and feces. The extensive use of antibiotics in swine production has resulted in antibiotic resistance in many intestinal bacteria, which are also excreted in swine feces, resulting in dissemination of resistance genes into the environment.To assess the impact of manure management on groundwater quality, groundwater samples have been collected near two swine confinement facilities that use lagoons for manure storage and treatment. Several key contaminant indicators-including inorganic ions, antibiotics, and antibiotic resistance genes-were analyzed in groundwater collected from the monitoring wells. Chloride, ammonium, potassium, and sodium were predominant inorganic constituents in the manure samples and served as indicators of groundwater contamination. Based on these analyses, shallow groundwater has been impacted by lagoon seepage at both sites. Liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) was used to measure the dissolved concentrations of tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline in groundwater and manure. Although tetracyclines were regularly used at both facilities, they were infrequently detected in manure samples and then at relatively trace concentrations. Concentrations of all tetracyclines and their breakdown products in the groundwater sampled were generally less than 0.5 ??g/L.Bacterial tetracycline resistance genes served as distinct genotypic markers to indicate the dissemination and mobility of antibiotic resistance genes that originated from the lagoons. Applying PCR to genomic DNA extracted from the lagoon and

  2. The impact of on-site wastewater from high density cluster developments on groundwater quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrissey, P. J.; Johnston, P. M.; Gill, L. W.

    2015-11-01

    The net impact on groundwater quality from high density clusters of unsewered housing across a range of hydro(geo)logical settings has been assessed. Four separate cluster development sites were selected, each representative of different aquifer vulnerability categories. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis over a two year period for chemical and microbiological analysis from nested multi-horizon sampling boreholes upstream and downstream of the study sites. The field results showed no statistically significant difference between upstream and downstream water quality at any of the study areas, although there were higher breakthroughs in contaminants in the High and Extreme vulnerability sites linked to high intensity rainfall events; these however, could not be directly attributed to on-site effluent. Linked numerical models were then built for each site using HYDRUS 2D to simulate the attenuation of contaminants through the unsaturated zone from which the resulting hydraulic and contaminant fluxes at the water table were used as inputs into MODFLOW MT3D models to simulate the groundwater flows. The results of the simulations confirmed the field observations at each site, indicating that the existing clustered on-site wastewater discharges would only cause limited and very localised impacts on groundwater quality, with contaminant loads being quickly dispersed and diluted downstream due to the relatively high groundwater flow rates. Further simulations were then carried out using the calibrated models to assess the impact of increasing cluster densities revealing little impact at any of the study locations up to a density of 6 units/ha with the exception of the Extreme vulnerability site.

  3. The impact of on-site wastewater from high density cluster developments on groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, P J; Johnston, P M; Gill, L W

    2015-11-01

    The net impact on groundwater quality from high density clusters of unsewered housing across a range of hydro(geo)logical settings has been assessed. Four separate cluster development sites were selected, each representative of different aquifer vulnerability categories. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis over a two year period for chemical and microbiological analysis from nested multi-horizon sampling boreholes upstream and downstream of the study sites. The field results showed no statistically significant difference between upstream and downstream water quality at any of the study areas, although there were higher breakthroughs in contaminants in the High and Extreme vulnerability sites linked to high intensity rainfall events; these however, could not be directly attributed to on-site effluent. Linked numerical models were then built for each site using HYDRUS 2D to simulate the attenuation of contaminants through the unsaturated zone from which the resulting hydraulic and contaminant fluxes at the water table were used as inputs into MODFLOW MT3D models to simulate the groundwater flows. The results of the simulations confirmed the field observations at each site, indicating that the existing clustered on-site wastewater discharges would only cause limited and very localised impacts on groundwater quality, with contaminant loads being quickly dispersed and diluted downstream due to the relatively high groundwater flow rates. Further simulations were then carried out using the calibrated models to assess the impact of increasing cluster densities revealing little impact at any of the study locations up to a density of 6 units/ha with the exception of the Extreme vulnerability site.

  4. Impacts of human activity modes and climate on heavy metal "spread" in groundwater are biased.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Qin, Xiaosheng; Zeng, Guangming; Li, Jian

    2016-06-01

    Groundwater quality deterioration has attracted world-wide concerns due to its importance for human water supply. Although more and more studies have shown that human activities and climate are changing the groundwater status, an investigation on how different groundwater heavy metals respond to human activity modes (e.g. mining, waste disposal, agriculture, sewage effluent and complex activity) in a varying climate has been lacking. Here, for each of six heavy metals (i.e. Fe, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cd and Cu) in groundwater, we use >330 data points together with mixed-effect models to indicate that (i) human activity modes significantly influence the Cu and Mn but not Zn, Fe, Pb and Cd levels, and (ii) annual mean temperature (AMT) only significantly influences Cu and Pb levels, while annual precipitation (AP) only significantly affects Fe, Cu and Mn levels. Given these differences, we suggest that the impacts of human activity modes and climate on heavy metal "spread" in groundwater are biased.

  5. Impact of liquid waste disposal on potable groundwater resources near Perth, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleyard, S. J.

    1996-09-01

    Drilling of 15 boreholes at a disused liquid waste disposal site near Perth, Western Australia, has indicated that a contamination plume extends about 1000 m in a southerly direction from the site in the direction of groundwater flow. The plume is up to 600 m wide and 5-40 m thick. Chemical and microbiological analyses have indicated that contaminated groundwater contains high concentrations of ammonia, iron, and bacteria at levels that commonly exceed national drinking water guidelines. It is likely that a proposed water supply production well in the path of the contamination plume will have to be abandoned, and additional wells may have to be abandoned if the plume continues to extend in the direction of groundwater flow. There is currently insufficient information to indicate whether the plume is continuing to expand, but studies on similar plumes in the Perth metropolitan area have indicated that contaminated groundwater can move at rates up to 100 m yr-1. Several other liquid waste disposal sites are now located in residential areas of Perth where wells are used for garden irrigation. Further work is required to ensure that there is no potential impact of groundwater contamination on public health in these areas.

  6. Quantification of anthropogenic impact on groundwater-dependent terrestrial ecosystem using geochemical and isotope tools combined with 3-D flow and transport modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurek, A. J.; Witczak, S.; Dulinski, M.; Wachniew, P.; Rozanski, K.; Kania, J.; Postawa, A.; Karczewski, J.; Moscicki, W. J.

    2015-02-01

    Groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs) have important functions in all climatic zones as they contribute to biological and landscape diversity and provide important economic and social services. Steadily growing anthropogenic pressure on groundwater resources creates a conflict situation between nature and man which are competing for clean and safe sources of water. Such conflicts are particularly noticeable in GDEs located in densely populated regions. A dedicated study was launched in 2010 with the main aim to better understand the functioning of a groundwater-dependent terrestrial ecosystem (GDTE) located in southern Poland. The GDTE consists of a valuable forest stand (Niepolomice Forest) and associated wetland (Wielkie Błoto fen). It relies mostly on groundwater from the shallow Quaternary aquifer and possibly from the deeper Neogene (Bogucice Sands) aquifer. In July 2009 a cluster of new pumping wells abstracting water from the Neogene aquifer was set up 1 km to the northern border of the fen. A conceptual model of the Wielkie Błoto fen area for the natural, pre-exploitation state and for the envisaged future status resulting from intense abstraction of groundwater through the new well field was developed. The main aim of the reported study was to probe the validity of the conceptual model and to quantify the expected anthropogenic impact on the studied GDTE. A wide range of research tools was used. The results obtained through combined geologic, geophysical, geochemical, hydrometric and isotope investigations provide strong evidence for the existence of upward seepage of groundwater from the deeper Neogene aquifer to the shallow Quaternary aquifer supporting the studied GDTE. Simulations of the groundwater flow field in the study area with the aid of a 3-D flow and transport model developed for Bogucice Sands (Neogene) aquifer and calibrated using environmental tracer data and observations of hydraulic head in three different locations on the study area

  7. Impact of Different Childhood Adversities on 1-Year Outcomes of Psychotic Disorder in the Genetics and Psychosis Study.

    PubMed

    Trotta, Antonella; Murray, Robin M; David, Anthony S; Kolliakou, Anna; O'Connor, Jennifer; Di Forti, Marta; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Morgan, Craig; Fisher, Helen L

    2016-03-01

    While the role of childhood adversity in increasing the risk of psychosis has been extensively investigated, it is not clear what the impact of early adverse experiences is on the outcomes of psychotic disorders. Therefore, we investigated associations between childhood adversity and 1-year outcomes in 285 first-presentation psychosis patients. Exposure to childhood adversity prior to 17 years of age was assessed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Data on illness course, symptom remission, length of psychiatric hospitalization, compliance with medication, employment, and relationship status were extracted from clinical records for the year following first contact with mental health services for psychosis. Seventy-one percent of patients reported exposure to at least 1 type of childhood adversity (physical abuse, sexual abuse, parental separation, parental death, disrupted family arrangements, or being taken into care). No robust associations were found between childhood adversity and illness course or remission. However, childhood physical abuse was associated with almost 3-fold increased odds of not being in a relationship at 1-year follow-up compared to patients who did not report such adverse experiences. There was also evidence of a significant association between parental separation in childhood and longer admissions to psychiatric wards during 1-year follow-up and 2-fold increased odds of noncompliance with medication compared to those not separated from their parents. Therefore, our findings suggest that there may be some specificity in the impact of childhood adversity on service use and social functioning among psychosis patients over the first year following presentation to mental health services.

  8. Derivation of groundwater threshold values for analysis of impacts predicted at potential carbon sequestration sites

    SciTech Connect

    Last, G. V.; Murray, C. J.; Bott, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) Project is developing reduced-order models to evaluate potential impacts to groundwater quality due to carbon dioxide (CO2) or brine leakage, should it occur from deep CO2 storage reservoirs. These efforts targeted two classes of aquifer – an unconfined fractured carbonate aquifer based on the Edwards Aquifer in Texas, and a confined alluvium aquifer based on the High Plains Aquifer in Kansas. Hypothetical leakage scenarios focus on wellbores as the most likely conduits from the storage reservoir to an underground source of drinking water (USDW). To facilitate evaluation of potential degradation of the USDWs, threshold values, below which there would be no predicted impacts, were determined for each of these two aquifer systems. These threshold values were calculated using an interwell approach for determining background groundwater concentrations that is an adaptation of methods described in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Unified Guidance for Statistical Analysis of Groundwater Monitoring Data at RCRA Facilities. Results demonstrate the importance of establishing baseline groundwater quality conditions that capture the spatial and temporal variability of the USDWs prior to CO2 injection and storage.

  9. Impact of Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS) Standardization on Carboplatin Dose and Adverse Events

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Justin; Switchenko, Jeffrey M.; McKibbin, Trevor; Harvey, R. Donald

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND When using area under the concentration-time curve-based strategies for dosing carboplatin, accurate estimation of glomerular filtration rate is required for determining dose. Commonly, the Cockcroft–Gault equation is used, which is dependent on measurement of serum creatinine (SCr). Because analysis of SCr changed to an isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) standard, we sought to determine the impact of this assay change on carboplatin dosing and related toxicity. METHODS This was a single-center, retrospective chart review of adults treated with carboplatin between April 2008 and April 2010 divided into cohorts that initiated carboplatin before or after IDMS standardization. End points included grade 3 thrombocytopenia, decrease in platelet count, and hospitalization and were evaluated in cohorts based on concomitant chemotherapy. RESULTS The chart review identified 158 patients, with 63 patients in the pre-IDMS group and 95 patients in the post-IDMS group. Average SCr (pre 1.01 mg/dl vs post 0.86 mg/dl, p<0.001) and average carboplatin dose (pre 580 mg vs post 703 mg, p<0.001) were significantly different between the groups. The frequency of grade 3 thrombocytopenia was not statistically significant across three partner chemotherapy cohorts before and after IDMS implementation. CONCLUSION IDMS standardization led to an overall decrease in SCr with subsequent increase in carboplatin doses. However, no increase in recorded adverse events was observed, suggesting that the clinical relevance in toxicity from higher doses was minimal. PMID:27130286

  10. Adverse Impact of Sleep Restriction and Circadian Misalignment on Autonomic Function in Healthy Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Daniela; Carter, Jason R; Van Cauter, Eve; Leproult, Rachel

    2016-07-01

    Insufficient sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances have been each associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in epidemiological studies, but experimental evidence for a causal link is scarce. The present study compares the impact of circadian misalignment (CM) to circadian alignment (CA) on human autonomic function using a nonrandomized parallel group design to achieve the same total sleep time in both conditions. After baseline assessments (3 days with 10-hour bedtimes), 26 healthy young adults were assigned to sleep restriction (SR; eight 5-hour bedtimes) with either fixed nocturnal bedtimes (CA; n=13) or bedtimes delayed by 8.5 hours on 4 of the 8 days (CM; n=13). Daytime ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate (HR; CA, n=11; CM, n=10) and 24-hour urinary norepinephrine levels (CA, n=13; CM, n=13) were assessed at baseline and the end of SR. Nocturnal HR and HR variability were analyzed during sleep at baseline and during the fourth and seventh nights of SR (CA, n=8; CM, n=12). SR resulted in a significant increase in daytime HR in both groups, without changes in blood pressure. SR increased 24-hour urinary norepinephrine in the CM group (30±4 versus 21±2 μg), but not in the circadian alignment group (group×condition, P=0.005). In contrast to the lack of detectable impact of CM on daytime autonomic function, SR with CM elicited greater increases in nocturnal HR, as well as greater reductions in vagal indices of HR variability, than SR without CM (group×condition, P<0.05). In conclusion, SR and CM both result in impaired autonomic function that could lead, under chronic conditions, to enhanced cardiovascular risk.

  11. Monitoring ecological recovery in a stream impacted by contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, G.R.; Cada, G.F.; Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Smith, J.G.

    1997-11-01

    Past in-ground disposal practices in Bear Creek Valley resulted in contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. A biological monitoring program initiated in 1984 has evaluated the effectiveness of the extensive remedial actions undertaken to address contamination sources. Elements of the monitoring program included toxicity testing with fish and invertebrates, bioaccumulation monitoring, and instream monitoring of streambed invertebrate and fish communities. In the mid 1980`s, toxicity tests on stream water indicated that the headwaters of the stream were acutely toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates as a result of infiltration of a metal-enriched groundwater from ponds used to dispose of acid wastes. Over a twelve year period, measurable toxicity in the headwaters decreased, first becoming non-toxic to larval fish but still toxic to invertebrates, then becoming intermittently toxic to invertebrates. By 1997, episodic toxicity was infrequent at the site that was acutely toxic at the start of the study. Recovery in the fish community followed the pattern of the toxicity tests. Initially, resident fish populations were absent from reaches where toxicity was measured, but as toxicity to fish larvae disappeared, the sites in upper Bear Creek were colonized by fish. The Tennessee dace, an uncommon species receiving special protection by the State of Tennessee, became a numerically important part of the fish population throughout the upper half of the creek, making Bear Creek one of the most significant habitats for this species in the region. Although by 1990 fish populations were comparable to those of similar size reference streams, episodic toxicity in the headwaters coincided with a recruitment failure in 1996. Bioaccumulation monitoring indicated the presence of PCBs and mercury in predatory fish in Bear Creek, and whole forage fish contained elevated levels of cadmium, lead, lithium, nickel, mercury, and uranium.

  12. Hydrochemical Impacts of CO2 Leakage on Fresh Groundwater: a Field Scale Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lions, J.; Gal, F.; Gombert, P.; Lafortune, S.; Darmoul, Y.; Prevot, F.; Grellier, S.; Squarcioni, P.

    2013-12-01

    One of the questions related to the emerging technology for Carbon Geological Storage concerns the risk of CO2 migration beyond the geological storage formation. In the event of leakage toward the surface, the CO2 might affect resources in neighbouring formations (geothermal or mineral resources, groundwater) or even represent a hazard for human activities at the surface or in the subsurface. In view of the preservation of the groundwater resources mainly for human consumption, this project studies the potential hydrogeochemical impacts of CO2 leakage on fresh groundwater quality. One of the objectives is to characterize the bio-geochemical mechanisms that may impair the quality of fresh groundwater resources in case of CO2 leakage. To reach the above mentioned objectives, this project proposes a field experiment to characterize in situ the mechanisms that could impact the water quality, the CO2-water-rock interactions and also to improve the monitoring methodology by controlled CO2 leakage in shallow aquifer. The tests were carried out in an experimental site in the chalk formation of the Paris Basin. The site is equipped with an appropriate instrumentation and was previously characterized (8 piezometers, 25 m deep and 4 piezairs 11 m deep). The injection test was preceded by 6 months of monitoring in order to characterize hydrodynamics and geochemical baselines of the site (groundwater, vadose and soil). Leakage into groundwater is simulated via the injection of a small quantity of food-grade CO2 (~20 kg dissolved in 10 m3 of water) in the injection well at a depth of about 20 m. A plume of dissolved CO2 is formed and moves downward according to the direction of groundwater flow and probably by degassing in part to the surface. During the injection test, hydrochemical monitoring of the aquifer is done in situ and by sampling. The parameters monitored in the groundwater are the piezometric head, temperature, pH and electrical conductivity. Analysis on water

  13. Impacts of the 2004 tsunami on groundwater resources in Sri Lanka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Illangasekare, T.; Tyler, S.W.; Clement, T.P.; Villholth, K.G.; Perera, A.P.G.R.L.; Obeysekera, J.; Gunatilaka, A.; Panabokke, C.R.; Hyndman, D.W.; Cunningham, K.J.; Kaluarachchi, J.J.; Yeh, W.W.-G.; Van Genuchten, M. T.; Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    The 26 December 2004 tsunami caused widespread destruction and contamination of coastal aquifers across southern Asia. Seawater filled domestic open dug wells and also entered the aquifers via direct infiltration during the first flooding waves and later as ponded seawater infiltrated through the permeable sands that are typical of coastal aquifers. In Sri Lanka alone, it is estimated that over 40,000 drinking water wells were either destroyed or contaminated. From February through September 2005, a team of United States, Sri Lankan, and Danish water resource scientists and engineers surveyed the coastal groundwater resources of Sri Lanka to develop an understanding of the impacts of the tsunami and to provide recommendations for the future of coastal water resources in south Asia. In the tsunami-affected areas, seawater was found to have infiltrated and mixed with fresh groundwater lenses as indicated by the elevated groundwater salinity levels. Seawater infiltrated through the shallow vadose zone as well as entered aquifers directly through flooded open wells. Our preliminary transport analysis demonstrates that the intruded seawater has vertically mixed in the aquifers because of both forced and free convection. Widespread pumping of wells to remove seawater was effective in some areas, but overpumping has led to upconing of the saltwater interface and rising salinity. We estimate that groundwater recharge from several monsoon seasons will reduce salinity of many sandy Sri Lankan coastal aquifers. However, the continued sustainability of these small and fragile aquifers for potable water will be difficult because of the rapid growth of human activities that results in more intensive groundwater pumping and increased pollution. Long-term sustainability of coastal aquifers is also impacted by the decrease in sand replenishment of the beaches due to sand mining and erosion. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Uncertainty of climate change impact on groundwater reserves - Application to a chalk aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goderniaux, Pascal; Brouyère, Serge; Wildemeersch, Samuel; Therrien, René; Dassargues, Alain

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have evaluated the impact of climate change on groundwater resources for different geographical and climatic contexts. However, most studies have either not estimated the uncertainty around projected impacts or have limited the analysis to the uncertainty related to climate models. In this study, the uncertainties around impact projections from several sources (climate models, natural variability of the weather, hydrological model calibration) are calculated and compared for the Geer catchment (465 km2) in Belgium. We use a surface-subsurface integrated model implemented using the finite element code HydroGeoSphere, coupled with climate change scenarios (2010-2085) and the UCODE_2005 inverse model, to assess the uncertainty related to the calibration of the hydrological model. This integrated model provides a more realistic representation of the water exchanges between surface and subsurface domains and constrains more the calibration with the use of both surface and subsurface observed data. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were performed on predictions. The linear uncertainty analysis is approximate for this nonlinear system, but it provides some measure of uncertainty for computationally demanding models. Results show that, for the Geer catchment, the most important uncertainty is related to calibration of the hydrological model. The total uncertainty associated with the prediction of groundwater levels remains large. By the end of the century, however, the uncertainty becomes smaller than the predicted decline in groundwater levels.

  15. Coupled Geochemical Impacts of Leaking CO2 and Contaminants from Subsurface Storage Reservoirs on Groundwater Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Hongbo; Qafoku, Nikolla; Lawter, Amanda R.; Bowden, Mark E.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2015-07-07

    The leakage of CO2 and the concomitant saline solutions from deep storage reservoirs to overlying groundwater aquifers is considered one of the major potential risks associated with geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS). Batch and column experiments were conducted to determine the fate of trace metals in groundwater in the scenarios of CO2 and metal contaminated brine leakage. The sediments used in this work were collected from an unconsolidated sand and gravel aquifer in Kansas, and contained 0-4 wt% carbonates. Cd and As were spiked into the reaction system to represent potential contaminants from the reservoir brine that could intrude into groundwater aquifers with leaking CO2 at initial concentrations of 114 and 40 ppb, respectively. Through this research we demonstrated that Cd and As were adsorbed on the sediments, in spite of the lowered pH due to CO2 dissolution in the groundwater. Cd concentrations were well below its MCL in both batch and column studies, even for sediment samples without detectable carbonate to buffer the pH. Arsenic concentrations in the effluent were also significantly lower than influent concentration, suggesting that the sediments tested have the capacity to mitigate the coupled adverse effects of CO2 leakage and brine intrusion. However, the mitigation capacity of sediment is a function of its geochemical properties [e.g., the calcite content; the presence of adsorbed As(III); and the presence of P in the natural sediment]. The competitive adsorption between phosphate and arsenate may result in higher concentrations of As in the aqueous phase.

  16. Human Health Impact of Fluoride in Groundwater in the Chiang Mai Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Y.; Takizawa, S.; Wattanachira, S.; Wongrueng, A.; Ibaraki, M.

    2005-12-01

    Chiang Mai Basin, in Northern Thailand, is known as a fluorotic area. Groundwater of the Chiang Mai Basin has been gradually replaced by contaminated surface water since the 1980's. People have been exposed to fluoride contaminated groundwater since that time. As a result, harmful health effects on dental and skeletal growth were observed in the 90's. These include dental and skeletal fluorosis. Dental fluorosis is characterized by yellow or white spots on teeth and pitting or mottled enamel, consequently causing the teeth to look unsightly. Skeletal fluorosis leads to changes in bone structure, making them extremely weak and brittle. The most severe form of this is known as ``crippling skeletal fluorosis,'' a condition that can cause immobility, muscle wasting, and neurological problems related to spinal cord compression. This study focuses on the problematic issue of the Chiang Mai Basin's groundwater from the viewpoint of fluoride occurrence and current health impacts. Chiang Mai and Lamphun Provinces comprise the Chiang Mai Basin. Fluoride rich granites or fluorite deposits are scattered across the mountainside of the Lamphun Province. Tropical savanna climate conditions with seasonal monsoons bring more than 1,000 mm of annual precipitation, which can prompt weathering of minerals containing fluoride. The Ping River dominates the Basin, and the main eastern tributary of the Ping River runs through the Lamphun Province. The Basin has geological units composed of lower semi-consolidated Tertiary fluvial and upper unconsolidated Quaternary alluvium deposits. The main aquifers are in the upper unconsolidated unit. High fluoride concentrations tend to be observed in the aquifer located in lower part of this unconsolidated unit. We have been investigating two areas in the Basin. These two locations are similar with respect to geological and hydrological settings. However, one area in which groundwater is Ca-bicarbonate dominant has a low fluoride occurrence

  17. Climate change impact on groundwater levels in the Guarani Aquifer outcrop zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, D. D.; Wendland, E.

    2013-12-01

    The unsustainable use of groundwater in many countries might cause water availability restrictions in the future. Such issue is likely to worsen due to predicted climate changes for the incoming decades. As numerous studies suggest, aquifers recharge rates will be affected as a result of climate change. The Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) is one of the most important transboundary aquifer in the world, providing drinkable water for millions of people in four South American countries (Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay). Considering the GAS relevance and how its recharge rates might be altered by climatic conditions anomalies, the objective of this work is to assess possible climate changes impacts on groundwater levels in this aquifer outcrop zone. Global Climate Models' (GCM) outputs were used as inputs in a transient flux groundwater model created using the software SPA (Simulation of Process in Aquifers), enabling groundwater table fluctuation to be evaluated under distinct climatic scenarios. Six monitoring wells, located in a representative basin (Ribeirão da Onça basin) inside a GAS outcrop zone (ROB), provided water table measurements between 2004 and 2011 to calibrate the groundwater model. Using observed climatic data, a water budget method was applied to estimate recharge in different types of land uses. Statistically downscaled future climate scenarios were used as inputs for that same recharge model, which provided data for running SPA under those scenarios. The results show that most of the GCMs used here predict temperature arises over 275,15 K and major monthly rainfall mean changes to take place in the dry season. During wet seasons, those means might experience around 50% decrease. The transient model results indicate that water table variations, derived from around 70% of the climate scenarios, would vary below those measured between 2004 and 2011. Among the thirteen GCMs considered in this work, only four of them predicted more extreme

  18. Reservoir Removal and Legacy Sediment Impacts on Upstream Surface Water - Groundwater Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerecht, K.; Gooseff, M. N.; Singha, K.

    2011-12-01

    Pennsylvania alone there are 1,546 dams, of which 75% are ruled to be at a significant to high hazard potential for failure (USACE National Inventory of Dams, 2009). Understanding the impacts of dam and reservoir removal on upstream hydrologic systems, especially in the headwaters, is critical to understanding the anthropogenic impacts of deposited legacy sediments on stream-groundwater communication.

  19. Groundwater Arsenic Adsorption on Granular TiO2: Integrating Atomic Structure, Filtration, and Health Impact.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shan; Shi, Qiantao; Jing, Chuanyong

    2015-08-18

    A pressing challenge in arsenic (As) adsorptive filtration is to decipher how the As atomic surface structure obtained in the laboratory can be used to accurately predict the field filtration cycle. The motivation of this study was therefore to integrate molecular level As adsorption mechanisms and capacities to predict effluent As from granular TiO2 columns in the field as well as its health impacts. Approximately 2,955 bed volumes of groundwater with an average of 542 μg/L As were filtered before the effluent As concentration exceeded 10 μg/L, corresponding to an adsorption capacity of 1.53 mg As/g TiO2. After regeneration, the TiO2 column could treat 2,563 bed volumes of groundwater, resulting in an As load of 1.36 mg/g TiO2. Column filtration and EXAFS results showed that among coexisting ions present in groundwater, only Ca(2+), Si(OH)4, and HCO3(-) would interfere with As adsorption. The compound effects of coexisting ions and molecular level structural information were incorporated in the PHREEQC program to satisfactorily predict the As breakthrough curves. The total urinary As concentration from four volunteers of local residences, ranging from 972 to 2,080 μg/L before groundwater treatment, decreased to the range 31.7-73.3 μg/L at the end of the experimental cycle (15-33 days).

  20. Analysis of impacts to groundwater and the vadose zone at an arid-region landfill in San Bernardino County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Finegan, J.M.; Campbell, A.M.; Keenan, R.J.

    1999-07-01

    Ten years of vadose zone gas and groundwater monitoring data for the Apple Valley Sanitary Landfill (AVSL), an arid-region municipal solid waste landfill in San Bernardino County, California, were examined to evaluate the nature, extent, and source of releases from this landfill. Landfill gas (LFG) was found to be the primary impact mechanism where groundwater degradation was demonstrated, and LFG contributions can be differentiated from other impact mechanisms. Because volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the main groundwater contaminant at the AVSL, they were the main focus of this investigation, although inorganic compounds are also of significant interest. Groundwater impacts by liquid releases from seepage waste impoundments were also confirmed at the AVSL, while indications of impact by landfill leachate were not strongly supported. Monitoring data at this and other arid-region landfills, where rainfall is generally less than 255 mm per year and groundwater is relatively deep, show a lack of impact to groundwater from landfill leachate. The methods used to distinguish impact mechanisms at the AVSL are readily applicable to other sites as well.

  1. Assessing the impact of dairy waste lagoons on groundwater quality using a spatial analysis of vadose zone and groundwater information in a coastal phreatic aquifer.

    PubMed

    Baram, S; Kurtzman, D; Ronen, Z; Peeters, A; Dahan, O

    2014-01-01

    Dairy waste lagoons are considered to be point sources of groundwater contamination by chloride (Cl(-)), different nitrogen-species and pathogens/microorganisms. The objective of this work is to introduce a methodology to assess the past and future impacts of such lagoons on regional groundwater quality. The method is based on a spatial statistical analysis of Cl(-) and total nitrogen (TN) concentration distributions in the saturated and the vadose (unsaturated) zones. The method provides quantitative data on the relation between the locations of dairy lagoons and the spatial variability in Cl(-) and TN concentrations in groundwater. The method was applied to the Beer-Tuvia region, Israel, where intensive dairy farming has been practiced for over 50 years above the local phreatic aquifer. Mass balance calculations accounted for the various groundwater recharge and abstraction sources and sinks in the entire region. The mass balances showed that despite the small surface area covered by the dairy lagoons in this region (0.8%), leachates from lagoons have contributed 6.0% and 12.6% of the total mass of Cl(-) and TN (mainly as NO3(-)-N) added to the aquifer. The chemical composition of the aquifer and vadose zone water suggested that irrigated agricultural activity in the region is the main contributor of Cl(-) and TN to the groundwater. A low spatial correlation between the Cl(-) and NO3(-)-N concentrations in the groundwater and the on-land location of the dairy farms strengthened this assumption, despite the dairy waste lagoon being a point source for groundwater contamination by Cl(-) and NO3(-)-N. Mass balance calculations, for the vadose zone of the entire region, indicated that drying of the lagoons would decrease the regional groundwater salinization process (11% of the total Cl(-) load is stored under lagoons). A more considerable reduction in the groundwater contamination by NO3(-)-N is expected (25% of the NO3(-)-N load is stored under lagoons). Results

  2. Impacts of soil and groundwater salinization on tree crop performance in post-tsunami Aceh Barat, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marohn, C.; Distel, A.; Dercon, G.; Wahyunto; Tomlinson, R.; Noordwijk, M. v.; Cadisch, G.

    2012-09-01

    The Indian Ocean tsunami of December 2004 had far reaching consequences for agriculture in Aceh province, Indonesia, and particularly in Aceh Barat district, 150 km from the seaquake epicentre. In this study, the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of soil and groundwater salinity and their impact on tree crops were monitored in Aceh Barat from 2006 to 2008. On 48 sampling points along ten transects, covering 40 km of coastline, soil and groundwater salinity were measured and related to mortality and yield depression of the locally most important tree crops. Given a yearly rainfall of over 3000 mm, initial groundwater salinity declined rapidly from over 10 to less than 2 mS cm-1 within two years. On the other hand, seasonal dynamics of the groundwater table in combination with intrusion of saline water into the groundwater body led to recurring elevated salinity, sufficient to affect crops. Tree mortality and yield depression in the flooded area varied considerably between tree species. Damage to coconut (65% trees damaged) was related to tsunami run-up height, while rubber (50% trees damaged) was mainly affected by groundwater salinity. Coconut yields (-35% in average) were constrained by groundwater Ca2+ and Mg2+, while rubber yields (-65% on average) were related to groundwater chloride, pH and soil sodium. These findings have implications on planting deep-rooted tree crops as growth will be constrained by ongoing oscillations of the groundwater table and salinity.

  3. Key factors for determining groundwater impacts due to leakage from geologic carbon sequestration reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Susan A.; Keating, Elizabeth; Mansoor, Kayyum; Dai, Zhenxue; Sun, Yunwei; Trainor-Guitton, Whitney; Brown, Chris; Bacon, Diana

    2014-09-07

    The National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) is developing a science-based toolset for the analysis of potential impacts to groundwater chemistry from CO2 injection (www.netldoe.gov/nrap). The toolset adopts a stochastic approach in which predictions address uncertainties in shallow groundwater and leakage scenarios. It is derived from detailed physics and chemistry simulation results that are used to train more computationally efficient models, referred to here as reduced-order models (ROMs), for each component system. In particular, these tools can be used to help regulators and operators understand the expected sizes and longevity of plumes in pH, TDS, and dissolved metals that could result from a leakage of brine and/or CO2 from a storage reservoir into aquifers. This information can inform, for example, decisions on monitoring strategies that are both effective and efficient. We have used this approach to develop predictive reduced-order models for two common types of reservoirs, but the approach could be used to develop a model for a specific aquifer or other common types of aquifers. In this paper we describe potential impacts to groundwater quality due to CO2 and brine leakage, discuss an approach to calculate thresholds under which no impact to groundwater occurs, describe the time scale for impact on groundwater, and discuss the probability of detecting a groundwater plume should leakage occur. To facilitate this, multi-phase flow and reactive transport simulations and emulations were developed for two classes of aquifers, considering uncertainty in leakage source terms and aquifer hydrogeology. We targeted an unconfined fractured carbonate aquifer based on the Edwards aquifer in Texas and a confined alluvium aquifer based on the High Plains Aquifer in Kansas, which share characteristics typical of many drinking water aquifers in the United States. The hypothetical leakage scenarios centered on the notion that wellbores

  4. Key factors for determining groundwater impacts due to leakage from geologic carbon sequestration reservoirs

    DOE PAGES

    Carroll, Susan A.; Keating, Elizabeth; Mansoor, Kayyum; ...

    2014-09-07

    The National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) is developing a science-based toolset for the analysis of potential impacts to groundwater chemistry from CO2 injection (www.netldoe.gov/nrap). The toolset adopts a stochastic approach in which predictions address uncertainties in shallow groundwater and leakage scenarios. It is derived from detailed physics and chemistry simulation results that are used to train more computationally efficient models, referred to here as reduced-order models (ROMs), for each component system. In particular, these tools can be used to help regulators and operators understand the expected sizes and longevity of plumes in pH, TDS, and dissolved metals that could resultmore » from a leakage of brine and/or CO2 from a storage reservoir into aquifers. This information can inform, for example, decisions on monitoring strategies that are both effective and efficient. We have used this approach to develop predictive reduced-order models for two common types of reservoirs, but the approach could be used to develop a model for a specific aquifer or other common types of aquifers. In this paper we describe potential impacts to groundwater quality due to CO2 and brine leakage, discuss an approach to calculate thresholds under which no impact to groundwater occurs, describe the time scale for impact on groundwater, and discuss the probability of detecting a groundwater plume should leakage occur. To facilitate this, multi-phase flow and reactive transport simulations and emulations were developed for two classes of aquifers, considering uncertainty in leakage source terms and aquifer hydrogeology. We targeted an unconfined fractured carbonate aquifer based on the Edwards aquifer in Texas and a confined alluvium aquifer based on the High Plains Aquifer in Kansas, which share characteristics typical of many drinking water aquifers in the United States. The hypothetical leakage scenarios centered on the notion that wellbores are the most likely

  5. Reactive transport controls on sandy acid sulfate soils and impacts on shallow groundwater quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, S. Ursula; Rate, Andrew W.; Rengel, Zed; Appleyard, Steven; Prommer, Henning; Hinz, Christoph

    2014-06-01

    Disturbance or drainage of potential acid sulfate soils (PASS) can result in the release of acidity and degradation of infrastructure, water resources, and the environment. Soil processes affecting shallow groundwater quality have been investigated using a numerical code that integrates (bio)geochemical processes with water, solute, and gas transport. The patterns of severe and persistent acidification (pH < 4) in the sandy, carbonate-depleted podzols of a coastal plain could be reproduced without calibration, based on oxidation of microcrystalline pyrite after groundwater level decrease and/or residual groundwater acidity, due to slow vertical solute transport rates. The rate of acidification was limited by gas phase diffusion of oxygen and hence was sensitive to soil water retention properties and in some cases also to oxygen consumption by organic matter mineralization. Despite diffusion limitation, the rate of oxidation in sandy soils was rapid once pyrite-bearing horizons were exposed, even to a depth of 7.5 m. Groundwater level movement was thus identified as an important control on acidification, as well as the initial pyrite content. Increase in the rate of Fe(II) oxidation lead to slightly lower pH and greater accumulation of Fe(III) phases, but had little effect on the overall amount of pyrite oxidized. Aluminosilicate (kaolinite) dissolution had a small pH-buffering effect but lead to the release of Al and associated acidity. Simulated dewatering scenarios highlighted the potential of the model for risk assessment of (bio)geochemical impacts on soil and groundwater over a range of temporal and spatial scales.

  6. Pit Latrines and Their Impacts on Groundwater Quality: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Polizzotto, Matthew L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pit latrines are one of the most common human excreta disposal systems in low-income countries, and their use is on the rise as countries aim to meet the sanitation-related target of the Millennium Development Goals. There is concern, however, that discharges of chemical and microbial contaminants from pit latrines to groundwater may negatively affect human health. Objectives: Our goals were to a) calculate global pit latrine coverage, b) systematically review empirical studies of the impacts of pit latrines on groundwater quality, c) evaluate latrine siting standards, and d) identify knowledge gaps regarding the potential for and consequences of groundwater contamination by latrines. Methods: We used existing survey and population data to calculate global pit latrine coverage. We reviewed the scientific literature on the occurrence of contaminants originating from pit latrines and considered the factors affecting transport of these contaminants. Data were extracted from peer-reviewed articles, books, and reports identified using Web of ScienceSM, PubMed, Google, and document reference lists. Discussion: We estimated that approximately 1.77 billion people use pit latrines as their primary means of sanitation. Studies of pit latrines and groundwater are limited and have generally focused on only a few indicator contaminants. Although groundwater contamination is frequently observed downstream of latrines, contaminant transport distances, recommendations based on empirical studies, and siting guidelines are variable and not well aligned with one another. Conclusions: In order to improve environmental and human health, future research should examine a larger set of contextual variables, improve measurement approaches, and develop better criteria for siting pit latrines. PMID:23518813

  7. Virus in Groundwater: Characterization of transport mechanisms and impacts on an agricultural area in Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamazo, P. A.; Colina, R.; Victoria, M.; Alvareda, E.; Burutaran, L.; Ramos, J.; Lopez, F.; Soler, J.

    2014-12-01

    In many areas of Uruguay groundwater is the only source of water for human consumption and for industrial-agricultural economic activities. Traditionally considered as a safe source, due to the "natural filter" that occurs in porous media, groundwater is commonly used without any treatment. The Uruguayan law requires bacteriological analysis for most water uses, but virological analyses are not mentioned in the legislation. In the Salto district, where groundwater is used for human consumption and for agricultural activities, bacterial contamination has been detected in several wells but no viruses analysis have been performed. The Republic University (UDELAR), with the support of the National Agency for Research and Innovation (ANII), is studying the incidence of virus in groundwater on an intensive agriculture area of the Salto district. In this area water is pumped from the "Salto Aquifer", a free sedimentary aquifer. Below this sedimentary deposit is the "Arapey" basaltic formation, which is also exploited for water productions on its fractured zones. A screening campaign has been performed searching for bacterial and viral contamination. Total and fecal coliforms have been found on several wells and Rotavirus and Adenovirus have been detected. A subgroup of the screening wells has been selected for an annual survey. On this subgroup, besides bacteria and viruses analysis, a standard physical and chemical characterization was performed. Results show a significant seasonal variation on microbiological contamination. In addition to field studies, rotavirus circulation experiments on columns are being performed. The objective of this experiments is to determinate the parameters that control virus transport in porous media. The results of the study are expected to provide an insight into the impacts of groundwater on Salto's viral gastroenterocolitis outbreaks.

  8. Do Verbal Interactions with Infants During Electronic Media Exposure Mitigate Adverse Impacts on their Language Development as Toddlers?

    PubMed Central

    Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Brockmeyer, Carolyn A.; Dreyer, Benard P.; Fierman, Arthur H.; Berkule-Silberman, Samantha B.; Tomopoulos, Suzy

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether verbal interactions between mothers and their 6-month-old infants during media exposure (‘media verbal interactions’) might have direct positive impacts, or mitigate any potential adverse impacts of media exposure, on language development at 14 months. For 253 low-income mother–infant dyads participating in a longitudinal study, media exposure and media verbal interactions were assessed using 24-hour recall diaries. Additionally, general level of cognitive stimulation in the home [StimQ] was assessed at 6 months and language development [Preschool Language Scale-4] was assessed at 14 months. Results suggest that media verbal interactions play a role in the language development of infants from low-income, immigrant families. Evidence showed that media verbal interactions moderated adverse impacts of media exposure found on 14-month language development, with adverse associations found only in the absence the these interactions. Findings also suggest that media verbal interactions may have some direct positive impacts on language development, in that media verbal interactions during the co-viewing of media with educational content (but not other content) were predictive of 14-month language independently of overall level of cognitive stimulation in the home. PMID:21593996

  9. Do Verbal Interactions with Infants During Electronic Media Exposure Mitigate Adverse Impacts on their Language Development as Toddlers?

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Alan L; Brockmeyer, Carolyn A; Dreyer, Benard P; Fierman, Arthur H; Berkule-Silberman, Samantha B; Tomopoulos, Suzy

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether verbal interactions between mothers and their 6-month-old infants during media exposure ('media verbal interactions') might have direct positive impacts, or mitigate any potential adverse impacts of media exposure, on language development at 14 months. For 253 low-income mother-infant dyads participating in a longitudinal study, media exposure and media verbal interactions were assessed using 24-hour recall diaries. Additionally, general level of cognitive stimulation in the home [StimQ] was assessed at 6 months and language development [Preschool Language Scale-4] was assessed at 14 months. Results suggest that media verbal interactions play a role in the language development of infants from low-income, immigrant families. Evidence showed that media verbal interactions moderated adverse impacts of media exposure found on 14-month language development, with adverse associations found only in the absence the these interactions. Findings also suggest that media verbal interactions may have some direct positive impacts on language development, in that media verbal interactions during the co-viewing of media with educational content (but not other content) were predictive of 14-month language independently of overall level of cognitive stimulation in the home.

  10. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Psychotic-Like Symptoms and Stress Reactivity in Daily Life in Nonclinical Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ballespí, Sergi; Mitjavila, Mercè; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Kwapil, Thomas R.; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2016-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in elucidating the association of different childhood adversities with psychosis-spectrum symptoms as well as the mechanistic processes involved. This study used experience sampling methodology to examine (i) associations of a range of childhood adversities with psychosis symptom domains in daily life; (ii) whether associations of abuse and neglect with symptoms are consistent across self-report and interview methods of trauma assessment; and (iii) the role of different adversities in moderating affective, psychotic-like, and paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors. Method A total of 206 nonclinical young adults were administered self-report and interview measures to assess childhood abuse, neglect, bullying, losses, and general traumatic events. Participants received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times daily for one week to complete questionnaires about current experiences, including symptoms, affect, and stress. Results Self-reported and interview-based abuse and neglect were associated with psychotic-like and paranoid symptoms, whereas only self-reported neglect was associated with negative-like symptoms. Bullying was associated with psychotic-like symptoms. Losses and general traumatic events were not directly associated with any of the symptom domains. All the childhood adversities were associated with stress reactivity in daily life. Interpersonal adversities (abuse, neglect, bullying, and losses) moderated psychotic-like and/or paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors, whereas general traumatic events moderated psychotic-like reactivity to situational stress. Also, different interpersonal adversities exacerbated psychotic-like and/or paranoid symptoms in response to distinct social stressors. Discussion The present study provides a unique examination of how childhood adversities impact the expression of spectrum symptoms in the real world and lends support

  11. Sex-specific impact of early-life adversity on chronic pain: a large population-based study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Keiko; Matsudaira, Ko; Tanaka, Eizaburo; Oka, Hiroyuki; Katsuhira, Junji; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2017-01-01

    Background Responses to early-life adversity may differ by sex. We investigated the sex-specific impact of early-life adversity on chronic pain, chronic multisite pain, and somatizing tendency with chronic pain. Methods We examined 4229 respondents aged 20–79 years who participated in the Pain Associated Cross-Sectional Epidemiological Survey in Japan. Outcomes were: 1) chronic pain prevalence, 2) multisite pain (≥3 sites) prevalence, and 3) multiple somatic symptoms (≥3 symptoms) among respondents with chronic pain related to the presence or absence of early-life adversity. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were calculated with 95% confidence intervals using a logistic regression model including age, smoking status, exercise routine, sleep time, body mass index, household expenditure, and the full distribution of scores on the Mental Health Inventory-5. We further adjusted for pain intensity when we analyzed the data for respondents with chronic pain. Results The prevalence of chronic pain was higher among respondents reporting the presence of early-life adversity compared with those reporting its absence, with multivariable ORs of 1.62 (1.22–2.15, p<0.01) in men and 1.47 (1.13–1.90, p<0.01) in women. Among women with chronic pain, early-life adversity was associated with multisite pain and multiple somatic symptoms; multivariable ORs were 1.78 (1.22–2.60, p<0.01) for multisite pain and 1.89 (1.27–2.83, p<0.01) for ≥3 somatic symptoms. No associations were observed between early-life adversity and chronic multisite pain or multiple somatic symptoms among men with chronic pain. Conclusion Early-life adversity may be linked to a higher prevalence of chronic pain among both sexes and to multisite pain and somatizing tendency among women with chronic pain. PMID:28243147

  12. Treatment of landfill leachate-impacted groundwater using cascade aeration and constructed wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Loer, J.; O`Flanagan, B.; Fellows, W.

    1995-12-31

    At an unlined municipal solid waste landfill, heavy metal and toxic organic compounds present in leachate have impacted groundwater, necessitating extraction and treatment of the contaminated groundwater. A remedial design relying on a natural systems engineering approach will take advantage of existing contours (gravity flow) and surroundings (wetlands), and will limit energy inputs and eliminate chemical inputs. Impacted groundwater will be extracted, and aerated via a cascade constructed of polypropylene sheets fabricated into {open_quotes}step{close_quotes} sections and set into a side slope of the landfill. Volatilization of organics and oxidation of iron and heavy metals to insoluble compounds will occur during cascading and will continue within a sedimentation basin where settling of iron precipitates will induce co-settling of heavy metal precipitates. Following the sedimentation basin, a constructed wetland containing both aerobic zones and anaerobic zones will provide additional treatment of remaining solids and heavy metals, before surface discharge. Use of a natural systems approach significantly reduces operating costs compared to a mechanical-aeration, chemical-precipitation system, and is more aesthetically pleasing and suited to the remote locale. The system is under construction and seasonal operation will begin in spring 1996.

  13. Using Bayesian methods to predict climate impacts on groundwater availability and agricultural production in Punjab, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, T. A.; Devineni, N.; Lall, U.

    2015-12-01

    Lasting success of the Green Revolution in Punjab, India relies on continued availability of local water resources. Supplying primarily rice and wheat for the rest of India, Punjab supports crop irrigation with a canal system and groundwater, which is vastly over-exploited. The detailed data required to physically model future impacts on water supplies agricultural production is not readily available for this region, therefore we use Bayesian methods to estimate hydrologic properties and irrigation requirements for an under-constrained mass balance model. Using measured values of historical precipitation, total canal water delivery, crop yield, and water table elevation, we present a method using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm to solve for a distribution of values for each unknown parameter in a conceptual mass balance model. Due to heterogeneity across the state, and the resolution of input data, we estimate model parameters at the district-scale using spatial pooling. The resulting model is used to predict the impact of precipitation change scenarios on groundwater availability under multiple cropping options. Predicted groundwater declines vary across the state, suggesting that crop selection and water management strategies should be determined at a local scale. This computational method can be applied in data-scarce regions across the world, where water resource management is required to resolve competition between food security and available resources in a changing climate.

