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  1. Surrogate species selection for assessing potential adverse environmental impacts of genetically engineered plants on non-target organisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most regulatory authorities require that developers of genetically engineered insect-resistant (GEIR) crops evaluate the potential for these crops to have adverse impacts on valued non-target organisms (NTOs), i.e., organisms not intended to be controlled by the trait. In many cases, impacts to NTOs...

  2. Identified Natural Hazards May Cause Adverse Impact on Sustainability of Desalination Plants in Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aburizaiza, O. S.; Zaigham, N. A.; Nayyar, Z. A.; Mahar, G. A.; Siddique, A.; Eusufi, S. N.

    2011-12-01

    The Red Sea and its surrounding countries have harsh arid climatic conditions where fast growth of the socio-economic activities and rapid change of lifestyle have caused tremendous stress on water to the level of acute crisis. To meet the water demands, the Red Sea countries have adopted seawater desalination giving priority against their land-based resources. Saudi Arabia is the largest desalinated-water producers in the Red Sea and has practically no adequate backup plan in case of sudden unforeseen emergency. Out of about 3.64 million m3/day, Saudi Arabia is alone being desalinated about 3.29 m3/day seawater from Red Sea and more projects are in progress. Present integrated research study has identified some of natural and anthropogenic hazards, which may be major threats to the quality of the seawater as well as to the desalination plants themselves. Results of present study reveal that the submarine complex morphologic features may cause the isolation of Red Sea from any of the open sea, the increase in the seismicity trends, the active volcanism causing unique longitudinal as well as transverse deformations of the axial trough particularly in the southern part of the Red Sea, the consistently generating enormous hot-brine tectonic-factory all along the deeper parts of the Red Sea rifting trough and other related issues. Considering the identified odd conditions, the total dependence on seawater desalination may not be worthwhile for sustainable water management strategy and consequent socio-economic developments in future. It is recommended that the priority should also be given mainly in three main disciplines to meet the future water challenges - one, developing reliable backup water management; second, alternate options for the supplementary resources of water; and third, the development and immediate implementation of the water-use conservation strategy plan.

  3. Surrogate species selection for assessing potential adverse environmental impacts of genetically engineered insect-resistant plants on non-target organisms.

    PubMed

    Carstens, Keri; Cayabyab, Bonifacio; De Schrijver, Adinda; Gadaleta, Patricia G; Hellmich, Richard L; Romeis, Jörg; Storer, Nicholas; Valicente, Fernando H; Wach, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Most regulatory authorities require that developers of genetically engineered insect-resistant (GEIR) crops evaluate the potential for these crops to have adverse impacts on valued non-target organisms (NTOs), i.e., organisms not intended to be controlled by the trait. In many cases, impacts to NTOs are assessed using surrogate species, and it is critical that the data derived from surrogates accurately predict any adverse impacts likely to be observed from the use of the crop in the agricultural context. The key is to select surrogate species that best represent the valued NTOs in the location where the crop is going to be introduced, but this selection process poses numerous challenges for the developers of GE crops who will perform the tests, as well as for the ecologists and regulators who will interpret the test results. These issues were the subject of a conference "Surrogate Species Selection for Assessing Potential Adverse Environmental Impacts of Genetically Engineered Plants on Non-Target Organisms" convened by the Center for Environmental Risk Assessment, ILSI Research Foundation. This report summarizes the proceedings of the conference, including the presentations, discussions and the points of consensus agreed to by the participants. PMID:24637519

  4. Reducing Adverse Impact: One City's Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Jeff

    Following a workshop on "Innovations in Employment Testing that Improve Validity and Reduce Adverse Impact," the City of Louisville (Kentucky) implemented a strategy to develop a comprehensive testing and recruiting program for police recruits. To improve candidate expectations and preparation, the following activities were undertaken: intense…

  5. Adverse weather impacts on arable cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Damages due to extreme or adverse weather strongly depend on crop type, crop stage, soil conditions and management. The impact is largest during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar, and requires a modelling approach to capture the interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event. The hypothesis is that extreme and adverse weather events can be quantified and subsequently incorporated in current crop models. Since crop development is driven by thermal time and photoperiod, a regional crop model was used to examine the likely frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages. Risk profiles and associated return levels were obtained by fitting generalized extreme value distributions to block maxima for air humidity, water balance and temperature variables. The risk profiles were subsequently confronted with yields and yield losses for the major arable crops in Belgium, notably winter wheat, winter barley, winter oilseed rape, sugar beet, potato and maize at the field (farm records) to regional scale (statistics). The average daily vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) during the growing season is significantly lower (p < 0.001) and has a higher variability before 1988 than after 1988. Distribution patterns of VPD and ET0 have relevant impacts on crop yields. The response to rising temperatures depends on the crop's capability to condition its microenvironment. Crops short of water close their stomata, lose their evaporative cooling potential and ultimately become susceptible to heat stress. Effects of heat stress therefore have to be combined with moisture availability such as the precipitation deficit or the soil water balance. Risks of combined heat and moisture deficit stress appear during the summer. These risks are subsequently related to crop damage. The methodology of defining

  6. The impact on students of adverse experiences during medical school.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Tim J; Gill, Denzil J; Fitzjohn, Julie; Palmer, Claire L; Mulder, Roger T

    2006-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the consequences for, and coping method used by, medical students who experienced adverse experiences during their training. A nationwide questionnaire based census of all current medical students in New Zealand. The response rate was 83% (1384/1660). Two-thirds of students had at least one adverse experience, with humiliation being the most common and having the greatest adverse impact. Unwanted sexual advances, unfair treatment on the basis of gender or race had a lesser impact for most students. Most students took several hours or several days to get over an adverse episode and most commonly they then avoided that person or department. Around one half sought help. Only one-quarter felt it motivated their learning while one-sixth felt it made them consider leaving medical school. The most common perpetrators were senior doctors or nurses. Unwanted sexual advances were most common from other students or from patients. Humiliation is the experience that affected students the most and had a significant adverse effect on learning. There is a disturbing rate of unacceptable practice within medical schools, not all of which is from doctors. PMID:16707293

  7. 25 CFR 170.110 - How can State and local governments prevent discrimination or adverse impacts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and adverse effects on tribes and Native American populations. (b) Examples of adverse effects include... discrimination or adverse impacts? (a) Under 23 U.S.C. 134 and 135, and 23 CFR part 450, State and...

  8. 25 CFR 170.111 - What can a tribe do if discrimination or adverse impacts occur?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What can a tribe do if discrimination or adverse impacts occur? 170.111 Section 170.111 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND... Consultation, Collaboration, Coordination § 170.111 What can a tribe do if discrimination or adverse...

  9. 25 CFR 170.110 - How can State and local governments prevent discrimination or adverse impacts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Eligibility Consultation, Collaboration, Coordination § 170.110 How can State and local governments prevent discrimination or adverse impacts? (a) Under 23 U.S.C. 134 and 135, and 23 CFR part 450, State and...

  10. 25 CFR 170.110 - How can State and local governments prevent discrimination or adverse impacts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Eligibility Consultation, Collaboration, Coordination § 170.110 How can State and local governments prevent discrimination or adverse impacts? (a) Under 23 U.S.C. 134 and 135, and 23 CFR part 450, State and...

  11. 25 CFR 170.110 - How can State and local governments prevent discrimination or adverse impacts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Eligibility Consultation, Collaboration, Coordination § 170.110 How can State and local governments prevent discrimination or adverse impacts? (a) Under 23 U.S.C. 134 and 135, and 23 CFR part 450, State and...

  12. 25 CFR 170.110 - How can State and local governments prevent discrimination or adverse impacts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Eligibility Consultation, Collaboration, Coordination § 170.110 How can State and local governments prevent discrimination or adverse impacts? (a) Under 23 U.S.C. 134 and 135, and 23 CFR part 450, State and...

  13. Impact of New Genomic Technologies on Understanding Adverse Drug Reactions.

    PubMed

    Maggo, Simran D S; Savage, Ruth L; Kennedy, Martin A

    2016-04-01

    It is well established that variations in genes can alter the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of a drug and immunological responses to it. Early advances in pharmacogenetics were made with traditional genetic techniques such as functional cloning of genes using knowledge gained from purified proteins, and candidate gene analysis. Over the past decade, techniques for analysing the human genome have accelerated greatly as knowledge and technological capabilities have grown. These techniques were initially focussed on understanding genetic factors of disease, but increasingly they are helping to clarify the genetic basis of variable drug responses and adverse drug reactions (ADRs). We examine genetic methods that have been applied to the understanding of ADRs, review the current state of knowledge of genetic factors that influence ADR development, and discuss how the application of genome-wide association studies and next-generation sequencing approaches is supporting and extending existing knowledge of pharmacogenetic processes leading to ADRs. Such approaches have identified single genes that are major contributing genetic risk factors for an ADR, (such as flucloxacillin and drug-induced liver disease), making pre-treatment testing a possibility. They have contributed to the identification of multiple genetic determinants of a single ADR, some involving both pharmacologic and immunological processes (such as phenytoin and severe cutaneous adverse reactions). They have indicated that rare genetic variants, often not previously reported, are likely to have more influence on the phenotype than common variants that have been traditionally tested for. The problem of genotype/phenotype discordance affecting the interpretation of pharmacogenetic screening and the future of genome-based testing applied to ADRs are also discussed. PMID:26369774

  14. Adverse and beneficial effects of plant extracts on skin and skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Mantle, D; Gok, M A; Lennard, T W

    2001-06-01

    Plants are of relevance to dermatology for both their adverse and beneficial effects on skin and skin disorders respectively. Virtually all cultures worldwide have relied historically, or continue to rely on medicinal plants for primary health care. Approximately one-third of all traditional medicines are for treatment of wounds or skin disorders, compared to only 1-3% of modern drugs. The use of such medicinal plant extracts for the treatment of skin disorders arguably has been based largely on historical/anecdotal evidence, since there has been relatively little data available in the scientific literature, particularly with regard to the efficacy of plant extracts in controlled clinical trials. In this article therefore, adverse and beneficial aspects of medicinal plants relating to skin and skin disorders have been reviewed, based on recently available information from the peer-reviewed scientific literature. Beneficial aspects of medicinal plants on skin include: healing of wounds and burn injuries (especially Aloe vera); antifungal, antiviral, antibacterial and acaricidal activity against skin infections such as acne, herpes and scabies (especially tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil); activity against inflammatory/immune disorders affecting skin (e.g. psoriasis); and anti-tumour promoting activity against skin cancer (identified using chemically-induced two-stage carcinogenesis in mice). Adverse effects of plants on skin reviewed include: irritant contact dermatitis caused mechanically (spines, irritant hairs) or by irritant chemicals in plant sap (especially members of the Ranunculaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Compositae plant families); phytophotodermatitis resulting from skin contamination by plants containing furocoumarins, and subsequent exposure to UV light (notably members of the Umbelliferae and Rutaceae plant families); and immediate (type I) or delayed hypersensitivity contact reactions mediated by the immune system in individuals sensitized to plants

  15. Adverse Effects of UV-B Radiation on Plants Growing at Schirmacher Oasis, East Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jaswant; Singh, Rudra P.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the impacts of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation over a 28-day period on the levels of pigments of Umbilicaria aprina and Bryum argenteum growing in field. The depletion of stratospheric ozone is most prominent over Antarctica, which receives more UV-B radiation than most other parts of the planet. Although UV-B radiation adversely affects all flora, Antarctic plants are better equipped to survive the damaging effects of UV-B owing to defenses provided by UV-B absorbing compounds and other screening pigments. The UV-B radiations and daily average ozone values were measured by sun photometer and the photosynthetic pigments were analyzed by the standard spectrophotometric methods of exposed and unexposed selected plants. The daily average atmospheric ozone values were recorded from 5 January to 2 February 2008. The maximum daily average for ozone (310.7 Dobson Units (DU)) was recorded on 10 January 2008. On that day, average UV-B spectral irradiances were 0.016, 0.071, and 0.186 W m-2 at wavelengths of 305, 312, and 320 nm, respectively. The minimum daily average ozone value (278.6 DU) was recorded on 31 January 2008. On that day, average UV-B spectral irradiances were 0.018, 0.085, and 0.210 W m-2 at wavelengths of 305, 312, and 320 nm, respectively. Our results concludes that following prolonged UV-B exposure, total chlorophyll levels decreased gradually in both species, whereas levels of UV-B absorbing compounds, phenolics, and carotenoids gradually increased. PMID:24748743

  16. Adverse Effects of UV-B Radiation on Plants Growing at Schirmacher Oasis, East Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jaswant; Singh, Rudra P

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the impacts of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation over a 28-day period on the levels of pigments of Umbilicaria aprina and Bryum argenteum growing in field. The depletion of stratospheric ozone is most prominent over Antarctica, which receives more UV-B radiation than most other parts of the planet. Although UV-B radiation adversely affects all flora, Antarctic plants are better equipped to survive the damaging effects of UV-B owing to defenses provided by UV-B absorbing compounds and other screening pigments. The UV-B radiations and daily average ozone values were measured by sun photometer and the photosynthetic pigments were analyzed by the standard spectrophotometric methods of exposed and unexposed selected plants. The daily average atmospheric ozone values were recorded from 5 January to 2 February 2008. The maximum daily average for ozone (310.7 Dobson Units (DU)) was recorded on 10 January 2008. On that day, average UV-B spectral irradiances were 0.016, 0.071, and 0.186 W m(-2) at wavelengths of 305, 312, and 320 nm, respectively. The minimum daily average ozone value (278.6 DU) was recorded on 31 January 2008. On that day, average UV-B spectral irradiances were 0.018, 0.085, and 0.210 W m(-2) at wavelengths of 305, 312, and 320 nm, respectively. Our results concludes that following prolonged UV-B exposure, total chlorophyll levels decreased gradually in both species, whereas levels of UV-B absorbing compounds, phenolics, and carotenoids gradually increased. PMID:24748743

  17. Developing robust crop plants for sustaining growth and yield under adverse climatic changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural production and quality are expected to suffer from adverse changes in climatic conditions, including global warming, and this will affect worldwide human and animal food security. Global warming has been shown to negatively impact crop yield and therefore will affect sustainability of a...

  18. Impact of childhood adversities on the short-term course of illness in psychotic spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Schalinski, Inga; Fischer, Yolanda; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2015-08-30

    Accumulating evidence indicates an impact of childhood adversities on the severity and course of mental disorders, whereas this impact on psychotic disorders remains to be specified. Effects of childhood adversities on comorbidity, on symptom severity of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and global functioning across four months (upon admission, 1 and 4 months after initial assessment), as well as the course of illness (measured by the remission rate, number of re-hospitalizations and dropout rate) were evaluated in 62 inpatients with psychotic spectrum disorders. Adverse experiences (of at least 1 type) were reported by 73% of patients. Patients with higher overall level of childhood adversities (n=33) exhibited more co-morbid disorders, especially alcohol/substance abuse and dependency, and higher dropout rates than patients with a lower levels of adverse experiences (n=29), together with higher levels of positive symptoms and symptoms of excitement and disorganization. Emotional and physical neglect were particularly related to symptom severity. Results suggest that psychological stress in childhood affects the symptom severity and, additionally, a more unfavorable course of disorder in patients diagnosed with psychoses. This impact calls for its consideration in diagnostic assessment and psychiatric care. PMID:26099657

  19. Associations Between Residential Proximity to Power Plants and Adverse Birth Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ha, Sandie; Hu, Hui; Roth, Jeffrey; Kan, Haidong; Xu, Xiaohui

    2015-08-01

    Few studies have assessed the associations between residential proximity to power plants and adverse birth outcomes including preterm delivery (PTD), very preterm delivery (VPTD), and term low birth weight (LBW). We geocoded 423,719 singleton Florida births born from 2004 to 2005 and all active power plants and determined residential proximity to the nearest power plant for each birth. Prenatal exposure to particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in diameter for women living near different types of power plants was also determined by using National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network data. Logistic regression models were used to test the hypothesized associations. Women who lived closer to coal and solid waste power plants were exposed to higher levels of particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in diameter compared with other types. We observed a 1.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3, 2.3) increased odds for PTD, 2.2% (95% CI: 1.0, 3.4) for VPTD, and 1.1% (95% CI: 0.2, 2.0) for term LBW for each 5 km closer to any power plant. When stratifying by different fuel type, we found that only solid waste had an association with term LBW, whereas oil, gas, and solid waste all had an association with PTD and VPTD. Results were consistent when exposure was categorized by number of power plants. Our study found evidence of increasing odds of adverse birth outcomes among infants born to pregnant women living closer to power plants. More research is warranted to better understand the causal relationship. PMID:26121989

  20. 25 CFR 170.109 - How do the Secretaries prevent discrimination or adverse impacts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do the Secretaries prevent discrimination or adverse impacts? 170.109 Section 170.109 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND... Consultation, Collaboration, Coordination § 170.109 How do the Secretaries prevent discrimination or...

  1. The Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Other Forms of Childhood Adversity on Adulthood Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Betty

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the independent impact of child sexual abuse on five dimensions of adulthood parenting after controlling for other forms of childhood adversity in a predominantly African-American sample of mothers receiving public assistance (N = 483). An analysis of data previously collected as part of the Illinois Families Study Child…

  2. A holistic look at minimizing adverse environmental impact under Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act.

    PubMed

    Veil, John A; Puder, Markus G; Littleton, Debra J; Johnson, Nancy

    2002-04-18

    Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) requires that "the location, design, construction, and capacity of cooling water intake structures reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact." As the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) develops new regulations to implement Section 316(b), much of the debate has centered on adverse impingement and entrainment impacts of cooling-water intake structures. Depending on the specific location and intake layout, once-through cooling systems withdrawing many millions of gallons of water per day can, to a varying degree, harm fish and other aquatic organisms in the water bodies from which the cooling water is withdrawn. Therefore, opponents of once-through cooling systems have encouraged the EPA to require wet or dry cooling tower systems as the best technology available (BTA), without considering site-specific conditions. However, within the context of the broader scope of the CWA mandate, this focus seems too narrow. Therefore, this article examines the phrase "minimizing adverse environmental impact" in a holistic light. Emphasis is placed on the analysis of the terms "environmental" and "minimizing." Congress chose "environmental" in lieu of other more narrowly focused terms like "impingement and entrainment," "water quality," or "aquatic life." In this light, BTA for cooling-water intake structures must minimize the entire suite of environmental impacts, as opposed to just those associated with impingement and entrainment. Wet and dry cooling tower systems work well to minimize entrainment and impingement, but they introduce other equally important impacts because they impose an energy penalty on the power output of the generating unit. The energy penalty results from a reduction in plant operating efficiency and an increase in internal power consumption. As a consequence of the energy penalty, power companies must generate additional electricity to achieve the same net output

  3. The Impact of Childhood Adversity on the Clinical Features of Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Ravi Philip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Recent research has drawn attention to the link between childhood maltreatment and schizophrenia. Child abuse and neglect may have an impact on symptoms and physical health in these patients. This association has not been studied to date in India. Materials and Methods. Clinically stable patients with schizophrenia (n = 62) were assessed for childhood adversity using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The association of specific forms of adversity with symptomatology and associated variables was examined. Results. Emotional abuse was reported by 56.5% patients and physical abuse by 33.9%; scores for childhood neglect were also high. Persecutory delusions were linked to physical abuse, while anxiety was linked to emotional neglect and depression to emotional abuse and childhood neglect. Physical abuse was linked to elevated systolic blood pressure, while emotional abuse and neglect in women were linked to being overweight. Conclusions. Childhood adversity is common in schizophrenia and appears to be associated with a specific symptom profile. Certain components of the metabolic syndrome also appear to be related to childhood adversity. These results are subject to certain limitations as they are derived from remitted patients, and no control group was used for measures of childhood adversity. PMID:26345291

  4. The Impact of Childhood Adversity on the Clinical Features of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, Ravi Philip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Recent research has drawn attention to the link between childhood maltreatment and schizophrenia. Child abuse and neglect may have an impact on symptoms and physical health in these patients. This association has not been studied to date in India. Materials and Methods. Clinically stable patients with schizophrenia (n = 62) were assessed for childhood adversity using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The association of specific forms of adversity with symptomatology and associated variables was examined. Results. Emotional abuse was reported by 56.5% patients and physical abuse by 33.9%; scores for childhood neglect were also high. Persecutory delusions were linked to physical abuse, while anxiety was linked to emotional neglect and depression to emotional abuse and childhood neglect. Physical abuse was linked to elevated systolic blood pressure, while emotional abuse and neglect in women were linked to being overweight. Conclusions. Childhood adversity is common in schizophrenia and appears to be associated with a specific symptom profile. Certain components of the metabolic syndrome also appear to be related to childhood adversity. These results are subject to certain limitations as they are derived from remitted patients, and no control group was used for measures of childhood adversity. PMID:26345291

  5. A Holistic Look at Minimizing Adverse Environmental Impact Under Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Veil, John A.; Puder, Markus G.; Littleton, Debra J.; Johnson, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) requires that “the location, design, construction, and capacity of cooling water intake structures reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact.” As the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) develops new regulations to implement Section 316(b), much of the debate has centered on adverse impingement and entrainment impacts of cooling-water intake structures. Depending on the specific location and intake layout, once-through cooling systems withdrawing many millions of gallons of water per day can, to a varying degree, harm fish and other aquatic organisms in the water bodies from which the coolingmore » water is withdrawn. Therefore, opponents of once-through cooling systems have encouraged the EPA to require wet or dry cooling tower systems as the best technology available (BTA), without considering site-specific conditions. However, within the context of the broader scope of the CWA mandate, this focus seems too narrow. Therefore, this article examines the phrase “minimizing adverse environmental impact” in a holistic light. Emphasis is placed on the analysis of the terms “environmental” and “minimizing.” Congress chose “environmental” in lieu of other more narrowly focused terms like “impingement and entrainment,” “water quality,” or “aquatic life.” In this light, BTA for cooling-water intake structures must minimize the entire suite of environmental impacts, as opposed to just those associated with impingement and entrainment. Wet and dry cooling tower systems work well to minimize entrainment and impingement, but they introduce other equally important impacts because they impose an energy penalty on the power output of the generating unit. The energy penalty results from a reduction in plant operating efficiency and an increase in internal power consumption. As a consequence of the energy penalty, power companies must generate additional

  6. Ethanol inducible expression of a mesophilic cellulase avoids adverse effects on plant development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plant-produced biomass-degrading enzymes are promising tools for the processing of lignocellulose to fermentable sugars. A major limitation of in planta production is that high-level expression of such enzymes could potentially affect the structure and integrity of the plant cell wall and negatively influence plant growth and development. Results Here, we evaluate the impact on tobacco plant development of constitutive versus alcohol-inducible expression of the endoglucanase TrCel5A from the mesophilic fungus Trichoderma reesei. Using this system, we are able to demonstrate that constitutive expression of the enzyme, controlled by the doubled Cauliflower Mosaic Virus promoter, leads to lower cellulose content of the plant combined with severe effects on plant growth. However, using an alcohol-inducible expression of the endoglucanase in the plant leaves, we achieved similar enzymatic expression levels with no changes in the crystalline cellulose content. Conclusion We were able to produce significant amounts of cellulase in the plant leaves without detrimental effects to plant development. These results demonstrate the potential feasibility of an inducible expression system for producing biomass degrading enzymes in plants. PMID:23587418

  7. Adverse Effects of Plant Food Supplements and Plants Consumed as Food: Results from the Poisons Centres-Based PlantLIBRA Study.

    PubMed

    Lüde, Saskia; Vecchio, Sarah; Sinno-Tellier, Sandra; Dopter, Aymeric; Mustonen, Harriet; Vucinic, Slavica; Jonsson, Birgitta; Müller, Dieter; Veras Gimenez Fruchtengarten, Ligia; Hruby, Karl; De Souza Nascimento, Elizabeth; Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Restani, Patrizia; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Ceschi, Alessandro

    2016-06-01

    Plant food supplements (PFS) are products of increasing popularity and wide-spread distribution. Nevertheless, information about their risks is limited. To fill this gap, a poisons centres-based study was performed as part of the EU project PlantLIBRA. Multicentre retrospective review of data from selected European and Brazilian poisons centres, involving human cases of adverse effects due to plants consumed as food or as ingredients of food supplements recorded between 2006 and 2010. Ten poisons centres provided a total of 75 cases. In 57 cases (76%) a PFS was involved; in 18 (24%) a plant was ingested as food. The 10 most frequently reported plants were Valeriana officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Paullinia cupana, Melissa officinalis, Passiflora incarnata, Mentha piperita, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ilex paraguariensis, Panax ginseng, and Citrus aurantium. The most frequently observed clinical effects were neurotoxicity and gastro-intestinal symptoms. Most cases showed a benign clinical course; however, five cases were severe. PFS-related adverse effects seem to be relatively infrequent issues for poisons centres. Most cases showed mild symptoms. Nevertheless, the occurrence of some severe adverse effects and the increasing popularity of PFS require continuous active surveillance, and further research is warranted. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26948409

  8. The impact of childhood sexual abuse and other forms of childhood adversity on adulthood parenting.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Betty

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated the independent impact of child sexual abuse on five dimensions of adulthood parenting after controlling for other forms of childhood adversity in a predominantly African-American sample of mothers receiving public assistance (N = 483). An analysis of data previously collected as part of the Illinois Families Study Child Well-Being Supplement was conducted to address these questions. Data were analyzed using hierarchal multiple regression. Childhood sexual abuse survivors reported significantly lower rates of parental warmth, higher rates of psychological aggression, and more frequent use of corporal punishment than mothers who had not experienced childhood sexual abuse. These effects, however, were nonsignificant when sociodemographic factors and other forms of childhood adversity were considered. Implications for future research are provided. PMID:20183414

  9. Impact of Adverse Events Following Immunization in Viet Nam in 2013 on chronic hepatitis B infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi; Wiesen, Eric; Diorditsa, Sergey; Toda, Kohei; Duong, Thi Hong; Nguyen, Lien Huong; Nguyen, Van Cuong; Nguyen, Tran Hien

    2016-02-01

    Adverse Events Following Immunization in Viet Nam in 2013 led to substantial reductions in hepatitis B vaccination coverage (both the birth dose and the three-dose series). In order to estimate the impact of the reduction in vaccination coverage on hepatitis B transmission and future mortality, a widely-used mathematical model was applied to the data from Viet Nam. Using the model, we estimated the number of chronic infections and deaths that are expected to occur in the birth cohort in 2013 and the number of excessive infections and deaths attributable to the drop in immunization coverage in 2013. An excess of 90,137 chronic infections and 17,456 future deaths were estimated to occur in the 2013 birth cohort due to the drop in vaccination coverage. This analysis highlights the importance of maintaining high vaccination coverage and swiftly responding to reported Adverse Events Following Immunization in order to regain consumer confidence in the hepatitis B vaccine. PMID:26055296

  10. Doctors' experiences of adverse events in secondary care: the professional and personal impact.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Reema; Lawton, Rebecca; Stewart, Kevin

    2014-12-01

    We carried out a cross-sectional online survey of fellows and members of the Royal College of Physicians to establish physicians' experiences of adverse patient safety events and near misses, and the professional and personal impact of these. 1,755 physicians answered at least one question; 1,334 answered every relevant question. Of 1,463 doctors whose patients had an adverse event or near miss, 1,119 (76%) believed this had affected them personally or professionally. 1,077 (74%) reported stress, 995 (68%) anxiety, 840 (60%) sleep disturbance and 886 (63%) lower professional confidence. 1,192 (81%) became anxious about the potential for future errors. Of 1,141 who had used NHS incident reporting systems, only 315 (28%) were satisfied with this process. 201 (14%) received useful feedback, 201 (19%) saw local improvements and 277 (19%) saw system changes. 364 (25%) did not report an incident that they should have. Adverse safety events affect physicians, but few formal sources of support are available. Most doctors use incident-reporting systems, but many describe a lack of useful feedback, systems change or local improvement. PMID:25468840

  11. Adverse effects of plant food supplements and botanical preparations: a systematic review with critical evaluation of causality

    PubMed Central

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ceschi, Alessandro; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Lüde, Saskia; De Souza Nascimento, Elizabeth; Dos Santos, Ariana; Colombo, Francesca; Frigerio, Gianfranco; Nørby, Karin; Plumb, Jenny; Finglas, Paul; Restani, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    AIMS The objective of this review was to collect available data on the following: (i) adverse effects observed in humans from the intake of plant food supplements or botanical preparations; (ii) the misidentification of poisonous plants; and (iii) interactions between plant food supplements/botanicals and conventional drugs or nutrients. METHODS PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase were searched from database inception to June 2014, using the terms ‘adverse effect/s’, ‘poisoning/s’, ‘plant food supplement/s’, ‘misidentification/s’ and ‘interaction/s’ in combination with the relevant plant name. All papers were critically evaluated according to the World Health Organization Guidelines for causality assessment. RESULTS Data were obtained for 66 plants that are common ingredients of plant food supplements; of the 492 papers selected, 402 (81.7%) dealt with adverse effects directly associated with the botanical and 89 (18.1%) concerned interactions with conventional drugs. Only one case was associated with misidentification. Adverse effects were reported for 39 of the 66 botanical substances searched. Of the total references, 86.6% were associated with 14 plants, including Glycine max/soybean (19.3%), Glycyrrhiza glabra/liquorice (12.2%), Camellia sinensis/green tea ( 8.7%) and Ginkgo biloba/gingko (8.5%). CONCLUSIONS Considering the length of time examined and the number of plants included in the review, it is remarkable that: (i) the adverse effects due to botanical ingredients were relatively infrequent, if assessed for causality; and (ii) the number of severe clinical reactions was very limited, but some fatal cases have been described. Data presented in this review were assessed for quality in order to make the results maximally useful for clinicians in identifying or excluding deleterious effects of botanicals. PMID:25251944

  12. Impact of depression and anxiety on adverse event profiles in Korean people with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Park, Sung-Pa; Kwon, Oh-Young

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that depression and anxiety worsen the adverse events associated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in people with epilepsy. These studies used the Liverpool Adverse Events Profile (LAEP) to screen adverse events. The LAEP incorporates items associated with emotion, which may themselves influence the reporting of adverse events. We investigated whether depression and anxiety still displayed an effect on adverse events when items related to emotion were excluded from the analysis. A total of 453 consecutive patients with epilepsy who took AEDs for at least 1year completed self-report questionnaires, including the Korean versions of the LAEP (K-LAEP), the Beck Depression Inventory (K-BDI), and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (K-BAI). Firstly, we performed a discrimination analysis to identify the items affected by depression and/or anxiety among the 19 items included in the K-LAEP. Among these items, dizziness, nervousness and/or agitation, restlessness, and upset stomach had relatively higher levels of significance. Secondly, we performed a factor analysis to determine the subclass taxonomy of all items in the K-LAEP. The analysis segregated the items into three subclasses: cephalgia/coordination/sleep, emotion/cognition, and tegument/mucosa/weight. Lastly, we performed stepwise multiple regressions to demonstrate the predictors determining the K-LAEP and subclass scores. According to the regressions, the K-BAI and K-BDI scores and the duration of treatment of the antiepileptic medication were significant predictors. Specifically, the K-BAI score was a predictor of the scores of all three subclasses as well as the total K-LAEP score; the K-BDI score was a predictor of the total K-LAEP score and the emotion/cognition score; and the duration of treatment of the antiepileptic medication was a predictor of the tegument/mucosa/weight score. The K-BAI score was the strongest predictor of all the scores. Although this study showed a similar impact of

  13. Assessing planetary and regional nitrogen boundaries related to food security and adverse environmental impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, Wim; Kros, Hans; Kroeze, Carolien; Seitzinger, Sybil

    2014-05-01

    In this presentation, we first discuss the concept of -, governance interest in- and criticism on planetary boundaries, specifically with respect to the nitrogen (N) cycle. We then systematically evaluate the criticism and argue that planetary N boundaries need to include both the benefits and adverse impacts of reactive N (Nr) and the spatial variability of Nr impacts, in terms of shortage and surplus, being main arguments for not deriving such boundaries. Next, we present an holistic approach for an updated planetary N boundary by considering the need to: (i) avoid adverse impacts of elevated Nr emissions to water, air and soils, and (ii) feed the world population in an adequate way. The derivation of a planetary N boundary, in terms of anthropogenic fixation of di-nitrogen (N2) by growing legumes and production of N fertilizer, is illustrated by (i) identification of multiple threat N indicators and setting critical limits for them, (ii) back calculating critical N losses from critical limits for N indicators, while accounting for the spatial variability of indicators and their exceedance and (iii) back calculating critical N fixation rates from critical N losses. The derivation of the needed planetary N fixation is assessed from the global population, the recommended dietary N consumption per capita and the N use efficiency in the complete chain from N fixation to N consumption. Results of example applications show that the previously suggested planetary N boundary of 25% of the current value is too low in view of needed N fixation and also unnecessary in view of most environmental impacts. We also illustrate the impacts of changes in the N use efficiency on planetary boundaries in terms of critical N fixation rates.

  14. Cognitive predictors and age-based adverse impact among business executives.

    PubMed

    Klein, Rachael M; Dilchert, Stephan; Ones, Deniz S; Dages, Kelly D

    2015-09-01

    Age differences on measures of general mental ability and specific cognitive abilities were examined in 2 samples of job applicants to executive positions as well as a mix of executive/nonexecutive positions to determine which predictors might lead to age-based adverse impact in making selection and advancement decisions. Generalizability of the pattern of findings was also investigated in 2 samples from the general adult population. Age was negatively related to general mental ability, with older executives scoring lower than younger executives. For specific ability components, the direction and magnitude of age differences depended on the specific ability in question. Older executives scored higher on verbal ability, a measure most often associated with crystallized intelligence. This finding generalized across samples examined in this study. Also, consistent with findings that fluid abilities decline with age, older executives scored somewhat lower on figural reasoning than younger executives, and much lower on a letter series test of inductive reasoning. Other measures of inductive reasoning, such as Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, also showed similar age group mean differences across settings. Implications for employee selection and adverse impact on older job candidates are discussed. PMID:25822067

  15. Annual Research Review: Positive adjustment to adversity -Trajectories of minimal-impact resilience and emergent resilience

    PubMed Central

    Bonanno, George A.; Diminich, Erica D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Research on resilience in the aftermath of potentially traumatic life events is still evolving. For decades researchers have documented resilience in children exposed to corrosive early environments, such as poverty or chronic maltreatment. Relatively more recently the study of resilience has migrated to the investigation of isolated and potentially traumatic life events (PTE) in adults. Methods In this article we first consider some of the key differences in the conceptualization of resilience following chronic adversity versus resilience following single-incident traumas, and then describe some of the misunderstandings that have developed about these constructs. To organize our discussion we introduce the terms emergent resilience and minimal-impact resilience to represent trajectories positive adjustment in these two domains, respectively. Results We focused in particular on minimal-impact resilience, and reviewed recent advances in statistical modeling of latent trajectories that have informed the most recent research on minimal-impact resilience in both children and adults and the variables that predict it, including demographic variables, exposure, past and current stressors, resources, personality, positive emotion, coping and appraisal, and flexibility in coping and emotion regulation. Conclusions The research on minimal impact resilience is nascent. Further research is warranted with implications for a multiple levels of analysis approach to elucidate the processes that may mitigate or modify the impact of a PTE at different developmental stages. PMID:23215790

  16. Plant-associated bacteria degrade defense chemicals and reduce their adverse effects on an insect defoliator.

    PubMed

    Mason, Charles J; Couture, John J; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2014-07-01

    Phytophagous insects must contend with numerous secondary defense compounds that can adversely affect their growth and development. The gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) is a polyphagous herbivore that encounters an extensive range of hosts and chemicals. We used this folivore and a primary component of aspen chemical defenses, namely, phenolic glycosides, to investigate if bacteria detoxify phytochemicals and benefit larvae. We conducted insect bioassays using bacteria enriched from environmental samples, analyses of the microbial community in the midguts of bioassay larvae, and in vitro phenolic glycoside metabolism assays. Inoculation with bacteria enhanced larval growth in the presence, but not absence, of phenolic glycosides in the artificial diet. This effect of bacteria on growth was observed only in larvae administered bacteria from aspen foliage. The resulting midgut community composition varied among the bacterial treatments. When phenolic glycosides were included in diet, the composition of midguts in larvae fed aspen bacteria was significantly altered. Phenolic glycosides increased population responses by bacteria that we found able to metabolize these compounds in liquid growth cultures. Several aspects of these results suggest that vectoring or pairwise symbiosis models are inadequate for understanding microbial mediation of plant-herbivore interactions in some systems. First, bacteria that most benefitted larvae were initially foliar residents, suggesting that toxin-degrading abilities of phyllosphere inhabitants indirectly benefit herbivores upon ingestion. Second, assays with single bacteria did not confer the benefits to larvae obtained with consortia, suggesting multi- and inter-microbial interactions are also involved. Our results show that bacteria mediate insect interactions with plant defenses but that these interactions are community specific and highly complex. PMID:24798201

  17. [Medication adverse events: Impact of pharmaceutical consultations during the hospitalization of patients].

    PubMed

    Santucci, R; Levêque, D; Herbrecht, R; Fischbach, M; Gérout, A C; Untereiner, C; Bouayad-Agha, K; Couturier, F

    2014-11-01

    The medication iatrogenic events are responsible for nearly one iatrogenic event in five. The main purpose of this prospective multicenter study is to determine the effect of pharmaceutical consultations on the occurrence of medication adverse events during hospitalization (MAE). The other objectives are to study the impact of age, of the number of medications and pharmaceutical consultations on the risk of MAE. The pharmaceutical consultation is associated to a complete reassessment done by both a physician and a pharmacist for the home medication, the hospital treatment (3days after admission), the treatment during chemotherapy, and/or, the treatment when the patient goes back home. All MAE are subject to an advice for the patient, additional clinical-biological monitoring and/or prescription changes. Among the 318 patients, 217 (68%) had 1 or more clinically important MAE (89% drug-drug interaction, 8% dosing error, 2% indication error, 1% risk behavior). The patients have had 1121 pharmaceutical consultations (3.2±1.4/patient). Thus, the pharmaceutical consultations divided by 2.34 the risk of MAE (unadjusted incidence ratio, P≤0.05). Each consultation decreased by 24% the risk of MAE. Moreover, adding one medication increases from 14 to 30% as a risk of MAE on the population. Pharmaceutical consultations during the hospital stay could reduce significantly the number of medication adverse effects. PMID:25438655

  18. Quantifying the Impact of Adverse Events on the Electricity Grid as a Function of Grid Topology

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, Garill A.; Sadovsky, Artyom; Du, Pengwei

    2011-11-30

    Abstract--Traditional approaches to the study of grid vulnerability have taken an asset based approach, which seeks to identify those assets most likely to result in grid-wide failures or disruptions in the event that they are compromised. We propose an alternative approach to the study of grid vulnerability, one based on the topological structure of the entire grid. We propose a method that will identify topological parameters most closely related to the ability of the grid to withstand an adverse event. We compare these topological parameters in terms of their impact on the vulnerability metric we have defined, referred to as the grid’s “survivability”. Our approach is motivated by Paul Baran’s work on communications networks, which also studied vulnerability in terms of network-wide parameters. Our approach is useful both as a planning model for evaluating proposed changes to a grid and as a risk assessment tool.

  19. Explaining the black-white gap in cognitive test scores: Toward a theory of adverse impact.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Jonathan M; Newman, Daniel A; Roisman, Glenn I

    2015-11-01

    In understanding the causes of adverse impact, a key parameter is the Black-White difference in cognitive test scores. To advance theory on why Black-White cognitive ability/knowledge test score gaps exist, and on how these gaps develop over time, the current article proposes an inductive explanatory model derived from past empirical findings. According to this theoretical model, Black-White group mean differences in cognitive test scores arise from the following racially disparate conditions: family income, maternal education, maternal verbal ability/knowledge, learning materials in the home, parenting factors (maternal sensitivity, maternal warmth and acceptance, and safe physical environment), child birth order, and child birth weight. Results from a 5-wave longitudinal growth model estimated on children in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development from ages 4 through 15 years show significant Black-White cognitive test score gaps throughout early development that did not grow significantly over time (i.e., significant intercept differences, but not slope differences). Importantly, the racially disparate conditions listed above can account for the relation between race and cognitive test scores. We propose a parsimonious 3-Step Model that explains how cognitive test score gaps arise, in which race relates to maternal disadvantage, which in turn relates to parenting factors, which in turn relate to cognitive test scores. This model and results offer to fill a need for theory on the etiology of the Black-White ethnic group gap in cognitive test scores, and attempt to address a missing link in the theory of adverse impact. PMID:25867168

  20. Adverse Effects of Plant Food Supplements Self-Reported by Consumers in the PlantLIBRA Survey Involving Six European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Restani, Patrizia; Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Badea, Mihaela; Ceschi, Alessandro; Egan, Bernadette; Dima, Lorena; Lüde, Saskia; Maggi, Franco M.; Marculescu, Angela; Milà-Villarroel, Raimon; Raats, Monique M.; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Uusitalo, Liisa; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of food supplements containing botanicals is increasing in European markets. Although intended to maintain the health status, several cases of adverse effects to Plant Food Supplements (PFS) have been described. Objectives To describe the self-reported adverse effects collected during the European PlantLIBRA PFS Consumer Survey 2011–2012, with a critical evaluation of the plausibility of the symptomatology reported using data from the literature and from the PlantLIBRA Poisons Centers' survey. Subjects/Setting From the total sample of 2359 consumers involved in the consumers' survey, 82 subjects reported adverse effects due to a total of 87 PFS. Results Cases were self-reported, therefore causality was not classified on the basis of clinical evidence, but by using the frequency/strength of adverse effects described in scientific papers: 52 out of 87 cases were defined as possible (59.8%) and 4 as probable (4.6%). Considering the most frequently cited botanicals, eight cases were due to Valeriana officinalis (garden valerian); seven to Camellia sinensis (tea); six to Ginkgo biloba (Maidenhair tree) and Paullinia cupana (guarana). Most adverse events related to the gastrointestinal tract, nervous and cardiovascular systems. Conclusions Comparing the data from this study with those published in scientific papers and obtained by the PlantLIBRA Poisons Centers' survey, some important conclusions can be drawn: severe adverse effects to PFS are quite rare, although mild or moderate adverse symptoms can be present. Data reported in this paper can help health professionals (and in particular family doctors) to become aware of possible new problems associated with the increasing use of food supplements containing botanicals. PMID:26928206

  1. Bioremediation of adverse impact of cadmium toxicity on Cassia italica Mill by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Abeer; Abd Allah, E F; Alqarawi, A A; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza

    2016-01-01

    Cassia italica Mill is an important medicinal plant within the family Fabaceae. Pot experiment was conducted to evaluate cadmium stress induced changes in physiological and biochemical attributes in C. italica with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Cadmium stressed plant showed reduced chlorophyll pigment and protein content while AMF inoculation enhanced the chlorophyll and protein content considerably. AMF also ameliorated the cadmium stress induced reduction in total chlorophyll and protein contents by 19.30% and 38.29%, respectively. Cadmium stress enhanced lipid peroxidation while AMF inoculation reduced lipid peroxidation considerably. Increase in proline and phenol content was observed due to cadmium stress and AMF inoculation caused a further increase in proline and phenol content ensuring better growth under stressed conditions. AMF alone also enhanced proline and phenol content. Activity of antioxidant enzymes enhanced under cadmium treatment and AMF inoculation further enhanced their activity thereby strengthening the antioxidant system. Enhanced activities of antioxidants and increased accumulation of osmolytes help plants to avoid damaging impact of oxidative damage. The research has shown that AMF inoculation mitigated the negative impact of stress by reducing the lipid peroxidation and enhancing the antioxidant activity. The present study strongly supports employing AMF as the biological mean for enhancing the cadmium stress tolerance of C. italica. PMID:26858537

  2. Bioremediation of adverse impact of cadmium toxicity on Cassia italica Mill by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    PubMed Central

    Hashem, Abeer; Abd_Allah, E.F.; Alqarawi, A.A.; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza

    2015-01-01

    Cassia italica Mill is an important medicinal plant within the family Fabaceae. Pot experiment was conducted to evaluate cadmium stress induced changes in physiological and biochemical attributes in C. italica with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Cadmium stressed plant showed reduced chlorophyll pigment and protein content while AMF inoculation enhanced the chlorophyll and protein content considerably. AMF also ameliorated the cadmium stress induced reduction in total chlorophyll and protein contents by 19.30% and 38.29%, respectively. Cadmium stress enhanced lipid peroxidation while AMF inoculation reduced lipid peroxidation considerably. Increase in proline and phenol content was observed due to cadmium stress and AMF inoculation caused a further increase in proline and phenol content ensuring better growth under stressed conditions. AMF alone also enhanced proline and phenol content. Activity of antioxidant enzymes enhanced under cadmium treatment and AMF inoculation further enhanced their activity thereby strengthening the antioxidant system. Enhanced activities of antioxidants and increased accumulation of osmolytes help plants to avoid damaging impact of oxidative damage. The research has shown that AMF inoculation mitigated the negative impact of stress by reducing the lipid peroxidation and enhancing the antioxidant activity. The present study strongly supports employing AMF as the biological mean for enhancing the cadmium stress tolerance of C. italica. PMID:26858537

  3. Assessment of nitrogen ceilings for Dutch agricultural soils to avoid adverse environmental impacts.

    PubMed

    de Vries, W; Kros, H; Oenema, O; Erisman, J W

    2001-11-01

    In the Netherlands, high traffic density and intensive animal husbandry have led to high emissions of reactive nitrogen (N) into the environment. This leads to a series of environmental impacts, including: (1) nitrate (NO3) contamination of drinking water, (2) eutrophication of freshwater lakes, (3) acidification and biodiversity impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, (4) ozone and particle formation affecting human health, and (5) global climate change induced by emissions of N2O. Measures to control reactive N emissions were, up to now, directed towards those different environmental themes. Here we summarize the results of a study to analyse the agricultural N problem in the Netherlands in an integrated way, which means that all relevant aspects are taken into account simultaneously. A simple N balance model was developed, representing all crucial processes in the N chain, to calculate acceptable N inputs to the farm (so-called N ceiling) and to the soil surface (application in the field) by feed concentrates, organic manure, fertiliser, deposition, and N fixation. The N ceilings were calculated on the basis of critical limits for NO 3 concentrations in groundwater, N concentrations in surface water, and ammonia (NH3) emission targets related to the protection of biodiversity of natural areas. Results show that in most parts of the Netherlands, except the western and the northern part, the N ceilings are limited by NH 3 emissions, which are derived from critical N loads for nature areas, rather than limits for both ground- and surface water. On the national scale, the N ceiling ranges between 372 and 858 kton year(-1) depending on the choice of critical limits. The current N import is 848 kton year(-1). A decrease of nearly 60% is needed to reach the ceilings that are necessary to protect the environment against all adverse impacts of N pollution from agriculture. PMID:12805837

  4. Impact of Different Childhood Adversities on 1-Year Outcomes of Psychotic Disorder in the Genetics and Psychosis Study.