  14. Groundwater resources in Brazil: a review of possible impacts caused by climate change.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Ricardo; Conicelli, Bruno P

    2012-06-01

    Groundwater has a strategic role in times of climate change mainly because aquifers can provide water for long periods, even during very long and severe drought. The reduction and/or changes on the precipitation pattern can diminish the recharge mainly in unconfined aquifer, causing available groundwater restriction. The expected impact of long-term climate changes on the Brazilian aquifers for 2050 will lead to a severe reduction in 70% of recharge in the Northeast region aquifers (comparing to 2010 values), varying from 30% to 70% in the North region. Data referring to the South and Southeast regions are more favorable, with an increase in the relative recharge values from 30% to 100%. Another expected impact is the increase in demand and the decrease in the surface water availability that will make the population turn to aquifers as its main source of water for public or private uses in many regions of the country. Thus, an integrated use of surface and groundwater must therefore be considered in the water use planning. The solution of water scarcity is based on three factors: society growth awareness, better knowledge on the characteristics of hydraulic and chemical aquifers and effective management actions.

  15. Mitigating agricultural impacts on groundwater using distributed managed aquifer recharge ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, C. M.; Russo, T. A.; Fisher, A. T.; Racz, A. J.; Wheat, C. G.; Los Huertos, M.; Lockwood, B. S.

    2010-12-01

    small-scale MAR ponds could be a useful strategy for improving groundwater conditions in this basin. Although the efficiency of small recharge ponds can be high, numerous projects would be needed to impact the overall water balance of a basin such as ours. We are applying a GIS-based approach to assess how small-scale MAR systems could be distributed to achieve significant benefit. This analysis involves determining where topography, soil type, land ownership, groundwater conditions, and cropping practices are the most favorable for locating recharge systems. Results of this work should be applicable to other basins facing similar challenges, ultimately helping to improve the sustainability of groundwater supplies.

  16. Surface-Water to Groundwater Transport of Pharmaceuticals in a Wastewater-Impacted Stream in the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, P. M.; Barber, L. B.; Duris, J. W.; Foreman, W. T.; Furlong, E. T.; Hubbard, L. E.; Hutchinson, K. J.; Keefe, S. H.; Kolpin, D. W.

    2014-12-01

    Wastewater pharmaceutical contamination of shallow groundwater is a substantial concern in effluent-dominated streams, due to aqueous mobility and designed bioactivity of pharmaceuticals and due to effluent-driven hydraulic gradients. Improved understanding of the environmental fate and transport of wastewater-derived pharmaceuticals is essential for effective protection of vital aquatic ecosystem services, environmental health, and drinking-water supplies. Substantial longitudinal (downstream) transport of pharmaceutical contaminants has been documented in effluent-impacted streams. The comparative lack of information on vertical and lateral transport (infiltration) of wastewater contaminants from surface-water to hyporheic and shallow groundwater compartments is a critical scientific data gap, given the potential for contamination of groundwater supplies in effluent-impacted systems. Growing dependencies on bank filtration and artificial recharge applications for release of wastewater to the environment and for pretreatment of poor-quality surface-water for drinking water emphasize the critical need to better understand the exchange of wastewater contaminants, like pharmaceuticals, between surface-water and groundwater compartments. The potential transport of effluent-derived pharmaceutical contaminants from surface-water to hyporheic-water and shallow groundwater compartments was examined in a wastewater-treatment-facility (WWTF) impacted stream in Ankeny, Iowa under effluent-dominated (71-99% of downstream flow) conditions. Strong hydraulic gradients and hydrologic connectivity were evident between surface-water and shallow-groundwater compartments in the vicinity of the WWTF outfall. Carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, and immunologically-related compounds were detected in groundwater 10-20 meters from the stream bank. Direct aqueous-injection HPLC-MS/MS revealed high percentage detections of pharmaceuticals (110 total analytes) in surface-water and groundwater

  17. Road impacts on the Baca National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado, with emphasis on effects to surface- and shallow ground-water hydrology - A literature review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, Douglas C.

    2007-01-01

    A review of published research on unpaved road effects on surface-water and shallow ground-water hydrology was undertaken to assist the Baca National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado, in understanding factors potentially influencing refuge ecology. Few studies were found that addressed hydrological effects of roads on a comparable area of shallow slope in a semiarid region. No study dealt with road effects on surface- and ground-water supplies to ephemeral wetlands, which on the refuge are sustained by seasonal snowmelt in neighboring mountains. Road surfaces increase runoff, reduce infiltration, and serve as a sediment source. Roadbeds can interfere with normal surface- and ground-water flows and thereby influence the quantity, timing, and duration of water movement both across landscapes and through the soil. Hydrologic effects can be localized near the road as well as widespread and distant. The number, arrangement, and effectiveness of road-drainage structures (culverts and other devices) largely determine the level of hydrologic alteration produced by a road. Undesirable changes to natural hydrologic patterns can be minimized by considering potential impacts during road design, construction, and maintenance. Road removal as a means to restore desirable hydrologic conditions to landscapes adversely affected by roads has yet to be rigorously evaluated.

  18. Iron Deficiency Anemia Coexists with Cancer Related Anemia and Adversely Impacts Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Kanuri, Giridhar; Sawhney, Ritica; Varghese, Jeeva; Britto, Madonna; Shet, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Cancer related anemia (CRA) adversely affects patient Quality of Life (QoL) and overall survival. We prospectively studied the prevalence, etiology and the impact of anemia on QoL in 218 Indian cancer patients attending a tertiary referral hospital. The study used the sTfR/log Ferritin index to detect iron deficiency anemia and assessed patient QoL using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Anemia (FACT-An) tool, standardized for language. Mean patient age was 51±13 years and 60% were female. The prevalence of cancer related anemia in this setting was 64% (n = 139). As expected, plasma ferritin did not differ significantly between anemic (n = 121) and non-anemic cancer patients (n = 73). In contrast, plasma sTfR levels were significantly higher in anemic cancer patients compared to non-anemic cancer patients (31 nmol/L vs. 24 nmol/L, p = 0.002). Among anemic cancer patients, using the sTfR/log Ferritin index, we found that 60% (n = 83) had iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Interestingly, plasma sTfR levels were significantly higher in cancer patients with CRA+IDA (n = 83) compared with patients having CRA (n = 38) alone (39 nmol/L vs. 20 nmol/L, p<0.001). There was a significant linear correlation between Hb and QoL (Spearman ρ = 0.21; p = 0.001) and multivariate regression analysis revealed that every gram rise in Hb was accompanied by a 3.1 unit increase in the QoL score (95% CI = 0.19–5.33; p = 0.003). The high prevalence of anemia in cancer patients, a major portion of which is due to iron deficiency anemia, the availability of sensitive and specific biomarkers of iron status to detect IDA superimposed on anemia of inflammation, suggests an urgent need to diagnose and treat such patients. Despite the potential negative consequences of increasing metabolically available plasma iron in cancer, our clinical data suggest that detecting and treating IDA in anemic cancer patients will have important consequences to their QoL and overall survival. Clinical

  19. Tracing man's impact on groundwater dependent ecosystem using geochemical an isotope tools combined with 3D flow and transport modeling: case study from southern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurek, Anna; Witczak, Stanislaw; Kania, Jaroslaw; Wachniew, Przemyslaw; Rozanski, Kazimierz; Dulinski, Marek; Jench, Olga

    2013-04-01

    Thorough understanding of the link between terrestrial ecosystems and underlying groundwater reservoirs is an important element of sustainable management of groundwater resources in the light of ever growing anthropogenic pressure on groundwater reserves, both with respect to quantity and quality of this vital resource. While association of terrestrial ecosystems with surface water (rivers, streams, lakes, etc.) is visible and recognized, their link to underground components of the hydrological cycle is often forgotten and not appreciated. The presented study was aimed at investigating possible adverse effects of intensive exploitation of porous sandy aquifer on groundwater dependent terrestrial ecosystem (GDTE) consisting of a valuable forest stand and associated wetlands. The Bogucice Sands aquifer and the associated GDTE (Niepolomice Forest) are located in the south of Poland. The principal economic role of the aquifer, consisting of two water-bearing strata is to provide potable water for public and private users. Eastern part of the shallow phreatic aquifer is occupied by Niepolomice Forest. The Niepolomice Forest is a lowland forest covering around 110 km2. It is protected as a Natura 2000 Special Protection Area "Puszcza Niepołomicka" (PLB120002) which supports bird populations of European importance. Additionally, a fen in the western part of the forest comprises a separate Natura 2000 area "Torfowisko Wielkie Bloto" (PLH120080), a significant habitat of endangered butterfly species associated with wet meadows. Dependence of the Niepolomice Forest stands on groundwater is enhanced by low available water capacity and low capillary rise of soils. Groundwater conditions in the Niepolomice Forest, including Wielkie Bloto fen have been affected by meliorations carried out mostly after the Second World War and by forest management. In September 2009 a cluster of new pumping wells (Wola Batorska well-field) has been set up close to the northern boundary of

  20. Impact of climate change on groundwater recharge in dry areas: An ecohydrology approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui-Hai

    2011-09-01

    SummaryThis work proposes an ecohydrology-based approach to study the impact of climate change on groundwater recharge in dry areas. It is largely based on a concept that in dry areas, vegetation community can be divided into two different groups, shallow- and deep-rooted vegetation, with the growing-season average of root-zone soil water saturation tending to be at its optimum value for the growth of deep-rooted vegetation. The concept is supported by data sets collected from different dry areas. Analytical results of soil water dynamics developed in previous studies are adapted here for investigating the impact of climate change. Because the conceptual model allows deep-zone soil-water saturation, averaged over growing seasons, to remain fixed during different climate conditions, we can construct a relationship among groundwater recharge, the coverage of deep-rooted vegetation, and climate. As an illustrative example, we apply the developed approach to the Yucca Mountain area. Our estimated recharge value under the current climate and the vegetation coverage is generally consistent with results estimated from other methods or observed from the site. We also evaluate how the recharge will change under several assumed future climate scenarios. The results show that both groundwater recharge and deep-rooted vegetation coverage increase with decreasing rainfall frequency (for a given amount of annual rainfall), with increasing average rainfall depth per rainfall event (for a fixed frequency) and with increasing frequency (for a fixed rainfall depth per rainfall event). The latter indicates a relatively large degree of buffering effects of vegetation on changes in groundwater recharge.

  1. Deterministic modeling of the impact of underground structures on urban groundwater temperature.

    PubMed

    Attard, Guillaume; Rossier, Yvan; Winiarski, Thierry; Eisenlohr, Laurent

    2016-12-01

    Underground structures have a major influence on groundwater temperature and have a major contribution on the anthropogenic heat fluxes into urban aquifers. Groundwater temperature is crucial for resource management as it can provide operational sustainability indicators for groundwater quality and geothermal energy. Here, a three dimensional heat transport modeling approach was conducted to quantify the thermally affected zone (TAZ, i.e. increase in temperature of more than +0.5°C) caused by two common underground structures: (1) an impervious structure and (2) a draining structure. These design techniques consist in (1) ballasting the underground structure in order to resist hydrostatic pressure, or (2) draining the groundwater under the structure in order to remove the hydrostatic pressure. The volume of the TAZ caused by these underground structures was shown to range from 14 to 20 times the volume of the underground structure. Additionally, the cumulative impact of underground structures was assessed under average thermal conditions at the scale of the greater Lyon area (France). The heat island effect caused by underground structures was highlighted in the business center of the city. Increase in temperature of more than +4.5°C were locally put in evidence. The annual heat flow from underground structures to the urban aquifer was computed deterministically and represents 4.5GW·h. Considering these impacts, the TAZ of deep underground structures should be taken into account in the geothermal potential mapping. Finally, the amount of heat energy provided should be used as an indicator of heating potential in these areas.

  2. Numerical investigation for the impact of CO2 geologic sequestration on regional groundwater flow

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, H.; Zhang, K.; Karasaki, K.; Marui, A.; Uehara, H.; Nishikawa, N.

    2009-04-15

    Large-scale storage of carbon dioxide in saline aquifers may cause considerable pressure perturbation and brine migration in deep rock formations, which may have a significant influence on the regional groundwater system. With the help of parallel computing techniques, we conducted a comprehensive, large-scale numerical simulation of CO{sub 2} geologic storage that predicts not only CO{sub 2} migration, but also its impact on regional groundwater flow. As a case study, a hypothetical industrial-scale CO{sub 2} injection in Tokyo Bay, which is surrounded by the most heavily industrialized area in Japan, was considered, and the impact of CO{sub 2} injection on near-surface aquifers was investigated, assuming relatively high seal-layer permeability (higher than 10 microdarcy). A regional hydrogeological model with an area of about 60 km x 70 km around Tokyo Bay was discretized into about 10 million gridblocks. To solve the high-resolution model efficiently, we used a parallelized multiphase flow simulator TOUGH2-MP/ECO2N on a world-class high performance supercomputer in Japan, the Earth Simulator. In this simulation, CO{sub 2} was injected into a storage aquifer at about 1 km depth under Tokyo Bay from 10 wells, at a total rate of 10 million tons/year for 100 years. Through the model, we can examine regional groundwater pressure buildup and groundwater migration to the land surface. The results suggest that even if containment of CO{sub 2} plume is ensured, pressure buildup on the order of a few bars can occur in the shallow confined aquifers over extensive regions, including urban inlands.

  3. Impact of Submarine Groundwater Discharge on Marine Water Quality and Reef Biota of Maui

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Generally unseen and infrequently measured, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) can transport potentially large loads of nutrients and other land-based contaminants to coastal ecosystems. To examine this linkage we employed algal bioassays, benthic community analysis, and geochemical methods to examine water quality and community parameters of nearshore reefs adjacent to a variety of potential, land-based nutrient sources on Maui. Three common reef algae, Acanthophora spicifera, Hypnea musciformis, and Ulva spp. were collected and/or deployed at six locations with SGD. Algal tissue nitrogen (N) parameters (δ15N, N %, and C:N) were compared with nutrient and δ15N-nitrate values of coastal groundwater and nearshore surface water at all locations. Benthic community composition was estimated for ten 10-m transects per location. Reefs adjacent to sugarcane farms had the greatest abundance of macroalgae, low species diversity, and the highest concentrations of N in algal tissues, coastal groundwater, and marine surface waters compared to locations with low anthropogenic impact. Based on δ15N values of algal tissues, we estimate ca. 0.31 km2 of Kahului Bay is impacted by effluent injected underground at the Kahului Wastewater Reclamation Facility (WRF); this region is barren of corals and almost entirely dominated by colonial zoanthids. Significant correlations among parameters of algal tissue N with adjacent surface and coastal groundwater N indicate that these bioassays provided a useful measure of nutrient source and loading. A conceptual model that uses Ulva spp. tissue δ15N and N % to identify potential N source(s) and relative N loading is proposed for Hawaiʻi. These results indicate that SGD can be a significant transport pathway for land-based nutrients with important biogeochemical and ecological implications in tropical, oceanic islands. PMID:27812171

  4. Impact of Submarine Groundwater Discharge on Marine Water Quality and Reef Biota of Maui.

    PubMed

    Amato, Daniel W; Bishop, James M; Glenn, Craig R; Dulai, Henrietta; Smith, Celia M

    2016-01-01

    Generally unseen and infrequently measured, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) can transport potentially large loads of nutrients and other land-based contaminants to coastal ecosystems. To examine this linkage we employed algal bioassays, benthic community analysis, and geochemical methods to examine water quality and community parameters of nearshore reefs adjacent to a variety of potential, land-based nutrient sources on Maui. Three common reef algae, Acanthophora spicifera, Hypnea musciformis, and Ulva spp. were collected and/or deployed at six locations with SGD. Algal tissue nitrogen (N) parameters (δ15N, N %, and C:N) were compared with nutrient and δ15N-nitrate values of coastal groundwater and nearshore surface water at all locations. Benthic community composition was estimated for ten 10-m transects per location. Reefs adjacent to sugarcane farms had the greatest abundance of macroalgae, low species diversity, and the highest concentrations of N in algal tissues, coastal groundwater, and marine surface waters compared to locations with low anthropogenic impact. Based on δ15N values of algal tissues, we estimate ca. 0.31 km2 of Kahului Bay is impacted by effluent injected underground at the Kahului Wastewater Reclamation Facility (WRF); this region is barren of corals and almost entirely dominated by colonial zoanthids. Significant correlations among parameters of algal tissue N with adjacent surface and coastal groundwater N indicate that these bioassays provided a useful measure of nutrient source and loading. A conceptual model that uses Ulva spp. tissue δ15N and N % to identify potential N source(s) and relative N loading is proposed for Hawai'i. These results indicate that SGD can be a significant transport pathway for land-based nutrients with important biogeochemical and ecological implications in tropical, oceanic islands.

  5. Infrastructure design integration to optimize structures and minimize groundwater impacts. Case of a bottom slab and groundwater by-pass integration in La Sagrera railway station, Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano Juan, Alejandro; Vázquez-Suñè, Enric; Pujades, Estanislao; Velasco, Violeta; Criollo, Rotman; Jurado, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Underground constructions search the most efficient solutions to increase safety, reduce impacts in both underground construction (such as bottom slab water pressures) and groundwater (such as groundwater barrier effect), reduce future maintenance processes and ensure that everything is implemented by the minimum cost. Even being all the previous solutions directly related to groundwater, independent solutions are usually designed to independently deal with each problem. This paper shows how with a groundwater by-pass design that enables the groundwater flow through the structure it is possible to provide an homogeneous distribution of the water pressures under the bottom slab and reduce the barrier effect produced by the structure. The new integrated design has been applied to the largest infrastructure of Barcelona: La Sagrera railway station. Through a hydrogeological model has been possible to test the project and the integrated designs in three different scenarios. This new solution resolves the barrier effect produced by the structure and optimizes the bottom slab, reducing considerably the costs and increasing safety during the construction phase.

  6. Adverse events in the intensive care unit: impact on mortality and length of stay in a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Roque, Keroulay Estebanez; Tonini, Teresa; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates

    2016-10-20

    This study sought to evaluate the occurrence of adverse events and their impacts on length of stay and mortality in an intensive care unit (ICU). This is a prospective study carried out in a teaching hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The cohort included 355 patients over 18 years of age admitted to the ICU between August 1, 2011 and July 31, 2012. The process we used to identify adverse events was adapted from the method proposed by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement. We used a logistical regression to analyze the association between adverse event occurrence and death, adjusted by case severity. We confirmed 324 adverse events in 115 patients admitted over the year we followed. The incidence rate was 9.3 adverse events per 100 patients-day and adverse event occurrence impacted on an increase in length of stay (19 days) and in mortality (OR = 2.047; 95%CI: 1.172-3.570). This study highlights the serious problem of adverse events in intensive care and the risk factors associated with adverse event incidence. Resumo: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a ocorrência de eventos adversos e o impacto deles sobre o tempo de permanência e a mortalidade na unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI). Trata-se de um estudo prospectivo desenvolvido em um hospital de ensino do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A coorte foi formada por 355 pacientes maiores de 18 anos, admitidos na UTI, no período de 1º de agosto de 2011 a 31 de julho de 2012. O processo de identificação de eventos adversos baseou-se em uma adaptação do método proposto pelo Institute for Healthcare Improvement. A regressão logística foi utilizada para analisar a associação entre a ocorrência de evento adverso e o óbito, ajustado pela gravidade do paciente. Confirmados 324 eventos adversos em 115 pacientes internados ao longo de um ano de seguimento. A taxa de incidência foi de 9,3 eventos adversos por 100 pacientes-dia, e a ocorrência de evento adverso impactou no aumento do tempo de internação (19

  7. Reduced order models for prediction of groundwater quality impacts from CO₂ and brine leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Liange; Carroll, Susan; Bianchi, Marco; Mansoor, Kayyum; Sun, Yunwei; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-12-31

    A careful assessment of the risk associated with geologic CO₂ storage is critical to the deployment of large-scale storage projects. A potential risk is the deterioration of groundwater quality caused by the leakage of CO₂ and brine leakage from deep subsurface reservoirs. In probabilistic risk assessment studies, numerical modeling is the primary tool employed to assess risk. However, the application of traditional numerical models to fully evaluate the impact of CO₂ leakage on groundwater can be computationally complex, demanding large processing times and resources, and involving large uncertainties. As an alternative, reduced order models (ROMs) can be used as highly efficient surrogates for the complex process-based numerical models. In this study, we represent the complex hydrogeological and geochemical conditions in a heterogeneous aquifer and subsequent risk by developing and using two separate ROMs. The first ROM is derived from a model that accounts for the heterogeneous flow and transport conditions in the presence of complex leakage functions for CO₂ and brine. The second ROM is obtained from models that feature similar, but simplified flow and transport conditions, and allow for a more complex representation of all relevant geochemical reactions. To quantify possible impacts to groundwater aquifers, the basic risk metric is taken as the aquifer volume in which the water quality of the aquifer may be affected by an underlying CO₂ storage project. The integration of the two ROMs provides an estimate of the impacted aquifer volume taking into account uncertainties in flow, transport and chemical conditions. These two ROMs can be linked in a comprehensive system level model for quantitative risk assessment of the deep storage reservoir, wellbore leakage, and shallow aquifer impacts to assess the collective risk of CO₂ storage projects.

  8. Reduced order models for prediction of groundwater quality impacts from CO₂ and brine leakage

    DOE PAGES

    Zheng, Liange; Carroll, Susan; Bianchi, Marco; ...

    2014-12-31

    A careful assessment of the risk associated with geologic CO₂ storage is critical to the deployment of large-scale storage projects. A potential risk is the deterioration of groundwater quality caused by the leakage of CO₂ and brine leakage from deep subsurface reservoirs. In probabilistic risk assessment studies, numerical modeling is the primary tool employed to assess risk. However, the application of traditional numerical models to fully evaluate the impact of CO₂ leakage on groundwater can be computationally complex, demanding large processing times and resources, and involving large uncertainties. As an alternative, reduced order models (ROMs) can be used as highlymore » efficient surrogates for the complex process-based numerical models. In this study, we represent the complex hydrogeological and geochemical conditions in a heterogeneous aquifer and subsequent risk by developing and using two separate ROMs. The first ROM is derived from a model that accounts for the heterogeneous flow and transport conditions in the presence of complex leakage functions for CO₂ and brine. The second ROM is obtained from models that feature similar, but simplified flow and transport conditions, and allow for a more complex representation of all relevant geochemical reactions. To quantify possible impacts to groundwater aquifers, the basic risk metric is taken as the aquifer volume in which the water quality of the aquifer may be affected by an underlying CO₂ storage project. The integration of the two ROMs provides an estimate of the impacted aquifer volume taking into account uncertainties in flow, transport and chemical conditions. These two ROMs can be linked in a comprehensive system level model for quantitative risk assessment of the deep storage reservoir, wellbore leakage, and shallow aquifer impacts to assess the collective risk of CO₂ storage projects.« less

  9. Impact of adverse weather on sensors for vehicle collision avoidance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everson, Jeffrey H.; Kopala, Edward W.; Lazofson, Laurence E.; Choe, Howard C.; Pomerleau, Dean A.

    1995-12-01

    This paper treats the use of in-vehicle imaging sensors to achieve lateral control to avoid single vehicle roadway departure crashes. Since the sensor is expected to function under a variety of weather conditions, it is important to determine the overall performance envelope of the combined sensor/image processing algorithm. Initial roadway imagery was acquired under favorable ambient conditions and subsequently transformed to specified levels of adverse weather by means of software originally developed for military sensor applications. The transformed imagery was utilized to determine the relationship between adverse weather, measured in visibility ranges, versus the ability of the sensor/image processing algorithm to maintain lateral vehicle stability.

  10. Groundwater Impacts on Urban Surface Water Quality in the Lowland Polder Catchments of the Amsterdam City Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozemeijer, J.; Yu, L.; Van Breukelen, B. M.; Broers, H. P.

    2015-12-01

    Surface water quality in the Amsterdam area is suffering from high nutrient levels. The sources and transport mechanisms of these nutrients are unclear due to the complex hydrology of the highly manipulated urban and sub-urban polder catchments. This study aimed at identifying the impact of groundwater on surface water quality in the polder catchments of the greater Amsterdam city area. Therefore, we exploited the dense groundwater and surface water monitoring networks to explain spatial patterns in surface water chemistry and their relations with landscape characteristics and groundwater impact. We selected and statistically analyzed 23 variables for 144 polders, covering a total area of 700 km2. Our dataset includes concentrations of total-N, total-P, ammonium, nitrate, bicarbonate, sulfate, calcium, and chloride in surface water and groundwater, seepage rate, elevation, paved area percentage, surface water area percentage, and soil type (calcite, humus and clay percentages). Our results show that nutrient levels in groundwater were generally much higher than in surface water and often exceeded the surface water Environmental Quality Standards (EQSs). This indicates that groundwater is a large potential source of nutrients in surface water. High correlations (R2 up to 0.88) between solutes in both water compartments and close similarities in their spatial patterns confirmed the large impact of groundwater on surface water quality. Groundwater appeared to be a major source of chloride, bicarbonate and calcium in surface water and for N and P, leading to exceeding of EQSs in surface waters. In dry periods, the artificial redistribution of excess seepage water from deep polders to supply water to infiltrating polders further distributes the N and P loads delivered by groundwater over the area.

  11. The impact of intensive groundwater abstraction on recharge to a shallow regional aquifer system: evidence from Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Taylor, Richard G.; Ahmed, Kazi M.; Zahid, Anwar

    2011-06-01

    Quantitative evaluations of the impact of groundwater abstraction on recharge are rare. Over a period (1975-2007) during which groundwater abstraction increased dramatically in the Bengal Basin, changes in net groundwater recharge in Bangladesh are assessed using the water-table fluctuation method. Mean annual groundwater recharge is shown to be higher (300-600 mm) in northwestern and southwestern areas of Bangladesh than in southeastern and northeastern regions (<100 mm) where rainfall and potential recharge are greater. Net recharge in many parts of Bangladesh has increased substantially (5-15 mm/year between 1985 and 2007) in response to increased groundwater abstraction for irrigation and urban water supplies. In contrast, net recharge has slightly decreased (-0.5 to -1 mm/year) in areas where groundwater-fed irrigation is low (<30% of total irrigation) and where abstraction has either decreased or remained unchanged over the period of 1985-2007. The spatio-temporal dynamics of recharge in Bangladesh illustrate the fundamental flaw in definitions of "safe yield" based on recharge estimated under static (non-pumping) conditions and reveal the areas where (1) further groundwater abstraction may increase actual recharge to the shallow aquifer, and (2) current groundwater abstraction for irrigation and urban water supplies is unsustainable.

  12. Understanding the Effects of Groundwater Pumping on Streamflow: Human-Feedback Analysis on Downstream Impacts and Relevance to Reservoir Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, S. B.; Kumar, M.; Mahinthakumar, K.; Arumugam, S.

    2015-12-01

    To reduce the vulnerability of the surface water supply system from extreme drought, groundwater withdrawal has always been considered as an additional source for water supply. Since surface water process and groundwater are inter-connected, groundwater withdrawal reduces the amount of streamflow resulting in depletion downstream. Hence, a conjunctive management of surface water and groundwater resources is important to support the sustainable use of water resources. We propose a modeling framework that captures the conjunctive management on surface and groundwater resources for promoting freshwater sustainability. A fully coupled hydrologic model, Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Model (PIHM), has been applied to assess the effects of groundwater pumping on streamflow. The impact of groundwater pumping on streamflow during historic drought events has been evaluated to quantify the resiliency and vulnerability of the target watershed, the Haw (located in NC) and Verde River basin (located in AZ). Further, the groundwater pumping model is combined with a reservoir, Lake Jordan, model for developing optimal pumping strategies during droughts. The proposed conjunctive management model could also be used for assessing instream water quality due to pumping in local watersheds

  13. Impact of recharge variations on water quality as indicated by excess air in groundwater of the Kalahari, Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osenbrück, Karsten; Stadler, Susanne; Sültenfuß, Jürgen; Suckow, Axel O.; Weise, Stephan M.

    2009-02-01

    a strong impact of climate change on the transport of solutes like nitrate through the vadose zone which needs to be considered in predictions of future groundwater quality.

  14. The Noise from Wind Turbines: Potential Adverse Impacts on Children's Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronzaft, Arline L.

    2011-01-01

    Research linking loud sounds to hearing loss in youngsters is now widespread, resulting in the issuance of warnings to protect children's hearing. However, studies attesting to the adverse effects of intrusive sounds and noise on children's overall mental and physical health and well-being have not received similar attention. This, despite the…

  15. The Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on an Urban Pediatric Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Nadine J.; Hellman, Julia L.; Scott, Brandon G.; Weems, Carl F.; Carrion, Victor G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate the adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in youth in a low-income, urban community. Study design: Data from a retrospective chart review of 701 subjects from the Bayview Child Health Center in San Francisco are presented. Medical chart documentation of ACEs as defined in previous studies were…

  16. A stream-based methane monitoring approach for evaluating groundwater impacts associated with unconventional gas development.

    PubMed

    Heilweil, Victor M; Stolp, Bert J; Kimball, Briant A; Susong, David D; Marston, Thomas M; Gardner, Philip M

    2013-01-01

    Gaining streams can provide an integrated signal of relatively large groundwater capture areas. In contrast to the point-specific nature of monitoring wells, gaining streams coalesce multiple flow paths. Impacts on groundwater quality from unconventional gas development may be evaluated at the watershed scale by the sampling of dissolved methane (CH4 ) along such streams. This paper describes a method for using stream CH4 concentrations, along with measurements of groundwater inflow and gas transfer velocity interpreted by 1-D stream transport modeling, to determine groundwater methane fluxes. While dissolved ionic tracers remain in the stream for long distances, the persistence of methane is not well documented. To test this method and evaluate CH4 persistence in a stream, a combined bromide (Br) and CH4 tracer injection was conducted on Nine-Mile Creek, a gaining stream in a gas development area in central Utah. A 35% gain in streamflow was determined from dilution of the Br tracer. The injected CH4 resulted in a fivefold increase in stream CH4 immediately below the injection site. CH4 and δ(13) CCH4 sampling showed it was not immediately lost to the atmosphere, but remained in the stream for more than 2000 m. A 1-D stream transport model simulating the decline in CH4 yielded an apparent gas transfer velocity of 4.5 m/d, describing the rate of loss to the atmosphere (possibly including some microbial consumption). The transport model was then calibrated to background stream CH4 in Nine-Mile Creek (prior to CH4 injection) in order to evaluate groundwater CH4 contributions. The total estimated CH4 load discharging to the stream along the study reach was 190 g/d, although using geochemical fingerprinting to determine its source was beyond the scope of the current study. This demonstrates the utility of stream-gas sampling as a reconnaissance tool for evaluating both natural and anthropogenic CH4 leakage from gas reservoirs into groundwater and surface water.

  17. Impact of landfill leachate on the groundwater quality: A case study in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Salam, Magda M.; I. Abu-Zuid, Gaber

    2014-01-01

    Alexandria Governorate contracted an international company in the field of municipal solid waste management for the collection, transport and disposal of municipal solid waste. Construction and operation of the sanitary landfill sites were also included in the contract for the safe final disposal of solid waste. To evaluate the environmental impacts associated with solid waste landfilling, leachate and groundwater quality near the landfills were analyzed. The results of physico-chemical analyses of leachate confirmed that its characteristics were highly variable with severe contamination of organics, salts and heavy metals. The BOD5/COD ratio (0.69) indicated that the leachate was biodegradable and un-stabilized. It was also found that groundwater in the vicinity of the landfills did not have severe contamination, although certain parameters exceeded the WHO and EPA limits. These parameters included conductivity, total dissolved solids, chlorides, sulfates, Mn and Fe. The results suggested the need for adjusting factors enhancing anaerobic biodegradation that lead to leachate stabilization in addition to continuous monitoring of the groundwater and leachate treatment processes. PMID:26199748

  18. Impact of landfill leachate on the groundwater quality: A case study in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Salam, Magda M; I Abu-Zuid, Gaber

    2015-07-01

    Alexandria Governorate contracted an international company in the field of municipal solid waste management for the collection, transport and disposal of municipal solid waste. Construction and operation of the sanitary landfill sites were also included in the contract for the safe final disposal of solid waste. To evaluate the environmental impacts associated with solid waste landfilling, leachate and groundwater quality near the landfills were analyzed. The results of physico-chemical analyses of leachate confirmed that its characteristics were highly variable with severe contamination of organics, salts and heavy metals. The BOD5/COD ratio (0.69) indicated that the leachate was biodegradable and un-stabilized. It was also found that groundwater in the vicinity of the landfills did not have severe contamination, although certain parameters exceeded the WHO and EPA limits. These parameters included conductivity, total dissolved solids, chlorides, sulfates, Mn and Fe. The results suggested the need for adjusting factors enhancing anaerobic biodegradation that lead to leachate stabilization in addition to continuous monitoring of the groundwater and leachate treatment processes.

  19. Impact of intensive horticulture practices on groundwater content of nitrates, sodium, potassium, and pesticides.

    PubMed

    Melo, Armindo; Pinto, Edgar; Aguiar, Ana; Mansilha, Catarina; Pinho, Olívia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2012-07-01

    A monitoring program of nitrate, nitrite, potassium, sodium, and pesticides was carried out in water samples from an intensive horticulture area in a vulnerable zone from north of Portugal. Eight collecting points were selected and water-analyzed in five sampling campaigns, during 1 year. Chemometric techniques, such as cluster analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and discriminant analysis, were used in order to understand the impact of intensive horticulture practices on dug and drilled wells groundwater and to study variations in the hydrochemistry of groundwater. PCA performed on pesticide data matrix yielded seven significant PCs explaining 77.67% of the data variance. Although PCA rendered considerable data reduction, it could not clearly group and distinguish the sample types. However, a visible differentiation between the water samples was obtained. Cluster and discriminant analysis grouped the eight collecting points into three clusters of similar characteristics pertaining to water contamination, indicating that it is necessary to improve the use of water, fertilizers, and pesticides. Inorganic fertilizers such as potassium nitrate were suspected to be the most important factors for nitrate contamination since highly significant Pearson correlation (r = 0.691, P < 0.01) was obtained between groundwater nitrate and potassium contents. Water from dug wells is especially prone to contamination from the grower and their closer neighbor's practices. Water from drilled wells is also contaminated from distant practices.

  20. Modeling climate change impacts on groundwater resources using transient stochastic climatic scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goderniaux, Pascal; BrouyèRe, Serge; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Burton, Aidan; Fowler, Hayley J.; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2011-12-01

    Several studies have highlighted the potential negative impact of climate change on groundwater reserves, but additional work is required to help water managers plan for future changes. In particular, existing studies provide projections for a stationary climate representative of the end of the century, although information is demanded for the near future. Such time-slice experiments fail to account for the transient nature of climatic changes over the century. Moreover, uncertainty linked to natural climate variability is not explicitly considered in previous studies. In this study we substantially improve upon the state-of-the-art by using a sophisticated transient weather generator in combination with an integrated surface-subsurface hydrological model (Geer basin, Belgium) developed with the finite element modeling software "HydroGeoSphere." This version of the weather generator enables the stochastic generation of large numbers of equiprobable climatic time series, representing transient climate change, and used to assess impacts in a probabilistic way. For the Geer basin, 30 equiprobable climate change scenarios from 2010 to 2085 have been generated for each of six different regional climate models (RCMs). Results show that although the 95% confidence intervals calculated around projected groundwater levels remain large, the climate change signal becomes stronger than that of natural climate variability by 2085. Additionally, the weather generator's ability to simulate transient climate change enabled the assessment of the likely time scale and associated uncertainty of a specific impact, providing managers with additional information when planning further investment. This methodology constitutes a real improvement in the field of groundwater projections under climate change conditions.

  1. Multivariate analysis of groundwater quality and modeling impact of ground heat pump system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuyet, D. Q.; Saito, H.; Muto, H.; Saito, T.; Hamamoto, S.; Komatsu, T.

    2013-12-01

    The ground source heat pump system (GSHP) has recently become a popular building heating or cooling method, especially in North America, Western Europe, and Asia, due to advantages in reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission. Because of the stability of the ground temperature, GSHP can effectively exchange the excess or demand heat of the building to the ground during the building air conditioning in the different seasons. The extensive use of GSHP can potentially disturb subsurface soil temperature and thus the groundwater quality. Therefore the assessment of subsurface thermal and environmental impacts from the GSHP operations is necessary to ensure sustainable use of GSHP system as well as the safe use of groundwater resources. This study aims to monitor groundwater quality during GSHP operation and to develop a numerical model to assess changes in subsurface soil temperature and in groundwater quality as affected by GSHP operation. A GSHP system was installed in Fuchu city, Tokyo, and consists of two closed double U-tubes (50-m length) buried vertically in the ground with a distance of 7.3 m from each U-tube located outside a building. An anti-freezing solution was circulated inside the U-tube for exchanging the heat between the building and the ground. The temperature at every 5-m depth and the groundwater quality including concentrations of 16 trace elements, pH, EC, Eh and DO in the shallow aquifer (32-m depth) and the deep aquifer (44-m depth) were monitored monthly since 2012, in an observation well installed 3 m from the center of the two U-tubes.Temporal variations of each element were evaluated using multivariate analysis and geostatistics. A three-dimensional heat exchange model was developed in COMSOL Multiphysics4.3b to simulate the heat exchange processes in subsurface soils. Results showed the difference in groundwater quality between the shallow and deep aquifers to be significant for some element concentrations and DO, but

  2. A holistic look at minimizing adverse environmental impact under Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act.

    PubMed

    Veil, John A; Puder, Markus G; Littleton, Debra J; Johnson, Nancy

    2002-04-18

    Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) requires that "the location, design, construction, and capacity of cooling water intake structures reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact." As the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) develops new regulations to implement Section 316(b), much of the debate has centered on adverse impingement and entrainment impacts of cooling-water intake structures. Depending on the specific location and intake layout, once-through cooling systems withdrawing many millions of gallons of water per day can, to a varying degree, harm fish and other aquatic organisms in the water bodies from which the cooling water is withdrawn. Therefore, opponents of once-through cooling systems have encouraged the EPA to require wet or dry cooling tower systems as the best technology available (BTA), without considering site-specific conditions. However, within the context of the broader scope of the CWA mandate, this focus seems too narrow. Therefore, this article examines the phrase "minimizing adverse environmental impact" in a holistic light. Emphasis is placed on the analysis of the terms "environmental" and "minimizing." Congress chose "environmental" in lieu of other more narrowly focused terms like "impingement and entrainment," "water quality," or "aquatic life." In this light, BTA for cooling-water intake structures must minimize the entire suite of environmental impacts, as opposed to just those associated with impingement and entrainment. Wet and dry cooling tower systems work well to minimize entrainment and impingement, but they introduce other equally important impacts because they impose an energy penalty on the power output of the generating unit. The energy penalty results from a reduction in plant operating efficiency and an increase in internal power consumption. As a consequence of the energy penalty, power companies must generate additional electricity to achieve the same net output

  3. Geochemical impacts of groundwater heat pump systems in an urban alluvial aquifer with evaporitic bedrock.

    PubMed

    Garrido Schneider, Eduardo A; García-Gil, Alejandro; Vázquez-Suñè, Enric; Sánchez-Navarro, José Á

    2016-02-15

    In the last decade, there has been an extensive use of shallow geothermal exploitations in urban environments. Although the thermal interference between exploitations has been recently studied, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the geochemical impacts of those systems on the aquifers where they are installed. Groundwater flow line scale and well-doublet scale research work has been conducted at city scale to quantify the geochemical interaction of shallow geothermal exploitations with the environment. A comprehensive analysis was conducted on data obtained from a monitoring network specifically designed to control and develop aquifer policies related to thermal management of the aquifer. The geochemical impacts were evaluated from a thermodynamic point of view by means of saturation index (SI) calculations with respect to the different mineral species considered in the system. The results obtained indicate limited geochemical interaction with the urban environment in most of the situations. However, there are some cases where the interaction of the groundwater heat pump installations with the evaporitic bedrock resulted in the total disablement of the exploitation system operation wells. The application of the tool proposed proved to be pragmatic in the evaluation of geochemical impacts. Injection of water into the aquifer can trigger an important bedrock gypsum and halite dissolution process that is partly responsible for scaling in well casing pipes and collapse of the terrain in the vicinity of injection wells.

  4. Climate change impacts on risks of groundwater pollution by herbicides: a regional scale assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffens, Karin; Moeys, Julien; Lindström, Bodil; Kreuger, Jenny; Lewan, Elisabet; Jarvis, Nick

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater contributes nearly half of the Swedish drinking water supply, which therefore needs to be protected both under present and future climate conditions. Pesticides are sometimes found in Swedish groundwater in concentrations exceeding the EU-drinking water limit and thus constitute a threat. The aim of this study was to assess the present and future risks of groundwater pollution at the regional scale by currently approved herbicides. We identified representative combinations of major crop types and their specific herbicide usage (product, dose and application timing) based on long-term monitoring data from two agricultural catchments in the South-West of Sweden. All these combinations were simulated with the regional version of the pesticide fate model MACRO (called MACRO-SE) for the periods 1970-1999 and 2070-2099 for a major crop production region in South West Sweden. To represent the uncertainty in future climate data, we applied a five-member ensemble based on different climate model projections downscaled with the RCA3-model (Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute). In addition to the direct impacts of changes in the climate, the risks of herbicide leaching in the future will also be affected by likely changes in weed pressure and land use and management practices (e.g. changes in crop rotations and application timings). To assess the relative importance of such factors we performed a preliminary sensitivity analysis which provided us with a hierarchical structure for constructing future herbicide use scenarios for the regional scale model runs. The regional scale analysis gave average concentrations of herbicides leaching to groundwater for a large number of combinations of soils, crops and compounds. The results showed that future scenarios for herbicide use (more autumn-sown crops, more frequent multiple applications on one crop, and a shift from grassland to arable crops such as maize) imply significantly greater risks of herbicide

  5. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 216-Z-20 Crib, 200 West Area

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, V.G.

    1993-10-01

    As required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order ([Tri-Party Agreement] Milestone M-17-00A), this report assesses the impact of wastewater discharges to the 216-Z-20 Crib on groundwater quality. The assessment reported herein extends the initial analysis conducted from 1989 through 1990 for the Liquid Effluent Study Final Project Report. Three primary issues are addressed in response to regulator concerns with the initial analysis: The magnitude and status of the soil column transuranic inventory. Potential interactions of wastewater with carbon tetrachloride from adjacent facilities. Preferential pathways created by unsealed monitoring wells.

  6. Numerical modeling of geothermal heat pump system: evaluation of site specific groundwater thermal impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedron, Roberto; Sottani, Andrea; Vettorello, Luca

    2014-05-01

    A pilot plant using a geothermal open-loop heat pump system has been realized in the city of Vicenza (Northern Italy), in order to meet the heating and cooling needs of the main monumental building in the historical center, the Palladian Basilica. The low enthalpy geothermal system consists of a pumping well and a reinjection well, both intercepting the same confined aquifer; three other monitoring wells have been drilled and then provided with water level and temperature dataloggers. After about 1 year and a half of activity, during a starting experimental period of three years, we have now the opportunity to analyze long term groundwater temperature data series and to evaluate the numerical modeling reliability about thermal impact prediction. The initial model, based on MODFLOW and SHEMAT finite difference codes, has been calibrated using pumping tests and other field investigations data, obtaining a valid and reliable groundwater flow simulation. But thermal parameters, such as thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity, didn't have a site specific direct estimation and therefore they have been assigned to model cells referring to bibliographic standards, usually derived from laboratory tests and barely representing real aquifer properties. Anyway preliminary heat transport results have been compared with observed temperature trends, showing an efficient representation of the thermal plume extension and shape. The ante operam simulation could not consider heat pump real utilization, that happened to be relevantly different from the expected project values; so the first numerical model could not properly simulate the groundwater temperature evolution. Consequently a second model has been implemented, in order to calibrate the mathematical simulation with monitored groundwater temperature datasets, trying to achieve higher levels of reliability in heat transport phenomena interpretation. This second step analysis focuses on aquifer thermal parameters

  7. Environmental impacts on soil and groundwater at airports: origin, contaminants of concern and environmental risks.

    PubMed

    Nunes, L M; Zhu, Y-G; Stigter, T Y; Monteiro, J P; Teixeira, M R

    2011-11-01

    Environmental impacts of airports are similar to those of many industries, though their operations expand over a very large area. Most international impact assessment studies and environmental management programmes have been giving less focus on the impacts to soil and groundwater than desirable. This may be the result of the large attention given to air and noise pollution, relegating other environmental descriptors to a second role, even when the first are comparatively less relevant. One reason that contributes to such "biased" evaluation is the lack of systematic information about impacts to soil and groundwater from airport activities, something the present study intends to help correct. Results presented here include the review of over seven hundred documents and online databases, with the objective of obtaining the following information to support environmental studies: (i) which operations are responsible for chemical releases?; (ii) where are these releases located?; (iii) which contaminants of concern are released?; (iv) what are the associated environmental risks? Results showed that the main impacts occur as a result of fuel storage, stormwater runoff and drainage systems, fuel hydrant systems, fuel transport and refuelling, atmospheric deposition, rescue and fire fighting training areas, winter operations, electrical substations, storage of chemical products by airport owners or tenants, and maintenance of green areas. A new method for ranking environmental risks of organic substances, based on chemical properties, is proposed and applied. Results show that the contaminants with the highest risks are the perfluorochemicals, benzene, trichloroethylene and CCl(4). The obtained information provides a basis for establishing the planning and checking phases of environmental management systems, and may also help in the best design of pollution prevention measures in order to avoid or reduce significant environmental impacts from airports.

  8. Impact of reclaimed water in the watercourse of Huai River on groundwater from Chaobai River basin, Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yilei; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Yinghua; Zheng, Fandong; Liu, Licai

    2016-12-01

    Reclaimed water is efficient for replenishing the dry rivers in northern China, but regional groundwater may be at risk from pollution. Therefore, samples of reclaimed water, river water, and groundwater were collected at the Huai River in the Chaobai River basin in 2010. The water chemistry and isotopic compositions of the samples were analyzed in the laboratory. The reclaimed water had stable compositions of water chemistry and isotopes, and the Na·Ca-HCO3·Cl water type. The water chemistry of the river water was consistent with that of the reclaimed water. A June peak of total nitrogen was the prominent characteristic in the shallow groundwater, which also had the Na·Ca-HCO3·Cl water type. However, the water chemistry and isotopes in most of the deep groundwater remained stable, and the water type was Ca·Mg-HCO3. The amount of reclaimed water recharging the groundwater was about 2.5 × 107 m3/yr. All of the shallow groundwater was impacted by the reclaimed water, with the mixing proportion of reclaimed water ranging from 42% to 80 % in the dry season and from 20% to 86% in the wet season. Only one deep well, with proportions of 67% (dry season) and 28% (wet season), was impacted. TDS, EC, and major ions (Na, K, Cl, NH4-N, NO2-N, and NO3-N) were increased in the impacted wells.

  9. Estimating the Impact of Vadose Zone Sources on Groundwater to Support Performance Assessment of Soil Vapor Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Oostrom, Martinus; Truex, Michael J.; Rice, Amy K.; Johnson, Christian D.; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Becker, Dave; Simon, Michelle A.

    2014-03-13

    A generalized conceptual model approach was developed that can be used to estimate the impact of volatile contaminant sources in the vadose zone on groundwater for sites where soil vapor extraction (SVE) operations have diminished source strength. The model has the potential to be broadly applicable for sites where vapor-phase transport dominates. The primary target for this conceptual model and related numerical modeling estimate of groundwater impact is for sites where contaminants have been removed from readily accessible portions of the subsurface, but where contaminants may persist in localized portions of the vadose zone. This paper describes the conceptual model, uses numerical simulations to evaluate the parameters controlling impact to groundwater, and presents estimated results for a range of input conditions. Over the implied ranges, the compliance well concentrations showed (inverse) proportionality with source concentration, Henry’s Law constant, and well screen length. An increase in site recharge caused a linear response in well concentration, with slopes dependent on the groundwater velocity. All other tested parameters resulted in nonlinear responses. The functional relationship between dimensional and transport parameters and resulting groundwater concentrations provide a basis for establishing a structured approach to evaluating the potential risk to groundwater posed by a vadose zone source. This type of evaluation is particularly important to sites where SVE has been applied and reduced contaminant concentrations, but has reached a condition of diminishing returns such that a site must consider whether continuation of SVE, remedy modifications, or closure is warranted.

  10. Impact of Extended-Duration Shifts on Medical Errors, Adverse Events, and Attentional Failures

    PubMed Central

    Barger, Laura K; Ayas, Najib T; Cade, Brian E; Cronin, John W; Rosner, Bernard; Speizer, Frank E; Czeisler, Charles A

    2006-01-01

    Background A recent randomized controlled trial in critical-care units revealed that the elimination of extended-duration work shifts (≥24 h) reduces the rates of significant medical errors and polysomnographically recorded attentional failures. This raised the concern that the extended-duration shifts commonly worked by interns may contribute to the risk of medical errors being made, and perhaps to the risk of adverse events more generally. Our current study assessed whether extended-duration shifts worked by interns are associated with significant medical errors, adverse events, and attentional failures in a diverse population of interns across the United States. Methods and Findings We conducted a Web-based survey, across the United States, in which 2,737 residents in their first postgraduate year (interns) completed 17,003 monthly reports. The association between the number of extended-duration shifts worked in the month and the reporting of significant medical errors, preventable adverse events, and attentional failures was assessed using a case-crossover analysis in which each intern acted as his/her own control. Compared to months in which no extended-duration shifts were worked, during months in which between one and four extended-duration shifts and five or more extended-duration shifts were worked, the odds ratios of reporting at least one fatigue-related significant medical error were 3.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3–3.7) and 7.5 (95% CI, 7.2–7.8), respectively. The respective odds ratios for fatigue-related preventable adverse events, 8.7 (95% CI, 3.4–22) and 7.0 (95% CI, 4.3–11), were also increased. Interns working five or more extended-duration shifts per month reported more attentional failures during lectures, rounds, and clinical activities, including surgery and reported 300% more fatigue-related preventable adverse events resulting in a fatality. Conclusions In our survey, extended-duration work shifts were associated with an

  11. Sensitivity of mGROWA-simulated groundwater recharge to changes in soil and land use parameters in a Mediterranean environment and conclusions in view of ensemble-based climate impact simulations.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, L; Herrmann, F; Blaschek, M; Duttmann, R; Wendland, F

    2016-02-01

    This study examines the impact of changing climatic conditions on groundwater recharge in the Riu Mannu catchment in southern Sardinia. Based on an ensemble of four downscaled and bias corrected combinations of Global and Regional Climate Models (GCM-RCMs), the deterministic distributed water balance model mGROWA was used to simulate long-term mean annual groundwater recharge in the catchment for four 30-year periods between 1981 and 2100. The four employed GCM-RCM combinations project an adverse climatic development for the study area: by the period 2071-2100, annual rainfall will decrease considerably, while grass reference evapotranspiration will rise. Accordingly, ensemble results for our base scenario showed a climate-induced decrease in the median of annual groundwater recharge in areas covered by Macchia from 42-48mm/a to 25-35mm/a between the periods 1981-2010 and 2071-2100, corresponding to a reduction of 17-43%. To take into account the influence of additional plant available water storage in weathered bedrock on groundwater recharge generation, the model was extended by a regolith zone for regions covered by Mediterranean Macchia. In a set of model runs ("scenarios"), parameter values controlling the water storage capacity of this zone were increased step-wise and evaluated by comparison to the base scenario to analyze the sensitivity of the model outcome to these changes. The implementation of a regolith zone had a considerable impact on groundwater recharge and resulted in a decrease of the median in annual groundwater recharge: by 2071-2100, the 35% scenario (available water content in the regolith of 3.9 to 5.7vol.%) showed a reduction of 67-82% as compared to the period 1981-2010 in the base scenario. In addition, we also examined the influence of changes in the crop coefficients (Kc) as well as different soil texture distributions on simulated groundwater recharge.

  12. Chase the direct impact of rainfall into groundwater in Mt. Fuji from multiple analyses including microbial DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Kenji; Sugiyama, Ayumi; Nagaosa, Kazuyo; Tsujimura, Maki

    2016-04-01

    A huge amount of groundwater is stored in subsurface environment of Mt. Fuji, the largest volcanic mountain in Japan. Based on the concept of piston flow transport of groundwater an apparent residence time was estimated to ca. 30 years by 36Cl/Cl ratio (Tosaki et al., 2011). However, this number represents an averaged value of the residence time of groundwater which had been mixed before it flushes out. We chased signatures of direct impact of rainfall into groundwater to elucidate the routes of groundwater, employing three different tracers; stable isotopic analysis (delta 18O), chemical analysis (concentration of silica) and microbial DNA analysis. Though chemical analysis of groundwater shows an averaged value of the examined water which was blended by various water with different sources and routes in subsurface environment, microbial DNA analysis may suggest the place where they originated, which may give information of the source and transport routes of the water examined. Throughout the in situ observation of four rainfall events showed that stable oxygen isotopic ratio of spring water and shallow groundwater obtained from 726m a.s.l. where the average recharge height of rainfall was between 1500 and 1800 m became higher than the values before a torrential rainfall, and the concentration of silica decreased after this event when rainfall exceeded 300 mm in precipitation of an event. In addition, the density of Prokaryotes in spring water apparently increased. Those changes did not appear when rainfall did not exceed 100 mm per event. Thus, findings shown above indicated a direct impact of rainfall into shallow groundwater, which appeared within a few weeks of torrential rainfall in the studied geological setting. In addition, increase in the density of Archaea observed at deep groundwater after the torrential rainfall suggested an enlargement of the strength of piston flow transport through the penetration of rainfall into deep groundwater. This finding was

  13. A Holistic Look at Minimizing Adverse Environmental Impact Under Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act

    DOE PAGES

    Veil, John A.; Puder, Markus G.; Littleton, Debra J.; ...

    2002-01-01

    Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) requires that “the location, design, construction, and capacity of cooling water intake structures reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact.” As the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) develops new regulations to implement Section 316(b), much of the debate has centered on adverse impingement and entrainment impacts of cooling-water intake structures. Depending on the specific location and intake layout, once-through cooling systems withdrawing many millions of gallons of water per day can, to a varying degree, harm fish and other aquatic organisms in the water bodies from which the coolingmore » water is withdrawn. Therefore, opponents of once-through cooling systems have encouraged the EPA to require wet or dry cooling tower systems as the best technology available (BTA), without considering site-specific conditions. However, within the context of the broader scope of the CWA mandate, this focus seems too narrow. Therefore, this article examines the phrase “minimizing adverse environmental impact” in a holistic light. Emphasis is placed on the analysis of the terms “environmental” and “minimizing.” Congress chose “environmental” in lieu of other more narrowly focused terms like “impingement and entrainment,” “water quality,” or “aquatic life.” In this light, BTA for cooling-water intake structures must minimize the entire suite of environmental impacts, as opposed to just those associated with impingement and entrainment. Wet and dry cooling tower systems work well to minimize entrainment and impingement, but they introduce other equally important impacts because they impose an energy penalty on the power output of the generating unit. The energy penalty results from a reduction in plant operating efficiency and an increase in internal power consumption. As a consequence of the energy penalty, power companies must generate additional

  14. The impact of outpatient chemotherapy-related adverse events on the quality of life of breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Tachi, Tomoya; Teramachi, Hitomi; Tanaka, Kazuhide; Asano, Shoko; Osawa, Tomohiro; Kawashima, Azusa; Yasuda, Masahiro; Mizui, Takashi; Nakada, Takumi; Noguchi, Yoshihiro; Tsuchiya, Teruo; Goto, Chitoshi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to clarify the impact of adverse events associated with the initial course of outpatient chemotherapy on the quality of life of breast cancer patients. We conducted a survey to assess the quality of life in 48 breast cancer patients before and after receiving their first course of outpatient chemotherapy at Gifu Municipal Hospital. Patients completed the European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions and Quality of Life Questionnaire for Cancer Patients Treated with Anticancer Drugs before and after 1 course of outpatient chemotherapy. European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions utility value and Quality of Life Questionnaire for Cancer Patients Treated with Anticancer Drugs total score decreased significantly after chemotherapy (p<0.001 and p = 0.018, respectively). The mean scores for the activity, physical condition, and psychological condition subscales of the Quality of Life Questionnaire for Cancer Patients Treated with Anticancer Drugs decreased significantly after chemotherapy (p = 0.003, p<0.001, and p = 0.032, respectively), whereas the social relationships score increased significantly (p<0.001). Furthermore, in the evaluation of quality of life according to individual adverse events, the decrease in quality of life after chemotherapy in terms of the European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions utility value and the Quality of Life Questionnaire for Cancer Patients Treated with Anticancer Drugs total score was greater in anorexic patients than in non-anorexic patients (p = 0.009 and p<0.001, respectively). This suggests that anorexia greatly reduces quality of life. Our findings reveal that anticancer drug-related adverse events, particularly anorexia, reduce overall quality of life following the first course of outpatient chemotherapy in current breast cancer patients. These findings are extremely useful and important in understanding the impact of anticancer drug-related adverse events on quality of life.

  15. Modelling the Impact of Human Actors on Groundwater Resources under Conditions of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, R.; Reichenau, T. G.; Krimly, T.; Dabbert, S.; Schneider, K.; Mauser, W.; Hennicker, R.

    2012-12-01

    Water resources, activities of human actors and climate change are related in many different and complex ways because of the existence of and strong interactions between various influencing factors, including those that are natural-environmental and socio-economic. The GLOWA-Danube research cooperation has developed the integrated simulation system DANUBIA to simulate water-related influences of global change in different spatial and temporal contexts. DANUBIA is a modular system comprised of 17 dynamically-coupled, process-based model components and a framework which controls the interaction of these components with respect to space and time. This contribution describes approaches and capabilities of DANUBIA with regard to the simulation of global change effects on human decisions in water related fields with a focus on agriculture and groundwater. In agriculture, market prices and legislation can be equally or even more important than water availability in determining farmers' behavior and thus in determining the agricultural impact on water resources quantity and quality. The DANUBIA simulation framework and the associated DeepActor-framework for simulation of decision-making by human actors are presented together with the model components which are most relevant to the interactions between agriculture and groundwater. The approach for developing combination climate and socio-economic scenarios is explained. Exemplary scenario results are shown for the Upper Danube Catchment in Southern Germany. References Barthel, R., Janisch, S., N. Schwarz, A. Trifkovic, D. Nickel, C. Schulz, W. Mauser (2008): An integrated modelling framework for simulating regional-scale actor responses to global change in the water domain. Environmental Modelling and Software, 23, 1095-1121 (doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2008.02.004) Barthel, R., Reichenau T., Krimly, T., Dabbert, S., Schneider, K., Mauser, W. (2012) Integrated modeling of climate change impacts on agriculture and groundwater

  16. Impact of pine needle leachates from a mountain pine beetle infested watershed on groundwater geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryhoda, M.; Sitchler, A.; Dickenson, E.

    2013-12-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB) epidemic in the northwestern United States is a recent indicator of climate change; having an impact on the lodgepole pine forest ecosystem productivity. Pine needle color can be used to predict the stage of a MPB infestation, as they change color from a healthy green, to red, to gray as the tree dies. Physical processes including precipitation and snowfall can cause leaching of pine needles in all infestation stages. Understanding the evolution of leachate chemistry through the stages of MPB infestation will allow for better prediction of the impact of MPBs on groundwater geochemistry, including a potential increase in soil metal mobilization and potential increases in disinfection byproduct precursor compounds. This study uses batch experiments to determine the leachate chemistry of pine needles from trees in four stages of MPB infestation from Summit County, CO, a watershed currently experiencing the MPB epidemic. Each stage of pine needles undergoes four subsequent leach periods in temperature-controlled DI water. The subsequent leaching method adds to the experiment by determining how leachate chemistry of each stage changes in relation to contact time with water. The leachate is analyzed for total organic carbon. Individual organic compounds present in the leachate are analyzed by UV absorption spectra, fluorescence spectrometry, high-pressure liquid chromatography for organic acid analysis, and size exclusion chromatography. Leachate chemistry results will be used to create a numerical model simulating reactions of the leachate with soil as it flows through to groundwater during precipitation and snowfall events.

  17. Synergistic desalination of potash brine-impacted groundwater using a dual adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Nick P; Dynes, James J; Chang, Wonjae

    2017-03-22

    The impact of saline mining effluent has been a significant environmental concern. Natural and modified clay-mineral adsorbents have been receiving increasing attention for salinity reduction of brine-impacted water, especially for natural resource extraction sites and surrounding environments. In this study, a dual-adsorbent treatment based on the sequential application of calcined layered double hydroxide (CLDH) and acid-treated zeolite was developed, evaluated and characterized for the desalination of potash brine-impacted groundwater. Potash brine produced by conventional potash mining in Saskatchewan (Canada) contains a large amount of Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-). The CLDH and acid-treated clinoptilolite zeolites were combined to sequentially remove Cl(-) and Na(+). A series of batch adsorption experiments were conducted for synthetic saline water and potash brine-spiked groundwater using various combinations of adsorbents: natural zeolites (NZ) or acid-treated zeolites (AZ) with or without the CLDH pretreatment. The experiment revealed that the Na(+) removal percentage was synergistically increased by the dechlorination pretreatment using CLDH, and further improved by AZ. The CLDH-AZ dual adsorbent achieved a Langmuir Na(+) adsorption capacity of 24.4mg/g, a significant improvement over conventional approaches to zeolite-based desalination. Using the brine-impacted groundwater with a high sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) of 13.3±0.1, the CLDH-AZ dual adsorbent decreased the concentrations of Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) by 87, 97, and 87%, respectively (below drinking water standards). It also exhibited the additional advantages of neutralizing the effluent pH and decreasing the hardness, SAR, and total dissolved sulfur concentration. This study addresses the removal mechanisms, which are associated with the structural memory effect, dealumination, protonic exchanges, and zeolite porosity changes. Synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy analyses provided

  18. Hydrogeochemical processes and impact of tanning industries on groundwater quality in Ambur, Vellore district, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Kanagaraj, G; Elango, L

    2016-12-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the hydrogeochemical processes and the impact of tanning industries on groundwater in Ambur, Vellore district, Tamil Nadu, India. Thirty groundwater samples were collected during pre monsoon (July 2015) and post monsoon (January 2016) from the open and shallow wells around this region and were analyzed for major ions and chromium. The major ion concentration follows the order of Na(+) > Ca(2+) > Mg(2+) > K(+) (cations) and Cl(-) > HCO3(-) > SO4(2-) > NO3(-) (anions) for both seasons. The high concentrations of Na(+), Cl(-), and Cr around the tannery regions indicate the impact of effluent discharged from tannery units. In general, the groundwater of this study area is of Na(+)-Cl(-) type, which is due to the mixing of tannery effluent and cation exchange process. Ionic ratio indicates that the silicate weathering influences the groundwater chemistry. The permissible limit of chromium in the groundwater exceeds in over 50 % of the sampling wells. The factor analysis reveals that the dominant source for ionic contents is due to tannery effluents and cation exchange processes. To overcome this situation, it is essential to improve the performance of the effluent treatment plants so as to remove the salinity of wastewater and to plan for rainfall recharge structures for improving the groundwater recharge.

  19. Identification and prioritization of relationships between environmental stressor and adverse human health impacts

    EPA Science Inventory

    AbstractBackground: There are over 80,000 chemicals in commerce with little data available describing their impacts on human health. Biomonitoring surveys, such as the NHANES, offer one route to identifying possible relationships between environmental chemicals and health impacts...

  20. Adverse Impact of Racial Isolation on Student Performance: A Study in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Andy; Joyner, Ann Moss; Osment, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the impact of racial isolation on high school student performance in North Carolina, a state in the southeast United States. Our research goal is to investigate if increased isolation negatively impacts Black students' academic performance. Employing the North Carolina State Department of Public Instruction (NCDPI) dataset, we…

  1. Relationship Between Adverse Childhood Experiences and Homelessness and the Impact of Axis I and II Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Leslie E.; Mota, Natalie; Afifi, Tracie O.; Katz, Laurence Y.; Distasio, Jino

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the links between homelessness associated with serious mental and physical healthy disparities and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in nationally representative data, with Axis I and II disorders as potential mediators. Methods. We examined data from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions in 2001–2002 and 2004–2005, and included 34 653 participants representative of the noninstitutionalized US population who were 20 years old or older. We studied the variables related to 4 classes of Axis I disorders, all 10 Axis II personality disorders, a wide range of ACEs, and a lifetime history of homelessness. Results. Analyses revealed high prevalences of each ACE in individuals experiencing lifetime homelessness (17%–60%). A mediation model with Axis I and II disorders determined that childhood adversities were significantly related to homelessness through direct effects (adjusted odd ratios = 2.04, 4.24) and indirect effects, indicating partial mediation. Population attributable fractions were also reported. Conclusions. Although Axis I and II disorders partially mediated the relationship between ACEs and homelessness, a strong direct association remained. This novel finding has implications for interventions and policy. Additional research is needed to understand relevant causal pathways. PMID:24148049

  2. Evaluation of the impacts of urban development on groundwater storage at the regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskar, A. S.; Welty, C.; Maxwell, R. M.; Miller, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Urban development results in a myriad of changes to the natural environment; these changes can give rise to a range of effects on the groundwater system. We have used the integrated subsurface - surface - land surface hydrologic model ParFlow.CLM to evaluate and isolate the impacts of urban development on groundwater storage at the regional scale. We have applied the model to the 13,216 sq km Baltimore metropolitan area at a 500 m horizontal and 5 m vertical discretization, incorporating realistic estimates of anthropogenic fluxes (lawn watering, leakage from water supply pipes, infiltration into sewer pipes, withdrawals for water supply) as well as any available hydrogeologic data. We developed a base-case model, where all urban fluxes and features are incorporated, followed by model scenarios in which urban features were modified one-at-a time to evaluate the effects of each feature. The scenarios presented are: (1) the vegetated city, in which urban land is represented as natural vegetation mosaic in the land surface model; (2) the pervious city, in which low hydraulic conductivity values representing impervious surfaces are replaced with higher soil hydraulic conductivities; (3) the intact-sewer scenario, in which infiltration and inflow (I/I) of groundwater and stormwater into wastewater sewer pipes is removed; and (4) the no-anthropogenic- discharge-and-recharge scenario, in which all anthropogenic input and output fluxes are removed. We compared the subsurface storage of these scenarios to the base case model. We found that the pervious city subsurface storage was slightly greater than the subsurface storage in the base case, which is expected due to additional infiltration associated higher hydraulic conductivity values. The magnitude of this increase in subsurface storage was surprisingly small compared to changes found in other scenarios. The intact-sewer scenario eliminated the large quantity of groundwater infiltrating into wastewater pipes in the

  3. Assessment of climate change impacts on groundwater resources: the case study of Veneto and Friuli plain in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Critto, Andrea; Pasini, Sara; Torresan, Silvia; Rizzi, Jonathan; Zabeo, Alex; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Climate change will have different impacts on water resources and water-dependent services worldwide. In particular, climate-related risks for groundwater and related ecosystems pose great concern to scientists and water authorities involved in the protection of these valuable resources. Research is needed to better understand how climate change will impact groundwater resources in specific regions and places and to develop predictive tools for their sustainable management, copying with the envisaged effects of global climate change and the key principles of EU water policy. Within the European project Life+ TRUST (Tool for Regional-scale assessment of groundwater Storage improvement in adaptation to climaTe change), a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology was developed in order to identify impacts from climate change on groundwater and associated ecosystems (e.g. surface waters, agricultural areas, natural environments) and to rank areas and receptors at risk in the high and middle Veneto and Friuli Plain (Italy). Based on an integrated analysis of impacts, vulnerability and risks linked to climate change at the regional scale, a RRA framework complying with the Sources-Pathway-Receptor-Consequence (SPRC) approach was defined. Relevant impacts on groundwater and surface waters (i.e. groundwater level variations, changes in nitrate infiltration processes, changes in water availability for irrigation) were selected and analyzed through hazard scenario, exposure, susceptibility and risk assessment. The RRA methodology used hazard scenarios constructed through global and high resolution models simulations for the 2071-2100 period, according with IPCC A1B emission scenario in order to produce useful indications for future risk prioritization and to support the addressing of adaptation measures, primarily Managed Artificial Recharge (MAR) techniques. Relevant outcomes from the described RRA application highlighted that potential climate change impacts will occur

  4. Impacts of Near-term Climate Change on Surface Water - Groundwater Availability in the Nueces River basin, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, T.; Kumar, M.

    2014-12-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions, sustainability of surface water and groundwater resources is highly uncertain in the face of climate change as well as under competing demands due to urbanization, population growth and water needs to support ecosystem services. Most studies on climate change impact assessment focus on either surface water or groundwater resources alone. In this study, we utilize a fully coupled surface water and groundwater model, Penn-State Integrated Hydrologic Model (PIHM), and recent climate change projections from Climate Models Inter-comparison Project-5 (CMIP5) to evaluate impacts of near-term climate change on water availability in the Nueces River basin, TX. After performing calibration and validation of PIHM over multiple sites, hindcast simulations will be performed over the 1981-2010 period using data from multiple General Circulation Models (GCMs) obtained from the CMIP5 Project. The results will be compared to the observed data to understand added utility of hindcasts in improving the estimation of surface water and groundwater resources. Finally, we will assess the impacts of climate change on both surface water and groundwater resources over the next 20-30 years, which is a relevant time period for water management decisions.

  5. Evaluation of the potential impact of climate changes on groundwater recharge in Karkheh river basin (Khuzestan, Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrishamchi, A.; Beigi, E.; Tajrishy, M.; Abrishamchi, A.

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater is an important natural resource for human beings and ecosystems, especially in arid semi arid regions with scarce water resources and high climate variability. This vital resource is under stress in terms of both quantity and quality due to increased demands as well as the drought. Wise groundwater management requires vulnerability and susceptibility assessment of groundwater resources to natural and anthropogenic phenomena such as drought, over-abstraction and quality deterioration both in the current climatic situation and in the context of climate change. There is enough evidence that climate change is expected to affect all elements of hydrologic cycle and have negative effects on water resources due to increased variability in extreme hydrologic events of droughts and floods. .In this study impact of climate change on groundwater recharge in Karkheh river basin in province of Khuzestan, Iran, has been investigated using a physically-based methodology that can be used for predicting both temporal and spatial varying groundwater recharge. To ensure the sustainability of the land and water resources developments, assessment of the possible impacts of climate change on hydrology and water resources in the basin is necessary. Quantifying groundwater recharge is essential for management of groundwater resources. Recharge was estimated by using the hydrological evaluation of landfill performance (HELP3) water budget model. Model’s parameters were calibrated and validated using observational data in 1990-1998. The impact of climate change was modeled using downscaled precipitation and temperature from runs of CGCM2 model. These data were derived from two scenarios, A2 and B2 for three periods: 2010-2039, 2040-2069, and 2070-2099. Results of the study indicate that due to global warming evapotranspiration rates will increase and winter-precipitation will fall, spring-snowmelt will shift toward winter and consequently it will cause recharge to increase

  6. IMPACT OF ABDOMINAL OBESITY ON INCIDENCE OF ADVERSE METABOLIC EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH ANTIHYPERTENSIVE MEDICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M.; Wen, Sheron; Beitelshees, Amber L.; Zineh, Issam; Gums, John G.; Turner, Stephen T.; Gong, Yan; Hall, Karen; Parekh, Vishal; Chapman, Arlene B.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Johnson, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed adverse metabolic effects (AMEs) of atenolol and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) among hypertensive patients with and without abdominal obesity using data from a randomized, open-label study of hypertensive patients without evidence of cardiovascular disease or diabetes. Intervention included randomization to HCTZ 25mg or atenolol 100mg monotherapy followed by their combination. Fasting glucose, insulin, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and uric acid were measured at baseline and after mono-and combination therapy. Outcomes included new occurrence of and predictors for new cases of glucose ≥ 100mg/dl (impaired fasting glucose [IFG]), triglyceride ≥ 150 mg/dl, HDL ≤ 40mg/dl for men or ≤ 50mg/dl for women, or new onset diabetes according to presence or absence of abdominal obesity. Abdominal obesity was present in 167/395 (58%). Regardless of strategy, in those with abdominal obesity, 20% had IFG at baseline compared with 40% at end of study (p<0.0001). Proportion with triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dl increased from 33% at baseline to 46% at end of study (p<0.01). New onset diabetes occurred in 13 (6%) with and in 4 (2%) without abdominal obesity. Baseline levels of glucose, triglyceride and HDL predicted adverse outcomes and predictors for new onset diabetes after monotherapy in those with abdominal obesity included HCTZ strategy (OR 47, 95% CI 2.55-862), female sex (OR 31.3, 95% CI 2.10-500) and uric acid (OR 3.2, 95% CI 2.35-7.50). Development of AME, including new onset diabetes associated with short term exposure to HCTZ and atenolol was more common in those with abdominal obesity. PMID:19917874

  7. Interactions of early adversity with stress-related gene polymorphisms impact regional brain structure in females

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Arpana; Labus, Jennifer; Kilpatrick, Lisa A.; Bonyadi, Mariam; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Heendeniya, Nuwanthi; Bradesi, Sylvie; Chang, Lin; Mayer, Emeran A.

    2015-01-01

    Early adverse life events (EALs) have been associated with regional thinning of the subgenual cingulate cortex (sgACC), a brain region implicated in the development of disorders of mood and affect, and often comorbid functional pain disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Regional neuroinflammation related to chronic stress system activation has been suggested as a possible mechanism underlying these neuroplastic changes. However, the interaction of genetic and environmental factors in these changes is poorly understood. The current study aimed to evaluate the interactions of EALs and candidate gene polymorphisms in influencing thickness of the sgACC. 210 female subjects (137 healthy controls; 73 IBS) were genotyped for stress and inflammation-related gene polymorphisms. Genetic variation with EALs, and diagnosis on sgACC thickness was examined, while controlling for race, age, and total brain volume. Compared to HCs, IBS had significantly reduced sgACC thickness (p = 0.03). Regardless of disease group (IBS vs. HC), thinning of the left sgACC was associated with a significant gene-gene environment interaction between the IL-1β genotype, the NR3C1 haplotype, and a history of EALs (p = 0.05). Reduced sgACC thickness in women with the minor IL-1β allele, was associated with EAL total scores regardless of NR3C1 haplotype status (p = 0.02). In subjects homozygous for the major IL-1β allele, reduced sgACC with increasing levels of EALs was seen only with the less common NR3C1 haplotype (p = 0.02). These findings support an interaction between polymorphisms related to stress and inflammation and early adverse life events in modulating a key region of the emotion arousal circuit. PMID:25630611

  8. Factors influencing adverse skin responses in rats receiving repeated subcutaneous injections and potential impact on neurobehavior

    PubMed Central

    Levoe, S. Nikki; Flannery, Brenna M.; Brignolo, Laurie; Imai, Denise M.; Koehne, Amanda; Austin, Adam T.; Bruun, Donald A.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Lein, Pamela J.

    2015-01-01

    Repeated subcutaneous (s.c.) injection is a common route of administration in chronic studies of neuroactive compounds. However, in a pilot study we noted a significant incidence of skin abnormalities in adult male Long-Evans rats receiving daily s.c. injections of peanut oil (1.0 ml/kg) in the subscapular region for 21 d. Histopathological analyses of the lesions were consistent with a foreign body reaction. Subsequent studies were conducted to determine factors that influenced the incidence or severity of skin abnormalities, and whether these adverse skin reactions influenced a specific neurobehavioral outcome. Rats injected daily for 21 d with food grade peanut oil had an earlier onset and greater incidence of skin abnormalities relative to rats receiving an equal volume (1.0 ml/kg/d) of reagent grade peanut oil or triglyceride of coconut oil. Skin abnormalities in animals injected daily with peanut oil were increased in animals housed on corncob versus paper bedding. Comparison of animals obtained from different barrier facilities exposed to the same injection paradigm (reagent grade peanut oil, 1.0 ml/kg/d s.c.) revealed significant differences in the severity of skin abnormalities. However, animals from different barrier facilities did not perform differently in a Pavlovian fear conditioning task. Collectively, these data suggest that environmental factors influence the incidence and severity of skin abnormalities following repeated s.c. injections, but that these adverse skin responses do not significantly influence performance in at least one test of learning and memory. PMID:25705100

  9. Impacts of varying agricultural intensification on crop yield and groundwater resources: comparison of the North China Plain and US High Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Hongwei; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Shen, Yanjun; Reedy, Robert C.; Long, Di; Liu, Changming

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural intensification is often considered the primary approach to meet rising food demand. Here we compare impacts of intensive cultivation on crop yield in the North China Plain (NCP) with less intensive cultivation in the US High Plains (USHP) and associated effects on water resources using spatial datasets. Average crop yield during the past decade from intensive double cropping of wheat and corn in the NCP was only 15% higher than the yield from less intensive single cropping of corn in the USHP, although nitrogen fertilizer application and percent of cropland that was irrigated were both ˜2 times greater in the NCP than in the USHP. Irrigation and fertilization in both regions have depleted groundwater storage and resulted in widespread groundwater nitrate contamination. The limited response to intensive management in the NCP is attributed in part to the two month shorter growing season for corn to accommodate winter wheat than that for corn in the USHP. Previous field and modeling studies of crop yield in the NCP highlight over application of N and water resulting in low nitrogen and water use efficiencies and indicate that cultivars, plant densities, soil fertility and other factors had a much greater impact on crop yields over the past few decades. The NCP-USHP comparison along with previous field and modeling studies underscores the need to weigh the yield returns from intensive management relative to the negative impacts on water resources. Future crop management should consider the many factors that contribute to yield along with optimal fertilization and irrigation to further increase crop yields while reducing adverse impacts on water resources.

  10. Population Trends of Central European Montane Birds Provide Evidence for Adverse Impacts of Climate Change on High-Altitude Species.

    PubMed

    Flousek, Jiří; Telenský, Tomáš; Hanzelka, Jan; Reif, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is among the most important global threats to biodiversity and mountain areas are supposed to be under especially high pressure. Although recent modelling studies suggest considerable future range contractions of montane species accompanied with increased extinction risk, data allowing to test actual population consequences of the observed climate changes and identifying traits associated to their adverse impacts are very scarce. To fill this knowledge gap, we estimated long-term population trends of montane birds from 1984 to 2011 in a central European mountain range, the Giant Mountains (Krkonoše), where significant warming occurred over this period. We then related the population trends to several species' traits related to the climate change effects. We found that the species breeding in various habitats at higher altitudes had more negative trends than species breeding at lower altitudes. We also found that the species moved upwards as a response to warming climate, and these altitudinal range shifts were associated with more positive population trends at lower altitudes than at higher altitudes. Moreover, long-distance migrants declined more than residents or species migrating for shorter distances. Taken together, these results indicate that the climate change, besides other possible environmental changes, already influences populations of montane birds with particularly adverse impacts on high-altitude species such as water pipit (Anthus spinoletta). It is evident that the alpine species, predicted to undergo serious climatically induced range contractions due to warming climate in the future, already started moving along this trajectory.

  11. Population Trends of Central European Montane Birds Provide Evidence for Adverse Impacts of Climate Change on High-Altitude Species

    PubMed Central

    Flousek, Jiří; Telenský, Tomáš; Hanzelka, Jan; Reif, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is among the most important global threats to biodiversity and mountain areas are supposed to be under especially high pressure. Although recent modelling studies suggest considerable future range contractions of montane species accompanied with increased extinction risk, data allowing to test actual population consequences of the observed climate changes and identifying traits associated to their adverse impacts are very scarce. To fill this knowledge gap, we estimated long-term population trends of montane birds from 1984 to 2011 in a central European mountain range, the Giant Mountains (Krkonoše), where significant warming occurred over this period. We then related the population trends to several species' traits related to the climate change effects. We found that the species breeding in various habitats at higher altitudes had more negative trends than species breeding at lower altitudes. We also found that the species moved upwards as a response to warming climate, and these altitudinal range shifts were associated with more positive population trends at lower altitudes than at higher altitudes. Moreover, long-distance migrants declined more than residents or species migrating for shorter distances. Taken together, these results indicate that the climate change, besides other possible environmental changes, already influences populations of montane birds with particularly adverse impacts on high-altitude species such as water pipit (Anthus spinoletta). It is evident that the alpine species, predicted to undergo serious climatically induced range contractions due to warming climate in the future, already started moving along this trajectory. PMID:26426901

  12. Impacts of groundwater metal loads from bedrock fractures on water quality of a mountain stream.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Brian S; Dawson, Helen E

    2009-06-01

    Acid mine drainage and metal loads from hardrock mines to surface waters is a significant problem in the western USA and many parts of the world. Mines often occur in mountain environments with fractured bedrock aquifers that serve as pathways for metals transport to streams. This study evaluates impacts from current and potential future groundwater metal (Cd, Cu, and Zn) loads from fractures underlying the Gilt Edge Mine, South Dakota, on concentrations in Strawberry Creek using existing flow and water quality data and simple mixing/dilution mass balance models. Results showed that metal loads from bedrock fractures to the creek currently contribute <1% of total loads. Even if background water quality is achieved upstream in Strawberry Creek, fracture metal loads would be <5%. Fracture loads could increase substantially and cause stream water quality standards exceedances once groundwater with elevated metals concentrations in the aquifer matrix migrates to the fractures and discharges to the stream. Potential future metal loads from an upstream fracture would contribute a small proportion of the total load relative to current loads in the stream. Cd has the highest stream concentrations relative to standards. Even if all stream water was treated to remove 90% of the Cd, the standard would still not be achieved. At a fracture farther downstream, the Cd standard can only be met if the upstream water is treated achieving a 90% reduction in Cd concentrations and the median stream flow is maintained.

  13. Pb Distribution in Groundwater and Its Impact to the Health of Indonesia’s Capital Citizen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulfaris, D. Y.; Prayogi, T. E.; Alam, B. Y. C. S.; Fadly, M.; Memed, M. W.; Daryanto, A.; Abdillah, F.; Nasution, E. M.; Sudianto, J. R.; Giarto, B.; Maliki, F.; Nuraeni, N.

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to measure the Pb distribution in Jakarta Capital Region’s groundwater and its recommendation based on the standards of The Health Minister Decree No. 492 / MENKES / PES / IV / 2010 about The Drinking Water Monitoring. The study also aims to analyze the impact of Pb intoxication in the human body. The study activity uses the field data that carried out by Geological Agency, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Indonesia from March to April 2015. The methods used in this study are direct observation and hydrogeological measurement to measure physics and chemistry parameters. The result showed that the Levels of heavy metals Pb (Lead) in the west – southwest of Jakarta Groundwater basin (Ciputat, Pamulang, Ciledug, Kebayoran, Pondok Cina, Pondok Jagung, and Serpong) are beyond the quality standards that has been suggested by the ministry of health. The government set the standard in 0.1 mg/L while these areas have the Pb content of up to 0.654 mg/L. In addition, Pb anomalies also occur in Muara Angke, Kamal Muara, and Kapuk Region of North Jakarta which has a very High level of Pb which is about 1.09 mg / Liter. Pb intoxication in humans can affect the reproductive system, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and have bad effects to the nervous system of infants and children.

  14. Groundwater impacts during water shortages in the south Florida water management district

    SciTech Connect

    Wedderburn, L.A.; Knapp, M.S.; Burns, W.S.

    1985-01-01

    South Florida has historically experienced periods of below normal rainfall, without significant impacts on groundwater availability. However, rapidly increasing demands due to urbanization, intensification of agricultural land use, and the proximity of many public water supply wellfields to coastal saline water have contributed to recent water shortages. Analysis of conditions in the Floridan, Intermediate, and Surficial aquifer systems at selected locations indicate that reductions in water levels, as a result of increased development, have caused locally unstable conditions. This combined with other factors cause certain areas to be prone to water shortage emergencies although adequate resources may be available in other areas. In coastal areas the landward migration of the saltwater front into the surficial aquifers has been documented, and is the major concern in restricting water use. Where aquifers of low productivity are utilized, falling water levels have forced curtailment of supply due to well failure and the threat of vertical or lateral saline water intrusion. In the deeper artesian aquifers, the reduction of flowing head limits the ability to obtain water through free flowing wells. Recommended strategies to maximize yields from these aquifers during droughts include: (1) development of alternate sources, (2) reduction of high quality water demand through the use of reclaimed water and water conservation, (3) protection of present and future wellfield sites and their recharge areas, (4) land use controls to protect water quality and quantity, and (5) augmentation of groundwater supplies through artificial recharge during periods when supplies are abundant.

  15. Climate change impacts on groundwater resources: modelled deficits in a chalky aquifer, Geer basin, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouyère, Serge; Carabin, Guy; Dassargues, Alain

    An integrated hydrological model (MOHISE) was developed in order to study the impact of climate change on the hydrological cycle in representative water basins in Belgium. This model considers most hydrological processes in a physically consistent way, more particularly groundwater flows which are modelled using a spatially distributed, finite-element approach. Thanks to this accurate numerical tool, after detailed calibration and validation, quantitative interpretations can be drawn from the groundwater model results. Considering IPCC climate change scenarios, the integrated approach was applied to evaluate the impact of climate change on the water cycle in the Geer basin in Belgium. The groundwater model is described in detail, and results are discussed in terms of climate change impact on the evolution of groundwater levels and groundwater reserves. From the modelling application on the Geer basin, it appears that, on a pluri-annual basis, most tested scenarios predict a decrease in groundwater levels and reserves in relation to variations in climatic conditions. However, for this aquifer, the tested scenarios show no enhancement of the seasonal changes in groundwater levels. Un modèle hydrologique intégré (MOHISE) a été développé afin d'étudier l'impact du changement climatique sur le cycle hydrologique de bassins versants représentatifs de Belgique. Ce modèle prend en compte tous les processus hydrologiques d'une manière physiquement consistante, plus particulièrement les écoulements souterrains qui sont modélisés par une approche spatialement distribuée aux éléments finis. Grâce à cet outil numérique précis, après une calibration et une validation détaillées, des interprétations quantitatives peuvent être réalisées à partir des résultats du modèle de nappe. Considérant des scénarios de changements climatiques de l'IPCC, l'approche intégrée a été appliquée pour évaluer l'impact du changement climatique sur le cycle de l

  16. The impact of river infiltration on the chemistry of shallow groundwater in a reclaimed water irrigation area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Shiyang; Wu, Wenyong; Liu, Honglu; Bao, Zhe

    2016-10-01

    Reclaimed water reuse is an effective method of alleviating agricultural water shortages, which entails some potential risks for groundwater. In this study, the impacts of wastewater reuse on groundwater were evaluated by combination of groundwater chemistry and isotopes. In reclaimed water infiltration, salt composition was affected not only by ion exchange and dissolution equilibrium but also by carbonic acid equilibrium. The dissolution and precipitation of calcites and dolomites as well as exchange and adsorption between Na and Ca/Mg were simultaneous, leading to significant changes in Na/Cl, (Ca + Mg)/Cl, electrical conductivity (EC) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). The reclaimed water was of the Na-Mg-Ca-HCO3-Cl type, and groundwater recharged by reclaimed water was of the Na-Mg-HCO3 and Mg-Na-HCO3 types. The hydrogeological conditions characterized by sand-clay alternation led to both total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiencies > 95%, and there was no significant difference in those contents between aquifers recharged by precipitation and reclamation water. > 40 years of long-term infiltration and recharge from sewage and reclaimed water did not cause groundwater contamination by nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals. These results indicate that characteristics of the study area, such as the lithologic structure with sand-clay alternation, relatively thick clay layer, and relatively large groundwater depth have a significant role in the high vulnerability.

  17. The impact of river infiltration on the chemistry of shallow groundwater in a reclaimed water irrigation area.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shiyang; Wu, Wenyong; Liu, Honglu; Bao, Zhe

    2016-10-01

    Reclaimed water reuse is an effective method of alleviating agricultural water shortages, which entails some potential risks for groundwater. In this study, the impacts of wastewater reuse on groundwater were evaluated by combination of groundwater chemistry and isotopes. In reclaimed water infiltration, salt composition was affected not only by ion exchange and dissolution equilibrium but also by carbonic acid equilibrium. The dissolution and precipitation of calcites and dolomites as well as exchange and adsorption between Na and Ca/Mg were simultaneous, leading to significant changes in Na/Cl, (Ca+Mg)/Cl, electrical conductivity (EC) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). The reclaimed water was of the Na-Mg-Ca-HCO3-Cl type, and groundwater recharged by reclaimed water was of the Na-Mg-HCO3 and Mg-Na-HCO3 types. The hydrogeological conditions characterized by sand-clay alternation led to both total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiencies >95%, and there was no significant difference in those contents between aquifers recharged by precipitation and reclamation water. >40years of long-term infiltration and recharge from sewage and reclaimed water did not cause groundwater contamination by nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals. These results indicate that characteristics of the study area, such as the lithologic structure with sand-clay alternation, relatively thick clay layer, and relatively large groundwater depth have a significant role in the high vulnerability.

  18. Adverse Impact on Educational Opportunity in Cases Challenging State School Financing Schemes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannan, Patricia A.; Minorini, Paul A.

    1991-01-01

    A number of state supreme courts have decided cases involving challenges to state public school financing. Summarizes the reactions of courts to plaintiffs' proof concerning the negative impact of inadequate funding on the educational opportunities provided to students in poor school districts. (43 references) (MLF)

  19. An Auxiliary Method To Reduce Potential Adverse Impacts Of Projected Land Developments: Subwatershed Prioritization

    EPA Science Inventory

    An index based method is developed that ranks the subwatersheds of a watershed based on their relative impacts on watershed response to anticipated land developments, and then applied to an urbanizing watershed in Eastern Pennsylvania. Simulations with a semi-distributed hydrolo...

  20. Building associations between markers of environmental stressors and adverse human health impacts using frequent itemset mining

    EPA Science Inventory

    Building associations between markers of exposure and effect using frequent itemset mining The human-health impact of environmental contaminant exposures is unclear. While some exposure-effect relationships are well studied, health effects are unknown for the vast majority of the...

  1. Impact of anthropogenic development on coastal ground-water hydrology in southeastern Florida, 1900-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Renken, Robert A.; Dixon, Joann; Koehmstedt, John A.; Ishman, Scott; Lietz, A.C.; Marella, Richard L.; Telis, Pamela A.; Rodgers, Jeff; Memberg, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Southeastern Florida is an area that has been subject to widely conflicting anthropogenic stress to the Everglades and coastal ecosystems. This stress is a direct consequence of the 20th century economic competition for limited land and water resources needed to satisfy agricultural development and its expansion, its displacement by burgeoning urban development, and the accompanying growth of the limestone mining industry. The development of a highly controlled water-management system designed to reclaim land for urban and agricultural development has severely impacted the extent, character, and vitality of the historic Everglades and coastal ecosystems. An extensive conveyance system of canals, levees, impoundments, surface- water control structures, and numerous municipal well fields are used to sustain the present-day Everglades hydrologic system, prevent overland flow from moving eastward and flooding urban and agricultural areas, maintain water levels to prevent saltwater intrusion, and provide an adequate water supply. Extractive mining activities expanded considerably in the latter part of the 20th century, largely in response to urban construction needs. Much of the present-day urban-agricultural corridor of southeastern Florida lies within an area that is no more than 15 feet above NGVD 1929 and formerly characterized by freshwater marsh, upland, and saline coastal wetland ecosystems. Miami- Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach Counties have experienced explosive population growth, increasing from less than 4,000 inhabitants in 1900 to more than 5 million in 2000. Ground-water use, the principal source of municipal supply, has increased from about 65 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) obtained from 3 well fields in 1930 to more than 770 Mgal/d obtained from 65 well fields in 1995. Water use for agricultural supply increased from 505 Mgal/d in 1953 to nearly 1,150 Mgal/d in 1988, but has since declined to 764 Mgal/d in 1995, partly as a result of displacement of the

  2. Resilience of Groundwater Impacted by Land Use and Climate Change in a Karst Aquifer, South China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fang; Jiang, Guanghui; Polk, Jason S; Huang, Xiufeng; Huang, Siyu

    2015-11-01

    Changes of groundwater flow and quality were investigated in a subtropical karst aquifer to determine the driving mechanism. Decreases in groundwater flow are more distinct in discharge zones than those in recharge and runoff zones. Long-term measurement of the represented regional groundwater outlet reveals that groundwater discharge decrease by nearly 50% during the dry season. The hydrochemistry of groundwater in the runoff and discharge zones is of poorer quality than in the recharge zone. Indications of intensive land resource exploitation and changes in land use patterns were attributed to changes in groundwater conditions since 1990, but the influence of climate change was likely from 2001, because the water temperature exhibited increasing trends at a mean rate of 0.02 °C/yr even though groundwater depth was high in the aquifer. These conclusions imply the need for further groundwater monitoring and reevaluation to understand the resilience of aquifer during urbanization and development.

  3. Where to locate a tree plantation within a low rainfall catchment to minimise impacts on groundwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, J. F.; Webb, J. A.; Jacobsen, G. E.; Chisari, R.; Dresel, P. E.

    2014-08-01

    Despite the fact that there are many studies that consider the impacts of plantation forestry on water resources, and others that explore the spatial heterogeneity of groundwater recharge in dry regions, there is little marriage of the two subjects in forestry management guidelines and legislation. Here we carry out an in-depth analysis of the groundwater and surface water regime in a low rainfall, high evapotranspiration paired catchment study to examine the impact of reforestation, using water table fluctuations and chloride mass balance methods to estimate groundwater recharge. Recharge estimations using the chloride mass balance method were shown to be more likely representative of groundwater recharge regimes prior to the planting of the trees, and most likely prior to widespread land clearance by European settlers. These estimations were complicated by large amounts of recharge occurring as a result of runoff and streamflow in the lower parts of the catchment. Water table fluctuation method estimations of recharge verified that groundwater recharge occurs predominantly in the lowland areas of the study catchment. This leads to the conclusion that spatial variations in recharge are important considerations for locating tree plantations with respect to conserving water resources for downstream users. For dry regions, this means planting trees in the upland parts of the catchments, as recharge is shown to occur predominantly in the lowland areas.

  4. Potential impacts of climate change on groundwater recharge and streamflow in a central European low mountain range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckhardt, K.; Ulbrich, U.

    2003-12-01

    General Circulation Models simulate significant changes of temperature and precipitation over Europe as part of the anthropogenic climate change. In this study, the impacts of climate change on groundwater recharge and streamflow in a central European low mountain range catchment are investigated using a conceptual eco-hydrologic model, a revised version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). To improve the reliability of our simulations, we compile plant physiological studies concerning the influence of elevated ambient CO 2 concentrations on stomatal conductance and leaf area. Using this information to parameterise the model, we evaluate the impacts of two climate change scenarios, which represent a wide range of assumptions concerning future greenhouse gas emissions and climate sensitivity. The resulting effects on mean annual groundwater recharge and streamflow are small, as increased atmospheric CO 2 levels reduce stomatal conductance thus counteracting increasing potential evapotranspiration induced by the temperature rise and decreasing precipitation. There are, however, more pronounced changes associated with the mean annual cycle of groundwater recharge and streamflow. Our results imply that due to the warming a smaller proportion of the winter precipitation will fall as snow. The spring snowmelt peak therefore is reduced while the flood risk in winter will probably increase. In summer, mean monthly groundwater recharge and streamflow are reduced by up to 50% potentially leading to problems concerning water quality, groundwater withdrawals and hydropower generation.