    PubMed

    Trotta, Antonella; Murray, Robin M; David, Anthony S; Kolliakou, Anna; O'Connor, Jennifer; Di Forti, Marta; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Morgan, Craig; Fisher, Helen L

    2016-03-01

    While the role of childhood adversity in increasing the risk of psychosis has been extensively investigated, it is not clear what the impact of early adverse experiences is on the outcomes of psychotic disorders. Therefore, we investigated associations between childhood adversity and 1-year outcomes in 285 first-presentation psychosis patients. Exposure to childhood adversity prior to 17 years of age was assessed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Data on illness course, symptom remission, length of psychiatric hospitalization, compliance with medication, employment, and relationship status were extracted from clinical records for the year following first contact with mental health services for psychosis. Seventy-one percent of patients reported exposure to at least 1 type of childhood adversity (physical abuse, sexual abuse, parental separation, parental death, disrupted family arrangements, or being taken into care). No robust associations were found between childhood adversity and illness course or remission. However, childhood physical abuse was associated with almost 3-fold increased odds of not being in a relationship at 1-year follow-up compared to patients who did not report such adverse experiences. There was also evidence of a significant association between parental separation in childhood and longer admissions to psychiatric wards during 1-year follow-up and 2-fold increased odds of noncompliance with medication compared to those not separated from their parents. Therefore, our findings suggest that there may be some specificity in the impact of childhood adversity on service use and social functioning among psychosis patients over the first year following presentation to mental health services. PMID:26373540

  5. Impact of Different Childhood Adversities on 1-Year Outcomes of Psychotic Disorder in the Genetics and Psychosis Study

    PubMed Central

    Trotta, Antonella; Murray, Robin M.; David, Anthony S.; Kolliakou, Anna; O’Connor, Jennifer; Di Forti, Marta; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Morgan, Craig; Fisher, Helen L.

    2016-01-01

    While the role of childhood adversity in increasing the risk of psychosis has been extensively investigated, it is not clear what the impact of early adverse experiences is on the outcomes of psychotic disorders. Therefore, we investigated associations between childhood adversity and 1-year outcomes in 285 first-presentation psychosis patients. Exposure to childhood adversity prior to 17 years of age was assessed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Data on illness course, symptom remission, length of psychiatric hospitalization, compliance with medication, employment, and relationship status were extracted from clinical records for the year following first contact with mental health services for psychosis. Seventy-one percent of patients reported exposure to at least 1 type of childhood adversity (physical abuse, sexual abuse, parental separation, parental death, disrupted family arrangements, or being taken into care). No robust associations were found between childhood adversity and illness course or remission. However, childhood physical abuse was associated with almost 3-fold increased odds of not being in a relationship at 1-year follow-up compared to patients who did not report such adverse experiences. There was also evidence of a significant association between parental separation in childhood and longer admissions to psychiatric wards during 1-year follow-up and 2-fold increased odds of noncompliance with medication compared to those not separated from their parents. Therefore, our findings suggest that there may be some specificity in the impact of childhood adversity on service use and social functioning among psychosis patients over the first year following presentation to mental health services. PMID:26373540

  6. NON-TARGET AND ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS FROM GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS CONTAINING PLANT INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS (PIPS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The risk of unintended and unexpected adverse impacts on non-target organisms and ecosystems is a key issue in environmental risk assessment of PIP crop plants. While there has been considerable examination of the effects of insect resistant crops on certain non-target organisms...

  7. Adverse Impact of Sleep Restriction and Circadian Misalignment on Autonomic Function in Healthy Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Daniela; Carter, Jason R; Van Cauter, Eve; Leproult, Rachel

    2016-07-01

    Insufficient sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances have been each associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in epidemiological studies, but experimental evidence for a causal link is scarce. The present study compares the impact of circadian misalignment (CM) to circadian alignment (CA) on human autonomic function using a nonrandomized parallel group design to achieve the same total sleep time in both conditions. After baseline assessments (3 days with 10-hour bedtimes), 26 healthy young adults were assigned to sleep restriction (SR; eight 5-hour bedtimes) with either fixed nocturnal bedtimes (CA; n=13) or bedtimes delayed by 8.5 hours on 4 of the 8 days (CM; n=13). Daytime ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate (HR; CA, n=11; CM, n=10) and 24-hour urinary norepinephrine levels (CA, n=13; CM, n=13) were assessed at baseline and the end of SR. Nocturnal HR and HR variability were analyzed during sleep at baseline and during the fourth and seventh nights of SR (CA, n=8; CM, n=12). SR resulted in a significant increase in daytime HR in both groups, without changes in blood pressure. SR increased 24-hour urinary norepinephrine in the CM group (30±4 versus 21±2 μg), but not in the circadian alignment group (group×condition, P=0.005). In contrast to the lack of detectable impact of CM on daytime autonomic function, SR with CM elicited greater increases in nocturnal HR, as well as greater reductions in vagal indices of HR variability, than SR without CM (group×condition, P<0.05). In conclusion, SR and CM both result in impaired autonomic function that could lead, under chronic conditions, to enhanced cardiovascular risk. PMID:27271308

  8. Educational Attainment as a Proxy for Cognitive Ability in Selection: Effects on Levels of Cognitive Ability and Adverse Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Christopher M.; Gruys, Melissa L.; Sackett, Paul R.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the differences in mean level of cognitive ability and adverse impact that can be expected when selecting employees solely on educational attainment as a proxy for cognitive ability versus selecting employees directly on cognitive ability. Selection using cognitive ability worked as a more efficient cognitive screen. Imposing…

  9. The Adverse Impact of Type 2 Diabetes on Brain Volume in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Alosco, Michael L.; Brickman, Adam M.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Griffith, Erica Y.; Narkhede, Atul; Raz, Naftali; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Colbert, Lisa H.; Josephson, Richard; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2013-01-01

    Objective Heart failure (HF) is associated with structural brain abnormalities, including atrophy in multiple brain regions. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a prevalent comorbid condition in HF and is associated with abnormalities on neuroimaging in other medical and elderly samples. The current study examined whether comorbid T2DM exacerbates brain atrophy in older adults with HF. Methods Seventy-five older adults with HF underwent echocardiogram, and completed a brief cognitive test battery. Participants then underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify total brain volumes, cortical lobar volumes, and white matter hyperintensities (WMH). Results Approximately 30% of HF patients had a comorbid T2DM diagnosis. A series of MANCOVA analyses adjusting for medical and demographic characteristics and intracranial volume showed that HF patients with T2DM had smaller total brain, gray matter, and subcortical gray matter volume than those without such history. No between group differences emerged for WMH. Persons with T2DM also had smaller cortical lobar volumes, including in frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. Follow-up analyses revealed smaller total and cortical lobar brain volumes and WMH were associated with poorer performance on measures of global cognitive status, attention, executive functions, and memory. Conclusions T2DM is associated with smaller total and cortical lobar brain volumes in patients with HF and these structural brain indices were associated with cognitive test performance. Prospective studies that directly monitor glucose levels are needed to confirm our findings and clarify the mechanisms by which T2DM adversely impacts brain atrophy in this population. PMID:23419083

  10. Occidental Geothermal, Inc. , Oxy Geothermal Power Plant No. 1: draft environmental impact report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    The following aspects of the proposed geothermal power plant are discussed: the project description; the environment in the vicinity of project as it exists before the project begins, from both a local and regional perspective; the adverse consequences of the project, any significant environmental effects which cannot be avoided, and any mitigation measures to minimize significant effects; the potential feasible alternatives to the proposed project; the significant unavoidable, irreversible, and long-term environmental impacts; and the growth inducing impacts. (MHR)

  11. The long-term impact of early adversity on late-life psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Gershon, Anda; Sudheimer, Keith; Tirouvanziam, Rabindra; Williams, Leanne M; O'Hara, Ruth

    2013-04-01

    Early adversity is a strong and enduring predictor of psychiatric disorders including mood disorders, anxiety disorders, substance abuse or dependence, and posttraumatic stress disorder. However, the mechanisms of this effect are not well understood. The purpose of this review is to summarize and integrate the current research knowledge pertaining to the long-term effects of early adversity on psychiatric disorders, particularly in late life. We explore definitional considerations including key dimensions of the experience such as type, severity, and timing of adversity relative to development. We then review the potential biological and environmental mediators and moderators of the relationships between early adversity and psychiatric disorders. We conclude with clinical implications, methodological challenges and suggestions for future research. PMID:23443532

  12. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Psychotic-Like Symptoms and Stress Reactivity in Daily Life in Nonclinical Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ballespí, Sergi; Mitjavila, Mercè; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Kwapil, Thomas R.; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2016-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in elucidating the association of different childhood adversities with psychosis-spectrum symptoms as well as the mechanistic processes involved. This study used experience sampling methodology to examine (i) associations of a range of childhood adversities with psychosis symptom domains in daily life; (ii) whether associations of abuse and neglect with symptoms are consistent across self-report and interview methods of trauma assessment; and (iii) the role of different adversities in moderating affective, psychotic-like, and paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors. Method A total of 206 nonclinical young adults were administered self-report and interview measures to assess childhood abuse, neglect, bullying, losses, and general traumatic events. Participants received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times daily for one week to complete questionnaires about current experiences, including symptoms, affect, and stress. Results Self-reported and interview-based abuse and neglect were associated with psychotic-like and paranoid symptoms, whereas only self-reported neglect was associated with negative-like symptoms. Bullying was associated with psychotic-like symptoms. Losses and general traumatic events were not directly associated with any of the symptom domains. All the childhood adversities were associated with stress reactivity in daily life. Interpersonal adversities (abuse, neglect, bullying, and losses) moderated psychotic-like and/or paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors, whereas general traumatic events moderated psychotic-like reactivity to situational stress. Also, different interpersonal adversities exacerbated psychotic-like and/or paranoid symptoms in response to distinct social stressors. Discussion The present study provides a unique examination of how childhood adversities impact the expression of spectrum symptoms in the real world and lends support

  13. The long-term impact of adverse caregiving environments on epigenetic modifications and telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Blaze, Jennifer; Asok, Arun; Roth, Tania L.

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood is a sensitive period in which infant-caregiver experiences have profound effects on brain development and behavior. Clinical studies have demonstrated that infants who experience stress and adversity in the context of caregiving are at an increased risk for the development of psychiatric disorders. Animal models have helped to elucidate some molecular substrates of these risk factors, but a complete picture of the biological basis remains unknown. Studies continue to indicate that environmentally-driven epigenetic modifications may be an important mediator between adverse caregiving environments and psychopathology. Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation, which normally represses gene transcription, and microRNA processing, which interferes with both transcription and translation, show long-term changes throughout the brain and body following adverse caregiving. Recent evidence has also shown that telomeres (TTAGGG nucleotide repeats that cap the ends of DNA) exhibit long-term changes in the brain and in the periphery following exposure to adverse caregiving environments. Interestingly, telomeric enzymes and subtelomeric regions are subject to epigenetic modifications—a factor which may play an important role in regulating telomere length and contribute to future mental health. This review will focus on clinical and animal studies that highlight the long-term epigenetic and telomeric changes produced by adverse caregiving in early-life. PMID:25904853

  14. Assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent on fish reproduction utilizing the adverse outcome pathway conceptual framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are a known contributor of chemical mixture inputs into the environment. Whole effluent testing guidelines were developed to screen these complex mixtures for acute toxicity. However, efficient and cost-effective approaches for screenin...

  15. Foliar application of brassinosteroids alleviates adverse effects of zinc toxicity in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Bellamkonda; Rao, S Seeta Ram

    2015-03-01

    Growth chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the comparative effect of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) and 28-homobrassinolide (HBL) at 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 μM concentrations by foliar application on radish plants growing under Zn(2+) stress. In radish plants exposed to excess Zn(2+), growth was substantially reduced in terms of shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight. However, foliar application of brassinosteroids (BRs) was able to alleviate Zn(2+)-induced stress and significantly improve the above growth traits. Zinc stress decreased chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids levels in radish plants. However, follow-up treatment with BRs increased the photosynthetic pigments in stressed and stress-free plants. The treatment of BRs led to reduced levels of H2O2, lipid peroxidation and, electrolyte leakage (ELP) and improved the leaf relative water content (RWC) in stressed plants. Increased levels of carbonyls indicating enhanced protein oxidation under Zn(2+) stress was effectively countered by supplementation of BRs. Under Zn(2+) stress, the activities of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and superoxidase dismutase (SOD) were increased but peroxidase (POD) and glutathione reductase (GR) decreased. Foliar spraying of BRs enhanced all these enzymatic activities in radish plants under Zn(2+) stress. The BRs application greatly enhanced contents of ascorbate (ASA), glutathione (GSH), and proline under Zn(2+) stress. The decrease in the activity of nitrate reductase (NR) caused by Zn(2+) stress was restored to the level of control by application of BRs. These results point out that BRs application elevated levels of antioxidative enzymes as well as antioxidants could have conferred resistance to radish plants against Zn(2+) stress resulting in improved plant growth, relative water content and photosynthetic attributes. Of the two BRs, EBL was most effective in amelioration of Zn(2+) stress. PMID:25308099

  16. The Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on an Urban Pediatric Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Nadine J.; Hellman, Julia L.; Scott, Brandon G.; Weems, Carl F.; Carrion, Victor G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate the adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in youth in a low-income, urban community. Study design: Data from a retrospective chart review of 701 subjects from the Bayview Child Health Center in San Francisco are presented. Medical chart documentation of ACEs as defined in previous studies were…

  17. The Noise from Wind Turbines: Potential Adverse Impacts on Children's Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronzaft, Arline L.

    2011-01-01

    Research linking loud sounds to hearing loss in youngsters is now widespread, resulting in the issuance of warnings to protect children's hearing. However, studies attesting to the adverse effects of intrusive sounds and noise on children's overall mental and physical health and well-being have not received similar attention. This, despite the…

  18. Environmental impact of seawater desalination plants.

    PubMed

    Al-Mutaz, I S

    1991-01-01

    Enormous amounts of seawater are desalted everyday worldwide. The total world production of fresh water from the sea is about 2621 mgd (9.92 million m(3) day(-1) 1985 figures). Desalting processes are normally associated with the rejection of high concentration waste brine from the plant itself or from the pretreatment units as well as during the cleaning period. In thermal processes, mainly multistage flash (MSF) thermal pollution occurs. These pollutants increase the seawater temperature, salinity, water current and turbidity. They also harm the marine environment, causing fish to migrate while enhancing the presence of algae, nematods and tiny molluscus. Sometimes micro-elements and toxic materials appear in the discharged brine.This paper will discuss the impact of the effluents from the desalination plants on the seawater environment with particular reference to the Saudi desalination plants, since they account for about 50% of the world desalination capacity. PMID:24241776

  19. Impact of early adversity on glucocorticoid regulation and later mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Strüber, Nicole; Strüber, Daniel; Roth, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Early adverse experiences such as abuse or neglect can influence brain development and consequently bring forth a predisposition toward mental and behavioral disorders. Many authors suggest that long-term changes in the functionality of the HPA axis might be involved in mediating this relationship. The direction of change and its consequences have not been clarified though: Do early adverse experiences yield a stable glucocorticoid hyperfunction or a long-term glucocorticoid hypofunction, and how is this change of functionality associated with mental or behavioral disorders? This review summarizes correlative findings and illustrates inconsistencies of current research literature. It focuses on the specific neurochemical milieu accompanying early adverse experiences and discusses possible interactions of the glucocorticoid system with oxytocin and components of the serotonergic system. On the basis of this physiological view, a novel two-pathway model is presented, according to which specific early experiences are associated with characteristic early changes in the functionality of these systems and result in a predisposition to distinct mental and behavioral disorders. PMID:24216122

  20. Nutritional characteristics of the leaves of native plants growing in adverse soils of humid tropical lowlands.

    PubMed

    Osaki, Mitsuru; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Ishizawa, Tetsuya; Nilnond, Chairatna; Nuyim, Tanit; Shinano, Takuro; Urayama, Masaru; Tuah, Sehat Jaya

    2003-01-01

    Acid sulfate, peat, sandy podzolic, and saline soils are widely distributed in the lowlands of Thailand and Malaysia. The nutrient concentrations in the leaves of plants grown in these type of soils were studied with the aim of developing a nutritional strategy for adapting to such problem soils. In sago and oil palms that were well-adapted to peat soil, the N, P, and K concentrations were the same in the mature leaves, while the Ca, Mg, Na, and Fe concentrations were higher in the mature leaves of the oil palm than of the sago palm. Melastoma malabathricum and Melaleuca cajuputi plants that were well-adapted to low pH soils, peat. and acid sulfate soils were also studied. It was observed that a high amount of Al accumulated in the M. marabathricum leaves, while Al did not accumulate in M. cajuputi leaves. M. cajuputi plants accumulated large amounts of Na in their leaves or stems regardless of the exchangeable Na concentration in the soil, while M. malabathricum that was growing in saline-affected soils excluded Na. Positive relationships between macronutrients were recognized between P and N, between K and N, and between P and K. Al showed antagonistic relationships with P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Na. Na also showed antagonistic relationships with P, K, Zn, Mn, Cu, and Al. Fe showed weak antagonistic relationships with Zn, Mn, Cu, and Al. PMID:12906350

  1. 25 CFR 170.109 - How do the Secretaries prevent discrimination or adverse impacts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... impacts? In administering the IRR Program, the Secretaries ensure that nondiscrimination and environmental justice principles are integral program elements. The Secretaries consult with tribes early in the...

  2. 25 CFR 170.109 - How do the Secretaries prevent discrimination or adverse impacts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... impacts? In administering the IRR Program, the Secretaries ensure that nondiscrimination and environmental justice principles are integral program elements. The Secretaries consult with tribes early in the...

  3. 25 CFR 170.109 - How do the Secretaries prevent discrimination or adverse impacts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... impacts? In administering the IRR Program, the Secretaries ensure that nondiscrimination and environmental justice principles are integral program elements. The Secretaries consult with tribes early in the...

  4. 25 CFR 170.109 - How do the Secretaries prevent discrimination or adverse impacts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... impacts? In administering the IRR Program, the Secretaries ensure that nondiscrimination and environmental justice principles are integral program elements. The Secretaries consult with tribes early in the...

  5. Adverse Impact of Racial Isolation on Student Performance: A Study in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Andy; Joyner, Ann Moss; Osment, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the impact of racial isolation on high school student performance in North Carolina, a state in the southeast United States. Our research goal is to investigate if increased isolation negatively impacts Black students' academic performance. Employing the North Carolina State Department of Public Instruction (NCDPI)…

  6. Identification and prioritization of relationships between environmental stressor and adverse human health impacts

    EPA Science Inventory

    AbstractBackground: There are over 80,000 chemicals in commerce with little data available describing their impacts on human health. Biomonitoring surveys, such as the NHANES, offer one route to identifying possible relationships between environmental chemicals and health impacts...

  7. Factors influencing adverse skin responses in rats receiving repeated subcutaneous injections and potential impact on neurobehavior

    PubMed Central

    Levoe, S. Nikki; Flannery, Brenna M.; Brignolo, Laurie; Imai, Denise M.; Koehne, Amanda; Austin, Adam T.; Bruun, Donald A.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Lein, Pamela J.

    2015-01-01

    Repeated subcutaneous (s.c.) injection is a common route of administration in chronic studies of neuroactive compounds. However, in a pilot study we noted a significant incidence of skin abnormalities in adult male Long-Evans rats receiving daily s.c. injections of peanut oil (1.0 ml/kg) in the subscapular region for 21 d. Histopathological analyses of the lesions were consistent with a foreign body reaction. Subsequent studies were conducted to determine factors that influenced the incidence or severity of skin abnormalities, and whether these adverse skin reactions influenced a specific neurobehavioral outcome. Rats injected daily for 21 d with food grade peanut oil had an earlier onset and greater incidence of skin abnormalities relative to rats receiving an equal volume (1.0 ml/kg/d) of reagent grade peanut oil or triglyceride of coconut oil. Skin abnormalities in animals injected daily with peanut oil were increased in animals housed on corncob versus paper bedding. Comparison of animals obtained from different barrier facilities exposed to the same injection paradigm (reagent grade peanut oil, 1.0 ml/kg/d s.c.) revealed significant differences in the severity of skin abnormalities. However, animals from different barrier facilities did not perform differently in a Pavlovian fear conditioning task. Collectively, these data suggest that environmental factors influence the incidence and severity of skin abnormalities following repeated s.c. injections, but that these adverse skin responses do not significantly influence performance in at least one test of learning and memory. PMID:25705100

  8. Interactions of early adversity with stress-related gene polymorphisms impact regional brain structure in females.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Arpana; Labus, Jennifer; Kilpatrick, Lisa A; Bonyadi, Mariam; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Heendeniya, Nuwanthi; Bradesi, Sylvie; Chang, Lin; Mayer, Emeran A

    2016-04-01

    Early adverse life events (EALs) have been associated with regional thinning of the subgenual cingulate cortex (sgACC), a brain region implicated in the development of disorders of mood and affect, and often comorbid functional pain disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Regional neuroinflammation related to chronic stress system activation has been suggested as a possible mechanism underlying these neuroplastic changes. However, the interaction of genetic and environmental factors in these changes is poorly understood. The current study aimed to evaluate the interactions of EALs and candidate gene polymorphisms in influencing thickness of the sgACC. 210 female subjects (137 healthy controls; 73 IBS) were genotyped for stress and inflammation-related gene polymorphisms. Genetic variation with EALs, and diagnosis on sgACC thickness was examined, while controlling for race, age, and total brain volume. Compared to HCs, IBS had significantly reduced sgACC thickness (p = 0.03). Regardless of disease group (IBS vs. HC), thinning of the left sgACC was associated with a significant gene-gene environment interaction between the IL-1β genotype, the NR3C1 haplotype, and a history of EALs (p = 0.05). Reduced sgACC thickness in women with the minor IL-1β allele, was associated with EAL total scores regardless of NR3C1 haplotype status (p = 0.02). In subjects homozygous for the major IL-1β allele, reduced sgACC with increasing levels of EALs was seen only with the less common NR3C1 haplotype (p = 0.02). These findings support an interaction between polymorphisms related to stress and inflammation and early adverse life events in modulating a key region of the emotion arousal circuit. PMID:25630611

  9. Risky Health Behaviors among Mothers-to-Be: The Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Esther K.; Nurmohamed, Laila; Mathew, Leny; Elo, Irma T.; Coyne, James C.; Culhane, Jennifer F.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are risk factors for health problems later in life. This study aims to 1) assess the influence of ACEs on risky health behaviors among mothers-to-be, and 2) determine whether a dose response occurs between ACEs and risky behaviors. Methods Prospective survey of women attending health centers conducted at the first prenatal care visit, and 3 and 11 months postpartum. Surveys obtained information on maternal sociodemographic and health characteristics, and 7 ACEs prior to age 16. Risky behaviors included smoking, alcohol use, marijuana use and other illicit drug use during pregnancy. Results Our sample (n=1,476) consisted of low-income (mean annual personal income: $8272), young (mean age: 24 yrs), African American (71%), single (75%) women. Twenty-three percent of women reported smoking even after finding out they were pregnant, 7% reported alcohol use, and 7% reported illicit drug use during pregnancy. Nearly three-fourths (71%) had one or more ACE(s). There was a higher prevalence of each risky behavior among those exposed to each ACE than among those unexposed. The exception was alcohol use during pregnancy where there was not an increased risk among those exposed when compared to those unexposed to witnessing a shooting or having a guardian in trouble with the law or in jail. The adjusted odds ratio for each risky behavior was greater than 2.5 for those with ≥ 3 ACEs when compared to those without. Conclusions ACEs were associated with risky health behaviors reported by mothers-to-be. Greater efforts should target the prevention of ACEs to lower the risk for adverse health behaviors that have serious consequences for adults and their children. PMID:20599179

  10. Population Trends of Central European Montane Birds Provide Evidence for Adverse Impacts of Climate Change on High-Altitude Species

    PubMed Central

    Flousek, Jiří; Telenský, Tomáš; Hanzelka, Jan; Reif, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is among the most important global threats to biodiversity and mountain areas are supposed to be under especially high pressure. Although recent modelling studies suggest considerable future range contractions of montane species accompanied with increased extinction risk, data allowing to test actual population consequences of the observed climate changes and identifying traits associated to their adverse impacts are very scarce. To fill this knowledge gap, we estimated long-term population trends of montane birds from 1984 to 2011 in a central European mountain range, the Giant Mountains (Krkonoše), where significant warming occurred over this period. We then related the population trends to several species' traits related to the climate change effects. We found that the species breeding in various habitats at higher altitudes had more negative trends than species breeding at lower altitudes. We also found that the species moved upwards as a response to warming climate, and these altitudinal range shifts were associated with more positive population trends at lower altitudes than at higher altitudes. Moreover, long-distance migrants declined more than residents or species migrating for shorter distances. Taken together, these results indicate that the climate change, besides other possible environmental changes, already influences populations of montane birds with particularly adverse impacts on high-altitude species such as water pipit (Anthus spinoletta). It is evident that the alpine species, predicted to undergo serious climatically induced range contractions due to warming climate in the future, already started moving along this trajectory. PMID:26426901

  11. Urinary catheterization may not adversely impact quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    James, Rebecca; Frasure, Heidi E; Mahajan, Sangeeta T

    2014-01-01

    Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS) healthcare providers (HCP) have undergone considerable educational efforts regarding the importance of evaluating and treating pelvic floor disorders, specifically, urinary dysfunction. However, limited data are available to determine the impact of catheterization on patient quality of life (QoL). Objectives. To describe the use of urinary catheterization among MS patients and determine the differences between those who report positive versus negative impact of this treatment on QoL. Methods. Patients were queried as part of the 2010 North American Research Committee On Multiple Sclerosis survey; topics included 1) urinary/bladder, bowel, or sexual problems; 2) current urine leakage; 3) current catheter use; 4) catheterizing and QoL. Results. Respondents with current urine leakage were 5143 (54.7%), of which 1201 reported current catheter use (12.8%). The types of catheters (intermittent self-catheterization and Foley catheter (indwelling and suprapubic)) did not differ significantly. Of the current catheter users, 304 (25.35%) respondents reported catheterization negatively impacting QoL, 629 (52.4%) reported a positive impact on QoL, and 223 (18.6%) reported neutral QoL. Conclusions. A large proportion of catheterized MS patients report negative or positive changes in QoL associated with urinary catheterization. Urinary catheterization does not appear to have a universally negative impact on patient QoL. PMID:25006498

  12. An Auxiliary Method To Reduce Potential Adverse Impacts Of Projected Land Developments: Subwatershed Prioritization

    EPA Science Inventory

    An index based method is developed that ranks the subwatersheds of a watershed based on their relative impacts on watershed response to anticipated land developments, and then applied to an urbanizing watershed in Eastern Pennsylvania. Simulations with a semi-distributed hydrolo...

  13. Building associations between markers of environmental stressors and adverse human health impacts using frequent itemset mining

    EPA Science Inventory

    Building associations between markers of exposure and effect using frequent itemset mining The human-health impact of environmental contaminant exposures is unclear. While some exposure-effect relationships are well studied, health effects are unknown for the vast majority of the...

  14. Ozone exposure and systemic biomarkers: Evaluation of evidence for adverse cardiovascular health impacts.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Julie E; Prueitt, Robyn L; Sax, Sonja N; Pizzurro, Daniella M; Lynch, Heather N; Zu, Ke; Venditti, Ferdinand J

    2015-05-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently concluded that there is likely to be a causal relationship between short-term (< 30 days) ozone exposure and cardiovascular (CV) effects; however, biological mechanisms to link transient effects with chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD) have not been established. Some studies assessed changes in circulating levels of biomarkers associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, coagulation, vasoreactivity, lipidology, and glucose metabolism after ozone exposure to elucidate a biological mechanism. We conducted a weight-of-evidence (WoE) analysis to determine if there is evidence supporting an association between changes in these biomarkers and short-term ozone exposure that would indicate a biological mechanism for CVD below the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 75 parts per billion (ppb). Epidemiology findings were mixed for all biomarker categories, with only a few studies reporting statistically significant changes and with no consistency in the direction of the reported effects. Controlled human exposure studies of 2 to 5 hours conducted at ozone concentrations above 75 ppb reported small elevations in biomarkers for inflammation and oxidative stress that were of uncertain clinical relevance. Experimental animal studies reported more consistent results among certain biomarkers, although these were also conducted at ozone exposures well above 75 ppb and provided limited information on ozone exposure-response relationships. Overall, the current WoE does not provide a convincing case for a causal relationship between short-term ozone exposure below the NAAQS and adverse changes in levels of biomarkers within and across categories, but, because of study limitations, they cannot not provide definitive evidence of a lack of causation. PMID:25959700

  15. Severe burn and disuse in the rat independently adversely impact body composition and adipokines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Severe trauma is accompanied by a period of hypermetabolism and disuse. In this study, a rat model was used to determine the effects of burn and disuse independently and in combination on body composition, food intake and adipokines. Methods Male rats were assigned to four groups 1) sham ambulatory (SA), 2) sham hindlimb unloaded (SH), 3) 40% total body surface area full thickness scald burn ambulatory (BA) and 4) burn and hindlimb unloaded (BH). Animals designated to the SH and BH groups were placed in a tail traction system and their hindlimbs unloaded. Animals were followed for 14 days. Plasma, urine, fecal and tissue samples were analyzed. Results SA had a progressive increase in body mass (BM), SH and BA no change and BH a reduction. Compared to SA, BM was reduced by 10% in both SH and BA and by 17% when combined in BH. Compared to SA, all groups had reductions in lean and fat body mass with BH being greater. The decrease in lean mass was associated with the rate of urinary corticosterone excretion. The loss in fat mass was associated with decreases in plasma leptin and adiponectin and an increase in ghrelin. Following the acute response to injury, BH had a greater food intake per 100 g BM. Food intake was associated with the levels of leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin. Conclusions The effects of the combination of burn and disuse in this animal model were additive, therefore in assessing metabolic changes with severe trauma both injury and disuse should be considered. Furthermore, the observed changes in adipokines, corticosterone and ghrelin provide insights for interventions to attenuate the hypermetabolic state following injury, possibly reducing catabolism and muscle loss and subsequent adverse effects on recovery and function. PMID:24099533

  16. Adverse Psychosexual Impact Related to the Treatment of Genital Warts and Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Campaner, Adriana Bittencourt; Vespa Junior, Nelson; Giraldo, Paulo César; Leal Passos, Mauro Romero

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To compare the psychosexual impact related to the treatment of genital warts and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in women. Methods. 75 patients presenting with HPV-induced genital lesions, belonging to one of two patient groups, were included in the study: 29 individuals with genital warts (GWs) and 46 individuals with CIN grades 2 or 3 (CIN 2/3). Initially, medical charts of each woman were examined for extraction of data on the type of HPV-induced infection and treatment administered. Subjects were interviewed to collect sociodemographic data as well as personal, gynecologic, obstetric, and sexual history. After this initial anamnesis, the Sexual Quotient-Female Version (SQ-F) questionnaire was applied to assess sexual function. After application of the questionnaire, patients answered specific questions produced by the researchers, aimed at assessing the impact of the disease and its treatment on their sexual lives. Results. It is noteworthy that patients with CIN 2/3 had statistically similar classification of sexual quotient to patients with GWs (P = 0.115). However, patients with GWs more frequently gave positive answers to the specific questions compared to patients with CIN 2/3. Conclusion. Based on these findings, it is clear that GWs have a greater impact on sexual behavior compared to CIN 2/3. PMID:26316956

  17. The impact of herbal remedies on adverse effects and quality of life in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bepe, Nyasha; Madanhi, Nathan; Mudzviti, Tinashe; Gavi, Samuel; Maponga, Charles Chiedza; Morse, Gene D

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Use of herbal remedies among HIV-infected individuals in Africa increased in the past decade, mainly due to traditional beliefs and at times inconsistent access to antiretroviral drugs. In Zimbabwe, accessibility and availability of antiretroviral drugs has increased in recent years; however, the use of herbal remedies remains high. This study was conducted to determine the impact of concomitant use of herbal remedies with antiretroviral drugs on adverse events and on quality of life. Methodology A convenient sample of HIV positive patients at Parirenyatwa group of hospitals' Family Care Clinic (Harare, Zimbabwe) was enrolled. A questionnaire was used to collect data on the adverse event experiences of the patients using herbal remedies for their HIV, as well as the types of herbal remedy used. Quality of life index was measured using an HIV/AIDS targeted quality of life (HAT-QOL) tool developed by the World Health Organization. Results Abdominal pain (odds ratio = 2.7, p-value = 0.01) and rash (odds ratio = 2.5, p-value = 0.02) had significant associations with using herbal remedies during antiretroviral therapy. Improved quality of life index was not significantly associated with herbal remedy use during antiretroviral therapy. Conclusions There is evidence to suggest that some traditional herbal remedies used in Zimbabwe may increase incidence of certain types of adverse events when used in combination with antiretroviral drugs. Use of herbal drugs in combination with antiretroviral therapy does not significantly improve quality of life index in comparison to antiretroviral drug use only. PMID:21330740

  18. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration among Sri Lankan Men.

    PubMed

    Fonseka, Ruvani W; Minnis, Alexandra M; Gomez, Anu Manchikanti

    2015-01-01

    In Sri Lanka, over one in three women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization in their lifetime, making it a serious public health concern. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) such as child abuse and neglect, witnessing domestic violence, parental separation, and bullying are also widespread. Studies in Western settings have shown positive associations between ACEs and IPV perpetration in adulthood, but few have examined this relationship in a non-Western context. In the present study, we examined the association of ACEs with IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men surveyed for the UN Multi-Country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific. We found statistically significant positive associations between the number of ACE categories (ACE score) and emotional, financial, physical, and sexual IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men. We analyzed the contributions of each ACE category and found that childhood abuse was strongly associated with perpetration of IPV in adulthood, with sexual abuse associated with the greatest increase in odds of perpetration (Adjusted odds ratio 2.36; 95% confidence interval: 1.69, 3.30). Witnessing abuse of one's mother was associated with the greatest increase in the odds of perpetrating physical IPV (AOR 1.82; 95% CI: 1.29, 2.58), while lack of a male parental figure was not associated with physical IPV perpetration (AOR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.53, 1.09). These findings support a social learning theory of IPV perpetration, in which children who are exposed to violence learn to perpetrate IPV in adulthood. They also suggest that in Sri Lanka, being raised in a female-headed household does not increase the risk of IPV perpetration in adulthood compared to being raised in a household with a male parental figure. The relationship between being raised in a female-headed household (the number of which increased dramatically during Sri Lanka's recent civil war) and perpetration of IPV warrants further study. Interventions that

  19. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration among Sri Lankan Men

    PubMed Central

    Fonseka, Ruvani W.; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Gomez, Anu Manchikanti

    2015-01-01

    In Sri Lanka, over one in three women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization in their lifetime, making it a serious public health concern. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) such as child abuse and neglect, witnessing domestic violence, parental separation, and bullying are also widespread. Studies in Western settings have shown positive associations between ACEs and IPV perpetration in adulthood, but few have examined this relationship in a non-Western context. In the present study, we examined the association of ACEs with IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men surveyed for the UN Multi-Country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific. We found statistically significant positive associations between the number of ACE categories (ACE score) and emotional, financial, physical, and sexual IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men. We analyzed the contributions of each ACE category and found that childhood abuse was strongly associated with perpetration of IPV in adulthood, with sexual abuse associated with the greatest increase in odds of perpetration (Adjusted odds ratio 2.36; 95% confidence interval: 1.69, 3.30). Witnessing abuse of one’s mother was associated with the greatest increase in the odds of perpetrating physical IPV (AOR 1.82; 95% CI: 1.29, 2.58), while lack of a male parental figure was not associated with physical IPV perpetration (AOR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.53, 1.09). These findings support a social learning theory of IPV perpetration, in which children who are exposed to violence learn to perpetrate IPV in adulthood. They also suggest that in Sri Lanka, being raised in a female-headed household does not increase the risk of IPV perpetration in adulthood compared to being raised in a household with a male parental figure. The relationship between being raised in a female-headed household (the number of which increased dramatically during Sri Lanka’s recent civil war) and perpetration of IPV warrants further study. Interventions

  20. The impact of herbal drug use on adverse drug reaction profiles of patients on antiretroviral therapy in zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mudzviti, Tinashe; Maponga, Charles C; Khoza, Star; Ma, Qing; Morse, Gene D

    2012-01-01

    Background. The main objective was to determine the impact of herbal drug use on adverse drug reactions in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methodology. Patients receiving first-line ART from the national roll-out program participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants were interviewed and a data collection sheet was used to collect information from the corresponding medical record. Results. The majority (98.2%) of participants were using at least one herbal drug together with ART. The most common herbal remedies used were Allium Sativum (72.7%), Bidens pilosa (66.0%), Eucalyptus globulus (52.3%), Moringa oleifera (44.1%), Lippia javanica (36.3%), and Peltoforum africanum (34.3%). Two indigenous herbs, Musakavakadzi (OR = 0.25; 95% CI 0.076-0.828) and Peltoforum africanum (OR = 0.495; 95% CI 0.292-0.839) reduced the occurrence of adverse drug events. Conclusions. The use of herbal drugs is high in the HIV-infected population and there is need for pharmacovigilance programs to recognize the role they play in altering ADR profiles. PMID:22506106

  1. Impact of dose intensity of ponatinib on selected adverse events: Multivariate analyses from a pooled population of clinical trial patients.

    PubMed

    Dorer, David J; Knickerbocker, Ronald K; Baccarani, Michele; Cortes, Jorge E; Hochhaus, Andreas; Talpaz, Moshe; Haluska, Frank G

    2016-09-01

    Ponatinib is approved for adults with refractory chronic myeloid leukemia or Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia, including those with the T315I BCR-ABL1 mutation. We pooled data from 3 clinical trials (N=671) to determine the impact of ponatinib dose intensity on the following adverse events: arterial occlusive events (cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular events), venous thromboembolic events, cardiac failure, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, hypertension, pancreatitis, increased lipase, increased alanine aminotransferase, increased aspartate aminotransferase, rash, arthralgia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Multivariate analyses allowed adjustment for covariates potentially related to changes in dosing or an event. Logistic regression analysis identified significant associations between dose intensity and most events after adjusting for covariates. Pancreatitis, rash, and cardiac failure had the strongest associations with dose intensity (odds ratios >2). Time-to-event analyses showed significant associations between dose intensity and risk of arterial occlusive events and each subcategory. Further, these analyses suggested that a lag exists between a change in dose and the resulting change in event risk. No significant association between dose intensity and risk of venous thromboembolic events was evident. Collectively, these findings suggest a potential causal relationship between ponatinib dose and certain adverse events and support prospective investigations of approaches to lower average ponatinib dose intensity. PMID:27505637

  2. The lasting impact of early-life adversity on individuals and their descendants: potential mechanisms and hope for intervention.

    PubMed

    Cowan, C S M; Callaghan, B L; Kan, J M; Richardson, R

    2016-01-01

    The adverse effects of early-life stress are pervasive, with well-established mental and physical health consequences for exposed individuals. The impact of early adverse experiences is also highly persistent, with documented increases in risk for mental illness across the life span that are accompanied by stable alterations in neural function and hormonal responses to stress. Here, we review some of these 'stress phenotypes', with a focus on intermediary factors that may signal risk for long-term mental health outcomes, such as altered development of the fear regulation system. Intriguingly, recent research suggests that such stress phenotypes may persist even beyond the life span of the individuals, with consequences for their offspring and grand-offspring. Phenotypic characteristics may be transmitted to future generations via either the matriline or the patriline, a phenomenon that has been demonstrated in both human and animal studies. In this review, we highlight behavioral and epigenetic factors that may contribute to this multigenerational transmission and discuss the potential of various treatment approaches that may halt the cycle of stress phenotypes. PMID:26482536

  3. The Impact of Herbal Drug Use on Adverse Drug Reaction Profiles of Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Mudzviti, Tinashe; Maponga, Charles C.; Khoza, Star; Ma, Qing; Morse, Gene D.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The main objective was to determine the impact of herbal drug use on adverse drug reactions in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methodology. Patients receiving first-line ART from the national roll-out program participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants were interviewed and a data collection sheet was used to collect information from the corresponding medical record. Results. The majority (98.2%) of participants were using at least one herbal drug together with ART. The most common herbal remedies used were Allium Sativum (72.7%), Bidens pilosa (66.0%), Eucalyptus globulus (52.3%), Moringa oleifera (44.1%), Lippia javanica (36.3%), and Peltoforum africanum (34.3%). Two indigenous herbs, Musakavakadzi (OR = 0.25; 95% CI 0.076–0.828) and Peltoforum africanum (OR = 0.495; 95% CI 0.292–0.839) reduced the occurrence of adverse drug events. Conclusions. The use of herbal drugs is high in the HIV-infected population and there is need for pharmacovigilance programs to recognize the role they play in altering ADR profiles. PMID:22506106

  4. Caregiver traumatization adversely impacts young children’s mental representations on the MacArthur Story-Stem Battery

    PubMed Central

    Schechter, Daniel S.; Zygmunt, Annette; Coates, Susan W.; Davies, Mark; Trabka, Kimberly A.; McCaw, Jaime; Kolodji, Ann; Robinson, JoAnn

    2007-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of maternal exposure to family violence, maltreatment and related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on young children’s mental representations of self and caregivers. Participant mothers (n=24) and children (n=25) were recruited from a referred sample when they were 4-7-years-old. Maternal report and child story-stem narratives were used. Mothers’ experience of domestic violence and severity of violence-related PTSD symptoms robustly predicted more dysregulated aggression, attentional bias to danger and distress, as well as more avoidance of and withdrawal from conflicts presented in the children’s story-stems. Less narrative coherence was also noted. Maternal experience and symptoms prior to their child’s turning 4 adversely affected that child’s mental representations from ages 4 to 7. PMID:18007959

  5. Using patient safety indicators to estimate the impact of potential adverse events on outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rivard, Peter E; Luther, Stephen L; Christiansen, Cindy L; Shibei Zhao; Loveland, Susan; Elixhauser, Anne; Romano, Patrick S; Rosen, Amy K

    2008-02-01

    The authors estimated the impact of potentially preventable patient safety events, identified by Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs), on patient outcomes: mortality, length of stay (LOS), and cost. The PSIs were applied to all acute inpatient hospitalizations at Veterans Health Administration (VA) facilities in fiscal 2001. Two methods-regression analysis and multivariable case matching- were used independently to control for patient and facility characteristics while predicting the effect of the PSI on each outcome. The authors found statistically significant (p < .0001) excess mortality, LOS, and cost in all groups with PSIs. The magnitude of the excess varied considerably across the PSIs. These VA findings are similar to those from a previously published study of nonfederal hospitals, despite differences between VA and non-VA systems. This study contributes to the literature measuring outcomes of medical errors and provides evidence that AHRQ PSIs may be useful indicators for comparison across delivery systems. PMID:18184870

  6. Adverse Prognostic Impact of Bone Marrow Microvessel Density in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nuri; Lee, Hyewon; Moon, Soo Young; Sohn, Ji Yeon; Hwang, Sang Mee; Yoon, Ok Jin; Youn, Hye Sun

    2015-01-01

    Background Angiogenesis is important for the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Bone marrow (BM) microvessel density (MVD) is a useful marker of angiogenesis and is determined by immunohistochemical staining with anti-CD34 antibody. This study investigated the prognostic impact of MVD and demonstrated the relationship between MVD and previously mentioned prognostic factors in patients with MM. Methods The study included 107 patients with MM. MVD was assessed at initial diagnosis in a blinded manner by two hematopathologists who examined three CD34-positive hot spots per patient and counted the number of vessels in BM samples. Patients were divided into three groups according to MVD tertiles. Cumulative progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) curves, calculated by using Kaplan-Meier method, were compared among the three groups. Prognostic impact of MVD was assessed by calculating Cox proportional hazard ratio (HR). Results Median MVDs in the three groups were 16.8, 33.9, and 54.7. MVDs were correlated with other prognostic factors, including β2-microglobulin concentration, plasma cell percentage in the BM, and cancer stage according to the International Staging System. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that high MVD was an independent predictor of PFS (HR=2.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-5.42; P=0.013). PFS was significantly lower in the high MVD group than in the low MVD group (P=0.025). However, no difference was observed in the OS (P=0.428). Conclusions Increased BM MVD is a marker of poor prognosis in patients newly diagnosed with MM. BM MVD should be assessed at the initial diagnosis of MM. PMID:26354343

  7. Mechanisms underlying the impacts of exotic plant invasions.

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Jonathan M; Vilà, Montserrat; D'Antonio, Carla M; Dukes, Jeffrey S; Grigulis, Karl; Lavorel, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    Although the impacts of exotic plant invasions on community structure and ecosystem processes are well appreciated, the pathways or mechanisms that underlie these impacts are poorly understood. Better exploration of these processes is essential to understanding why exotic plants impact only certain systems, and why only some invaders have large impacts. Here, we review over 150 studies to evaluate the mechanisms underlying the impacts of exotic plant invasions on plant and animal community structure, nutrient cycling, hydrology and fire regimes. We find that, while numerous studies have examined the impacts of invasions on plant diversity and composition, less than 5% test whether these effects arise through competition, allelopathy, alteration of ecosystem variables or other processes. Nonetheless, competition was often hypothesized, and nearly all studies competing native and alien plants against each other found strong competitive effects of exotic species. In contrast to studies of the impacts on plant community structure and higher trophic levels, research examining impacts on nitrogen cycling, hydrology and fire regimes is generally highly mechanistic, often motivated by specific invader traits. We encourage future studies that link impacts on community structure to ecosystem processes, and relate the controls over invasibility to the controls over impact. PMID:12737654

  8. Trading places - an innovative SO{sub 2} trading program to mitigate potential adverse impacts on Class I areas: part I. impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Louis Militana; Cindy Huber; Christopher Colbert; Chris Arrington; Don Shepherd

    2005-07-01

    Published in two parts, this article describes a new emissions cap-and-trade program to reduce acid deposition and visibility impacts in four Class I areas (e.g. wildernesses and national parks) from the proposed Longview Power coal-fired power plant to be located in Maidsville, WV. Part I discusses the air quality impacts of the proposed project. 5 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Early Psychosocial Neglect Adversely Impacts Developmental Trajectories of Brain Oscillations and Their Interactions.