  5. Groundwater Scarcity Impact on Inclusiveness and Women Empowerment: Insights from School Absenteeism of Female Students in Two Watersheds in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kookana, Rai S.; Maheshwari, Basant; Dillon, Peter; Dave, Seema H.; Soni, Prahlad; Bohra, Hakimuddin; Dashora, Yogita; Purohit, Ramesh C.; Ward, John; Oza, Sachin; Katara, Pratibha; Yadav, Kamal K.; Varua, Maria E.; Grewal, Harsharn Singh; Packham, Roger; Jodha, Anand Singh; Patel, Ashishkumar

    2016-01-01

    A survey was conducted in eight secondary schools located in two watersheds in Gujarat and Rajasthan (semi-arid region of India) to assess students' perceptions about groundwater scarcity issues and the impact of the scarcity on their educational opportunities. Survey responses to a detailed questionnaire by a cohort of students in both…

  6. Impacts of an ethanol-blended fuel release on groundwater and fate of produced methane: Simulation of field observations

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a field experiment at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) designed to mimic the impact of a small-volume release of E10, two plumes were created by injecting extracted groundwater spiked with benzene, toluene, and o-xylene, abbreviated BToX (No-Ethanol Lane) and BToX plus ethanol...

  7. Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity using abandoned works (deep mines or open pits) and the impact on groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Willems, Thibault; Bodeux, Sarah; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-09-01

    Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants using open-pit or deep mines can be used in flat regions to store the excess of electricity produced during low-demand energy periods. It is essential to consider the interaction between UPSH plants and the surrounding geological media. There has been little work on the assessment of associated groundwater flow impacts. The impacts on groundwater flow are determined numerically using a simplified numerical model which is assumed to be representative of open-pit and deep mines. The main impact consists of oscillation of the piezometric head, and its magnitude depends on the characteristics of the aquifer/geological medium, the mine and the pumping and injection intervals. If an average piezometric head is considered, it drops at early times after the start of the UPSH plant activity and then recovers progressively. The most favorable hydrogeological conditions to minimize impacts are evaluated by comparing several scenarios. The impact magnitude will be lower in geological media with low hydraulic diffusivity; however, the parameter that plays the more important role is the volume of water stored in the mine. Its variation modifies considerably the groundwater flow impacts. Finally, the problem is studied analytically and some solutions are proposed to approximate the impacts, allowing a quick screening of favorable locations for future UPSH plants.

  8. Two Degrees of Separation: Abrupt Climate Change and the Adverse Impact to US National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    trend of increasing GHG emissions is marginally impacting or irrelevant altogether. “Other factors, including sun spots, solar winds, variations ...climate variations over a wide range of time scales, making it a natural sensor of climate variability and providing a visible expression of climate...many observed changes in phenology and distribution have been associated with rising water temperatures, as well as changes in salinity, oxygen levels

  9. Climate change impact assessment in Veneto and Friuli Plain groundwater. Part II: a spatially resolved regional risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Pasini, S; Torresan, S; Rizzi, J; Zabeo, A; Critto, A; Marcomini, A

    2012-12-01

    Climate change impact assessment on water resources has received high international attention over the last two decades, due to the observed global warming and its consequences at the global to local scale. In particular, climate-related risks for groundwater and related ecosystems pose a great concern to scientists and water authorities involved in the protection of these valuable resources. The close link of global warming with water cycle alterations encourages research to deepen current knowledge on relationships between climate trends and status of water systems, and to develop predictive tools for their sustainable management, copying with key principles of EU water policy. Within the European project Life+ TRUST (Tool for Regional-scale assessment of groundwater Storage improvement in adaptation to climaTe change), a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology was developed in order to identify impacts from climate change on groundwater and associated ecosystems (e.g. surface waters, agricultural areas, natural environments) and to rank areas and receptors at risk in the high and middle Veneto and Friuli Plain (Italy). Based on an integrated analysis of impacts, vulnerability and risks linked to climate change at the regional scale, a RRA framework complying with the Sources-Pathway-Receptor-Consequence (SPRC) approach was defined. Relevant impacts on groundwater and surface waters (i.e. groundwater level variations, changes in nitrate infiltration processes, changes in water availability for irrigation) were selected and analyzed through hazard scenario, exposure, susceptibility and risk assessment. The RRA methodology used hazard scenarios constructed through global and high resolution model simulations for the 2071-2100 period, according to IPCC A1B emission scenario in order to produce useful indications for future risk prioritization and to support the addressing of adaptation measures, primarily Managed Artificial Recharge (MAR) techniques. Relevant

  10. Adverse Psychosexual Impact Related to the Treatment of Genital Warts and Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Campaner, Adriana Bittencourt; Vespa Junior, Nelson; Giraldo, Paulo César; Leal Passos, Mauro Romero

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To compare the psychosexual impact related to the treatment of genital warts and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in women. Methods. 75 patients presenting with HPV-induced genital lesions, belonging to one of two patient groups, were included in the study: 29 individuals with genital warts (GWs) and 46 individuals with CIN grades 2 or 3 (CIN 2/3). Initially, medical charts of each woman were examined for extraction of data on the type of HPV-induced infection and treatment administered. Subjects were interviewed to collect sociodemographic data as well as personal, gynecologic, obstetric, and sexual history. After this initial anamnesis, the Sexual Quotient-Female Version (SQ-F) questionnaire was applied to assess sexual function. After application of the questionnaire, patients answered specific questions produced by the researchers, aimed at assessing the impact of the disease and its treatment on their sexual lives. Results. It is noteworthy that patients with CIN 2/3 had statistically similar classification of sexual quotient to patients with GWs (P = 0.115). However, patients with GWs more frequently gave positive answers to the specific questions compared to patients with CIN 2/3. Conclusion. Based on these findings, it is clear that GWs have a greater impact on sexual behavior compared to CIN 2/3. PMID:26316956

  11. Impact of schizophrenia and schizophrenia treatment-related adverse events on quality of life: direct utility elicitation

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Andrew; Wild, Diane; Lees, Michael; Reaney, Matthew; Dursun, Serdar; Parry, David; Mukherjee, Jayanti

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of schizophrenia, its treatment and treatment-related adverse events related to antipsychotics, on quality of life from the perspective of schizophrenia patients and laypersons. Methods Health state descriptions for stable schizophrenia, extra pyramidal symptoms (EPS), hyperprolactinemia, diabetes, weight gain and relapse were developed based on a review of the literature and expert opinion. The quality of life impact of each health state was elicited using a time trade-off instrument administered by interview to 49 stable schizophrenia patients and 75 laypersons. Regression techniques were employed to examine the importance of subject characteristics on health-related utility scores. Results Patients and laypersons completed the interview in similar times. Stable schizophrenia had the highest mean utility (0.87 and 0.92 for laypersons and patients respectively), while relapse (0.48 and 0.60) had the lowest mean utility. Of the treatment-related adverse events, EPS had the lowest mean utility (0.57 and 0.72, respectively). Age, gender and PANSS score did not influence the utility results independently of health state. On average, patient utilities are 0.077 points higher than utilities derived from laypersons, although the ranking was similar between the two groups. Conclusion Events associated with schizophrenia and treatment of schizophrenia can bring about a significant detriment in patient quality of life, with relapse having the largest negative impact. Results indicate that patients with stable schizophrenia are less willing to trade years of life to avoid schizophrenia-related symptoms compared to laypersons. Both sets of respondents showed equal ability to complete the questionnaire. PMID:19040721

  12. Thermal Removal of Tritium from Concrete and Soil to Reduce Groundwater Impacts - 13197

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Blount, Gerald C.; Wells, Leslie H.; Cardoso, Joao E.; Kmetz, Thomas F.; Reed, Misty L.

    2013-07-01

    Legacy heavy-water moderator operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have resulted in the contamination of equipment pads, building slabs, and surrounding soil with tritium. At the time of discovery the tritium had impacted the shallow (< 3-m) groundwater at the facility. While tritium was present in the groundwater, characterization efforts determined that a significant source remained in a concrete slab at the surface and within the associated vadose zone soils. To prevent continued long-term impacts to the shallow groundwater a CERCLA non-time critical removal action for these source materials was conducted to reduce the leaching of tritium from the vadose zone soils and concrete slabs. In order to minimize transportation and disposal costs, an on-site thermal treatment process was designed, tested, and implemented. The on-site treatment consisted of thermal detritiation of the concrete rubble and soil. During this process concrete rubble was heated to a temperature of 815 deg. C (1,500 deg. F) resulting in the dehydration and removal of water bound tritium. During heating, tritium contaminated soil was used to provide thermal insulation during which it's temperature exceeded 100 deg. C (212 deg. F), causing drying and removal of tritium. The thermal treatment process volatiles the water bound tritium and releases it to the atmosphere. The released tritium was considered insignificant based upon Clean Air Act Compliance Package (CAP88) analysis and did not exceed exposure thresholds. A treatability study evaluated the effectiveness of this thermal configuration and viability as a decontamination method for tritium in concrete and soil materials. Post treatment sampling confirmed the effectiveness at reducing tritium to acceptable waste site specific levels. With American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding three additional treatment cells were assembled utilizing commercial heating equipment and common construction materials. This provided a total

  13. Thermal Removal Of Tritium From Concrete And Soil To Reduce Groundwater Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Blount, Gerald C.; Wells, Leslie H.; Cardoso-Neto, Joao E.; Kmetz, Thomas F.; Reed, Misty L.

    2012-12-04

    Legacy heavy-water moderator operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have resulted in the contamination of equipment pads, building slabs, and surrounding soil with tritium. At the time of discovery the tritium had impacted the shallow (< 3-m) groundwater at the facility. While tritium was present in the groundwater, characterization efforts determined that a significant source remained in a concrete slab at the surface and within the associated vadose zone soils. To prevent continued long-term impacts to the shallow groundwater a CERCLA non-time critical removal action for these source materials was conducted to reduce the leaching of tritium from the vadose zone soils and concrete slabs. In order to minimize transportation and disposal costs, an on-site thermal treatment process was designed, tested, and implemented. The on-site treatment consisted of thermal detritiation of the concrete rubble and soil. During this process concrete rubble was heated to a temperature of 815 deg C (1,500 deg F) resulting in the dehydration and removal of water bound tritium. During heating, tritium contaminated soil was used to provide thermal insulation during which it's temperature exceeded 100 deg C (212 deg F), causing drying and removal of tritium. The thermal treatment process volatiles the water bound tritium and releases it to the atmosphere. The released tritium was considered insignificant based upon Clean Air Act Compliance Package (CAP88) analysis and did not exceed exposure thresholds. A treatability study evaluated the effectiveness of this thermal configuration and viability as a decontamination method for tritium in concrete and soil materials. Post treatment sampling confirmed the effectiveness at reducing tritium to acceptable waste site specific levels. With American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding three additional treatment cells were assembled utilizing commercial heating equipment and common construction materials. This provided a total of

  14. Modeling the impact of solute recycling on groundwater salinization under irrigated lands: A study of the Alto Piura aquifer, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakirevich, A.; Weisbrod, N.; Kuznetsov, M.; Rivera Villarreyes, C. A.; Benavent, I.; Chavez, A. M.; Ferrando, D.

    2013-03-01

    SummaryStudies of groundwater quality in arid and semi-arid lands show that irrigation return flow is one of major factors contributing to aquifer salinization. Existing mathematical models do not account explicitly for solute recycling during irrigation on a daily scale, which is considered as an important salinization input. The main objective of this research was to develop a mathematical numerical model that can simulate impact of irrigation return flow by coupling water and solute fluxes at the soil surface with quality of water pumped from the aquifer. This was obtained with a Quasi-3D model representing flow in the vadose zone - aquifer system by series of 1D Richards' equations in a variably-saturated zone and by a 3D flow equation in groundwater. The 3D advection-dispersion equation is solved in the entire domain. Concentration of irrigation water is calculated at each time step as a function of concentration of both surface water and groundwater extracted at specific locations. The model was applied to simulate the impact of irrigation on groundwater salinization of Alto Piura aquifer (Northern Peru) over thirty years. Three scenarios were considered: (i) use of flood irrigation and groundwater extraction (the present situation); (ii) increase of groundwater pumping by 50% compared to the first scenario; and (iii) transition from flood irrigation to drip irrigation, thus decreasing irrigation volume by around 60% compared to the first scenario. Results indicate that in different irrigation areas, the simulated increase rates of total dissolved solids in groundwater vary from 3-5 to 15-17 mg/L/year, depending on hydrogeological and hydrochemical conditions, volumes of water extracted, and proportion between surface water and groundwater applied. The transition from flood irrigation to drip irrigation decreases the negative impact of return flow on groundwater quality; however drip irrigation causes faster soil salinization compared to flood irrigation

  15. Ozone exposure and systemic biomarkers: Evaluation of evidence for adverse cardiovascular health impacts.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Julie E; Prueitt, Robyn L; Sax, Sonja N; Pizzurro, Daniella M; Lynch, Heather N; Zu, Ke; Venditti, Ferdinand J

    2015-05-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently concluded that there is likely to be a causal relationship between short-term (< 30 days) ozone exposure and cardiovascular (CV) effects; however, biological mechanisms to link transient effects with chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD) have not been established. Some studies assessed changes in circulating levels of biomarkers associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, coagulation, vasoreactivity, lipidology, and glucose metabolism after ozone exposure to elucidate a biological mechanism. We conducted a weight-of-evidence (WoE) analysis to determine if there is evidence supporting an association between changes in these biomarkers and short-term ozone exposure that would indicate a biological mechanism for CVD below the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 75 parts per billion (ppb). Epidemiology findings were mixed for all biomarker categories, with only a few studies reporting statistically significant changes and with no consistency in the direction of the reported effects. Controlled human exposure studies of 2 to 5 hours conducted at ozone concentrations above 75 ppb reported small elevations in biomarkers for inflammation and oxidative stress that were of uncertain clinical relevance. Experimental animal studies reported more consistent results among certain biomarkers, although these were also conducted at ozone exposures well above 75 ppb and provided limited information on ozone exposure-response relationships. Overall, the current WoE does not provide a convincing case for a causal relationship between short-term ozone exposure below the NAAQS and adverse changes in levels of biomarkers within and across categories, but, because of study limitations, they cannot not provide definitive evidence of a lack of causation.

  16. Severe burn and disuse in the rat independently adversely impact body composition and adipokines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Severe trauma is accompanied by a period of hypermetabolism and disuse. In this study, a rat model was used to determine the effects of burn and disuse independently and in combination on body composition, food intake and adipokines. Methods Male rats were assigned to four groups 1) sham ambulatory (SA), 2) sham hindlimb unloaded (SH), 3) 40% total body surface area full thickness scald burn ambulatory (BA) and 4) burn and hindlimb unloaded (BH). Animals designated to the SH and BH groups were placed in a tail traction system and their hindlimbs unloaded. Animals were followed for 14 days. Plasma, urine, fecal and tissue samples were analyzed. Results SA had a progressive increase in body mass (BM), SH and BA no change and BH a reduction. Compared to SA, BM was reduced by 10% in both SH and BA and by 17% when combined in BH. Compared to SA, all groups had reductions in lean and fat body mass with BH being greater. The decrease in lean mass was associated with the rate of urinary corticosterone excretion. The loss in fat mass was associated with decreases in plasma leptin and adiponectin and an increase in ghrelin. Following the acute response to injury, BH had a greater food intake per 100 g BM. Food intake was associated with the levels of leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin. Conclusions The effects of the combination of burn and disuse in this animal model were additive, therefore in assessing metabolic changes with severe trauma both injury and disuse should be considered. Furthermore, the observed changes in adipokines, corticosterone and ghrelin provide insights for interventions to attenuate the hypermetabolic state following injury, possibly reducing catabolism and muscle loss and subsequent adverse effects on recovery and function. PMID:24099533

  17. A Possible Paradigm for the Mitigation of the Adverse Impacts of Natural Hazards in the Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aswathanarayana, U.

    2001-05-01

    The proneness of a country or region to a given natural hazard depends upon its geographical location, physiography, geological and structural setting, landuse/landcover situation, and biophysical and socioeconomic environments (e.g. cyclones and floods in Bangladesh, earthquakes in Turkey, drought in Sub-Saharan Africa). While the natural hazards themselves cannot be prevented, it is possible to mitigate their adverse effects, by a knowledge-based, environmentally-sustainable approach, involving the stakeholder communities: (i) by being prepared: on the basis of the understanding of the land conditions which are prone to a given hazard and the processes which could culminate in damage to life and property (e.g. planting of dense-rooted vegetation belts to protect against landslides in the earthquake-prone areas), (ii) by avoiding improper anthropogenic activities that may exacerbate a hazard (e.g. deforestation accentuating the floods and droughts), and (iii) by putting a hazard to a beneficial use, where possible (groundwater recharging of flood waters), etc. Mitigation strategies need to be custom-made for each country/region by integrating the biophysical and socioeconomic components. The proposed paradigm is illustrated in respect of Extreme Weather Events (EWEs), which is based on the adoption of three approaches: (i) Typology approach, involving the interpretation of remotely sensed data, to predict (say) temporal and spatial distribution of precipitation, (ii) "black box" approach, whereby the potential environmental consequences of an EWE are projected on the basis of previously known case histories, and (iii) Information Technology approach, to translate advanced technical information in the form of "virtual" do-it-yourself steps understandable to lay public.

  18. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration among Sri Lankan Men.

    PubMed

    Fonseka, Ruvani W; Minnis, Alexandra M; Gomez, Anu Manchikanti

    2015-01-01

    In Sri Lanka, over one in three women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization in their lifetime, making it a serious public health concern. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) such as child abuse and neglect, witnessing domestic violence, parental separation, and bullying are also widespread. Studies in Western settings have shown positive associations between ACEs and IPV perpetration in adulthood, but few have examined this relationship in a non-Western context. In the present study, we examined the association of ACEs with IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men surveyed for the UN Multi-Country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific. We found statistically significant positive associations between the number of ACE categories (ACE score) and emotional, financial, physical, and sexual IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men. We analyzed the contributions of each ACE category and found that childhood abuse was strongly associated with perpetration of IPV in adulthood, with sexual abuse associated with the greatest increase in odds of perpetration (Adjusted odds ratio 2.36; 95% confidence interval: 1.69, 3.30). Witnessing abuse of one's mother was associated with the greatest increase in the odds of perpetrating physical IPV (AOR 1.82; 95% CI: 1.29, 2.58), while lack of a male parental figure was not associated with physical IPV perpetration (AOR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.53, 1.09). These findings support a social learning theory of IPV perpetration, in which children who are exposed to violence learn to perpetrate IPV in adulthood. They also suggest that in Sri Lanka, being raised in a female-headed household does not increase the risk of IPV perpetration in adulthood compared to being raised in a household with a male parental figure. The relationship between being raised in a female-headed household (the number of which increased dramatically during Sri Lanka's recent civil war) and perpetration of IPV warrants further study. Interventions that

  19. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration among Sri Lankan Men

    PubMed Central

    Fonseka, Ruvani W.; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Gomez, Anu Manchikanti

    2015-01-01

    In Sri Lanka, over one in three women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization in their lifetime, making it a serious public health concern. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) such as child abuse and neglect, witnessing domestic violence, parental separation, and bullying are also widespread. Studies in Western settings have shown positive associations between ACEs and IPV perpetration in adulthood, but few have examined this relationship in a non-Western context. In the present study, we examined the association of ACEs with IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men surveyed for the UN Multi-Country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific. We found statistically significant positive associations between the number of ACE categories (ACE score) and emotional, financial, physical, and sexual IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men. We analyzed the contributions of each ACE category and found that childhood abuse was strongly associated with perpetration of IPV in adulthood, with sexual abuse associated with the greatest increase in odds of perpetration (Adjusted odds ratio 2.36; 95% confidence interval: 1.69, 3.30). Witnessing abuse of one’s mother was associated with the greatest increase in the odds of perpetrating physical IPV (AOR 1.82; 95% CI: 1.29, 2.58), while lack of a male parental figure was not associated with physical IPV perpetration (AOR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.53, 1.09). These findings support a social learning theory of IPV perpetration, in which children who are exposed to violence learn to perpetrate IPV in adulthood. They also suggest that in Sri Lanka, being raised in a female-headed household does not increase the risk of IPV perpetration in adulthood compared to being raised in a household with a male parental figure. The relationship between being raised in a female-headed household (the number of which increased dramatically during Sri Lanka’s recent civil war) and perpetration of IPV warrants further study. Interventions

  20. Bioremediation of adverse impact of cadmium toxicity on Cassia italica Mill by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    PubMed Central

    Hashem, Abeer; Abd_Allah, E.F.; Alqarawi, A.A.; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza

    2015-01-01

    Cassia italica Mill is an important medicinal plant within the family Fabaceae. Pot experiment was conducted to evaluate cadmium stress induced changes in physiological and biochemical attributes in C. italica with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Cadmium stressed plant showed reduced chlorophyll pigment and protein content while AMF inoculation enhanced the chlorophyll and protein content considerably. AMF also ameliorated the cadmium stress induced reduction in total chlorophyll and protein contents by 19.30% and 38.29%, respectively. Cadmium stress enhanced lipid peroxidation while AMF inoculation reduced lipid peroxidation considerably. Increase in proline and phenol content was observed due to cadmium stress and AMF inoculation caused a further increase in proline and phenol content ensuring better growth under stressed conditions. AMF alone also enhanced proline and phenol content. Activity of antioxidant enzymes enhanced under cadmium treatment and AMF inoculation further enhanced their activity thereby strengthening the antioxidant system. Enhanced activities of antioxidants and increased accumulation of osmolytes help plants to avoid damaging impact of oxidative damage. The research has shown that AMF inoculation mitigated the negative impact of stress by reducing the lipid peroxidation and enhancing the antioxidant activity. The present study strongly supports employing AMF as the biological mean for enhancing the cadmium stress tolerance of C. italica. PMID:26858537

  1. The Impact of Herbal Drug Use on Adverse Drug Reaction Profiles of Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Mudzviti, Tinashe; Maponga, Charles C.; Khoza, Star; Ma, Qing; Morse, Gene D.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The main objective was to determine the impact of herbal drug use on adverse drug reactions in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methodology. Patients receiving first-line ART from the national roll-out program participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants were interviewed and a data collection sheet was used to collect information from the corresponding medical record. Results. The majority (98.2%) of participants were using at least one herbal drug together with ART. The most common herbal remedies used were Allium Sativum (72.7%), Bidens pilosa (66.0%), Eucalyptus globulus (52.3%), Moringa oleifera (44.1%), Lippia javanica (36.3%), and Peltoforum africanum (34.3%). Two indigenous herbs, Musakavakadzi (OR = 0.25; 95% CI 0.076–0.828) and Peltoforum africanum (OR = 0.495; 95% CI 0.292–0.839) reduced the occurrence of adverse drug events. Conclusions. The use of herbal drugs is high in the HIV-infected population and there is need for pharmacovigilance programs to recognize the role they play in altering ADR profiles. PMID:22506106

  2. Using patient safety indicators to estimate the impact of potential adverse events on outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rivard, Peter E; Luther, Stephen L; Christiansen, Cindy L; Shibei Zhao; Loveland, Susan; Elixhauser, Anne; Romano, Patrick S; Rosen, Amy K

    2008-02-01

    The authors estimated the impact of potentially preventable patient safety events, identified by Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs), on patient outcomes: mortality, length of stay (LOS), and cost. The PSIs were applied to all acute inpatient hospitalizations at Veterans Health Administration (VA) facilities in fiscal 2001. Two methods-regression analysis and multivariable case matching- were used independently to control for patient and facility characteristics while predicting the effect of the PSI on each outcome. The authors found statistically significant (p < .0001) excess mortality, LOS, and cost in all groups with PSIs. The magnitude of the excess varied considerably across the PSIs. These VA findings are similar to those from a previously published study of nonfederal hospitals, despite differences between VA and non-VA systems. This study contributes to the literature measuring outcomes of medical errors and provides evidence that AHRQ PSIs may be useful indicators for comparison across delivery systems.

  3. Adverse Prognostic Impact of Bone Marrow Microvessel Density in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nuri; Lee, Hyewon; Moon, Soo Young; Sohn, Ji Yeon; Hwang, Sang Mee; Yoon, Ok Jin; Youn, Hye Sun

    2015-01-01

    Background Angiogenesis is important for the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Bone marrow (BM) microvessel density (MVD) is a useful marker of angiogenesis and is determined by immunohistochemical staining with anti-CD34 antibody. This study investigated the prognostic impact of MVD and demonstrated the relationship between MVD and previously mentioned prognostic factors in patients with MM. Methods The study included 107 patients with MM. MVD was assessed at initial diagnosis in a blinded manner by two hematopathologists who examined three CD34-positive hot spots per patient and counted the number of vessels in BM samples. Patients were divided into three groups according to MVD tertiles. Cumulative progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) curves, calculated by using Kaplan-Meier method, were compared among the three groups. Prognostic impact of MVD was assessed by calculating Cox proportional hazard ratio (HR). Results Median MVDs in the three groups were 16.8, 33.9, and 54.7. MVDs were correlated with other prognostic factors, including β2-microglobulin concentration, plasma cell percentage in the BM, and cancer stage according to the International Staging System. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that high MVD was an independent predictor of PFS (HR=2.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-5.42; P=0.013). PFS was significantly lower in the high MVD group than in the low MVD group (P=0.025). However, no difference was observed in the OS (P=0.428). Conclusions Increased BM MVD is a marker of poor prognosis in patients newly diagnosed with MM. BM MVD should be assessed at the initial diagnosis of MM. PMID:26354343

  4. Impact of anthropogenic and natural processes on the evolution of groundwater chemistry in a rapidly urbanized coastal area, South China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guanxing; Sun, Jichao; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Zongyu; Liu, Fan

    2013-10-01

    The moving of manufacturing industry from developed countries to Dongguan, China, promoted the semi-urbanization and rural industrialization in this area. It is urgent to acquire the impact of the enhanced anthropogenic pressure on the evolution of groundwater chemistry in this area. The objectives, in this study, were to understand the evolution of groundwater chemistry in Dongguan area based on the comparison of hydrochemical data variations and land use changes during the urbanization, to distinguish the impact of natural processes and anthropogenic activities on the groundwater chemistry by using principal components analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and to discuss the origins of trace elements in groundwater. Eighteen physico-chemical parameters were investigated at 73 groundwater sites during July 2006. By analyzing the hydrochemical data, it shows that lateral flow from rivers and agricultural irrigation are the mechanisms controlling the groundwater chemistry in the river network area where the cation exchange of Na(+) in sediments taken up by the exchanger Ca(2+) occurs. Seawater intrusion is the mechanism controlling the groundwater chemistry in the coast area where the cation exchange of Ca(2+) in sediments taken up by the exchanger Na(+) occurs. The ion exchange reaction for fissured aquifer is weak in the study area. In addition, the comparison of hydrochemical data between in 2006 and in 1980 shows that anthropogenic activities such as excessive application of agricultural fertilizers, inappropriate emissions of domestic sewage and excessive emissions of SO2 are responsible for the occurrences of groundwater with NO3(-), SO4(2-) and Mg(2+) types. Four principal components (PCs) were extracted from PCA, which explain 80.86% of the total parameters in water chemistry: PC1, the seawater intrusion and As contamination; PC2, the water-rock interaction, surface water recharge and acidic precipitation; PC3, heavy metal pollution from

  5. Progress, opportunities, and key fields for groundwater quality research under the impacts of human activities in China with a special focus on western China.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiyue; Tian, Rui; Xue, Chenyang; Wu, Jianhua

    2017-03-10

    Groundwater quality research is extremely important for supporting the safety of the water supply and human health in arid and semi-arid areas of China. This review article was constructed to report the latest research progress of groundwater quality in western China where groundwater quality is undergoing fast deterioration because of fast economic development and extensive anthropogenic activities. The opportunities brought by increasing public awareness of groundwater quality protection were also highlighted and discussed. To guide and promote further development of groundwater quality research in China, especially in western China, ten key groundwater quality research fields were proposed. The review shows that the intensification of human activities and the associated impacts on groundwater quality in China, especially in western China, has made groundwater quality research increasingly important, and has caught the attention of local, national, and international agencies and scholars. China has achieved some progress in groundwater quality research in terms of national and regional laws, regulations, and financial supports. The future of groundwater quality research in China, especially in western China, is promising reflected by the opportunities highlighted. The key research fields proposed in this article may also inform groundwater quality protection and management at the national and international level.

  6. An Update of the Analytical Groundwater Modeling to Assess Water Resource Impacts at the Afton Solar Energy Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, John J.; Greer, Christopher B.; Carr, Adrianne E.

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to update a one-dimensional analytical groundwater flow model to examine the influence of potential groundwater withdrawal in support of utility-scale solar energy development at the Afton Solar Energy Zone (SEZ) as a part of the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM’s) Solar Energy Program. This report describes the modeling for assessing the drawdown associated with SEZ groundwater pumping rates for a 20-year duration considering three categories of water demand (high, medium, and low) based on technology-specific considerations. The 2012 modeling effort published in the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (Solar PEIS; BLM and DOE 2012) has been refined based on additional information described below in an expanded hydrogeologic discussion.

  7. Modeling the Surface Water-Groundwater Interaction in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions Impacted by Agricultural Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Y.; Wu, B.; Zheng, Y.

    2013-12-01

    In many semi-arid and arid regions, interaction between surface water and groundwater plays an important role in the eco-hydrological system. The interaction is often complicated by agricultural activities such as surface water diversion, groundwater pumping, and irrigation. In existing surface water-groundwater integrated models, simulation of the interaction is often simplified, which could introduce significant simulation uncertainty under certain circumstance. In this study, GSFLOW, a USGS model coupling PRMS and MODFLOW, was improved to better characterize the surface water-groundwater interaction. The practices of water diversion from rivers, groundwater pumping and irrigation are explicitly simulated. In addition, the original kinematic wave routing method was replaced by a dynamic wave routing method. The improved model was then applied in Zhangye Basin (the midstream part of Heihe River Baisn), China, where the famous 'Silk Road' came through. It is a typical semi-arid region of the western China, with extensive agriculture in its oasis. The model was established and calibrated using the data in 2000-2008. A series of numerical experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of those improvements. It has been demonstrated that with the improvements, the observed streamflow and groundwater level were better reproduced by the model. The improvements have a significant impact on the simulation of multiple fluxes associated with the interaction, such as groundwater discharge, riverbed seepage, infiltration, etc. Human activities were proved to be key elements of the water cycle in the study area. The study results have important implications to the water resources modeling and management in semi-arid and arid basins.

  8. Impact of water overstock on groundwater quality of the Bassee plain area (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourcy, L.; Pettenati, M.; Baran, N.; Durand, P. Y.

    2009-04-01

    The project, inspired by the structural flood plain management measures of the Rhine River, consists in the temporal removal of a maximum amount of water from the Seine River in order to leave priority to the water from the River Yonne. Yonne River and the Seine are presenting their maximum water flow usually at a same time. The space located between Bray-sur-Seine and Montereau-Fault-Yonne corresponding to the La Bassée plain (agricultural area of 23 km2) is well adapted to this project of temporary and artificial flood. The objective of the project financed by the Institution Interdépartementale des barrages Réservoirs du Bassin de la Seine (IIBRBS), the BRGM, the Seine-Normandie Water Agency, the European Communauty through the Interreg IIIB SAND project is the evaluation, at a local scale, of the impact on groundwater quality of the temporal Seine water storage. Indeed, the water over storage i) changes hydraulic conditions and therefore modify water and pollutants transfers through the unsaturated and saturated zones and ii) bring at soil surface a water (Seine River) potentially containing contaminants that may move to groundwater and consequently changed physico-chemicals conditions (redox) of groundwater. The estimation of the vulnerability of groundwater to changes and loads needs hydraulic and geochemical modelling of transfer through the unsaturated zone as well as the study of pollutants fate in static conditions. Retention properties of some metals (Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr, Zn) in soils and materials of the unsaturated zone by chemical processes were performed determining adsorption coefficient (Kd) by laboratory experiments. These experiments are showing that nickel mobility is lower in the argillous layers than in the sandy part of the unsaturated zone. Ni mobility is controlled by iron hydroxides and precipitation of other secondary minerals. Its complexation on organic ligands increases its mobility in soils. Copper concentration is influenced by CaCO3

  9. The impact of a pulsing groundwater table on greenhouse gas emissions in riparian grey alder stands.

    PubMed

    Mander, Ülo; Maddison, Martin; Soosaar, Kaido; Teemusk, Alar; Kanal, Arno; Uri, Veiko; Truu, Jaak

    2015-02-01

    Floods control greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in floodplains; however, there is a lack of data on the impact of short-term events on emissions. We studied the short-term effect of changing groundwater (GW) depth on the emission of (GHG) carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) in two riparian grey alder (Alnus incana) stands of different age in Kambja, southern Estonia, using the opaque static chamber (five replicates in each site) and gas chromatography methods. The average carbon and total nitrogen content in the soil of the old alder (OA) stand was significantly higher than in the young alder (YA) stand. In both stands, one part was chosen for water table manipulation (Manip) and another remained unchanged with a stable and deeper GW table. Groundwater table manipulation (flooding) significantly increases CH4 emission (average: YA-Dry 468, YA-Manip 8,374, OA-Dry 468, OA-Manip 4,187 μg C m(-2) h(-1)) and decreases both CO2 (average: OA-Dry 138, OA-Manip 80 mg C m(-2) h(-1)) and N2O emissions (average: OA-Dry 23.1, OA-Manip 11.8 μg N m(-2) h(-1)) in OA sites. There was no significant difference in CO2 and CH4 emissions between the OA and YA sites, whereas in OA sites with higher N concentration in the soil, the N2O emission was significantly higher than at the YA sites. The relative CO2 and CH4 emissions (the soil C stock-related share of gaseous losses) were higher in manipulated plots showing the highest values in the YA-Manip plot (0.03 and 0.0030 % C day(-1), respectively). The soil N stock-related N2O emission was very low achieving 0.000019 % N day(-1) in the OA-Dry plot. Methane emission shows a negative correlation with GW, whereas the 20 cm depth is a significant limit below which most of the produced CH4 is oxidized. In terms of CO2 and N2O, the deeper GW table significantly increases emission. In riparian zones of headwater streams, the short-term floods (e.g. those driven by extreme climate events) may significantly enhance

  10. Early Psychosocial Neglect Adversely Impacts Developmental Trajectories of Brain Oscillations and Their Interactions.

    PubMed

    Stamoulis, Catherine; Vanderwert, Ross E; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A

    2015-12-01

    Rhythmicity is a fundamental property of neural activity at multiple spatiotemporal scales, and associated oscillations represent a critical mechanism for communication and transmission of information across brain regions. During development, these oscillations evolve dynamically as a function of neural maturation and may be modulated by early experiences, positive and/or negative. This study investigated the impact of psychosocial deprivation associated with institutional rearing in early life and the effects of subsequent foster care intervention on developmental trajectories of neural oscillations and their cross-frequency correlations. Longitudinally acquired nontask EEGs from three cohorts of children from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project were analyzed. These included abandoned children initially reared in institutions and subsequently randomized to be placed in foster care or receive care as usual (prolonged institutional rearing) and a group of never-institutionalized children. Oscillation trajectories were estimated from 42 to 96 months, that is, 1-3 years after all children in the intervention arm of the study had been placed in foster care. Significant differences between groups were estimated for the amplitude trajectories of cognitive-related gamma, beta, alpha, and theta oscillations. Similar differences were identified as a function of time spent in institutions, suggesting that increased time spent in psychosocial neglect may have profound and widespread effects on brain activity. Significant group differences in cross-frequency coupling were estimated longitudinally between gamma and lower frequencies as well as alpha and lower frequencies. Lower cross-gamma coupling was estimated at 96 months in the group of children that remained in institutions at that age compared to the other two groups, suggesting potentially impaired communication between local and long-distance brain networks in these children. In contrast, higher cross

  11. Sr and 87Sr/86Sr in estuaries of western India: Impact of submarine groundwater discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahaman, Waliur; Singh, Sunil Kumar

    2012-05-01

    Dissolved Sr and 87Sr/86Sr are measured in the Narmada, Tapi and the Mandovi estuaries linked to the eastern Arabian Sea. The concentration of dissolved Sr and 87Sr/86Sr in the river water endmembers show significant differences reflecting the lithologies they drain. The distribution of Sr in all these estuaries shows a near perfect two endmember mixing between river water and seawater suggesting that there is no discernible net addition/removal of Sr from the estuarine waters. In contrast, 87Sr/86Sr shows non-conservative behaviour in all these estuaries, its distribution exhibits significant departure from the theoretical mixing lines. A likely mechanism for this difference in the behaviour between dissolved Sr and its 87Sr/86Sr is the discharge of submarine groundwater (SGD) which can modify the 87Sr/86Sr of the estuarine waters by exchange with sediments without causing measurable changes in Sr concentration. The impact of such an exchange process on the 87Sr/86Sr of the estuaries and therefore on the Sr isotope composition of dissolved Sr entering the Arabian Sea differs among the three estuaries and also between seasons in the Narmada. The non-conservative behaviour of 87Sr/86Sr provides a handle to estimate the quantum of SGD to these estuaries. The Sr concentration, 87Sr/86Sr ratio and salinity of the submarine groundwater and estimate of its fluxes to the Narmada estuary have been made using inverse model calculations. The model derived SGD flow rates are ˜5 and 280 cm/day during pre-monsoon and monsoon, respectively. The more radiogenic Sr isotope composition of SGD relative to the seawater suggests that SGD acts as an additional source of 87Sr to the Arabian Sea.

  12. Identification of nitrate sources in groundwater and potential impact on drinking water reservoir (Goczałkowice reservoir, Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czekaj, Joanna; Jakóbczyk-Karpierz, Sabina; Rubin, Hanna; Sitek, Sławomir; Witkowski, Andrzej J.

    2016-08-01

    Goczałkowice dammed reservoir (area - 26 km2) is a strategic object for flood control in the Upper Vistula River catchment and one of the most important source of drinking water in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region (Southern Poland). Main aims of the investigation were identification of sources of nitrate and assessment of their significance in potential risk to groundwater quality. In the catchment area monitoring network of 22 piezometers, included 14 nested, have been installed. The significant spatial and seasonal differences in chemical composition between northern and southern part of the catchment were indicated based on the groundwater sampling conducted twice - in autumn 2011 and spring 2012. Maximum observed concentrations of nitrate were identified in northern part of the study area 255 mg/L as a results of inappropriate sewage management and agriculture activity. Results, based on the combines multi-scale hydrogeological and hydrochemical field studies, groundwater flow and transport modelling, dual stable isotope approach and geochemical modelling indicate mainly agriculture and inappropriate sewage water management as a sources of NO3- contamination of groundwater which moreover is affected by geochemical processes. In general, contaminated groundwater does not impact surface water quality. However, due to high concentration of nitrate in northern part a continues measurements of nitrogen compounds should be continued and used for reducing uncertainty of the predictive scenarios of the mass transport modelling in the study area.

  13. Fate and groundwater impacts of produced water releases at OSPER "B" site, Osage County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Kakouros, E.; Thordsen, J.J.; Ambats, G.; Abbott, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    For the last 5 a, the authors have been investigating the transport, fate, natural attenuation and ecosystem impacts of inorganic and organic compounds in releases of produced water and associated hydrocarbons at the Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research (OSPER) "A" and "B" sites, located in NE Oklahoma. Approximately 1.0 ha of land at OSPER "B", located within the active Branstetter lease, is visibly affected by salt scarring, tree kills, soil salinization, and brine and petroleum contamination. Site "B" includes an active production tank battery and adjacent large brine pit, two injection well sites, one with an adjacent small pit, and an abandoned brine pit and tank battery site. Oil production in this lease started in 1938, and currently there are 10 wells that produce 0.2-0.5 m3/d (1-3 bbl/d) oil, and 8-16 m3/d (50-100 bbl/d) brine. Geochemical data from nearby oil wells show that the produced water source is a Na-Ca-Cl brine (???150,000 mg/L TDS), with high Mg, but low SO4 and dissolved organic concentrations. Groundwater impacts are being investigated by detailed chemical analyses of water from repeated sampling of 41 boreholes, 1-71 m deep. The most important results at OSPER "B" are: (1) significant amounts of produced water from the two active brine pits percolate into the surficial rocks and flow towards the adjacent Skiatook reservoir, but only minor amounts of liquid petroleum leave the brine pits; (2) produced-water brine and minor dissolved organics have penetrated the thick (3-7 m) shale and siltstone units resulting in the formation of three interconnected plumes of high-salinity water (5000-30,000 mg/L TDS) that extend towards the Skiatook reservoir from the two active and one abandoned brine pits; and (3) groundwater from the deep section of only one well, BR-01 located 330 m upslope and west of the site, appear not to be impacted by petroleum operations. ?? 2007.

  14. The long-term impact of early adversities on psychiatric disorders: focus on neuronal plasticity.

    PubMed

    Luoni, Alessia; Richetto, Juliet; Racagni, Giorgio; Molteni, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    The impact of early physical and social environments on life-long pathological phenotypes is well known and there is now compelling evidence that stressful experiences during gestation or early in life can lead to enhanced susceptibility to mental illness. Here, we discuss the data from preclinical studies aimed at investigating the molecular consequences of the exposure to stressful events during prenatal or early postnatal life that might contribute to later psychopathology. Particularly, we will discuss the existence of age windows of vulnerability to environmental conditions during brain maturation using as examples several studies performed with different animal models. Specifically, major deviations from normative neurobehavioural trajectories have been reported in animal models obtained following exposure to severe stress (maternal separation) ea rly in infancy or with rodent models of difficult and/or stressful pregnancies, including obstetric complications (e.g. prenatal restrain stress) and gestational exposure to infection (e.g prenatal immune challenge). These models have been associated with profound long-lasting deficits in the offspring's emotional and social behaviour, and with molecular changes associated with neuroplasticity.

  15. Adverse Impact of Electromagnetic Radiation on Urban Environment and Natural Resources using Optical Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pawan; Katiyar, Swati; Rani, Meenu

    2016-07-01

    We are living in the age of a rapidly growing population and changing environmental conditions with an advance technical capacity.This has resulted in wide spread land cover change. One of the main causes for increasing urban heat is that more than half of the world's population lives in a rapidly growing urbanized environment. Satellite data can be highly useful to map change in land cover and other environmental phenomena with the passage of time. Among several human-induced environmental and urban thermal problems are reported to be negatively affecting urban residents in many ways. The built-up structures in urbanized areas considerably alter land cover thereby affecting thermal energy flow which leads to development of elevated surface and air temperature. The phenomenon Urban Heat Island implies 'island' of high temperature in cities, surrounded by relatively lower temperature in rural areas. The UHI for the temporal period is estimated using geospatial techniques which are then utilized for the impact assessment on climate of the surrounding regions and how it reduce the sustainability of the natural resources like air, vegetation. The present paper describes the methodology and resolution dynamic urban heat island change on climate using the geospatial approach. NDVI were generated using day time LANDSAT ETM+ image of 1990, 2000 and 2013. Temperature of various land use and land cover categories was estimated. Keywords: NDVI, Surface temperature, Dynamic changes.

  16. Adverse impact of feed channel spacers on the performance of pressure retarded osmosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu Chang; Elimelech, Menachem

    2012-04-17

    This article analyzes the influence of feed channel spacers on the performance of pressure retarded osmosis (PRO). Unlike forward osmosis (FO), an important feature of PRO is the application of hydraulic pressure on the high salinity (draw solution) side to retard the permeating flow for energy conversion. We report the first observation of membrane deformation under the action of the high hydraulic pressure on the feed channel spacer and the resulting impact on membrane performance. Because of this observation, reverse osmosis and FO tests that are commonly used for measuring membrane transport properties (water and salt permeability coefficients, A and B, respectively) and the structural parameter (S) can no longer be considered appropriate for use in PRO analysis. To accurately predict the water flux as a function of applied hydraulic pressure difference and the resulting power density in PRO, we introduced a new experimental protocol that accounts for membrane deformation in a spacer-filled channel to determine the membrane properties (A, B, and S). PRO performance model predictions based on these determined A, B, and S values closely matched experimental data over a range of draw solution concentrations (0.5 to 2 M NaCl). We also showed that at high pressures feed spacers block the permeation of water through the membrane area in contact with the spacer, a phenomenon that we term the shadow effect, thereby reducing overall water flux. The implications of the results for power generation by PRO are evaluated and discussed.

  17. Adverse impact of intermittent portal clamping on long-term postoperative outcomes in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hao, S; Chen, S; Yang, X; Wan, C

    2017-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate the impact of intermittent portal clamping (IPC) on long-term postoperative outcomes in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods Clinical records of 355 patients underwent curative liver resection for HCC in January 2007 to December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. According to how portal clamping was performed, patients were grouped as: IPC, n=113; other portal clamping (OPC), n=190; and no portal clamping (NPC), n=52. Results Median recurrence-free survival (RFS) was statistically significantly shorter in the IPC (39.4 months) than OPC (47.3 months, p=0.010) and NPC groups (51.4 months, p=0.008). Median overall survival (OS) was also significantly shorter with IPC (46.3 months), versus 52.9 months with OPC (p=0.022) and 56.2 months with NPC (p=0.015). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that 5-year cumulative RFS was much lower in the IPC (42.5%) than OPC (50.9%, p=0.014) and NPC groups (49.6%, p=0.013). Five-year cumulative OS was also much lower in the IPC (44.9%) than OPC (58.0%, p=0.020) and NPC groups (57.7%, p=0.025). On univariate analysis, tumour grade, size and number, TNM stage, blood transfusion, vascular invasion and IPC were significantly inversely correlated with RFS and OS. On multivariate analysis, tumour size and number, blood transfusion, vascular invasion and IPC remained significant. Conclusions Our study suggests that IPC is an independent risk factor for poor long-term postoperative outcomes in patients with HCC.

  18. Evaluating the impact of groundwater on cotton growth and root zone water balance using Hydrus-ID coupled with a crop growth model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundwater is an important factor that needs to be considered when evaluating the water balance of the soil-plant-atmosphere system and the sustainable water management. However, the impact of shallow groundwater on the root zone water balance and cotton growth is not fully understood. In this stud...

  19. Electrochemical treatment of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in groundwater impacted by aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs).

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Charles E; Andaya, Christina; Urtiaga, Ana; McKenzie, Erica R; Higgins, Christopher P

    2015-09-15

    Laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate the use of electrochemical treatment for the decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), as well as other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), in aqueous film forming foam (AFFF)-impacted groundwater collected from a former firefighter training area and PFAA-spiked synthetic groundwater. Using a commercially-produced Ti/RuO2 anode in a divided electrochemical cell, PFOA and PFOS decomposition was evaluated as a function of current density (0-20 mA/cm(2)). Decomposition of both PFOA and PFOS increased with increasing current density, although the decomposition of PFOS did not increase as the current density was increased above 2.5 mA/cm(2). At a current density of 10 mA/cm(2), the first-order rate constants, normalized for current density and treatment volume, for electrochemical treatment of both PFOA and PFOS were 46 × 10(-5) and 70 × 10(-5) [(min(-1)) (mA/cm(2))(-1) (L)], respectively. Defluorination was confirmed for both PFOA and PFOS, with 58% and 98% recovery as fluoride, respectively (based upon the mass of PFOA and PFOS degraded). Treatment of other PFAAs present in the groundwater also was observed, with shorter chain PFAAs generally being more recalcitrant. Results highlight the potential for electrochemical treatment of PFAAs, particularly PFOA and PFOS, in AFFF-impacted groundwater.

  20. Understanding the hydrologic impacts of wastewater treatment plant discharge to shallow groundwater: Before and after plant shutdown

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, Laura E.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Barber, Larry B.; Duris, Joseph; Hutchinson, Kasey J.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Effluent-impacted surface water has the potential to transport not only water, but wastewater-derived contaminants to shallow groundwater systems. To better understand the effects of effluent discharge on in-stream and near-stream hydrologic conditions in wastewater-impacted systems, water-level changes were monitored in hyporheic-zone and shallow-groundwater piezometers in a reach of Fourmile Creek adjacent to and downstream of the Ankeny (Iowa, USA) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Water-level changes were monitored from approximately 1.5 months before to 0.5 months after WWTP closure. Diurnal patterns in WWTP discharge were closely mirrored in stream and shallow-groundwater levels immediately upstream and up to 3 km downstream of the outfall, indicating that such discharge was the primary control on water levels before shutdown. The hydrologic response to WWTP shutdown was immediately observed throughout the study reach, verifying the far-reaching hydraulic connectivity and associated contaminant transport risk. The movement of WWTP effluent into alluvial aquifers has implications for potential WWTP-derived contamination of shallow groundwater far removed from the WWTP outfall.

  1. Assessing Drought Impacts on Water Storage using GRACE Satellites and Regional Groundwater Modeling in the Central Valley of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Zhang, Z.; Save, H.; Faunt, C. C.; Dettinger, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing concerns about drought impacts on water resources in California underscores the need to better understand effects of drought on water storage and coping strategies. Here we use a new GRACE mascons solution with high spatial resolution (1 degree) developed at the Univ. of Texas Center for Space Research (CSR) and output from the most recent regional groundwater model developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate changes in water storage in response to recent droughts. We also extend the analysis of drought impacts on water storage back to the 1980s using modeling and monitoring data. The drought has been intensifying since 2012 with almost 50% of the state and 100% of the Central Valley under exceptional drought in 2015. Total water storage from GRACE data declined sharply during the current drought, similar to the rate of depletion during the previous drought in 2007 - 2009. However, only 45% average recovery between the two droughts results in a much greater cumulative impact of both droughts. The CSR GRACE Mascons data offer unprecedented spatial resolution with no leakage to the oceans and no requirement for signal restoration. Snow and reservoir storage declines contribute to the total water storage depletion estimated by GRACE with the residuals attributed to groundwater storage. Rates of groundwater storage depletion are consistent with the results of regional groundwater modeling in the Central Valley. Traditional approaches to coping with these climate extremes has focused on surface water reservoir storage; however, increasing conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater and storing excess water from wet periods in depleted aquifers is increasing in the Central Valley.

  2. Modeling impacts of change in Landuse/ Landcover on groundwater system in Shiwaliks of Punjab using Remote Sensing and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, C. K.; Mukherjee, S.; Shashtri, S.

    2009-04-01

    increasing influence of green revolution is continuously being manifested in the form of escalating area under salinization; the total increase being registered is around 94%. The areas lying within the vicinity of river have shown concentrations of several heavy metals to be higher than the desirable limits. Impact of agriculture has also shown alarming increase in nitrate concentration in some of the areas. Thematic maps for geology, geomorphology, slope, drainage, lineament density, distance from the lineaments, soil type, were prepared using GIS platform and a suitability analysis was performed for quantitative variation of groundwater in the study area. Several water quality parameters were analyzed and to observe spatial variation of suitability of groundwater in terms of quality a water quality index (WQI) was generated. Parameters such as relative humidity, temperature and rainfall for the last two decades were also analyzed in relation to decline in level of groundwater.

  3. Assessment of the impacts of pit latrines on groundwater quality in rural areas: A case study from Marondera district, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzwairo, Bloodless; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Love, David; Guzha, Edward

    In resource-poor and low-population-density areas, on-site sanitation is preferred to off-site sanitation and groundwater is the main source of water for domestic uses. Groundwater pollution potential from on-site sanitation in such areas conflicts with Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) principles that advocate for sustainable use of water resources. Given the widespread use of groundwater for domestic purposes in rural areas, maintaining groundwater quality is a critical livelihood intervention. This study assessed impacts of pit latrines on groundwater quality in Kamangira village, Marondera district, Zimbabwe. Groundwater samples from 14 monitoring boreholes and 3 shallow wells were analysed during 6 sampling campaigns, from February 2005 to May 2005. Parameters analysed were total and faecal coliforms, NH4+-N, NO3--N, conductivity, turbidity and pH, both for boreholes and shallow wells. Total and faecal coliforms both ranged 0-TNTC (too-numerous-to-count), 78% of results meeting the 0 CFU/100 ml WHO guidelines value. NH4+-N range was 0-2.0 mg/l, with 99% of results falling below the 1.5 mg/l WHO recommended value. NO3--N range was 0.0-6.7 mg/l, within 10 mg/l WHO guidelines value. The range for conductivity values was 46-370 μS/cm while the pH range was 6.8-7.9. There are no WHO guideline values for these two parameters. Turbidity ranged from 1 NTU to 45 NTU, 59% of results meeting the 5 NTU WHO guidelines limit. Depth from the ground surface to the water table for the period February 2005 to May 2005 was determined for all sampling points using a tape measure. The drop in water table averaged from 1.1 m to 1.9 m and these values were obtained by subtracting water table elevations from absolute ground surface elevation. Soil from the monitoring boreholes was classified as sandy. The soil infiltration layer was taken as the layer between the pit latrine bottom and the water table. It averaged from 1.3 m to 1.7 m above the water table for two latrines

  4. Geochemical Impacts of Leaking CO2 from Subsurface Storage Reservoirs on the Fate of Metal Contaminants in an Overlaying Groundwater Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, H.; Qafoku, N. P.; Lawter, A.; Bowden, M. E.; Brown, C. F.

    2014-12-01

    The leakage of CO2 and the concomitant upward transport of brine solutions and contaminants from deep storage reservoirs to overlaying groundwater aquifers is considered one of the major risks associated with geologic carbon sequestration (GCS). A systematic understanding of how such leakage would impact the geochemistry of potable aquifers is crucial to the maintenance of environmental quality and the widespread acceptance of GCS. A series of batch and column experiments studies were conducted to understand the fate (mobilization and immobilization) of trace metals, such as Cd and As in the groundwater aquifer after the intrusion of CO2 gas and CO2-saturated fluids containing leached metals from deep subsurface storage reservoirs. Sediments from the High Plains aquifer in Kansas, United States, were used in this investigation, which is part of the National Risk Assessment Partnership Program sponsored by the US DOE. This aquifer was selected to be representative of consolidated sand and gravel/sandstone aquifers overlying potential CO2 sequestration repositories within the continental US. The experiments were conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The results demonstrated that Cd and As that intrude into groundwater aquifers with the leaking CO2 at initial concentrations of 40 and 114 mg/L, respectively, will be adsorbed on the sediments, in spite of the acidic pH (between 5 and 6) due to CO2 dissolution in the groundwater. Cd concentrations were well below its MCL in both the aqueous solution of the batch study and the effluent of the column study, even for one of the sediment samples which had undetectable amount of carbonate minerals to buffer the pH. Arsenic concentrations were also significantly lower than that in the influent, suggesting that natural sediments have the capacity to mitigate the adverse effects of the CO2 leakage. However, the mitigation capacity of sediments is influenced by its geochemical properties. When there are anions

  5. Incorporation of groundwater pumping in a global Land Surface Model with the representation of human impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, Yadu N.; Koirala, Sujan; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Hanasaki, Naota; Longuevergne, Laurent; Kanae, Shinjiro; Oki, Taikan

    2015-01-01

    Observations indicate that groundwater levels are declining in many regions around the world. Simulating such depletion of groundwater at the global scale still remains a challenge because most global Land Surface Models (LSMs) lack the physical representation of groundwater dynamics in general and well pumping in particular. Here we present an integrated hydrologic model, which explicitly simulates groundwater dynamics and pumping within a global LSM that also accounts for human activities such as irrigation and reservoir operation. The model is used to simulate global water fluxes and storages with a particular focus on groundwater withdrawal and depletion in the High Plains Aquifer (HPA) and Central Valley Aquifer (CVA). Simulated global groundwater withdrawal and depletion for the year 2000 are 570 and 330 km3 yr-1, respectively; the depletion agrees better with observations than our previous model result without groundwater representation, but may still contain certain uncertainties and is on the higher side of other estimates. Groundwater withdrawals from the HPA and CVA are ˜22 and ˜9 km3 yr-1, respectively, which are also consistent with the observations of ˜24 and ˜13 km3 yr-1. The model simulates a significant decline in total terrestrial water storage in both regions as caused mainly by groundwater storage depletion. Groundwater table declined by ˜14 cm yr-1 in the HPA during 2003-2010; the rate is even higher (˜71 cm yr-1) in the CVA. These results demonstrate the potential of the developed model to study the dynamic relationship between human water use, groundwater storage, and the entire hydrologic cycle.

  6. Impact of river-lake-groundwater interaction on boundless carbon cycle in continental basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, T.; Shankman, D.

    2012-12-01

    In the Changjiang River in south China, deforestation and land reclamation have induced serious soil erosion and increased floods. Although the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) will provide flood control, the aquatic environment might be changed by discharge control and pollutant loads caused by the deposition of large amounts of sediment in the upper dam (Yang et al., 2006). Some research implies that seepage of groundwater along the lower regions plays important role in maintaining stream flow and after TGD impounding by using natural radionuclides (Dai et al., 2010). It is effective to clarify complicated river-lake-groundwater interaction (Eltahir and Yeh, 1999; Dai et al., 2010), and to evaluate optimum amount of transferred water and environmental consequences in the basin. The authors have so far developed the process-based National Integrated Catchment-based Eco-hydrology (NICE) model (Nakayama, 2008a, 2008b, 2010, 2011a-b, 2012a-c; Nakayama and Fujita, 2010; Nakayama and Hashimoto, 2011; Nakayama and Watanabe, 2004, 2006, 2008a, 2008b; Nakayama et al., 2006, 2007, 2010, 2012), which includes complex interactions between the forest canopy, surface water, the unsaturated zone, aquifers, lakes, and rivers. The objective of this research is to estimate the impact of river-lake-groundwater interaction on hydrologic cycle and to predict the impact of TGD on the hydrologic change in the downstream Dongting and Poyang Lakes region by using a process-based model. Analysis of power spectra in river discharge also helps to understand its complex mechanism. This integrated system also throws some light on the improvement in boundless biogeochemical cycle along terrestrial-aquatic continuum (Cole et al., 2007). References; Cole, J.J. et al., Ecosystems, doi:10.1007/s10021-006-9013-8, 2007. Dai, Z. et al., Hydrogeol. J., 18, 359-369, 2010. Eltahir, E.A.B.& Yeh, P.J.-F., Water Resour. Res., 35(4), 1199-1217, 1999. Nakayama, T., Ecol. Model., doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2008

  7. Impacts on groundwater recharge areas of megacity pumping: analysis of potential contamination of Kolkata, India, water supply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sahu, Paulami; Michael, Holly A.; Voss, Clifford I.; Sikdar, Pradip K.

    2013-01-01

    Water supply to the world's megacities is a problem of quantity and quality that will be a priority in the coming decades. Heavy pumping of groundwater beneath these urban centres, particularly in regions with low natural topographic gradients, such as deltas and floodplains, can fundamentally alter the hydrological system. These changes affect recharge area locations, which may shift closer to the city centre than before development, thereby increasing the potential for contamination. Hydrogeological simulation analysis allows evaluation of the impact on past, present and future pumping for the region of Kolkata, India, on recharge area locations in an aquifer that supplies water to over 13 million people. Relocated recharge areas are compared with known surface contamination sources, with a focus on sustainable management of this urban groundwater resource. The study highlights the impacts of pumping on water sources for long-term development of stressed city aquifers and for future water supply in deltaic and floodplain regions of the world.

  8. Impacts of Urbanization on Groundwater Quality and Recharge in a Semi-arid Alluvial Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The management of groundwater resources is paramount in semi-arid regions experiencing urban development. In the southwestern United States, enhancing recharge of urban storm runoff has been identified as a strategy for augmenting groundwater resources. An understanding of how urbanization may impac...

  9. Impacts of Shallow Groundwater and Soil Texture on Agricultural Drought Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zipper, S. C.; Soylu, M. E.; Booth, E.; Steven, L. I.

    2015-12-01

    Meeting increasing global food demands while fostering environmental sustainability requires a detailed understanding of the drivers of yield sensitivity within agroecosystems. In this study, we untangle the roles of soil texture and shallow groundwater as simultaneous drivers of corn yield resistance to excessively wet and dry growing seasons. Specifically, we ask (1) does the presence of groundwater in or near the root zone increase/decrease yield?; and (2) how does yield response to water table depth interact with variability in soil texture and growing season weather conditions? We combine a multi-year field study at a commercial corn field in south-central Wisconsin with ecohydrological modeling using AgroIBIS-VSF to assess the yield response to a broad spectrum of groundwater, soil, and weather conditions. We find that shallow groundwater (<1 m) increases yield sensitivity to overly wet growing season conditions, but acts as a stable reservoir of water to increase drought resistance by providing a groundwater yield subsidy during dry years. Modeling results indicate that coarser soils receive a groundwater yield subsidy at shallower water table depths than finer-grained soils, and that the magnitude of the groundwater yield subsidy tends to be larger. We also find that crops growing on soils with different textures experience a comparable response to changes in growing season precipitation and evapotranspiration demands. Overall, we find that the benefits of shallow groundwater (drought resistance) outweigh the negatives (waterlogging and yield loss) at our study site.

  10. A Groundwater Model to Assess Water Resource Impacts at the Imperial East Solar Energy Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, John; Greer, Chris; O'Connor, Ben L.; Tompson, Andrew F.B.

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a groundwater flow model to examine the influence of potential groundwater withdrawal to support the utility-scale solar energy development at the Imperial East Solar Energy Zone (SEZ) as a part of the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM) solar energy program.

  11. A Groundwater Model to Assess Water Resource Impacts at the Brenda Solar Energy Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, John; Carr, Adrianne E.; Greer, Chris; Bowen, Esther E.

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a groundwater flow model to examine the influence of potential groundwater withdrawal to support utility-scale solar energy development at the Brenda Solar Energy Zone (SEZ), as a part of the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM’s) Solar Energy Program.

  12. Impacts of Climate Change on Groundwater Recharge and Streamflow in Headwater Catchments in the Yakima River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, T. T.; Adam, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Headwater catchments are important sources of surface water supply, groundwater recharge and, thus, groundwater supply for agricultural activities in the Yakima River Basin (YRB, one of the most important agricultural basins in the western U.S). These catchments are, however, vulnerable to projected climate change in future decades, particularly if their runoff is dominated by snowmelt. The goal of this study is to assess the potential impacts of climate change on the temporal and spatial distributions of groundwater recharge and streamflow in three headwater catchments in the YRB. A Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System ("RHESSys") is calibrated and evaluated with a global optimization tool ("Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy - CMA-ES") using 27 years of observation data from 1979 to 2005. Statistically downscaled climate projections for the 2050s from four global climate models driven by two different representative concentration pathways, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 are used to predict future hydrologic changes. Our preliminary results show an increase in annual recharge between 2% and 13%, as well as in streamflow between 1% and 17%. Seasonal changes of recharge and streamflow are more pronounced with an increase up to 210% in winters and a decrease as high as 60% in summers in the 2050s. Both recharge and streamflow projections indicate timing shifts in all three catchments. The outcome from this study will be an integral part of a future study which investigates the impacts of climate change on surface water vulnerability due to supplemental pumping, potential recharge changes and related surface-groundwater interactions in the YRB using an integrated modeling approach that consists of three models: RHESSys, a groundwater model (MODFLOW) and a river and reservoir management model (RiverWare).

  13. Mines as lower reservoir of an UPSH (Underground Pumping Storage Hydroelectricity): groundwater impacts and feasibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodeux, Sarah; Pujades, Estanislao; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-04-01

    The energy framework is currently characterized by an expanding use of renewable sources. However, their intermittence could not afford a stable production according to the energy demand. Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH) is an efficient possibility to store and release electricity according to the demand needs. Because of the topographic and environmental constraints of classical PSH, new potential suitable sites are rare in countries whose topography is weak or with a high population density. Nevertheless, an innovative alternative is to construct Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants by using old underground mine works as lower reservoir. In that configuration, large amount of pumped or injected water in the underground cavities would impact the groundwater system. A representative UPSH facility is used to numerically determine the interactions with surrounding aquifers Different scenarios with varying parameters (hydrogeological and lower reservoir characteristics, boundaries conditions and pumping/injection time-sequence) are computed. Analysis of the computed piezometric heads around the reservoir allows assessing the magnitude of aquifer response and the required time to achieve a mean pseudo-steady state under cyclic solicitations. The efficiency of the plant is also evaluated taking the leakage into the cavity into account. Combining these two outcomes, some criterions are identified to assess the feasibility of this type of projects within potential old mine sites from a hydrogeological point of view.

  14. Assessing the Impacts of Climate, Groundwater and Land Use on Regional Geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkwith, A.; Hurst, M. D.; Ellis, M. A.; Coulthard, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    The CLiDE (CAESAR-Lisflood-DESC) platform integrates a variety of modelling components, in order to represent coupled environmental processes and assess their co-evolution over daily to centennial time-scales. A distributed surface-subsurface water partitioning component lies conceptually at the platform centre; providing the key linkages between the atmospheric, sediment transport and vegetation components. Fluvial sediment transport is simulated using the CAESAR model, which has previously been used to investigate a variety of sediment transport, erosional and depositional processes at centennial to millennial scales. Driving CAESAR with a higher resolution, distributed hydrology allows CLiDE to effectively capture geomorphological features that operate at sub-centennial timescales. Non-fluvial sediment transport at the mesoscale is handled by a debris flow component, which drives sediment transport through exchanges of energy and is triggered through modification of local gradient and hydrology. The coupled nature of the platform allows a variety of geomorphological assessments to be undertaken. We present a variety of regional scale, modelling case studies, which assess the impacts of climate, groundwater and land use on geomorphology. We investigate the non-linear influence of these drivers on the spatial and temporal evolution of river basins and find that antecedent conditions can have a major influence on future erosion events.

  15. The influence of model structure on groundwater recharge rates in climate-change impact studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeck, Christian; Brunner, Philip; Hunkeler, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Numerous modeling approaches are available to provide insight into the relationship between climate change and groundwater recharge. However, several aspects of how hydrological model choice and structure affect recharge predictions have not been fully explored, unlike the well-established variability of climate model chains—combination of global climate models (GCM) and regional climate models (RCM). Furthermore, the influence on predictions related to subsoil parameterization and the variability of observation data employed during calibration remain unclear. This paper compares and quantifies these different sources of uncertainty in a systematic way. The described numerical experiment is based on a heterogeneous two-dimensional reference model. Four simpler models were calibrated against the output of the reference model, and recharge predictions of both reference and simpler models were compared to evaluate the effect of model structure on climate-change impact studies. The results highlight that model simplification leads to different recharge rates under climate change, especially under extreme conditions, although the different models performed similarly under historical climate conditions. Extreme weather conditions lead to model bias in the predictions and therefore must be considered. Consequently, the chosen calibration strategy is important and, if possible, the calibration data set should include climatic extremes in order to minimise model bias introduced by the calibration. The results strongly suggest that ensembles of climate projections should be coupled with ensembles of hydrogeological models to produce credible predictions of future recharge and with the associated uncertainties.

  16. The impact of groundwater depletion on spatial variations in sea level change during the past century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veit, Emeline; Conrad, Clinton P.

    2016-04-01

    Continental groundwater loss during the past century has elevated sea level by up to ~25 mm. The mass unloading associated with this depletion locally uplifts Earth's solid surface and depresses the geoid, leading to slower relative sea level rise near areas of significant groundwater loss. We computed spatial variations in sea level using a model of the solid Earth's response to estimates of groundwater depletion during the past century and find large negative deviations of ~0.4 mm/yr along the coastlines of western North America and southern Asia. This approximately corresponds to the difference between rates of sea level rise measured by tide gauges in these regions since 1930 and average rates inferred from global reconstructions. Groundwater-induced regional variations in sea level can be larger than those due to postglacial rebound and interseismic deformation and should become increasingly important in the future as both groundwater depletion and sea level rise accelerate.

  17. Climate change impact assessment on Veneto and Friuli Plain groundwater. Part I: an integrated modeling approach for hazard scenario construction.

    PubMed

    Baruffi, F; Cisotto, A; Cimolino, A; Ferri, M; Monego, M; Norbiato, D; Cappelletto, M; Bisaglia, M; Pretner, A; Galli, A; Scarinci, A; Marsala, V; Panelli, C; Gualdi, S; Bucchignani, E; Torresan, S; Pasini, S; Critto, A; Marcomini, A

    2012-12-01

    Climate change impacts on water resources, particularly groundwater, is a highly debated topic worldwide, triggering international attention and interest from both researchers and policy makers due to its relevant link with European water policy directives (e.g. 2000/60/EC and 2007/118/EC) and related environmental objectives. The understanding of long-term impacts of climate variability and change is therefore a key challenge in order to address effective protection measures and to implement sustainable management of water resources. This paper presents the modeling approach adopted within the Life+ project TRUST (Tool for Regional-scale assessment of groUndwater Storage improvement in adaptation to climaTe change) in order to provide climate change hazard scenarios for the shallow groundwater of high Veneto and Friuli Plain, Northern Italy. Given the aim to evaluate potential impacts on water quantity and quality (e.g. groundwater level variation, decrease of water availability for irrigation, variations of nitrate infiltration processes), the modeling approach integrated an ensemble of climate, hydrologic and hydrogeologic models running from the global to the regional scale. Global and regional climate models and downscaling techniques were used to make climate simulations for the reference period 1961-1990 and the projection period 2010-2100. The simulation of the recent climate was performed using observed radiative forcings, whereas the projections have been done prescribing the radiative forcings according to the IPCC A1B emission scenario. The climate simulations and the downscaling, then, provided the precipitation, temperatures and evapo-transpiration fields used for the impact analysis. Based on downscaled climate projections, 3 reference scenarios for the period 2071-2100 (i.e. the driest, the wettest and the mild year) were selected and used to run a regional geomorphoclimatic and hydrogeological model. The final output of the model ensemble produced

  18. THE IMPACT OF BIOSTIMULATION ON THE FATE OF SULFATE AND ASSOCIATED SULFUR DYNAMICS IN GROUNDWATER

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Ziheng; Carreón-Diazconti, Concepcion; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Brusseau, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of electron-donor addition on sulfur dynamics for a groundwater system with low levels of metal contaminants was evaluated with a pilot-scale biostimulation test conducted at a former uranium mining site. Geochemical and stable-isotope data collected before, during, and after the test were analyzed to evaluate the sustainability of sulfate reducing conditions induced by the test, the fate of hydrogen sulfide, and the impact on aqueous geochemical conditions. The results of site characterization activities conducted prior to the test indicated the absence of measurable bacterial sulfate reduction. The injection of an electron donor (ethanol) induced bacterial sulfate reduction, as confirmed by an exponential decrease of sulfate concentration in concert with changes in oxidation-reduction potential, redox species, alkalinity, production of hydrogen sulfide, and fractionation of δ34S-sulfate. High, stoichiometrically-equivalent hydrogen sulfide concentrations were not observed until several months after the start of the test. It is hypothesized that hydrogen sulfide produced from sulfate reduction was initially sequestered in the form of iron sulfides until the exhaustion of readily reducible iron oxides associated with the sediment. The fractionation of δ34S for sulfate was atypical, wherein the enrichment declined in the latter half of the experiment. It was conjectured that mixing effects associated with the release of sulfate from sulfate minerals associated with the sediments, along with possible sulfide re-oxidation contributed to this behavior. The results of this study illustrate the biogeochemical complexity that is associated with in-situ biostimulation processes involving bacterial sulfate reduction. PMID:25016586

  19. The impact of biostimulation on the fate of sulfate and associated sulfur dynamics in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Ziheng; Carreón-Diazconti, Concepcion; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Brusseau, Mark L.

    2014-08-01

    The impact of electron-donor addition on sulfur dynamics for a groundwater system with low levels of metal contaminants was evaluated with a pilot-scale biostimulation test conducted at a former uranium mining site. Geochemical and stable-isotope data collected before, during, and after the test were analyzed to evaluate the sustainability of sulfate reducing conditions induced by the test, the fate of hydrogen sulfide, and the impact on aqueous geochemical conditions. The results of site characterization activities conducted prior to the test indicated the absence of measurable bacterial sulfate reduction. The injection of an electron donor (ethanol) induced bacterial sulfate reduction, as confirmed by an exponential decrease of sulfate concentration in concert with changes in oxidation-reduction potential, redox species, alkalinity, production of hydrogen sulfide, and fractionation of δ34S-sulfate. High, stoichiometrically-equivalent hydrogen sulfide concentrations were not observed until several months after the start of the test. It is hypothesized that hydrogen sulfide produced from sulfate reduction was initially sequestered in the form of iron sulfides until the exhaustion of readily reducible iron oxides within the sediment. The fractionation of δ34S for sulfate was atypical, wherein the enrichment declined in the latter half of the experiment. It was conjectured that mixing effects associated with the release of sulfate from sulfate minerals associated with the sediments, along with possible sulfide re-oxidation contributed to this behavior. The results of this study illustrate the biogeochemical complexity that is associated with in-situ biostimulation processes involving bacterial sulfate reduction.

  20. The impact of biostimulation on the fate of sulfate and associated sulfur dynamics in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Miao, Ziheng; Carreón-Diazconti, Concepcion; Carroll, Kenneth C; Brusseau, Mark L

    2014-08-01

    The impact of electron-donor addition on sulfur dynamics for a groundwater system with low levels of metal contaminants was evaluated with a pilot-scale biostimulation test conducted at a former uranium mining site. Geochemical and stable-isotope data collected before, during, and after the test were analyzed to evaluate the sustainability of sulfate reducing conditions induced by the test, the fate of hydrogen sulfide, and the impact on aqueous geochemical conditions. The results of site characterization activities conducted prior to the test indicated the absence of measurable bacterial sulfate reduction. The injection of an electron donor (ethanol) induced bacterial sulfate reduction, as confirmed by an exponential decrease of sulfate concentration in concert with changes in oxidation-reduction potential, redox species, alkalinity, production of hydrogen sulfide, and fractionation of δ(34)S-sulfate. High, stoichiometrically-equivalent hydrogen sulfide concentrations were not observed until several months after the start of the test. It is hypothesized that hydrogen sulfide produced from sulfate reduction was initially sequestered in the form of iron sulfides until the exhaustion of readily reducible iron oxides within the sediment. The fractionation of δ(34)S for sulfate was atypical, wherein the enrichment declined in the latter half of the experiment. It was conjectured that mixing effects associated with the release of sulfate from sulfate minerals associated with the sediments, along with possible sulfide re-oxidation contributed to this behavior. The results of this study illustrate the biogeochemical complexity that is associated with in-situ biostimulation processes involving bacterial sulfate reduction.

  1. Groundwater Governance in a Water-Starved Country: Public Policy, Farmers' Perceptions, and Drivers of Tubewell Adoption in Balochistan, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khair, Syed Mohammad; Mushtaq, Shahbaz; Reardon-Smith, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Pakistan faces the challenge of developing sustainable groundwater policies with the main focus on groundwater management rather than groundwater development and with appropriate governance arrangement to ensure benefits continue into the future. This article investigates groundwater policy, farmers' perceptions, and drivers of tubewell (groundwater bore) adoption and proposes possible pathways for improved groundwater management for Balochistan, Pakistan. Historical groundwater policies were mainly aimed at increasing agricultural production and reducing poverty, without consideration of adverse impact on groundwater availability. These groundwater policies and governance arrangements have resulted in a massive decline in groundwater tables. Tubewell owners' rankings of the drivers of groundwater decline suggest that rapid and widespread installation of tubewells, together with uncontrolled extraction due to lack of property rights, electricity subsidy policies, and ineffective governance, are key causes of groundwater decline in Balochistan. An empirical "tubewell adoption" model confirmed that the electricity subsidy significantly influenced tubewell adoption decisions. The article proposes a more rational electricity subsidy policy for sustaining groundwater levels in the short-run. However, in the long run a more comprehensive sustainable groundwater management policy, with strong institutional support and involvement of all stakeholders, is needed.

  2. Impact of Calcium and Magnesium in Groundwater and Drinking Water on the Health of Inhabitants of the Slovak Republic.

    PubMed

    Rapant, Stanislav; Cvečková, Veronika; Fajčíková, Katarína; Sedláková, Darina; Stehlíková, Beáta

    2017-03-08

    This work aims to evaluate the impact of the chemical composition of groundwater/drinking water on the health of inhabitants of the Slovak Republic. Primary data consists of 20,339 chemical analyses of groundwater (34 chemical elements and compounds) and data on the health of the Slovak population expressed in the form of health indicators (HI). Fourteen HIs were evaluated including life expectancy, potential years of lost life, relative/standardized mortality for cardiovascular and oncological diseases, and diseases of the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. The chemical and health data were expressed as the mean values for each of the 2883 Slovak municipalities. Artificial neural network (ANN) was the method used for environmental and health data analysis. The most significant relationship between HI and chemical composition of groundwater was documented as Ca + Mg (mmol·L(-1)), Ca and Mg. The following limit values were set for these most significant groundwater chemical parameters: Ca + Mg 2.9-6.1 mmol·L(-1), Ca 78-155 mg·L(-1) and Mg 28-54 mg·L(-1). At these concentration ranges, the health of the Slovak population is the most favorable and the life expectancy is the highest. These limit values are about twice as high in comparison to the current Slovak valid guideline values for drinking water.

  3. Assessment of potential impacts of major groundwater contaminants to fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach, Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, D.R.; Poston, T.M.; Dauble, D.D.

    1994-10-01

    Past operations of Hanford Site facilities have contaminated the groundwater adjacent to the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, with various chemical and radiological constituents. The groundwater is hydraulically connected to the river and contains concentrations of contaminants that sometimes exceed federal and/or state drinking water standards or standards for the protection of aquatic life. For example, concentrations of chromium in shoreline seeps and springs at most 100 Area operable units exceed concentrations found to be toxic to fish. Nitrate and tritium concentrations in shoreline seeps are generally below drinking water standards and concentrations potentially toxic to aquatic life, but nitrate concentrations may be high enough to synergistically interact with and exacerbate chromium toxicity. The Hanford Reach also supports the largest run of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Columbia River Basin. Numbers of fall chinook salmon returning to the Hanford Reach have increased relative to other mainstem populations during the last 30 years. Groundwater discharge appears to occur near some salmon spawning areas, but contaminants are generally not detectable in surface water samples. The concentration and potential toxicity of contaminants in the interstitial waters of the substrate where fall chinook salmon embryogenesis occurs are presently unknown. New tools are required to characterize the extent of groundwater contaminant discharge to the Hanford Reach and to resolve uncertainties associated with assessment of potential impacts to fall chinook salmon.

  4. Impact of Calcium and Magnesium in Groundwater and Drinking Water on the Health of Inhabitants of the Slovak Republic

    PubMed Central

    Rapant, Stanislav; Cvečková, Veronika; Fajčíková, Katarína; Sedláková, Darina; Stehlíková, Beáta

    2017-01-01

    This work aims to evaluate the impact of the chemical composition of groundwater/drinking water on the health of inhabitants of the Slovak Republic. Primary data consists of 20,339 chemical analyses of groundwater (34 chemical elements and compounds) and data on the health of the Slovak population expressed in the form of health indicators (HI). Fourteen HIs were evaluated including life expectancy, potential years of lost life, relative/standardized mortality for cardiovascular and oncological diseases, and diseases of the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. The chemical and health data were expressed as the mean values for each of the 2883 Slovak municipalities. Artificial neural network (ANN) was the method used for environmental and health data analysis. The most significant relationship between HI and chemical composition of groundwater was documented as Ca + Mg (mmol·L−1), Ca and Mg. The following limit values were set for these most significant groundwater chemical parameters: Ca + Mg 2.9–6.1 mmol·L−1, Ca 78–155 mg·L−1 and Mg 28–54 mg·L−1. At these concentration ranges, the health of the Slovak population is the most favorable and the life expectancy is the highest. These limit values are about twice as high in comparison to the current Slovak valid guideline values for drinking water. PMID:28282877

  5. Examining the impacts of increased corn production on groundwater quality using a coupled modeling system.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Valerie; Cooter, Ellen; Crooks, James; Hinckley, Brian; Murphy, Mark; Xing, Xiangnan

    2017-05-15

    This study demonstrates the value of a coupled chemical transport modeling system for investigating groundwater nitrate contamination responses associated with nitrogen (N) fertilizer application and increased corn production. The coupled Community Multiscale Air Quality Bidirectional and Environmental Policy Integrated Climate modeling system incorporates agricultural management practices and N exchange processes between the soil and atmosphere to estimate levels of N that may volatilize into the atmosphere, re-deposit, and seep or flow into surface and groundwater. Simulated values from this modeling system were used in a land-use regression model to examine associations between groundwater nitrate-N measurements and a suite of factors related to N fertilizer and groundwater nitrate contamination. Multi-variable modeling analysis revealed that the N-fertilizer rate (versus total) applied to irrigated (versus rainfed) grain corn (versus other crops) was the strongest N-related predictor variable of groundwater nitrate-N concentrations. Application of this multi-variable model considered groundwater nitrate-N concentration responses under two corn production scenarios. Findings suggest that increased corn production between 2002 and 2022 could result in 56% to 79% increase in areas vulnerable to groundwater nitrate-N concentrations ≥5mg/L. These above-threshold areas occur on soils with a hydraulic conductivity 13% higher than the rest of the domain. Additionally, the average number of animal feeding operations (AFOs) for these areas was nearly 5 times higher, and the mean N-fertilizer rate was 4 times higher. Finally, we found that areas prone to high groundwater nitrate-N concentrations attributable to the expansion scenario did not occur in new grid cells of irrigated grain-corn croplands, but were clustered around areas of existing corn crops. This application demonstrates the value of the coupled modeling system in developing spatially refined multi

  6. Impact of groundwater table and plateau zokors (Myospalax baileyi) on ecosystem respiration in the Zoige Peatlands of China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Li, Nana; Grace, John; Yang, Meng; Lu, Cai; Geng, Xuemeng; Lei, Guangchun; Zhu, Wei; Deng, Yongfeng

    2014-01-01

    Peatlands contain large amount of carbon stock that is vulnerable to release into the atmosphere. Mostly because of human impact, the peatlands at Zoige Wetlands face severe degradation, and the groundwater table is now lower than before, which has increased the population of the plateau zokor, a burrowing rodent. However, the impact of these changes on ecosystem carbon flows has not been studied. To investigate how the plateau zokor and the groundwater level alter the ecosystem respiration of the Zoige peatlands, we sampled the CO2 flux of hummocks shaped by the zokors and compared it with the CO2 flux of undisturbed sites with different groundwater table levels. The soil organic carbon (SOC), soil water content (SWC) and soil temperature at 5 cm (T5) were measured. SOC showed no significant difference among the four sampling sites and did not correlate with the CO2 flux, while SWC was found to partly determine the CO2 flux. A linear equation could adequately describe the relationship between the natural logarithm of the ecosystem respiration and the soil temperature. It is demonstrated that descending groundwater table might accelerate ecosystem respiration and the CO2 flux from hummocks was higher than the CO2 flux from the control site in the non-growing season. With rising temperature, the CO2 flux from the control site accelerated faster than that from the hummocks. Our results show that ecosystem respiration was significantly lower from hummocks than at the control site in the growing season. The results on the impact of zokors on greenhouse gas emissions presented in this paper provide a useful reference to help properly manage not only this, but other litter-burrowing mammals at peatland sites.

  7. The Immatsiak network of groundwater wells in a small catchment basin in the discontinuous permafrost zone of Northern Quebec, Canada: A unique opportunity for monitoring the impacts of climate change on groundwater (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortier, R.; Lemieux, J.; Molson, J. W.; Therrien, R.; Ouellet, M.; Bart, J.

    2013-12-01

    During a summer drilling campaign in 2012, a network of nine groundwater monitoring wells was installed in a small catchment basin in a zone of discontinuous permafrost near the Inuit community of Umiujaq in Northern Quebec, Canada. This network, named Immatsiak, is part of a provincial network of groundwater monitoring wells to monitor the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources. It provides a unique opportunity to study cold region groundwater dynamics in permafrost environments and to assess the impacts of permafrost degradation on groundwater quality and availability as a potential source of drinking water. Using the borehole logs from the drilling campaign and other information from previous investigations, an interpretative cryo-hydrogeological cross-section of the catchment basin was produced which identified the Quaternary deposit thickness and extent, the depth to bedrock, the location of permafrost, one superficial aquifer located in a sand deposit, and another deep aquifer in fluvio-glacial sediments and till. In the summer of 2013, data were recovered from water level and barometric loggers which were installed in the wells in August 2012. Although the wells were drilled in unfrozen zones, the groundwater temperature is very low, near 0.4 °C, with an annual variability of a few tenths of a degree Celsius at a depth of 35 m. The hydraulic head in the wells varied as much as 6 m over the last year. Pumping tests performed in the wells showed a very high hydraulic conductivity of the deep aquifer. Groundwater in the wells and surface water in small thermokarst lakes and at the catchment outlet were sampled for geochemical analysis (inorganic parameters, stable isotopes of oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δ2H), and radioactive isotopes of carbon (δ14C), hydrogen (tritium δ3H) and helium (δ3He)) to assess groundwater quality and origin. Preliminary results show that the signature of melt water from permafrost thawing is observed in the

  8. Subsurface Drip Irrigation As a Methold to Beneficiallly Use Coalbed Methane Produced Water: Initial Impacts to Groundwater, Soil Water, and Surface Water

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, M.A.: Bern, C: Healy, R: Sams, J: Zupancic, J.: Schroeder, K.

    2009-10-18

    Coalbed methane (CBM) currently accounts for >8% of US natural gas production. Compared to traditional sources, CBM co-produces large volumes of water. Of particular interest is CBM development in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana, the 2nd largest CBM production field in the US, where CBM produced waters exhibit low to moderate TDS and relatively high sodium-adsorption ratio (SAR) that could potentially impact the surface environment. Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is an emerging technology for beneficial use of pre-treated CBM waters (injectate) which are emitted into the root zone of an agricultural field to aid in irrigation. The method is designed to minimize environmental impacts by storing potentially detrimental salts in the vadose zone. Research objectives include tracking the transport and fate of the water and salts from the injected CBM produced waters at an SDI site on an alluvial terrace, adjacent to the Powder River, Johnson County, Wyoming. This research utilizes soil science, geochemical, and geophysical methods. Initial results from pre-SDI data collection and the first 6-months of post-SDI operation will be presented. Substantial ranges in conductivity (2732-9830 {micro}S/cm) and dominant cation chemistry (Ca-SO{sub 4} to Na-SO{sub 4}) have been identified in pre-SDI analyses of groundwater samples from the site. Ratios of average composition of local ground water to injectate demonstrate that the injectate contains lower concentrations of most constituents except for Cr, Zn, and Tl (all below national water quality standards) but exhibits a higher SAR. Composition of soil water varies markedly with depth and between sites, suggesting large impacts from local controls, including ion exchange and equilibrium with gypsum and carbonates. Changes in chemical composition and specific conductivity along surface water transects adjacent to the site are minimal, suggesting that discharge to the Powder River from groundwater underlying the

  9. Proposed methods and endpoints for defining and assessing adverse environmental impact (AEI) on fish communities/populations in Tennessee River reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Gary D; Brown, Mary L

    2002-06-07

    Two multimetric indices have been developed to help address fish community (reservoir fish assemblage index [RFAI]) and individual population quality (sport fishing index [SFI]) in Tennessee River reservoirs. The RFAI, with characteristics similar to the index of biotic integrity (IBI) used in stream fish community determinations, was developed to monitor the existing condition of resident fish communities. The index, which incorporates standardized electrofishing of littoral areas and experimental gill netting for limnetic bottom-dwelling species, has been used to determine residential fish community response to various anthropogenic impacts in southeastern reservoirs. The SFI is a multimetric index designed to address the quality of the fishery for individual resident sport fish species in a particular lake or reservoir[4]. The SFI incorporates measures of fish population aspects and angler catch and pressure estimates. This paper proposes 70% of the maximum RFAI score and 10% above the average SFI score for individual species as "screening" endpoints for balanced indigenous populations (BIP) or adverse environmental impact (AEI). Endpoints for these indices indicate: (1) communities/populations are obviously balanced indigenous populations (BIP) indicating no adverse environmental impact (AEI), or are "screened out"; (2) communities/populations are considered to be potentially impacted; and (3) where the resident fish community/population should be considered adversely impacted. Suggestions are also made concerning how examination of individual metric scores can help determine the source or cause of the impact.

  10. Remedial Process Optimization and Green In-Situ Ozone Sparging for Treatment of Groundwater Impacted with Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leu, J.

    2012-12-01

    A former natural gas processing station is impacted with TPH and BTEX in groundwater. Air sparging and soil vapor extraction (AS/AVE) remediation systems had previously been operated at the site. Currently, a groundwater extraction and treatment system is operated to remove the chemicals of concern (COC) and contain the groundwater plume from migrating offsite. A remedial process optimization (RPO) was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of historic and current remedial activities and recommend an approach to optimize the remedial activities. The RPO concluded that both the AS/SVE system and the groundwater extraction system have reached the practical limits of COC mass removal and COC concentration reduction. The RPO recommended an in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) study to evaluate the best ISCO oxidant and approach. An ISCO bench test was conducted to evaluate COC removal efficiency and secondary impacts to recommend an application dosage. Ozone was selected among four oxidants based on implementability, effectiveness, safety, and media impacts. The bench test concluded that ozone demand was 8 to 12 mg ozone/mg TPH and secondary groundwater by-products of ISCO include hexavalent chromium and bromate. The pH also increased moderately during ozone sparging and the TDS increased by approximately 20% after 48 hours of ozone treatment. Prior to the ISCO pilot study, a capture zone analysis (CZA) was conducted to ensure containment of the injected oxidant within the existing groundwater extraction system. The CZA was conducted through a groundwater flow modeling using MODFLOW. The model indicated that 85%, 90%, and 95% of an injected oxidant could be captured when a well pair is injecting and extracting at 2, 5, and 10 gallons per minute, respectively. An ISCO pilot test using ozone was conducted to evaluate operation parameters for ozone delivery. The ozone sparging system consisted of an ozone generator capable of delivering 6 lbs/day ozone through two ozone

  11. Antibiotic-Resistant Enterococci and Fecal Indicators in Surface Water and Groundwater Impacted by a Concentrated Swine Feeding Operation

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Amy R.; Curriero, Frank C.; Gibson, Kristen E.; Schwab, Kellogg J.

    2007-01-01

    Background The nontherapeutic use of antibiotics in swine feed can select for antibiotic resistance in swine enteric bacteria. Leaking swine waste storage pits and the land-application of swine manure can result in the dispersion of resistant bacteria to water sources. However, there are few data comparing levels of resistant bacteria in swine manure–impacted water sources versus unaffected sources. Objectives The goal of this study was to analyze surface water and groundwater situated up and down gradient from a swine facility for antibiotic-resistant enterococci and other fecal indicators. Methods Surface water and groundwater samples (n = 28) were collected up and down gradient from a swine facility from 2002 to 2004. Fecal indicators were isolated by membrane filtration, and enterococci (n = 200) were tested for susceptibility to erythromycin, tetracycline, clindamycin, virginiamycin, and vancomycin. Results Median concentrations of enterococci, fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli were 4- to 33-fold higher in down-gradient versus up-gradient surface water and groundwater. We observed higher minimal inhibitory concentrations for four antibiotics in enterococci isolated from down-gradient versus up-gradient surface water and groundwater. Elevated percentages of erythromycin- (p = 0.02) and tetracycline-resistant (p = 0.06) enterococci were detected in down-gradient surface waters, and higher percentages of tetracycline- (p = 0.07) and clindamycin-resistant (p < 0.001) enterococci were detected in down-gradient groundwater. Conclusions We detected elevated levels of fecal indicators and antibiotic-resistant enterococci in water sources situated down gradient from a swine facility compared with up-gradient sources. These findings provide additional evidence that water contaminated with swine manure could contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance. PMID:17637920

  12. Gulf of Mexico integrated science - Tampa Bay study, the impact of groundwater and contaminants on Tampa Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swarzenski, Peter W.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the recreational and economic value of coastal bays and estuaries, these ecosystems are often among our most 'troubled' natural environments. Urbanization, agriculture, mining, and shipping are just a few activities that can have a profound and lasting impact on the coastal zone. In order to maintain a healthy coastal ecosystem, it is crucial to develop reasonable management practices around expert scientific information. We still have much to learn about the quantity and quality of groundwater being discharged into Tampa Bay, Florida. We also need to improve our knowledge of a wide range of contaminants entering the bay and must be able to determine where they accumulate in seafloor sediments. Such buried contaminants can potentially be harmful to biota if they are released to the water column. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists and research partners from the University of South Florida (USF), the University of Florida (UF), and the Florida Marine Research Institute (FMRI) are mapping sources of groundwater, measuring groundwater flow into Tampa Bay, and assessing the impact of contaminants and sediments on bay water quality and ecosystem health.

  13. Examining the impacts of increased corn production on groundwater quality using a coupled modeling system

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study demonstrates the value of a coupled chemical transport modeling system for investigating groundwater nitrate contamination responses associated with nitrogen (N) fertilizer application and increased corn production. The coupled Community Multiscale Air Quality Bidirect...

  14. The Impact of Groundwater Depletion on Spatial Variations in Sea Level Change During the Past Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, C. P.; Veit, E.; Natarov, S.

    2015-12-01

    The loss of continental groundwater to the oceans during the past century has elevated sea level by ~25(±5) mm, and has caused ~0.7mm/yr of sea level rise since 2005. The mass unloading associated with this groundwater depletion induces elastic uplift of Earth's solid surface and depresses the gravitational equipotential surface that defines sea level. Together, these deflections should cause slower relative sea level rise near areas of continental groundwater loss. We estimated these variations in sea level change using a model of the solid Earth's response to estimates of groundwater depletion during the past century. We find large negative deviations in relative sea level near California, Western India, the western Yellow Sea and the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Relative sea level measured by tide gauges in these areas show slower sea level rise rates compared to global averages. For example, on the western coast of India (e.g., Karachi), groundwater-induced deviations from global average sea level rise can exceed -40 mm, and our model predicts ~1 mm/yr of sea level drop since 2005. Correcting tide gauge records for groundwater depletion using our model improves their fit to the global trend estimated by Church & White (2011), and further reduces the variation of rise rates observed among regional groups of stations. We reconstructed Global Mean Sea Level (GMSL) between 1930 and 2009 taking in account groundwater depletion corrections determined from our model. We found that including groundwater depletion increases our estimate of the global rate of change of GMSL from 1.81 to 1.88 mm/yr during this time period because the observed rise at some key stations is slowed by nearby groundwater depletion. For the past 20 years, including groundwater depletion increases GMSL from 3.32mm/yr to 3.46mm/yr. Quantifying the spatial variability of sea level associated with groundwater depletion is important for understanding the variety of factors that affect sea level, and

  15. BDNF Val 66 Met and 5-HTTLPR genotype moderate the impact of early psychosocial adversity on plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor and depressive symptoms: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Buchmann, Arlette F; Hellweg, Rainer; Rietschel, Marcella; Treutlein, Jens; Witt, Stephanie H; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Banaschewski, Tobias; Laucht, Manfred; Deuschle, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies have emphasized an important role for neurotrophins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), in regulating the plasticity of neural circuits involved in the pathophysiology of stress-related diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine the interplay of the BDNF Val⁶⁶Met and the serotonin transporter promoter (5-HTTLPR) polymorphisms in moderating the impact of early-life adversity on BDNF plasma concentration and depressive symptoms. Participants were taken from an epidemiological cohort study following the long-term outcome of early risk factors from birth into young adulthood. In 259 individuals (119 males, 140 females), genotyped for the BDNF Val⁶⁶Met and the 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms, plasma BDNF was assessed at the age of 19 years. In addition, participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Early adversity was determined according to a family adversity index assessed at 3 months of age. Results indicated that individuals homozygous for both the BDNF Val and the 5-HTTLPR L allele showed significantly reduced BDNF levels following exposure to high adversity. In contrast, BDNF levels appeared to be unaffected by early psychosocial adversity in carriers of the BDNF Met or the 5-HTTLPR S allele. While the former group appeared to be most susceptible to depressive symptoms, the impact of early adversity was less pronounced in the latter group. This is the first preliminary evidence indicating that early-life adverse experiences may have lasting sequelae for plasma BDNF levels in humans, highlighting that the susceptibility to this effect is moderated by BDNF Val⁶⁶Met and 5-HTTLPR genotype.