    PubMed

    Stamoulis, Catherine; Vanderwert, Ross E; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A

    2015-12-01

    Rhythmicity is a fundamental property of neural activity at multiple spatiotemporal scales, and associated oscillations represent a critical mechanism for communication and transmission of information across brain regions. During development, these oscillations evolve dynamically as a function of neural maturation and may be modulated by early experiences, positive and/or negative. This study investigated the impact of psychosocial deprivation associated with institutional rearing in early life and the effects of subsequent foster care intervention on developmental trajectories of neural oscillations and their cross-frequency correlations. Longitudinally acquired nontask EEGs from three cohorts of children from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project were analyzed. These included abandoned children initially reared in institutions and subsequently randomized to be placed in foster care or receive care as usual (prolonged institutional rearing) and a group of never-institutionalized children. Oscillation trajectories were estimated from 42 to 96 months, that is, 1-3 years after all children in the intervention arm of the study had been placed in foster care. Significant differences between groups were estimated for the amplitude trajectories of cognitive-related gamma, beta, alpha, and theta oscillations. Similar differences were identified as a function of time spent in institutions, suggesting that increased time spent in psychosocial neglect may have profound and widespread effects on brain activity. Significant group differences in cross-frequency coupling were estimated longitudinally between gamma and lower frequencies as well as alpha and lower frequencies. Lower cross-gamma coupling was estimated at 96 months in the group of children that remained in institutions at that age compared to the other two groups, suggesting potentially impaired communication between local and long-distance brain networks in these children. In contrast, higher cross

  10. Adverse Impact of Electromagnetic Radiation on Urban Environment and Natural Resources using Optical Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pawan; Katiyar, Swati; Rani, Meenu

    2016-07-01

    We are living in the age of a rapidly growing population and changing environmental conditions with an advance technical capacity.This has resulted in wide spread land cover change. One of the main causes for increasing urban heat is that more than half of the world's population lives in a rapidly growing urbanized environment. Satellite data can be highly useful to map change in land cover and other environmental phenomena with the passage of time. Among several human-induced environmental and urban thermal problems are reported to be negatively affecting urban residents in many ways. The built-up structures in urbanized areas considerably alter land cover thereby affecting thermal energy flow which leads to development of elevated surface and air temperature. The phenomenon Urban Heat Island implies 'island' of high temperature in cities, surrounded by relatively lower temperature in rural areas. The UHI for the temporal period is estimated using geospatial techniques which are then utilized for the impact assessment on climate of the surrounding regions and how it reduce the sustainability of the natural resources like air, vegetation. The present paper describes the methodology and resolution dynamic urban heat island change on climate using the geospatial approach. NDVI were generated using day time LANDSAT ETM+ image of 1990, 2000 and 2013. Temperature of various land use and land cover categories was estimated. Keywords: NDVI, Surface temperature, Dynamic changes.

  11. Adverse impact of feed channel spacers on the performance of pressure retarded osmosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu Chang; Elimelech, Menachem

    2012-04-17

    This article analyzes the influence of feed channel spacers on the performance of pressure retarded osmosis (PRO). Unlike forward osmosis (FO), an important feature of PRO is the application of hydraulic pressure on the high salinity (draw solution) side to retard the permeating flow for energy conversion. We report the first observation of membrane deformation under the action of the high hydraulic pressure on the feed channel spacer and the resulting impact on membrane performance. Because of this observation, reverse osmosis and FO tests that are commonly used for measuring membrane transport properties (water and salt permeability coefficients, A and B, respectively) and the structural parameter (S) can no longer be considered appropriate for use in PRO analysis. To accurately predict the water flux as a function of applied hydraulic pressure difference and the resulting power density in PRO, we introduced a new experimental protocol that accounts for membrane deformation in a spacer-filled channel to determine the membrane properties (A, B, and S). PRO performance model predictions based on these determined A, B, and S values closely matched experimental data over a range of draw solution concentrations (0.5 to 2 M NaCl). We also showed that at high pressures feed spacers block the permeation of water through the membrane area in contact with the spacer, a phenomenon that we term the shadow effect, thereby reducing overall water flux. The implications of the results for power generation by PRO are evaluated and discussed. PMID:22420537

  12. Interactions between life stress factors and carrying the APOE4 allele adversely impact self-reported health in old adults.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yi; Hughes, Claude L; Lewis, Megan A; Li, Jianxin; Zhang, Fengyu

    2011-10-01

    Based on the multiple logistic regression analysis of data from a random sample of 1,023 old adults collected in Taiwan in 2000, we found that interactions between carrying the APOE4 allele and one of four life stress factors (relocated mainlander, living in a crowded household with six or more persons, living in an earthquake-damaged house, and monthly financial difficulty) significantly increased the odds ratio of poor self-reported health. Correlations between carrying the APOE4 allele and the life stress factors were ruled out by statistical tests. These life stress factors had a substantially larger adverse impact on self-reported health in APOE4 allele carriers than in noncarriers. This study provides evidence that interaction between carrying APOE4 allele and chronic life stressors has significant impacts on self-reported health while controlling for various sociodemographic and health behavior factors. Further studies with richer biomarkers are warranted for deeper understanding of the biological mechanisms. PMID:21768502

  13. Impact of nandrolone decanoate on gene expression in endocrine systems related to the adverse effects of anabolic androgenic steroids.

    PubMed

    Alsiö, Johan; Birgner, Carolina; Björkblom, Lars; Isaksson, Pernilla; Bergström, Lena; Schiöth, Helgi B; Lindblom, Jonas

    2009-11-01

    Elite athletes, body builders and adolescents misuse anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) in order to increase muscle mass or to enhance physical endurance and braveness. The high doses misused are associated with numerous adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of chronic supratherapeutic AAS treatment on circulating hormones and gene expression in peripheral tissues related to such adverse effects. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure expression levels of in total 37 genes (including peptide hormones, cell membrane receptors, nuclear receptors, steroid synthesising enzymes and other enzymes) in the pituitary, testes, adrenals, adipose tissue, kidneys and liver of male Sprague-Dawley rats after 14-day administration of the AAS nandrolone decanoate, 3 or 15 mg/kg. Plasma glucose and levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), adiponectin, corticosterone, ghrelin, insulin and leptin were also measured. We found several expected effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, while the treatment also caused a number of other not previously identified changes in circulating factors and gene transcription levels such as the dose-dependent reduction of the beta(3)-adrenergic receptor in adipose tissue, reduction of both circulating and mRNA levels of adiponectin, up-regulation of both hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA-reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in de novo synthesis of cholesterol, and the receptor for ACTH in the adrenals. The results provide evidence for wide ranging effects of AAS on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, adipose tissue and substrates of the renal control of blood pressure. PMID:19549128

  14. Actual versus predicted impacts of three ethanol plants on aquatic and terrestrial resources

    SciTech Connect

    Eddlemon, G.K.; Webb, J.W.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Miller, R.L. )

    1993-01-01

    In this follow-up study, the authors compared the actual effects of the three complete ethanol plants on aquatic and terrestrial resources with the effects predicted in the NEPA environmental assessments (EAs). They based their comparative evaluations on reviews and analyses of existing data and information, interviews with plant, state, and local government personnel, and site and facility inspections. They found that (1) the plants as completed differed considerably in important respects from the proposed designs considerably in important respects from the proposed designs evaluated in the EAs; (2) several key source terms provided by the applicants were inaccurate; (3) most, but significantly, not all, mitigation measures described in the EAs were implemented; (4) external environmental changes independent of the plants affected the nature and degree of some impacts; and (5) although impacts to aquatic and terrestrial resources for which data were adequate for analysis generally occurred as predicted, a few impacts not anticipated in the EAs were identified. These included adverse effects of wastewaters on a municipal treatment plant with resulting temporary effects on the receiving stream, and unforeseen habitat loss due to vegetation removal (failure to implement planned mitigation) and barge terminal construction.

  15. Adverse childhood experiences and their impact on frequency, severity, and the individual function of nonsuicidal self-injury in youth.

    PubMed

    Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Mattern, Margarete; Plener, Paul L; Bifulco, Antonia; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald

    2013-04-30

    This study aimed to investigate a specific relationship between nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and a variety of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) over and above childhood abuse and their impact on frequency, severity, and functions of NSSI. A sample of 125 inpatients (aged 13 to 26) was consecutively recruited within a psychiatric university hospital. Frequency, methods and functions of NSSI were assessed by the Functional Assessment of Self-Mutilation (FASM), ACEs were assessed by the Childhood Experiences of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA.Q). The 12 month prevalence of NSSI in this representative, clinical sample was 60.0%. Engagement in NSSI was significantly related to ACEs with highest associations for maternal antipathy and neglect. Whilst ACEs were not associated with frequency or severity of NSSI, some ACEs were significantly related to the automatic functions of NSSI (e.g., affect regulation, anti-dissociative function or self-punishment) as well as to a peer identification function. NSSI represents a frequent phenomenon among young clinical populations and seems to be specifically related to ACEs with maternal antipathy or neglect commonly featured over and above experiences of abuse. Since ACEs also influence the functions of NSSI such factors need to be examined as part of clinical care planning. PMID:23159195

  16. Assessing off-taraget impacts of herbicide drift on plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plants and plant communities provide vital economic services including production of food and fiber crops for direct human consumption and ecosystem services including wildlife habitat and cycling of nutrients and energy. These services can be impacted if herbicides drift from t...

  17. Plant trichomes have mixed impacts on predatory insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In response to our review article on the role of plant trichomes on insect predators (Riddick & Simmons 2014), Krimmel (2014) acknowledged the challenges that are faced in bringing together the varied publications on the subject of impact of plant trichomes on predatory insects. He also suggested t...

  18. The Adverse Impact of Diabetes Mellitus on Left Ventricular Remodeling and Function in Patients with Severe Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Lindman, Brian R.; Arnold, Suzanne V.; Madrazo, José A.; Zajarias, Alan; Johnson, Stephanie N.; Pérez, Julio E.; Mann, Douglas L.

    2011-01-01

    Background The diabetic heart exhibits increased left ventricular (LV) mass and reduced ventricular function. However, this relationship has not been studied in patients with aortic stenosis (AS), a disease process that causes LV hypertrophy and dysfunction through a distinct mechanism of pressure overload. The aim of this study was to determine how diabetes mellitus (DM) impacts LV remodeling and function in patients with severe AS. Methods and Results Echocardiograms were performed on 114 patients with severe AS [mean aortic valve area (AVA) 0.6 cm2] and included measures of LV remodeling and function. Multivariable linear regression models investigated the independent effect of DM on these aspects of LV structure and function. Compared to non-diabetics (n=60), diabetics (n=54) had increased LV mass, LV end-systolic dimension, LV end-diastolic dimension, and decreased LV ejection fraction (EF) and longitudinal systolic strain (p<0.01 for all). In multivariable analyses adjusting for age, sex, systolic BP, AVA, BSA, and coronary disease, DM was an independent predictor of increased LV mass (β=26g, p=0.01), LV end-systolic dimension (β=0.5cm, p=0.008), and LV end-diastolic dimension (β=0.3cm, p=0.025). After additionally adjusting for LV mass, DM was associated with reduced longitudinal systolic strain (β=1.9%, p=0.023) and a trend toward reduced EF (β=−5%, p=0.09). Among diabetics, insulin use (as a marker of disease severity) was associated with larger LV end-systolic dimension and worse LV function. LV mass was a strong predictor of reduced EF and systolic strain (p<0.001 for both). Conclusions DM has an additive adverse effect on hypertrophic remodeling—increased LV mass and larger cavity dimensions—and is associated with reduced systolic function in patients with AS beyond known factors of pressure overload. PMID:21357546

  19. Seriousness, preventability, and burden impact of reported adverse drug reactions in Lombardy emergency departments: a retrospective 2-year characterization

    PubMed Central

    Perrone, Valentina; Conti, Valentino; Venegoni, Mauro; Scotto, Stefania; Degli Esposti, Luca; Sangiorgi, Diego; Prestini, Lucia; Radice, Sonia; Clementi, Emilio; Vighi, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reported in emergency departments (EDs) and carry out a thorough characterization of these to assess preventability, seriousness that required hospitalization, subsequent 30-day mortality, and economic burden. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of data from an active pharmacovigilance project at 32 EDs in the Lombardy region collected between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011. Demographic, clinical, and pharmacological data on patients admitted to EDs were collected by trained and qualified monitors, and deterministic record linkage was performed to estimate hospitalizations. Pharmacoeconomic analyses were based on Diagnosis-Related Group reimbursement. Results 8,862 ADRs collected with an overall prevalence rate of 3.5 per 1,000 visits. Of all ADRs, 42% were probably/definitely preventable and 46.4% were serious, 15% required hospitalization, and 1.5% resulted in death. The System Organ Classes most frequently associated with ADRs were: skin and subcutaneous tissue, gastrointestinal, respiratory thoracic and mediastinal, and nervous system disorders. The most common Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classes involved in admissions were J (anti-infectives and immunomodulating agents), B (blood and blood-forming organs), and N (nervous system). Older age, yellow and red triage, higher number of concomitantly taken drugs, and previous attendance in ED for the same ADR were significantly associated with an increased risk of hospitalization. The total cost associated with ADR management was €5,184,270, with a mean cost per patient of €585. Fifty-eight percent of the economic burden was defined as probably/definitely preventable. Conclusion ADRs are a serious health/economic issue in EDs. This assessment provides a thorough estimation of their seriousness, preventability, and burden impact in a large population from a representative European region. PMID

  20. Business oriented EU human cell and tissue product legislation will adversely impact Member States' health care systems.

    PubMed

    Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Vanderkelen, Alain; De Vos, Daniel; Draye, Jean-Pierre; Rose, Thomas; Ceulemans, Carl; Ectors, Nadine; Huys, Isabelle; Jennes, Serge; Verbeken, Gilbert

    2013-12-01

    The transplantation of conventional human cell and tissue grafts, such as heart valve replacements and skin for severely burnt patients, has saved many lives over the last decades. The late eighties saw the emergence of tissue engineering with the focus on the development of biological substitutes that restore or improve tissue function. In the nineties, at the height of the tissue engineering hype, industry incited policymakers to create a European regulatory environment, which would facilitate the emergence of a strong single market for tissue engineered products and their starting materials (human cells and tissues). In this paper we analyze the elaboration process of this new European Union (EU) human cell and tissue product regulatory regime-i.e. the EU Cell and Tissue Directives (EUCTDs) and the Advanced Therapy Medicinal Product (ATMP) Regulation and evaluate its impact on Member States' health care systems. We demonstrate that the successful lobbying on key areas of regulatory and policy processes by industry, in congruence with Europe's risk aversion and urge to promote growth and jobs, led to excessively business oriented legislation. Expensive industry oriented requirements were introduced and contentious social and ethical issues were excluded. We found indications that this new EU safety and health legislation will adversely impact Member States' health care systems; since 30 December 2012 (the end of the ATMP transitional period) there is a clear threat to the sustainability of some lifesaving and established ATMPs that were provided by public health institutions and small and medium-sized enterprises under the frame of the EUCTDs. In the light of the current economic crisis it is not clear how social security systems will cope with the inflation of costs associated with this new regulatory regime and how priorities will be set with regard to reimbursement decisions. We argue that the ATMP Regulation should urgently be revised to focus on delivering

  1. Radiological impact of power plants: coal vs nuclear

    SciTech Connect

    Styron, C.E.

    1981-12-23

    A definitive comparison of the radiological impact of coal power plants with that of (normally operating) nuclear power plants is quite difficult because of (1) insufficient data on both types of plants; (2) the diversity in design and performance of coal-fired plants and emission control systems; and (3) the relatively low concentrations of radionuclides to be measured. Radiation doses to the public estimated for coal and normally operating nuclear power plants are quite small when compared to natural background, and the level of uncertainty associated with estimates of radiological impact is so large that it is not possible at this time to demonstrate a significant difference between radiological risks of coal and nuclear power.

  2. The Impact of Plant Enemies Shows a Phylogenetic Signal

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Gregory S.; Briggs, Heather M.; Magarey, Roger

    2015-01-01

    The host ranges of plant pathogens and herbivores are phylogenetically constrained, so that closely related plant species are more likely to share pests and pathogens. Here we conducted a reanalysis of data from published experimental studies to test whether the severity of host-enemy interactions follows a similar phylogenetic signal. The impact of herbivores and pathogens on their host plants declined steadily with phylogenetic distance from the most severely affected focal hosts. The steepness of this phylogenetic signal was similar to that previously measured for binary-response host ranges. Enemy behavior and development showed similar, but weaker phylogenetic signal, with oviposition and growth rates declining with evolutionary distance from optimal hosts. Phylogenetic distance is an informative surrogate for estimating the likely impacts of a pest or pathogen on potential plant hosts, and may be particularly useful in early assessing risk from emergent plant pests, where critical decisions must be made with incomplete host records. PMID:25893581

  3. IMPACTS OF COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS ON LOCAL GROUND-WATER SYSTEMS: WISCONSIN POWER PLANT IMPACT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative techniques for simulating the impacts of a coal-fired power plant on the ground-water system of a river flood-plain wetland were developed and tested. Effects related to the construction and operation of the cooling lake and ashpit had the greatest impact. Ground-wat...

  4. Plant Diseases Impact USDA Clonal Vaccinium Genebank

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service maintains a diverse collection of Vaccinium genotypes at the National Clonal Germplasm Repository, a temperate fruit and nut genebank in Corvallis, Oregon. Vaccinium species are hosts for two emerging diseases in the U.S. Pacific Northwest that impact the colle...

  5. USE OF MODELING APPROACHES TO UNDERSTAND POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANTS ON PLANT COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Model development is of interest to ecologists, regulators and developers, since it may assist theoretical understanding, decision making in experimental design, product development and risk assessment. In order to predict the potential impacts of genetically modified (GM) plants...

  6. Impact of Early Life Adversity on Reward Processing in Young Adults: EEG-fMRI Results from a Prospective Study over 25 Years

    PubMed Central

    Boecker, Regina; Holz, Nathalie E.; Buchmann, Arlette F.; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Plichta, Michael M.; Wolf, Isabella; Baumeister, Sarah; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of evidence have implicated the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway in altered brain function resulting from exposure to early adversity. The present study examined the impact of early life adversity on different stages of neuronal reward processing later in life and their association with a related behavioral phenotype, i.e. attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 162 healthy young adults (mean age = 24.4 years; 58% female) from an epidemiological cohort study followed since birth participated in a simultaneous EEG-fMRI study using a monetary incentive delay task. Early life adversity according to an early family adversity index (EFA) and lifetime ADHD symptoms were assessed using standardized parent interviews conducted at the offspring's age of 3 months and between 2 and 15 years, respectively. fMRI region-of-interest analysis revealed a significant effect of EFA during reward anticipation in reward-related areas (i.e. ventral striatum, putamen, thalamus), indicating decreased activation when EFA increased. EEG analysis demonstrated a similar effect for the contingent negative variation (CNV), with the CNV decreasing with the level of EFA. In contrast, during reward delivery, activation of the bilateral insula, right pallidum and bilateral putamen increased with EFA. There was a significant association of lifetime ADHD symptoms with lower activation in the left ventral striatum during reward anticipation and higher activation in the right insula during reward delivery. The present findings indicate a differential long-term impact of early life adversity on reward processing, implicating hyporesponsiveness during reward anticipation and hyperresponsiveness when receiving a reward. Moreover, a similar activation pattern related to lifetime ADHD suggests that the impact of early life stress on ADHD may possibly be mediated by a dysfunctional reward pathway. PMID:25118701

  7. Impact of plant domestication on rhizosphere microbiome assembly and functions.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Jaramillo, Juan E; Mendes, Rodrigo; Raaijmakers, Jos M

    2016-04-01

    The rhizosphere microbiome is pivotal for plant health and growth, providing defence against pests and diseases, facilitating nutrient acquisition and helping plants to withstand abiotic stresses. Plants can actively recruit members of the soil microbial community for positive feedbacks, but the underlying mechanisms and plant traits that drive microbiome assembly and functions are largely unknown. Domestication of plant species has substantially contributed to human civilization, but also caused a strong decrease in the genetic diversity of modern crop cultivars that may have affected the ability of plants to establish beneficial associations with rhizosphere microbes. Here, we review how plants shape the rhizosphere microbiome and how domestication may have impacted rhizosphere microbiome assembly and functions via habitat expansion and via changes in crop management practices, root exudation, root architecture, and plant litter quality. We also propose a "back to the roots" framework that comprises the exploration of the microbiome of indigenous plants and their native habitats for the identification of plant and microbial traits with the ultimate goal to reinstate beneficial associations that may have been undermined during plant domestication. PMID:26085172

  8. Moderating role of FKBP5 genotype in the impact of childhood adversity on cortisol stress response during adulthood.

    PubMed

    Buchmann, Arlette F; Holz, Nathalie; Boecker, Regina; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Rietschel, Marcella; Witt, Stephanie H; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Laucht, Manfred

    2014-06-01

    Recent research suggests an important role of FKBP5, a glucocorticoid receptor regulating co-chaperone, in the development of stress-related diseases such as depression and anxiety disorders. The present study aimed to replicate and extend previous evidence indicating that FKBP5 polymorphisms moderate hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function by examining whether FKBP5 rs1360780 genotype and different measures of childhood adversity interact to predict stress-induced cortisol secretion. At age 19 years, 195 young adults (90 males, 105 females) participating in an epidemiological cohort study completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) to assess cortisol stress responsiveness and were genotyped for the FKBP5 rs1360780. Childhood adversity was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and by a standardized parent interview yielding an index of family adversity. A significant interaction between genotype and childhood adversity on cortisol response to stress was demonstrated for exposure to childhood maltreatment as assessed by retrospective self-report (CTQ), but not for prospectively ascertained objective family adversity. Severity of childhood maltreatment was significantly associated with attenuated cortisol levels among carriers of the rs1360780 CC genotype, while no such effect emerged in carriers of the T allele. These findings point towards the functional involvement of FKBP5 in long-term alterations of neuroendocrine stress regulation related to childhood maltreatment, which have been suggested to represent a premorbid risk or resilience factor in the context of stress-related disorders. PMID:24411633

  9. Internet impact felt on plant floor

    SciTech Connect

    Mikles, L.

    1997-06-01

    While the Internet has gone from relative obscurity to being included in Microsoft Word`s spell checker in about four years. Its true power has yet to be realized. The Internet acts today as a low-cost, simple communication vehicle for one-to-one or many-to-many relationships through e-mail and the World Wide Web (WWW). Its future power lies with terms like {open_quotes}distributed computing,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}object orientation,{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}network computers.{close_quotes} While pushing the factory onto the information superhighway might not make the most sense today, taking advantage of the tools and approaches developed for the Internet to create an internal Internet, or intranet, may be key. Implemented properly, an Internet approach will deliver exciting opportunities to the plant floor to increase flexibility, speed up information flow, and improve decision making. While the Internet offers tremendous power through global connectivity, the communication security and reliability risks are still too great for connecting plant-floor operations without expensive firewall configurations. The tools developed for using the Internet, on the other hand, offer tremendous opportunity for secure internal operations until the security issues can be worked out. 4 figs.

  10. [Impact of working conditions at a general mechanical rubber goods plant on dental morbidity in its workers].

    PubMed

    Dautov, F F; Filippova, M V

    2008-01-01

    The impact of working conditions on dental morbidity was studied in workers from the Kazan general mechanical rubber goods (GMRG) plant. Analysis of the results of studying the prevalence of major dental diseases in the workers of the GMRG plant showed that the number of patients with caries, noncarious lesions, as well as periodontal diseases is far in excess of those in the control group. The studies, conducted in terms of the age and length of service of the examinees, corroborate the influence of adverse industrial factors on the prevalence of major dental diseases. PMID:18507173

  11. A clean-burning biofuel as a response to adverse impacts of woodsmoke and coalsmoke on Navajo health

    SciTech Connect

    Shultz, E.B. Jr.; Bragg, W.G.; Whittier, J.

    1994-12-31

    Because over 60% of Navajo households are heated with woodfuel and coal, and indoor air pollution from woodsmoke and coalsmoke is problematic, most Navajos are probably at risk of respiratory and other smoke-induced illnesses. A previous study has shown that Navajo children living in homes heated by a wood/coal stove are nearly five times more likely to contract acute lower respiratory tract infections than children from homes that do not use those fuels. Stove and flue improvements to reduce leakage of smoke into the home would help. So would clean-burning solid fuels in replacement of woodfuel and coal. The authors describe a clean-burning fast-growing carbohydrate biofuel, prepared by sun-drying the roots of a wild southwestern gourd plant, Cucurbita foetidissima. They call it {open_quotes}rootfuel.{close_quotes} A test plot is growing during the 1994 season at the NMSU Agricultural Science Center on the Navajo Nation, near Farmington, New Mexico. Irrigation requirements are being measured. In the Fall, a preliminary needs assessment will be conducted to learn more about how fuel usage impacts Navajo health. The acceptability of rootfuel in selected homes will be tested during the upcoming heating season.

  12. Molecular and Functional Characterization of a Wheat B2 Protein Imparting Adverse Temperature Tolerance and Influencing Plant Growth.

    PubMed

    Singh, Akanksha; Khurana, Paramjit

    2016-01-01

    Genomic attempts were undertaken to elucidate the plant developmental responses to heat stress, and to characterize the roles of B2 protein in mediating those responses. A wheat expressed sequence tag for B2 protein was identified which was cloned and characterized to assess its functional relevance causing plant growth and development during stress adaptation. Here, we show that wheat B2 protein is highly expressed in root and shoot tissues as well as in developing seed tissues under high temperature stress conditions. Morphological studies of transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing gene encoding wheat B2 protein and Δb2 mutant plants were studied at major developmental stages. The stunted growth phenotype of mutant plants, together with hypocotyl and root elongation analysis of transgenic plants showed that B2 protein exhibits a crucial role in plant growth and development. Additional physiological analyses highlights the role of B2 protein in increased tolerance to heat and cold stresses by maintaining high chlorophyll content, strong activity of photosystem II and less membrane damage of overexpression transgenics as compared with the wild-type. Furthermore, the constitutive overexpression of TaB2 in Arabidopsis resulted in ABA hypersensitivity. Taken together, these studies suggest a novel perspectives of B2 protein in plant development and in mediating the thermal stress tolerance. PMID:27242843

  13. Molecular and Functional Characterization of a Wheat B2 Protein Imparting Adverse Temperature Tolerance and Influencing Plant Growth

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Akanksha; Khurana, Paramjit

    2016-01-01

    Genomic attempts were undertaken to elucidate the plant developmental responses to heat stress, and to characterize the roles of B2 protein in mediating those responses. A wheat expressed sequence tag for B2 protein was identified which was cloned and characterized to assess its functional relevance causing plant growth and development during stress adaptation. Here, we show that wheat B2 protein is highly expressed in root and shoot tissues as well as in developing seed tissues under high temperature stress conditions. Morphological studies of transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing gene encoding wheat B2 protein and Δb2 mutant plants were studied at major developmental stages. The stunted growth phenotype of mutant plants, together with hypocotyl and root elongation analysis of transgenic plants showed that B2 protein exhibits a crucial role in plant growth and development. Additional physiological analyses highlights the role of B2 protein in increased tolerance to heat and cold stresses by maintaining high chlorophyll content, strong activity of photosystem II and less membrane damage of overexpression transgenics as compared with the wild-type. Furthermore, the constitutive overexpression of TaB2 in Arabidopsis resulted in ABA hypersensitivity. Taken together, these studies suggest a novel perspectives of B2 protein in plant development and in mediating the thermal stress tolerance. PMID:27242843

  14. ASSESSING OFF-TARGET IMPACTS OF HERBICIDE DRIFT ON NATIVE PLANTS - IMPLICATIONS FOR PLANT COMMUNITIES AND WILDLIFE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The off target movement of herbicidess onto nontarget vegetation can affect native plants, plant communities and ecosystems. Within the agroecosystem, plants provide the basis for food and shelter for wildlife. The risk assessment process to determine potential pesticide impacts...

  15. Impact of age, sex and route of administration on adverse events after opioid treatment in the emergency department: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Daoust, Raoul; Paquet, Jean; Lavigne, Gilles; Piette, Éric; Chauny, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The efficacy of opioids for acute pain relief in the emergency department (ED) is well recognized, but treatment with opioids is associated with adverse events ranging from minor discomforts to life-threatening events. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of age, sex and route of administration on the incidence of adverse events due to opioid administration in the ED. METHODS: Real-time archived data were analyzed retrospectively in a tertiary care urban hospital. All consecutive patients (≥16 years of age) who were assigned to an ED bed and received an opioid between March 2008 and December 2012 were included. Adverse events were defined as: nausea/vomiting (minor); systolic blood pressure (SBP) <90 mmHg, oxygen saturation (Sat) <92% and respiration rate <10 breaths/min (major) within 2 h of the first opioid doses. RESULTS: In the study period, 31,742 patients were treated with opioids. The mean (± SD) age was 55.8±20.5 years, and 53% were female. The overall incidence of adverse events was 12.0% (95% CI 11.6% to 12.4%): 5.9% (95% CI 5.6% to 6.2%) experienced nausea/vomiting, 2.4% (95% CI 2.2% to 2.6%) SBP <90 mmHg, 4.7% (95% CI 4.5% to 4.9%) Sat that dropped to <92% and 0.09% respiration rate <10 breaths/min. After controlling for confounding factors, these adverse events were associated with: female sex (more nausea/vomiting, more SBP <90 mmHg, less Sat <92%); age ≥65 years (less nausea/vomiting, more SBP <90 mmHg, more Sat <92%); and route of administration (intravenous > subcutaneous > oral). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of adverse events associated with opioid administration in the ED is generally low and is associated with age, sex and route of administration. PMID:25664538

  16. Impact of Childhood Adversity and Vasopressin receptor 1a Variation on Social Interaction in Adulthood: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia Jia; Lou, Fenglan; Lavebratt, Catharina; Forsell, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Background Arginine vasopressin (AVP) plays a role in social behavior, through receptor AVPR1A. The promoter polymorphism AVPR1A RS3 has been associated with human social behaviors, and with acute response to stress. Here, the relationships between AVPR1A RS3, early-life stressors, and social interaction in adulthood were explored. Methods Adult individuals from a Swedish population-based cohort (n = 1871) were assessed for self-reported availability of social integration and social attachment and for experience of childhood adversities. Their DNA samples were genotyped for the microsatellite AVPR1A RS3. Results Among males, particularly those homozygous for the long alleles of AVPR1A RS3 were vulnerable to childhood adversity for their social attachment in adulthood. A similar vulnerability to childhood adversity among long allele carriers was found on adulthood social integration, but here both males and females were influenced. Limitation Data were self-reported and childhood adversity data were retrospective. Conclusions Early-life stress influenced the relationship between AVPR1A genetic variants and social interaction. For social attachment, AVPR1A was of importance in males only. The findings add to previous reports on higher acute vulnerability to stress in persons with long AVPR1A RS3 alleles and increased AVP levels. PMID:26295806

  17. Prevalence and Predictors of Adverse Events in Older Surgical Patients: Impact of the Present on Admission Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hongsoo; Capezuti, Elizabeth; Kovner, Christine; Zhao, Zhonglin; Boockvar, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: To examine the effects of the present on admission (POA) indicator on the prevalence of and factors associated with postsurgical adverse events in older patients. Design and Methods: This is a secondary data analysis of 82,898 surgical patients aged 65 years or older in 252 acute care hospitals in California in 2004. Four…

  18. Tourism impacts of Three Mile Island and other adverse events: Implications for Lincoln County and other rural counties bisected by radioactive wastes intended for Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Himmelberger, J.J.; Ogneva-Himmelberger, Y.A.; Baughman, M.

    1995-11-01

    Whether the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository system will adversely impact tourism in southern Nevada is an open question of particular importance to visitor-oriented rural counties bisected by planned waste transportation corridors (highway or rail). As part of one such county`s repository impact assessment program, tourism implications of Three Mile Island (TMI) and other major hazard events have been revisited to inform ongoing county-wide socioeconomic assessments and contingency planning efforts. This paper summarizes key research implications of such research as applied to Lincoln County, Nevada. Implications for other rural counties are discussed in light of the research findings. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Tourism impacts of Three Mile Island and other adverse events: Implications for Lincoln County and other rural counties bisected by radioactive wastes intended for Yucca Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himmelberger, Jeffery J.; Baughman, Mike; Ogneva-Himmelberger, Yelena A.

    1995-11-01

    Whether the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository system will adversely impact tourism in southern Nevada is an open question of particular importance to visitor-oriented rural counties bisected by planned waste transportatin corridors (highway or rail). As part of one such county's repository impact assessment program, tourism implications of Three Mile Island (TMI) and other major hazard events have beem revisited to inform ongoing county-wide socioeconomic assessments and contingency planning efforts. This paper summarizes key research implications of such research as applied to Lincoln County, Nevada. Implications for other rural counties are discussed in light of the research findings.

  20. Manganese Deficiency in Plants: The Impact on Photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund; Jensen, Poul Erik; Husted, Søren

    2016-07-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential plant micronutrient with an indispensable function as a catalyst in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII). Even so, Mn deficiency frequently occurs without visual leaf symptoms, thereby masking the distribution and dimension of the problem restricting crop productivity in many places of the world. Hence, timely alleviation of latent Mn deficiency is a challenge in promoting plant growth and quality. We describe here the key mechanisms of Mn deficiency in plants by focusing on the impact of Mn on PSII stability and functionality. We also address the mechanisms underlying the differential tolerance towards Mn deficiency observed among plant genotypes, which enable Mn-efficient plants to grow on marginal land with poor Mn availability. PMID:27150384

  1. Review: Wind impacts on plant growth, mechanics and damage.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Barry; Berry, Peter; Moulia, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    Land plants have adapted to survive under a range of wind climates and this involve changes in chemical composition, physical structure and morphology at all scales from the cell to the whole plant. Under strong winds plants can re-orientate themselves, reconfigure their canopies, or shed needles, leaves and branches in order to reduce the drag. If the wind is too strong the plants oscillate until the roots or stem fail. The mechanisms of root and stem failure are very similar in different plants although the exact details of the failure may be different. Cereals and other herbaceous crops can often recover after wind damage and even woody plants can partially recovery if there is sufficient access to water and nutrients. Wind damage can have major economic impacts on crops, forests and urban trees. This can be reduced by management that is sensitive to the local site and climatic conditions and accounts for the ability of plants to acclimate to their local wind climate. Wind is also a major disturbance in many plant ecosystems and can play a crucial role in plant regeneration and the change of successional stage. PMID:26940495

  2. Selection on soil microbiomes reveals reproducible impacts on plant function.

    PubMed

    Panke-Buisse, Kevin; Poole, Angela C; Goodrich, Julia K; Ley, Ruth E; Kao-Kniffin, Jenny

    2015-04-01

    Soil microorganisms found in the root zone impact plant growth and development, but the potential to harness these benefits is hampered by the sheer abundance and diversity of the players influencing desirable plant traits. Here, we report a high level of reproducibility of soil microbiomes in altering plant flowering time and soil functions when partnered within and between plant hosts. We used a multi-generation experimental system using Arabidopsis thaliana Col to select for soil microbiomes inducing earlier or later flowering times of their hosts. We then inoculated the selected microbiomes from the tenth generation of plantings into the soils of three additional A. thaliana genotypes (Ler, Be, RLD) and a related crucifer (Brassica rapa). With the exception of Ler, all other plant hosts showed a shift in flowering time corresponding with the inoculation of early- or late-flowering microbiomes. Analysis of the soil microbial community using 16 S rRNA gene sequencing showed distinct microbiota profiles assembling by flowering time treatment. Plant hosts grown with the late-flowering-associated microbiomes showed consequent increases in inflorescence biomass for three A. thaliana genotypes and an increase in total biomass for B. rapa. The increase in biomass was correlated with two- to five-fold enhancement of microbial extracellular enzyme activities associated with nitrogen mineralization in soils. The reproducibility of the flowering phenotype across plant hosts suggests that microbiomes can be selected to modify plant traits and coordinate changes in soil resource pools. PMID:25350154

  3. DOCUMENTATION OF THE DATA BASE: WISCONSIN POWER PLANT IMPACT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This volume describes the data base of the first phase of the Wisconsin power plant impact study. Data were collected by investigators at the University of Wisconsin-Madison from 1971 to 1978 during their study of the Columbia Generating Station near Portage, Wisconsin. This volu...

  4. Impact of Endophytic Microorganisms on Plants, Environment and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Dhanya N.; Padmavathy, S.

    2014-01-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms (bacteria or fungi or actinomycetes) that dwell within robust plant tissues by having a symbiotic association. They are ubiquitously associated with almost all plants studied till date. Some commonly found endophytes are those belonging to the genera Enterobacter sp., Colletotrichum sp., Phomopsis sp., Phyllosticta sp., Cladosporium sp., and so forth. Endophytic population is greatly affected by climatic conditions and location where the host plant grows. They produce a wide range of compounds useful for plants for their growth, protection to environmental conditions, and sustainability, in favour of a good dwelling place within the hosts. They protect plants from herbivory by producing certain compounds which will prevent animals from further grazing on the same plant and sometimes act as biocontrol agents. A large amount of bioactive compounds produced by them not only are useful for plants but also are of economical importance to humans. They serve as antibiotics, drugs or medicines, or the compounds of high relevance in research or as compounds useful to food industry. They are also found to have some important role in nutrient cycling, biodegradation, and bioremediation. In this review, we have tried to comprehend different roles of endophytes in plants and their significance and impacts on man and environment. PMID:24587715

  5. The impact of an alien plant on a native plant-pollinator network: an experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Lopezaraiza-Mikel, Martha E; Hayes, Richard B; Whalley, Martin R; Memmott, Jane

    2007-07-01

    Studies of pairwise interactions have shown that an alien plant can affect the pollination of a native plant, this effect being mediated by shared pollinators. Here we use a manipulative field experiment, to investigate the impact of the alien plant Impatiens glandulifera on an entire community of coflowering native plants. Visitation and pollen transport networks were constructed to compare replicated I. glandulifera invaded and I. glandulifera removal plots. Invaded plots had significantly higher visitor species richness, visitor abundance and flower visitation. However, the pollen transport networks were dominated by alien pollen grains in the invaded plots and consequently higher visitation may not translate in facilitation for pollination. The more generalized insects were more likely to visit the alien plant, and Hymenoptera and Hemiptera were more likely to visit the alien than Coleoptera. Our data indicate that generalized native pollinators can provide a pathway of integration for alien plants into native visitation systems. PMID:17542933

  6. The impact of adverse life events and the serotonin transporter gene promoter polymorphism on the development of eating disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Akkermann, Kirsti; Kaasik, Kadri; Kiive, Evelyn; Nordquist, Niklas; Oreland, Lars; Harro, Jaanus

    2012-01-01

    Adverse life events have been shown to predict weight fluctuations and dietary restraint, as well as eating disorders during adolescence or early adulthood. Since the s-allele carriers of the 5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) are biologically more reactive to stress related stimuli, we aimed to explore whether the eating disturbances are predicted by environmental stressors and moderated by the 5-HTTLPR genotype. The sample was based on the younger cohort of the Estonian Children Personality, Behaviour and Health Study and included those participating in its second and third wave. The history of stressful life events was self-reported at age 15. Data on eating behaviour and attitudes, anxiety, impulsivity and depressiveness were collected at age 18. The effect of the adverse life events on binge eating and on drive for thinness was found to be moderated by the 5-HTTLPR. Adolescent girls who at age 15 had reported a history of frequent adverse life events had elevated scores in EDI-2 Bulimia subscale at age 18 if they were carrying the s-allele. The effect of the s-allele on binge eating was even more pronounced when solely the experience of sexual abuse was considered. The interaction effect of the 5-HTTLPR and the past sexual abuse was also observed on drive for thinness. These data give further support to the idea that adverse life events in childhood may heighten susceptibility to serotonergic dysregulation following stress, and suggest that in individuals vulnerable to eating disorders this may result in disturbed eating behaviours. PMID:22018958

  7. Adverse influence on reproduction and potential fitness cost in survivors of orthene-treated tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By using dose response to Orthene at 80 mg/L (LC50 of the laboratory susceptible colony), a relative resistant population (71% survival rate) of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris, was located near Tillar, Arkansas. This population was used in this study to evaluate potential fitness cost in ...

  8. Allelopathic bacteria and their impact on higher plants.

    PubMed

    Barazani, O; Friedman, J

    2001-01-01

    The impact of allelopathic, nonpathogenic bacteria on plant growth in natural and agricultural ecosystems is discussed. In some natural ecosystems, evidence supports the view that in the vicinity of some allelopathically active perennials (e.g., Adenostoma fasciculatum, California), in addition to allelochemicals leached from the shrub's canopy, accumulation of phytotoxic bacteria or other allelopathic microorganisms amplify retardation of annuals. In agricultural ecosystems allelopathic bacteria may evolve in areas where a single crop is grown successively, and the resulting yield decline cannot be restored by application of minerals. Transfer of soils from areas where crop suppression had been recorded into an unaffected area induced crop retardation without readily apparent symptoms of plant disease. Susceptibility of higher plants to deleterious rhizobacteria is often manifested in sandy or so-called skeletal soils. Evaluation of phytotoxic activity under controlled conditions, as well as ways to apply allelopathic bacteria in the field, is approached. The allelopathic effect may occur directly through the release of allelochemicals by a bacterium that affects susceptible plant(s) or indirectly through the suppression of an essential symbiont. The process is affected by nutritional and other environmental conditions, some may control bacterial density and the rate of production of allelochemicals. Allelopathic nonpathogenic bacteria include a wide range of genera and secrete a diverse group of plant growth-mediating allelochemicals. Although a limited number of plant growth-promoting bacterial allelochemicals have been identified, a considerable number of highly diversified growth-inhibiting allelochemicals have been isolated and characterized. Some species may produce more than one allelochemical; for example, three different phyotoxins, geldanamycin, nigericin, and hydanthocidin, were isolated from Streptomyces hygroscopicus. Efforts to introduce naturally

  9. Nematicide impacts on nematodes and feedbacks on plant productivity in a plant diversity gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Ackermann, Michael; Gass, Svenja; Klier, Matthias; Migunova, Varvara; Nitschke, Norma; Ruess, Liliane; Sabais, Alexander C. W.; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Scheu, Stefan

    2010-09-01

    A major issue in current ecological research is the effect of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning. Although several studies reported a positive diversity - productivity relationship, the role of soil animals has been largely neglected. Nematodes are among the most widespread and important herbivores causing substantial yield losses in agriculture; however, impacts of nematodes on the diversity - productivity relationship in semi-natural plant communities have not been investigated until today. In the framework of the Jena Experiment (Thuringia, Germany) we established control and nematicide treated subplots to manipulate nematode densities on plots varying in plant species (1-16) and functional group richness (1-4). We explored the interacting effects of nematicide application and plant diversity on the main trophic groups of nematodes and on aboveground plant productivity. Nematicide application reduced the number of nematodes significantly, particularly that of plant feeders and predators. The negative impact of nematicide application on plant and bacterial feeders depended however on the diversity of the plant community. Total plant shoot biomass tended to decrease in the presence of ambient nematode densities. In detail, nematode effects varied however with plant functional group identity by reducing only the shoot biomass of herbs significantly but not that of legumes. Furthermore, the shoot biomass of grasses tended to decrease in the presence of ambient nematode densities. In contrast to total shoot biomass, nematodes decreased grass shoot biomass only in high diverse but not in low diverse plant communities. Thus, the present study for the first time highlights that nematodes likely modify the community structure und functions of semi-natural plant communities by altering the competition between plant functional groups and by attenuating the diversity - productivity relationship.

  10. Recent patents in plant biotechnology: impact on global health.

    PubMed

    Hefferon, Kathleen L

    2012-08-01

    Agricultural biotechnology offers a robust series of tools by which to address global concerns such as food security, crop protection, and fuel/energy requirements. A number of advances made recently in plant molecular biology also have resulted in applications which largely focus on improving global human health. This review describes some of the recent innovations in plant biotechnology that have come to the forefront over the past year. Included are novel techniques by which plants can be improved as platforms for biopharmaceutical protein production, a growing field also referred to as 'molecular pharming'. The metabolic engineering of plants to produce compounds which have additional nutritional benefits is also outlined. The review concludes with a discussion of the future impact that these innovations may have both on global health and on the development of our future intellectual property landscape. PMID:22642820

  11. Laser photoacoustic trace detection of C2H4 revealing adverse environmental effects of atmospheric pollution on plant material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harren, Frans J. M.; Petruzzelli, Luciana

    1993-03-01

    The photoacoustic detection method for trace gases in the atmosphere is well developed towards very low limits of detection, in the last years. Due to the combination of a sensitive photoacoustic cell placed intracavity in an infrared CO2 laser we were able to detect C2H4 at ultralow (< 1:1011) concentrations within 10 seconds, C2H4 in a plant hormone which seems to play an important role throughout all the life stages of a plant, including seed germination. In addition, various types of stress have been reported to promote ethylene production from different plant tissues. As part of our ongoing research on the role of ethylene in seed germination, we have compared our laser photoacoustic set-up to a gaschromatograph for measuring C2H4 produced by germinating Pisum sativum L. seeds within the first days of imbibition. C2H4 evolution by intact seeds shows a maximum at about 25 hours of germination. Thereafter, the rate of ethylene measured by gaschromatograph continues to decrease while that measured by the laser-driven photoacoustic system shows further increases. Most of the ethylene produced by seeds is found in isolated embryonic axes. The fumigation with ozone affects the growth of seedlings and their ethylene evolution.