  16. Occurrence of steroid hormones and antibiotics in shallow groundwater impacted by livestock waste control facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Snow, Daniel D.; Damon-Powell, Teyona; Miesbach, David

    2011-04-01

    Wastewater impoundments at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) represent a potential source of veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormone contamination to shallow groundwater. This study investigates the occurrence of seventeen veterinary pharmaceuticals and thirteen steroid hormones and hormone metabolites in lagoons and adjacent groundwater at operating swine and beef cattle facilities. These sites were chosen because subsurface geology and previous monitoring of nitrate, ammonia and chloride levels in shallow ground water strongly indicated direct infiltration, and as such represent worst cases for ground water contamination by waste water. Pharmaceutical compounds detected in samples obtained from cattle facilities include sulfamerazine; sulfamethazine; erythromycin; monensin; tiamulin; and sulfathiazole. Lincomycin; ractopamine; sulfamethazine; sulfathiazole; erythromycin; tiamulin and sulfadimethoxine were detected in wastewater samples obtained from swine facilities. Steroid hormones were detected less frequently than veterinary pharmaceuticals in this study. Estrone, testosterone, 4-androstenedione, and androsterone were detected in wastewater impoundments at concentrations ranging from 30 to 3600 ng/L, while only estrone and testosterone were detected in groundwater samples at concentrations up to 390 ng/L. The co-occurrence of veterinary pharmaceutical and steroid hormone contamination in groundwater at these locations and the correlation between pharmaceutical occurrence in lagoon wastewater and hydraulically downgradient groundwater indicates that groundwater underlying some livestock wastewater impoundments is susceptible to contamination by veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormones originating in wastewater lagoons.

  17. Occurrence of steroid hormones and antibiotics in shallow groundwater impacted by livestock waste control facilities.

    PubMed

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Snow, Daniel D; Damon-Powell, Teyona; Miesbach, David

    2011-04-25

    Wastewater impoundments at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) represent a potential source of veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormone contamination to shallow groundwater. This study investigates the occurrence of seventeen veterinary pharmaceuticals and thirteen steroid hormones and hormone metabolites in lagoons and adjacent groundwater at operating swine and beef cattle facilities. These sites were chosen because subsurface geology and previous monitoring of nitrate, ammonia and chloride levels in shallow ground water strongly indicated direct infiltration, and as such represent worst cases for ground water contamination by waste water. Pharmaceutical compounds detected in samples obtained from cattle facilities include sulfamerazine; sulfamethazine; erythromycin; monensin; tiamulin; and sulfathiazole. Lincomycin; ractopamine; sulfamethazine; sulfathiazole; erythromycin; tiamulin and sulfadimethoxine were detected in wastewater samples obtained from swine facilities. Steroid hormones were detected less frequently than veterinary pharmaceuticals in this study. Estrone, testosterone, 4-androstenedione, and androsterone were detected in wastewater impoundments at concentrations ranging from 30 to 3600ng/L, while only estrone and testosterone were detected in groundwater samples at concentrations up to 390ng/L. The co-occurrence of veterinary pharmaceutical and steroid hormone contamination in groundwater at these locations and the correlation between pharmaceutical occurrence in lagoon wastewater and hydraulically downgradient groundwater indicates that groundwater underlying some livestock wastewater impoundments is susceptible to contamination by veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormones originating in wastewater lagoons.

  18. Impacts of Climate Changes on the Future Groundwater Storage in the High Plains Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, M. H.; Wu, W. Y.; Wada, Y.; Reager, J. T., II; Famiglietti, J. S.; Yeh, P. J. F.; Ducharne, A.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater contributes approximately 40% of global freshwater use, and it is critical for water supply and associated food production in arid or semi-arid areas during dry seasons. The increasing demand for water and finite water sources have led to long-term groundwater depletion, creating an obstacle to sustainability in several regions of the world under the pressures of population growth and climate change. The High Plains Aquifer System has an area of 450,000 km2, and is the most pumped aquifer and one of the most important agricultural areas in the United States. In this study, we use coupled climate-hydrological model simulations from the NCAR Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble Project to investigate the groundwater storage changes in the High Plains Aquifer under future climate changes and also to explore how such groundwater storage changes might in turn affect the climate through land-atmosphere coupling. Preliminary results indicate that not only the amount of groundwater recharge declines, but the seasonal variations of groundwater recharge also become smaller, resulting in widespread water table decline in a future warmer climate. We will explore how such variations associate to projected changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration, and feedback to the climate.

  19. Invisible water, visible impact: groundwater use and Indian agriculture under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaveri, Esha; Grogan, Danielle S.; Fisher-Vanden, Karen; Frolking, Steve; Lammers, Richard B.; Wrenn, Douglas H.; Prusevich, Alexander; Nicholas, Robert E.

    2016-08-01

    India is one of the world’s largest food producers, making the sustainability of its agricultural system of global significance. Groundwater irrigation underpins India’s agriculture, currently boosting crop production by enough to feed 170 million people. Groundwater overexploitation has led to drastic declines in groundwater levels, threatening to push this vital resource out of reach for millions of small-scale farmers who are the backbone of India’s food security. Historically, losing access to groundwater has decreased agricultural production and increased poverty. We take a multidisciplinary approach to assess climate change challenges facing India’s agricultural system, and to assess the effectiveness of large-scale water infrastructure projects designed to meet these challenges. We find that even in areas that experience climate change induced precipitation increases, expansion of irrigated agriculture will require increasing amounts of unsustainable groundwater. The large proposed national river linking project has limited capacity to alleviate groundwater stress. Thus, without intervention, poverty and food insecurity in rural India is likely to worsen.

  20. Impacts of Groundwater Constraints on Saudi Arabia's Low-Carbon Electricity Supply Strategy.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Simon C; Djilali, Ned; Krey, Volker; Fricko, Oliver; Johnson, Nils; Khan, Zarrar; Sedraoui, Khaled; Almasoud, Abdulrahman H

    2016-02-16

    Balancing groundwater depletion, socioeconomic development and food security in Saudi Arabia will require policy that promotes expansion of unconventional freshwater supply options, such as wastewater recycling and desalination. As these processes consume more electricity than conventional freshwater supply technologies, Saudi Arabia's electricity system is vulnerable to groundwater conservation policy. This paper examines strategies for adapting to long-term groundwater constraints in Saudi Arabia's freshwater and electricity supply sectors with an integrated modeling framework. The approach combines electricity and freshwater supply planning models across provinces to provide an improved representation of coupled infrastructure systems. The tool is applied to study the interaction between policy aimed at a complete phase-out of nonrenewable groundwater extraction and concurrent policy aimed at achieving deep reductions in electricity sector carbon emissions. We find that transitioning away from nonrenewable groundwater use by the year 2050 could increase electricity demand by more than 40% relative to 2010 conditions, and require investments similar to strategies aimed at transitioning away from fossil fuels in the electricity sector. Higher electricity demands under groundwater constraints reduce flexibility of supply side options in the electricity sector to limit carbon emissions, making it more expensive to fulfill climate sustainability objectives. The results of this analysis underscore the importance of integrated long-term planning approaches for Saudi Arabia's electricity and freshwater supply systems.

  1. Closing the irrigation deficit in Cambodia: Implications for transboundary impacts on groundwater and Mekong River flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erban, Laura E.; Gorelick, Steven M.

    2016-04-01

    Rice production in Cambodia, essential to food security and exports, is largely limited to the wet season. The vast majority (96%) of land planted with rice during the wet season remains fallow during the dry season. This is in large part due to lack of irrigation capacity, increases in which would entail significant consequences for Cambodia and Vietnam, located downstream on the Mekong River. Here we quantify the extent of the dry season "deficit" area in the Cambodian Mekong River catchment, using a recent agricultural survey and our analysis of MODIS satellite data. Irrigation of this land for rice production would require a volume of water up to 31% of dry season Mekong River flow to Vietnam. However, the two countries share an aquifer system in the Mekong Delta, where irrigation demand is increasingly met by groundwater. We estimate expansion rates of groundwater-irrigated land to be >10% per year in the Cambodian Delta using LANDSAT satellite data and simulate the effects of future expansion on groundwater levels over a 25-year period. If groundwater irrigation continues to expand at current rates, the water table will drop below the lift limit of suction pump wells, used for domestic supply by >1.5 million people, throughout much of the area within 15 years. Extensive groundwater irrigation jeopardizes access for shallow domestic water supply wells, raises the costs of pumping for all groundwater users, and may exacerbate arsenic contamination and land subsidence that are already widespread hazards in the region.

  2. Impact of groundwater markets in India on water use efficiency: a data envelopment analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, A V; Speelman, S; Chandrakanth, M G; Van Huylenbroeck, G

    2011-11-01

    In the hard rock areas of India, overdraft of groundwater has led to negative externalities. It increased costs of groundwater irrigation and caused welfare losses. At the same time informal groundwater markets are slowly emerging and are believed to improve water distribution and to increase water use efficiency in the irrigation sector. These claims are evaluated in this study. For this purpose data was collected from a sample containing three different groups of water users: water sellers, water buyers and a control group of non-traders. First the socio-economic characteristics of these groups are compared. Then the efficiency of water use of the three groups is studied using Data Envelopment Analysis. The results indicate that groundwater markets provide resource poor farmers access to irrigation water, giving them the opportunity to raise their productivity. Water buyers are furthermore shown to be most efficient in their water use, while water sellers are also shown to be more efficient than the control group. The differences in efficiency between the groups are statistically significant. The demonstrated potential of groundwater markets to improve the efficiency of water use and to increase equity in resource access should be taken into account by the Indian government when deciding on their attitude towards the emerging groundwater markets.

  3. Groundwater contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Haimes, Y. . Dept. of Systems Engineering)

    1986-01-01

    The subject of these conference proceedings is the groundwater contamination. It is by nature multifarious - dealing with detection and monitoring, prevention, abatement and containment, and correction and restoration of contaminated groundwater - it intrinsically encompasses myriad disciplines, and it involves all levels of government. Also, the subject of groundwater contamination is complex because decisions concerning groundwater pollution control that are scientifically sound, technologically within the state of the art, economically feasible, politically tractable, legally sustainable, socially acceptable, morally accountable, and organizationally implementable must be grounded on appropriate information and intelligence bases in their respective areas - science, technology, economics, politics, the law, society, ethics, and management. Indeed, the human health effects (e.g., cancer, damage to the central nervous system, liver and kidney damage) and non-health effects (economic hardship to industry, agriculture, households, and municipalities; environmental impacts; social impacts) necessitate that we, as a society, address in a somber way the following variations of the same question: How safe is safe enough How clean is safe enough The enormous cost - in billions of dollars over the next decade - that various studies project for the prevention, detection and monitoring, abatement and containment, and correction and restoration of groundwater contamination make an answer to these questions even more urgent. There are sixteen papers in these proceedings.

  4. Business oriented EU human cell and tissue product legislation will adversely impact Member States' health care systems.

    PubMed

    Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Vanderkelen, Alain; De Vos, Daniel; Draye, Jean-Pierre; Rose, Thomas; Ceulemans, Carl; Ectors, Nadine; Huys, Isabelle; Jennes, Serge; Verbeken, Gilbert

    2013-12-01

    The transplantation of conventional human cell and tissue grafts, such as heart valve replacements and skin for severely burnt patients, has saved many lives over the last decades. The late eighties saw the emergence of tissue engineering with the focus on the development of biological substitutes that restore or improve tissue function. In the nineties, at the height of the tissue engineering hype, industry incited policymakers to create a European regulatory environment, which would facilitate the emergence of a strong single market for tissue engineered products and their starting materials (human cells and tissues). In this paper we analyze the elaboration process of this new European Union (EU) human cell and tissue product regulatory regime-i.e. the EU Cell and Tissue Directives (EUCTDs) and the Advanced Therapy Medicinal Product (ATMP) Regulation and evaluate its impact on Member States' health care systems. We demonstrate that the successful lobbying on key areas of regulatory and policy processes by industry, in congruence with Europe's risk aversion and urge to promote growth and jobs, led to excessively business oriented legislation. Expensive industry oriented requirements were introduced and contentious social and ethical issues were excluded. We found indications that this new EU safety and health legislation will adversely impact Member States' health care systems; since 30 December 2012 (the end of the ATMP transitional period) there is a clear threat to the sustainability of some lifesaving and established ATMPs that were provided by public health institutions and small and medium-sized enterprises under the frame of the EUCTDs. In the light of the current economic crisis it is not clear how social security systems will cope with the inflation of costs associated with this new regulatory regime and how priorities will be set with regard to reimbursement decisions. We argue that the ATMP Regulation should urgently be revised to focus on delivering

  5. The geochemistry of groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley: The impact of the Rift Valley brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farber, E.; Vengosh, A.; Gavrieli, I.; Marie, A.; Bullen, T.D.; Mayer, B.; Polak, A.; Shavit, U.

    2007-01-01

    The chemical composition of groundwater in the Jordan Valley, along the section between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, is investigated in order to evaluate the origin of the groundwater resources and, in particular, to elucidate the role of deep brines on the chemical composition of the regional groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley. Samples were collected from shallow groundwater in research boreholes on two sites in the northern and southern parts of the Jordan Valley, adjacent to the Jordan River. Data is also compiled from previous published studies. Geochemical data (e.g., Br/Cl, Na/Cl and SO4/Cl ratios) and B, O, Sr and S isotopic compositions are used to define groundwater groups, to map their distribution in the Jordan valley, and to evaluate their origin. The combined geochemical tools enabled the delineation of three major sources of solutes that differentially affect the quality of groundwater in the Jordan Valley: (1) flow and mixing with hypersaline brines with high Br/Cl (>2 ?? 10-3) and low Na/Cl (<0.8) ratios; (2) dissolution of highly soluble salts (e.g., halite, gypsum) in the host sediments resulting in typically lower Br/Cl signal (<2 ?? 10-3); and (3) recharge of anthropogenic effluents, primarily derived from evaporated agricultural return flow that has interacted (e.g., base-exchange reactions) with the overlying soil. It is shown that shallow saline groundwaters influenced by brine mixing exhibit a north-south variation in their Br/Cl and Na/Cl ratios. This chemical trend was observed also in hypersaline brines in the Jordan valley, which suggests a local mixing process between the water bodies. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Labile Organic Carbon in Recharge and its Impact on Groundwater Arsenic Concentrations in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, R. B.; Ashfaque, K. N.; Badruzzaman, A. M.; Ali, M.; Shoemaker, J. K.; Harvey, C. F.

    2009-12-01

    Researchers have puzzled over the origin of dissolved arsenic in the aquifers of the Ganges Delta since widespread arsenic poisoning from groundwater was publicized two decades ago. Previous work has concluded that biological oxidation of organic carbon drives geochemical transformations that mobilize arsenic from sediments; however, the source of the organic carbon that fuels these processes remains controversial. A combined hydrologic and biogeochemical analysis of a typical site in Bangladesh, where constructed ponds and groundwater-irrigated rice fields are the main sources of recharge, shows that only recharge through pond sediments provides the biologically degradable organic carbon that can drive arsenic mobilization. Numerical groundwater simulations as well as chemical and isotopic indicators suggest that contaminated groundwater originates from excavated ponds and that water originating from rice fields is low in arsenic. In fact, rice fields act as an arsenic sink. Irrigation moves arsenic-rich groundwater from the aquifers and deposits it on the rice fields. Most of the deposited arsenic does not return to the aquifers; it is sorbed by the field’s surface soil and bunds, and is swept away in the monsoon floods. The findings indicate that patterns of arsenic contamination in the shallow aquifer are due to recharge-source variation and complex three-dimensional flow.

  7. The impact of an underground cut-off wall on nutrient dynamics in groundwater in the lower Wang River watershed, China.

    PubMed

    Kang, Pingping; Xu, Shiguo

    2017-03-01

    Underground cut-off walls in coastal regions are mainly used to prevent saltwater intrusion, but their impact on nutrient dynamics in groundwater is not clear. In this study, a combined analysis of multiple isotopes ([Formula: see text]) and nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations is used in order to assess the impact of the underground cut-off walls on the nutrient dynamics in groundwater in the lower Wang River watershed, China. Compared with the nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in groundwater downstream of the underground cut-off walls, high [Formula: see text] and total dissolved nitrogen concentrations and similar concentration levels of [Formula: see text] and total dissolved phosphorus are found in groundwater upstream of the underground cut-off walls. The isotopic data indicated the probable occurrence of denitrification and nitrification processes in groundwater upstream, whereas the fingerprint of these processes was not shown in groundwater downstream. The management of fertilizer application is critical to control nitrogen concentrations in groundwater restricted by the underground cut-off walls.

  8. Impact of fertilizer application and urban wastes on the quality of groundwater in the Cambrai Chalk aquifer, Northern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serhal, Hani; Bernard, Daniel; Khattabi, Jamal El; Sabine, Bastin-Lacherez; Shahrour, Isam

    2009-06-01

    Since 1975, Europe sets up its policy to limit the degradation and the pollution of the aquatic environments through 30 directives and regulations. In the north of France, the nitrate concentrations measured in the groundwater exceed the water drinking limit fixed at 50 mg/L by the European framework directive in the field of water (2000/60/EC). This high concentration is due to intensive agriculture, industrialization and demographic growth. Several programs were launched in order to resolve this situation: “Ferti-better” or the use of fertilizer in moderation and installation and amelioration of wastewater collect and treatment systems. In order to estimate the influence of the anthropic activities on the quality of groundwater in the “Artois-Picardy” basin, a preliminary validation on parcel and district scale were necessary. The impact of these programs in the “Cambrai district” was evaluated using an integrated approach, which is based on the use of four numerical models: AgriFlux, VS2DT, Modflow and MT3D. The results illustrate an improvement due to the “Ferti-Better” program initiated in 1990 and punctual degradation under urbanized areas. Predictions (2015) show a spatial evolution of nitrates concentration varying with the thickness of unsaturated layer. The integrated model constitutes an efficient tool for predicting the evolution of the groundwater quality. This approach is important to control the application of the new European laws in the water field.

  9. Thermal and visible remote sensing for estimation of evapotranspiration of rainfed agrosystems and its impact on groundwater in SE Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roohi, Rakhshan; Webb, John A.

    2016-05-01

    Rainfed agrosystems are important components of the world's food production system and account for 65-95% of total agriculture. In contrast to irrigated production systems, relatively little attention has been paid to understanding the hydrological interactions between the components of rainfed agrosystems and their impact on water resources, especially groundwater. A new model, the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Rainfed Agriculture (SEBARA), has been developed to estimate the spatial pattern of evapotranspiration in these agrosystems using satellite images (thermal, infrared and visible spectra). The model was calibrated for two competing land uses (Eucalyptus globules tree plantations and pastures) in adjacent catchments in western Victoria, southeastern Australia. Using measurements from a flux tower in the pasture catchment and adjusted sapflow measurements in the plantation catchment, an estimation accuracy of 95% was achieved. The tree plantations had higher available net radiation, lower soil heat flux and higher latent heat flux, resulting in 15-20% higher evapotranspirative demand than the pasture, depending upon the age and canopy of plantations. The evapotranspiration rate of plantations declines where groundwater depth is >12m or where shallow groundwater is saline. The shallow root system of the pasture means that it relies solely on soil moisture to meet its water requirements and thus has lower evapotranspiration, which varies according to the pasture species.

  10. Land application of domestic wastewater in Florida--statewide assessment of impact on ground-water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franks, Bernard J.

    1981-01-01

    In Florida domestic waste water is being applied to the land for disposal and reuse. State and Federal regulations favor land-application methods over other advanced waste water treatment practices. Despite the increasing use of this alternative technology, little is known about localized effects on groundwater quality. This report documents the extent of land-application practices in Florida and summarizes case study information on some of the more adequately monitored site throughout the State. More than 2,500 sites in Florida are permitted by the Department of Environmental Regulation for applying domestic waste water to the land. The majority (more than 1,700 sites), classified as infiltration ponds, are concentrated in central and southern Florida. More than 560 sites classified as drainfields, and more than 250 sites classified as irrigation sites, are located primarily in central Florida. An estimated 150 million gallons per day of domestic waste water, after required secondary treatment, are applied to Florida soils. Despite the large numbers of sites and the considerable volume of waste water utilized, little is known about potential impact on groundwater quality. At the few sites where observation wells have been drilled and local groundwater quality monitored, no significant deterioration of water quality has been detected. (USGS)

  11. Assessing the impacts of future demand for saline groundwater on commercial deployment of CCS in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Casie L.; Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2009-04-20

    This paper provides a preliminary assessment of the potential impact that future demand for groundwater might have on the commercial deployment of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies within the United States. A number of regions within the U.S. have populations, agriculture and industries that are particularly dependent upon groundwater. Moreover, some key freshwater aquifers are already over-utilized or depleted, and others are likely to be moving toward depletion as demand grows. The need to meet future water demands may lead some parts of the nation to consider supplementing existing supplies with lower quality groundwater resources, including brackish waters that are currently not considered sources of drinking water but which could provide supplemental water via desalination. In some areas, these same deep saline-filled geologic formations also represent possible candidate carbon dioxide (CO2) storage reservoirs. The analysis presented here suggests that future constraints on CCS deployment due to potential needs to supplement conventional water supplies by desalinating deeper and more brackish waters are likely to be necessary only in limited regions across the country, particularly in areas that are already experiencing water stress.

  12. Surrogate species selection for assessing potential adverse environmental impacts of genetically engineered insect-resistant plants on non-target organisms.

    PubMed

    Carstens, Keri; Cayabyab, Bonifacio; De Schrijver, Adinda; Gadaleta, Patricia G; Hellmich, Richard L; Romeis, Jörg; Storer, Nicholas; Valicente, Fernando H; Wach, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Most regulatory authorities require that developers of genetically engineered insect-resistant (GEIR) crops evaluate the potential for these crops to have adverse impacts on valued non-target organisms (NTOs), i.e., organisms not intended to be controlled by the trait. In many cases, impacts to NTOs are assessed using surrogate species, and it is critical that the data derived from surrogates accurately predict any adverse impacts likely to be observed from the use of the crop in the agricultural context. The key is to select surrogate species that best represent the valued NTOs in the location where the crop is going to be introduced, but this selection process poses numerous challenges for the developers of GE crops who will perform the tests, as well as for the ecologists and regulators who will interpret the test results. These issues were the subject of a conference "Surrogate Species Selection for Assessing Potential Adverse Environmental Impacts of Genetically Engineered Plants on Non-Target Organisms" convened by the Center for Environmental Risk Assessment, ILSI Research Foundation. This report summarizes the proceedings of the conference, including the presentations, discussions and the points of consensus agreed to by the participants.

  13. Impact of agriculture and land use on nitrate contamination in groundwater and running waters in central-west Poland.

    PubMed

    Lawniczak, Agnieszka Ewa; Zbierska, Janina; Nowak, Bogumił; Achtenberg, Krzysztof; Grześkowiak, Artur; Kanas, Krzysztof

    2016-03-01

    Protected areas due to their long-term protection are expected to be characterized by good water quality. However, in catchments where arable fields dominate, the impact of agriculture on water pollution is still problematic. In Poland, recently, the fertilization level has decreased, mostly for economic reasons. However, this applies primarily to phosphorus and potassium. In order to evaluate the impact of agriculture on water quality in a protected area with a high proportion of arable fields in the aspect of level and type of fertilization, complex monitoring has been applied. The present study was carried out in Wielkopolska National Park and its buffer zone, which are protected under Natura 2000 as Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protection Areas. The aim of the study were (1) to assess the impact of agriculture, with special attention on fertilization, on groundwater, and running water quality and (2) to designate priority areas for implementing nitrogen reduction measures in special attention on protected areas. In our study, high nitrogen concentrations in groundwater and surface waters were detected in the agricultural catchments. The results demonstrate that in the watersheds dominated by arable fields, high nitrogen concentrations in groundwater were measured in comparison to forestry catchments, where high ammonium concentrations were observed. The highest nitrogen concentrations were noted in spring after winter freezing, with a small cover of vegetation, and in the areas with a high level of nitrogen application. In the studied areas, both in the park and its buffer zone, unfavorable N:P and N:K ratios in supplied nutrients were detected. Severe shortage of phosphorus and potassium in applied fertilizers is one of the major factors causing leaching of nitrogen due to limited possibilities of its consumption by plants.

  14. Impacts of thickening unsaturated zone on groundwater recharge in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Guoliang; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Han, Dongmei; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2016-06-01

    Unsustainable groundwater development shown by rapid groundwater depletion in the North China Plain (NCP) underscores the need to quantify spatiotemporal variability in groundwater recharge for improved management of the resource. The objective of this study was to assess spatiotemporal variability in recharge in response to thickening of the unsaturated zone in the NCP. Recharge was estimated by linking a soil water balance (SWB) model, on the basis of monthly meteorological data, irrigation applications, and soil moisture monitoring data (1993-2008), to the water table using a deep unsaturated zone flow model. The dynamic bottom boundary (water table) position was provided by the saturated zone flow component, which simulates regional pumping. The model results clearly indicate the effects of unsaturated zone thickening on both temporal distribution and magnitude of recharge: smoothing temporal variability in recharge, and increasing unsaturated storage and lag time between percolation and recharge. The thickening unsaturated zone can result in average recharge reduction of up to ∼70% in loam soils with water table declines ⩾30 m. Declining groundwater levels with irrigation sourced by groundwater converts percolation to unsaturated zone storage, averaging 14 mm equivalent water depth per year in mostly loam soil over the study period, accounting for ∼30% of the saturated groundwater storage depletion. This study demonstrates that, in thickening unsaturated zones, modeling approaches that directly equate deep drainage with recharge will overestimate the amount and underestimate the time lag between percolation and recharge, emphasizing the importance of more realistic simulation of the continuity of unsaturated and saturated storage to provide more reliable estimates of spatiotemporal variability in recharge.

  15. Impact of early life adversity on reward processing in young adults: EEG-fMRI results from a prospective study over 25 years.

    PubMed

    Boecker, Regina; Holz, Nathalie E; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Plichta, Michael M; Wolf, Isabella; Baumeister, Sarah; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of evidence have implicated the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway in altered brain function resulting from exposure to early adversity. The present study examined the impact of early life adversity on different stages of neuronal reward processing later in life and their association with a related behavioral phenotype, i.e. attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 162 healthy young adults (mean age = 24.4 years; 58% female) from an epidemiological cohort study followed since birth participated in a simultaneous EEG-fMRI study using a monetary incentive delay task. Early life adversity according to an early family adversity index (EFA) and lifetime ADHD symptoms were assessed using standardized parent interviews conducted at the offspring's age of 3 months and between 2 and 15 years, respectively. fMRI region-of-interest analysis revealed a significant effect of EFA during reward anticipation in reward-related areas (i.e. ventral striatum, putamen, thalamus), indicating decreased activation when EFA increased. EEG analysis demonstrated a similar effect for the contingent negative variation (CNV), with the CNV decreasing with the level of EFA. In contrast, during reward delivery, activation of the bilateral insula, right pallidum and bilateral putamen increased with EFA. There was a significant association of lifetime ADHD symptoms with lower activation in the left ventral striatum during reward anticipation and higher activation in the right insula during reward delivery. The present findings indicate a differential long-term impact of early life adversity on reward processing, implicating hyporesponsiveness during reward anticipation and hyperresponsiveness when receiving a reward. Moreover, a similar activation pattern related to lifetime ADHD suggests that the impact of early life stress on ADHD may possibly be mediated by a dysfunctional reward pathway.

  16. Impact of fresh tailing deposition on the evolution of groundwater hydrogeochemistry at the abandoned Manitou mine site, Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Maqsoud, Abdelkabir; Neculita, Carmen Mihaela; Bussière, Bruno; Benzaazoua, Mostafa; Dionne, Jean

    2016-05-01

    The abandoned Manitou mine site has produced acid mine drainage (AMD) for several decades. In order to limit the detrimental environmental impacts of AMD, different rehabilitation scenarios were proposed and analyzed. The selected rehabilitation scenario was to use fresh tailings from the neighboring Goldex gold mine as monolayer cover and to maintain an elevated water table. In order to assess the impact of the Goldex tailing deposition on the hydrogeochemistry of the Manitou mine site, a network of 30 piezometers was installed. These piezometers were used for continuous measurement of the groundwater level, as well as for water sampling campaigns for chemical quality monitoring, over a 3-year period. Hydrochemical data were analyzed using principal component analysis. Results clearly showed the benefic impact of fresh tailing deposition on the groundwater quality around the contaminated area. These findings were also confirmed by the evolution of electrical conductivity. In addition to the improvement of the physicochemical quality of water on the Manitou mine site, new tailing deposition induced an increase of water table level. However, at this time, the Manitou reactive tailings are not completely submerged and possible oxidation might still occur, especially after ceasing of the fresh tailing deposition. Therefore, complementary rehabilitation scenarios should still be considered.

  17. Potential impacts on groundwater resources of deep CO2 storage: natural analogues for assessing potential chemical effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lions, J.; Gale, I.; May, F.; Nygaard, E.; Ruetters, H.; Beaubien, S.; Sohrabi, M.; Hatzignatiou, D. G.; CO2GeoNet Members involved in the present study Team

    2011-12-01

    Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) is considered as one of the promising options for reducing atmospheric emissions of CO2 related to human activities. One of the main concerns associated with the geological storage of CO2 is that the CO2 may leak from the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment and, eventually, escape from the ground. This is a concern because such leakage may affect aquifers overlying the storage site and containing freshwater that may be used for drinking, industry and agriculture. The IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEAGHG) recently commissioned the CO2GeoNet Association to undertake a review of published and unpublished literature on this topic with the aim of summarizing 'state of the art' knowledge and identifying knowledge gaps and research priorities in this field. Work carried out by various CO2GeoNet members was also used in this study. This study identifies possible areas of conflict by combining available datasets to map the global and regional superposition of deep saline formations (DSF) suitable for CO2 storage and overlying fresh groundwater resources. A scenario classification is developed for the various geological settings where conflict could occur. The study proposes two approaches to address the potential impact mechanisms of CO2 storage projects on the hydrodynamics and chemistry of shallow groundwater. The first classifies and synthesizes changes of water quality observed in natural/industrial analogues and in laboratory experiments. The second reviews hydrodynamic and geochemical models, including coupled multiphase flow and reactive transport. Various models are discussed in terms of their advantages and limitations, with conclusions on possible impacts on groundwater resources. Possible mitigation options to stop or control CO2 leakage are assessed. The effect of CO2 pressure in the host DSF and the potential effects on shallow aquifers are also examined. The study provides a review of

  18. Transient Inverse Calibration of Hanford Site-Wide Groundwater Model to Hanford Operational Impacts - 1943 to 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Charles R; Bergeron, Marcel P; Wurstner, Signe K; Thorne, Paul D; Orr, Samuel; Mckinley, Mathew I

    2001-05-31

    This report describes a new initiative to strengthen the technical defensibility of predictions made with the Hanford site-wide groundwater flow and transport model. The focus is on characterizing major uncertainties in the current model. PNNL will develop and implement a calibration approach and methodology that can be used to evaluate alternative conceptual models of the Hanford aquifer system. The calibration process will involve a three-dimensional transient inverse calibration of each numerical model to historical observations of hydraulic and water quality impacts to the unconfined aquifer system from Hanford operations since the mid-1940s.

  19. The predicted impacts to the groundwater and Columbia River from ammoniated water discharges to the 216-A-36B crib

    SciTech Connect

    Buelt, J.L.; Conbere, W.; Freshley, M.D.; Hicks, R.J.; Kuhn, W.L.; Lamar, D.A.; Serne, R.J.; Smoot, J.L.

    1988-03-01

    Impact from past and potential future discharges of ammoniated water to the 216-A-36B crib have on groundwater and river concentrations of hazardous chemical constitutents are studied. Until August 1987, the 216-A-36B crib, located in the 200-East Area of the Hanford Site, accepted ammoniated water discharges. Although this study addresses known hazardous chemical constituents associated with such discharges, the primary concern is the discharge of NH/sub 4/OH because of its microbiological conversion to NO/sub 2//sup /minus// and NO/sub 3//sup /minus//. As a result of fuel decladding operations, material balance calculations indicate that NH/sub 4/OH has been discharged to the 216-A-36B crib in amounts that exceed reportable quantities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980. Although flow to the crib is relatively constant, the estimated NH/sub 4/OH discharge varies from negligible to a maximum of 10,000 g-molesh. Because these discharges are intermittent, the concentration delivered to the groundwater is a function of soil sorption, microbiological conversion rates of NH/sub 4//sup +/ to NO/sub 2//sup /minus// and NO/sub 3//sup /minus//, and groundwater dispersion. This report provides results based on the assumptions of maximum, nominal, and discountinued NH/sub 4/OH discharges to the crib. Consequently, the results show maximum and realistic estimates of NH/sub 4//sup +/, NO/sub 2//sup /minus// and NO/sub 3//sup /minus// concentrations in the groundwater.

  20. Fully integrated physically-based numerical modelling of impacts of groundwater extraction on surface and irrigation-induced groundwater interactions: case study Lower River Murray, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaghmand, S.; Beecham, S.; Hassanli, A.

    2013-07-01

    Combination of reduction in the frequency, duration and magnitude of natural floods, rising saline water-table in floodplains and excessive evapotranspiration have led to an irrigation-induced groundwater mound forced the naturally saline groundwater onto the floodplain in the Lower River Murray. It is during the attenuation phase of floods that these large salt accumulations are likely to be mobilised and will discharge into the river. The Independent Audit Group for Salinity highlighted this as the most significant risk in the Murray-Darling Basin. South Australian government and catchment management authorities have developed salt interception schemes (SIS). This is to pump the highly saline groundwater from the floodplain aquifer to evaporation basins in order to reduce the hydraulic gradient that drives the regional saline groundwater towards the River Murray. This paper investigates the interactions between a river (River Murray in South Australia) and a saline semi-arid floodplain (Clarks Floodplain) significantly influenced by groundwater lowering (Bookpurnong SIS). Results confirm that groundwater extraction maintain a lower water-table and more fresh river water flux to the saline floodplain aquifer. In term of salinity, this may lead to less amount of solute stored in the floodplain aquifer. This occurs through two mechanisms; extracting some of the solute mass from the system and changing the floodplain groundwater regime from a losing to gaining one. Finally, it is shown that groundwater extraction is able to remove some amount of solute stored in the unsaturated zone and mitigate the floodplain salinity risk.

  1. APPLICATION STRATEGIES AND DESIGN CRITERIA FOR IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF SOIL AND GROUNDWATER IMPACTED BY PAHS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biotreatability studies conducted in our laboratory used soils from two former wood-treatment facilities to evaluate the use of in situ bioventing and biosparging applications for their potential ability to remediate soil and groundwater containing creosote. The combination of ph...

  2. Impacts of urbanization on groundwater hydrodynamics and hydrochemistry of the Toluca Valley aquifer (Mexico).

    PubMed

    Martín Del Campo, M A; Esteller, M V; Expósito, J L; Hirata, R

    2014-05-01

    The Toluca Valley is located on the high plains of Mexico, where there are significant industrial zones and large populations. Water needs are almost exclusively met by groundwater, which has brought about intense exploitation of the aquifer and indication of some contamination. The present study investigates the effect of urbanization, related to industrialization of the region, on groundwater in the central portion of the Toluca Valley aquifer--a zone with high population density and where the largest industrial park is located. A general decline in the groundwater level has been found over the years, at a rate of as much as 2.5 m/year. The appearance of a large drawdown cone was identified, indicating changes in the direction of groundwater flow. Also identified was the presence of several ground fissures, the location of which coincided with the drawdown cone. In hydrochemical terms, the water type is sodium-magnesium bicarbonate and this characteristic has not changed over time, although it has been possible to detect the presence of larger quantities of sulfates (up to 117 mg/L) and nitrates (up to 47 mg/L) in recent years, likely associated with contamination from industrial and urban wastewater. Factor analysis made it possible to identify ions that would characterize natural processes involving the acquisition of salts (HCO3 (-), Na(+), Mg(2+), and Si), as well as anthropic activities (SO4 (2-), NO3 (-), Cl(-), Ca(2+), and K(+)).

  3. Developing Rapid and Cost-Effective Tools for Assessing Groundwater Impacts on Contaminated Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research developed quick and inexpensive methods that can be useful in characterizing the interaction of water and solids within the GW/SW transition zone to explain processes that occur during physical contact between groundwater and sediments. The research used self-conta...

  4. Impacts of Agriculture on Nitrates in Soil and Groundwater in the Southeastern Coastal Plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) contamination of surface and groundwater is a health concern for both humans and animals. Excess N in surface water bodies may contribute to eutrophication. Elevated nitrate (NO3-N) concentrations in drinking water have caused infant death from the disease methemoglobinemia. Nitrates...

  5. Tourism impacts of Three Mile Island and other adverse events: Implications for Lincoln County and other rural counties bisected by radioactive wastes intended for Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Himmelberger, J.J.; Ogneva-Himmelberger, Y.A.; Baughman, M.

    1995-11-01

    Whether the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository system will adversely impact tourism in southern Nevada is an open question of particular importance to visitor-oriented rural counties bisected by planned waste transportation corridors (highway or rail). As part of one such county`s repository impact assessment program, tourism implications of Three Mile Island (TMI) and other major hazard events have been revisited to inform ongoing county-wide socioeconomic assessments and contingency planning efforts. This paper summarizes key research implications of such research as applied to Lincoln County, Nevada. Implications for other rural counties are discussed in light of the research findings. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Tourism impacts of Three Mile Island and other adverse events: Implications for Lincoln County and other rural counties bisected by radioactive wastes intended for Yucca Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himmelberger, Jeffery J.; Baughman, Mike; Ogneva-Himmelberger, Yelena A.

    1995-11-01

    Whether the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository system will adversely impact tourism in southern Nevada is an open question of particular importance to visitor-oriented rural counties bisected by planned waste transportatin corridors (highway or rail). As part of one such county's repository impact assessment program, tourism implications of Three Mile Island (TMI) and other major hazard events have beem revisited to inform ongoing county-wide socioeconomic assessments and contingency planning efforts. This paper summarizes key research implications of such research as applied to Lincoln County, Nevada. Implications for other rural counties are discussed in light of the research findings.

  7. Impact of age, sex and route of administration on adverse events after opioid treatment in the emergency department: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Daoust, Raoul; Paquet, Jean; Lavigne, Gilles; Piette, Éric; Chauny, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The efficacy of opioids for acute pain relief in the emergency department (ED) is well recognized, but treatment with opioids is associated with adverse events ranging from minor discomforts to life-threatening events. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of age, sex and route of administration on the incidence of adverse events due to opioid administration in the ED. METHODS: Real-time archived data were analyzed retrospectively in a tertiary care urban hospital. All consecutive patients (≥16 years of age) who were assigned to an ED bed and received an opioid between March 2008 and December 2012 were included. Adverse events were defined as: nausea/vomiting (minor); systolic blood pressure (SBP) <90 mmHg, oxygen saturation (Sat) <92% and respiration rate <10 breaths/min (major) within 2 h of the first opioid doses. RESULTS: In the study period, 31,742 patients were treated with opioids. The mean (± SD) age was 55.8±20.5 years, and 53% were female. The overall incidence of adverse events was 12.0% (95% CI 11.6% to 12.4%): 5.9% (95% CI 5.6% to 6.2%) experienced nausea/vomiting, 2.4% (95% CI 2.2% to 2.6%) SBP <90 mmHg, 4.7% (95% CI 4.5% to 4.9%) Sat that dropped to <92% and 0.09% respiration rate <10 breaths/min. After controlling for confounding factors, these adverse events were associated with: female sex (more nausea/vomiting, more SBP <90 mmHg, less Sat <92%); age ≥65 years (less nausea/vomiting, more SBP <90 mmHg, more Sat <92%); and route of administration (intravenous > subcutaneous > oral). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of adverse events associated with opioid administration in the ED is generally low and is associated with age, sex and route of administration. PMID:25664538

  8. Impact of leachate on groundwater pollution due to non-engineered municipal solid waste landfill sites of erode city, Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Leachate and groundwater samples were collected from Vendipalayam, Semur and Vairapalayam landfill sites in Erode city, Tamil Nadu, India, to study the possible impact of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Concentrations of various physicochemical parameters including heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Fe and Zn) were determined in leachate samples and are reported. The concentrations of Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, NH4+ were found to be in considerable levels in the groundwater samples particularly near to the landfill sites, likely indicating that groundwater quality is being significantly affected by leachate percolation. Further they were proved to be the tracers for groundwater contamination near Semur and Vendipalayam dumpyards. The presence of contaminants in groundwater particularly near the landfill sites warns its quality and thus renders the associated aquifer unreliable for domestic water supply and other uses. Although some remedial measures are suggested to reduce further groundwater contamination via leachate percolation, the present study demands for the proper management of waste in Erode city. PMID:23369323

  9. Impact of leachate on groundwater pollution due to non-engineered municipal solid waste landfill sites of erode city, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Rajkumar; Thirumalaisamy, Subramani; Lakshumanan, Elango

    2012-12-27

    Leachate and groundwater samples were collected from Vendipalayam, Semur and Vairapalayam landfill sites in Erode city, Tamil Nadu, India, to study the possible impact of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Concentrations of various physicochemical parameters including heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Fe and Zn) were determined in leachate samples and are reported. The concentrations of Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, NH4+ were found to be in considerable levels in the groundwater samples particularly near to the landfill sites, likely indicating that groundwater quality is being significantly affected by leachate percolation. Further they were proved to be the tracers for groundwater contamination near Semur and Vendipalayam dumpyards. The presence of contaminants in groundwater particularly near the landfill sites warns its quality and thus renders the associated aquifer unreliable for domestic water supply and other uses. Although some remedial measures are suggested to reduce further groundwater contamination via leachate percolation, the present study demands for the proper management of waste in Erode city.

  10. Impact assessment of on-site sanitation system on groundwater quality in alluvial settings: A case study from Lucknow city in North India.

    PubMed

    Jangam, Chandrakant; Ramya Sanam, S; Chaturvedi, M K; Padmakar, C; Pujari, Paras R; Labhasetwar, Pawan K

    2015-10-01

    The present case study has been undertaken to investigate the impact of on-site sanitation on groundwater quality in alluvial settings in Lucknow City in India. The groundwater samples have been collected in the areas of Lucknow City where the on-site sanitation systems have been implemented. The groundwater samples have been analyzed for the major physicochemical parameters and fecal coliform. The results of analysis reveal that none of the groundwater samples exceeded the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) limits for all the parameters. Fecal coliform was not found in majority of the samples including those samples which were very close to the septic tank. The study area has a thick alluvium cover as a top layer which acts as a natural barrier for groundwater contamination from the on-site sanitation system. The t test has been performed to assess the seasonal effect on groundwater quality. The statistical t test implies that there is a significant effect of season on groundwater quality in the study area.

  11. Prevalence and Predictors of Adverse Events in Older Surgical Patients: Impact of the Present on Admission Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hongsoo; Capezuti, Elizabeth; Kovner, Christine; Zhao, Zhonglin; Boockvar, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: To examine the effects of the present on admission (POA) indicator on the prevalence of and factors associated with postsurgical adverse events in older patients. Design and Methods: This is a secondary data analysis of 82,898 surgical patients aged 65 years or older in 252 acute care hospitals in California in 2004. Four…

  12. A steady-state approach for evaluating the impact of solute transport through composite liners on groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Foose, Gary J

    2010-01-01

    New adaptations of analytical equations for predicting the impact of solute transport through composite landfill liners on groundwater quality for steady-state conditions are presented. Analytical equations are developed for evaluating average concentration and mass flow rate in an underlying aquifer resulting from diffusion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) through intact composite liners and transport of inorganic constituents through defects in composite liners. The equations are applied to evaluate the effectiveness and equivalency of composite liners having either a 0.6 m-thick compacted soil liner or a 6.5 mm-thick geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) overlying an intermediate attenuation layer and an aquifer having horizontal flow. Example analyses for designing composite liners meeting particular performance criteria are also provided. The analytical equations are relatively simple to apply and can be used for preliminary design and analysis, to evaluate experimental results, and to possibly verify more complex numerical models for evaluating the impact of landfills on groundwater quality if consistency of the assumptions of the analytical equations and the more complex numerical models can be specified.

  13. The impact of point source pollution on shallow groundwater used for human consumption in a threshold country.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Mercedes Cecilia; Cacciabue, Dolores Gutiérrez; Gil, José F; Gamboni, Oscar; Vicente, María Soledad; Wuertz, Stefan; Gonzo, Elio; Rajal, Verónica B

    2012-09-01

    Many developing and threshold countries rely on shallow groundwater wells for their water supply whilst pit latrines are used for sanitation. We employed a unified strategy involving satellite images and environmental monitoring of 16 physico-chemical and microbiological water quality parameters to identify significant land uses that can lead to unacceptable deterioration of source water, in a region with a subtropical climate and seasonally restricted torrential rainfall in Northern Argentina. Agricultural and non-agricultural sources of nitrate were illustrated in satellite images and used to assess the organic load discharged. The estimated human organic load per year was 28.5 BOD(5) tons and the N load was 7.5 tons, while for poultry farms it was 9940-BOD(5) tons and 1037-N tons, respectively. Concentrations of nitrates and organics were significantly different between seasons in well water (p values of 0.026 and 0.039, respectively). The onset of the wet season had an extraordinarily negative impact on well water due in part to the high permeability of soils made up of fine gravels and coarse sand. Discriminant analysis showed that land uses had a pronounced seasonal influence on nitrates and introduced additional microbial contamination, causing nitrification and denitrification in shallow groundwater. P-well was highly impacted by a poultry farm while S-well was affected by anthropogenic pollution and background load, as revealed by Principal Component Analysis. The application of microbial source tracking techniques is recommended to corroborate local sources of human versus animal origin.