  12. Herbivory in a Mediterranean forest: browsing impact and plant compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focardi, Stefano; Tinelli, Aleandro

    2005-11-01

    The compensatory response of plants to defoliation is likely to have important effects on plant-ungulate equilibria in forested ecosystems. We investigated the responses of six species of Mediterranean bushes to defoliation by wild ungulates, comparing an index of browsing impact with the productivity of plants in both open and exclusion plots. The data revealed a great diversity of plant responses to herbivory: Rubus ulmifolius was able to over-compensate and replace the lost tissues. Phillyrea latifolia exhibited a similar, albeit less evident, pattern, while Cistus salvifolius was severely damaged by browsing. Other species, such as Quercus ilex, Juncus acutus and Erica arborea, were not attacked to a large extent and suffered little or no harm. The results strongly suggest that Mediterranean ecosystems may tolerate large stocking rates of ungulates. However, the reduction of plant biomass due to browsing was very different in the six studied species, suggesting that when herbivory becomes severe the structure of the ecosystem will change with the more tolerant plants becoming more abundant. We can apply these results to improve management and conservation of relict coastal forests in the Mediterranean basin which are usually of small size and where decision-makers have to compromise between the conservation of plants and that of large mammals.

  13. A highly stable minimally processed plant-derived recombinant acetylcholinesterase for nerve agent detection in adverse conditions.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Yvonne J; Walker, Jeremy; Jiang, Xiaoming; Donahue, Scott; Robosky, Jason; Sack, Markus; Lees, Jonathan; Urban, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Although recent innovations in transient plant systems have enabled gram quantities of proteins in 1-2 weeks, very few have been translated into applications due to technical challenges and high downstream processing costs. Here we report high-level production, using a Nicotiana benthamiana/p19 system, of an engineered recombinant human acetylcholinesterase (rAChE) that is highly stable in a minimally processed leaf extract. Lyophylized clarified extracts withstand prolonged storage at 70 °C and, upon reconstitution, can be used in several devices to detect organophosphate (OP) nerve agents and pesticides on surfaces ranging from 0 °C to 50 °C. The recent use of sarin in Syria highlights the urgent need for nerve agent detection and countermeasures necessary for preparedness and emergency responses. Bypassing cumbersome and expensive downstream processes has enabled us to fully exploit the speed, low cost and scalability of transient production systems resulting in the first successful implementation of plant-produced rAChE into a commercial biotechnology product. PMID:26268538

  14. A highly stable minimally processed plant-derived recombinant acetylcholinesterase for nerve agent detection in adverse conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Yvonne J.; Walker, Jeremy; Jiang, Xiaoming; Donahue, Scott; Robosky, Jason; Sack, Markus; Lees, Jonathan; Urban, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Although recent innovations in transient plant systems have enabled gram quantities of proteins in 1–2 weeks, very few have been translated into applications due to technical challenges and high downstream processing costs. Here we report high-level production, using a Nicotiana benthamiana/p19 system, of an engineered recombinant human acetylcholinesterase (rAChE) that is highly stable in a minimally processed leaf extract. Lyophylized clarified extracts withstand prolonged storage at 70 °C and, upon reconstitution, can be used in several devices to detect organophosphate (OP) nerve agents and pesticides on surfaces ranging from 0 °C to 50 °C. The recent use of sarin in Syria highlights the urgent need for nerve agent detection and countermeasures necessary for preparedness and emergency responses. Bypassing cumbersome and expensive downstream processes has enabled us to fully exploit the speed, low cost and scalability of transient production systems resulting in the first successful implementation of plant-produced rAChE into a commercial biotechnology product. PMID:26268538

  15. Quantifying "apparent" impact and distinguishing impact from invasiveness in multispecies plant invasions.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Dean E; Ortega, Yvette K; Eren, Özkan; Hierro, José L

    2016-01-01

    The quantification of invader impacts remains a major hurdle to understanding and managing invasions. Here, we demonstrate a method for quantifying the community-level impact of multiple plant invaders by applying Parker et al.'s (1999) equation (impact = range x local abundance x per capita effect or per unit effect) using data from 620 survey plots from 31 grasslands across west-central Montana, USA. In testing for interactive effects of multiple invaders on native plant abundance (percent cover), we found no evidence for invasional meltdown or synergistic interactions for the 25 exotics tested. While much concern exists regarding impact thresholds, we also found little evidence for nonlinear relationships between invader abundance and impacts. These results suggest that management actions that reduce invader abundance should reduce invader impacts monotonically in this system. Eleven of 25 invaders had significant per unit impacts (negative local-scale relationships between invader and native cover). In decomposing the components of impact, we found that local invader abundance had a significant influence on the likelihood of impact, but range (number of plots occupied) did not. This analysis helped to differentiate measures of invasiveness (local abundance and range) from impact to distinguish high-impact invaders from invaders that exhibit negligible impacts, even when widespread. Distinguishing between high- and low-impact invaders should help refine trait-based prediction of problem species. Despite the unique information derived from evaluation of per unit effects of invaders, invasiveness 'scores based on range and local abundance produced similar rankings to impact scores that incorporated estimates of per unit effects. Hence, information on range and local abundance alone was sufficient to identify problematic plant invaders at the regional scale. In comparing empirical data on invader impacts to the state noxious weed list, we found that the noxious

  16. Impact of early psychosocial factors (childhood socioeconomic factors and adversities) on future risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic disturbances and obesity: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES) have a notable impact on health disparities, including type 2 diabetes risk. However, the link between childhood psychosocial factors, such as childhood adversities or parental SES, and metabolic disturbances is less well established. In addition, the lifetime perspective including adult socioeconomic factors remains of further interest. We carried out a systematic review with the main question if there is evidence in population- or community-based studies that childhood adversities (like neglect, traumata and deprivation) have considerable impact on type 2 diabetes incidence and other metabolic disturbances. Also, parental SES was included in the search as risk factor for both, diabetes and adverse childhood experiences. Finally, we assumed that obesity might be a mediator for the association of childhood adversities with diabetes incidence. Therefore, we carried out a second review on obesity, applying a similar search strategy. Methods Two systematic reviews were carried out. Longitudinal, population- or community-based studies were included if they contained data on psychosocial factors in childhood and either diabetes incidence or obesity risk. Results We included ten studies comprising a total of 200,381 individuals. Eight out of ten studies indicated that low parental status was associated with type 2 diabetes incidence or the development of metabolic abnormalities. Adjustment for adult SES and obesity tended to attenuate the childhood SES-attributable risk but the association remained. For obesity, eleven studies were included with a total sample size of 70,420 participants. Four out of eleven studies observed an independent association of low childhood SES on the risk for overweight and obesity later in life. Conclusions Taken together, there is evidence that childhood SES is associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity in later life. The database on the role of psychological factors such as

  17. Impact of climate extremes on wildlife plant flowering over Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegmund, J. F.; Wiedermann, M.; Donges, J. F.; Donner, R. V.

    2015-11-01

    Ongoing climate change is known to cause an increase in the frequency and amplitude of local temperature and precipitation extremes in many regions of the Earth. While gradual changes in the climatological conditions are known to strongly influence plant flowering dates, the question arises if and how extremes specifically impact the timing of this important phenological phase. In this study, we systematically quantify simultaneities between meteorological extremes and the timing of flowering of four shrub species across Germany by means of event coincidence analysis, a novel statistical tool that allows assessing whether or not two types of events exhibit similar sequences of occurrences. Our systematic investigation supports previous findings of experimental studies by highlighting the impact of early spring temperatures on the flowering of wildlife plants. In addition, we find statistically significant indications for some long-term relations reaching back to the previous year.

  18. The Global Plant Council: Increasing the impact of plant research to meet global challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists and world leaders are realizing that that we have little time to radically transform agriculture, work out how to grow more food on a sustainable basis without further degrading the environment, and improve our crop plants to cope with climate changes. But how can we increase the impact ...

  19. Replacement of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) at the DOE Gaseous Diffusion Plants: An assessment of global impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Socolof, M.L.; Saylor, R.E.; McCold, L.N.

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) operates two uranium enrichment plants. Together, the two plants maintain an inventory of approximately 14 million pounds of a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), dichlorote-trafluoroethane (CFC-114) as a coolant. Annual operational CFC-114 losses total over 500,000 pounds. In February, 1992, President Bush announced that the US would terminate manufacture and importation of Class 1 ozone depleting substances (including CFC-114) by the end of 1995. To comply with this requirement DOE has considered introducing a replacement coolant by the end of 1995. Two perfluorocarbons (PFCs) - namely, octofluoro-cyclobutane and decafluorobutane - are presently the only known coolants that could meet safety requirements. They would not contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion but contribute to global warming. The paper describes an analysis of the potential global impacts of the proposed replacement of CFC-114 with a PFC. A problem with analyses of global warming and ozone depletion impacts is that even large sources of compounds that contribute to these effects contribute only very small fractions of the total effect. The authors take the position that significant effects to global warming and ozone depletion have already occurred, and that any additional contribution to these effects are contributions to cumulatively significant adverse effects on the environment. The paper describes four alternatives and the extent to which each would contribute to global warming and ozone depletion.

  20. Plant surface reactions: an ozone defence mechanism impacting atmospheric chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jud, W.; Fischer, L.; Canaval, E.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Tissier, A.; Hansel, A.

    2015-07-01

    Elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations are considered a toxic threat to plants, responsible for global crop losses with associated economic costs of several billion dollars per year. Plant injuries have been linked to the uptake of ozone through stomatal pores and oxidative damage of the internal leaf tissue. But a striking question remains: how much ozone effectively enters the plant through open stomata and how much is lost by chemical reactions at the plant surface? In this laboratory study we could show that semi-volatile organic compounds exuded by the glandular trichomes of different Nicotiana tabacum varieties are an efficient ozone sink at the plant surface. In our experiments, different diterpenoid compounds were responsible for a strongly variety dependent ozone uptake of plants under dark conditions, when stomatal pores are almost closed. Surface reactions of ozone were accompanied by prompt release of oxygenated volatile organic compounds, which could be linked to the corresponding precursor compounds: ozonolysis of cis-abienol (C20H34O) - a diterpenoid with two exocyclic double bonds - caused emissions of formaldehyde (HCHO) and methyl vinyl ketone (C4H6O). The ring-structured cembratrien-diols (C20H34O2) with three endocyclic double bonds need at least two ozonolysis steps to form volatile carbonyls such as 4-oxopentanal (C5H8O2), which we could observe in the gas phase, too. Fluid dynamic calculations were used to model ozone distribution in the diffusion limited leaf boundary layer under daylight conditions. In the case of an ozone-reactive leaf surface, ozone gradients in the vicinity of stomatal pores are changed in such a way, that ozone flux through the open stomata is strongly reduced. Our results show that unsaturated semi-volatile compounds at the plant surface should be considered as a source of oxygenated volatile organic compounds, impacting gas phase chemistry, as well as efficient ozone sink improving the ozone tolerance of plants.

  1. Do genetically modified plants impact arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi?

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenke

    2010-02-01

    The development and use of genetically modified plants (GMPs), as well as their ecological risks have been a topic of considerable public debate since they were first released in 1996. To date, no consistent conclusions have been drawn dealing with ecological risks on soil microorganisms of GMPs for the present incompatible empirical data. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), important in regulating aboveground and underground processes in ecosystems, are the most crucial soil microbial community worthy of being monitored in ecological risks assessment of GMPs for their sensitivity to environmental alterations (plant, soil, climatic factor etc.). Based on current data, we suggest that there is a temporal-spatial relevance between expression and rhizosphere secretion of anti-disease and insecticidal proteins (e.g., Bt-Bacillus thuringiensis toxins) in and outer roots, and AMF intraradical and extraradical growth and development. Therefore, taking Bt transgenic plants (BTPs) for example, Bt insecticidal proteins constitutive expression and rhizosphere release during cultivation of BTPs may damage some critical steps of the AMF symbiotic development. More important, these processes of BTPs coincide with the entire life cycle of AMF annually, which may impact the diversity of AMF after long-term cultivation period. It is proposed that interactions between GMPs and AMF should be preferentially studied as an indicator for ecological impacts of GMPs on soil microbial communities. In this review, advances in impacts of GMPs on AMF and the effect mechanisms were summarized, highlighting the possible ecological implications of interactions between GMPs and AMF in soil ecosystems. PMID:19806453

  2. Identifying Impacts of Hydropower Regulation on Salmonid Habitats to Guide River Restoration for Existing Schemes and Mitigate Adverse Effects of Future Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buddendorf, B.; Geris, J.; Malcolm, I.; Wilkinson, M.; Soulsby, C.

    2015-12-01

    A decrease in longitudinal connectivity in riverine ecosystems resulting from the construction of transverse barriers has been identified as a major threat to biodiversity. For example, Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) have a seasonal variety of hydraulic habitat requirements for their different life stages. However, hydropower impoundments impact the spatial and temporal connectivity of natural habitat along many salmon rivers in ways that are not fully understood. Yet, these changes may affect the sustainability of habitat at local and regional scales and so ultimately the conservation of the species. Research is therefore needed both to aid the restoration and management of rivers impacted by previous hydropower development and guide new schemes to mitigate potentially adverse effects. To this end we assessed the effects of hydropower development on the flow related habitat conditions for different salmon life stages in Scottish rivers at different spatial scales. We used GIS techniques to map the changes in structural connectivity at regional scales, applying a weighting for habitat quality. Next, we used hydrological models to simulate past and present hydrologic conditions that in turn drive reach-scale hydraulic models to assess the impacts of regulation on habitat suitability in both space and time. Preliminary results indicate that: 1) impacts on connectivity depend on the location of the barrier within the river network; 2) multiple smaller barriers may have a potentially lower impact than a single larger barrier; 3) there is a relationship between habitat and connectivity where losing less but more suitable habitat potentially has a disproportionally large impact; 4) the impact of flow regulation can lead to a deterioration of habitat quality, though the effects are spatially variable and the extent of the impact depends on salmon life stage. This work can form a basis for using natural processes to perform targeted and cost-effective restoration of rivers.

  3. Hemiparasitic plant impacts animal and plant communities across four trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Hartley, S E; Green, P; Massey, F P; Press, M C P; Stewart, J A; John, E A

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the impact of species on community structure is a fundamental question in ecology. There is a growing body of evidence that suggests that both subdominant species and parasites can have disproportionately large effects on other organisms. Here we report those impacts for a species that is both subdominant and parasitic, the hemiparasite Rhinanthus minor. While the impact of parasitic angiosperms on their hosts and, to a lesser degree, coexisting plant species, has been well characterized, much less is known about their effects on higher trophic levels: We experimentally manipulated field densities of the hemiparasite Rhinanthus minor in a species-rich grassland, comparing the plant and invertebrate communities in plots where it was removed, present at natural densities, or present at enhanced densities. Plots with natural and enhanced densities of R. minor had lower plant biomass than plots without the hemiparasite, but enhanced densities almost doubled the abundance of invertebrates within the plots across all trophic levels, with effects evident in herbivores, predators, and detritivores. The hemiparasite R. minor, despite being a subdominant and transient component within plant communities that it inhabits, has profound effects on four different trophic levels. These effects persist beyond the life of the hemiparasite, emphasizing its role as a keystone species in grassland communities. PMID:26594698

  4. Index of Alien Impact: A method for evaluating potential ecological impact of alien plant species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alien plant species are stressors to ecosystems and indicators of reduced ecosystem integrity. The magnitude of the stress reflects not only the quantity of aliens present, but also the quality of their interactions with native ecosystems. We develop an Index of Alien Impact (IAI...

  5. Health impacts from power plant emissions in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, M. T.; Zuk, M.; Garibay, V.; Tzintzun, G.; Iniestra, R.; Fernández, A.

    Emissions from power plant pose a potentially large risk to human health and the environment. This pollution source is of particular concern in Mexico, where a large share of electricity is generated by the burning of high-sulfur fuel oil. In this paper, we estimate the health impacts due to air pollution from one of the Mexico's largest power plants, Tuxpan, located on the eastern coast. We calculate the annual average concentrations of primary and secondary (sulfates and nitrates) particulate matter, by modeling representative periods during the year 2001 using the CALPUFF-CALMET modeling system. We find that emissions from the power plant resulted in annual average concentrations of 0.12 μg m -3 (min-max: 0.00-1.43) for primary PM 2.5, 0.64 μg m -3 (0.01-2.84) for secondary PM 2.5 and 3.09 μg m -3 (0.01-41.54) for SO 2 in the 120 km×120 km modeling domain. Such concentrations, while mostly affecting a relatively rural area, could result in significant public health and economic impacts for the local population. It is important to consider such damages when evaluating different electricity generation and control technologies.

  6. Impact of single- vs double-layer closure on adverse outcomes and uterine scar defect: a systematic review and metaanalysis.

    PubMed

    Roberge, Stéphanie; Demers, Suzanne; Berghella, Vincenzo; Chaillet, Nils; Moore, Lynne; Bujold, Emmanuel

    2014-11-01

    A systematic review and metaanalysis were performed through electronic database searches to estimate the effect of uterine closure at cesarean on the risk of adverse maternal outcome and on uterine scar evaluated by ultrasound. Randomized controlled trials, which compared single vs double layers and locking vs unlocking sutures for uterine closure of low transverse cesarean, were included. Outcomes were short-term complications (endometritis, wound infection, maternal infectious morbidity, blood transfusion, duration of surgical procedure, length of hospital stay, mean blood loss), uterine rupture or dehiscence at next pregnancy, and uterine scar evaluation by ultrasound. Twenty of 1278 citations were included in the analysis. We found that all types of closure were comparable for short-term maternal outcomes, except for single-layer closure, which had shorter operative time (-6.1 minutes; 95% confidence interval [CI], -8.7 to -3.4; P < .001) than double-layer closure. Single layer (-2.6 mm; 95% CI, -3.1 to -2.1; P < .001) and locked first layer (mean difference, -2.5 mm; 95% CI, -3.2 to -1.8; P < .001) were associated with lower residual myometrial thickness. Two studies reported no significant difference between single- vs double-layer closure for uterine dehiscence (relative risk, 1.86; 95% CI, 0.44-7.90; P = .40) or uterine rupture (no case). In conclusion, current evidence based on randomized trials does not support a specific type of uterine closure for optimal maternal outcomes and is insufficient to conclude about the risk of uterine rupture. Single-layer closure and locked first layer are possibly coupled with thinner residual myometrium thickness. PMID:24912096

  7. Adverse impact of fibrin clot inhibitors on intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy for superficial bladder tumors.

    PubMed

    Hudson, M A; Yuan, J J; Catalona, W J; Ratliff, T L

    1990-12-01

    Although intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy has proved to be efficacious in the treatment and prophylaxis against tumor recurrence of superficial bladder tumors, its mechanism of action has not been fully elucidated. Previous work has suggested that bacillus Calmette-Guerin organisms attach to the matrix protein, fibronectin, during fibrin clot formation at sites of urothelial disruption and that this attachment was required for the antitumor effect of bacillus Calmette-Guerin to be expressed. Furthermore, drugs inhibiting clot formation were found to abrogate the antitumor effect of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy in a murine bladder tumor model. To examine the effect of inhibitors of fibrin clot formation on the results of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy, a retrospective analysis of 149 evaluable patients receiving intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin for superficial bladder tumors was performed. The over-all response rate free of tumor for 29 patients who concomitantly received inhibitors of fibrin clot formation with bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy was 48%, as compared with 67% for 120 patients who were not receiving these medications (p = 0.0655, chi-square). The most striking difference was noted for patients who failed with recurrent superficial disease. Of the patients who received fibrin clot inhibitors during intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy 35% had recurrent superficial tumors compared to only 8% of those who did not receive these drugs during a mean followup of 29.8 plus or minus 11 months (p = 0.005, chi-square). Our study suggests that inhibitors of fibrin clot formation may have an adverse influence on the results of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy for superficial bladder tumors. PMID:2231927

  8. Impact of High-Normal Blood Pressure Measured in Emergency Room on Adverse Cardiac Events in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Nam Sik; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Jong Hyun; Chae, Shung Chull; Kim, Young Jo; Hur, Seung Ho; Seong, In Whan; Hong, Taek Jong; Choi, Donghoon; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Chong Jin; Seung, Ki Bae; Chung, Wook Sung; Jang, Yang Soo; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Park, Seung Jung

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Prehypertension according to JNC7 is common and is associated with increased vascular mortality. The importance of management in high-normal blood pressure (BP) is underemphasized. Subjects and Methods We analyzed major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry in normal BP (group I) and high-normal BP (group II) patients. Results Among 14871 patients, 159 (61±12.3 years, 122 males) satisfied the study indication. Six-month and one-year clinical follow-up rate was 88.9% and 85.8%, respectively. Group I had 78 patients (60.9±12.4 years). Group II had 81 patients (61.6±12.5 years). Demographics of patients were not different between groups. Treatment strategy was not different. Initial Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction flow grade 0 was less frequent in group II (n=32, 47.1%) than in group I (n=16, 21.9%) (p=0.001). Successful intervention rate was not different between group II (93.8%) and group I (97.1%) (p=0.590). Six-month MACE occurred in 3 patients in group I (4.4%) and 10 in group II (15.6%) (p=0.031). Compared with normal BP, the odds ratio for patients with high-normal BP was 1.147 (p=0.045, 95% confidence interval 1.011-1.402) for 6-month MACE. Conclusion Even though high-normal BP patients had a better baseline clinical status, the prognosis was poorer than patients with normal BP. Therapeutic BP target goal for the patients with acute myocardial infarction should be <140/90 mm Hg, which is recommended in JNC7. PMID:22701132

  9. Envirotyping for deciphering environmental impacts on crop plants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yunbi

    2016-04-01

    Global climate change imposes increasing impacts on our environments and crop production. To decipher environmental impacts on crop plants, the concept "envirotyping" is proposed, as a third "typing" technology, complementing with genotyping and phenotyping. Environmental factors can be collected through multiple environmental trials, geographic and soil information systems, measurement of soil and canopy properties, and evaluation of companion organisms. Envirotyping contributes to crop modeling and phenotype prediction through its functional components, including genotype-by-environment interaction (GEI), genes responsive to environmental signals, biotic and abiotic stresses, and integrative phenotyping. Envirotyping, driven by information and support systems, has a wide range of applications, including environmental characterization, GEI analysis, phenotype prediction, near-iso-environment construction, agronomic genomics, precision agriculture and breeding, and development of a four-dimensional profile of crop science involving genotype (G), phenotype (P), envirotype (E) and time (T) (developmental stage). In the future, envirotyping needs to zoom into specific experimental plots and individual plants, along with the development of high-throughput and precision envirotyping platforms, to integrate genotypic, phenotypic and envirotypic information for establishing a high-efficient precision breeding and sustainable crop production system based on deciphered environmental impacts. PMID:26932121

  10. Impacts of elevated CO2 on plant-microbial interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, S.; Herman, D.; Nuccio, E. E.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Brodie, E.; He, Z.; Zhou, J.; Firestone, M.

    2014-12-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 levels are predicted to alter C cycling and terrestrial ecosystem functions through effects on plant-microbial interactions. Under elevated CO2, plants transfer more C belowground. However, the fate, transformation and consequence of this extra C in soil are not well understood. We examined the influence of eCO2 on the belowground C cycling using Avena fatua, a common Mediterranean annual grass, with its root associated microbial community across multiple plant growth stages over one-growing season. Avena grown under eCO2 (700 ppm) 13CO2 increased both total C allocated belowground and the amount of root-derived 13C in the mineral-associated fraction. Although eCO2 did not show any significant impact on the abundance (quantified by qPCR) and composition (assessed by MiSeq 16S and ITS sequencing) of rhizosphere microbial community at any sampling time point, small but significant shifts on rhizosphere microbial functional potential were detected using GeoChip 5.0. In addition, the rhizosphere effect (i.e., impact of roots on rhizosphere community versus bulk soil) was much stronger in plants grown under eCO2 than these under ambient CO2 (aCO2). The rhizosphere enriched genes included key functional genes involved in C, N, P and S cycling as well as stress response. The signal intensities of a number of C cycling genes shifted significantly in rhizosphere communities associated with plants grown under eCO2, and many of these genes are involved in the decomposition of low molecular weight C compounds. When plants became senescent, the abundance of some genes encoding enzymes capable of decomposing macromolecular C compounds (e.g., xylanase, endopolygalacturonase) were significant higher in the rhizosphere of Avena grown in eCO2 than aCO2 condition, which may be due to the higher amount of Avena root debris detected at the end of season. Understanding modulations of plant-microbial interactions due to changing climate may allow improved

  11. Climate impacts on bird and plant communities from altered animal-plant interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Thomas E.; Maron, John L.

    2012-03-01

    The contribution of climate change to declining populations of organisms remains a question of outstanding concern. Much attention to declining populations has focused on how changing climate drives phenological mismatches between animals and their food. Effects of climate on plant communities may provide an alternative, but particularly powerful, influence on animal populations because plants provide their habitats. Here, we show that abundances of deciduous trees and associated songbirds have declined with decreasing snowfall over 22 years of study in montane Arizona, USA. We experimentally tested the hypothesis that declining snowfall indirectly influences plants and associated birds by allowing greater over-winter herbivory by elk (Cervus canadensis). We excluded elk from one of two paired snowmelt drainages (10 ha per drainage), and replicated this paired experiment across three distant canyons. Over six years, we reversed multi-decade declines in plant and bird populations by experimentally inhibiting heavy winter herbivory associated with declining snowfall. Moreover, predation rates on songbird nests decreased in exclosures, despite higher abundances of nest predators, demonstrating the over-riding importance of habitat quality to avian recruitment. Thus, our results suggest that climate impacts on plant-animal interactions can have forceful ramifying effects on plants, birds, and ecological interactions.

  12. Global Invader Impact Network (GIIN): toward standardized evaluation of the ecological impacts of invasive plants

    PubMed Central

    Barney, Jacob N; Tekiela, Daniel R; Barrios-Garcia, Maria Noelia; Dimarco, Romina D; Hufbauer, Ruth A; Leipzig-Scott, Peter; Nuñez, Martin A; Pauchard, Aníbal; Pyšek, Petr; Vítková, Michaela; Maxwell, Bruce D

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial invasive plants are a global problem and are becoming ubiquitous components of most ecosystems. They are implicated in altering disturbance regimes, reducing biodiversity, and changing ecosystem function, sometimes in profound and irreversible ways. However, the ecological impacts of most invasive plants have not been studied experimentally, and most research to date focuses on few types of impacts, which can vary greatly among studies. Thus, our knowledge of existing ecological impacts ascribed to invasive plants is surprisingly limited in both breadth and depth. Our aim was to propose a standard methodology for quantifying baseline ecological impact that, in theory, is scalable to any terrestrial plant invader (e.g., annual grasses to trees) and any invaded system (e.g., grassland to forest). The Global Invader Impact Network (GIIN) is a coordinated distributed experiment composed of an observational and manipulative methodology. The protocol consists of a series of plots located in (1) an invaded area; (2) an adjacent removal treatment within the invaded area; and (3) a spatially separate uninvaded area thought to be similar to pre-invasion conditions of the invaded area. A standardized and inexpensive suite of community, soil, and ecosystem metrics are collected allowing broad comparisons among measurements, populations, and species. The method allows for one-time comparisons and for long-term monitoring enabling one to derive information about change due to invasion over time. Invader removal plots will also allow for quantification of legacy effects and their return rates, which will be monitored for several years. GIIN uses a nested hierarchical scale approach encompassing multiple sites, regions, and continents. Currently, GIIN has network members in six countries, with new members encouraged. To date, study species include representatives of annual and perennial grasses; annual and perennial forbs; shrubs; and trees. The goal of the GIIN

  13. Global Invader Impact Network (GIIN): toward standardized evaluation of the ecological impacts of invasive plants.

    PubMed

    Barney, Jacob N; Tekiela, Daniel R; Barrios-Garcia, Maria Noelia; Dimarco, Romina D; Hufbauer, Ruth A; Leipzig-Scott, Peter; Nuñez, Martin A; Pauchard, Aníbal; Pyšek, Petr; Vítková, Michaela; Maxwell, Bruce D

    2015-07-01

    Terrestrial invasive plants are a global problem and are becoming ubiquitous components of most ecosystems. They are implicated in altering disturbance regimes, reducing biodiversity, and changing ecosystem function, sometimes in profound and irreversible ways. However, the ecological impacts of most invasive plants have not been studied experimentally, and most research to date focuses on few types of impacts, which can vary greatly among studies. Thus, our knowledge of existing ecological impacts ascribed to invasive plants is surprisingly limited in both breadth and depth. Our aim was to propose a standard methodology for quantifying baseline ecological impact that, in theory, is scalable to any terrestrial plant invader (e.g., annual grasses to trees) and any invaded system (e.g., grassland to forest). The Global Invader Impact Network (GIIN) is a coordinated distributed experiment composed of an observational and manipulative methodology. The protocol consists of a series of plots located in (1) an invaded area; (2) an adjacent removal treatment within the invaded area; and (3) a spatially separate uninvaded area thought to be similar to pre-invasion conditions of the invaded area. A standardized and inexpensive suite of community, soil, and ecosystem metrics are collected allowing broad comparisons among measurements, populations, and species. The method allows for one-time comparisons and for long-term monitoring enabling one to derive information about change due to invasion over time. Invader removal plots will also allow for quantification of legacy effects and their return rates, which will be monitored for several years. GIIN uses a nested hierarchical scale approach encompassing multiple sites, regions, and continents. Currently, GIIN has network members in six countries, with new members encouraged. To date, study species include representatives of annual and perennial grasses; annual and perennial forbs; shrubs; and trees. The goal of the GIIN

  14. Impact of the Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant on atmospheric radiocarbon.

    PubMed

    Povinec, P P; Sivo, A; Simon, J; Holý, K; Chudý, M; Richtáriková, M; Morávek, J

    2008-11-01

    Radiocarbon variations in the atmospheric CO(2) have been observed at two localities in Slovakia (Bratislava and Zlkovce). Zlkovce is situated about 60 km NE from Bratislava, and only 5 km from the Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The observed Delta(14)C levels provide a unique evidence of the long-term impact of the Bohunice NPP on the Bratislava region, as well as on the decreased fossil fuel CO(2) emissions. The radiation doses estimated to the local public have been around 3 microSv/year, 20% of the dose from global fallout (14)C present in the environment. PMID:18534859

  15. Impact of Plant Noise on BWR Stability Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, J.G.M.; Pearson, G.; Chung, A.K.; Heck, C.L.; Vedovi, J.

    2007-07-01

    A small amount of thermal-hydraulic noise is present in a boiling water reactor (BWR). The noise originates primarily from minor fluctuations in fluid flow and pressure distribution in the recirculation system of the BWR and manifests itself as a small fluctuation on the order of 1-2% for the average power range monitors (APRM) during normal operation. A larger noise level is observed for single-loop operation than for two-loop operation. This noise has an impact on the stability performance of the BWR. This is particularly the case when the noise contains a significant component at the resonant frequency for BWR instabilities, which is typically on the order of 0.5 Hz. For a pump trip event that can lead to instability, the noise will impact the growth rate of the reactor instability. The initial magnitude of the oscillations will be larger as the decay ratio increases above unity. For operation at low flow, such as for minimum pump speed or single loop operation where the decay ratio is larger, the impact of noise could lead to small oscillations at the resonant frequency for the APRM signals. The impact of noise on BWR instabilities is analyzed with the TRACG code. TRACG consists of a multi dimensional two-fluid thermal hydraulics model and the three-dimensional kinetics model consistent with the GE 3D core simulator, PANACEA. TRACG models the reactor primary system and has been extensively qualified against test data and BWR plant data. Thermal hydraulic instability test data, as well as data from BWR instability events and tests, have been used extensively in this qualification. This paper demonstrates the impact of noise on BWR stability response for events leading to instability, such as pump trip events, as well as operation at low core flow due to single loop operation. The impact is illustrated through sensitivity studies with the TRACG code and by comparison to plant data. The impact of reactor noise on the performance of the instability detection system

  16. Mountain pastures of Qilian Shan: plant communities, grazing impact and degradation status (Gansu province, NW China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranova, Alina; Schickhoff, Udo; Shunli, Wang; Ming, Jin

    2015-04-01

    Qilian Mountains are the water source region for the low arid reaches of HeiHe river basin (Gansu province, NW China). Due to overstocking and overgrazing during the last decades adverse ecological ef¬fects, in particular on soil properties and hydrological cycle, are to be expected in growing land areas. Vegetation cover is very important to prevent erosion process and to sustain stable subsurface runoff and ground water flow. The aim of this research is to identify plant communities, detecting grazing-induced and spatially differentiated changes in vegetation patterns, and to evaluate status of pasture land degradation.The study area is located in the spring/autumn pasture area of South Qilian Mountains between 2600-3600 m a.s.l., covering five main vegetation types: spruce forest, alpine shrubland, shrubby grassland, mountain grassland, degraded mountain grassland. In order to analyze gradual changes in vegetation patterns along altitudinal and grazing gradients and to classify related plant communities, quantitative and qualitative relevé data were collected (coverage, species composition, abundance of unpalatable plants, plant functional types, etc.). Vegetation was classified using hierarchical cluster analyses. Indirect Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) was used to analyze variation in relationships between vegetation, environmental factors, and grazing impact. According to DCA results, distribution of the plant communities was strongly affected by altitude and exposition. Grassland floristic gradients showed greater dependence on grazing impact, which correlated contrarily with soil organic content, soil moisture and pH. Highest numbers of species richness and alpha diversity were detected in alpine shrubland vegetation type. Comparing the monitoring data for the recent nine years, a trend of deterioration, species successions and shift in dominant species becomes obvious. Species indicating degrading site environmental conditions were identified

  17. Self-reinforcing impacts of plant invasions change over time.

    PubMed

    Yelenik, Stephanie G; D'Antonio, Carla M

    2013-11-28

    Returning native species to habitats degraded by biological invasions is a critical conservation goal. A leading hypothesis poses that exotic plant dominance is self-reinforced by impacts on ecosystem processes, leading to persistent stable states. Invaders have been documented to modify fire regimes, alter soil nutrients or shift microbial communities in ways that feed back to benefit themselves over competitors. However, few studies have followed invasions through time to ask whether ecosystem impacts and feedbacks persist. Here we return to woodland sites in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park that were invaded by exotic C4 grasses in the 1960s, the ecosystem impacts of which were studied intensively in the 1990s. We show that positive feedbacks between exotic grasses and soil nitrogen cycling have broken down, but rather than facilitating native vegetation, the weakening feedbacks facilitate new exotic species. Data from the 1990s showed that exotic grasses increased nitrogen-mineralization rates by two- to fourfold, but were nitrogen-limited. Thus, the impacts of the invader created a positive feedback early in the invasion. We now show that annual net soil nitrogen mineralization has since dropped to pre-invasion levels. In addition, a seedling outplanting experiment that varied soil nitrogen and grass competition demonstrates that the changing impacts of grasses do not favour native species re-establishment. Instead, decreased nitrogen availability most benefits another aggressive invader, the nitrogen-fixing tree Morella faya. Long-term studies of invasions may reveal that ecosystem impacts and feedbacks shift over time, but that this may not benefit native species recovery. PMID:24256723

  18. Medical and Genetic Differences in the Adverse Impact of Sleep Loss on Performance: Ethical Considerations for the Medical Profession

    PubMed Central

    Czeisler, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    without unacceptably compromising patient safety? Moreover, once it is possible to identify reliably those most vulnerable to the adverse effects of sleep loss on performance, will academic medical centers have an obligation to evaluate the proficiency of both residents and staff physicians under conditions of acute and chronic sleep deprivation? Should work-hour policy limits be modified to ensure that they are not hazardous for the patients of the most vulnerable quartile of physicians, or should the limits be personalized to enable the most resistant quartile to work longer hours? Given that the prevalence of sleep disorders has increased in our society overall, and increases markedly with age, how should fitness for extended duration work hours be monitored over a physician's career? In the spirit of the dictum to do no harm, advances in understanding the medical and genetic basis of inter-individual differences in the performance vulnerability to sleep loss should be incorporated into the development of work-hour policy limits for both physicians and surgeons. PMID:19768182

  19. Medical and genetic differences in the adverse impact of sleep loss on performance: ethical considerations for the medical profession.

    PubMed

    Czeisler, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    without unacceptably compromising patient safety? Moreover, once it is possible to identify reliably those most vulnerable to the adverse effects of sleep loss on performance, will academic medical centers have an obligation to evaluate the proficiency of both residents and staff physicians under conditions of acute and chronic sleep deprivation? Should work-hour policy limits be modified to ensure that they are not hazardous for the patients of the most vulnerable quartile of physicians, or should the limits be personalized to enable the most resistant quartile to work longer hours? Given that the prevalence of sleep disorders has increased in our society overall, and increases markedly with age, how should fitness for extended duration work hours be monitored over a physician's career? In the spirit of the dictum to do no harm, advances in understanding the medical and genetic basis of inter-individual differences in the performance vulnerability to sleep loss should be incorporated into the development of work-hour policy limits for both physicians and surgeons. PMID:19768182

  20. Trading places - an innovative SO{sub 2} trading program to mitigate potential adverse impacts on class I areas: part II. Mitigation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Louis Militana; Cindy Huber; Christopher Colbert; Chris Arrington; Don Shepherd

    2005-08-01

    This is the second of two articles describing a plan that was developed to mitigate the effects of acid deposition and visibility impairment in four Class I areas from the proposed Longview Power Project. Part I (published in July 2005) discussed the air quality impacts of the proposed coal-fired power plant. Part II discusses the mitigation plan. 2 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  1. Climate impacts on bird and plant communities from altered animal-plant interactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Thomas E.; Maron, John L.

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of climate change to declining populations of organisms remains a question of outstanding concern. Much attention to declining populations has focused on how changing climate drives phenological mismatches between animals and their food. Effects of climate on plant communities may provide an alternative, but particularly powerful, influence on animal populations because plants provide their habitats. Here, we show that abundances of deciduous trees and associated songbirds have declined with decreasing snowfall over 22 years of study in montane Arizona, USA. We experimentally tested the hypothesis that declining snowfall indirectly influences plants and associated birds by allowing greater over-winter herbivory by elk (Cervus canadensis). We excluded elk from one of two paired snowmelt drainages (10 ha per drainage), and replicated this paired experiment across three distant canyons. Over six years, we reversed multi-decade declines in plant and bird populations by experimentally inhibiting heavy winter herbivory associated with declining snowfall. Moreover, predation rates on songbird nests decreased in exclosures, despite higher abundances of nest predators, demonstrating the over-riding importance of habitat quality to avian recruitment. Thus, our results suggest that climate impacts on plant–animal interactions can have forceful ramifying effects on plants, birds, and ecological interactions.

  2. Impacts of TMDLs on coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-04-30

    The Clean Water Act (CWA) includes as one of its goals restoration and maintenance of the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters. The CWA established various programs to accomplish that goal. Among the programs is a requirement for states to establish water quality standards that will allow protection of the designated uses assigned to each water body. Once those standards are set, state agencies must sample the water bodies to determine if water quality requirements are being met. For those water bodies that are not achieving the desired water quality, the state agencies are expected to develop total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) that outline the maximum amount of each pollutant that can be discharged to the water body and still maintain acceptable water quality. The total load is then allocated to the existing point and nonpoint sources, with some allocation held in reserve as a margin of safety. Many states have already developed and implemented TMDLs for individual water bodies or regional areas. New and revised TMDLs are anticipated, however, as federal and state regulators continue their examination of water quality across the United States and the need for new or revised standards. This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements its overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. One of the program missions of the DOE's NETL is to develop innovative environmental control technologies that will enable full use of the Nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. Some of the parameters for which TMDLs are being developed are components in discharges from coal-fired power

  3. Environmental impact of coal industry and thermal power plants in India.

    PubMed

    Mishra, U C

    2004-01-01

    Coal is the only natural resource and fossil fuel available in abundance in India. Consequently, it is used widely as a thermal energy source and also as fuel for thermal power plants producing electricity. India has about 90,000 MW installed capacity for electricity generation, of which more than 70% is produced by coal-based thermal power plants. Hydro-electricity contributes about 25%, and the remaining is mostly from nuclear power plants (NPPs). The problems associated with the use of coal are low calorific value and very high ash content. The ash content is as high as 55-60%, with an average value of about 35-40%. Further, most of the coal is located in the eastern parts of the country and requires transportation over long distances, mostly by trains, which run on diesel. About 70% oil is imported and is a big drain on India's hard currency. In the foreseeable future, there is no other option likely to be available, as the nuclear power programme envisages installing 20,000 MWe by the year 2020, when it will still be around 5% of the installed capacity. Hence, attempts are being made to reduce the adverse environmental and ecological impact of coal-fired power plants. The installed electricity generating capacity has to increase very rapidly (at present around 8-10% per annum), as India has one of the lowest per capita electricity consumptions. Therefore, the problems for the future are formidable from ecological, radio-ecological and pollution viewpoints. A similar situation exists in many developing countries of the region, including the People's Republic of China, where coal is used extensively. The paper highlights some of these problems with the data generated in the author's laboratory and gives a brief description of the solutions being attempted. The extent of global warming in this century will be determined by how developing countries like India manage their energy generation plans. Some of the recommendations have been implemented for new plants

  4. Adverse impacts of pasture abandonment in Himalayan protected areas: Testing the efficiency of a Natural Resource Management Plan (NRMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Nautiyal, Sunil . E-mail: sunil.nautiyal@zalf.de; Kaechele, Harald

    2007-03-15

    The high elevational areas in the Himalayas of India are dominated by forests and alpine pastures. There are many protected areas in the region, including Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR) and Valley of Flowers (VOF) where natural resource management plan (NRMP) has been implemented for the conservation of biodiversity. This has affected the traditional animal husbandry system, as well as the vegetation dynamics of alpine pastures. An integrated approach to studying the impact of NRMP in the region has been applied by us. First, a survey was conducted regarding livestock management, data pertaining the livestock husbandry, the role of animal husbandry in economics of rural household, and socioeconomics. Second, field based study on phytosociology of some important alpine herbs was done to enumerate the density and species richness in different land mark of the region. Thereafter, satellite data and Geographic Information System (GIS) were used to develop a land cover map of the area and to note changes in the landscape over time after implementation of NRMP. From an economic point of view the implementation of such plan is a setback to the rural economy. However, the ecological perspective of such models is a threat to the diversity of alpine pastures. The invasion of bushes/thorny bushes/shrubs and weeds with their luxuriant growth is changing the vegetation index and dynamics. Consequently, the diversity of herbs in alpine pastures of the Himalayan Mountains is in jeopardy. Overall, the situation is leading to landscape change in the region. This study is helpful for generating useful outcomes and strategies considering the question or debate 'is grazing good or bad for pasture ecosystems in the Himalayas?'.

  5. Chloroplast Iron Transport Proteins - Function and Impact on Plant Physiology.

    PubMed

    López-Millán, Ana F; Duy, Daniela; Philippar, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplasts originated about three billion years ago by endosymbiosis of an ancestor of today's cyanobacteria with a mitochondria-containing host cell. During evolution chloroplasts of higher plants established as the site for photosynthesis and thus became the basis for all life dependent on oxygen and carbohydrate supply. To fulfill this task, plastid organelles are loaded with the transition metals iron, copper, and manganese, which due to their redox properties are essential for photosynthetic electron transport. In consequence, chloroplasts for example represent the iron-richest system in plant cells. However, improvement of oxygenic photosynthesis in turn required adaptation of metal transport and homeostasis since metal-catalyzed generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) causes oxidative damage. This is most acute in chloroplasts, where radicals and transition metals are side by side and ROS-production is a usual feature of photosynthetic electron transport. Thus, on the one hand when bound by proteins, chloroplast-intrinsic metals are a prerequisite for photoautotrophic life, but on the other hand become toxic when present in their highly reactive, radical generating, free ionic forms. In consequence, transport, storage and cofactor-assembly of metal ions in plastids have to be tightly controlled and are crucial throughout plant growth and development. In the recent years, proteins for iron transport have been isolated from chloroplast envelope membranes. Here, we discuss their putative functions and impact on cellular metal homeostasis as well as photosynthetic performance and plant metabolism. We further consider the potential of proteomic analyses to identify new players in the field. PMID:27014281

  6. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, D.D.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; ET AL.

    2004-03-30

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. There are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows (Lopez et al. 2003)). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg

  7. Economic Impact of Adverse Drug Events – A Retrospective Population-Based Cohort Study of 4970 Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gyllensten, Hanna; Hakkarainen, Katja M.; Hägg, Staffan; Carlsten, Anders; Petzold, Max; Rehnberg, Clas; Jönsson, Anna K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim was to estimate the direct costs caused by ADEs, including costs for dispensed drugs, primary care, other outpatient care, and inpatient care, and to relate the direct costs caused by ADEs to the societal COI (direct and indirect costs), for patients with ADEs and for the entire study population. Methods We conducted a population-based observational retrospective cohort study of ADEs identified from medical records. From a random sample of 5025 adults in a Swedish county council, 4970 were included in the analyses. During a three-month study period in 2008, direct and indirect costs were estimated from resource use identified in the medical records and from register data on costs for resource use. Results Among 596 patients with ADEs, the average direct costs per patient caused by ADEs were USD 444.9 [95% CI: 264.4 to 625.3], corresponding to USD 21 million per 100 000 adult inhabitants per year. Inpatient care accounted for 53.9% of all direct costs caused by ADEs. For patients with ADEs, the average societal cost of illness was USD 6235.0 [5442.8 to 7027.2], of which direct costs were USD 2830.1 [2260.7 to 3399.4] (45%), and indirect costs USD 3404.9 [2899.3 to 3910.4] (55%). The societal cost of illness was higher for patients with ADEs compared to other patients. ADEs caused 9.5% of all direct healthcare costs in the study population. Conclusions Healthcare costs for patients with ADEs are substantial across different settings; in primary care, other outpatient care and inpatient care. Hence the economic impact of ADEs will be underestimated in studies focusing on inpatient ADEs alone. Moreover, the high proportion of indirect costs in the societal COI for patients with ADEs suggests that the observed costs caused by ADEs would be even higher if including indirect costs. Additional studies are needed to identify interventions to prevent and manage ADEs. PMID:24637879

  8. The Metabolic Plant Feedback Hypothesis: How Plant Secondary Metabolites Nonspecifically Impact Human Health.

    PubMed

    Gertsch, Jürg

    2016-07-01

    Humans can ingest gram amounts of plant secondary metabolites daily through diet. Many of these phytochemicals are bioactive beyond our current understanding because they act through weak negative biological feedback mechanisms, undetectable in vitro. Homeostatic-type assessments shed light on the evolutionary implications of the human diet from plants, giving rise to the metabolic plant feedback hypothesis. The hypothesis states that ancient diets rich in carbohydrates coincide with bulk dietary phytochemicals that act as nonspecific inhibitors of metabolic and inflammatory processes. Consequently, food-derived phytochemicals are likely to be equally effective as herbal medicines for these indications. In addition to the ubiquitous flavonoids, terpenoids, and fatty acids in the diet, the likely impact of chronic chlorophyll ingestion on human health is discussed, and data on its modulation of blood glucose levels are presented. A major deduction of this hypothesis is that starchy diets lacking plant secondary metabolites are associated with multimorbidity (lifestyle diseases) including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. It is proposed that the intake of leafy vegetables, spices, and herbal remedies rich in phytochemicals matches the transition and genetic adaptation to early agriculture, playing a compensatory role in the mismatch of old genes and new diets. PMID:27286339

  9. Inter-pregnancy weight change impacts placental weight and is associated with the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the second pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The inter-pregnancy period is considered a teachable moment when women are receptive to weight- management guidance aimed at optimising pregnancy outcome in subsequent pregnancies. In population based studies inter-pregnancy weight change is associated with several adverse pregnancy outcomes but the impact on placental size is unknown. Methods The association between inter-pregnancy weight change and the primary risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the second pregnancy was investigated in 12,740 women with first two consecutive deliveries at a single hospital using logistic regression. Results Compared with women who were weight stable, weight loss (>1BMI unit) between pregnancies was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous preterm delivery, low placental weight and small for gestational age (SGA) birth, while weight gain (>3BMI units) increased the risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, emergency caesarean section, placental oversize and large for gestational age (LGA) birth at the second pregnancy. The relationship between weight gain and pre-eclampsia risk was evident in women who were overweight at first pregnancy only (BMI ≥25 units), while that between weight loss and preterm delivery was confined to women with a healthy weight at first pregnancy (BMI <25 units). In contrast, the association between weight loss and SGA was independent of first pregnancy BMI. A higher percentage of women who were obese at first pregnancy were likely to experience a large weight gain (P < 0.01) or weight loss (P < 0.001) between consecutive pregnancies compared with the normal BMI reference group. Conclusion Inter-pregnancy weight change in either direction increases the risk of a number of contrasting pregnancy complications, including extremes of placental weight. The placenta may lie on the causal pathway between BMI change and the risk of LGA or SGA birth. PMID:24450357

  10. Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    This volume contains the appendices for the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Alternative geologic environs are considered. Salt, crystalline rock, argillaceous rock, and tuff are discussed. Studies on alternate geologic regions for the siting of WIPP are reviewed. President Carter's message to Congress on the management of radioactive wastes and the findings and recommendations of the interagency review group on nuclear waste management are included. Selection criteria for the WIPP site including geologic, hydrologic, tectonic, physicochemical compatability, and socio-economic factors are presented. A description of the waste types and the waste processing procedures are given. Methods used to calculate radiation doses from radionuclide releases during operation are presented. A complete description of the Los Medanos site, including archaeological and historic aspects is included. Environmental monitoring programs and long-term safety analysis program are described. (DMC)

  11. SNP Markers and Their Impact on Plant Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Mammadov, Jafar; Aggarwal, Rajat; Buyyarapu, Ramesh; Kumpatla, Siva

    2012-01-01

    The use of molecular markers has revolutionized the pace and precision of plant genetic analysis which in turn facilitated the implementation of molecular breeding of crops. The last three decades have seen tremendous advances in the evolution of marker systems and the respective detection platforms. Markers based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have rapidly gained the center stage of molecular genetics during the recent years due to their abundance in the genomes and their amenability for high-throughput detection formats and platforms. Computational approaches dominate SNP discovery methods due to the ever-increasing sequence information in public databases; however, complex genomes pose special challenges in the identification of informative SNPs warranting alternative strategies in those crops. Many genotyping platforms and chemistries have become available making the use of SNPs even more attractive and efficient. This paper provides a review of historical and current efforts in the development, validation, and application of SNP markers in QTL/gene discovery and plant breeding by discussing key experimental strategies and cases exemplifying their impact. PMID:23316221

  12. The Impact of Inherited Thrombophilia Types and Low Molecular Weight Heparin Treatment on Pregnancy Complications in Women with Previous Adverse Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Aracic, Nada; Roje, Damir; Jakus, Ivana Alujevic; Bakotin, Marinela

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the distribution of births and spontaneous abortions, first-trimester abortion (FTA) and mid-trimester abortion (MTA), in untreated (n=128) and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) treated pregnancies (n=50) of the same women with inherited thrombophilias and adverse pregnancy outcome (APO) in previous pregnancies. We particularly investigated the impact of LMWH on reducing the pregnancy complications in two thrombophilia types, "Conventional" and "Novel". Materials and Methods 50 women with inherited thrombophilia (26 Conventional and 24 Novel) and APO in previous pregnancies were included in the study. Conventional group included factor V Leiden (FVL), prothrombin G20210A (PT) mutations and antithrombin (AT), protein S (PS), and protein C (PC) deficiency, while the Novel group included methylentetrahydrofolate-reductase (MTHFR), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) polymorphism. APO was defined as one of the following: preterm birth (PTB), fetal growth restriction (FGR), preeclampsia (PE), intrauterine fetal death (IUFD), placental abruption (PA) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Results There was no difference in distribution of births and spontaneous abortions between Conventional and Novel thrombophilia in untreated pregnancies (χ2=2.7; p=0.100) and LMWH treated pregnancies (χ2=0.442; p=0.506). In untreaed pregnancies thrombophilia type did not have any impact on the frequency of FTA and MTA (χ2=0.14; p=0.711). In birth-ended pregnancies LMWH treatement reduced the incidence of IUFD (p=0.011) in Conventional and FGR, IUFD, and PTB in Novel thrombophilia group. Conclusion The equal impact of two thrombophilia types on the pregnancy outcomes and a more favorable effect of LMWH therapy on pregnancy complications in Novel thrombophilia group point the need for Novel thrombophilias screening and the future studies on this issue should be recommended. PMID:27401656

  13. Remote sensing of future competitors: Impacts on plant defenses

    PubMed Central

    Izaguirre, Miriam M.; Mazza, Carlos A.; Biondini, Mariela; Baldwin, Ian T.; Ballaré, Carlos L.

    2006-01-01

    Far-red radiation (FR) reflected by green tissues is a key signal that plants use to detect the proximity of future competitors. Perception of increased levels of FR elicits a suite of responses collectively known as the shade-avoidance syndrome, which includes increased stem elongation, production of erect leaves, and reduced lateral branching. These responses improve the access to light for plants that occur in crowded populations. Responses to the proximity of competitors are known to affect the susceptibility to disease and predation in several organisms, including social animals. However, the impacts of warning signals of competition on the expression of defenses have not been explicitly investigated in plants. In the experiments reported here, we show that reflected FR induced a dramatic down-regulation of chemical defenses in wild tobacco (Nicotiana longiflora). FR altered the expression of several defense-related genes, inhibited the accumulation of herbivore-induced phenolic compounds, and augmented the performance of the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta. Complementary studies with tomato suggested that the effects of FR on defenses are mediated by the photoreceptor phytochrome B. The central implication of these results is that shade-intolerant species such as wild tobacco and tomato activate functional changes that affect their ability to cope with herbivore attack in response to phytochrome signals of future competition, even in the absence of real competition for resources. These findings suggest that competition overshadowed herbivory during the evolution of this group of species and add a new axis to the definition of the shade-avoidance syndrome. PMID:16632610

  14. Remote sensing of future competitors: impacts on plant defenses.

    PubMed

    Izaguirre, Miriam M; Mazza, Carlos A; Biondini, Mariela; Baldwin, Ian T; Ballaré, Carlos L

    2006-05-01

    Far-red radiation (FR) reflected by green tissues is a key signal that plants use to detect the proximity of future competitors. Perception of increased levels of FR elicits a suite of responses collectively known as the shade-avoidance syndrome, which includes increased stem elongation, production of erect leaves, and reduced lateral branching. These responses improve the access to light for plants that occur in crowded populations. Responses to the proximity of competitors are known to affect the susceptibility to disease and predation in several organisms, including social animals. However, the impacts of warning signals of competition on the expression of defenses have not been explicitly investigated in plants. In the experiments reported here, we show that reflected FR induced a dramatic down-regulation of chemical defenses in wild tobacco (Nicotiana longiflora). FR altered the expression of several defense-related genes, inhibited the accumulation of herbivore-induced phenolic compounds, and augmented the performance of the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta. Complementary studies with tomato suggested that the effects of FR on defenses are mediated by the photoreceptor phytochrome B. The central implication of these results is that shade-intolerant species such as wild tobacco and tomato activate functional changes that affect their ability to cope with herbivore attack in response to phytochrome signals of future competition, even in the absence of real competition for resources. These findings suggest that competition overshadowed herbivory during the evolution of this group of species and add a new axis to the definition of the shade-avoidance syndrome. PMID:16632610

  15. A review of major factors influencing plant responses to recreation impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuss, Fred R.

    1986-09-01

    This article reviews some of the more important factors found to influence the susceptibility of plants to trampling impacts associated with recreational use of natural areas. A three-way interaction mediates plant responses to impacts: plant x environment x stress level(s). Plant responses vary in part according to the genetic constitution of the plant, life and growth form, the adaptive flexibility of the plant, and anatomical differences inherent to growth habit and morphology. Other factors that influence plant sensitivities to impacts are the habitat environments in which plants grow, since a number of conditions such as moisture excesses or deficiencies, nitrogen or oxygen starvation, late frosts, etc., cause physiological injury and may increase plant sensitivity to impacts. Among the environmental factors that may increase or lessen plant sensitivities to impacts are soil moisture levels, canopy density, elevation, aspect, microclimate, soil drainage, texture, fertility and productivity. Seasonal influences also bear consideration since environmental changes and phonological and physiological events are mediated by time of year. Stresses are caused by both direct and indirect forms of impact and vary according to season of use, frequency and amount of use, and the type of activity. These interactions are further complicated by evidence that inter- and intraspecific competition, antagonism, and commensalism may influence differences in the sensitivity of plant communities to impacts.

  16. Air quality impacts of power plant emissions in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jiming; Wang, Litao; Shen, Minjia; Li, Lin; Hu, Jingnan

    2007-05-01

    The CALMET/CALPUFF modeling system was applied to estimate the air quality impacts of power plants in 2000 and 2008 in Beijing, and the intake fractions (IF) were calculated to see the public health risks posed. Results show that in 2000 the high emission contribution induced a relatively small contribution to average ambient concentration and a significant impact on the urban area (9.52 microg/m(3) of SO(2) and 5.29 microg/m(3) of NO(x)). The IF of SO(2), NO(x) and PM(10) are 7.4 x 10(-6), 7.4 x 10(-6) and 8.7 x 10(-5), respectively. Control measures such as fuel substitution, flue gas desulfurization, dust control improvement and flue gas denitration planned before 2008 will greatly mitigate the SO(2) and PM(10) pollution, especially alleviating the pressure on the urban area to reach the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). NO(x) pollution will be mitigated with 34% decrease in concentration but further controls are still needed. PMID:16899328

  17. Impacts of the Fukushima nuclear power plants on marine radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Buesseler, Ken; Aoyama, Michio; Fukasawa, Masao

    2011-12-01

    The impacts on the ocean of releases of radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants remain unclear. However, information has been made public regarding the concentrations of radioactive isotopes of iodine and cesium in ocean water near the discharge point. These data allow us to draw some basic conclusions about the relative levels of radionuclides released which can be compared to prior ocean studies and be used to address dose consequences as discussed by Garnier-Laplace et al. in this journal. The data show peak ocean discharges in early April, one month after the earthquake and a factor of 1000 decrease in the month following. Interestingly, the concentrations through the end of July remain higher than expected implying continued releases from the reactors or other contaminated sources, such as groundwater or coastal sediments. By July, levels of (137)Cs are still more than 10,000 times higher than levels measured in 2010 in the coastal waters off Japan. Although some radionuclides are significantly elevated, dose calculations suggest minimal impact on marine biota or humans due to direct exposure in surrounding ocean waters, though considerations for biological uptake and consumption of seafood are discussed and further study is warranted. PMID:22013920

  18. Screening for adverse events.

    PubMed

    Karson, A S; Bates, D W

    1999-02-01

    Adverse events (AEs) in medical patients are common, costly, and often preventable. Development of quality improvement programs to decrease the number and impact of AEs demands effective methods for screening for AEs on a routine basis. Here we describe the impact, types, and potential causes of AEs and review various techniques for identifying AEs. We evaluate the use of generic screening criteria in detail and describe a recent study of the sensitivity and specificity of individual generic screening criteria and combinations of these criteria. In general, the most sensitive screens were the least specific and no small sub-set of screens identified a large percentage of adverse events. Combinations of screens that were limited to administrative data were the least expensive, but none were particularly sensitive, although in practice they might be effective since routine screening is currently rarely done. As computer systems increase in sophistication sensitivity will improve. We also discuss recent studies that suggest that programs that screen for and identify AEs can be useful in reducing AE rates. While tools for identifying AEs have strengths and weaknesses, they can play an important role in organizations' quality improvement portfolios. PMID:10468381

  19. Diet breadth influences how the impact of invasive plants is propagated through food webs.

    PubMed

    Carvalheiro, Luisa G; Buckley, Yvonne M; Memmott, Jane

    2010-04-01

    Invasive plants are considered a major cause of ecosystem degradation worldwide. While their impacts on native plants have been widely reported, there is little information on how these impacts propagate through food webs and affect species at higher trophic levels. Using a quantitative food web approach we evaluated the impacts of an invasive plant on plant-herbivore-parasitoid communities, asking specifically how diet breadth influences the propagation of such impacts. Measuring the impact of the alien plant at the plant level seriously underestimated the community-level effect of this weed as it also caused changes in the abundance of native herbivores and parasitoids, along with a decrease in parasitoid species richness. The invading plant affected specialist and generalist subsets of communities differently, having significant and strong negative impacts on the abundance of all specialists with no negative effect on generalist consumers. Specialist consumer decline led to further disruptions of top-down regulatory mechanisms, releasing generalist species from competition via shared natural enemies. Plant invasion also significantly increased the evenness of species abundance of all trophic levels in the food webs, as well as the evenness of species interaction frequency. Extending impact evaluation to higher trophic levels and considering changes in trophic diversity within levels is hence essential for a full evaluation of the consequences of invasion by alien plants. Moreover, information on diet breadth of species in the invaded community should be taken into account when evaluating/predicting the impacts on any introduced species. PMID:20462120

  20. Quality of life in patients with schizophrenia: the impact of socio-economic factors and adverse effects of atypical antipsychotics drugs.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Aurigena Antunes; de Araújo Dantas, Diego; do Nascimento, Gemma Galgani; Ribeiro, Susana Barbosa; Chaves, Katarina Melo; de Lima Silva, Vanessa; de Araújo, Raimundo Fernandes; de Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra; de Medeiros, Caroline Addison Carvalho Xavier

    2014-09-01

    This cross-sectional study compared the effects of treatment with atypical antipsychotic drugs on quality of life (QoL) and side effects in 218 patients with schizophrenia attending the ambulatory services of psychiatric in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Socio-economic variables were compared. The five-dimension EuroQoL (EQ-5D) was used to evaluate QoL, and side effects were assessed using the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser (UKU) Side Effect Rating Scale and the Simpson-Angus Scale. Data were analysed using the χ (2) test and Student's t test, with a significance level of 5 %. Average monthly household incomes in the medication groups were 1.1-2.1 minimum wages ($339-$678). UKU Scale scores showed significant differences in side effects, mainly, clozapine, quetiapine and ziprasidone (p < 0.05). EQ-5D scores showed that all drugs except olanzapine significantly impacted mobility (p < 0.05), and proportions of individuals reporting problems in other dimensions were high: 63.6 % of clozapine users reported mobility problems, 63.7 and 56.3 % of clozapine and ziprasidone users, respectively, had difficulties with usual activities, 68.8 and 54.5 % of ziprasidone and clozapine users, respectively, experienced pain and/or discomfort, and 72.8 % of clozapine users reported anxiety and/or depression. Psychiatric, neurological, and autonomous adverse effects, as well as other side effects, were prevalent in users of atypical antipsychotic drugs, especially clozapine and ziprasidone. Olanzapine had the least side effects. QoL was impacted by side effects and economic conditions in all groups. Thus, the effects of these antipsychotic agents appear to have been masked by aggravating social and economic situations. PMID:24789610

  1. Index of Alien Impact: A Method for Evaluating Potential Ecological Impact of Alien Plant Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, Teresa K.; Ringold, Paul L.; Bollman, Michael A.; Ernst, Ted L.

    2010-04-01

    Alien plant species are stressors to ecosystems and indicators of reduced ecosystem integrity. The magnitude of the stress reflects not only the quantity of aliens present, but also the quality of their interactions with native ecosystems. We develop an Index of Alien Impact ( IAI) to estimate the collective ecological impact of in situ alien species. IAI summarizes the frequency of occurrence and potential ecological impact ( Invasiveness-Impact Score ( I i )) of individual alien species for all aliens present in a particular location or community type. A component metric, I i , is based on ecological species traits (life history, ecological amplitude, and ability to alter ecosystem processes) that reflect mechanisms, which can increase impact to ecosystem structure and function. While I i is less complex than some other multi-metric rankings of alien impact, it compares well to these metrics and to qualitative judgments. IAI can be adapted for different ecological settings by modifying the set of species traits incorporated in I i to reflect properties likely to breach biotic and abiotic barriers or alter ecosystem function in a particular region or community type of interest. To demonstrate our approach, we created versions of IAI and I i , applicable to the diverse streamside vegetation of a river basin (19,631 km2) spanning low-elevation arid to mesic montane habitats in eastern Oregon, USA. In this demonstration effort, we (1) evaluate relationships of IAI to metrics describing invasion level, and (2) illustrate the potential utility of IAI for prioritizing alien species management activities and informing restoration goals.

  2. Impact of positive chest X-ray findings and blood cultures on adverse outcomes following hospitalized pneumococcal lower respiratory tract infection: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the clinical presentation and outcome of pneumococcal lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) without positive chest X-ray findings and blood cultures. We investigated the prognostic impact of a pulmonary infiltrate and bacteraemia on the clinical course of hospitalized patients with confirmed pneumococcal LRTI. Methods We studied a population-based multi-centre cohort of 705 adults hospitalized with LRTI and Streptococcus pneumoniae in LRT specimens or blood: 193 without pulmonary infiltrate or bacteraemia, 250 with X-ray confirmed pneumonia, and 262 with bacteraemia. We compared adverse outcomes in the three groups and used multiple regression analyses to adjust for differences in age, sex, comorbidity, and lifestyle factors. Results Patients with no infiltrate and no bacteraemia were of similar age but had more comorbidity than the other groups (Charlson index score ≥1: no infiltrate and no bacteraemia 81% vs. infiltrate without bacteraemia 72% vs. bacteraemia 61%), smoked more tobacco, and had more respiratory symptoms. In contrast, patients with a pulmonary infiltrate or bacteraemia had more inflammation (median C-reactive protein: no infiltrate and no bacteraemia 82 mg/L vs. infiltrate without bacteraemia 163 mg/L vs. bacteraemia 316 mg/L) and higher acute disease severity scores. All adverse outcomes increased from patients with no infiltrate and no bacteraemia to those with an infiltrate and to those with bacteraemia: Length of hospital stay (5 vs. 6 vs. 8 days); intensive care admission (7% vs. 20% vs. 23%); pulmonary complications (1% vs. 5% vs. 14%); and 30-day mortality (5% vs. 11% vs. 21%). Compared with patients with no infiltrate and no bacteraemia, the adjusted 30-day mortality rate ratio was 1.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9-4.1) in patients with an infiltrate without bacteraemia and 4.1 (95% CI 2.0-8.5) in bacteraemia patients. Adjustment for acute disease severity and inflammatory markers weakened these

  3. Impact assessment of odours emitted by a wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Beghi, Sandra P; Santos, Jane Méri; Reis, Neyval Costa; de Sá, Leandro Melo; Goulart, Elisa Valentim; de Abreu Costa, Elza

    2012-01-01

    Complaints from the Domingos Martins population about sewage odours in the city made the district attorney order an impact assessment of the odours emitted by the city wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). This study comprised various techniques, models and population surveys. In 2007, an odour emission model proved that the main hydrogen sulphide emitter was the aeration tank of the WWTP (13.5 g h(-1)) and such emissions, according to CALPUFF model, should be perceived in the whole Domingos Martins city centre area. In this area, 58% of those interviewed were annoyed by the WWTP odours. However, in 2009, the odour monitoring panel recorded few odour occurrences. A second population survey showed that hereafter only 20% of those interviewed were annoyed by the WWTP emissions. Odour emission and dispersion models run with 2010 data proved a drastic reduction of the WWTP aeration tank emissions and consequently the city centre was not bothered by WWTP emissions anymore. The odour emission reduction was due to the modification of the WWTP aeration tank system. Despite the odour emission reduction, houses located southeast of the WWTP were still annoyed by sewage odours. However, in this part of the town, other sources of sewage odours have been found. PMID:22949255

  4. Impact of host plant connectivity, crop border and patch size on adult Colorado potato beetle retention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tagged Colorado potato beetles (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), were released on potato plants, Solanum tuberosum L., and tracked using a portable harmonic radar system to determine the impact of host plant spatial distribution on the tendency of the pest to remain on the colonized host plant...

  5. ASXL1 but Not TET2 Mutations Adversely Impact Overall Survival of Patients Suffering Systemic Mastocytosis with Associated Clonal Hematologic Non-Mast-Cell Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Damaj, Gandhi; Joris, Magalie; Chandesris, Olivia; Hanssens, Katia; Soucie, Erinn; Canioni, Danielle; Kolb, Brigitte; Durieu, Isabelle; Gyan, Emanuel; Livideanu, Cristina; Chèze, Stephane; Diouf, Momar; Garidi, Reda; Georgin-Lavialle, Sophie; Asnafi, Vahid; Lhermitte, Ludovic; Lavigne, Christian; Launay, David; Arock, Michel; Lortholary, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Systemic mastocytosis with associated hematologic clonal non-mast cell disease (SM-AHNMD) is a rare and heterogeneous subtype of SM and few studies on this specific entity have been reported. Sixty two patients with Systemic mastocytosis with associated hematologic clonal non-mast cell disease (SM-AHNMD) were presented. Myeloid AHNMD was the most frequent (82%) cases. This subset of patients were older, had more cutaneous lesions, splenomegaly, liver enlargement, ascites; lower bone mineral density and hemoglobin levels and higher tryptase level than lymphoid AHNMD. Defects in KIT, TET2, ASXL1 and CBL were positive in 87%, 27%, 14%, and 11% of cases respectively. The overall survival of patients with SM-AHNMD was 85.2 months. Within the myeloid group, SM-MPN fared better than SM-MDS or SM-AML (p = 0.044,). In univariate analysis, the presence of C-findings, the AHNMD subtypes (SM-MDS/CMML/AML versus SM-MPN/hypereosinophilia) (p = 0.044), Neutropenia (p = 0.015), high monocyte level (p = 0.015) and the presence of ASXL1 mutation had detrimental effects on OS (p = 0.007). In multivariate analysis and penalized Cox model, only the presence of ASXL1 mutation remained an independent prognostic factor that negatively affected OS (p = 0.035). SM-AHNMD is heterogeneous with variable prognosis according to the type of the AHNMD. ASXL1 is mutated in a subset of myeloid AHNMD and adversely impact on OS. PMID:24465546

  6. What determines positive, neutral, and negative impacts of Solidago canadensis invasion on native plant species richness?

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Li-Jia; Yu, Hong-Wei; He, Wei-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Whether plant invasions pose a great threat to native plant diversity is still hotly debated due to conflicting findings. More importantly, we know little about the mechanisms of invasion impacts on native plant richness. We examined how Solidago canadensis invasion influenced native plants using data from 291 pairs of invaded and uninvaded plots covering an entire invaded range, and quantified the relative contributions of climate, recipient communities, and S. canadensis to invasion impacts. There were three types of invasion consequences for native plant species richness (i.e., positive, neutral, and negative impacts). Overall, the relative contributions of recipient communities, S. canadensis and climate to invasion impacts were 71.39%, 21.46% and 7.15%, respectively; furthermore, the roles of recipient communities, S. canadensis and climate were largely ascribed to plant diversity, density and cover, and precipitation. In terms of direct effects, invasion impacts were negatively linked to temperature and native plant communities, and positively to precipitation and soil microbes. Soil microbes were crucial in the network of indirect effects on invasion impacts. These findings suggest that the characteristics of recipient communities are the most important determinants of invasion impacts and that invasion impacts may be a continuum across an entire invaded range. PMID:26573017

  7. Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this document as environmental input to future decisions regarding the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which would include the disposal of transuranic waste, as currently authorized. The alternatives covered in this document are the following: (1) Continue storing transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) as it is now or with improved confinement. (2) Proceed with WIPP at the Los Medanos site in southeastern New Mexico, as currently authorized. (3) Dispose of TRU waste in the first available repository for high-level waste. The Los Medanos site would be investigated for its potential suitability as a candidate site. This is administration policy and is the alternative preferred by the DOE. (4) Delay the WIPP to allow other candidate sites to be evaluated for TRU-waste disposal. This environmental impact statement is arranged in the following manner: Chapter 1 is an overall summary of the analysis contained in the document. Chapters 2 and 4 set forth the objectives of the national waste-management program and analyze the full spectrum of reasonable alternatives for meeting these objectives, including the WIPP. Chapter 5 presents the interim waste-acceptance criteria and waste-form alternatives for the WIPP. Chapters 6 through 13 provide a detailed description and environmental analysis of the WIPP repository and its site. Chapter 14 describes the permits and approvals necessary for the WIPP and the interactions that have taken place with Federal, State, and local authorities, and with the general public in connection with the repository. Chapter 15 analyzes the many comments received on the DEIS and tells what has been done in this FEIS in response. The appendices contain data and discussions in support of the material in the text.

  8. Dioecy Impacts on Plant Water Fluxes in Riparian Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultine, K. R.; Bush, S. E.; West, A. G.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2005-12-01

    Dioecious plants are frequently associated with different spatial distributions of the two sexes across resource gradients. Segregation between sexes might be expected to occur if the cost of reproduction is greater in females than in males. If so, females would be under stronger selection to increase rates of resource uptake. Acer negundo is a dioecious riparian tree species that show spatial segregation among sexes: females are typically more common along streamside (high resource) environments than males. The spatial segregation of the sexes leads to the hypothesis that male and female individuals have varying influence on ecohydrological processes. To address this, we measured sap flux, water relations and hydraulic architecture of mature streamside (less than 1 m from stream channel) male and female Acer negundo trees occurring near Salt Lake City, Utah, USA during the 2004 growing season. Despite similar predawn and midday leaf water potentials, sap flux density ( Js) was 40 percent higher in female trees than in male trees during the 2004 growing season (n = 42 days, F = 73.56, P < 0.0001). Both genders showed a similar relationship between conducting sapwood area to stem diameter ratio suggesting that differences in Js scale to the whole tree level. Sap flux data from Acer negundo trees was compared to five other co-occurring riparian tree species. Female Acer negundo trees showed the highest Js among all species while Js in male Acer negundo trees was lower than all other species except one ( Acer grandidentatum). These data demonstrate that individual female Acer negundo trees have the capacity remove water at higher rates than males in high resource environments. The spatial segregation of the sexes along streamside environments may therefore have profound impacts on ecohydrological processes such as stream discharge, groundwater recharge, and nutrient cycling.

  9. Vaccine Adverse Events

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability ( ... Center for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  10. Prevalence of cutaneous adverse events associated with long-term disease-modifying therapy and their impact on health-related quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Glatiramer acetate (GA) and interferon-beta (IFN-β) are disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for multiple sclerosis that are administered through subcutaneous (SC) or intramuscular (IM) injections. Skin reactions associated with DMTs are common and may influence patient’s health-related quality of life (QoL). We aimed to determine the prevalence of cutaneous adverse events associated with long-term DMT use, and to assess the impact of cutaneous adverse events on QoL. Methods A cross-sectional study among patients with multiple sclerosis who had been treated with their first DMT for at least 2 years. Cutaneous events were assessed from photographs of injection-sites by dermatologists blinded for DMT. Generic and dermatology-specific health-related QoL were assessed using validated patient-reported questionnaires. Results A total of 229 patients were enrolled, of whom 156 (68%) had at least one skin reaction. The prevalence of cutaneous adverse events was higher for SC DMTs (75-82%) compared to IM DMT (41%) (P < 0.001). Erythema and lipoatrophy were the most common skin reactions, observed in 156 (68%) and 45 (20%) patients, respectively. Dermatology-specific, but not generic, QoL was significantly lower among patients with skin reactions compared to those without. Conclusions The prevalence of cutaneous adverse events was high in long-term DMT-treatment. Patients with cutaneous adverse events had a lower perceived dermatology-specific QoL. PMID:24131589

  11. Impact of renal function deterioration on adverse events during anticoagulation therapy using non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Koji; Aiba, Takeshi; Arihiro, Shoji; Watanabe, Makoto; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Ishibashi, Kohei; Hirose, Sayako; Wada, Mitsuru; Nakajima, Ikutaro; Okamura, Hideo; Noda, Takashi; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Noguchi, Teruo; Anzai, Toshihisa; Yasuda, Satoshi; Ogawa, Hisao; Kamakura, Shiro; Shimizu, Wataru; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Toyoda, Kazunori; Kusano, Kengo

    2016-08-01

    Renal function is crucial for patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) using non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC). The incidence of renal function deterioration during anticoagulation therapy and its impact of adverse events are unknown. In 807 consecutive NVAF patients treated with NOAC and with estimated creatinine clearance (eCCr) ≥ 50 ml/min (mean age 68 ± 11 years, mean CHADS2 score = 1.8 ± 1.4, CHA2DS2-VASc score = 2.8 ± 1.8, HAS-BLED score = 1.7 ± 1.1), we analyzed the time course of renal function and clinical outcomes, and compared these with the data of general Japanese inhabitants from the Suita Study (n = 2140). Of the 807 patients, 751 (93 %) maintained eCCr ≥ 50 ml/min (group A) whereas the remaining 56 (7 %) fell into the eCCr < 50 ml/min (group B) during the 382 ± 288 days of follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that advanced age, lower body weight, and congestive heart failure were independent predictors for renal function deterioration in patients with eCCr ≥ 50 ml/min at baseline. Major and/or minor bleedings were more commonly observed in group B than in group A (21 vs. 8 %; P = 0.0004). The CHADS2, CHA2DS2-VASc, and HAS-BLED scores were also significant predictors of renal function deterioration (P < 0.0001). The incidences of renal function deterioration were 1.4, 3.4, 10.5 and 11.7 % in patients with CHADS2 score of 0, 1, 2 and ≥3, respectively. As to CHA2DS2-VASc score, renal function deterioration occurred in 0, 1.7, 9.8 and 15.0 % with a score of 0, 1-2, 3-4 and ≥5, respectively. In the Suita Study of the general population, on the other hand, 122 of 2140 participants with eCCr ≥ 50 ml/min at baseline (5.7 %) fell into the eCCr < 50 ml/min during about 2 years. The incidence of renal function deterioration increased with the CHADS2 score in the general population as well as in our patients. Renal function deterioration was

  12. Geospatial Strategy for Adverse Impact of Urban Heat Island in upper atmospheres of the earth Mountain Areas using LANDSAT ETM+ Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Amit; Vandana, Vandana

    2016-07-01

    We are living in the age of the rapidly growing population and changing environmental conditions with advanced technical capacity. This has been resulting in widespread land cover change. Among several human-induced environmental and urban thermal problems are reported to be negatively affecting urban residents in many ways. Urban Heat Islands exist in many large cities especially metropolitan cities and can significantly affect the permafrost layer in mountain areas. The adverse effect of urban heat island has become the subject of numerous studies in recent decades and is reflected in many major mountain cities around the world. The built-up structures in urbanized areas considerably alter land cover thereby affecting thermal energy flow which leads to the development of elevated surface and air temperature. The phenomenon Urban Heat Island implies 'island' of high temperature in cities, surrounded by relatively lower temperature in rural areas. The Urban Heat Island for the temporal period is estimated using geospatial techniques which are then utilized for the impact assessment of the climate of the surrounding regions and how it reduce the sustainability of the natural resources like air, vegetation. The knowledge of surface temperature is important for the study of urban climate and human health. The rapid growth of industries in peri-urban areas results in excessive warming and variations in weather conditions. It leads to soil degradation in frozen areas due to high temperature which leads to melting of snow in mountain areas Remotely sensed data of thermal infrared band in the region of 10.4-12.5 µm of EMR spectrum, available from LANDSAT- ETM+ is proved to be very helpful to identify urban heat islands. Thermal infrared data acquired during the daytime and night time can be used to monitor the heat island associated with urban areas as well as atmospheric pollution. The present paper describes the methodology and resolution dynamic urban heat island

  13. Impact and insights from ancient repetitive elements in plant genomes.

    PubMed

    Maumus, Florian; Quesneville, Hadi

    2016-04-01

    Transposable elements and other repeated sequences are predominant contributors to most plant genomes. The vast majority of repeated elements accumulate mutations to the extent of becoming anonymous sequences, also known as 'genomic dark matter' which is also thought to contribute significantly to the composition of plant genomes. This review aims to highlight recent methods and analyses suggesting that ancient repeats have profound effects on plant genome biology. PMID:26874965

  14. Impact of phyto-oxylipins in plant defense.

    PubMed

    Blée, Elizabeth

    2002-07-01

    Phyto-oxylipins are metabolites produced in plants by the oxidative transformation of unsaturated fatty acids via a series of diverging metabolic pathways. Biochemical dissection and genetic approaches have provided compelling evidence that these oxygenated derivatives actively participate in plant defense mechanisms. During the past decade, interest in this field was focused on the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid (one branch of C18 polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism) and on its relationship to the other plant defense-signaling pathways. However, recently, antisense strategies have revealed that oxylipins other than jasmonates are probably also essential for the resistance of plants to pathogens. PMID:12119169

  15. Asymmetric impacts of two herbivore ecotypes on similar host plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecotypes may arise following allopatric separation from source populations. The simultaneous transfer of an exotic plant to a novel environment, along with its stenophagous herbivore, may complicate more traditional patterns of divergence from the plant and insect source populations. We evaluated ...

  16. Antagonists' impact on enzymatic response in wilt infected cotton plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of PR-proteins possess enzymatic activity. As such, these proteins maybe indicators of defensive response of plants. Thus, we have conducted a comparative analysis of beta-1,3-glucanase, peroxidase and xylanase activity in cotton plants to determine how these enzymes are affected by the pat...

  17. Plant-Damage Assessment Technique for Evaluating Military Vehicular Impacts to Vegetation in the Mojave Desert

    SciTech Connect

    D. J. Hansen; W. K. Ostler

    2001-09-01

    A new plant damage assessment technique was developed by plant ecologists from Bechtel Nevada at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Security Administration Nevada Operations Office and funded by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program Project CS-1131 in cooperation with the U.S. Army's National Training Center (NTC) at Fort Irwin, California. The technique establishes linear transects the width of vehicle tracts from evidence of vehicle tracks in the soil (usually during a prior training rotation period of 30 days or since the last rain or wind storm), and measures vegetation within the tracks to determine the area of plant parts being run over, the percent of the impacted parts damaged, and the percent of impacted parts expected to recover. It documents prior-damage classes based on estimated of damage that plants have apparently experienced previously (as assessed from field indicators of damage such as plant shape and height). The technique was used to evaluate different vehicle types (rubber-tire wheels vs. tracks) in six area at the NTC with different soils and training intensity levels. The technique provides tabular data that can be sorted and queried to show a variety of trends related to military vehicular impacts. The technique also appears suitable for assessing other non-military off-road traffic impacts. Findings report: (1) differences in plant sensitivity of different vehicular impacts, (2) plant cover and density by species and training area, (3) the degree to which wheels have less impact than tracks, and (4) the mean percent survival is inversely proportional to the degree of prior damage received by the vegetation (i.e., plants previously impacted have lower survival than plants not previously impacted).

  18. Supplementary documentation for an environmental impact statement regarding the Pantex Plant: hydrologic study for the Iowa Army Ammunition Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, N.M.

    1982-12-01

    This report documents work performed in support of preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) regarding the Department of Energy's Pantex Plant near Amarillo, Texas. A study of flooding was made for the Iowa Army Ammunition Plant near Burlington, Iowa, one of the alternative sites. A partial series-flood frequency analysis of the Skunk River, which flows along the plant's southern boundary, was examined as well as the effects of rise in river level of the Skunk River on the plant and its operations. A flood frequency analysis on Long Lake, a manmade reservoir within the plant grounds, was made. Maximum spillway capacity was computed and compared to the magnitude of floods of particular recurrence intervals.

  19. Impact of using paper mill sludge for surface-mine reclamation on runoff water quality and plant growth

    SciTech Connect

    Shipitalo, M.J.; Bonta, J.V.

    2008-11-15

    Paper mills generate large amounts of solid waste consisting of fibrous cellulose, clay, and lime. Paper mill Sludge (PMS) can improve reclamation of surface-coal mines where low pH and organic-carbon levels in the spoil cover material can inhibit revegetation. When applied at high rates, however, PMS may adversely impact the quality of surface runoff. Therefore, we applied PMS at 0, 224, and 672 dry Mg ha{sup -1} to 22.1 x 4.6-m plots at a recently mined site and monitored runoff for a total of 13 mo. The zero-rate plots served as controls and received standard reclamation consisting of mulching with hay and fertilization at planting. Compared to the control plots, PMS reduced runoff fourfold to sixfold and decreased erosion from 47 Mg ha{sup -1} to < 1 Mg ha{sup -1}. Most of the reduction occurred in the 2.5 mo before the plots were planted. Flow-weighted average dissolved oxygen concentrations in runoff from plots at the 224 and 672 Mg ha{sup -1} rates, however, were much lower ({<=} 0.4 vs. 8.2 mg L{sup -1}) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) was much higher for the 672 Mg ha{sup -1} rate plots than the control plots during the pre-plant period (7229 vs. 880 mg L{sup -1}). There were few noteworthy differences in water quality among treatments post-planting, but plant dry-matter yields were greater for the PMS plots than for the controls. The 672 Mg ha{sup -1} rate did not increase COD or nutrient loads compared to the 224 Mg ha{sup -1} rate and may have more persistent beneficial effects by increasing soil organic carbon levels and pH to a greater extent.

  20. Adverse events in healthcare: learning from mistakes.

    PubMed

    Rafter, N; Hickey, A; Condell, S; Conroy, R; O'Connor, P; Vaughan, D; Williams, D

    2015-04-01

    Large national reviews of patient charts estimate that approximately 10% of hospital admissions are associated with an adverse event (defined as an injury resulting in prolonged hospitalization, disability or death, caused by healthcare management). Apart from having a significant impact on patient morbidity and mortality, adverse events also result in increased healthcare costs due to longer hospital stays. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of adverse events are preventable. Through identifying the nature and rate of adverse events, initiatives to improve care can be developed. A variety of methods exist to gather adverse event data both retrospectively and prospectively but these do not necessarily capture the same events and there is variability in the definition of an adverse event. For example, hospital incident reporting collects only a very small fraction of the adverse events found in retrospective chart reviews. Until there are systematic methods to identify adverse events, progress in patient safety cannot be reliably measured. This review aims to discuss the need for a safety culture that can learn from adverse events, describe ways to measure adverse events, and comment on why current adverse event monitoring is unable to demonstrate trends in patient safety. PMID:25078411

  1. Environmental Impacts Of Zirab Coal Washing Plant, Mazandaran, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, F.; Esmaeili, A.

    2009-04-01

    Extraction and beneficiation operations associated with coal mining increase the rate of chemical reaction of waste material to air and water media. Zirab coal washing plant is located on the bank of the Cherat stream in Mazandaran province, Iran. coal Mined from central Alborz coalfield mines is not suitable for use in Iranian Steel Corporation. Hence, coal ash content is reduced by physical and chemical processes in this plant. These processes leave a large quantity of liquid and solid wastes that accumulate in waste dump and tailing dam. sediment and water samples taken from Sheshrudbar and Cherat streams and also from Talar river show high concentration of Cd, Mo and As in water samples of coal washing plant and the associated drainage. Eh-pH diagrams revealed the chemical species of elements in water. The enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index show that Cd, Hg, Mo and V are enriched in bottom sediments of the coal washing plant and decrease with increasing distance from the plant. Sequential extraction analysis Results of three sediment samples of Cherat stream show that silicate bound is the major phase in samples taken before and after the plant, but adjacent to the plant, organic bound is dominant. The high concentration of Cd and Mo in the water soluble phase, is noticeable and may result in high mobility and bioavailability of these elements. Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests on six samples, before and after the coal washing plant support the obtained results. Keywords: Zirab; coal washing plant; Sequential extraction analysis; Mann-whitney; Wilcoxon; Enrichment factor; Geoaccumulation index.

  2. STUDY: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT COMPARISONS, IGCC VS. PC PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study compares the environmental performance of two power generation technologies: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pulverized Coal-Fired Rankine Cycle. In addition, the capital and operating costs for power plants using these two technologies have been com...

  3. An evaluation of the contaminant impacts on plants serving as habitat for an endangered species

    SciTech Connect

    DeShields, B.R.; Stelljes, M.E.; Hawkins, E.T.; Alsop, W.R.; Collins, W.

    1995-12-31

    As part of an ecological risk assessment at a Superfund site in Monterey County, California, potential impacts on an endangered species, the Smith`s blue butterfly (Euphilotes enoptes smithi) were evaluated. This species of butterfly lives along beach dunes historically used as small arms trainfire ranges. Historical land use resulted in the accumulation of spent bullets and varying concentrations of metals in site soil. Two species of buckwheat occurring at the site (Erigonium parvifolium and E. latifolium) that serve as the sole habitat for the butterfly were evaluated. It was assumed that if there were no impacts to the habitat, there would be no impacts to the endangered species itself. Surface soil and collocated plants were sampled and chemically analyzed in order to correlate soil concentrations with plant tissue concentrations. Surface soil and collocated plants were also sampled at reference sites to determine background concentrations. Tissue concentrations were compared to benchmark concentrations to evaluate potential impacts. In addition, soil samples and seeds from buckwheat growing at the site were collected and used to conduct root elongation assays in the laboratory. The objective of the assays was to assess effects of metals associated with the spent bullets in soil on plant growth. Within the plants, higher concentrations of all metals except zinc were found in the roots; zinc was equally distributed throughout the plants. No chemical-related impacts to the plants were identified.

  4. Explaining Disproportionately High Rates of Adverse Birth Outcomes among African Americans: The Impact of Stress, Racism, and Related Factors in Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giscombe, Cheryl L.; Lobel, Marci

    2005-01-01

    Compared with European Americans, African American infants experience disproportionately high rates of low birth weight and preterm delivery and are more than twice as likely to die during their 1st year of life. The authors examine 5 explanations for these differences in rates of adverse birth outcomes: (a) ethnic differences in health behaviors…

  5. Residue Impacts on Runoff and Soil Erosion for Different Corn Plant Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The year to year carry-over effects of biomass additions under different plant populations on runoff and erosion is unclear. The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of different plant populations on residue cover to elucidate the effects of residue cover on runoff and erosion. The res...

  6. Impact of aerosols and atmospheric particles on plant leaf proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xing; Shi, Wen Z.; Zhao, Wen J.; Luo, Na N.

    2014-05-01

    Aerosols and atmospheric particles can diffuse and absorb solar radiation, and directly affect plant photosynthesis and related protein expression. In this study, for the first time, we performed an extensive investigation of the effects of aerosols and atmospheric particles on plant leaf proteins by combining Geographic Information System and proteomic approaches. Data on particles with diameters of 0.1-1.0 μm (PM1) from different locations across the city of Beijing and the aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the past 6 years (2007-2012) were collected. In order to make the study more reliable, we segregated the influence of soil pollution by measuring the heavy metal content. On the basis of AOD and PM1, two regions corresponding to strong and weak diffuse solar radiations were selected for analyzing the changes in the expression of plant proteins. Our results demonstrated that in areas with strong diffuse solar radiations, plant ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase was expressed at higher levels, but oxygen evolved in enhancer protein and light-harvesting complex II protein were expressed at lower levels. The expression of ATP synthase subunit beta and chlorophyll a-b binding protein were similar in both regions. By analyzing the changes in the expression of these leaf proteins and their functions, we conclude that aerosols and atmospheric particles stimulate plant photosynthesis facilitated by diffuse solar radiations.

  7. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; LIPFERT, F.; SUBRAMANIAM, S.; BLAKE, R.

    2005-09-21

    Mercury is a neurotoxin that accumulates in the food chain and is therefore a health concern. The primary human exposure pathway is through fish consumption. Coal-fired power plants emit mercury and there is uncertainty over whether this creates localized hot spots of mercury leading to substantially higher levels of mercury in water bodies and therefore higher exposure. To obtain direct evidence of local deposition patterns, soil and vegetations samples from around three U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of hot spots and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. At all three sites, there was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. It was estimated that less than 2% of the total mercury emissions from these plants deposited within 15 km of these plants. These small percentages of deposition are consistent with the literature review findings of only minor perturbations in environmental levels, as opposed to hot spots, near the plants. The major objective of the sampling studies was to determine if there was evidence for hot spots of mercury deposition around coal-fired power plants. From a public health perspective, such a hot spot must be large enough to insure that it did not occur by chance, and it must increase mercury concentrations to a level in which health effects are a concern in a water body large enough to support a population of subsistence fishers. The results of this study suggest that neither of these conditions has been met.