  14. Assessing the impact of model spin-up on surface water-groundwater interactions using an integrated hydrologic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajami, Hoori; McCabe, Matthew F.; Evans, Jason P.; Stisen, Simon

    2014-03-01

    Integrated land surface-groundwater models are valuable tools in simulating the terrestrial hydrologic cycle as a continuous system and exploring the extent of land surface-subsurface interactions from catchment to regional scales. However, the fidelity of model simulations is impacted not only by the vegetation and subsurface parameterizations, but also by the antecedent condition of model state variables, such as the initial soil moisture, depth to groundwater, and ground temperature. In land surface modeling, a given model is often run repeatedly over a single year of forcing data until it reaches an equilibrium state: the point at which there is minimal artificial drift in the model state or prognostic variables (most often the soil moisture). For more complex coupled and integrated systems, where there is an increased computational cost of simulation and the number of variables sensitive to initialization is greater than in traditional uncoupled land surface modeling schemes, the challenge is to minimize the impact of initialization while using the smallest spin-up time possible. In this study, multicriteria analysis was performed to assess the spin-up behavior of the ParFlow.CLM integrated groundwater-surface water-land surface model over a 208 km2 subcatchment of the Ringkobing Fjord catchment in Denmark. Various measures of spin-up performance were computed for model state variables such as the soil moisture and groundwater storage, as well as for diagnostic variables such as the latent and sensible heat fluxes. The impacts of initial conditions on surface water-groundwater interactions were then explored. Our analysis illustrates that the determination of an equilibrium state depends strongly on the variable and performance measure used. Choosing an improper initialization of the model can generate simulations that lead to a misinterpretation of land surface-subsurface feedback processes and result in large biases in simulated discharge. Estimated spin

  15. Waste-water impacts on groundwater: Cl/Br ratios and implications for arsenic pollution of groundwater in the Bengal Basin and Red River Basin, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    McArthur, J M; Sikdar, P K; Hoque, M A; Ghosal, U

    2012-10-15

    Across West Bengal and Bangladesh, concentrations of Cl in much groundwater exceed the natural, upper limit of 10 mg/L. The Cl/Br mass ratios in groundwaters range up to 2500 and scatter along mixing lines between waste-water and dilute groundwater, with many falling near the mean end-member value for waste-water of 1561 at 126 mg/L Cl. Values of Cl/Br exceed the seawater ratio of 288 in uncommon NO(3)-bearing groundwaters, and in those containing measurable amounts of salt-corrected SO(4) (SO(4) corrected for marine salt). The data show that shallow groundwater tapped by tube-wells in the Bengal Basin has been widely contaminated by waste-water derived from pit latrines, septic tanks, and other methods of sanitary disposal, although reducing conditions in the aquifers have removed most evidence of NO(3) additions from these sources, and much evidence of their additions of SO(4). In groundwaters from wells in palaeo-channel settings, end-member modelling shows that >25% of wells yield water that comprises ≥10% of waste-water. In palaeo-interfluvial settings, only wells at the margins of the palaeo-interfluvial sequence contain detectable waste water. Settings are identifiable by well-colour survey, owner information, water composition, and drilling. Values of Cl/Br and faecal coliform counts are both inversely related to concentrations of pollutant As in groundwater, suggesting that waste-water contributions to groundwater in the near-field of septic-tanks and pit-latrines (within 30 m) suppress the mechanism of As-pollution and lessen the prevalence and severity of As pollution. In the far-field of such sources, organic matter in waste-water may increase groundwater pollution by As.

  16. Island groundwater resources, impacts of abstraction and a drying climate: Rottnest Island, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Eliza; Meredith, Karina T.; Baker, Andy; Post, Vincent E. A.; Andersen, Martin S.

    2016-11-01

    Coastal aquifers provide a source of water for more than one billion people, with island freshwater lenses being some of the most vulnerable coastal groundwater systems due to their susceptibility to saltwater intrusion. Basic hydrogeological and hydrochemical knowledge regarding the recharge and salinisation processes of freshwater lenses is important to ensure sustainable utilisation, especially considering possible climate change effects. This paper makes an assessment of the fate of a freshwater lens in a drying climate through a comparison of current and historic hydrochemical data, which to the author's knowledge is unique to this study. Fresh groundwater stable isotope signatures (δ18O, δ2H) reflect local amount weighted rainfall signatures (δ18O: -3.8‰; δ2H: -15.1‰), and confirm rainfall as the origin of fresh groundwater (δ18O: -4.47 to -3.82‰; δ2H: -20.0 to -16.6‰). Mixing with seawater was identified through enriched groundwater δ18O and δ2H signatures (maximum values of -0.36‰ and -1.4‰ respectively) compared to local rainfall and higher salinity (maximum 29,267 mg/L Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)) in a number of monitoring wells around the freshwater lens. Enhanced seawater intrusion detected in the northern section of the lens area was identified through significantly increased TDS values over the last 20-40 years, with increases of up to 3000% observed between 1990 and 2014. A reduction in the extent of freshwater by approximately 1 km2 was identified since 1977, which was found to be primarily caused by a reduction in recharge to the freshwater lens due to a ∼20% decline in winter rainfall in the south-west Western Australian region since the mid 1960s. Groundwater abstraction was found to equate to between 5% and 9% of the estimated recharge for the island, and is not a significant factor in the reduction of the lens extent compared to the observed decline in rainfall recharge. Interestingly, seawater intrusion into the fresh

  17. Using vadose zone data and spatial statistics to assess the impact of cultivated land and dairy waste lagoons on groundwater contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baram, S.; Ronen, Z.; Kurtzman, D.; Peeters, A.; Dahan, O.

    2013-12-01

    Land cultivation and dairy waste lagoons are considered to be nonpoint and point sources of groundwater contamination by chloride (Cl-) and nitrate (NO3-). The objective of this work is to introduce a methodology to assess the past and future impacts of such agricultural activities on regional groundwater quality. The method is based on mass balances and on spatial statistical analysis of Cl- and NO3-concentration distributions in the saturated and unsaturated zones. The method enables quantitative analysis of the relation between the locations of pollution point sources and the spatial variability in Cl- and NO3- concentrations in groundwater. The method was applied to the Beer-Tuvia region, Israel, where intensive dairy farming along with land cultivation has been practiced for over 50 years above the local phreatic aquifer. Mass balance calculations accounted for the various groundwater recharge and abstraction sources and sinks in the entire region. The mass balances showed that leachates from lagoons and the cultivated land have contributed 6.0 and 89.4 % of the total mass of Cl- added to the aquifer and 12.6 and 77.4 % of the total mass of NO3-. The chemical composition of the aquifer and vadose zone water suggested that irrigated agricultural activity in the region is the main contributor of Cl- and NO3- to the groundwater. A low spatial correlation between the Cl- and NO3- concentrations in the groundwater and the on-land location of the dairy farms strengthened this assumption, despite the dairy waste lagoon being a point source for groundwater contamination by Cl- and NO3-. Results demonstrate that analyzing vadose zone and groundwater data by spatial statistical analysis methods can significantly contribute to the understanding of the relations between groundwater contaminating sources, and to assessing appropriate remediation steps.

  18. Groundwater flow near the Shoal Site, Sand Springs Range, Nevada: Impact of density-driven flow

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, J.; Mihevc, T.; McKay, A.

    1994-09-01

    The nature of flow from a highland recharge area in a mountain range in north-central Nevada to discharge areas on either side of the range is evaluated to refine a conceptual model of contaminant transport from an underground nuclear test conducted beneath the range. The test, known as the Shoal event, was conducted in 1963 in granitic rocks of the Sand Springs Range. Sparse hydraulic head measurements from the early 1960s suggest flow from the shot location to the east to Fairview Valley, while hydrochemistry supports flow to salt pans in Fourmile Flat to the west. Chemical and isotopic data collected from water samples and during well-logging arc best explained by a reflux brine system on the west side of the Sand Springs Range, rather than a typical local flow system where all flow occurs from recharge areas in the highlands to a central discharge area in a playa. Instead, dense saline water from the playa is apparently being driven toward the range by density contrasts. The data collected between the range and Fourmile Flat suggest the groundwater is a mixture of younger, fresher recharge water with older brine. Chemical contrasts between groundwater in the east and west valleys reflect the absence of re-flux water in Fairview Valley because the regional discharge area is distant and thus there is no accumulation of salts. The refluxing hydraulic system probably developed after the end of the last pluvial period and differences between the location of the groundwater divide based on hydraulic and chemical indicators could reflect movement of the divide as the groundwater system adjusts to the new reflux condition.

  19. [Impacts of reclaimed water irrigation of urban lawn on groundwater quality].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiao-Huan; Chen, Wei-Ping; Wang, Xiao-Ke; Ren, Yu-Fen; Zhang, Ye

    2012-12-01

    Based on long-term monitoring of groundwater and irrigation water quality, the dynamics of the main physicochemical property and pollutant concentration of groundwater influenced by reclaimed water irrigation were examined in this study. The results of our five-year continuous study showed that the ammonium nitrogen concentration in reclaimed water ranged 0.05-65.4 mg x L(-1) with an average of 12.0 mg x L(-1), which exceeded the urban miscellaneous water quality standards for urban greening (GB/T 18920-2002). The total nitrogen in reclaimed water averaged at 28.3 mg x L(-1), ranging from 2.56 mg x L(-1) to 78.0 mg x L(-1), which was also relatively high. The groundwater quality indexes were normal with small fluctuations under tap-water irrigation. The influence of lawn irrigation with reclaimed water on the groundwater water quality was significant in the shallow well with a depth of 6 m, but not obvious in the deep well with a depth of 20 m. The greatest change was found in the enhanced value of nitrate concentration. The nitrate nitrogen concentration in shallow underground water had significantly positive correlation but lagging with the concentration of dissolved nitrogen in the irrigation reclaimed water, which indicated that lawn irrigation with reclaimed water might cause nitrate nitrogen pollution in shallow underground water. Therefore, considering the huge water consumption for the urban greening, it is suggested that the criteria of reclaimed water reuse should be further improved to avoid the risk of environmental pollution.

  20. The impacts of uncertainty and variability in groundwater-driven health risk assessment. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, R. M.

    2010-12-01

    Potential human health risk from contaminated groundwater is becoming an important, quantitative measure used in management decisions in a range of applications from Superfund to CO2 sequestration. Quantitatively assessing the potential human health risks from contaminated groundwater is challenging due to the many coupled processes, uncertainty in transport parameters and the variability in individual physiology and behavior. Perspective on human health risk assessment techniques will be presented and a framework used to predict potential, increased human health risk from contaminated groundwater will be discussed. This framework incorporates transport of contaminants through the subsurface from source to receptor and health risks to individuals via household exposure pathways. The subsurface is shown subject to both physical and chemical heterogeneity which affects downstream concentrations at receptors. Cases are presented where hydraulic conductivity can exhibit both uncertainty and spatial variability in addition to situations where hydraulic conductivity is the dominant source of uncertainty in risk assessment. Management implications, such as characterization and remediation will also be discussed.

  1. Reduction in metolachlor and degradates concentrations in shallow groundwater through cover crop use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pesticide use during crop production has the potential to adversely impact groundwater quality. In southern Florida climatic and hydrogeologic conditions and agronomic practices indicate that contamination risks are high. In the current study soil dissipation of the widely used herbicide, metolachlo...

  2. Impact of the climate change to shallow groundwater in Baltic artesian basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauva, D.; Bethers, P.; Timuhins, A.; Sennikovs, J.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of our work was to find the long term pattern of annual shallow ground water changes in region of Latvia, ground water level modelling for the contemporary climate and future climate scenarios and the model generalization to the Baltic artesian basin (BAB) region. Latvia is located in the middle part of BAB. It occupies about 65'000 square kilometers. BAB territory (480'000 square kilometres) also includes Lithuania, Estonia as well as parts of Poland, Russia, Belarus and the Baltic Sea. Territory of BAB is more than seven times bigger than Latvia. Precipitation and spring snow melt are the main sources of the ground water recharge in BAB territory. The long term pattern of annual shallow ground water changes was extracted from the data of 25 monitoring wells in the territory of Latvia. The main Latvian groundwater level fluctuation regime can be described as a function with two maximums (in spring and late autumn) and two minimums (in winter and late summer). The mathematical model METUL (developed by Latvian University of Agriculture) was chosen for the ground water modelling. It was calibrated on the observations in 25 gauging wells around Latvia. After the calibration we made calculations using data provided by an ensemble of regional climate models, yielding a continuous groundwater table time-series from 1961 to 2100, which were analysed and split into 3 time windows for further analysis: contemporary climate (1961-1990), near future (2021-2050) and far future (2071-2100). The daily average temperature, precipitation and humidity time series were used as METUL forcing parameters. The statistical downscaling method (Sennikovs and Bethers, 2009) was applied for the bias correction of RCM calculated and measured variables. The qualitative differences in future and contemporary annual groundwater regime are expected. The future Latvian annual groundwater cycle according to the RCM climate projection changes to curve with one peak and one drought point

  3. Geophysical and hydrogeological characterisation of the impacts of on-site wastewater treatment discharge to groundwater in a poorly productive bedrock aquifer.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Shane; McCarthy, Valerie; Rafferty, Patrick; Orr, Alison; Flynn, Raymond

    2015-08-01

    Contaminants discharging from on-site wastewater treatment systems (OSWTSs) can impact groundwater quality, threatening human health and surface water ecosystems. Risk of negative impacts becomes elevated in areas of extreme vulnerability with high water tables, where thin unsaturated intervals limit vadose zone attenuation. A combined geophysical/hydrogeological investigation into the effects of an OSWTS, located over a poorly productive aquifer (PPA) with thin subsoil cover, aimed to characterise effluent impacts on groundwater. Groundwater, sampled from piezometers down-gradient of the OSWTS percolation area displayed spatially erratic, yet temporally consistent, contaminant distributions. Electrical resistivity tomography identified an area of gross groundwater contamination close to the percolation area and, when combined with seismic refraction and water quality data, indicated that infiltrating effluent reaching the water table discharged to a deeper more permeable zone of weathered shale resting on more competent bedrock. Subsurface structure, defined by geophysics, indicated that elevated chemical and microbiological contaminant levels encountered in groundwater samples collected from piezometers, down-gradient of sampling points with lower contaminant levels, corresponded to those locations where piezometers were screened close to the weathered shale/competent rock interface; those immediately up-gradient were too shallow to intercept this interval, and thus the more impacted zone of the contaminant plume. Intermittent occurrence of faecal indicator bacteria more than 100m down gradient of the percolation area suggested relatively short travel times. Study findings highlight the utility of geophysics as part of multidisciplinary investigations for OSWTS contaminant plume characterisation, while also demonstrating the capacity of effluent discharging to PPAs to impact groundwater quality at distance. Comparable geophysical responses observed in similar

  4. Substantial nitrous oxide emissions from intertidal sediments and groundwater in anthropogenically-impacted West Falmouth Harbor, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moseman-Valtierra, Serena; Kroeger, Kevin D.; Crusius, John; Baldwin, Sandy; Green, Adrian; Brooks, Thomas W.; Pugh, E.

    2015-01-01

    Large N2O emissions were observed from intertidal sediments in a coastal estuary, West Falmouth Harbor, MA, USA. Average N2O emission rates from 41 chambers during summer 2008 were 10.7 mol N2O m(-2) h(-1)±4.43 μmol N2O m(-2) h(-1) (standard error). Emissions were highest from sediments within a known wastewater plume, where a maximum N2O emission rate was 155 μmol N2O m(-2) h(-1). Intertidal N2O fluxes were positively related to porewater ammonium concentrations at 10 and 25 cm depths. In groundwater from 7 shoreline wells, dissolved N2O ranged from 488% of saturation (56 nM N2O) to more than 13000% of saturation (1529 nM N2O) and was positively related to nitrate concentrations. Fresh and brackish porewater underlying 14 chambers was also supersaturated in N2O, ranging from 2980% to 13175% of saturation. These observations support a relationship between anthropogenic nutrient loading and N2O emissions in West Falmouth Harbor, with both groundwater sources and also local N2O production within nutrient-rich, intertidal sediments in the groundwater seepage face. N2O emissions from intertidal "hotspot" in this harbor, together with estimated surface water emissions, constituted 2.4% of the average overall rate of nitrogen export from the watershed to the estuary. This suggests that N2O emissions factors from coastal ecosystems may be underestimated. Since anthropogenic nutrient loading affects estuaries worldwide, quantification of N2O dynamics is warranted in other anthropogenically-impacted coastal ecosystems.

  5. The Impact Of Urban Development On Recharge And Groundwater Quality In A Coastal Aquifer Near Perth, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleyard, S.

    1995-02-01

    Near Perth, Western Australia, thirty boreholes were drilled at eleven sites in similar hydrogeological settings. The sites represent three levels of urban development: an uncleared area, a new residential area (less than 20 years old) and an old residential area (more than 60 years old). The objective was to assess the impact of sewered urban development on recharge and groundwater quality. Tritium data suggest that a greater proportion of recharge in the urban areas is from point sources, and this probably caused high redox potentials (up to 291 mV) in groundwater in the old residential area. Recharge in the new urban area is estimated to be about 37 percent of the average annual rainfall of about 0.8 m, and this value is probably greater than recharge in undeveloped areas. Concentrations of sulphate increase progressively with the age of urban development, from an average of 8 mg/L to 69 mg/L, probably as a result of fertilizer input and the oxidation of soil-held sulphides with land clearing. Nitrate concentrations are significantly higher in urban areas (average concentration >1 mg/L as N) than in the non-urban areas (average concentration <0.5 mg/L as N). However, the measured concentrations are all lower than expected from current fertilizer inputs in sewered urban areas of about 80 kg/ha, indicating that denitrification is taking place. A limited reservoir of reducing agents may be available from denitrification, and this may have implications for the sustained use of groundwater as a potable supply in coastal suburbs of Perth.

  6. Preliminary report on coal pile, coal pile runoff basins, and ash basins at the Savannah River Site: effects on groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.

    1997-04-28

    Coal storage piles, their associated coal pile runoff basins and ash basins could potentially have adverse environmental impacts, especially on groundwater. This report presents and summarizes SRS groundwater and soil data that have been compiled. Also, a result of research conducted on the subject topics, discussions from noted experts in the field are cited. Recommendations are made for additional monitor wells to be installed and site assessments to be conducted.

  7. Integrated assessment of the impact of climate and land use changes on groundwater quantity and quality in the Mancha Oriental system (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Peña-Haro, S.; García-Prats, A.; Mocholi-Almudever, A. F.; Henriquez-Dole, L.; Macian-Sorribes, H.; Lopez-Nicolas, A.

    2015-04-01

    Climate and land use change (global change) impacts on groundwater systems cannot be studied in isolation. Land use and land cover (LULC) changes have a great impact on the water cycle and contaminant production and transport. Groundwater flow and storage are changing in response not only to climatic changes but also to human impacts on land uses and demands, which will alter the hydrologic cycle and subsequently impact the quantity and quality of regional water systems. Predicting groundwater recharge and discharge conditions under future climate and land use changes is essential for integrated water management and adaptation. In the Mancha Oriental system (MOS), one of the largest groundwater bodies in Spain, the transformation from dry to irrigated lands during the last decades has led to a significant drop of the groundwater table, with the consequent effect on stream-aquifer interaction in the connected Jucar River. Understanding the spatial and temporal distribution of water quantity and water quality is essential for a proper management of the system. On the one hand, streamflow depletion is compromising the dependent ecosystems and the supply to the downstream demands, provoking a complex management issue. On the other hand, the intense use of fertilizer in agriculture is leading to locally high groundwater nitrate concentrations. In this paper we analyze the potential impacts of climate and land use change in the system by using an integrated modeling framework that consists in sequentially coupling a watershed agriculturally based hydrological model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, SWAT) with a groundwater flow model developed in MODFLOW, and with a nitrate mass-transport model in MT3DMS. SWAT model outputs (mainly groundwater recharge and pumping, considering new irrigation needs under changing evapotranspiration (ET) and precipitation) are used as MODFLOW inputs to simulate changes in groundwater flow and storage and impacts on stream

  8. Reactive transport modeling of thermal column experiments to investigate the impacts of aquifer thermal energy storage on groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Bonte, Matthijs; Stuyfzand, Pieter J; Breukelen, Boris M van

    2014-10-21

    Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) systems are increasingly being used to acclimatize buildings and are often constructed in aquifers used for drinking water supply. This raises the question of potential groundwater quality impact. Here, we use laboratory column experiments to develop and calibrate a reactive transport model (PHREEQC) simulating the thermally induced (5-60 °C) water quality changes in anoxic sandy sediments. Temperature-dependent surface complexation, cation-exchange, and kinetic dissolution of K-feldspar were included in the model. Optimization results combined with an extensive literature survey showed surface complexation of (oxy)anions (As, B, and PO4) is consistently exothermic, whereas surface complexation of cations (Ca and Mg) and cationic heavy metals (Cd, Pb, and Zn) is endothermic. The calibrated model was applied to simulate arsenic mobility in an ATES system using a simple yet powerful mirrored axi-symmetrical grid. Results showed that ATES mobilizes arsenic toward the fringe of the warm water bubble and the center of the cold water bubble. This transient redistribution of arsenic causes its aqueous concentrations in the cold and warm groundwater bubbles to become similar through multiple heating cycles, with a final concentration depending on the average injection temperature of the warm and cold ATES wells.

  9. Impact of global change on karst groundwater mineralization in the Jura Mountains.

    PubMed

    Jeannin, Pierre-Yves; Hessenauer, Marc; Malard, Arnauld; Chapuis, Valentin

    2016-01-15

    Chemistry of karst groundwater is related to conditions prevailing within the karst underground as well as at the land-surface within the recharge area. It is dominated by the dissolution of calcite and/or dolomite, which is strongly triggered by the presence of high pCO2 in soils at the top of the bedrock. Dissolution (water mineralization) is clearly influenced by soil pCO2, i.e. by global changes such as land-use, agriculture practices and climate change. However, the dissolution of carbonates is considered as a quite significant carbon sink for the Earth Atmosphere. Assessing the evolution of carbonate water mineralization can thus help characterizing the evolution of the carbon sink related to carbonate dissolution. The main goal of the study is to check the presence of trends with a high statistical relevance in groundwater quality data along the past 20 years. Causes potentially explaining the observed trends, such as land-use, agriculture practices and global warming are analyzed and discussed. The long term evolution of parameters related to carbonate dissolution are discussed and extrapolated as they may have consequences for the Global Carbon Cycle. The analysis is based on three independent data-sets stretching over more than 20 years each, coming from more than 40 sources. Statistical tests (Mann-Kendall trend test) indicate clear trends for compounds related to groundwater mineralization: increase in temperature (by about 0.5 °C/25 years), decrease in pH, increase in bicarbonate (by about 5%), and positive or negative trends for major ions directly related to human practices. Data and analysis suggest that carbonate dissolution is quickly increasing as a consequence of climate warming. Considering the largely accepted fact that carbonate dissolution acts as carbon sink for the atmosphere, it can be postulated that the observed increase could act as a negative feedback mechanism, tending to slow down the atmospheric increase in CO2.

  10. An evaluation of the impact of recent flooding on the operation of a groundwater extraction and treatment system at a Superfund Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gavett, K.L.; Fiore, M.J.; Meyer, E.J.

    1994-12-31

    A groundwater extraction and treatment system was installed in 1987 at the Des Moines TCE Superfund Site. The purpose of the system is to prevent groundwater contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from migrating toward an infiltration gallery system which supplies drinking water to the City of Des Moines, Iowa. The extraction system was not operating for a three week period in July and August when the system was flooded by the nearby Raccoon collected as part of a monitoring program have been s the affect of flooding on the operation of the system. Records indicate that the flood did not have a long-term impact on the Performance of the system. An examination of groundwater levels show that groundwater elevations receded quickly after the flood, similar to patterns observed after other periods of heavy precipitation. In fact, data collected nine weeks after the extraction system was returned to service indicate that the system continues to meet its containment objective. Water quality records indicate that the affect of the 1993 flood was similar to trends Observed after earlier periods of heavy precipitation. Trichloroethene concentrations in the treatment system influent and in wells located in the vicinity of suspected source areas increased as a result of rising groundwater levels, and infiltration through residual contamination in the unsaturated zone. Groundwater quality in areas beyond suspected source areas does not appear to have been affected by the 1993 flood.

  11. Microbial Indicators, Pathogens, and Antibiotic Resistance in Groundwater Impacted by Animal Farming: Field Scale to Basin Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, T.; Li, X.; Atwill, E. R.; Packman, A. I.

    2015-12-01

    Several surveys of microbial indicators and pathogens were conducted to determine the impact of confined animal farming operations (CAFOs) on shallow, local, and regional groundwater quality in the Central Valley aquifer system, California. The aquifer system consists of highly heterogeneous, alluvial, unconsolidated coarse- to fine-grained sediments and is among the largest aquifers in the U.S.. Overlying landuse includes 3 million ha of irrigated agriculture and 1.7 million mature dairy cows in nearly 1,500 CAFOs. A multi-scale survey of water-borne indicator pathogens (Enterococcus spp. and generic E. coli) and of three water-borne pathogens (Campylobacter, Salmonella, and E. coli O157:H7) was conducted at five different spatial scales, increasing with distance from animal sources of these enteric microbial organisms: moist surfaces within individual CAFO sub-systems (calf-hutches, heifer corrals, mature cow stalls, hospital barn etc.), first encountered (shallow) groundwater immediately below these sub-systems, production aquifer below CAFOs, production aquifer near CAFOs, and production aquifer away from CAFOs. Where found, indicator pathogens were tested for antibiotic resistance. Hundreds of samples were collected at each scale: continuously during irrigation events and seasonally over a multi-year period at the three smaller site-scales; and in a one-time survey at the two larger, regional scales. All three pathogens were frequently detected in moist surface samples across CAFO sub-systems, albeit at concentrations several orders of magnitude lower than enteric indicators. Two of the three pathogens (but not Campylobacter) were also detected in first encountered groundwater, at 3-9 m below ground surface, in 1% of samples. No pathogens were found at the production aquifer scales. Generic E. coli was detected in ¼ of first encountered groundwater samples, and in 4% of production aquifer samples, while Enterococcus spp. was ubiquitously present across the

  12. Report for Full-Scale Mulch Wall Treatment of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon-Impacted Groundwater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    MW-33S MW-34S MW-31S MW-32S B301-MP5S ND B301- MP6S 1.2 SB9 SB7 SB3 SB5 SB2 HP4 SB1 HP1 A’ A MW-30S MW-27S 4/13/04 FULL-SCALE MULCH WALL Site B... MP6S 1.2 SB9 SB7 SB3 SB5 SB2 HP4 SB1 HP1 A’ A MW-30S MW-27S INSET MAP N Inset Scale (ft) 500 10000 Groundwater Flow 4 in steel gas main 24 in CMP

  13. The Safe Yield and Climatic Variability: Implications for Groundwater Management.

    PubMed

    Loáiciga, Hugo A

    2016-10-25

    Methods for calculating the safe yield are evaluated in this paper using a high-quality and long historical data set of groundwater recharge, discharge, extraction, and precipitation in a karst aquifer. Consideration is given to the role that climatic variability has on the determination of a climatically representative period with which to evaluate the safe yield. The methods employed to estimate the safe yield are consistent with its definition as a long-term average extraction rate that avoids adverse impacts on groundwater. The safe yield is a useful baseline for groundwater planning; yet, it is herein shown that it is not an operational rule that works well under all climatic conditions. This paper shows that due to the nature of dynamic groundwater processes it may be most appropriate to use an adaptive groundwater management strategy that links groundwater extraction rates to groundwater discharge rates, thus achieving a safe yield that represents an estimated long-term sustainable yield. An example of the calculation of the safe yield of the Edwards Aquifer (Texas) demonstrates that it is about one-half of the average annual recharge.

  14. The impact of groundwater and agricultural expansion on the archaeological sites at Luxor, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Ayman A.; Fogg, Graham E.

    2014-07-01

    Pharaonic monuments represent the most valuable source of ancient Egypt, covering the period of approximately 3000-300 B.C. Karnak and Luxor temples represent the monuments of the east bank of Thebes, the old capital of Egypt. These monuments are currently threatened due to rising groundwater levels as a result of agricultural expansion after construction of the High Dam in the 1970s. Deterioration of archaeological sites at Luxor includes disintegration and exfoliation of stones, dissolution of building materials, loss of moral paintings, crystallization of salts in walls and columns, stone bleeding, destruction of wall paintings and texts, decreasing the durability of monumental stones, and discoloring. The hydrogeologic and climatic conditions combined with irrigation practices facilitated the weathering processes to take part in deterioration of archaeological sites at Luxor area. Many varieties of salt species are found in groundwater at the study area which react with country rocks including the archaeological foundations. These salts are not in equilibrium but in a dissolution and/or dissolution-precipitation phases which are responsible for the different types of deterioration features of Luxor and karnak temples including dissolution of the salts or minerals of the building stones and/or precipitation and crystallization of new salts.

  15. Impact of artificial recharge on dissolved noble gases in groundwater in California.

    PubMed

    Cey, Bradley D; Hudson, G Bryant; Moran, Jean E; Scanlon, Bridget R

    2008-02-15

    Dissolved noble gas concentrations in groundwater can provide valuable information on recharge temperatures and enable 3H-3He age-dating with the use of physically based interpretive models. This study presents a large (905 samples) data set of dissolved noble gas concentrations from drinking water supply wells throughout California, representing a range of physiographic, climatic, and water management conditions. Three common interpretive models (unfractionated air, UA; partial re-equilibration, PR; and closed system equilibrium, CE) produce systematically different recharge temperatures or ages; however, the ability of the different models to fit measured data within measurement uncertainty indicates that goodness-of-fit is not a robust indicator for model appropriateness. Therefore caution is necessary when interpreting model results. Samples from multiple locations contained significantly higher Ne and excess air concentrations than reported in the literature, with maximum excess air tending toward 0.05 cm3 STP g(-1) (deltaNe approximately 400%). Artificial recharge is the most plausible cause of the high excess air concentrations. The ability of artificial recharge to dissolve greater amounts of atmospheric gases has important implications for oxidation-reduction dependent chemical reactions. Measured gas concentration ratios suggest that diffusive degassing may have occurred. Understanding the physical processes controlling gas dissolution during groundwater recharge is critical for optimal management of artificial recharge and for predicting changes in water quality that can occur following artificial recharge.

  16. Impact of human activities on the physico-chemical quality of surface water and groundwater in the north of Marrakech (Morocco).

    PubMed

    Oufline, Rachid; Hakkou, Rachid; Hanich, Lahoucine; Boularbah, Ali

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of three sources of pollution (landfill leachate, wastewater and mining activities) on the physico-chemical characteristics of surface water and groundwater in the northern region of Marrakech (Morocco). Numerous groundwater samples and surface water (Tensift River) samples were collected during the dry season and analysed. The groundwater samples had a high conductivity, which varied between 0.95 and 7.40 mS/cm; the conductivity of the surface water samples varied between 1.31 and 15.84 mS/cm. pH varied between 6.64 and 8.10 for groundwater and between 6.70 and 8.40 for surface water. The results showed that groundwater and surface water had a degraded quality in the region. Principal component analysis (PCA) enabled identification of the impact of pollution sources by combining the upstream and the downstream points. These results also showed that, in the study area, the effect of wastewater and the mine were dominated those of the landfill.

  17. Discovery of 40 Classes of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in Historical Aqueous Film-Forming Foams (AFFFs) and AFFF-Impacted Groundwater.

    PubMed

    Barzen-Hanson, Krista A; Roberts, Simon C; Choyke, Sarah; Oetjen, Karl; McAlees, Alan; Riddell, Nicole; McCrindle, Robert; Ferguson, P Lee; Higgins, Christopher P; Field, Jennifer A

    2017-02-21

    Aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs), containing per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), are released into the environment during response to fire-related emergencies. Repeated historical applications of AFFF at military sites were a result of fire-fighter training exercises and equipment testing. Recent data on AFFF-impacted groundwater indicates that ∼25% of the PFASs remain unidentified. In an attempt to close the mass balance, a systematic evaluation of 3M and fluorotelomer-based AFFFs, commercial products, and AFFF-impacted groundwaters from 15 U.S. military bases was conducted to identify the remaining PFASs. Liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used for compound discovery. Nontarget analysis utilized Kendrick mass defect plots and a "nontarget" R script. Suspect screening compared masses with those of previously reported PFASs. Forty classes of novel anionic, zwitterionic, and cationic PFASs were discovered, and an additional 17 previously reported classes were observed for the first time in AFFF and/or AFFF-impacted groundwater. All 57 classes received an acronym and IUPAC-like name derived from collective author knowledge. Thirty-four of the 40 newly identified PFAS classes derive from electrochemical fluorination (ECF) processes, most of which have the same base structure. Of the newly discovered PFASs found only in AFFF-impacted groundwater, 11 of the 13 classes are ECF-derived, and the remaining two classes are fluorotelomer-derived, which suggests that both ECF- and fluorotelomer-based PFASs are persistent in the environment.

  18. Water Scarcity and Increased Instability - How Israel’s Policies and Actions Since the Creation of the National Water Carrier Have Adversely impacted the Jordan River Basin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-29

    and groundwater with the oil spill that ensued, the southern part 20 of Lebanon did not have power. Their lack of power also prevented the pumping...Nabulus. • The Dead Sea is salty brine that sits 400 meters below sea level. The flow into the Lower Jordan River varies between fifty to two...14 3 Groundwater . A larger quantity of freshwater exists as groundwater in the Israel-Palestine trans boundary. The groundwater comes naturally to

  19. Impacts of urbanization and climate on groundwater in a growing Africa city: the case of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouhouddine, Alihoumadi; Yameogo, Suzanne; Genthon, Pierre; Travi, Yves

    2016-04-01

    African cities are presently facing the combined impacts of growing urbanization and climate change. In several instances; providing safe drinking water for all is still a challenge, especially for cities located on basement aquifers, were groundwater is scarce. Here we assess the effects of climate change and land use change on groundwater amount and quality in the main city of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) taking advantage of the CIEH borehole, where a mostly continuous record lasts since 1978. This record spans most of the Great African Drought (1970-1990) and recovery from the Drought since the 2000s. A piezometric network of 14 wells and boreholes was setup around the CIEH borehole and monitored during the 2013-2014 hydrologic year. The piezometric network spans an old settlement, the Ouagadougou University, a vegetable gardening area and a natural forested area. Water balance estimates are provided by a 1D box model. The study area, although it lies partly on an old settlement in Ouagadougou and on the University area, presents a rather uniform runoff coefficient of 22% and ET amounting to 80-90 % of rainfall, which usually characterizes natural areas. It is suspected that the almost absence of asphalted surfaces, the presence of trees and flow of rainwater from roofs toward bare soils or sumps could be responsible of this budget. However, the two wells located in the forested Bangr Weogo recreational area are characterized by almost no runoff and a nearly 100 % ET. While drinking water can be pumped in several places in the city of Ouagadougou, chemical major analyses show that two mechanisms impact groundwater quality during the rainy season: (i) rise of the water table at pit latrine level, mainly in old settlements, and entrainment of harmful substances from soil to the aquifer in gardening area near some artisan activities. The CIEH borehole is not fully representative of its neighboring area since (i) it lies in a piezometric low, (ii) it presents the

  20. A simplified model for assessing the impact to groundwater of swine farms at regional level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massabo, Marco; Viterbo, Angelo

    2013-04-01

    Swine manure can be an excellent source of nutrients for crop production. Several swine farms are present in the territory of Regione Umbria and more than 200.000 of swine heads are present yearly in the whole territory while some municipalities host more than 30.000 heads over a relatively limited land. Municipality with elevated number of swine heads has registered particularly higher Nitrate concentration in groundwater that requires a management plan and intervention in order to determine the maximum allowed N loads in the specific region. Use of manure and fertilizers in agricultural field produce diffuse nitrogen (N) losses that are a major cause of excessive nitrate concentrations in ground and surface waters and have been of concern since decades. Excessive nitrate concentrations in groundwater can have toxic effects when used as drinking water and cause eutrophication in surface waters. For management and environmental planning purposes, it is necessary to assess the magnitude of diffuse N losses from agricultural fields and how they are influenced by factors such as management practices, type of fertilizers -organic or inorganic - climate and soil etc. There are several methods for assessing N leaching, they span from methods based on field test to complex models that require many input data. We use a simple index method that accounts for the type of fertilizer used - inorganic, swine or cattle manure- and hydrological and hydrogeological conditions. Hydrological conditions such as infiltration rates are estimated by a fully distributed hydrological model. Data on inorganic and organic fertilization are estimated at municipal level by using the nutrient crops needs and the statistics of swine and cattle heads within the municipality. The index method has been calibrated by using groundwater concentration as a proxy of N losses from agriculture. A time series of three years of data has been analyzed. The application of the simple index method allowed to

  1. Biologic features and prognosis of ductal carcinoma in situ are not adversely impacted by initial large body mass.

    PubMed

    Kuerer, Henry M; Lari, Sara A; Arun, Banu K; Hu, Chung-Yuan; Brewster, Abenaa; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A; Albarracin, Constance T; Babiera, Gildy V; Caudle, Abigail S; Wagner, Jamie L; Litton, Jennifer K; Bedrosian, Isabelle; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Lucci, Anthony; Hunt, Kelly K

    2012-06-01

    Obesity is associated with adverse biologic features and poor outcome in patients with invasive breast cancer, yet this relationship has not been evaluated in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). From 1996 to 2009, body mass index (BMI) was recorded at initial diagnosis for 1,885 patients with DCIS treated at our institution. Patients were categorized as obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI 25 to <30 kg/m(2)), or of normal weight or underweight (BMI < 25 kg/m(2)). Logistic regression was used to examine associations between BMI and patient, clinical, and pathologic features and treatment. Local-regional recurrence was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. All statistical tests were two-sided. Of the 1,885 patients, 514 (27.7%) were obese, 510 (27.5%) were overweight, and 831 (44.8%) were normal/underweight. In multivariate analysis, overweight and obese patients were significantly more likely to be African American (odds ratio [OR], 3.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.66-5.80) or Hispanic (OR, 1.44; CI, 1.02-2.04), be postmenopausal (OR, 1.63; CI, 1.28-2.07), have diabetes (OR, 4.60; CI, 2.60-8.12), have estrogen-receptor-positive DCIS (OR, 1.39; CI, 1.00-192), and present with a radiologic abnormality rather than clinical symptoms (OR, 1.35; CI, 1.01-1.80). At a median follow-up time of 4.96 years (range, 1.0-14.34 years), no significant differences in local recurrence rates were detected based on patients' initial BMI category. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in risk of recurrence between diabetic patients receiving metformin or not. In conclusion, higher BMI is not associated with adverse biologic features or prognosis in patients with DCIS.

  2. Azathioprine therapy and adverse drug reactions in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: impact of thiopurine S-methyltransferase polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Matthias; Schäffeler, Elke; Marx, Claudia; Fischer, Christine; Lang, Thomas; Behrens, Christoph; Gregor, Michael; Eichelbaum, Michel; Zanger, Ulrich M; Kaskas, Bernd A

    2002-08-01

    The efficacy of the immunosuppressants azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine has been well established in the therapy of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, its use has been complicated by a high incidence of serious adverse drug reactions such as hematotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, pancreatitis and gastrointestinal disturbances. Whereas azathioprine-related pancytopenia has been clearly linked to thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) polymorphism limited data are available to explain gastrointestinal side effects. In a retrospective analysis of 93 adults with IBD and azathioprine therapy both phenotyping and genotyping was used to explore systematically the relationship between TPMT and azathioprine-related adverse reactions. At time of inclusion, 69 patients were still receiving azathioprine therapy and had never experienced side effects. Azathioprine had been withdrawn in 10 patients for non-medical reasons or lack of response and 14 patients (15%) had stopped medication or were on reduced dose due to severe azathioprine-related side effects. Nine of these 14 patients had developed gastrointestinal side effects (hepatotoxicity, n = 3; pancreatitis, n = 3; others, n = 3), but their normal red blood cell TPMT activities were in accordance to TPMT wild-type. TPMT deficiency in one patient had led to pancytopenia whereas only two of the remaining four patients with hematotoxicity displayed an intermediate phenotype of TPMT. This study demonstrates that azathioprine-related gastrointestinal side effects are independent of the TPMT polymorphism. Nevertheless pharmacogenetic testing for TPMT prior to commencing thiopurine therapy should become routine practice in order to avoid severe hematotoxicity in TPMT deficient patients and lowering the incidence of hematological side effects in individuals heterozygous for TPMT.

  3. Detection of groundwater conduits in limestones with gravity surveys: data from the area of the Chicxulub Impact crater, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Kinsland, G L; Hurtado, M; Pope, K O

    2000-04-15

    Small negative gravity anomalies are found in gravity data from along the northwestern shoreline of the Yucatan Peninsula. These anomalies are shown to be due to elongate, shallow anomalous porosity zones in the Tertiary carbonates. These zones are caused primarily by groundwater solution and are presently active conduits for groundwater flow. The association of these small gravity anomalies with known topographic and structural features of the area, which partially overlies the Chicxulub Impact crater, indicates their development was influenced by structures, faults and/or fractures, within the Tertiary and pre-Tertiary carbonates.

  4. Detection of groundwater conduits in limestones with gravity surveys: data from the area of the Chicxulub Impact crater, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinsland, G. L.; Hurtado, M.; Pope, K. O.; Ocampo, A. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Small negative gravity anomalies are found in gravity data from along the northwestern shoreline of the Yucatan Peninsula. These anomalies are shown to be due to elongate, shallow anomalous porosity zones in the Tertiary carbonates. These zones are caused primarily by groundwater solution and are presently active conduits for groundwater flow. The association of these small gravity anomalies with known topographic and structural features of the area, which partially overlies the Chicxulub Impact crater, indicates their development was influenced by structures, faults and/or fractures, within the Tertiary and pre-Tertiary carbonates.

  5. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 1325-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.J.; Johnson, V.G.

    1993-09-01

    In 1943 the Hanford Site was chosen as a location for the Manhattan Project to produce plutonium for use in nuclear weapons. The 100-N Area at Hanford was used from 1963 to 1987 for a dual-purpose, plutonium production and steam generation reactor and related operational support facilities (Diediker and Hall 1987). In November 1989, the reactor was put into dry layup status. During operations, chemical and radioactive wastes were released into the area soil, air, and groundwater. The 1325-N LWDF was constructed in 1983 to replace the 1301-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facility (1301-N LWDF). The two facilities operated simultaneously from 1983 to 1985. The 1301-N LWDF was retired from use in 1985 and the 1325-N LWDF continued operation until April 1991, when active discharges to the facility ceased. Effluent discharge to the piping system has been controlled by administrative means. This report discusses ground water contamination resulting from the 1325-N Liquid Waste Disposal facility.

  6. Identifying Impacts of Hydropower Regulation on Salmonid Habitats to Guide River Restoration for Existing Schemes and Mitigate Adverse Effects of Future Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buddendorf, B.; Geris, J.; Malcolm, I.; Wilkinson, M.; Soulsby, C.

    2015-12-01

    A decrease in longitudinal connectivity in riverine ecosystems resulting from the construction of transverse barriers has been identified as a major threat to biodiversity. For example, Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) have a seasonal variety of hydraulic habitat requirements for their different life stages. However, hydropower impoundments impact the spatial and temporal connectivity of natural habitat along many salmon rivers in ways that are not fully understood. Yet, these changes may affect the sustainability of habitat at local and regional scales and so ultimately the conservation of the species. Research is therefore needed both to aid the restoration and management of rivers impacted by previous hydropower development and guide new schemes to mitigate potentially adverse effects. To this end we assessed the effects of hydropower development on the flow related habitat conditions for different salmon life stages in Scottish rivers at different spatial scales. We used GIS techniques to map the changes in structural connectivity at regional scales, applying a weighting for habitat quality. Next, we used hydrological models to simulate past and present hydrologic conditions that in turn drive reach-scale hydraulic models to assess the impacts of regulation on habitat suitability in both space and time. Preliminary results indicate that: 1) impacts on connectivity depend on the location of the barrier within the river network; 2) multiple smaller barriers may have a potentially lower impact than a single larger barrier; 3) there is a relationship between habitat and connectivity where losing less but more suitable habitat potentially has a disproportionally large impact; 4) the impact of flow regulation can lead to a deterioration of habitat quality, though the effects are spatially variable and the extent of the impact depends on salmon life stage. This work can form a basis for using natural processes to perform targeted and cost-effective restoration of rivers.

  7. Impacts of adverse childhood experiences on health, mental health, and substance use in early adulthood: a cohort study of an urban, minority sample in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Mersky, J P; Topitzes, J; Reynolds, A J

    2013-11-01

    Research has shown that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) increase the risk of poor health-related outcomes in later life. Less is known about the consequences of ACEs in early adulthood or among diverse samples. Therefore, we investigated the impacts of differential exposure to ACEs on an urban, minority sample of young adults. Health, mental health, and substance use outcomes were examined alone and in aggregate. Potential moderating effects of sex were also explored. Data were derived from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, a panel investigation of individuals who were born in 1979 or 1980. Main-effect analyses were conducted with multivariate logistic and OLS regression. Sex differences were explored with stratified analysis, followed by tests of interaction effects with the full sample. Results confirmed that there was a robust association between ACEs and poor outcomes in early adulthood. Greater levels of adversity were associated with poorer self-rated health and life satisfaction, as well as more frequent depressive symptoms, anxiety, tobacco use, alcohol use, and marijuana use. Cumulative adversity also was associated with cumulative effects across domains. For instance, compared to individuals without an ACE, individuals exposed to multiple ACEs were more likely to have three or more poor outcomes (OR range=2.75-10.15) and four or more poor outcomes (OR range=3.93-15.18). No significant differences between males and females were detected. Given that the consequences of ACEs in early adulthood may lead to later morbidity and mortality, increased investment in programs and policies that prevent ACEs and ameliorate their impacts is warranted.

  8. Impacts of adverse childhood experiences on health, mental health, and substance use in early adulthood: A cohort study of an urban, minority sample in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Topitzes, J.; Reynolds, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) increase the risk of poor health-related outcomes in later life. Less is known about the consequences of ACEs in early adulthood or among diverse samples. Therefore, we investigated the impacts of differential exposure to ACEs on an urban, minority sample of young adults. Health, mental health, and substance use outcomes were examined alone and in aggregate. Potential moderating effects of sex were also explored. Data were derived from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, a panel investigation of individuals who were born in 1979 or 1980. Main-effect analyses were conducted with multivariate logistic and OLS regression. Sex differences were explored with stratified analysis, followed by tests of interaction effects with the full sample. Results confirmed that there was a robust association between ACEs and poor outcomes in early adulthood. Greater levels of adversity were associated with poorer self-rated health and life satisfaction, as well as more frequent depressive symptoms, anxiety, tobacco use, alcohol use, and marijuana use. Cumulative adversity also was associated with cumulative effects across domains. For instance, compared to individuals without an ACE, individuals exposed to multiple ACEs were more likely to have three or more poor outcomes (OR range = 2.75–10.15) and four or more poor outcomes (OR range = 3.93–15.18). No significant differences between males and females were detected. Given that the consequences of ACEs in early adulthood may lead to later morbidity and mortality, increased investment in programs and policies that prevent ACEs and ameliorate their impacts is warranted. PMID:23978575

  9. Evaluation of Groundwater Impacts to Support the National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Annette Schafer; Arthur S. Rood; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2011-08-01

    The groundwater impacts have been analyzed for the proposed RH-LLW disposal facility. A four-step analysis approach was documented and applied. This assessment compared the predicted groundwater ingestion dose to the more restrictive of either the 25 mrem/yr all pathway dose performance objective, or the maximum contaminant limit performance objective. The results of this analysis indicate that the groundwater impacts for either proposed facility location are expected to be less than the performance objectives. The analysis was prepared to support the NEPA-EA for the top two ranking of the proposed RH-LLW sites. As such, site-specific conditions were incorporated for each set of results generated. These site-specific conditions were included to account for the transport of radionuclides through the vadose zone and through the aquifer at each site. Site-specific parameters included the thickness of vadose zone sediments and basalts, moisture characteristics of the sediments, and aquifer velocity. Sorption parameters (Kd) were assumed to be very conservative values used in Track II analysis of CERCLA sites at INL. Infiltration was also conservatively assumed to represent higher rates corresponding to disturbed soil conditions. The results of this analysis indicate that the groundwater impacts for either proposed facility location are expected to be less than the performance objectives.

  10. Evaluation of Groundwater Impacts to Support the National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Annette Schafer; Arthur S. Rood; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2011-12-01

    The groundwater impacts have been analyzed for the proposed RH-LLW disposal facility. A four-step analysis approach was documented and applied. This assessment compared the predicted groundwater ingestion dose to the more restrictive of either the 25 mrem/yr all pathway dose performance objective, or the maximum contaminant limit performance objective. The results of this analysis indicate that the groundwater impacts for either proposed facility location are expected to be less than the performance objectives. The analysis was prepared to support the NEPA-EA for the top two ranking of the proposed RH-LLW sites. As such, site-specific conditions were incorporated for each set of results generated. These site-specific conditions were included to account for the transport of radionuclides through the vadose zone and through the aquifer at each site. Site-specific parameters included the thickness of vadose zone sediments and basalts, moisture characteristics of the sediments, and aquifer velocity. Sorption parameters (Kd) were assumed to be very conservative values used in Track II analysis of CERCLA sites at INL. Infiltration was also conservatively assumed to represent higher rates corresponding to disturbed soil conditions. The results of this analysis indicate that the groundwater impacts for either proposed facility location are expected to be less than the performance objectives.