  8. Solar thermal plant impact analysis and requirements definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The technology and economics of solar thermal electric systems (STES) for electric power production is discussed. The impacts of and requirements for solar thermal electric power systems were evaluated.

  9. Assessing the Impact of Heat Rejection Technology on CSP Plant Revenue: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, M. J.; Kutscher, C. F.

    2010-10-01

    This paper explores the impact of cooling technology on revenue for hybrid-cooled plants with varying wet cooling penetration for four representative locations in the American Southwest. The impact of ACC design-point initial temperature difference (ITD - the difference between the condensing steam temperature and ambient dry-bulb) is also included in the analysis.

  10. SIMPLE TRANSMISSION NETWORK PLANNING METHOD: WISCONSIN POWER PLANT IMPACT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the process of evaluation and comparison of the proposed alternative power generation sites, the transmission network required to carry power effectively and reliably from the plant to the load centers requires careful consideration. The existing transmission network must be r...

  11. Major factors impacting costs of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Z.A.; James, D.W.

    1985-11-01

    China is striving to complete construction of 10,000 MWe of nuclear power plants by the year 2000. The Chinese government is concerned about the costs and is interested in minimizing the economic risks. The paper discusses the problems of cost control in the US and the special problems expected as China begins its nuclear power development.

  12. Impact of weed barriers on newly planted peach trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newly planted (Feb. 2005) ‘Sunracer’ and ‘Sunhome’ nectarine and ‘Tropic Snow’ peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) trees were subjected to conventional and four 'organic' weed control methods. Two of the 'organic' methods used weed barriers of white plastic (WP) or landscape fabric (LF). A third co...

  13. Big Impacts by Small RNAs in Plant Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The identification and study of small RNAs, including microRNAs and trans-acting small interfering RNAs, have added a layer of complexity to the many pathways that regulate plant development. These molecules, which function as negative regulators of gene expression, are now known to have greatly exp...

  14. Functional trait diversity across trophic levels determines herbivore impact on plant community biomass.

    PubMed

    Deraison, Hélène; Badenhausser, Isabelle; Loeuille, Nicolas; Scherber, Christoph; Gross, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the consequences of trophic interactions for ecosystem functioning is challenging, as contrasting effects of species and functional diversity can be expected across trophic levels. We experimentally manipulated functional identity and diversity of grassland insect herbivores and tested their impact on plant community biomass. Herbivore resource acquisition traits, i.e. mandible strength and the diversity of mandibular traits, had more important effects on plant biomass than body size. Higher herbivore functional diversity increased overall impact on plant biomass due to feeding niche complementarity. Higher plant functional diversity limited biomass pre-emption by herbivores. The functional diversity within and across trophic levels therefore regulates the impact of functionally contrasting consumers on primary producers. By experimentally manipulating the functional diversity across trophic levels, our study illustrates how trait-based approaches constitute a promising way to tackle existing links between trophic interactions and ecosystem functioning. PMID:26439435

  15. The impact of plant and flower age on mating patterns

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Diane L.; Avritt, Joy J.; Maliakal-Witt, Satya; Medeiros, Juliana S.; Shaner, Marieken G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Over a season, plant condition, amount of ongoing reproduction and biotic and abiotic environmental factors vary. As flowers age, flower condition and amount of pollen donated and received also vary. These internal and external changes are significant for fitness if they result in changes in reproduction and mating. Scope Literature from several fields was reviewed to provide a picture of the changes that occur in plants and flowers that can affect mating over a season. As flowers age, both the entire flower and individual floral whorls show changes in appearance and function. Over a season, changes in mating often appear as alteration in seed production vs. pollen donation. In several species, older, unpollinated flowers are more likely to self. If flowers are receiving pollen, staying open longer may increase the number of mates. In wild radish, for which there is considerable information on seed paternity, older flowers produce fewer seeds and appear to discriminate less among pollen donors. Pollen donor performance can also be linked to maternal plant age. Different pollinators and mates are available across the season. Also in wild radish, maternal plants appear to exert the most control over paternity when they are of intermediate age. Conclusions Although much is known about the characters of plants and flowers that can change over a season, there is less information on the effects of age on mating. Several studies document changes in self-pollination over time, but very few, other than those on wild radish, consider more subtle aspects of differential success of pollen donors over time. PMID:19875519

  16. Major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) in plants: a complex gene family with major impacts on plant phenotype.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Kerrie L; Bhave, Mrinal

    2007-10-01

    The ubiquitous cell membrane proteins called aquaporins are now firmly established as channel proteins that control the specific transport of water molecules across cell membranes in all living organisms. The aquaporins are thus likely to be of fundamental significance to all facets of plant growth and development affected by plant-water relations. A majority of plant aquaporins have been found to share essential structural features with the human aquaporin and exhibit water-transporting ability in various functional assays, and some have been shown experimentally to be of critical importance to plant survival. Furthermore, substantial evidence is now available from a number of plant species that shows differential gene expression of aquaporins in response to abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought, or cold and clearly establishes the aquaporins as major players in the response of plants to conditions that affect water availability. This review summarizes the function and regulation of these genes to develop a greater understanding of the response of plants to water insufficiency, and particularly, to identify tolerant genotypes of major crop species including wheat and rice and plants that are important in agroforestry. PMID:17562090

  17. The impact of plant chemical diversity on plant-herbivore interactions at the community level.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Diego; Jaramillo, Alejandra; Marquis, Robert J

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the role of diversity in ecosystem processes and species interactions is a central goal of ecology. For plant-herbivore interactions, it has been hypothesized that when plant species diversity is reduced, loss of plant biomass to herbivores increases. Although long-standing, this hypothesis has received mixed support. Increasing plant chemical diversity with increasing plant taxonomic diversity is likely to be important for plant-herbivore interactions at the community level, but the role of chemical diversity is unexplored. Here we assess the effect of volatile chemical diversity on patterns of herbivore damage in naturally occurring patches of Piper (Piperaceae) shrubs in a Costa Rican lowland wet forest. Volatile chemical diversity negatively affected total, specialist, and generalist herbivore damage. Furthermore, there were differences between the effects of high-volatility and low-volatility chemical diversity on herbivore damage. High-volatility diversity reduced specialist herbivory, while low-volatility diversity reduced generalist herbivory. Our data suggest that, although increased plant diversity is expected to reduce average herbivore damage, this pattern is likely mediated by the diversity of defensive compounds and general classes of anti-herbivore traits, as well as the degree of specialization of the herbivores attacking those plants. PMID:27129320

  18. Urbanicity, social adversity and psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, Andreas; Deserno, Lorenz; Reininghaus, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in research on geographical variation in the incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses. In this paper, we review the evidence on variation in incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in terms of place, as well as the individual- and area-level factors that account for this variation. We further review findings on potential mechanisms that link adverse urban environment and psychosis. There is evidence from earlier and more recent studies that urbanicity is associated with an increased incidence of schizophrenia and non-affective psychosis. In addition, considerable variation in incidence across neighbourhoods has been observed for these disorders. Findings suggest it is unlikely that social drift alone can fully account for geographical variation in incidence. Evidence further suggests that the impact of adverse social contexts – indexed by area-level exposures such as population density, social fragmentation and deprivation – on risk of psychosis is explained (confounding) or modified (interaction) by environmental exposures at the individual level (i.e., cannabis use, social adversity, exclusion and discrimination). On a neurobiological level, several studies suggest a close link between social adversity, isolation and stress on the one hand, and monoamine dysfunction on the other, which resembles findings in schizophrenia patients. However, studies directly assessing correlations between urban stress or discrimination and neurobiological alterations in schizophrenia are lacking to date. PMID:24096775

  19. Pectin Methylesterification Impacts the Relationship between Photosynthesis and Plant Growth.

    PubMed

    M Weraduwage, Sarathi; Kim, Sang-Jin; Renna, Luciana; C Anozie, Fransisca; D Sharkey, Thomas; Brandizzi, Federica

    2016-06-01

    Photosynthesis occurs in mesophyll cells of specialized organs such as leaves. The rigid cell wall encapsulating photosynthetic cells controls the expansion and distribution of cells within photosynthetic tissues. The relationship between photosynthesis and plant growth is affected by leaf area. However, the underlying genetic mechanisms affecting carbon partitioning to different aspects of leaf growth are not known. To fill this gap, we analyzed Arabidopsis plants with altered levels of pectin methylesterification, which is known to modulate cell wall plasticity and plant growth. Pectin methylesterification levels were varied through manipulation of cotton Golgi-related (CGR) 2 or 3 genes encoding two functionally redundant pectin methyltransferases. Increased levels of methylesterification in a line over-expressing CGR2 (CGR2OX) resulted in highly expanded leaves with enhanced intercellular air spaces; reduced methylesterification in a mutant lacking both CGR-genes 2 and 3 (cgr2/3) resulted in thin but dense leaf mesophyll that limited CO2 diffusion to chloroplasts. Leaf, root, and plant dry weight were enhanced in CGR2OX but decreased in cgr2/3. Differences in growth between wild type and the CGR-mutants can be explained by carbon partitioning but not by variations in area-based photosynthesis. Therefore, photosynthesis drives growth through alterations in carbon partitioning to new leaf area growth and leaf mass per unit leaf area; however, CGR-mediated pectin methylesterification acts as a primary factor in this relationship through modulation of the expansion and positioning of the cells in leaves, which in turn drive carbon partitioning by generating dynamic carbon demands in leaf area growth and leaf mass per unit leaf area. PMID:27208234

  20. Impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on uranium accumulation by plants.

    PubMed

    de Boulois, H Dupré; Joner, E J; Leyval, C; Jakobsen, I; Chen, B D; Roos, P; Thiry, Y; Rufyikiri, G; Delvaux, B; Declerck, S

    2008-05-01

    Contamination by uranium (U) occurs principally at U mining and processing sites. Uranium can have tremendous environmental consequences, as it is highly toxic to a broad range of organisms and can be dispersed in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Remediation strategies of U-contaminated soils have included physical and chemical procedures, which may be beneficial, but are costly and can lead to further environmental damage. Phytoremediation has been proposed as a promising alternative, which relies on the capacity of plants and their associated microorganisms to stabilize or extract contaminants from soils. In this paper, we review the role of a group of plant symbiotic fungi, i.e. arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, which constitute an essential link between the soil and the roots. These fungi participate in U immobilization in soils and within plant roots and they can reduce root-to-shoot translocation of U. However, there is a need to evaluate these observations in terms of their importance for phytostabilization strategies. PMID:18069098

  1. Big impacts by small RNAs in plant development.

    PubMed

    Chuck, George; Candela, Héctor; Hake, Sarah

    2009-02-01

    The identification and study of small RNAs, including microRNAs and trans-acting small interfering RNAs, have added a layer of complexity to the many pathways that regulate plant development. These molecules, which function as negative regulators of gene expression, are now known to have greatly expanded roles in a variety of developmental processes affecting all major plant structures, including meristems, leaves, roots, and inflorescences. Mutants with specific developmental phenotypes have also advanced our knowledge of the biogenesis and mode of action of these diverse small RNAs. In addition, previous models on the cell autonomy of microRNAs may have to be revised as more data accumulate supporting their long distance transport. As many of these small RNAs appear to be conserved across different species, knowledge gained from one species is expected to have general application. However, a few surprising differences in small RNA function seem to exist between monocots and dicots regarding meristem initiation and sex determination. Integrating these unique functions into the overall scheme for plant growth will give a more complete picture of how they have evolved as unique developmental systems. PMID:18980858

  2. Climate Change and Extreme Weather Impacts on Salt Marsh Plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional assessments of climate change impacts on New England demonstrate a clear rise in rainfall over the past century. The number of extreme precipitation events (i.e., two or more inches of rain falling during a 48-hour period) has also increased over the past few decades. ...

  3. Impacts of invasive plants on resident animals across ecosystems, taxa, and feeding types: a global assessment.

    PubMed

    Schirmel, Jens; Bundschuh, Mirco; Entling, Martin H; Kowarik, Ingo; Buchholz, Sascha

    2016-02-01

    As drivers of global change, biological invasions have fundamental ecological consequences. However, it remains unclear how invasive plant effects on resident animals vary across ecosystems, animal classes, and functional groups. We performed a comprehensive meta-analysis covering 198 field and laboratory studies reporting a total of 3624 observations of invasive plant effects on animals. Invasive plants had reducing (56%) or neutral (44%) effects on animal abundance, diversity, fitness, and ecosystem function across different ecosystems, animal classes, and feeding types while we could not find any increasing effect. Most importantly, we found that invasive plants reduced overall animal abundance, diversity and fitness. However, this significant overall effect was contingent on ecosystems, taxa, and feeding types of animals. Decreasing effects of invasive plants were most evident in riparian ecosystems, possibly because frequent disturbance facilitates more intense plant invasions compared to other ecosystem types. In accordance with their immediate reliance on plants for food, invasive plant effects were strongest on herbivores. Regarding taxonomic groups, birds and insects were most strongly affected. In insects, this may be explained by their high frequency of herbivory, while birds demonstrate that invasive plant effects can also cascade up to secondary consumers. Since data on impacts of invasive plants are rather limited for many animal groups in most ecosystems, we argue for overcoming gaps in knowledge and for a more differentiated discussion on effects of invasive plant on native fauna. PMID:26390918

  4. Environmental impacts of large-scale CSP plants in northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhiyong; Hou, Anping; Chang, Chun; Huang, Xiang; Shi, Duoqi; Wang, Zhifeng

    2014-01-01

    Several concentrated solar power demonstration plants are being constructed, and a few commercial plants have been announced in northwestern China. However, the mutual impacts between the concentrated solar power plants and their surrounding environments have not yet been addressed comprehensively in literature by the parties involved in these projects. In China, these projects are especially important as an increasing amount of low carbon electricity needs to be generated in order to maintain the current economic growth while simultaneously lessening pollution. In this study, the authors assess the potential environmental impacts of large-scale concentrated solar power plants. Specifically, the water use intensity, soil erosion and soil temperature are quantitatively examined. It was found that some of the impacts are favorable, while some impacts are negative in relation to traditional power generation techniques and some need further research before they can be reasonably appraised. In quantitative terms, concentrated solar power plants consume about 4000 L MW(-1) h(-1) of water if wet cooling technology is used, and the collectors lead to the soil temperature changes of between 0.5 and 4 °C; however, it was found that the soil erosion is dramatically alleviated. The results of this study are helpful to decision-makers in concentrated solar power site selection and regional planning. Some conclusions of this study are also valid for large-scale photovoltaic plants. PMID:25183246

  5. What are the Historical and Future Impacts of Temperature Variability on Thermoelectric Power Plant Performance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, C.; Pratson, L.

    2015-12-01

    Current literature hypothesize that climate change-driven temperature increases will negatively affect the power production capacity of thermoelectric power plants, which currently produce ~88% of electricity used in the United States. This impact can occur through 1) warm cooling water that reduces the quantity of heat removed from the once-through (open-loop) steam system, 2) increased air temperature and/or humidity that decrease the amount of heat absorption in cooling towers/ponds of wet-recirculating (closed-loop) plants, and 3) environmental protection regulations that impose restrictions on both cooling water withdrawal volume and temperature of discharge. However, despite the widespread consensus that temperature and power generation are negatively related, different models yield a range of results and the magnitude of effects is uncertain. In this study, we test current literature's model predictions using historical data by assembling and analyzing a database of relevant parameters from distinct sources. We examine how daily and seasonal changes in cooling water, ambient air, and wet bulb temperatures have historically impacted coal and natural gas power plants in the U.S., focusing on 39 plants over a period up to 14 years. This allows us to assess how future changes in temperatures may affect generation. Our results suggest that water and ambient air temperatures have a lower impact on thermoelectric plant performance than previously predicted. Moreover, we find that recirculating power plants are more resilient to temperature variability than are once-through plants.

  6. Impact of recurrent gene duplication on adaptation of plant genomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recurrent gene duplication and retention played an important role in angiosperm genome evolution. It has been hypothesized that these processes contribute significantly to plant adaptation but so far this hypothesis has not been tested at the genome scale. Results We studied available sequenced angiosperm genomes to assess the frequency of positive selection footprints in lineage specific expanded (LSE) gene families compared to single-copy genes using a dN/dS-based test in a phylogenetic framework. We found 5.38% of alignments in LSE genes with codons under positive selection. In contrast, we found no evidence for codons under positive selection in the single-copy reference set. An analysis at the branch level shows that purifying selection acted more strongly on single-copy genes than on LSE gene clusters. Moreover we detect significantly more branches indicating evolution under positive selection and/or relaxed constraint in LSE genes than in single-copy genes. Conclusions In this – to our knowledge –first genome-scale study we provide strong empirical support for the hypothesis that LSE genes fuel adaptation in angiosperms. Our conservative approach for detecting selection footprints as well as our results can be of interest for further studies on (plant) gene family evolution. PMID:24884640

  7. Impacts of fly-ash on soil and plant responses.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Dharmendra K; Rai, Upendra N; Tripathi, Rudra D; Inouhe, Masahiro

    2002-12-01

    Coal combustion produces carbon dioxides, SO x, NO x and a variety of byproducts, including fly-ash, flue gas and scrubber sludge. Fly-ash consists of minute glass-like particles and its deposition on leaves inhibits the normal transpiration and photosynthesis of plants. Fly-ash also affects the physicochemical characteristics of soil because it is generally very basic, rich in various essential and non-essential elements, but poor in both nitrogen and available phosphorus. The massive fly-ash materials have been a potential resource for the agricultural activities as well as the other industrial purposes. Practical value of fly-ash in agriculture as an 'effective and safe' fertiliser or soil amendment can be established after repeated field experiments. Here remains to be disclosed the biological processes and interactions due to 'lack and excess' of the fly-ash exposures along with abiotic and biotic factors. These may involve the symbiotic fixation of nitrogen and the biological extraction of metals following immobilisation of toxic heavy metal ions, as well as other neutralisation and equilibration processes during weathering. Nitrogen-fixing plants with an apparent heavy metal-tolerance can be helpful as the early colonisers of fly-ash dumps and nearby areas. PMID:12579443

  8. Biological significance of complex N-glycans in plants and their impact on plant physiology

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Asparagine (N)-linked protein glycosylation is a ubiquitous co- and post-translational modification which can alter the biological function of proteins and consequently affects the development, growth, and physiology of organisms. Despite an increasing knowledge of N-glycan biosynthesis and processing, we still understand very little about the biological function of individual N-glycan structures in plants. In particular, the N-glycan-processing steps mediated by Golgi-resident enzymes create a structurally diverse set of protein-linked carbohydrate structures. Some of these complex N-glycan modifications like the presence of β1,2-xylose, core α1,3-fucose or the Lewis a-epitope are characteristic for plants and are evolutionary highly conserved. In mammals, complex N-glycans are involved in different cellular processes including molecular recognition and signaling events. In contrast, the complex N-glycan function is still largely unknown in plants. Here, in this short review, I focus on important recent developments and discuss their implications for future research in plant glycobiology and plant biotechnology. PMID:25101107

  9. Nurses must report adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    There is renewed determination throughout the European Union (EU) to reduce the economic cost and high death rate associated with adverse drug reactions through better pharmacovigilance. Timely reporting and sharing of information concerning adverse drug reactions is vital to the success of this initiative. In the UK, the reporting of serious adverse drug reactions is facilitated by the Yellow Card Scheme, yet despite being well placed to monitor the effect of medicines on patients, nurses do not make full use of the scheme. This article sets out the impact of adverse drug reactions in the EU and argues that it is essential that nurses must be at the vanguard of adverse reaction reporting if the EU's pharmacovigilance initiative is to be a success. PMID:23905231

  10. Supplementary documentation for an Environmental Impact Statement regarding the Pantex Plant: predictions of energy requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Schnurr, N.M.

    1982-12-01

    This report documents work perfomed in support of the preparaion of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) regarding the Department of Energy's Pantex Plant near Amarillo, Texas. Energy requirements for each of the alternatives addressed in the EIS are discussed in this report. The present consumption of natural gas and electricity at the Pantex Plant is analyzed, and methods of reducing energy use are investigated. Predictions of energy requirements for all alternatives are developed.

  11. Impact of plant derivatives on the growth of foodborne pathogens and the functionality of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Gyawali, Rabin; Ibrahim, Salam A

    2012-07-01

    Numerous studies have been published on the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of various plant components. However, there is relatively little information on the impact of such components on the enhancement of probiotics and production of antimicrobial compounds from these probiotics. Hence, this paper focuses on the influence of plant-derived components against pathogens, enhancement of cell viability and functionality of probiotics, and potential applications of such components in food safety and human health. PMID:22622837

  12. A review of inputs and impacts of coal-based synthetic fuel plants. Staff report

    SciTech Connect

    Shillington, T.H.

    1981-02-01

    The report assesses published estimates of the inputs and local economic impacts of proposed coal-based synthetic fuel plants, and identifies gaps in assessment informational requirements. It concludes that the nature and magnitude of local economic impacts cannot be predicted accurately using available data. First, the few published estimates of synthetic fuel employment requirements and schedules often are out-of-date or contradictory. Second, growth management strategies for energy boom towns have not been adequately evaluated. Third, conventional assessments may not identify substantial structural changes in small rural economies undergoing rapid growth from sustained energy development. Finally, uncertainty -- about plant lifetimes and the settlement decisions of newcomers -- remains an important variable.

  13. Occidental Geothermal, Inc. , Oxy geothermal power plant No. 1. Final environmental impact report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    The project-specific environmental analysis covers the following: geology, soils, water resources, biology, air quality, noise, waste management, health, safety, transportation, energy and material resources, cultural resources, socioeconomics, public services, land use, and aesthetics. Other topics covered are: the cumulative envionmental analysis; unavoidable significant adverse environmental effects; irreversible environmental changes and irretrievable commitments of energy and materials; the relationship between local short-term uses of man's environment and the maintenance and enhancement of long-term productivity; growth-inducing impacts; and alternatives to the proposed action. (MHR)

  14. Strategies to reduce the environmental impact of an aluminium pressure die casting plant: a scenario analysis.

    PubMed

    Neto, Belmira; Kroeze, Carolien; Hordijk, Leen; Costa, Carlos; Pulles, Tinus

    2009-02-01

    This study explores a model (MIKADO) to analyse scenarios for the reduction of the environmental impact of an aluminium die casting plant. Our model calculates the potential to reduce emissions, and the costs associated with implementation of reduction options. In an earlier paper [Neto, B., Kroeze, C., Hordijk, L., Costa, C., 2008. Modelling the environmental impact of an aluminium pressure die casting company and options for control. Environmental Modelling & Software 23 (2) 147-168] we included the model description and explored the model by applying it to a plant in which no reduction options are assumed to be implemented (so-called zero case, reflecting the current practice in the plant). Here, we perform a systematic analysis of reduction options. We analysed seven types of reduction strategies, assuming the simultaneous implementation of different reduction options. These strategies are analysed with respect to their potential to reduce emissions, environmental impact and costs associated with the implementation of options. These strategies were found to differ largely in their potential to reduce the environmental impact of the plant (10-87%), as well as in the costs associated with the implementation of options (-268 to +277keuro/year). We were able to define 11 strategies, reducing the overall environmental impact by more than 50%. Of these, two have net negative costs, indicating that the company may in fact earn money through their implementation. PMID:18342428

  15. CITIZEN CONCERN WITH POWER PLANT SITING: WISCONSIN POWER PLANT IMPACT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two hundred and fifteen invited participants attended four public workshops in four Wisconsin cities in the spring of 1977. They were divided into small groups and asked to identify and rank power plant siting concerns in three categories: biological and physical, economic and so...

  16. ELEVATED CO2 AND PLANT PLANT SPECIES RICHNESS IMPACT ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGAL SPORE COMMUNITIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We enumerated arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spore communities for three years as part of a long-term Free-Air CO2 Enrichment experiment (BioCON) at Cedar Creek, Minnesota, USA. Complete factorial combinations of two levels of CO2 and N, and sixteen perennial plant species grown in monoculture and si...

  17. Solar thermal plant impact analysis and requirements definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Y. P.

    1980-01-01

    Progress on a continuing study comprising of ten tasks directed at defining impact and requirements for solar thermal power systems (SPS), 1 to 10 MWe each in capacity, installed during 1985 through year 2000 in a utility or a nonutility load in the United States is summarized. The point focus distributed receiver (PFDR) solar power systems are emphasized. Tasks 1 through 4, completed to date, include the development of a comprehensive data base on SPS configurations, their performance, cost, availability, and potential applications; user loads, regional characteristics, and an analytic methodology that incorporates the generally accepted utility financial planning methods and several unique modifications to treat the significant and specific characteristics of solar power systems deployed in either central or distributed power generation modes, are discussed.

  18. An impact source localization technique for a nuclear power plant by using sensors of different types.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Chul; Park, Jin-Ho; Choi, Kyoung-Sik

    2011-01-01

    In a nuclear power plant, a loose part monitoring system (LPMS) provides information on the location and the mass of a loosened or detached metal impacted onto the inner surface of the primary pressure boundary. Typically, accelerometers are mounted on the surface of a reactor vessel to localize the impact location caused by the impact of metallic substances on the reactor system. However, in some cases, the number of accelerometers is not sufficient to estimate the impact location precisely. In such a case, one of useful methods is to utilize other types of sensor that can measure the vibration of the reactor structure. For example, acoustic emission (AE) sensors are installed on the reactor structure to detect leakage or cracks on the primary pressure boundary. However, accelerometers and AE sensors have a different frequency range. The frequency of interest of AE sensors is higher than that of accelerometers. In this paper, we propose a method of impact source localization by using both accelerometer signals and AE signals, simultaneously. The main concept of impact location estimation is based on the arrival time difference of the impact stress wave between different sensor locations. However, it is difficult to find the arrival time difference between sensors, because the primary frequency ranges of accelerometers and AE sensors are different. To overcome the problem, we used phase delays of an envelope of impact signals. This is because the impact signals from the accelerometer and the AE sensor are similar in the whole shape (envelope). To verify the proposed method, we have performed experiments for a reactor mock-up model and a real nuclear power plant. The experimental results demonstrate that we can enhance the reliability and precision of the impact source localization. Therefore, if the proposed method is applied to a nuclear power plant, we can obtain the effect of additional installed sensors. PMID:20851393

  19. Exposure of Particulate Matters PM10 and PM2.5 to Pregnant Ladies during First Trimester and its Impact on Adverse Birth Outcomes in Delhi, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Goyal, P.

    2015-12-01

    The incessant exposure to criteria air pollutants at different level of concentrations is associated with adverse birth outcomes. The present study advocates the importance of the early period of pregnancy (first trimester) for association between growth in term of small gestational age (SGA) and birth weight (BW) with PM2.5 and PM10 for megacity Delhi. The association of PM10 and PM2.5 average concentration, SGA, pre term birth (PTB) and lower birth weight (LBW < 2500g or 5.5 pounds) outcomes have been investigated among 1749 live births in a large hospital during the year 2012 New Delhi, India. The air pollutants PM2.5 and PM10 have been used in single pollutant logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (OR) for these outcomes. Growth in term of SGA is associated with PM2.5 levels (OR = 0.99, confidence interval (CI) = 0.99 - 1.0) and PM10 levels (OR= 0.99, CI= 0.99 - 1.001) in the first trimester of pregnancy. Birth weight outcome in terms of lower birth weight (LBW) has been found to be significantly associated with PM2.5 (OR= 0.99, CI = 0.98 - 1.00) exposure in the first trimester. A very significant decrease of 0.1% has been observed in growth of infant in terms of SGA with per 10 mg/m3 increase in PM2.5. Also, 0.1 % statistically significant adverse association of BW in terms of LBW has been found with per 10 mg/m3 increased vulnerability of PM2.5 during first trimester of gestation.

  20. Impacts of flare emissions from an ethylene plant shutdown to regional air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ziyuan; Wang, Sujing; Xu, Qiang; Ho, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Critical operations of chemical process industry (CPI) plants such as ethylene plant shutdowns could emit a huge amount of VOCs and NOx, which may result in localized and transient ozone pollution events. In this paper, a general methodology for studying dynamic ozone impacts associated with flare emissions from ethylene plant shutdowns has been developed. This multi-scale simulation study integrates process knowledge of plant shutdown emissions in terms of flow rate and speciation together with regional air-quality modeling to quantitatively investigate the sensitivity of ground-level ozone change due to an ethylene plant shutdown. The study shows the maximum hourly ozone increments can vary significantly by different plant locations and temporal factors including background ozone data and solar radiation intensity. It helps provide a cost-effective air-quality control strategy for industries by choosing the optimal starting time of plant shutdown operations in terms of minimizing the induced ozone impact (reduced from 34.1 ppb to 1.2 ppb in the performed case studies). This study provides valuable technical supports for both CPI and environmental policy makers on cost-effective air-quality controls in the future.

  1. Impact of repetitive DNA on sex chromosome evolution in plants.

    PubMed

    Hobza, Roman; Kubat, Zdenek; Cegan, Radim; Jesionek, Wojciech; Vyskot, Boris; Kejnovsky, Eduard

    2015-09-01

    Structurally and functionally diverged sex chromosomes have evolved in many animals as well as in some plants. Sex chromosomes represent a specific genomic region(s) with locally suppressed recombination. As a consequence, repetitive sequences involving transposable elements, tandem repeats (satellites and microsatellites), and organellar DNA accumulate on the Y (W) chromosomes. In this paper, we review the main types of repetitive elements, their gathering on the Y chromosome, and discuss new findings showing that not only accumulation of various repeats in non-recombining regions but also opposite processes form Y chromosome. The aim of this review is also to discuss the mechanisms of repetitive DNA spread involving (retro) transposition, DNA polymerase slippage or unequal crossing-over, as well as modes of repeat removal by ectopic recombination. The intensity of these processes differs in non-recombining region(s) of sex chromosomes when compared to the recombining parts of genome. We also speculate about the relationship between heterochromatinization and the formation of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. PMID:26474787

  2. Analysis of particulate matter impacts for six power plants in Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, J.; Winkler, M.; Winkler, C.

    2006-02-15

    This report provides a detailed look at the influence of the six highest emitting power plants in Maryland on air pollution and health within the state and elsewhere, based on a previously published regional analysis and previous national-scale modeling efforts. The focus is on fine particulate matter, since studies have shown that respiratory and cardiovascular health are likely to be affected by PM2.5 at current outdoor levels in Maryland. The study was requested by the Maryland Nurses Association. The models determined that the six power plants combined contribute approximately 0.2-1.0 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of annual average PM2.5 in Maryland, with the impact varying across the state based on proximity to the various plants. While this only represents a fraction of current outdoor concentrations, this increment may be significant in determining non-attainment status in some locations, and the public health impacts remain potentially important. Looking at each plant individually, the impacts typically exhibit spatial patterns in which the maximum concentration impact occurs in relatively close proximity to the power plant. Considering health outcomes based on current population estimates, the six power plants together have an annual impact in Maryland of approximately 100 premature deaths, 4,000 asthma attacks, and over 100,000 person-days with minor restrictions in activity, among other health outcomes. These findings emphasize the importance of considering local, regional and national sources of PM2.5 when developing emission control strategies. 16 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. Impact of hormonal crosstalk on plant resistance and fitness under multi-attacker conditions

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Irene A.; Moritz, Liselotte; Pieterse, Corné M. J.; Van Wees, Saskia C. M.

    2015-01-01

    The hormone salicylic acid (SA) generally induces plant defenses against biotrophic pathogens. Jasmonic acid (JA) and its oxylipin derivatives together with ethylene (ET) are generally important hormonal regulators of induced plant defenses against necrotrophic pathogens, whereas JAs together with abscisic acid (ABA) are implicated in induced plant defenses against herbivorous insects. Hormonal crosstalk between the different plant defense pathways has often been hypothesized to be a cost-saving strategy that has evolved as a means of the plant to reduce allocation costs by repression of unnecessary defenses, thereby minimizing trade-offs between plant defense and growth. However, proof for this hypothesis has not been demonstrated yet. In this study the impact of hormonal crosstalk on disease resistance and fitness of Arabidopsis thaliana when under multi-species attack was investigated. Induction of SA- or JA/ABA-dependent defense responses by the biotrophic pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis or the herbivorous insect Pieris rapae, respectively, was shown to reduce the level of induced JA/ET-dependent defense against subsequent infection with the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea. However, despite the enhanced susceptibility to this second attacker, no additional long-term negative effects were observed on plant fitness when plants had been challenged by multiple attackers. Similarly, when plants were grown in dense competition stands to enlarge fitness effects of induced defenses, treatment with a combination of SA and MeJA did not cause additional negative effects on plant fitness in comparison to the single MeJA treatment. Together, these data support the notion that hormonal crosstalk in plants during multi-attacker interactions allows plants to prioritize their defenses, while limiting the fitness costs associated with induction of defenses. PMID:26347758

  4. Disentangling Facilitation Along the Life Cycle: Impacts of Plant-Plant Interactions at Vegetative and Reproductive Stages in a Mediterranean Forb.

    PubMed

    García-Cervigón, Ana I; Iriondo, José M; Linares, Juan C; Olano, José M

    2016-01-01

    Facilitation enables plants to improve their fitness in stressful environments. The overall impact of plant-plant interactions on the population dynamics of protégées is the net result of both positive and negative effects that may act simultaneously along the plant life cycle, and depends on the environmental context. This study evaluates the impact of the nurse plant Juniperus sabina on different stages of the life cycle of the forb Helleborus foetidus. Growth, number of leaves, flowers, carpels, and seeds per flower were compared for 240 individuals collected under nurse canopies and in open areas at two sites with contrasting stress levels. Spatial associations with nurse plants and age structures were also checked. A structural equation model was built to test the effect of facilitation on fecundity, accounting for sequential steps from flowering to seed production. The net impact of nurse plants depended on a combination of positive and negative effects on vegetative and reproductive variables. Although nurse plants caused a decrease in flower production at the low-stress site, their net impact there was neutral. In contrast, at the high-stress site the net outcome of plant-plant interactions was positive due to an increase in effective recruitment, plant density, number of viable carpels per flower, and fruit set under nurse canopies. The naturally lower rates of secondary growth and flower production at the high-stress site were compensated by the net positive impact of nurse plants here. Our results emphasize the need to evaluate entire processes and not only final outcomes when studying plant-plant interactions. PMID:26904086

  5. How much is too little to detect impacts? A case study of a nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Mayer-Pinto, Mariana; Ignacio, Barbara L; Széchy, Maria T M; Viana, Mariana S; Curbelo-Fernandez, Maria P; Lavrado, Helena P; Junqueira, Andrea O R; Vilanova, Eduardo; Silva, Sérgio H G

    2012-01-01

    Several approaches have been proposed to assess impacts on natural assemblages. Ideally, the potentially impacted site and multiple reference sites are sampled through time, before and after the impact. Often, however, the lack of information regarding the potential overall impact, the lack of knowledge about the environment in many regions worldwide, budgets constraints and the increasing dimensions of human activities compromise the reliability of the impact assessment. We evaluated the impact, if any, and its extent of a nuclear power plant effluent on sessile epibiota assemblages using a suitable and feasible sampling design with no 'before' data and budget and logistic constraints. Assemblages were sampled at multiple times and at increasing distances from the point of the discharge of the effluent. There was a clear and localized effect of the power plant effluent (up to 100 m from the point of the discharge). However, depending on the time of the year, the impact reaches up to 600 m. We found a significantly lower richness of taxa in the Effluent site when compared to other sites. Furthermore, at all times, the variability of assemblages near the discharge was also smaller than in other sites. Although the sampling design used here (in particular the number of replicates) did not allow an unambiguously evaluation of the full extent of the impact in relation to its intensity and temporal variability, the multiple temporal and spatial scales used allowed the detection of some differences in the intensity of the impact, depending on the time of sampling. Our findings greatly contribute to increase the knowledge on the effects of multiple stressors caused by the effluent of a power plant and also have important implications for management strategies and conservation ecology, in general. PMID:23110117

  6. How Much Is Too Little to Detect Impacts? A Case Study of a Nuclear Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Széchy, Maria T. M.; Viana, Mariana S.; Curbelo-Fernandez, Maria P.; Lavrado, Helena P.; Junqueira, Andrea O. R.; Vilanova, Eduardo; Silva, Sérgio H. G.

    2012-01-01

    Several approaches have been proposed to assess impacts on natural assemblages. Ideally, the potentially impacted site and multiple reference sites are sampled through time, before and after the impact. Often, however, the lack of information regarding the potential overall impact, the lack of knowledge about the environment in many regions worldwide, budgets constraints and the increasing dimensions of human activities compromise the reliability of the impact assessment. We evaluated the impact, if any, and its extent of a nuclear power plant effluent on sessile epibiota assemblages using a suitable and feasible sampling design with no ‘before’ data and budget and logistic constraints. Assemblages were sampled at multiple times and at increasing distances from the point of the discharge of the effluent. There was a clear and localized effect of the power plant effluent (up to 100 m from the point of the discharge). However, depending on the time of the year, the impact reaches up to 600 m. We found a significantly lower richness of taxa in the Effluent site when compared to other sites. Furthermore, at all times, the variability of assemblages near the discharge was also smaller than in other sites. Although the sampling design used here (in particular the number of replicates) did not allow an unambiguously evaluation of the full extent of the impact in relation to its intensity and temporal variability, the multiple temporal and spatial scales used allowed the detection of some differences in the intensity of the impact, depending on the time of sampling. Our findings greatly contribute to increase the knowledge on the effects of multiple stressors caused by the effluent of a power plant and also have important implications for management strategies and conservation ecology, in general. PMID:23110117

  7. Pilot plant assessment of blend properties and their impact on critical power plant components

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    A series of tests were performed to determine the effects of blending eastern bituminous coals with western subbituminous coals on utility boiler operation. Relative to the baseline bituminous coal, the testing reported here indicated that there were significant impacts to boiler performance due to the blending of the eastern and western coals. Results indicated that fuel blending can be used to adequately control flue gas emissions of both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} at the expense of reduced milling efficiency, increased sootblowing in the high-temperature and low-temperature regions of the boiler and, to a lesser extent, decreased collection efficiency for an electrostatic precipitator. The higher reactivity of the subbituminous coal increased the overall combustion efficiency, which may tend to decrease the impact of milling efficiency losses. The extent of these impacts was directly related to the percentage of subbituminous coal in the blends. At the lowest blend ratios of subbituminous coal, the impacts were greatly reduced.

  8. Healthy and Adverse Effects of Plant-Derived Functional Metabolites: The Need of Revealing their Content and Bioactivity in a Complex Food Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Lavecchia, Teresa; Rea, Giuseppina; Antonacci, Amina; Giardi, Maria T.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, both food quality and its effect on human health have become a fundamental issue all over the world. As a consequence of this new and increased awareness, American, European, and Asian policymakers have strongly encouraged the research programs on food quality and safety thematic. Attempts to improve human health and to satisfy people's desire for healthcare without intake of pharmaceuticals, has led the food industry to focus attention on functional or nutraceutical food. For a long time, compounds with nutraceutical activity have been produced chemically, but the new demands for a sustainable life have gradually led the food industry to move towards natural compounds, mainly those derived from plants. Many phytochemicals are known to promote good health, but, sometimes, undesirable effects are also reported. Furthermore, several products present on the market show few benefits and sometimes even the reverse – unhealthy effects; the evidence of efficacy is often unconvincing and epidemiological studies are necessary to prove the truth of their claims. Therefore, there is a need for reliable analytical control systems to measure the bioactivity, content, and quality of these additives in the complex food matrix. This review describes the most widespread nutraceutics and an analytical control of the same using recently developed biosensors which are promising candidates for routine control of functional foods. PMID:23072533

  9. Improving methods to evaluate the impacts of plant invasions: lessons from 40 years of research.

    PubMed

    Stricker, Kerry Bohl; Hagan, Donald; Flory, S Luke

    2015-01-01

    Methods used to evaluate the ecological impacts of biological invasions vary widely from broad-scale observational studies to removal experiments in invaded communities and experimental additions in common gardens and greenhouses. Different methods provide information at diverse spatial and temporal scales with varying levels of reliability. Thus, here we provide a synthetic and critical review of the methods used to evaluate the impacts of plant invasions and provide recommendations for future research. We review the types of methods available and report patterns in methods used, including the duration and spatial scale of studies and plant functional groups examined, from 410 peer-reviewed papers published between 1971 and 2011. We found that there has been a marked increase in papers published on plant invasion impacts since 2003 and that more than half of all studies employed observational methods while <5 % included predictive modelling. Most of the studies were temporally and spatially restricted with 51 % of studies lasting <1 year and almost half of all studies conducted in plots or mesocosms <1 m(2). There was also a bias in life form studied: more than 60 % of all studies evaluated impacts of invasive forbs and graminoids while <16 % focused on invasive trees. To more effectively quantify invasion impacts, we argue that longer-term experimental research and more studies that use predictive modelling and evaluate impacts of invasions on ecosystem processes and fauna are needed. Combining broad-scale observational studies with experiments and predictive modelling may provide the most insight into invasion impacts for policy makers and land managers seeking to reduce the effects of plant invasions. PMID:25829379

  10. Improving methods to evaluate the impacts of plant invasions: lessons from 40 years of research

    PubMed Central

    Stricker, Kerry Bohl; Hagan, Donald; Flory, S. Luke

    2015-01-01

    Methods used to evaluate the ecological impacts of biological invasions vary widely from broad-scale observational studies to removal experiments in invaded communities and experimental additions in common gardens and greenhouses. Different methods provide information at diverse spatial and temporal scales with varying levels of reliability. Thus, here we provide a synthetic and critical review of the methods used to evaluate the impacts of plant invasions and provide recommendations for future research. We review the types of methods available and report patterns in methods used, including the duration and spatial scale of studies and plant functional groups examined, from 410 peer-reviewed papers published between 1971 and 2011. We found that there has been a marked increase in papers published on plant invasion impacts since 2003 and that more than half of all studies employed observational methods while <5 % included predictive modelling. Most of the studies were temporally and spatially restricted with 51 % of studies lasting <1 year and almost half of all studies conducted in plots or mesocosms <1 m2. There was also a bias in life form studied: more than 60 % of all studies evaluated impacts of invasive forbs and graminoids while <16 % focused on invasive trees. To more effectively quantify invasion impacts, we argue that longer-term experimental research and more studies that use predictive modelling and evaluate impacts of invasions on ecosystem processes and fauna are needed. Combining broad-scale observational studies with experiments and predictive modelling may provide the most insight into invasion impacts for policy makers and land managers seeking to reduce the effects of plant invasions. PMID:25829379

  11. Implementing Case Studies in a Plant Pathology Course: Impact on Student Learning and Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadav, Aman; Beckerman, Janna L.

    2009-01-01

    Case studies have been used in undergraduate science education as a way to develop students' critical thinking and problem-solving skills. However, little empirical evidence exists on whether this teaching method is having the desired impact on students in plant pathology courses. This study evaluated the influence of the case teaching method on…

  12. Technological Change in an Auto Assembly Plant: The Impact on Workers' Tasks and Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milkman, Ruth; Pullman, Cydney

    1991-01-01

    Worker surveys and interviews with workers, managers, and unions explored the impact of technological change and reorganization at General Motors' plant in Linden, New Jersey. Skilled trades workers experienced skill upgrading and increased responsibility, whereas production workers underwent deskilling and were increasingly subordinated to the…

  13. INSTRUMENTATION, RECORDING, AND PROCESSING OF METEOROLOGICAL DATA NEAR PORTAGE, WISCONSIN: WISCONSIN POWER PLANT IMPACT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Columbia Power Plant Impact Study meteorological data were collected at a network of monitoring sites from 1972 through 1977. The data were the basis for a series of studies whose purpose was to elucidate the transport of airborne pollutants and to assess the clima...

  14. Final environmental impact assessment of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    This document considers: the need for uranium enrichment facilities; site location; plant description; and describes the power generating facilities in light of its existing environment. The impacts from continuing operations are compared with alternatives of shutdown, relocation, and alternative power systems. (PSB)

  15. APPLICATION OF BIORETENTION, NATIVE PLANTS AND OTHER LOW IMPACT STORM WATER MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES TO TUFTS UNIVERSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    At Tufts, teams of undergraduates have worked for several years in collaboration with Tufts' Facilities to design bioretentive landscapes using native plants. Now, students will take the next step by implementing low impact development (LID) strategies in conjunction with bes...

  16. AIR QUALITY IMPACTS USING SRC VERSUS CONVENTIONAL COAL IN POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of air quality modeling to assess the impact of burning solvent-refined coal (SRC) instead of conventional coal in three power plants which exceeded National Ambient Air Quality Standards when burning conventional coal. The EPA CRSTER Gaussian plume model...

  17. 75 FR 54961 - Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Single Nuclear Unit at the Bellefonte Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    .... These groups preferred the No Action Alternative due to their perception of the high cost and safety... and operation of a nuclear plant. The in-depth analysis of the impacts on low-income or minority... related to the construction workforce and the need for mitigation. TVA has undertaken an in-depth...

  18. 75 FR 18572 - Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for Sequoyah Nuclear Plant Units 1 and 2 License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ...This notice of intent is provided in accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality's regulations (40 CFR parts 1500-1508) and Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) procedures for implementing the National Environmental Policy Act. TVA will prepare a supplemental environmental impact statement (SEIS) to update information in the 1974 Final Environmental Statement for Sequoyah Nuclear Plant......

  19. Adverse reactions to sulfites

    PubMed Central

    Yang, William H.; Purchase, Emerson C.R.

    1985-01-01

    Sulfites are widely used as preservatives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In the United States more than 250 cases of sulfite-related adverse reactions, including anaphylactic shock, asthmatic attacks, urticaria and angioedema, nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhea, seizures and death, have been reported, including 6 deaths allegedly associated with restaurant food containing sulfites. In Canada 10 sulfite-related adverse reactions have been documented, and 1 death suspected to be sulfite-related has occurred. The exact mechanism of sulfite-induced reactions is unknown. Practising physicians should be aware of the clinical manifestations of sulfite-related adverse reactions as well as which foods and pharmaceuticals contain sulfites. Cases should be reported to health officials and proper advice given to the victims to prevent further exposure to sulfites. The food industry, including beer and wine manufacturers, and the pharmaceutical industry should consider using alternative preservatives. In the interim, they should list any sulfites in their products. PMID:4052897

  20. Multifarious Roles of Intrinsic Disorder in Proteins Illustrate Its Broad Impact on Plant Biology

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaolin; Rikkerink, Erik H.A.; Jones, William T.; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are highly abundant in eukaryotic proteomes. Plant IDPs play critical roles in plant biology and often act as integrators of signals from multiple plant regulatory and environmental inputs. Binding promiscuity and plasticity allow IDPs to interact with multiple partners in protein interaction networks and provide important functional advantages in molecular recognition through transient protein–protein interactions. Short interaction-prone segments within IDPs, termed molecular recognition features, represent potential binding sites that can undergo disorder-to-order transition upon binding to their partners. In this review, we summarize the evidence for the importance of IDPs in plant biology and evaluate the functions associated with intrinsic disorder in five different types of plant protein families experimentally confirmed as IDPs. Functional studies of these proteins illustrate the broad impact of disorder on many areas of plant biology, including abiotic stress, transcriptional regulation, light perception, and development. Based on the roles of disorder in the protein–protein interactions, we propose various modes of action for plant IDPs that may provide insight for future experimental approaches aimed at understanding the molecular basis of protein function within important plant pathways. PMID:23362206

  1. Water impacts of CO2 emission performance standards for fossil fuel-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Talati, Shuchi; Zhai, Haibo; Morgan, M Granger

    2014-10-21

    We employ an integrated systems modeling tool to assess the water impacts of the new source performance standards recently proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for limiting CO2 emissions from coal- and gas-fired power plants. The implementation of amine-based carbon capture and storage (CCS) for 40% CO2 capture to meet the current proposal will increase plant water use by roughly 30% in supercritical pulverized coal-fired power plants. The specific amount of added water use varies with power plant and CCS designs. More stringent emission standards than the current proposal would require CO2 emission reductions for natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) plants via CCS, which would also increase plant water use. When examined over a range of possible future emission standards from 1100 to 300 lb CO2/MWh gross, new baseload NGCC plants consume roughly 60-70% less water than coal-fired plants. A series of adaptation approaches to secure low-carbon energy production and improve the electric power industry's water management in the face of future policy constraints are discussed both quantitatively and qualitatively. PMID:25229670

  2. Impacts of Plant Water Use on Streamflow at Daily, Storm, and Event Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The science of runoff generation describes the processes by which catchments lose water by drainage during high flow periods. For many ecohydrological problems, however, we are more interested in how water is retained during low flow periods. For example, fish habitat in the relatively dry catchments of the semiarid mountain west depends on how low streamflow is metered through the summer. Additionally, upland plants survive by the soils ability to retain water in opposition to runoff generation. Here, I discuss the impacts of soil water retention and vegetation on low flow in seasonally dry, semiarid catchments. I present evidence showing 1) low flows are getting lower, 2) plants and streams receive water from different co-existing sources, and 3) transpiration perturbs streamflow at daily, storm and seasonal scales. The simultaneous occurrence of points 2 and 3 point to conflict emerging in recent hydrologic literature: How can plants use water that is seemingly disconnected from streams while simultaneously impacting streamflow?

  3. The impact of glutathione S-transferase genotype and phenotype on the adverse drug reactions to azathioprine in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Ding, Liang; Zhang, Fangbin; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Xiang; Hu, Pinjin; Bi, Huichang; Huang, Min

    2015-10-01

    Azathioprine (AZA) is a thiopurine prodrug which is widely used in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the use is limited in one-third of patients because of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) or a lack of clinical response. It has been considered that the polymorphic enzyme thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) plays an important role in the in vivo process of AZA and the occurrence of its myelotoxicity. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) mutation is another pharmacogenetic polymorphism which is probably involved in AZA metabolism and tolerance. The aim of this study was to investigate the association among GST polymorphism, enzyme activity and AZA-related ADRs in Chinese Han patients with IBD. We found that the patients who became neutropenic had a significantly higher GSTs activity when compared with of the patients who did not develop ADRs (analysis of variance, P < 0.001). There was also a significant underrepresentation of GSTP1*-105V allele among patients developing ADRs (odds ratio [OR] = 0.125, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.022-0.709, P = 0.0012). The patients with higher GST activity constituted a pharmacogenetic high risk group for leucopenia during AZA treatment. GST-P1 Ile105/Ile105 genotype appeared to be a promising marker indicating predisposition to AZA-related ADRs. PMID:26432087

  4. Plant Diversity Impacts Decomposition and Herbivory via Changes in Aboveground Arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Ebeling, Anne; Meyer, Sebastian T.; Abbas, Maike; Eisenhauer, Nico; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lange, Markus; Scherber, Christoph; Vogel, Anja; Weigelt, Alexandra; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

    2014-01-01

    Loss of plant diversity influences essential ecosystem processes as aboveground productivity, and can have cascading effects on the arthropod communities in adjacent trophic levels. However, few studies have examined how those changes in arthropod communities can have additional impacts on ecosystem processes caused by them (e.g. pollination, bioturbation, predation, decomposition, herbivory). Therefore, including arthropod effects in predictions of the impact of plant diversity loss on such ecosystem processes is an important but little studied piece of information. In a grassland biodiversity experiment, we addressed this gap by assessing aboveground decomposer and herbivore communities and linking their abundance and diversity to rates of decomposition and herbivory. Path analyses showed that increasing plant diversity led to higher abundance and diversity of decomposing arthropods through higher plant biomass. Higher species richness of decomposers, in turn, enhanced decomposition. Similarly, species-rich plant communities hosted a higher abundance and diversity of herbivores through elevated plant biomass and C:N ratio, leading to higher herbivory rates. Integrating trophic interactions into the study of biodiversity effects is required to understand the multiple pathways by which biodiversity affects ecosystem functioning. PMID:25226237

  5. Plant transpiration and groundwater dynamics in water-limited climates: Impacts of hydraulic redistribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiangyu; Liang, Xu; Lin, Jeen-Shang

    2016-06-01

    The role of groundwater in sustaining plant transpiration constitutes an important but not well-understood aspect of the interactions between groundwater, vegetation, the land surface, and the atmosphere. The effect of the hydraulic redistribution (HR) process by plant roots on the interplay between plant transpiration and groundwater dynamics under water-limited climates is investigated by using the Variable Infiltration Capacity Plus (VIC+) land surface model. Numerical experiments, with or without explicitly considering HR, are conducted on soil columns over a range of groundwater table depths (GWTDs) under different vegetative land covers, soil types, and precipitation conditions. When HR is not included, this study obtains transpiration-GWTD relationships consistent with those from watershed studies that do not include HR. When HR is included, the transpiration-GWTD relationships are modified. The modification introduced by HR is manifested in the soil moisture of the root zone. The mechanism of HR is explained by detailing the roles of the hydraulically redistributed water, the upward diffusion of soil water, and the daytime root uptake. We have found that HR is particularly important in water-limited climates under which plants have high transpiration demand. At the beginning stage of a dry period, HR modulates the severe impacts that climate has on plant transpiration. Only after a prolonged dry period, impacts of HR are lessened when the groundwater table drops below the depth of water uptake by roots and are diminished when plant transpiration is decoupled from groundwater dynamics.

  6. Tourism Impacts of Three Mile Island and Other Adverse Events: Implications for Lincoln County and Other Rural Counties Bisected by Radioactive Wastes Intended for Yucca Mountain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himmelberger, Jeffery J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes key research implications of Three Mile Island and other major hazard events as related to tourism. Examines how the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository system will impact tourism in southern Nevada and other visitor-oriented rural counties bisected by planned waste transportation corridors. (AIM)

  7. Predicting the dynamic impact behaviour of spray droplets on flat plant surfaces.

    PubMed

    Delele, M A; Nuyttens, D; Duga, A T; Ambaw, A; Lebeau, F; Nicolai, B M; Verboven, P

    2016-09-14

    The dynamic impact behaviour of water droplets on plant surfaces was investigated based on a multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. The study was conducted using the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) approach. The static contact angle of water droplets on leaf surfaces of different plants (apple, pear, leek and cabbage) was measured and found to vary between 54.9 and 138.2°. Impact experiments were conducted by monitoring the flow and impact characteristics of water droplets on leaves in still air with a high speed camera. Droplets were generated by an agricultural flat fan spray nozzle moving across the leaf at constant speed. The nozzle produced droplets with diameters ranging from 20.6 up to 550.8 μm, and droplet velocity values near the impact between 0.03 and 13.2 m s(-1). The CFD model was capable of predicting the observed dynamic impact behaviour of droplets on the plant surfaces. The fate of the droplets after the impact process for adhesion, bouncing or splashing was accurately predicted for Weber numbers (We) in the range of 0.007 to 1096 and droplet Reynolds numbers (Re) between 5 to 8000. The process was highly dependent on the surface and droplet flow characteristics during the impact. Combinations of We, Re and Ohnesorge (Oh) numbers defined the droplet maximum spread factor, the number of secondary droplets generated as a result of the splashing process and the transition between the different impact outcomes. These criteria can then be used in field scale spray deposition and drift models to better understand agricultural spray operations. PMID:27501228

  8. Impacts of invasive plants on Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis) roosting habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kessler, Andrew C.; Merchant, James W.; Allen, Craig R.; Shultz, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    Invasive plants continue to spread in riparian ecosystems, causing both ecological and economic damage. This research investigated the impacts of common reed, purple loosestrife, riparian shrubland, and riparian woodlands on the quality and quantity of sandhill crane roosting habitat in the central Platte River, Nebraska, using a discrete choice model. A more detailed investigation of the impacts of common reed on sandhill crane roosting habitat was performed by forecasting a spread or contraction of this invasive plant. The discrete choice model indicates that riparian woodlands had the largest negative impact on sandhill crane roosting habitat. The forecasting results predict that a contraction of common reed could increase sandhill crane habitat availability by 50%, whereas an expansion could reduce the availability by as much as 250%. This suggests that if the distribution of common reed continues to expand in the central Platte River the availability of sandhill crane roosting habitat would likely be greatly reduced.

  9. Does Plant Origin Influence the Fitness Impact of Flower Damage? A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    González-Browne, Catalina; Murúa, Maureen M.; Navarro, Luis; Medel, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Herbivory has been long considered an important component of plant-animal interactions that influences the success of invasive species in novel habitats. One of the most important hypotheses linking herbivory and invasion processes is the enemy-release hypothesis, in which exotic plants are hypothesized to suffer less herbivory and fitness-costs in their novel ranges as they leave behind their enemies in the original range. Most evidence, however, comes from studies on leaf herbivory, and the importance of flower herbivory for the invasion process remains largely unknown. Here we present the results of a meta-analysis of the impact of flower herbivory on plant reproductive success, using as moderators the type of damage caused by floral herbivores and the residence status of the plant species. We found 51 papers that fulfilled our criteria. We also included 60 records from unpublished data of the laboratory, gathering a total of 143 case studies. The effects of florivory and nectar robbing were both negative on plant fitness. The methodology employed in studies of flower herbivory influenced substantially the outcome of flower damage. Experiments using natural herbivory imposed a higher fitness cost than simulated herbivory, such as clipping and petal removal, indicating that studies using artificial herbivory as surrogates of natural herbivory underestimate the real fitness impact of flower herbivory. Although the fitness cost of floral herbivory was high both in native and exotic plant species, floral herbivores had a three-fold stronger fitness impact on exotic than native plants, contravening a critical element of the enemy-release hypothesis. Our results suggest a critical but largely unrecognized role of floral herbivores in preventing the spread of introduced species into newly colonized areas. PMID:26785039

  10. Does Plant Origin Influence the Fitness Impact of Flower Damage? A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    González-Browne, Catalina; Murúa, Maureen M; Navarro, Luis; Medel, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Herbivory has been long considered an important component of plant-animal interactions that influences the success of invasive species in novel habitats. One of the most important hypotheses linking herbivory and invasion processes is the enemy-release hypothesis, in which exotic plants are hypothesized to suffer less herbivory and fitness-costs in their novel ranges as they leave behind their enemies in the original range. Most evidence, however, comes from studies on leaf herbivory, and the importance of flower herbivory for the invasion process remains largely unknown. Here we present the results of a meta-analysis of the impact of flower herbivory on plant reproductive success, using as moderators the type of damage caused by floral herbivores and the residence status of the plant species. We found 51 papers that fulfilled our criteria. We also included 60 records from unpublished data of the laboratory, gathering a total of 143 case studies. The effects of florivory and nectar robbing were both negative on plant fitness. The methodology employed in studies of flower herbivory influenced substantially the outcome of flower damage. Experiments using natural herbivory imposed a higher fitness cost than simulated herbivory, such as clipping and petal removal, indicating that studies using artificial herbivory as surrogates of natural herbivory underestimate the real fitness impact of flower herbivory. Although the fitness cost of floral herbivory was high both in native and exotic plant species, floral herbivores had a three-fold stronger fitness impact on exotic than native plants, contravening a critical element of the enemy-release hypothesis. Our results suggest a critical but largely unrecognized role of floral herbivores in preventing the spread of introduced species into newly colonized areas. PMID:26785039

  11. Impacts of invading alien plant species on water flows at stand and catchment scales.

    PubMed

    Le Maitre, D C; Gush, M B; Dzikiti, S

    2015-01-01

    There have been many studies of the diverse impacts of invasions by alien plants but few have assessed impacts on water resources. We reviewed the information on the impacts of invasions on surface runoff and groundwater resources at stand to catchment scales and covering a full annual cycle. Most of the research is South African so the emphasis is on South Africa's major invaders with data from commercial forest plantations where relevant. Catchment studies worldwide have shown that changes in vegetation structure and the physiology of the dominant plant species result in changes in surface runoff and groundwater discharge, whether they involve native or alien plant species. Where there is little change in vegetation structure [e.g. leaf area (index), height, rooting depth and seasonality] the effects of invasions generally are small or undetectable. In South Africa, the most important woody invaders typically are taller and deeper rooted than the native species. The impacts of changes in evaporation (and thus runoff) in dryland settings are constrained by water availability to the plants and, thus, by rainfall. Where the dryland invaders are evergreen and the native vegetation (grass) is seasonal, the increases can reach 300-400 mm/year. Where the native vegetation is evergreen (shrublands) the increases are ∼200-300 mm/year. Where water availability is greater (riparian settings or shallow water tables), invading tree water-use can reach 1.5-2.0 times that of the same species in a dryland setting. So, riparian invasions have a much greater impact per unit area invaded than dryland invasions. The available data are scattered and incomplete, and there are many gaps and issues that must be addressed before a thorough understanding of the impacts at the site scale can be gained and used in extrapolating to watershed scales, and in converting changes in flows to water supply system yields. PMID:25935861

  12. Impacts of invading alien plant species on water flows at stand and catchment scales

    PubMed Central

    Le Maitre, D. C.; Gush, M. B.; Dzikiti, S.

    2015-01-01

    There have been many studies of the diverse impacts of invasions by alien plants but few have assessed impacts on water resources. We reviewed the information on the impacts of invasions on surface runoff and groundwater resources at stand to catchment scales and covering a full annual cycle. Most of the research is South African so the emphasis is on South Africa's major invaders with data from commercial forest plantations where relevant. Catchment studies worldwide have shown that changes in vegetation structure and the physiology of the dominant plant species result in changes in surface runoff and groundwater discharge, whether they involve native or alien plant species. Where there is little change in vegetation structure [e.g. leaf area (index), height, rooting depth and seasonality] the effects of invasions generally are small or undetectable. In South Africa, the most important woody invaders typically are taller and deeper rooted than the native species. The impacts of changes in evaporation (and thus runoff) in dryland settings are constrained by water availability to the plants and, thus, by rainfall. Where the dryland invaders are evergreen and the native vegetation (grass) is seasonal, the increases can reach 300–400 mm/year. Where the native vegetation is evergreen (shrublands) the increases are ∼200–300 mm/year. Where water availability is greater (riparian settings or shallow water tables), invading tree water-use can reach 1.5–2.0 times that of the same species in a dryland setting. So, riparian invasions have a much greater impact per unit area invaded than dryland invasions. The available data are scattered and incomplete, and there are many gaps and issues that must be addressed before a thorough understanding of the impacts at the site scale can be gained and used in extrapolating to watershed scales, and in converting changes in flows to water supply system yields. PMID:25935861

  13. Drought Impacts on Ancient Maya Maize Agriculture Inferred from Isotopic Analyses of Plant Biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, P. M.; Pagani, M.; Eglinton, T. I.; Brenner, M.; Hodell, D. A.; Curtis, J. H.

    2013-05-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that a series of droughts in the Maya lowlands of southeastern Mexico and northern Central America coincided with the Terminal Classic decline of the Classic Maya civilization (ca. 1250 to 1000 years BP). However, there is little evidence directly linking climatic change and changes in human activities in this region. In this study we combine plant-wax hydrogen and carbon analyses in two lake sediment cores from the Yucatan and northern Guatemala to develop coupled records of hydroclimate variability and human-driven vegetation change and assess drought impacts on maize agriculture In the Maya lowlands plant-wax hydrogen isotope ratios (δD) are controlled by the isotopic composition of precipitation and evapotranspiration, and are highly sensitive to changes in aridity. In this low-elevation tropical environment plant-wax carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) are largely controlled by the relative abundance of C3 and C4 plants. The ancient Maya practiced widespread maize (C4) agriculture and strongly influenced regional C3-C4 vegetation dynamics. Under natural conditions C4 plant coverage and plant-wax δD would tend to co-vary positively since C4 plants are well adapted for dry conditions. Under ancient Maya land-use, however, this relationship is likely to be decoupled, since drought would have disrupted C4 agriculture. Combined analyses of plant-wax δD and δ13C from two lake sediment cores in the Maya lowlands indicate co-evolving changes in hydroclimate and C4 plant coverage over the past 4000 years. Compound-specific radiocarbon analyses of plant-waxes provide independent chronologies for these plant-wax stable isotope records, and plant-wax δD records developed using these chronologies agree closely with other regional records of hydroclimate change. Trends in plant-wax δD and δ13C diverge following ca. 3500 years BP, around the onset of widespread ancient Maya agriculture. After this time high plant-wax δD values tend

  14. Shifts in plant functional types have time-dependent and regionally variable impacts on dryland ecosystem water balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradford, John B.; Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Lauenroth, William K.; Burke, Ingrid C.

    2014-01-01

    5. Synthesis. This study provides a novel, regional-scale assessment of how plant functional type transitions may impact ecosystem water balance in sagebrush-dominated ecosystems of North America. Results illustrate that the ecohydrological consequences of changing vegetation depend strongly on climate and suggest that decreasing woody plant abundance may have only limited impact on evapotranspiration and water yield.

  15. Impact of ozone on quantity and quality of greenhouse-grown potato plants

    SciTech Connect

    Pell, E.J.; Weissberger, W.C.; Speroni, J.J.

    1980-05-01

    The impact of ozone on quality and quantity of greenhouse-grown potatoes was considered. In two experiments conducted in 1977 and 1978, 'Norland' and 'Kennebec' potato plants were grown in a conventional greenhouse. Once every 2 weeks, 10 plants of each cultivar were exposed to 387 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ (0.20 ppm) ozone for 3 h in a controlled environment chamber. At 120 and 140 days, for 'Norland' and 'Kennebec', respectively, vines were killed and tubers were harvested. The number and weight of tubers harvested from ozonized plants decreased significantly in both cultivars. Significant decreases in total solids and increases in reducing sugars of tubers from ozone-exposed plants were identified.

  16. Impact of ozone on quantity and quality of greenhouse-grown potato plants

    SciTech Connect

    Pell, E.J.; Weissberger, W.C.; Speroni, J.J.

    1980-05-01

    The impact of ozone on quality and quantity of greenhouse-grown potatoes was considered. In two experiments conducted in 1977 and 1978, Norland and Kennebec potato plants were grown in a conventional greenhouse. Once every 2 weeks, 10 plants of each cultivar were exposed to 387 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ (0.20 ppm) ozone for 3 h in a controlled environment chamber. At 120 and 140 days, for Norland and Kennebec, respectively, vines were killed and tubers were harvested. The number and weight of tubers harvested from ozonized plants decreased significantly in both cultivars. Significant decreases in total solids and increases in reducing sugars of tubers from ozone-exposed plants were identified.

  17. Scientists Trace Adversity's Toll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    The stress of a spelling bee or a challenging science project can enhance a student's focus and promote learning. But the stress of a dysfunctional or unstable home life can poison a child's cognitive ability for a lifetime, according to new research. Those studies show that stress forms the link between childhood adversity and poor academic…

  18. IMPACT OF AIR POLLUTION ON VEGETATION NEAR THE COLUMBIA GENERATING STATION - WISCONSIN POWER PLANT IMPACT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of air pollution from the coal-fired Columbia Generating Station upon vegetation was investigated. Air monitoring of 03 and 02 documented levels that occurred before and with operation of the generating station. Field sampling of alfalfa, lichens, and white pines was u...

  19. IMPACTS OF COAL COMBUSTION ON TRACE ELEMENTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: WISCONSIN POWER PLANT IMPACT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of a modern coal-fired generating station on the environment, with emphasis on the concentrations and behavior of elements and the disposal of fly ash, was determined by analysis of aerosolic dust, oak leaves, aquatic organisms, water, fly ash, and coal. The major anal...

  20. Short-term plant species impact on microbial community structure in soils with long-term agricultural history

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-microbial interactions influence a wide range of biogeochemical processes governing the cycling of biologically important elements. Plant species have distinct impacts on biogeochemical processes and plant-microbial interactions in the rhizosphere account for many of the observed differences ...

  1. Impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) leaf, bark, and core extracts on germination of five plant species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chemical interaction between plants, which is referred to as allelopathy, may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) plant extracts on the germination and post-germination development ...

  2. Supplementary documentation for an Environmental Impact Statement regarding the Pantex Plant: radiation monitoring and radiological assessment of routine releases

    SciTech Connect

    Buhl, T.; Dewart, J.; Gunderson, T.; Talley, D.; Wenzel, J.; Romero, R.; Salazar, J.; Van Etten, D.

    1982-12-01

    This report documents work perfomed in support of the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) regarding the Department of Energy's Pantex Plant near Amarillo, Texas. Results of environmental measurements performed for the EIS are described. Descriptions are presented are presented of existing radiological conditions at the Pantex Plant and the two alternate sites, the Iowa Army Ammunition Plant near Burlington, Iowa, and the Hanford Site in Washington. Radiological impacts on these three sites by the proposed options and alternatives considered in the EIS are evaluated. Only impacts from routine operations are considered; impacts from accidents are treated in other reports.

  3. Impact of information letters on the reporting rate of adverse drug reactions and the quality of the reports: a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is an important method for pharmacovigilance, but under-reporting and poor quality of reports are major limitations. The aim of this study was to evaluate if repeated one-page ADR information letters affect (i) the reporting rate of ADRs and (ii) the quality of the ADR reports. Methods All 151 primary healthcare units in the Region Västra Götaland, Sweden, were randomly allocated (1:1) to an intervention (n = 77) or a control group (n = 74). The intervention consisted of one-page ADR information letters administered at three occasions during 2008 to all physicians and nurses in the intervention units. The number of ADR reports received from the 151 units was registered, as was the quality of the reports, which was defined as high if the ADR was to be reported according to Swedish regulations, that is, if the ADR was (i) serious, (ii) unexpected, and/or (iii) related to the use of new drugs and not labelled as common in the Summary of Product Characteristics. A questionnaire was administered to evaluate if the ADR information letter had reached the intended recipient. Results Before the intervention, no significant differences in reporting rate or number of high quality reports could be detected between the randomization groups. In 2008, 79 reports were sent from 37 intervention units and 52 reports from 30 control units (mean number of reports per unit ± standard deviation: 1.0 ± 2.5 vs. 0.7 ± 1.2, P = 0.34). The number of high quality reports was higher in intervention units than in control units (37 vs. 15 reports, 0.5 ± 0.9 vs. 0.2 ± 0.6, P = 0.048). According to the returned questionnaires (n = 1,292, response rate 57%), more persons in the intervention than in the control group had received (29% vs. 19%, P < 0.0001) and read (31% vs. 26%, P < 0.0001) an ADR information letter. Conclusions This study suggests that repeated ADR information letters to physicians and nurses do not increase

  4. Impacts of particulate matter pollution on plants: Implications for environmental biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution is one of the serious problems world is facing in recent Anthropocene era of rapid industrialization and urbanization. Specifically particulate matter (PM) pollution represents a threat to both the environment and human health. The changed ambient environment due to the PM pollutant in urban areas has exerted a profound influence on the morphological, biochemical and physiological status of plants and its responses. Taking into account the characteristics of the vegetation (wide distribution, greater contact area etc.) it turns out to be an effective indicator of the overall impact of PM pollution and harmful effects of PM pollution on vegetation have been reviewed in the present paper, covering an extensive span of 1960 to March 2016. The present review critically describes the impact of PM pollution and its constituents (e.g. heavy metals and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons) on the morphological attributes such as leaf area, leaf number, stomata structure, flowering, growth and reproduction as well as biochemical parameters such as pigment content, enzymes, ascorbic acid, protein, sugar and physiological aspect such as pH and Relative water content. Further, the paper provides a brief overview on the impact of PM on biodiversity and climate change. Moreover, the review emphasizes the genotoxic impacts of PM on plants. Finally, on the basis of such studies tolerant plants as potent biomonitors with high Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) and Air Pollution Index (API) can be screened and may be recommended for green belt development. PMID:27011112

  5. Changes in the distribution of mechanically dependent plants along a gradient of past hurricane impact

    PubMed Central

    Batke, Sven P.; Kelly, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    The severity of the effects that large disturbance events such as hurricanes can have on the forest canopy and the associated mechanically dependent plant community (epiphytes, climbers, etc.) is dependent on the frequency and intensity of the disturbance events. Here we investigate the effects of different structural and environmental properties of the host trees and previously modelled past hurricanes on dependent plants in Cusuco National Park, Honduras. Tree-climbing methods were employed to sample different dependent life-forms in ten 150 × 150 m plots. We identified 7094 individuals of dependent plants from 214 different species. For holo- and hemi-epiphytes, we found that diversity was significantly negatively related to past hurricane impact. The abundance of dependent plants was greatly influenced by their position in tree canopy and hurricane disturbance regimes. The relationship between abundance and mean branch height shifts across a gradient of hurricane impact (from negative to positive), which might result from a combination of changes in abundance of individual species and composition of the dependent flora across sites. Mechanically dependent plants also responded to different structural and environmental conditions along individual branches. The variables that explained much of the community differences of life-forms and families among branches were branch surface area and bryophyte cover. The factors that explained most variation at a plot level were mean vapour pressure deficit and elevation. At the level of the individual tree, the most important factors were canopy openness and past hurricane impact. We believe that more emphasis needs to be placed on the effects that past disturbance events have on mechanically dependent plant communities, particularly in areas that are prone to catastrophic perturbations. PMID:26286220

  6. Changes in the distribution of mechanically dependent plants along a gradient of past hurricane impact.

    PubMed

    Batke, Sven P; Kelly, Daniel L

    2015-01-01

    The severity of the effects that large disturbance events such as hurricanes can have on the forest canopy and the associated mechanically dependent plant community (epiphytes, climbers, etc.) is dependent on the frequency and intensity of the disturbance events. Here we investigate the effects of different structural and environmental properties of the host trees and previously modelled past hurricanes on dependent plants in Cusuco National Park, Honduras. Tree-climbing methods were employed to sample different dependent life-forms in ten 150 × 150 m plots. We identified 7094 individuals of dependent plants from 214 different species. For holo- and hemi-epiphytes, we found that diversity was significantly negatively related to past hurricane impact. The abundance of dependent plants was greatly influenced by their position in tree canopy and hurricane disturbance regimes. The relationship between abundance and mean branch height shifts across a gradient of hurricane impact (from negative to positive), which might result from a combination of changes in abundance of individual species and composition of the dependent flora across sites. Mechanically dependent plants also responded to different structural and environmental conditions along individual branches. The variables that explained much of the community differences of life-forms and families among branches were branch surface area and bryophyte cover. The factors that explained most variation at a plot level were mean vapour pressure deficit and elevation. At the level of the individual tree, the most important factors were canopy openness and past hurricane impact. We believe that more emphasis needs to be placed on the effects that past disturbance events have on mechanically dependent plant communities, particularly in areas that are prone to catastrophic perturbations. PMID:26286220

  7. A global assessment of invasive plant impacts on resident species, communities and ecosystems: the interaction of impact measures, invading species' traits and environment

    PubMed Central

    Pyšek, Petr; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Hulme, Philip E; Pergl, Jan; Hejda, Martin; Schaffner, Urs; Vilà, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    With the growing body of literature assessing the impact of invasive alien plants on resident species and ecosystems, a comprehensive assessment of the relationship between invasive species traits and environmental settings of invasion on the characteristics of impacts is needed. Based on 287 publications with 1551 individual cases that addressed the impact of 167 invasive plant species belonging to 49 families, we present the first global overview of frequencies of significant and non-significant ecological impacts and their directions on 15 outcomes related to the responses of resident populations, species, communities and ecosystems. Species and community outcomes tend to decline following invasions, especially those for plants, but the abundance and richness of the soil biota, as well as concentrations of soil nutrients and water, more often increase than decrease following invasion. Data mining tools revealed that invasive plants exert consistent significant impacts on some outcomes (survival of resident biota, activity of resident animals, resident community productivity, mineral and nutrient content in plant tissues, and fire frequency and intensity), whereas for outcomes at the community level, such as species richness, diversity and soil resources, the significance of impacts is determined by interactions between species traits and the biome invaded. The latter outcomes are most likely to be impacted by annual grasses, and by wind pollinated trees invading mediterranean or tropical biomes. One of the clearest signals in this analysis is that invasive plants are far more likely to cause significant impacts on resident plant and animal richness on islands rather than mainland. This study shows that there is no universal measure of impact and the pattern observed depends on the ecological measure examined. Although impact is strongly context dependent, some species traits, especially life form, stature and pollination syndrome, may provide a means to predict

  8. Replacement of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) at the DOE gaseous diffusion plants: An assessment of global impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Socolof, M.L.; Saylor, R.E.; McCold, L.N.

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) formerly operated two gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) for enriching uranium and maintained a third shutdown GDP. These plants maintain a large inventory of dichlorotetrafluorethane (CFC-114), a cholorofluorocarbon (CFC), as a coolant. The paper evaluates the global impacts of four alternatives to modify GDP coolant system operations for a three-year period beginning in 1996. Interim modification of GDP coolant system operations has the potential to reduce stratospheric ozone depletion from GDP coolant releases while a permanent solution is studied.

  9. Impact of storm water runoff on efficiency of the effluent treatment plant - a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Suresh, I.V.; Murthy, M.V.R.L.; Sanghi, S.K.; Yadava, R.N.; Wanganeo, A.

    1996-04-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of storm water runoff on an existing sewage treatment plant situated in an industrial township. Significant dilution effect is observed during the monsoon period (June-September) in the influent and effluent characteristics of sewage. The estimated excess runoff water during these months is mainly due to the rainfall in the region and due to the absence of proper control or design for the collection of storm water, thereby avoiding the discharge of the storm water into the treatment plant. This has resulted in the reduction of BOD, COD, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, thus decreasing the efficiency of gas generation. 7 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Impact of drought on C forms and fluxes in the soil - plant continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumpel, Cornelia; Sanaullah, Muhammad; Chabbi, Abad

    2016-04-01

    Global change is likely to increase the drought periods, which may have significant consequences for the turnover of SOM, in particular through their effect on plants. The aim of the study was to assess different compartments of the soil - plant continuum for their response to drought stress by combining field and laboratory experiments. We focused on three common grassland species (Lolium perenne, Festuca arundinacea and Dactylis glomerata) found to constitute grasslands of the temperate climate. We investigated drought impact on (1) plant biochemistry and potential mineralization of this material in soil, (2) decomposition of aboveground plant leaf litter of different quality, (3) plant-mediated soil C fluxes including (4) soil microbial biomass and their enzyme activities in the rhizosphere. Plant elemental and biochemical composition showed contrasting changes depending on the species in response to drought stress. The changes in elemental and biochemical composition of leaf litter, ultimately influenced its mineralization in soil. Drought stress highly modified the decomposition dynamics of litter from the three grassland species as a function of litter quality. Moreover, drought stress resulted in significant decrease in both shoot and root biomass in monocultures, while root biomass did not change when they were grown in mixture. Under drought stress, we observed higher belowground allocation of photosynthates and the drought had reduced root-derived respiration. This resulted in significant changes of soil enzyme activities. Our results suggested that plant species and community composition strongly influenced the drought effects in the rhizosphere. Thus, plant community composition and in particular the introduction of legumes might be used as a tool to attenuate drought stress not only because of different water use efficiency by plants, but also by their indirect effects on soil microbial activities affecting C and N cycles.

  11. ADDITIVE IMPACTS OF PLANT PATHOGEN-INSECT ENHANCES PEST-PLANT CONTROL EFFICACY: EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FROM THE RUST-INSECT-MELALEUCA SYSTEM.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant pathogen-insect integration is becoming popular in pest plant control programs. Herein, we tested the impacts of pathogen-herbivorous insect integration in the biological control of a pest tree, Melaleuca quinquenervia (melaleuca). Melaleuca trees were cut at 25-cm above ground, allowed to cop...

  12. Florivore impacts on plant reproductive success and pollinator mortality in an obligate pollination mutualism.

    PubMed

    Althoff, David M; Xiao, Wei; Sumoski, Sarah; Segraves, Kari A

    2013-12-01

    Florivores are present in many pollination systems and can have direct and indirect effects on both plants and pollinators. Although the impact of florivores are commonly examined in facultative pollination mutualisms, their effects on obligate mutualism remain relatively unstudied. Here, we used experimental manipulations and surveys of naturally occurring plants to assess the effect of florivory on the obligate pollination mutualism between yuccas and yucca moths. Yucca filamentosa (Agavaceae) is pollinated by the moth Tegeticula cassandra (Lepidoptera: Prodoxidae), and the mutualism also attracts two florivores: a generalist, the leaf-footed bug Leptoglossus phyllopus (Hemiptera: Coreidae), and a specialist, the beetle Hymenorus densus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Experimental manipulations of leaf-footed bug densities on side branches of Y. filamentosa inflorescences demonstrated that feeding causes floral abscission but does not reduce pollen or seed production in the remaining flowers. Similar to the leaf-footed bugs, experimental manipulations of beetle densities within individual flowers demonstrated that beetle feeding also causes floral abscission, but, in addition, the beetles also cause a significant reduction in pollen availability. Path analyses of phenotypic selection based on surveys of naturally occurring plants revealed temporal variation in the plant traits important to plant fitness and the effects of the florivores on fitness. Leaf-footed bugs negatively impacted fitness when fewer plants were flowering and leaf-footed bug density was high, whereas beetles had a positive effect on fitness when there were many plants flowering and their densities were low. This positive effect was likely due to adult beetles consuming yucca moth eggs while having a negligible effect on floral abscission. Together, the actions of both florivores either augmented the relationship of plant traits and fitness or slightly weakened the relationship. Overall, the

  13. Impact assessment of treated/untreated wastewater toxicants discharged by sewage treatment plants on health, agricultural, and environmental quality in the wastewater disposal area.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kunwar P; Mohan, Dinesh; Sinha, Sarita; Dalwani, R

    2004-04-01

    Studies were undertaken to assess the impact of wastewater/sludge disposal (metals and pesticides) from sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Jajmau, Kanpur (5 MLD) and Dinapur, Varanasi (80 MLD), on health, agriculture and environmental quality in the receiving/application areas around Kanpur and Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh, India. The raw, treated and mixed treated urban wastewater samples were collected from the inlet and outlet points of the plants during peak (morning and evening) and non-peak (noon) hours. The impact of the treated wastewater toxicants (metals and pesticides) on the environmental quality of the disposal area was assessed in terms of their levels in different media samples viz., water, soil, crops, vegetation, and food grains. The data generated show elevated levels of metals and pesticides in all the environmental media, suggesting a definite adverse impact on the environmental quality of the disposal area. The critical levels of the heavy metals in the soil for agricultural crops are found to be much higher than those observed in the study areas receiving no effluents. The sludge from the STPs has both positive and negative impacts on agriculture as it is loaded with high levels of toxic heavy metals and pesticides, but also enriched with several useful ingredients such as N, P, and K providing fertilizer values. The sludge studied had cadmium, chromium and nickel levels above tolerable levels as prescribed for agricultural and lands application. Bio-monitoring of the metals and pesticides levels in the human blood and urine of the different population groups under study areas was undertaken. All the different approaches indicated a considerable risk and impact of heavy metals and pesticides on human health in the exposed areas receiving the wastewater from the STPs. PMID:14761695

  14. The US DOE Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) at Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ciaglo, T.; Oates, L.; Short, S.

    1994-12-31

    The U.S. DOE Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) is intended to provide an evaluation of the potential and likely impacts of the alternative remediation strategies that could be implemented by DOE across the complex. This paper will discuss the goals and objectives of the DOE PEIS project using Rocky Flats as an example. This paper will discuss the source term data collected for Rocky Flats Plant. Each individual hazardous substance site (IHSS) was allocated to one or more of the following six source term categories: (1) contaminated soils; (2) solid waste; (3) liquid containment; (4) surface water; (5) ground water; (6) facilities.

  15. Impact of power conditioning on the life of nuclear plant auxiliary system equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, B.; Behera, A.K.; Beck, C.E.; Alsammarae, A.J.

    1996-06-01

    A program is presented for prolonging the useful life of major equipment used in the auxiliary distribution systems of nuclear generating plants, with a focus on power quality and power conditioning. Both reactive power compensation and control of power quality have a significant impact on the life of electrical equipment. Improvements result from reduced operating temperatures, from systematic load reduction in the distribution system, and from reductions in phase imbalances and harmonics. This paper focuses on the impact of power conditioning on the life of transformers, cables, breakers, motors, and solenoids.

  16. Impact on the Quality of Life When Living Close to a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant.

    PubMed

    Vantarakis, A; Paparrodopoulos, S; Kokkinos, P; Vantarakis, G; Fragou, K; Detorakis, I

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the impact on the quality of life of people living close to a municipal wastewater treatment plant. A case control study, including 235 inhabitants living within a 500 m radius by a municipal wastewater treatment plant (cases) and 97 inhabitants living in a different area (controls), was conducted. A standardized questionnaire was self-completed by the participants which examined the general health perception and the overall life satisfaction. Also, the concentration of airborne pathogenic microorganisms in aerosol samples collected around the wastewater treatment plant was investigated. Significant risk for symptoms such as headache, unusual tiredness, and concentration difficulties was recorded and an increased possibility for respiratory and skin diseases was reported. A high rate of the cases being irritable and moody was noticed. Significantly higher gastrointestinal symptoms were also reported among the cases in relation to the controls. The prevalence of pathogenic airborne microorganisms originating from the wastewater treatment plant was reported in high numbers in sampling points close to the wastewater treatment plant. More analytical epidemiological investigations are needed to determine the cause as well as the burden of the diseases to inhabitants living surrounding the wastewater treatment plant. PMID:27375747

  17. Impact on the Quality of Life When Living Close to a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    PubMed Central

    Vantarakis, A.; Paparrodopoulos, S.; Kokkinos, P.; Vantarakis, G.; Fragou, K.; Detorakis, I.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the impact on the quality of life of people living close to a municipal wastewater treatment plant. A case control study, including 235 inhabitants living within a 500 m radius by a municipal wastewater treatment plant (cases) and 97 inhabitants living in a different area (controls), was conducted. A standardized questionnaire was self-completed by the participants which examined the general health perception and the overall life satisfaction. Also, the concentration of airborne pathogenic microorganisms in aerosol samples collected around the wastewater treatment plant was investigated. Significant risk for symptoms such as headache, unusual tiredness, and concentration difficulties was recorded and an increased possibility for respiratory and skin diseases was reported. A high rate of the cases being irritable and moody was noticed. Significantly higher gastrointestinal symptoms were also reported among the cases in relation to the controls. The prevalence of pathogenic airborne microorganisms originating from the wastewater treatment plant was reported in high numbers in sampling points close to the wastewater treatment plant. More analytical epidemiological investigations are needed to determine the cause as well as the burden of the diseases to inhabitants living surrounding the wastewater treatment plant. PMID:27375747

  18. The Impact of Environmental Conditions on Efficiency of Host Plant DNA Barcoding for Polyphagous Beetles.

    PubMed

    Kajtoch, Łukasz; Mazur, Miłosz A

    2015-04-01

    Recently, several papers were published dealing with host plant identification for selected species of insects, including beetles. These studies took advantage of the DNA barcoding approach and generally showed that it is possible to identify diet composition from plant DNA present in insect guts. However, none of these studies considered how the impact of environmental conditions affected the likelihood of insect feeding and, therefore, the presence of host plant DNA that could be amplified and sequenced. In the present study, individuals of the polyphagous weevil Centricnemus leucogrammus (Germar, 1824) (Curculionidae: Entiminae) were used to test the hypothesis that harsh environmental conditions limited its feeding activity. The diet of 50 specimens collected during favourable conditions in the middle of the species reproductive period was compared against the diet of 50 specimens collected during harsh environmental conditions. Results clearly showed that almost no weevils fed during rainy and cold conditions and only a minority of individuals (20%) fed during the drought condition (on drought-resistant plants). It is important to consider such factors in any studies dealing with host plant identification and feeding behaviour. Results of ecological studies could lead to erroneous conclusions, e.g., underestimation of number and composition of host plants in the diet of studies species. PMID:26313186

  19. Impact of air pollution on vegetation near the Columbia Generating Station - Wisconsin power plant impact study

    SciTech Connect

    Tibbitts, T.W.; Will-Wolf, S.; Karnowsky, D.F.; Olszyk, D.M.

    1982-06-01

    The impact of air pollution from the coal-fired Columbia Generating Station upon vegetation was investigated. Air monitoring of 03 and 02 documented levels that occurred before and with operation of the generating station. Field sampling of alfalfa, lichens, and white pines was undertaken before and after initiation of generating station operations. Controlled environmental exposures were undertaken with separate cultivars of crop species grown in the vicinity of the generating station. Alfalfa, carrots, mint, peas, beans, and trembling aspen were exposed to SO2 and O3 to establish minimum threshold pollutant levels for injury from these pollutants.

  20. Plant and Soil Nematodes: Societal Impact and Focus for the Future.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, K. R.; Hussey, R. S.; Krusberg, L. R.; Bird, G. W.; Dunn, R. A.; Ferris, H.; Ferris, V. R.; Freckman, D. W.; Gabriel, C. J.; Grewal, P. S.; MacGuidwin, A. E.; Riddle, D. L.; Roberts, P. A.; Schmitt, D. P.

    1994-01-01

    Plant and soil nematodes significandy impact our lives. Therefore, we must understand and manage these complex organisms so that we may continue to develop and sustain our food production systems, our natural resources, our environment, and our quality of life. This publication looks specifically at soil and plant nematology. First, the societal impact of nematodes and benefits of nematology research are briefly presented. Next, the opportunities facing nematology in the next decade are outlined, as well as the resources needed to address these priorities. The safety and sustainability of U.S. food and fiber production depends on public and administrative understanding of the importance of nematodes, the drastic effects of nematodes on many agricultural and horticultural crops, and the current research priorities of nematology. PMID:19279875

  1. Using CALPUFF to evaluate the impacts of power plant emissions in Illinois: model sensitivity and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Jonathan I.; Spengler, John D.; Hlinka, Dennis; Sullivan, David; Moon, Dennis

    Air pollution emissions from older fossil-fueled power plants are often much greater than emissions from newer facilities, in part because older plants are exempt from modern emission standards required of new plants under the Clean Air Act. To quantify potential health benefits of emission reductions, there is a need to apply atmospheric dispersion models that can estimate the incremental contributions of power plants to ambient concentrations with reasonable accuracy over long distances. We apply the CALPUFF atmospheric dispersion model with meteorological data derived from NOAA's Rapid Update Cycle model to a set of nine power plants in Illinois to evaluate primary and secondary particulate matter impacts across a grid in the Midwest. In total, the population-weighted annual average concentration increments associated with current emissions are estimated to be 0.04 μg m -3 of primary fine particulate matter (PM 2.5), 0.13 μg m -3 of secondary sulfate particles, and 0.10 μg m -3 of secondary nitrate particles (maximum impacts of 0.3, 0.2, and 0.2 μg m -3, respectively). The aggregate impact estimates are moderately insensitive to parametric assumptions about chemical mechanism, wet/dry deposition, background ammonia concentrations, and size of the receptor region, with the largest uncertainties related to nitrate particles and long-range transport issues. Additional uncertainties may be associated with inherent limitations of CALPUFF, but it appears likely that the degree of uncertainty in atmospheric modeling will not dominate the total uncertainty associated with health impact or benefit estimation. Although the annual average concentration increments from a limited number of sources are relatively small, the large population affected by long-range transport and the number of power plant sources around the US imply potentially significant public health impacts using standard epidemiological assumptions. Our analysis demonstrates an approach that is

  2. Impact of mechanical- and maintenance-induced failures of main reactor coolant pump seals on plant safety

    SciTech Connect

    Azarm, M A; Boccio, J L; Mitra, S

    1985-12-01

    This document presents an investigation of the safety impact resulting from mechanical- and maintenance-induced reactor coolant pump (RCP) seal failures in nuclear power plants. A data survey of the pump seal failures for existing nuclear power plants in the US from several available sources was performed. The annual frequency of pump seal failures in a nuclear power plant was estimated based on the concept of hazard rate and dependency evaluation. The conditional probability of various sizes of leak rates given seal failures was then evaluated. The safety impact of RCP seal failures, in terms of contribution to plant core-melt frequency, was also evaluated for three nuclear power plants. For leak rates below the normal makeup capacity and the impact of plant safety were discussed qualitatively, whereas for leak rates beyond the normal make up capacity, formal PRA methodologies were applied. 22 refs., 17 figs., 19 tabs.