  11. Evaluation of Groundwater Impacts to Support the National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Annette Schafer; Arthur S. Rood; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2010-08-01

    The groundwater impacts have been analyzed for the proposed RH-LLW disposal facility. A four-step analysis approach was documented and applied. This assessment compared the predicted groundwater ingestion dose to the more restrictive of either the 25 mrem/yr all pathway dose performance objective, or the maximum contaminant limit performance objective. The results of this analysis indicate that the groundwater impacts for either proposed facility location are expected to be less than the performance objectives. The analysis was prepared to support the NEPA-EA for the top two ranking of the proposed RH-LLW sites. As such, site-specific conditions were incorporated for each set of results generated. These site-specific conditions were included to account for the transport of radionuclides through the vadose zone and through the aquifer at each site. Site-specific parameters included the thickness of vadose zone sediments and basalts, moisture characteristics of the sediments, and aquifer velocity. Sorption parameters (Kd) were assumed to be very conservative values used in Track II analysis of CERCLA sites at INL. Infiltration was also conservatively assumed to represent higher rates corresponding to disturbed soil conditions. The results of this analysis indicate that the groundwater impacts for either proposed facility location are expected to be less than the performance objectives.

  12. Permafrost thaw in a nested groundwater-flow system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, Jeffery M.; Voss, Clifford I.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater flow in cold regions containing permafrost accelerates climate-warming-driven thaw and changes thaw patterns. Simulation analyses of groundwater flow and heat transport with freeze/thaw in typical cold-regions terrain with nested flow indicate that early thaw rate is particularly enhanced by flow, the time when adverse environmental impacts of climate-warming-induced permafrost loss may be severest. For the slowest climate-warming rate predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), once significant groundwater flow begins, thick permafrost layers can vanish in several hundred years, but survive over 1,000 years where flow is minimal. Large-scale thaw depends mostly on the balance of heat advection and conduction in the supra-permafrost zone. Surface-water bodies underlain by open taliks allow slow sub-permafrost flow, with lesser influence on regional thaw. Advection dominance over conduction depends on permeability and topography. Groundwater flow around permafrost and flow through permafrost impact thaw differently; the latter enhances early thaw rate. Air-temperature seasonality also increases early thaw. Hydrogeologic heterogeneity and topography strongly affect thaw rates/patterns. Permafrost controls the groundwater/surface-water-geomorphology system; hence, prediction and mitigation of impacts of thaw on ecology, chemical exports and infrastructure require improved hydrogeology/permafrost characterization and understanding

  13. Biologic features and prognosis of ductal carcinoma in situ are not adversely impacted by initial large body mass

    PubMed Central

    Lari, Sara A.; Arun, Banu K.; Hu, Chung-Yuan; Brewster, Abenaa; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Albarracin, Constance T.; Babiera, Gildy V.; Caudle, Abigail S.; Wagner, Jamie L.; Litton, Jennifer K.; Bedrosian, Isabelle; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Lucci, Anthony; Hunt, Kelly K.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with adverse biologic features and poor outcome in patients with invasive breast cancer, yet this relationship has not been evaluated in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). From 1996 to 2009, body mass index (BMI) was recorded at initial diagnosis for 1,885 patients with DCIS treated at our institution. Patients were categorized as obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2), overweight (BMI 25 to<30 kg/m2), or of normal weight or underweight (BMI <25 kg/m2). Logistic regression was used to examine associations between BMI and patient, clinical, and pathologic features and treatment. Local–regional recurrence was calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method. All statistical tests were two-sided. Of the 1,885 patients, 514 (27.7%) were obese, 510 (27.5%) were overweight, and 831 (44.8%) were normal/underweight. In multivariate analysis, overweight and obese patients were significantly more likely to be African American (odds ratio [OR], 3.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.66–5.80) or Hispanic (OR, 1.44; CI, 1.02–2.04), be postmenopausal (OR, 1.63; CI, 1.28–2.07), have diabetes (OR, 4.60; CI, 2.60–8.12), have estrogen-receptor-positive DCIS (OR, 1.39; CI, 1.00–192), and present with a radiologic abnormality rather than clinical symptoms (OR, 1.35; CI, 1.01–1.80). At a median follow-up time of 4.96 years (range, 1.0–14.34 years), no significant differences in local recurrence rates were detected based on patients’ initial BMI category. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in risk of recurrence between diabetic patients receiving metformin or not. In conclusion, higher BMI is not associated with adverse biologic features or prognosis in patients with DCIS. PMID:22392043

  14. 78 FR 35314 - Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement; Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... reservoir storage tank. The project is intended to improve the reliability of Western's water supply through... Water District have completed a final Supplemental Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact... Jefferson Avenue Suite 202, Temecula, California 92590. Western Municipal Water District, 14205...

  15. The Adverse Impact of High Stakes Testing on Minority Students: Evidence from 100 Years of Test Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madaus, George F.; Clarke, Marguerite

    This paper examines four aspects of current high stakes testing that impact minority students and others traditionally underserved by American education. Data from research conducted at Boston College over 30 years highlight 4 issues: high stakes, high standards tests do not have a markedly positive effect on teaching and learning; high stakes…

  16. Groundwater Management During Intermediate-to-Deep Underground Coal Gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavis, Shaun; Stanley, Edward; Mostade, Marc; Turner, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a safe, economic way to extract energy from coal with significant environmental benefits compared with other coal-based energy production methods. However, in the wrong hands, UCG can adversely impact groundwater systems in two ways: 1) by contamination with inorganic and organic compounds; and 2) groundwater depletion. The hydrogeological conditions of UCG are highly site-specific and so the risks to groundwater have to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Site selection plays a fundamental role in managing these risks and it is possible to identify the general characteristics that will minimise risks of environmental impacts. However, large volumes of water, much of which will come from groundwater, are consumed during UCG projects, leading to possible significant groundwater depletion at such settings. Insufficient water supplies will impact the quality of the syngas produced by UCG because coal conversion efficiencies will decrease. Furthermore, depletion of groundwater levels may extend beyond the UCG site boundary, with consequent implications for regulatory regimes and any off-site groundwater users. Additional artificial water supplies may therefore be required, although the manner in which the water is delivered to the UCG system will also likely have an impact on syngas quality. Large volumes of water delivered via the injection well will likely impact gasification efficiency because 1) large amounts of heat will be used to vaporise the water leading to suppression of the reactor temperature and inhibition of (endothermic) gasification reactions; and 2) the "steam jacket" originally present around the UCG reactor will be absent, which will lead to further heat loss from the system. Additional water may therefore have to be supplied via the surrounding strata and/or coal seam, thus mimicking the natural conditions prior to groundwater depletion. Much of the hydrogeological modelling to date has focussed on a single

  17. Modeling dropout from adverse event data: impact of dosing regimens across pregabalin trials in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Lalovic, Bojan; Hutmacher, Matt; Frame, Bill; Miller, Raymond

    2011-05-01

    Dizziness represents a major determinant of dropout in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder with pregabalin. Titration (dose escalation) regimens based on clinical judgment were implemented to mitigate this adverse event and reduce patient dropout across clinical trials. Dropout is an important treatment failure endpoint, which can be analyzed using time-to-event models that incorporate daily dosing or other time-varying information. A parametric discrete-time dropout model with daily dizziness severity score as a covariate afforded a systematic, model-based assessment of titration dosing strategies, with model predictions evaluated against corresponding nonparametric estimates. A Gompertz hazard function adequately described the decreasing dropout hazard over time for individuals with severe or moderate dizziness and a lower, constant hazard for individuals reporting no dizziness or mild dizziness. Predictive performance of the model was adequate based on external validation with an independent trial and other goodness-of-fit criteria. Prospective simulations highlight the utility of this approach in reducing dropout based on examination of untested titration scenarios for future generalized anxiety disorder or other trials.

  18. The impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in mitigating salt-induced adverse effects in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    PubMed

    Elhindi, Khalid M; El-Din, Ahmed Sharaf; Elgorban, Abdallah M

    2017-01-01

    Salinity is one of the serious abiotic stresses adversely affecting the majority of arable lands worldwide, limiting the crop productivity of most of the economically important crops. Sweet basil (Osmium basilicum) plants were grown in a non-saline soil (EC = 0.64 dS m(-1)), in low saline soil (EC = 5 dS m(-1)), and in a high saline soil (EC = 10 dS m(-1)). There were differences between arbuscular mycorrhizal (Glomus deserticola) colonized plants (+AMF) and non-colonized plants (-AMF). Mycorrhiza mitigated the reduction of K, P and Ca uptake due to salinity. The balance between K/Na and between Ca/Na was improved in +AMF plants. Growth enhancement by mycorrhiza was independent from plant phosphorus content under high salinity levels. Different growth parameters, salt stress tolerance and accumulation of proline content were investigated, these results showed that the use of mycorrhizal inoculum (AMF) was able to enhance the productivity of sweet basil plants under salinity conditions. Mycorrhizal inoculation significantly increased chlorophyll content and water use efficiency under salinity stress. The sweet basil plants appeared to have high dependency on AMF which improved plant growth, photosynthetic efficiency, gas exchange and water use efficiency under salinity stress. In this study, there was evidence that colonization with AMF can alleviate the detrimental salinity stress influence on the growth and productivity of sweet basil plants.

  19. Arsenic contamination of groundwater and its health impact on residents in a village in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Sengupta, Mrinal Kumar; Ahamed, Sad; Chowdhury, Uttam Kumar; Lodh, Dilip; Hossain, Amir; Das, Bhaskar; Roy, Niladri; Saha, Kshitish Chandra; Palit, Shyamal Kanti; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2005-01-01

    An in-depth study was carried out in Rajapur, an arsenic-affected village in West Bengal, India, to determine the degree of groundwater contamination with arsenic and the impact of this contamination on residents. The flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS) method was used to measure arsenic concentrations in water and biological samples. Dermatologists recorded the dermatological features of arsenicosis. Out of a total of 336 hand-pumped tube-wells in Rajapur, 91% (307/336) contained arsenic at concentrations > 10 microg/l, and 63% (213/336) contained arsenic at > 50 microg/l. The type of arsenic in groundwater, the variation in concentrations of arsenic as the depth of tube-wells changed, and the iron concentration in the wells were also measured. Altogether 825 of 3500 residents were examined for skin lesions; of these, 149 had lesions caused by exposure to arsenic. Of the 420 biological samples collected and analysed, 92.6% (389) contained arsenic at concentrations that were above normal. Thus many villagers might be subclinically affected. Although five arsenic-filtering devices had been installed in Rajapur, it appears that villagers are still exposed to raised concentrations of arsenic in their drinking-water. Detailed village-level studies of arsenic-affected areas in West Bengal are required in order to understand the magnitude of contamination and its effects on people. Villagers are ill-informed about the dangers of drinking arsenic-contaminated water. The contamination could be brought under control by increasing community awareness of the dangers and implementing proper watershed management techniques that involve local people. PMID:15682249

  20. Development of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor to assess groundwater quality impacts resulting from geologic carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Cantwell G.; Goueguel, Christian; Jain, Jinesh; McIntyre, Dustin

    2015-05-01

    The injection of CO2 into deep aquifers can potentially affect the quality of groundwater supplies were leakage to occur from the injection formation or fluids. Therefore, the detection of CO2 and/or entrained contaminants that migrate into shallow groundwater aquifers is important both to assess storage permanence and to evaluate impacts on water resources. Naturally occurring elements (i.e., Li, Sr) in conjunction with isotope ratios can be used to detect such leakage. We propose the use of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as an analytical technique to detect a suite of elements in water samples. LIBS has real time monitoring capabilities and can be applied for elemental and isotopic analysis of solid, liquid, and gas samples. The flexibility of probe design and use of fiber optics make it a suitable technique for real time measurements in harsh conditions and in hard to reach places. The laboratory scale experiments to measure Li, K, Ca, and Sr composition of water samples indicate that the technique produces rapid and reliable data. Since CO2 leakage from saline aquifers may accompany a brine solution, we studied the effect of sodium salts on the accuracy of LIBS analysis. This work specifically also details the fabrication and application of a miniature ruggedized remotely operated diode pumped solid state passively Q-switched laser system for use as the plasma excitation source for a real time LIBS analysis. This work also proposes the optical distribution of many laser spark sources across a wide area for widespread leak detection and basin monitoring.

  1. Arsenic contamination of groundwater and its health impact on residents in a village in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Sengupta, Mrinal Kumar; Ahamed, Sad; Chowdhury, Uttam Kumar; Lodh, Dilip; Hossain, Amir; Das, Bhaskar; Roy, Niladri; Saha, Kshitish Chandra; Palit, Shyamal Kanti; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2005-01-01

    An in-depth study was carried out in Rajapur, an arsenic-affected village in West Bengal, India, to determine the degree of groundwater contamination with arsenic and the impact of this contamination on residents. The flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS) method was used to measure arsenic concentrations in water and biological samples. Dermatologists recorded the dermatological features of arsenicosis. Out of a total of 336 hand-pumped tube-wells in Rajapur, 91% (307/336) contained arsenic at concentrations > 10 microg/l, and 63% (213/336) contained arsenic at > 50 microg/l. The type of arsenic in groundwater, the variation in concentrations of arsenic as the depth of tube-wells changed, and the iron concentration in the wells were also measured. Altogether 825 of 3500 residents were examined for skin lesions; of these, 149 had lesions caused by exposure to arsenic. Of the 420 biological samples collected and analysed, 92.6% (389) contained arsenic at concentrations that were above normal. Thus many villagers might be subclinically affected. Although five arsenic-filtering devices had been installed in Rajapur, it appears that villagers are still exposed to raised concentrations of arsenic in their drinking-water. Detailed village-level studies of arsenic-affected areas in West Bengal are required in order to understand the magnitude of contamination and its effects on people. Villagers are ill-informed about the dangers of drinking arsenic-contaminated water. The contamination could be brought under control by increasing community awareness of the dangers and implementing proper watershed management techniques that involve local people.

  2. Review of inputs provided to Jason Associates Corporation in support of RWEV-REP-001, the Analysis of Postclosure Groundwater Impacts report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Charles R.; Weck, Philippe F.; Vaughn, Palmer; Arnold, Bill Walter

    2014-04-01

    Report RWEV-REP-001, Analysis of Postclosure Groundwater Impacts for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada was issued by the DOE in 2009 and is currently being updated. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) provided support for the original document, performing calculations and extracting data from the Yucca Mountain Performance Assessment Model that were used as inputs to the contaminant transport and dose calculations by Jason Associates Corporation, the primary developers of the DOE report. The inputs from SNL were documented in LSA-AR-037, Inputs to Jason Associates Corporation in Support of the Postclosure Repository Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement. To support the updating of the original Groundwater Impacts document, SNL has reviewed the inputs provided in LSA-AR-037 to verify that they are current and appropriate for use. The results of that assessment are documented here.

  3. Arsenic behaviour from groundwater and soil to crops: impacts on agriculture and food safety.

    PubMed

    Heikens, Alex; Panaullah, Golam M; Meharg, Andy A

    2007-01-01

    High levels of As in groundwater commonly found in Bangladesh and other parts of Asia not only pose a risk via drinking water consumption but also a risk in agricultural sustainability and food safety. This review attempts to provide an overview of current knowledge and gaps related to the assessment and management of these risks, including the behaviour of As in the soil-plant system, uptake, phytotoxicity, As speciation in foods, dietary habits, and human health risks. Special emphasis has been given to the situation in Bangladesh, where groundwater via shallow tube wells is the most important source of irrigation water in the dry season. Within the soil-plant system, there is a distinct difference in behaviour of As under flooded conditions, where arsenite (AsIII) predominates, and under nonflooded conditions, where arsenate (AsV) predominates. The former is regarded as most toxic to humans and plants. Limited data indicate that As-contaminated irrigation water can result in a slow buildup of As in the topsoil. In some cases the buildup is reflected by the As levels in crops, in others not. It is not yet possible to predict As uptake and toxicity in plants based on soil parameters. It is unknown under what conditions and in what time frame As is building up in the soil. Representative phytotoxicity data necessary to evaluate current and future soil concentrations are not yet available. Although there are no indications that crop production is currently inhibited by As, long-term risks are clearly present. Therefore, with concurrent assessments of the risks, management options to further prevent As accumulation in the topsoil should already have been explored. With regard to human health, data on As speciation in foods in combination with food consumption data are needed to assess dietary exposure, and these data should include spatial and seasonal variability. It is important to control confounding factors in assessing the risks. In a country where malnutrition

  4. The impact of CO2 on shallow groundwater chemistry: observations at a natural analog site and implications for carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, Elizabeth; Fessenden, Julianna; Kanjorski, Nancy; Koning, Dan; Pawar, Rajesh

    2008-01-01

    In a natural analog study of risks associated with carbon sequestration, impacts of CO{sub 2} on shallow groundwater quality have been measured in a sandstone aquifer in New Mexico, USA. Despite relatively high levels of dissolved CO{sub 2}, originating from depth and producing geysering at one well, pH depression and consequent trace element mobility are relatively minor effects due to the buffering capacity of the aquifer. However, local contamination due to influx of saline waters in a subset of wells is significant. Geochemical modeling of major ion concentrations suggests that high alkalinity and carbonate mineral dissolution buffers pH changes due to CO{sub 2} influx. Analysis oftrends in dissolved trace elements, chloride, and CO2 reveal no evidence of in-situ trace element mobilization. There is clear evidence, however, that As, U, and Pb are locally co-transported into the aquifer with CO{sub 2}-rich saline water. This study illustrates the role that local geochemical conditions will play in determining the effectiveness of monitoring strategies for CO{sub 2} leakage. For example, if buffering is significant, pH monitoring may not effectively detect CO2 leakage. This study also highlights potential complications that CO{sub 2}carrier fluids, such as saline waters, pose in monitoring impacts ofgeologic sequestration.

  5. Unbalanced international collaboration affects adversely the usefulness of countries' scientific output as well as their technological and social impact.

    PubMed

    Zanotto, Sonia R; Haeffner, Cristina; Guimarães, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    The unbalanced international scientific collaboration as cause of misleading information on the country's contribution to the scientific world output was analyzed. ESI Data Base (Thomson Reuters' InCites), covering the scientific production of 217 active countries in the period 2010-2014 was used. International collaboration implicates in a high percentage (33.1 %) of double-counted world articles, thus impacting qualitative data as citations, impact and impact relative to word. The countries were divided into three groups, according to their individual contribution to the world publications: Group I (24 countries, at least 1 %) representing 83.9 % of the total double-counted world articles. Group II (40 countries, 0.1-0.99 % each). Group III, 153 countries (70.5 %) with <0.1 % and altogether 1.9 % of the world. Qualitative characteristics of each group were also analyzed: percentage of the country's GNP applied in R&D, proportion of Scientists and Engineers per million inhabitants and Human Development Index. Average international collaboration were: Group I, 43.0 %; Group II, 55.8 % and Group III, 85.2 %. We concluded that very high and unbalanced international collaboration, as presented by many countries, misrepresent the importance of their scientific production, technological and social outputs. Furthermore, it jeopardizes qualitative outputs of the countries themselves, artificially increasing their scientific impact, affecting all fields and therefore, the whole world. The data confirm that when dealing with the qualitative contribution of countries, it is necessary to take in consideration the level of international cooperation because, as seen here, it can and in fact it does create false impression of the real contribution of countries.

  6. Groundwater availability as constrained by hydrogeology and environmental flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, Katelyn A.; Mayer, Alex S.; Reeves, Howard W.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater pumping from aquifers in hydraulic connection with nearby streams has the potential to cause adverse impacts by decreasing flows to levels below those necessary to maintain aquatic ecosystems. The recent passage of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact has brought attention to this issue in the Great Lakes region. In particular, the legislation requires the Great Lakes states to enact measures for limiting water withdrawals that can cause adverse ecosystem impacts. This study explores how both hydrogeologic and environmental flow limitations may constrain groundwater availability in the Great Lakes Basin. A methodology for calculating maximum allowable pumping rates is presented. Groundwater availability across the basin may be constrained by a combination of hydrogeologic yield and environmental flow limitations varying over both local and regional scales. The results are sensitive to factors such as pumping time, regional and local hydrogeology, streambed conductance, and streamflow depletion limits. Understanding how these restrictions constrain groundwater usage and which hydrogeologic characteristics and spatial variables have the most influence on potential streamflow depletions has important water resources policy and management implications.

  7. Groundwater availability as constrained by hydrogeology and environmental flows.

    PubMed

    Watson, Katelyn A; Mayer, Alex S; Reeves, Howard W

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater pumping from aquifers in hydraulic connection with nearby streams has the potential to cause adverse impacts by decreasing flows to levels below those necessary to maintain aquatic ecosystems. The recent passage of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact has brought attention to this issue in the Great Lakes region. In particular, the legislation requires the Great Lakes states to enact measures for limiting water withdrawals that can cause adverse ecosystem impacts. This study explores how both hydrogeologic and environmental flow limitations may constrain groundwater availability in the Great Lakes Basin. A methodology for calculating maximum allowable pumping rates is presented. Groundwater availability across the basin may be constrained by a combination of hydrogeologic yield and environmental flow limitations varying over both local and regional scales. The results are sensitive to factors such as pumping time, regional and local hydrogeology, streambed conductance, and streamflow depletion limits. Understanding how these restrictions constrain groundwater usage and which hydrogeologic characteristics and spatial variables have the most influence on potential streamflow depletions has important water resources policy and management implications.

  8. The impact of agricultural practices on shallow groundwater in the Bluegrass Region of Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Hampson, S.K.; Sendlein, L.V.A. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    To study the effects of agricultural practices on the groundwater quality of the Inner Bluegrass Region of Kentucky, a large representative row crop and livestock production operation was chosen. Located in southeastern Bourbon County, the study area encompasses a 1,400 acre watershed underlain by limestones and shales of the Ordovician age Lexington Limestone Formation. Sampling and testing of surface water, ephemeral, and perennial spring waters began in the area in October, 1989. At crop and pasture micro-sites within the study area, nests containing porous-cup lysimeters and monitoring wells were installed prior to the 1992 growing season. Samples from the nest locations were analyzed for Nitrate-N, triazines, metolochlor, carbofuran, alachlor, and 2,4-D. While only ten per cent of the total samples from the study area showed triazine or Nitrate-N concentrations in excess of EPA limits, greater than 80 per cent of the samples showed concentrations of triazines above detection limits, and greater than 70 per cent of the samples contained concentrations of Nitrate-N above detection limits. Occurrences of detectable concentrations of triazines and Nitrate-N were more frequent at crop-site nests, than at pasture-site nests. Nests at both the crop and pasture sites indicated dilution of Nitrate-N and triazine concentrations with depth.

  9. A groundwater overexploitation without sensitive impacts: technical approaches and social perception in central Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leduc, Christian; Massuel, Sylvain; Riaux, Jeanne; Benaïssa, Nadhira; Calvez, Roger; Jenhaoui, Zakia

    2016-04-01

    In Central Tunisia, the Kairouan plain is considered as a region of major potentiality for the agricultural development. The supply of drinking water and the demand for irrigation are both satisfied by the exploitation of aquifers, which has led to their overexploitation since decades. In the same time, a significant decrease of the river flow in the upstream catchment has been observed. These phenomena, among others, emphasize the intense footprint of human activities on the regional hydrology. Many models of surface runoff and of groundwater flows, sometimes coupled, have been built in order to represent the changes in the regional water budget, with various levels of complexity and relevance of initial assumptions. They are often of good quality and provide reliable estimates for future scenarios. Critical issues are expected in long-term trends. Nevertheless the water exploitation and management did not really change over the last decades: farmers and regional authorities in charge of the water control do not base their strategies on modelling results. This questions the importance of the scientific input from researchers in the final decision making processes.

  10. A preliminary appraisal of the impact of agriculture on ground-water availability in Southwest Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollard, L.D.; Grantham, R.G.; Blanchard, H.E.

    1978-01-01

    Irrigated acreage in the 20-county study area in southwest Georgia increased from 130,000 acres in 1976 to 261,000 in 1977. Acreage irrigated entirely by ground water increased 85 percent for the same period. The largest quantity of ground water used for irrigation was in the Dougherty Plain district, where 92 percent of supplemental irrigation water comes from wells. The total amount of water pumped for irrigation in the Dougherty Plain in 1977 was more than 42 billion gallons, 30 billion gallons more than in 1976. There were no detectable concentrations of selected organic compounds and trace metals used in agricultural chemicals above the recommended limits for public consumption in 19 wells sampled for chemical analyses. Although nitrate concentrations were not above the recommended limits for drinking water, the presence of nitrate in amounts ranging from 0.3 to 7.8 milligrams per liter in wells in the Dougherty Plain possibly indicate the downward movement of soluble nitrate, a byproduct of fertilizer, into the ground-water reservoir. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. Impact of High-Normal Blood Pressure Measured in Emergency Room on Adverse Cardiac Events in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Nam Sik; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Jong Hyun; Chae, Shung Chull; Kim, Young Jo; Hur, Seung Ho; Seong, In Whan; Hong, Taek Jong; Choi, Donghoon; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Chong Jin; Seung, Ki Bae; Chung, Wook Sung; Jang, Yang Soo; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Park, Seung Jung

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Prehypertension according to JNC7 is common and is associated with increased vascular mortality. The importance of management in high-normal blood pressure (BP) is underemphasized. Subjects and Methods We analyzed major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry in normal BP (group I) and high-normal BP (group II) patients. Results Among 14871 patients, 159 (61±12.3 years, 122 males) satisfied the study indication. Six-month and one-year clinical follow-up rate was 88.9% and 85.8%, respectively. Group I had 78 patients (60.9±12.4 years). Group II had 81 patients (61.6±12.5 years). Demographics of patients were not different between groups. Treatment strategy was not different. Initial Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction flow grade 0 was less frequent in group II (n=32, 47.1%) than in group I (n=16, 21.9%) (p=0.001). Successful intervention rate was not different between group II (93.8%) and group I (97.1%) (p=0.590). Six-month MACE occurred in 3 patients in group I (4.4%) and 10 in group II (15.6%) (p=0.031). Compared with normal BP, the odds ratio for patients with high-normal BP was 1.147 (p=0.045, 95% confidence interval 1.011-1.402) for 6-month MACE. Conclusion Even though high-normal BP patients had a better baseline clinical status, the prognosis was poorer than patients with normal BP. Therapeutic BP target goal for the patients with acute myocardial infarction should be <140/90 mm Hg, which is recommended in JNC7. PMID:22701132

  12. Impact of single- vs double-layer closure on adverse outcomes and uterine scar defect: a systematic review and metaanalysis.

    PubMed

    Roberge, Stéphanie; Demers, Suzanne; Berghella, Vincenzo; Chaillet, Nils; Moore, Lynne; Bujold, Emmanuel

    2014-11-01

    A systematic review and metaanalysis were performed through electronic database searches to estimate the effect of uterine closure at cesarean on the risk of adverse maternal outcome and on uterine scar evaluated by ultrasound. Randomized controlled trials, which compared single vs double layers and locking vs unlocking sutures for uterine closure of low transverse cesarean, were included. Outcomes were short-term complications (endometritis, wound infection, maternal infectious morbidity, blood transfusion, duration of surgical procedure, length of hospital stay, mean blood loss), uterine rupture or dehiscence at next pregnancy, and uterine scar evaluation by ultrasound. Twenty of 1278 citations were included in the analysis. We found that all types of closure were comparable for short-term maternal outcomes, except for single-layer closure, which had shorter operative time (-6.1 minutes; 95% confidence interval [CI], -8.7 to -3.4; P < .001) than double-layer closure. Single layer (-2.6 mm; 95% CI, -3.1 to -2.1; P < .001) and locked first layer (mean difference, -2.5 mm; 95% CI, -3.2 to -1.8; P < .001) were associated with lower residual myometrial thickness. Two studies reported no significant difference between single- vs double-layer closure for uterine dehiscence (relative risk, 1.86; 95% CI, 0.44-7.90; P = .40) or uterine rupture (no case). In conclusion, current evidence based on randomized trials does not support a specific type of uterine closure for optimal maternal outcomes and is insufficient to conclude about the risk of uterine rupture. Single-layer closure and locked first layer are possibly coupled with thinner residual myometrium thickness.

  13. Developing empirical monthly groundwater recharge equations based on modeling and remote sensing data - Modeling future groundwater recharge to predict potential climate change impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemitzi, Alexandra; Ajami, Hoori; Richnow, Hans-Hermann

    2017-03-01

    Groundwater recharge is one of main components of the water budget that is difficult to quantify due to complexity of recharge processes and limited observations. In the present work a simple regression equation for monthly groundwater recharge estimation is developed by relating simulated recharge from a calibrated Soil and Water Assessment tool (SWAT) model to effective precipitation. Monthly groundwater recharge and actual evapotranspiration (AET) were computed by applying a calibrated (SWAT) model for a ten year period (2005-2015) in Vosvozis river basin in NE Greece. SWAT actual evapotranspiration (AET) results were compared to remotely sensed AET values from the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), indicating the integrity of the modeling process. Water isotopes of 2H and 18O, originally presented herein, were used to infer recharge resources in the basin and provided additional evidence of the applicability of the developed formula. Results showed that the developed recharge estimation method can be effectively applied using MODIS evapotranspiration data, without having to adhere to numerical modeling which is many times constrained by the lack of available data especially in poorly gauged basins. Future trends of groundwater recharge up to 2100 using an ensemble of five downscaled climate change projections indicated that annual recharge will increase up to the middle of the present century and gradually decrease thereafter. However, the predicted magnitude is highly variable depending on the Global Climate Model (GCM) used. While winter recharge will likely increase in the future, summer recharge is expected to decrease as a result of temperature rise in the future.

  14. Seawater Intrusion Impacts on the Water Quality of the Groundwater on theNorthwest Coast of Oman.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Abdelkader T; Askri, Brahim

    2016-08-01

    The groundwater aquifer in the coastal region of the northwest of Oman has been used extensively since the early 1980s for agricultural, industrial and municipal purposes. The over pumping of this reservoir has led to the intrusion of seawater and therefore to the deterioration of the groundwater quality. In this study, an investigation was carried out in the southern part of this region to identify the quality of groundwater, to understand the main sources of groundwater mineralisation, and to check the suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation. The spatial distributions and temporal variations of groundwater level and electrical conductivity were studied for the period from 1982 to 2005 using data collected from 225 wells. In addition, groundwater samples were collected recently in 2012 from eight wells and analysed for pH, EC, and major ions to understand the sources of dissolved ions and assess the chemical quality of the groundwater. The study area was divided into two strips parallel to the coastline, A and B, located in the discharge and recharge parts of the aquifer, respectively. Results showed a significant increase in the degree of water mineralisation in the direction of south to north following the regional flow direction. Results showed also that the groundwater in the last area could be used for irrigation with little danger of exchangeable sodium while this aquifer is unsuitable for irrigation in the discharge area because it presents a very high salinity hazard.

  15. Increased biomass burning due to the economic crisis in Greece and its adverse impact on wintertime air quality in Thessaloniki.

    PubMed

    Saffari, Arian; Daher, Nancy; Samara, Constantini; Voutsa, Dimitra; Kouras, Athanasios; Manoli, Evangelia; Karagkiozidou, Olga; Vlachokostas, Christos; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Shafer, Martin M; Schauer, James J; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2013-01-01

    The recent economic crisis in Greece resulted in a serious wintertime air pollution episode in Thessaloniki. This air quality deterioration was mostly due to the increased price of fuel oil, conventionally used as a source of energy for domestic heating, which encouraged the residents to burn the less expensive wood/biomass during the cold season. A wintertime sampling campaign for fine particles (PM2.5) was conducted in Thessaloniki during the winters of 2012 and 2013 in an effort to quantify the extent to which the ambient air was impacted by the increased wood smoke emissions. The results indicated a 30% increase in the PM2.5 mass concentration as well as a 2-5-fold increase in the concentration of wood smoke tracers, including potassium, levoglucosan, mannosan, and galactosan. The concentrations of fuel oil tracers (e.g., Ni and V), on the other hand, declined by 20-30% during 2013 compared with 2012. Moreover, a distinct diurnal variation was observed for wood smoke tracers, with significantly higher concentrations in the evening period compared with the morning. Correlation analysis indicated a strong association between reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity and the concentrations of levoglucosan, galactosan, and potassium, underscoring the potential impact of wood smoke on PM-induced toxicity during the winter months in Thessaloniki.

  16. [Groundwater quality in two arid areas of Morocco: impact of pollution on biodiversity and paleogeographic implications].

    PubMed

    Boughrous, A A; Yacoubi Khebiza, M; Boulanouar, M; Boutin, C; Messana, G

    2007-11-01

    The biodiversity and the quality of subterranean waters have been comparatively studied in the Haouz plain near Marrakesh and in the Tafilalet, in south-eastern Morocco. For this purpose, physicochemical and faunistic analyses were carried out on the water of ten wells and springs located in the area of Marrakesh, and in Errachidia area respectively. In the wells of Marrakesh, the average stygobiologic diversity is relatively high in the wells located upstream the dumping from the city where the ground water presents low contents of nitrates and orthophosphates. In contrast, the wells located in the spreading zone of Marrakesh wastewaters are characterized by the scarcity or the absence of stygobitic species; in these latter wells, the water is highly polluted. It is rich in nitrates, nitrites, ammonium, and the conductivity is rather high. In the area of Errachidia the faunistic inventory gathers some ten species, some of which are living in hot springs. The subterranean water is highly mineralised. In the two studied areas, the biodiversity decreases when well water is locally polluted, and the subterranean fauna completely disappears if the degree of contamination is important. This relation between the biodiversity and water quality which had already appeared in surface water, is confirmed within the wells of Marrakech. The groundwater fauna of both two areas presents similarities in relation to their geological history, mainly the various marine cycles of marine transgressions-regressions, which were at the origin of the settlement of the ancestors of the extant species, and the Atlasic orogenesis which separated the common ancestral populations into two separated stocks, involving a different evolution of the ancestors and a resulting speciation by vicariance.

  17. The impact of adverse health events on consumption: Understanding the mediating effect of income transfers, wealth, and health insurance.

    PubMed

    Babiarz, Patryk; Yilmazer, Tansel

    2017-03-21

    Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics for years 1999-2013, we investigate the impact of physical and mental illnesses on household consumption and financial status. In comparison to severe physical health problems, mental illnesses lead to larger decreases in labor income. Increases in public and private transfers following the onset of a mental illness do not completely offset the decline in labor income. Consequently, we find a significant decrease in consumption expenditures after the household head experiences a mental problem. On the other hand, public and private transfers and accumulated wealth offset the relatively smaller decline in labor income and enable households with severe physical problems to smooth their consumption. Health insurance helps to prevent larger drops in consumption after the onset of a mental health problem.

  18. Medical and Genetic Differences in the Adverse Impact of Sleep Loss on Performance: Ethical Considerations for the Medical Profession

    PubMed Central

    Czeisler, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    without unacceptably compromising patient safety? Moreover, once it is possible to identify reliably those most vulnerable to the adverse effects of sleep loss on performance, will academic medical centers have an obligation to evaluate the proficiency of both residents and staff physicians under conditions of acute and chronic sleep deprivation? Should work-hour policy limits be modified to ensure that they are not hazardous for the patients of the most vulnerable quartile of physicians, or should the limits be personalized to enable the most resistant quartile to work longer hours? Given that the prevalence of sleep disorders has increased in our society overall, and increases markedly with age, how should fitness for extended duration work hours be monitored over a physician's career? In the spirit of the dictum to do no harm, advances in understanding the medical and genetic basis of inter-individual differences in the performance vulnerability to sleep loss should be incorporated into the development of work-hour policy limits for both physicians and surgeons. PMID:19768182

  19. Medical and genetic differences in the adverse impact of sleep loss on performance: ethical considerations for the medical profession.

    PubMed

    Czeisler, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    without unacceptably compromising patient safety? Moreover, once it is possible to identify reliably those most vulnerable to the adverse effects of sleep loss on performance, will academic medical centers have an obligation to evaluate the proficiency of both residents and staff physicians under conditions of acute and chronic sleep deprivation? Should work-hour policy limits be modified to ensure that they are not hazardous for the patients of the most vulnerable quartile of physicians, or should the limits be personalized to enable the most resistant quartile to work longer hours? Given that the prevalence of sleep disorders has increased in our society overall, and increases markedly with age, how should fitness for extended duration work hours be monitored over a physician's career? In the spirit of the dictum to do no harm, advances in understanding the medical and genetic basis of inter-individual differences in the performance vulnerability to sleep loss should be incorporated into the development of work-hour policy limits for both physicians and surgeons.

  20. A clean-burning biofuel as a response to adverse impacts of woodsmoke and coalsmoke on Navajo health

    SciTech Connect

    Shultz, E.B. Jr.; Bragg, W.G.; Whittier, J.

    1994-12-31

    Because over 60% of Navajo households are heated with woodfuel and coal, and indoor air pollution from woodsmoke and coalsmoke is problematic, most Navajos are probably at risk of respiratory and other smoke-induced illnesses. A previous study has shown that Navajo children living in homes heated by a wood/coal stove are nearly five times more likely to contract acute lower respiratory tract infections than children from homes that do not use those fuels. Stove and flue improvements to reduce leakage of smoke into the home would help. So would clean-burning solid fuels in replacement of woodfuel and coal. The authors describe a clean-burning fast-growing carbohydrate biofuel, prepared by sun-drying the roots of a wild southwestern gourd plant, Cucurbita foetidissima. They call it {open_quotes}rootfuel.{close_quotes} A test plot is growing during the 1994 season at the NMSU Agricultural Science Center on the Navajo Nation, near Farmington, New Mexico. Irrigation requirements are being measured. In the Fall, a preliminary needs assessment will be conducted to learn more about how fuel usage impacts Navajo health. The acceptability of rootfuel in selected homes will be tested during the upcoming heating season.

  1. Impacts of future changes on groundwater recharge and flow in highly-connected river-aquifer systems: A case study of the Spokane Valley-Rathdrum Prairie Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, T. T.; Baxter, H.; Barber, M. E.; Hossain, A.; Orr, C. H.; Adam, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Spokane, Washington-Coeur d'Alene, Idaho Corridor is well-known for its Spokane Valley-Rathdrum Prairie (SVRP) Aquifer which is a sole source of drinking water for more than 500,000 people. The aquifer is highly connected to the Spokane River and responds very fast to natural and human perturbations, making it relatively vulnerable to climate and anthropogenic changes in future decades. Recent studies have indicated a decline in minimum daily flow in the Spokane River in the last 100 years, while projecting an increase in cool-season precipitation into the future. We investigated the potential impacts of these projected future climate-driven hydrologic changes on groundwater recharge and flow in the SVRP. A distributed, physically-based hydrological model, the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), was coupled with an existing Modular three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water model (MODFLOW) to have better estimates of recharge into the SVRP as well as the interaction of surface water and groundwater. The couple model was calibrated and validated at a daily time-step within the Model-Independent Parameter Estimation (PEST) framework using 16 years of both observed streamflow and observed well data (1990 - 2005). To assess future climate change impacts, statistically downscaled climate projections of temperature and precipitation between 2010 and 2050 from four general circulation models were used. The results from the coupled model provide insight on the interplay between snowmelt, streamflow, groundwater recharge and discharge in such a highly-connected system. Moreover, the relative sensitivities of groundwater recharge and flow with respect to changes in climate and land cover are also examined. These results can be used as good references for long term water resources management and planning in the region.

  2. Impact of Chloramination on the Development of Laboratory-Grown Biofilms Fed with Filter-Pretreated Groundwater

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Fangqiong; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the continuous impact of monochloramine disinfection on laboratory-grown biofilms through the characterization of biofilm architecture and microbial community structure. Biofilm development and disinfection were achieved using CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) biofilm reactor systems with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) coupons as the substratum and sand filter-pretreated groundwater as the source of microbial seeding and growth nutrient. After 2 weeks of growth, the biofilms were subjected to chloramination for 8 more weeks at concentrations of 7.5±1.4 to 9.1±0.4 mg Cl2 L−1. Control reactors received no disinfection during the development of biofilms. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and image analysis indicated that chloramination could lead to 81.4–83.5% and 86.3–95.6% reduction in biofilm biomass and thickness, respectively, but could not eliminate biofilm growth. 16S rRNA gene terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis indicated that microbial community structures between chloraminated and non-chloraminated biofilms exhibited different successional trends. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analysis further revealed that chloramination could select members of Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria as the dominant populations, whereas natural development leads to the selection of members of Nitrospira and Bacteroidetes as dominant biofilm populations. Overall, chloramination treatment could alter the growth of multi-species biofilms on the PVC surface, shape the biofilm architecture, and select a certain microbial community that can survive or proliferate under chloramination. PMID:23124766

  3. Trading places - an innovative SO{sub 2} trading program to mitigate potential adverse impacts on Class I areas: part I. impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Louis Militana; Cindy Huber; Christopher Colbert; Chris Arrington; Don Shepherd

    2005-07-01

    Published in two parts, this article describes a new emissions cap-and-trade program to reduce acid deposition and visibility impacts in four Class I areas (e.g. wildernesses and national parks) from the proposed Longview Power coal-fired power plant to be located in Maidsville, WV. Part I discusses the air quality impacts of the proposed project. 5 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Adverse impacts of pasture abandonment in Himalayan protected areas: Testing the efficiency of a Natural Resource Management Plan (NRMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Nautiyal, Sunil . E-mail: sunil.nautiyal@zalf.de; Kaechele, Harald

    2007-03-15

    The high elevational areas in the Himalayas of India are dominated by forests and alpine pastures. There are many protected areas in the region, including Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR) and Valley of Flowers (VOF) where natural resource management plan (NRMP) has been implemented for the conservation of biodiversity. This has affected the traditional animal husbandry system, as well as the vegetation dynamics of alpine pastures. An integrated approach to studying the impact of NRMP in the region has been applied by us. First, a survey was conducted regarding livestock management, data pertaining the livestock husbandry, the role of animal husbandry in economics of rural household, and socioeconomics. Second, field based study on phytosociology of some important alpine herbs was done to enumerate the density and species richness in different land mark of the region. Thereafter, satellite data and Geographic Information System (GIS) were used to develop a land cover map of the area and to note changes in the landscape over time after implementation of NRMP. From an economic point of view the implementation of such plan is a setback to the rural economy. However, the ecological perspective of such models is a threat to the diversity of alpine pastures. The invasion of bushes/thorny bushes/shrubs and weeds with their luxuriant growth is changing the vegetation index and dynamics. Consequently, the diversity of herbs in alpine pastures of the Himalayan Mountains is in jeopardy. Overall, the situation is leading to landscape change in the region. This study is helpful for generating useful outcomes and strategies considering the question or debate 'is grazing good or bad for pasture ecosystems in the Himalayas?'.

  5. Development of sustainable groundwater extraction practices for a major superficial aquifer supporting a groundwater dependent ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smettem, K. R.; Froend, R.; Davies, M.; Stock, B.; Martin, M.; Robertson, C.; Eamus, D.

    2010-12-01

    Throughout Australia many groundwater dependent ecosystems have been adversely affected by unsympathetic water abstraction practices. In Western Australia, the largest single supply of drinking water for the city of Perth is a superficial aquifer known as the Gnangara Groundwater Mound, located over an area of approximately 2200 km2 within and to the north of the city on the coastal plain. The groundwater resource supplies 60% of Perth’s pubic drinking water supply and 85% of total water demand for all users. Much of the mound is overlain by phreatophytic Banksia woodland that is susceptible to drought stress and death if the root system is separated from the unconfined aquifer for prolonged periods over the hot, dry Mediterranean summer. Drought stress has been exacerbated by diminished rainfall due to a changing climate regime. The aim of this research is to develop guidelines for sustainable groundwater abstraction (timing and volume) that will maintain the long term integrity of the ecosystem and recover up to 5GL/yr from existing borefields. We seek to investigate whether a change in abstraction regime, from ‘peak demand’ summer pumping to winter pumping allows groundwater levels to recover sufficiently prior to summer, thereby maintaining a healthy vegetation system. Hydrological and plant water status parameters were monitored over two winters at research sites with an initial depth to groundwater of less than 5m. During winter and spring, groundwater abstraction at a reduced capacity resulted in a 0.75m drawdown. Operation of the bores did not adversely impact the water status of phreatophytic Banksia at the study sites relative to control sites. Analysis of plant water source partitioning indicated that plants exposed to the winter drawdown were sustained by unsaturated zone soil moisture storage replenished by winter rainfall. When pumping ceased, the water table rose rapidly and plants utilised more groundwater during late spring and summer as the

  6. Investigating the Hydro-geochemical Impact of Fugitive Methane on Groundwater: The Borden Aquifer Controlled Release Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, A. G.; Parker, B. L.; Cherry, J. A.; Mayer, K. U.; Mayer, B.; Ryan, C.

    2014-12-01

    Shale gas development by hydraulic fracturing is believed by many to have the potential to transform the world's energy economy. The propensity of this technique to cause significant environmental impact is strongly contested and lacks evidence. Fugitive methane (CH4), potentially mobilized during well drilling, the complex extraction process and/or leaking well seals over time is arguably the greatest concern. Advanced understanding of CH4 mobility and fate in the subsurface is needed in order to assess risks, design suitable monitoring systems and gain public trust. Currently knowledge on subsurface CH4 mobilization and migration at scales relevant to shale gas development is lacking. Consequently a shallow aquifer controlled CH4 release experiment is being conducted at the Borden aquifer research facility (an unconfined, unconsolidated silicate sand aquifer) in Ontario, Canada. During the experiment, 100 m3 of gas phase CH4 was injected into the saturated zone over approximately 60 days through 2 inclined sparging wells (4.5 and 9 m depth) at rates relevant to natural gas well casing vent flows. The gas mobility and fate is being comprehensively monitored temporally and spatially in both the saturated and unsaturated zones considering; aqueous chemistry (including stable isotopes), soil gas characterization, surface efflux, geophysics (GPR and ERT), real time sensors (total dissolved gas pressure, soil moisture content, CH4 and CO2), mineralogical and microbiological characterization before, during and after injection. An overview of this unique study will be given including experimental design, monitoring system configuration and preliminary results. This multidisciplinary study will provide important insights regarding the mechanisms and rates for shallow CH4 migration, attenuation and water quality impacts that will inform baseline groundwater monitoring programs and retrospective forensic studies.

  7. Investigating the Hydro-geochemical Impact of Fugitive Methane on Groundwater: The Borden Aquifer Controlled Release Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, A. G.; Parker, B. L.; Cherry, J. A.; Mayer, K. U.; Mayer, B.; Ryan, C.

    2015-12-01

    Shale gas development by hydraulic fracturing is believed by many to have the potential to transform the world's energy economy. The propensity of this technique to cause significant environmental impact is strongly contested and lacks evidence. Fugitive methane (CH4), potentially mobilized during well drilling, the complex extraction process and/or leaking well seals over time is arguably the greatest concern. Advanced understanding of CH4 mobility and fate in the subsurface is needed in order to assess risks, design suitable monitoring systems and gain public trust. Currently knowledge on subsurface CH4 mobilization and migration at scales relevant to shale gas development is lacking. Consequently a shallow aquifer controlled CH4 release experiment is being conducted at the Borden aquifer research facility (an unconfined, unconsolidated silicate sand aquifer) in Ontario, Canada. During the experiment, 100 m3 of gas phase CH4 was injected into the saturated zone over approximately 60 days through 2 inclined sparging wells (4.5 and 9 m depth) at rates relevant to natural gas well casing vent flows. The gas mobility and fate is being comprehensively monitored temporally and spatially in both the satura