  3. Reclaimed wastewater: impact on soil-plant system under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Pereira, B F F; He, Z L; Silva, M S; Herpin, U; Nogueira, S F; Montes, C R; Melfi, A J

    2011-08-15

    This study investigated the ionic speciation of reclaimed urban wastewater (RWW), and the impact of increasing RWW irrigation rates on soil properties and plant nutrition under field conditions. Most RWW elements (>66%) are readily available as NH(4)(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+), SO(4)(2-), Cl(-), H(3)BO(3), Mn(2+) and Zn(2+), but in imbalanced proportion for plant nutrition. Lead, Cd, Cr and Al in RWW are mostly bounded with DOM or OH(-).(.)Irrigation with RWW decreased soil acidity, which is beneficial to the acidic tropical soil. Although RWW irrigation builds exchangeable Na(+) up, the excessive Na(+) was leached out of the soil profile after a rainy summer season (>400 mm). Benefits of the disposal of RWW to the soil under tropical conditions were discussed, however, the over irrigation with RWW (>100% of crop evapotranspiration) led to a nutritional imbalance, accumulating S and leading to a plant deficiency of P and K. PMID:21616587

  4. Some Analysis of Major Impact of Geothermal Fluid Components in Power Plant Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzăianu, A.; Csaki, I.; Moţoiu, P.; Leósson, K.; Serghiuţă, S.; Arnbjornsson, A.; Moţoiu, V.; Popescu, G.; Guðlaugsson, S.; Guðmundsson, D.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the results from a some analysis and major impact of geothermal fluid composition on the equipment in use in geothermal power plant. The structural analysis of material deposition improve the direct influenced of chemical composition of stem and waters included CaO, MgO, Al2O3 and SiO2 incorporated in the molten phase and the deposits in the scales formed due to equipment. The steam turbine corrosion damage, particularly of blades, discs and pomps, has long been recognized as a leading causes of reduced availability in the geothermal power plant. The corrosion process depends on temperature, pressure, chemisty and vaporous carryover by diversity of impurity. The experimental analysis procedure involves characterization of the fluid geothermal composition. Detailed information about surfaces morphological modification of the power plant components are obtained by electron microprobe analysis EDX and SEM investigation. References selection are obtaining by X-ray diffractometer patterns of the specimen.

  5. Impacts of manganese mining activity on the environment: interactions among soil, plants, and arbuscular mycorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Becerril, Facundo; Juárez-Vázquez, Lucía V; Hernández-Cervantes, Saúl C; Acevedo-Sandoval, Otilio A; Vela-Correa, Gilberto; Cruz-Chávez, Enrique; Moreno-Espíndola, Iván P; Esquivel-Herrera, Alfonso; de León-González, Fernando

    2013-02-01

    The mining district of Molango in the Hidalgo State, Mexico, possesses one of the largest deposits of manganese (Mn) ore in the world. This research assessed the impacts of Mn mining activity on the environment, particularly the interactions among soil, plants, and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) at a location under the influence of an open Mn mine. Soils and plants from three sites (soil under maize, soil under native vegetation, and mine wastes with some vegetation) were analyzed. Available Mn in both soil types and mine wastes did not reach toxic levels. Samples of the two soil types were similar regarding physical, chemical, and biological properties; mine wastes were characterized by poor physical structure, nutrient deficiencies, and a decreased number of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) spores. Tissues of six plant species accumulated Mn at normal levels. AM was absent in the five plant species (Ambrosia psilostachya, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Cynodon dactylon, Polygonum hydropiperoides, and Wigandia urens) established in mine wastes, which was consistent with the significantly lower number of AMF spores compared with both soil types. A. psilostachya (native vegetation) and Zea mays showed mycorrhizal colonization in their root systems; in the former, AM significantly decreased Mn uptake. The following was concluded: (1) soils, mine wastes, and plant tissues did not accumulate Mn at toxic levels; (2) despite its poor physical structure and nutrient deficiencies, the mine waste site was colonized by at least five plant species; (3) plants growing in both soil types interacted with AMF; and (4) mycorrhizal colonization of A. psilostachya influenced low uptake of Mn by plant tissues. PMID:23124167

  6. Pathways of nutrient loading and impacts on plant diversity in a New York peatland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drexler, J.Z.; Bedford, B.L.

    2002-01-01

    Nutrient loading is a subtle, yet serious threat to the preservation of high diversity wetlands such as peatlands. Pathways of nutrient loading and impacts on plant diversity in a small peatland in New York State, USA were determined by collecting and analyzing a suite of hydrogeological, hydro-chemical, soil, and vegetation data. Piezometer clusters within an intensive network constituted hydro-chemical sampling points and focal points for randomly selected vegetation quadrats and soil-coring locations. Hydrogeological data and nutrient analyses showed that P and K loading occurred chiefly by means of overland flow from an adjacent farm field, whereas N loading occurred predominantly through ground-water flow from the farm field. Redundancy analysis and polynomial regression showed that nutrients, particularly total P in peat, total K in peat, extractable NH4-N, and NO3-N flux in ground water, were strongly negatively correlated with plant diversity measures at the site. No other environmental variables except vegetation measures associated with eutrophication demonstrated such a strong relationship with plant diversity. Nitrate loading over 4 mg m -2 day-1 was associated with low plant diversity, and Ca fluxes between 80 and 130 mg m-2 day-1 were associated with high plant diversity. Areas in the site with particularly low vascular plant and bryophyte species richness and Shannon-Wiener diversity (H') occurred adjacent to the farm field and near a hillside spring. High H' and species richness of vascular plants and bryophytes occurred in areas that were further removed from agriculture, contained no highly dominant vegetation, and were situated directly along the ground-water flow paths of springs. These areas were characterized by relatively constant water levels and consistent, yet moderate fluxes of base cations and nutrients. Overall, this study demonstrates that knowledge of site hydrogeology is crucial for determining potential pathways of nutrient loading

  7. Fire and grazing impacts on plant diversity and alien plant invasions in the southern Sierra Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.; Lubin, D.; Fotheringham, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Patterns of native and alien plant diversity in response to disturbance were examined along an elevational gradient in blue oak savanna, chaparral, and coniferous forests. Total species richness, alien species richness, and alien cover declined with elevation, at scales from 1 to 1000 m2. We found no support for the hypothesis that community diversity inhibits alien invasion. At the 1-m2 point scale, where we would expect competitive interactions between the largely herbaceous flora to be most intense, alien species richness as well as alien cover increased with increasing native species richness in all communities. This suggests that aliens are limited not by the number of native competitors, but by resources that affect establishment of both natives and aliens. Blue oak savannas were heavily dominated by alien species and consistently had more alien than native species at the 1-m 2 scale. All of these aliens are annuals, and it is widely thought that they have displaced native bunchgrasses. If true, this means that aliens have greatly increased species richness. Alternatively, there is a rich regional flora of native annual forbs that could have dominated these grasslands prior to displacement by alien grasses. On our sites, livestock grazing increased the number of alien species and alien cover only slightly over that of sites free of livestock grazing for more than a century, indicating some level of permanency to this invasion. In chaparral, both diversity and aliens increased markedly several years after fire. Invasive species are rare in undisturbed shrublands, and alien propagules fail to survive the natural crown fires in these ecosystems. Thus, aliens necessarily must colonize after fire and, as a consequence, time since fire is an important determinant of invasive presence. Blue oak savannas are an important propagule source for alien species because they maintain permanent populations of all alien species encountered in postfire chaparral, and because

  8. Adverse Effects of Psychotropic Medications on Sleep.

    PubMed

    Doghramji, Karl; Jangro, William C

    2016-09-01

    Psychotropic medications such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, stimulants, and benzodiazepines are widely prescribed. Most of these medications are thought to exert their effects through modulation of various monoamines as well as interactions with receptors such as histamine and muscarinic cholinergic receptors. Through these interactions, psychotropics can also have a significant impact on sleep physiology, resulting in both beneficial and adverse effects on sleep. PMID:27514301

  9. Future Climate CO2 Levels Mitigate Stress Impact on Plants: Increased Defense or Decreased Challenge?

    PubMed

    AbdElgawad, Hamada; Zinta, Gaurav; Beemster, Gerrit T S; Janssens, Ivan A; Asard, Han

    2016-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 can stimulate plant growth by providing additional C (fertilization effect), and is observed to mitigate abiotic stress impact. Although, the mechanisms underlying the stress mitigating effect are not yet clear, increased antioxidant defenses, have been held primarily responsible (antioxidant hypothesis). A systematic literature analysis, including "all" papers [Web of Science (WoS)-cited], addressing elevated CO2 effects on abiotic stress responses and antioxidants (105 papers), confirms the frequent occurrence of the stress mitigation effect. However, it also demonstrates that, in stress conditions, elevated CO2 is reported to increase antioxidants, only in about 22% of the observations (e.g., for polyphenols, peroxidases, superoxide dismutase, monodehydroascorbate reductase). In most observations, under stress and elevated CO2 the levels of key antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes are reported to remain unchanged (50%, e.g., ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate), or even decreased (28%, e.g., glutathione peroxidase). Moreover, increases in antioxidants are not specific for a species group, growth facility, or stress type. It seems therefore unlikely that increased antioxidant defense is the major mechanism underlying CO2-mediated stress impact mitigation. Alternative processes, probably decreasing the oxidative challenge by reducing ROS production (e.g., photorespiration), are therefore likely to play important roles in elevated CO2 (relaxation hypothesis). Such parameters are however rarely investigated in connection with abiotic stress relief. Understanding the effect of elevated CO2 on plant growth and stress responses is imperative to understand the impact of climate changes on plant productivity. PMID:27200030

  10. Future Climate CO2 Levels Mitigate Stress Impact on Plants: Increased Defense or Decreased Challenge?

    PubMed Central

    AbdElgawad, Hamada; Zinta, Gaurav; Beemster, Gerrit T. S.; Janssens, Ivan A.; Asard, Han

    2016-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 can stimulate plant growth by providing additional C (fertilization effect), and is observed to mitigate abiotic stress impact. Although, the mechanisms underlying the stress mitigating effect are not yet clear, increased antioxidant defenses, have been held primarily responsible (antioxidant hypothesis). A systematic literature analysis, including “all” papers [Web of Science (WoS)-cited], addressing elevated CO2 effects on abiotic stress responses and antioxidants (105 papers), confirms the frequent occurrence of the stress mitigation effect. However, it also demonstrates that, in stress conditions, elevated CO2 is reported to increase antioxidants, only in about 22% of the observations (e.g., for polyphenols, peroxidases, superoxide dismutase, monodehydroascorbate reductase). In most observations, under stress and elevated CO2 the levels of key antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes are reported to remain unchanged (50%, e.g., ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate), or even decreased (28%, e.g., glutathione peroxidase). Moreover, increases in antioxidants are not specific for a species group, growth facility, or stress type. It seems therefore unlikely that increased antioxidant defense is the major mechanism underlying CO2-mediated stress impact mitigation. Alternative processes, probably decreasing the oxidative challenge by reducing ROS production (e.g., photorespiration), are therefore likely to play important roles in elevated CO2 (relaxation hypothesis). Such parameters are however rarely investigated in connection with abiotic stress relief. Understanding the effect of elevated CO2 on plant growth and stress responses is imperative to understand the impact of climate changes on plant productivity. PMID:27200030

  11. Fluorine concentration in snow cover within the impact area of aluminium production plant (Krasnoyarsk city) and coal and gas-fired power plant (Tomsk city)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talovskaya, A. V.; Osipova, N. A.; Filimonenko, E. A.; Polikanova, S. A.; Samokhina, N. P.; Yazikov, E. G.; Matveenko, I. A.

    2015-11-01

    The fluorine contents in snow melt water find in the impact areas of aluminum production plant and coal and gas-fired power plant are compared. In melt water, soluble fluoride is found in the form of fluoride ion, the content of which was determined by the potentiometric method using ion-selective electrode. According to the measurements of 2013-2014, fluoride content in melt water ranges 10.6-15.4 mg/dm3 at the distance 1-3 km from the borders of Krasnoyarsk aluminum plant with the mean value 13.1 mg/dm3. Four-year monitoring from 2012 to 2015 in the impact area of Tomsk coal and gas-fired power plant showed that fluoride content in melt water in vicinity of the thermal power plant is significantly lower than in the samples from the impact area of the aluminum plant. But higher content of fluoride ion (0.2 - 0.3 mg/dm3) in snow samples in vicinity of coal and gas-fired power plant was revealed in winter of 2015. Intake of soluble fluoride is mostly explained by dust-aerosol emissions of study plants and deposition of fluorine compounds from air.

  12. A proposed impact assessment method for genetically modified plants (AS-GMP Method)

    SciTech Connect

    Jesus-Hitzschky, Katia Regina Evaristo de; Silveira, Jose Maria F.J. da

    2009-11-15

    An essential step in the development of products based on biotechnology is an assessment of their potential economic impacts and safety, including an evaluation of the potential impact of transgenic crops and practices related to their cultivation on the environment and human or animal health. The purpose of this paper is to provide an assessment method to evaluate the impact of biotechnologies that uses quantifiable parameters and allows a comparative analysis between conventional technology and technologies using GMOs. This paper introduces a method to perform an impact analysis associated with the commercial release and use of genetically modified plants, the Assessment System GMP Method. The assessment is performed through indicators that are arranged according to their dimension criterion likewise: environmental, economic, social, capability and institutional approach. To perform an accurate evaluation of the GMP specific indicators related to genetic modification are grouped in common fields: genetic insert features, GM plant features, gene flow, food/feed field, introduction of the GMP, unexpected occurrences and specific indicators. The novelty is the possibility to include specific parameters to the biotechnology under assessment. In this case by case analysis the factors of moderation and the indexes are parameterized to perform an available assessment.

  13. [Adverse reaction of pseudoephedrine].

    PubMed

    López Lois, G; Gómez Carrasco, J A; García de Frías, E

    2005-04-01

    We present a case of a 7 years old girl who developed an episode of myoclonic movements and tremors after being medicated with a not well quantified amount of a pseudoephedrine/antihistamine combination. We want to highlight the potential toxicity of pseudoephedrine, usually administered as part of cold-syrup preparations which are used for symptomatic treatment of upper respiratory tract cough and congestion associated with the common cold and allergic rhinitis. Although these products are generally considered to be safe either by physicians and parents, we can't underestimate the potential adverse events and toxic effects that can occur when administering these medications. PMID:15826569

  14. Replacement of chlorofluorocarbons at the DOE gaseous diffusion plants: An assessment of global impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Socolof, M.L.; McCold, L.N.; Saylor, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Three gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) for enriching uranium maintain a large inventory of chlorofluorocarbon-114 (CFC-114) as a coolant. To address the continued use of CFC-114, an ozone-depleting substance, the US Department of Energy (DOE) considered introducing perfluorocarbons (PFCs) by the end of 1995. These PFCs would not contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion but would be larger contributors to global warming than would CFC-114. The paper reports the results of an assessment of the global impacts of four alternatives for modifying GDP coolant system operations over a three-year period beginning in 1996. The overall contribution of GDP coolant releases to impacts on ozone depletion and global warming were quantified by parameters referred to as ozone-depletion impact and global-warming impact. The analysis showed that these parameters could be used as surrogates for predicting global impacts to all resources and could provide a framework for assessing environmental impacts of a permanent coolant replacement, eliminating the need for subsequent resource-specific analyses.

  15. The Increasing Impact of Activity-Based Protein Profiling in Plant Science.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Kyoko; van der Hoorn, Renier A L

    2016-03-01

    The active proteome dictates plant physiology. Yet, active proteins are difficult to predict based on transcript or protein levels, because protein activities are regulated post-translationally in their microenvironments. Over the past 10 years, activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) is increasingly used in plant science. ABPP monitors the activities of hundreds of plant proteins using tagged chemical probes that react with the active site of proteins in a mechanism-dependent manner. Since labeling is covalent and irreversible, labeled proteins can be detected and identified on protein gels and by mass spectrometry using tagged fluorophores and/or biotin. Here, we discuss general concepts, approaches and practical considerations of ABPP, before we summarize the discoveries made using 40 validated probes representing 14 chemotypes that can monitor the active state of >4,500 plant proteins. These discoveries and new opportunities indicate that this emerging functional proteomic technology is a powerful discovery tool that will have an increasing impact on plant science. PMID:26872839

  16. Forecasting climate change impacts to plant community composition in the Sonoran Desert region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munson, Seth M.; Webb, Robert H.; Belnap, Jayne; Hubbard, J. Andrew; Swann, Don E.; Rutman, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Hotter and drier conditions projected for the southwestern United States can have a large impact on the abundance and composition of long-lived desert plant species. We used long-term vegetation monitoring results from 39 large plots across four protected sites in the Sonoran Desert region to determine how plant species have responded to past climate variability. This cross-site analysis identified the plant species and functional types susceptible to climate change, the magnitude of their responses, and potential climate thresholds. In the relatively mesic mesquite savanna communities, perennial grasses declined with a decrease in annual precipitation, cacti increased, and there was a reversal of the Prosopis velutina expansion experienced in the 20th century in response to increasing mean annual temperature (MAT). In the more xeric Arizona Upland communities, the dominant leguminous tree, Cercidium microphyllum, declined on hillslopes, and the shrub Fouquieria splendens decreased, especially on south- and west-facing slopes in response to increasing MAT. In the most xeric shrublands, the codominant species Larrea tridentata and its hemiparasite Krameria grayi decreased with a decrease in cool season precipitation and increased aridity, respectively. This regional-scale assessment of plant species response to recent climate variability is critical for forecasting future shifts in plant community composition, structure, and productivity.

  17. Impact of biological soil crusts and desert plants on soil microfaunal community composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darby, B.J.; Neher, D.A.; Belnap, J.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon and nitrogen are supplied by a variety of sources in the desert food web; both vascular and non-vascular plants and cyanobacteria supply carbon, and cyanobacteria and plant-associated rhizosphere bacteria are sources of biological nitrogen fixation. The objective of this study was to compare the relative influence of vascular plants and biological soil crusts on desert soil nematode and protozoan abundance and community composition. In the first experiment, biological soil crusts were removed by physical trampling. Treatments with crust removed had fewer nematodes and a greater relative ratio of bacterivores to microphytophages than treatments with intact crust. However, protozoa composition was similar with or without the presence of crusts. In a second experiment, nematode community composition was characterized along a spatial gradient away from stems of grasses or shrubs. Although nematodes generally occurred in increasing abundance nearer to plant stems, some genera (such as the enrichment-type Panagrolaimus) increased disproportionately more than others (such as the stress-tolerant Acromoldavicus). We propose that the impact of biological soil crusts and desert plants on soil microfauna, as reflected in the community composition of microbivorous nematodes, is a combination of carbon input, microclimate amelioration, and altered soil hydrology. ?? Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009.

  18. Understanding the hydrologic impacts of wastewater treatment plant discharge to shallow groundwater: before and after plant shutdown

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, Laura E.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Barber, Larry B.; Duris, Joseph; Hutchinson, Kasey J.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Effluent-impacted surface water has the potential to transport not only water, but wastewater-derived contaminants to shallow groundwater systems. To better understand the effects of effluent discharge on in-stream and near-stream hydrologic conditions in wastewater-impacted systems, water-level changes were monitored in hyporheic-zone and shallow-groundwater piezometers in a reach of Fourmile Creek adjacent to and downstream of the Ankeny (Iowa, USA) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Water-level changes were monitored from approximately 1.5 months before to 0.5 months after WWTP closure. Diurnal patterns in WWTP discharge were closely mirrored in stream and shallow-groundwater levels immediately upstream and up to 3 km downstream of the outfall, indicating that such discharge was the primary control on water levels before shutdown. The hydrologic response to WWTP shutdown was immediately observed throughout the study reach, verifying the far-reaching hydraulic connectivity and associated contaminant transport risk. The movement of WWTP effluent into alluvial aquifers has implications for potential WWTP-derived contamination of shallow groundwater far removed from the WWTP outfall.

  19. Impact of host plant connectivity, crop border and patch size on adult Colorado potato beetle retention.

    PubMed

    Boiteau, Gilles; Vincent, Charles; Leskey, Tracy C; Colpitts, Bruce G; MacKinley, Pamela; Lee, Doo-Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Tagged Colorado potato beetles (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), were released on potato plants, Solanum tuberosum L., and tracked using a portable harmonic radar system to determine the impact of host plant spatial distribution on the tendency of the pest to remain on the colonized host plant or patch. Results confirmed the long residency time on the host plant and showed that close connection of the plant to neighboring plants hastened dispersal between plants. Tracking walking CPB for over 6 h in small potato plots revealed that all types of mixed borders tested (potato/bare ground, potato/timothy and potato/woodland) acted as a strong barrier and retained beetles within the patch. In another experiment in potato patches surrounded by bare ground borders, tracked walking CPB displayed similar behaviour for up to four days. The distribution of turning angles in the CPB walking paths was not uniform and corresponded to beetles following the edge rows of potato patches in response to the crop border barrier or reversing their direction as they reached the end of a row and therefore a border. Patch size had no or little effect on beetle retention in the patch. The relative distribution of counts of tagged beetles detected among small (16 m2), medium (64 m2) and large size (256 m2) patches of potato four days after initial release remained similar to that of numbers released. Even though mixed crop borders were a strong barrier to walking CPB emigrating from potato patches, the departure rate of beetles over time was high. Results suggest that the effect of mixed borders is largely limited to dispersal by walking and does not apply to beetles leaving host patches by flight. The manipulation of crop borders and patch size seem to have limited potential for the management of CPB emigrating from potato fields. PMID:24816717

  20. Plant surface reactions: an opportunistic ozone defence mechanism impacting atmospheric chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jud, W.; Fischer, L.; Canaval, E.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Tissier, A.; Hansel, A.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations are considered a toxic threat to plants, responsible for global crop losses with associated economic costs of several billion dollars per year. Plant injuries have been linked to the uptake of ozone through stomatal pores and oxidative damage of the internal leaf tissue. But a striking question remains: can surface reactions limit the stomatal uptake of ozone and therefore reduce its detrimental effects to plants?In this laboratory study we could show that semi-volatile organic compounds exuded by the glandular trichomes of different Nicotiana tabacum varieties are an efficient ozone sink at the plant surface. In our experiments, different diterpenoid compounds were responsible for a strongly variety-dependent ozone uptake of plants under dark conditions, when stomatal pores are almost closed. Surface reactions of ozone were accompanied by a prompt release of oxygenated volatile organic compounds, which could be linked to the corresponding precursor compounds: ozonolysis cis-abienol (C20H34O) - a diterpenoid with two exocyclic double bonds - caused emissions of formaldehyde (HCHO) and methyl vinyl ketone (C4H6O). The ring-structured cembratrien-diols (C20H34O2) with three endocyclic double bonds need at least two ozonolysis steps to form volatile carbonyls such as 4-oxopentanal (C5H8O2), which we could observe in the gas phase, too.Fluid dynamic calculations were used to model ozone distribution in the diffusion-limited leaf boundary layer under daylight conditions. In the case of an ozone-reactive leaf surface, ozone gradients in the vicinity of stomatal pores are changed in such a way that the ozone flux through the open stomata is strongly reduced.Our results show that unsaturated semi-volatile compounds at the plant surface should be considered as a source of oxygenated volatile organic compounds, impacting gas phase chemistry, as well as efficient ozone sink improving the ozone tolerance of plants.

  1. An assessment of extreme Temperature Events and its impact on Wildlife Plant Phenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegmund, Jonatan; Donner, Reik

    2015-04-01

    Besides gradual changes of the mean behaviour of climate variables, global climate change results in higher frequencies and intensities of extreme climate events. Especially heat waves struck Central Europe during the last decade and are predicted to do so even more frequently during the 21st century. The impact of these extreme events on the ecologically important flowering dates of wildlife plant species is not yet known precisely, although the temporal displacement or even absolute failure of flowering may lead to the disturbance of sensitive ecological equlibria. In this study, we systematically investigate the impact of extreme warm monthly mean temperature on various wildlife plant flowering dates dur- ing the time period of 1951-2014 for 52 German regions using the Plant Phenology dataset of the German Weather Service. The impact of extremes is quantified using the coincidence analysis, a method to detect non-random simultaneous appearences of events in two time series. We calculate cumulative coincidence rates between both time series for time- lags between 0 and 16 months in both directions. Our results underline the importance of the temperature of the flowering month regarding extreme events and indicate long-term-dependencies between extremely high temperatures and very early plant flowering dates with a time-lag of almost one year. On the other hand, the disparity between the re- sults of temperature-phenology and phenology-temperature coincidence rates indicate, that extremely warm temperatures only cause very early flowering dates under certain conditions, leading to the notion of conditional coincidence. Taken together, our findings support the hypothesis, that more and stronger extreme temperature events have the potential to sus- tainably disturb mid latitude ecosystems.

  2. The impact of extreme precipitation on plant growth and water relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeppel, M.; Lehmann, C.; Lewis, J. D.; Medlyn, B. E.

    2012-12-01

    Background The global hydrological cycle is predicted to become more intense, or extreme in future climates, with both larger precipitation events and longer times between events. The resulting wide fluctuations in soil water content (long droughts followed by flooding) may dramatically affect terrestrial ecosystems. Although effects of drought are well studied, tree responses to changed timing of precipitation are mostly unknown. Further, in future extreme precipitation is likely to occur in conjunction with elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations [CO2]. We tested the impact of extreme precipitation and elevated [CO2] on plant growth and water relations. Methods/results Ten Acacia auriculiformis and Eucalyptus tetradonta saplings were grown in glasshouses, with ambient (380 p.p.m.) and elevated (600 p.p.m.) [CO2] and subject to ambient (1L weekly) and extreme (2L fortnightly) watering conditions (four treatments). We tested whether: (1) plants would show differential water stress and growth under extreme precipitation compared with ambient water treatments; and (2) plants would show differential water stress and growth responses under elevated compared with ambient [CO2] treatments. We found that the extreme precipitation, compared to ambient precipitation, lead to more water stressed plants, with more negative leaf water potential and lower stomatal conductance in both species. Further, plants experiencing extreme precipitation had a higher proportion of root volume at depth within the Eucalyptus. In contrast, the root depth of Acacia was similar across all treatments. Leaf area was smaller in extreme precipitation compared with ambient for Acacias, whereas leaf area was comparable across watering treatments in Eucalypts. Elevated CO2 had no impact on leaf water potential, stomatal conductance during the day or proportion of root depth. The Acacia, from tropical dry forest ecosystems, showed more signs of water stress (more negative leaf water potential and lower

  3. The Use of Vascular Closure Devices and Impact on Major Bleeding and Net Adverse Clinical Events (NACE) in Balloon Aortic Valvuloplasty: A Sub-Analysis of the BRAVO study

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Brian; Singh, Vikas; Kini, Annapoorna; Mehran, Roxana; Jacobs, Evan; Knopf, David; Alfonso, Carlos E.; Martinez, Claudia A.; Martinezclark, Pedro; O’Neill, William; Heldman, Alan W.; Yu, Jennifer; Baber, Usman; Kovacic, Jason; Dangas, George; Sharma, Samin; Sartori, Samantha; Cohen, Mauricio G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of suture-mediated vascular closure devices on net adverse clinical events (NACE) after balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV). Background Ischemic and bleeding complications are common following transfemoral BAV however; previous studies have been single center and limited by varying definitions of major bleeding. Methods The Effect of Bivalirudin on Aortic Valve Intervention Outcomes (BRAVO) study was a retrospective observational study conducted at two high-volume academic centers over a 6-year period designed to compare the effect of bivalirudin versus unfractionated heparin. This is a sub-analysis of 428 consecutive patients who underwent BAV (with 10-13 French sheaths) to compare the effect of hemostasis with vascular closure devices versus manual compression utilizing standardized definitions. NACE was defined as the composite of major bleeding and major adverse clinical events (MACE). All events were adjudicated by an independent clinical events committee who were blinded to antithrombin use. Results Pre-closure was performed in 269 (62.8%) of patients. While bivalirudin was used more frequently in those with pre-closure (60.6% vs. 37.7%, p<0.001), a history of prior BAV (11.1% vs. 3.6%, p=0.04) and peripheral vascular disease (30.7% vs. 19.7%, p=0.01) was more common in those not undergoing pre-closure (n=159, 37%). Other clinical and demographic features were well balanced between groups. Vascular closure was associated with a significant reduction in NACE (24.5% vs 10.0% p<0.001). Results remained significant after adjusting for baseline differences and bivalirudin use (OR 0.38, 95% CI: 0.21 - 0.68; p=0.001). Conclusions Our study suggests that suture-mediated vascular closure is associated with a substantial reduction in NACE after transfemoral BAV. Large randomized clinical trials should be conducted to confirm our results. PMID:23436434

  4. Impact of climatic conditions on the design of a water treatment plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arregoitia, C.; Mesa, M. P.

    2012-04-01

    The abundance or scarcity of resources causes enormous problems for populations and societies. They mark the direction of the development that a society will take. Water imbalances, may distort optimal environmental and socioeconomic conditions of the food production. Water scarcity may limit food production and supply, putting pressure on food prices and increasing countries' dependence on food imports. Rising demand for food caused by growing populations and shifting diets, production shortfall in some countries, increased costs for key agricultural inputs and meat supply (driven in turn by energy costs), bioenergy-related incentives in some countries and possible financial speculation have all contributed to the steep rises in food prices. According to United Nations Over the past century world water withdrawals increased almost twice as fast as population growth and an increasing number of regions are chronically water short. Climate change has been defined as a change in the statistical properties of the climate system when considered over long periods of time, regardless of cause. Different factors can shape the climate forces or mechanisms and impact the food production system such as the cattle production field. This paper considers the step by step design and implementation of a water treatment plant of a community cattle farm located in Jadacaquiva under changing climatic conditions. The byproducts of the cattle, as well as the community can also have an impact depending on the decisions taken for the plant. Keywords: water, climate change, treatment plant, food scarcity

  5. Users guide: simulation model for ammunition plants; prediction of wastewater characteristics and impact of reuse/recycle. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Railsback, S.; Messenger, M.; Webster, R.D.; Bandy, J.T.

    1983-06-01

    This report describes the algorithm and details the operating instructions required for an ammunition plant process model developed for DARCOM environmental personnel. The model was created to define the impact of increased ammunition production on the quantity and quality of the effluents discharged from the plants. It also allows assessment of the impact of recycle/reuse of wastewaters on final effluent quality. This model may be accessed through the Environmental Technical Information System.

  6. Providing more informative projections of climate change impact on plant distribution in a mountain environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randin, C.; Engler, R.; Pearman, P.; Vittoz, P.; Guisan, A.

    2007-12-01

    Due to their conic shape and the reduction of area with increasing elevation, mountain ecosystems were early identified as potentially very sensitive to global warming. Moreover, mountain systems may experience unprecedented rates of warming during the next century, two or three times higher than that records of the 20th century. In this context, species distribution models (SDM) have become important tools for rapid assessment of the impact of accelerated land use and climate change on the distribution plant species. In this study, we developed and tested new predictor variables for species distribution models (SDM), specific to current and future geographic projections of plant species in a mountain system, using the Western Swiss Alps as model region. Since meso- and micro-topography are relevant to explain geographic patterns of plant species in mountain environments, we assessed the effect of scale on predictor variables and geographic projections of SDM. We also developed a methodological framework of space-for-time evaluation to test the robustness of SDM when projected in a future changing climate. Finally, we used a cellular automaton to run dynamic simulations of plant migration under climate change in a mountain landscape, including realistic distance of seed dispersal. Results of future projections for the 21st century were also discussed in perspective of vegetation changes monitored during the 20th century. Overall, we showed in this study that, based on the most severe A1 climate change scenario and realistic dispersal simulations of plant dispersal, species extinctions in the Western Swiss Alps could affect nearly one third (28.5%) of the 284 species modeled by 2100. With the less severe B1 scenario, only 4.6% of species are predicted to become extinct. However, even with B1, 54% (153 species) may still loose more than 80% of their initial surface. Results of monitoring of past vegetation changes suggested that plant species can react quickly to the

  7. Understanding the impact of plant competition on the coupling between vegetation and the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loon, Marloes P.; Dekker, Stefan C.; Anten, Niels P. R.; Rietkerk, Max; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Jordi

    2015-11-01

    Competition between plants for resources is an important selective force. As a result competition through natural selection determines vegetation functioning and associated atmospheric interactions. Our aim was to investigate how the coupling between vegetation and atmosphere is influenced by plant competition. Though included in some coupled vegetation-atmosphere models, little attention has been paid to systematically study the impact of plant competition in determining the evolution of surface and atmospheric variables. We used a coupled vegetation-atmosphere model and included a new representation of plant competition. We compared the model results with diurnal data from Ameriflux Bondville site over a growing season. Including competition improved LAI (Leaf Area Index) and net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) predictions; if competition was not considered, there were strong deviations from observations. Remarkably, competition increased LAI while it reduced whole stand photosynthesis, resulting in a less negative NEE. Finally, independent of competition, latent heat flux, surface temperature, specific humidity, and atmospheric CO2 are well reproduced by the model. Only the sensible heat flux was overestimated, mainly due to the imbalance in the surface energy balance that can lead to lower measured sensible heat fluxes. Sensitivity analysis showed that the importance of plant competition on model outcomes increases with more nitrogen and water availability and may differ between soil types. We thus quantified the potential effect of plant competition in a coupled vegetation-atmosphere system and showed that it strongly influences this system, and therefore, we propose that competition should be considered in more vegetation-atmosphere models.

  8. ISMP Adverse Drug Reactions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this feature is to heighten awareness of specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discuss methods of prevention, and promote reporting of ADRs to the US Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) MedWatch program (800-FDA-1088). If you have reported an interesting, preventable ADR to MedWatch, please consider sharing the account with our readers. Write to Dr. Mancano at ISMP, 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite 200, Horsham, PA 19044 (phone: 215-707-4936; e-mail: mmancano@temple.edu). Your report will be published anonymously unless otherwise requested. This feature is provided by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) in cooperation with the FDA’s MedWatch program and Temple University School of Pharmacy. ISMP is an FDA MedWatch partner. PMID:24421544

  9. [Cutaneous adverse drug reactions].

    PubMed

    Lebrun-Vignes, B; Valeyrie-Allanore, L

    2015-04-01

    Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR) represent a heterogeneous field including various clinical patterns without specific features suggesting drug causality. Exanthematous eruptions, urticaria and vasculitis are the most common forms of CADR. Fixed eruption is uncommon in western countries. Serious reactions (fatal outcome, sequelae) represent 2% of CADR: bullous reactions (Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis), DRESS (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms or drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome) and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP). These forms must be quickly diagnosed to guide their management. The main risk factors are immunosuppression, autoimmunity and some HLA alleles in bullous reactions and DRESS. Most systemic drugs may induce cutaneous adverse reactions, especially antibiotics, anticonvulsivants, antineoplastic drugs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, allopurinol and contrast media. Pathogenesis includes immediate or delayed immunologic mechanism, usually not related to dose, and pharmacologic/toxic mechanism, commonly dose-dependent or time-dependent. In case of immunologic mechanism, allergologic exploration is possible to clarify drug causality, with a variable sensitivity according to the drug and to the CADR type. It includes epicutaneous patch testing, prick test and intradermal test. However, no in vivo or in vitro test can confirm the drug causality. To determine the cause of the eruption, a logical approach based on clinical characteristics, chronologic factors and elimination of differential diagnosis is required, completed with a literature search. A reporting to pharmacovigilance network is essential in case of a serious CADR whatever the suspected drug and in any case if the involved drug is a newly marketed one or unusually related to cutaneous reactions. PMID:25458866

  10. IMPACT OF AVERAGE PLANT SPACING AND PLANT PATTERN ON YIELD AND CANPOY COVERAGE FOR NON-IRRIGATED PEANUTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments were conducted in Terrell County, GA from 1997 to 1999 to determine the effect of average plant spacing on pod mass per plant and yield for single row peanuts grown under nonirrigated conditions. Plants within treatments were thinned at random until average plant spacings of 23, 3...

  11. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements C Appendix C to Part 273 Navigation and.... 273, App. C Appendix C to Part 273—Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program... specifically as possible. c. Severity of infestation. Discuss the degree and importance of the pest problem....

  12. 78 FR 34639 - Supplemental Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Restart of Healy Power Plant Unit #2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... Plant Unit 2 AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Availability of a Supplemental... Healy Power Plant's Unit 2 in Healy, Alaska. The (SFEIS) supplements a Final Environmental Impact... human environment from DOE's proposal to partially fund construction of Unit 2 of the Healy Power...

  13. Enviromental impact of a hospital waste incineration plant in Krakow (Poland).

    PubMed

    Gielar, Agnieszka; Helios-Rybicka, Edeltrauda

    2013-07-01

    The environmental impact of a hospital waste incineration plant in Krakow was investigated. The objective of this study was to assess the degree of environmental effect of the secondary solid waste generated during the incineration process of medical waste. The analysis of pollution of the air emissions and leaching test of ashes and slag were carried out. The obtained results allowed us to conclude that (i) the hospital waste incineration plant significantly solves the problems of medical waste treatment in Krakow; (ii) the detected contaminant concentrations were generally lower than the permissible values; (iii) the generated ashes and slag contained considerable concentrations of heavy metals, mainly zinc, and chloride and sulfate anions. Ashes and slag constituted 10-15% of the mass of incinerated wastes; they are more harmful for the environment when compared with untreated waste, and after solidification they can be deposited in the hazardous waste disposal. PMID:23640706

  14. Solar thermal power plants in small utilities - An economic impact analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluhm, S. A.; Ferber, R. R.; Mayo, L. G.

    1979-01-01

    A study was performed to assess the potential economic impact of small solar thermal electric power systems in statistically representative synthetic small utilities of the Southwestern United States. Power supply expansion plans were compared on the basis of present worth of future revenue requirements for 1980-2000 with and without solar thermal plants. Coal-fired and oil-fired municipal utility expansion plans with 5 percent solar penetration were 0.5 percent and 2.25 percent less expensive, respectively, than the corresponding conventional plan. At $969/kWe, which assumes the same low cost solar equipment but no improvement in site development costs, solar penetration of 5 percent in the oil-fired municipal reduced revenue requirements 0.88 percent. The paper concludes that some solar thermal plants are potentially economic in small community utilities of the Southwest.

  15. Competitive impacts of an invasive nectar thief on plant-pollinator mutualisms.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Cause; Foote, David; Kremeni, Claire

    2014-06-01

    Plant-pollinator mutualisms are disrupted by a variety of competitive interactions between introduced and native floral visitors. The invasive western yellowjacket wasp, Vespula pensylvanica, is an aggressive nectar thief of the dominant endemic Hawaiian tree species, Metrosideros polymorpha. We conducted a large-scale, multiyear manipulative experiment to investigate the impacts of V. pensylvanica on the structure and behavior of the M. polymorpha pollinator community, including competitive mechanisms related to resource availability. Our results demonstrate that V. pensylvanica, through both superior exploitative and interference competition, influences resource partitioning and displaces native and nonnative M. polymorpha pollinators. Furthermore, the restructuring of the pollinator community due to V. pensylvanica competition and predation results in a significant decrease in the overall pollinator effectiveness and fruit set of M. polymorpha. This research highlights both the competitive mechanisms and contrasting effects of social insect invaders on plant-pollinator mutualisms and the role of competition in pollinator community structure. PMID:25039226

  16. Radioactive Releases Impact from Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant, Bulgaria into the Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Genchev, G. T.; Kuleff, I.; Tanev, N. T.; Delistoyanova, E. S.; Guentchev, T.

    2002-02-26

    The aim of this paper is to present a general overview of the radioactive releases impact generated by Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP), Bulgaria to the environment and public. The liquid releases presented are known as the so called controlled water discharges, that are generated after reprocessing of the inevitable accumulated liquid radioactive waste in the plant operation process. The radionuclides containing in the liquid releases are given in the paper as a result of systematic measuring. Database for radiation doses evaluation on the public around Kozloduy NPP site is developed using IAEA LADTAP computerized program. The computer code LADTAP represents realization of a model that evaluates the public dose as a result of NPP releases under normal operation conditions. The results of this evaluation were the basic licensing document for a new liquid release limit.

  17. The impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on plant growth following herbivory: A search for pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowicz, Victoria A.

    2013-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can facilitate nutrient uptake and increase host plant growth but also place constraints on the host's carbon budget. When plants are stressed by herbivory the net effect of the symbiosis may be altered tolerance. Individual experiments manipulating AM fungi and herbivory have demonstrated increased, decreased, and no effect on tolerance but patterns with respect to plant, herbivore, or fungus characteristics have not emerged. Meta-analysis of published results from factorial experiments was used to describe the size of the effects of herbivory and of AM fungi on host growth when factors such as cause of damage, inoculum, and host characteristics are considered, and to determine whether AM fungi alter the effects of herbivory. Also, the correlation between the effect of AM fungi on tolerance and resistance was tested with data from studies that examined insect performance. Herbivory strongly and consistently reduced shoot and root growth, especially in perennial plants and crops. AM fungi increased shoot growth of perennials but not annuals, and when insects caused damage but not when artificial defoliation was applied. Root growth was consistently greater with AM fungi. The interaction of AM fungi and herbivory, which indicates whether AM fungi alter the effects of herbivory, was variable and never significant overall but homogeneity tests indicated underlying structure. In experiments that used single species inoculum, Glomus intraradices increased, whereas Glomus mosseae reduced, effects of herbivory on shoot growth. Multispecies inocula magnified effects of herbivory on root growth whereas single species inocula ameliorated effects. The impact of AM fungi on resistance to herbivory was positively correlated with the impact on tolerance; however AM fungi reduced both tolerance and resistance in many cases. Review of these results with respect to the types of systems studied suggests directions for future investigation.

  18. Satellite RNA pathogens of plants: impacts and origins-an RNA silencing perspective.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Bo; Smith, Neil A

    2016-01-01

    Viral satellite RNAs (satRNAs) are among the smallest RNA pathogens in plants. They have little or no protein-coding capacity but can have a major impact on the host plants through trilateral interactions with helper viruses and host plants. Studies around the 1980s revealed much of what we know about satRNAs: they can affect helper virus accumulation, modulate helper virus-induced disease symptoms, and induce their own symptoms with the assistance of helper viruses which depend on specific nucleotide sequences of their genome and host species. The molecular basis of these satRNA-caused impacts and the origin of satRNAs have yet to be fully understood and revealed, but recent understanding of the antiviral RNA silencing pathways and advancement in RNA and DNA sequencing technologies have provided new avenues and opportunities to examine these unanswered questions. These RNA silencing-based studies have revealed the existence of cross silencing between some satRNAs and helper viruses, the downregulation of helper virus-encoded suppressor (VSR) of RNA silencing or inhibition/enhancement of VSR activity by satRNAs, the silencing of host-encoded genes by satRNA-derived small interfering RNA (siRNAs), and the presence of satRNA-like small RNAs in uninfected host plants. These findings have provided alternative RNA silencing-based models to explain the pathogenicity and origin of satRNAs. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:5-16. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1311 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26481458

  19. Environmental impact assessment of a WtE plant after structural upgrade measures.

    PubMed

    Passarini, Fabrizio; Nicoletti, Monica; Ciacci, Luca; Vassura, Ivano; Morselli, Luciano

    2014-04-01

    The study focuses on analysing the evolution of environmental impacts caused by a medium-large Italian WtE plant before and after revamping and maintenance operations, with the aim of providing an evaluation of how much these structural upgrade measures may affect the total environmental performance. LCA methodology was applied for the modelling and comparison of six WtE scenarios, each describing the main structural upgrades carried out in the plant over the years 1996-2011. The comparison was conducted by adopting 1ton of MSW as the functional unit, and the net contribution from energy recovery to power generation was distinguished by defining consistent national grid electricity mixes for every year considered. The Ecoindicator99 2.09 impact assessment method was used to evaluate the contribution to midpoint and endpoint categories (e.g. carcinogens, respiratory inorganics and organics, climate change, damage to human health). Lastly, the "Pedigree quality matrix" was applied to verify the reliability and robustness of the model created. As expected, the results showed better environmental scores after both the implementation of new procedures and the integration of operations. However, while a net reduction of air emissions seems to be achievable through dedicated flue gas treatment technologies, outcomes underscored potentials for improving the management of bottom ash through the adoption of alternative options aimed to use that solid residue mainly as filler, and to decrease risks from its current disposal in landfill. If the same effort that is put into flue gas treatment were devoted to energy recovery, the targets for the WtE plant could be easily met, achieving a higher sustainability. This aspect is even more complex: national policies for implementing greener and renewable energy sources would result in a lower impact of the national energy mix and, hence, in a lower net avoided burden from energy recovery. The study confirmed the expected improvements

  20. PCDD/F enviromental impact from municipal solid waste bio-drying plant.

    PubMed

    Rada, E C; Ragazzi, M; Zardi, D; Laiti, L; Ferrari, A

    2011-06-01

    The present work indentifies some environmental and health impacts of a municipal solid waste bio-drying plant taking into account the PCDD/F release into the atmosphere, its concentration at ground level and its deposition. Four scenarios are presented for the process air treatment and management: biofilter or regenerative thermal oxidation treatment, at two different heights. A Gaussian dispersion model, AERMOD, was used in order to model the dispersion and deposition of the PCDD/F emissions into the atmosphere. Considerations on health risk, from different exposure pathways are presented using an original approach. The case of biofilter at ground level resulted the most critical, depending on the low dispersion of the pollutants. Suggestions on technical solutions for the optimization of the impact are presented. PMID:21550632

  1. [Environmental Effects of Algae Bloom Cluster: Impact on the Floating Plant Water Hyacinth Photosynthesis].

    PubMed

    Bao, Xian-ming; Gu, Dong-xiang; Wu, Ting-ting; Shi, Zu-liang; Liu, Guo-feng; Han Shi-qun; Zhou, Shi-qun; Zhou, Qing

    2015-06-01

    It is an efficient and effective ecological restoration method by using the adaptability, large biomass of aquatic plants to purify the polluted water at present. However, there is a lack of systematic research on the impact on the physiological ecology of aquatic plants and its environmental effects of algae blooms cluster in summer. The aim of this paper is to reveal the mechanism of macrophytes demise in a shallow ecosystem by studying the influence on photosynthesis of water hyacinth caused by the cynaobacterial blooms gathered, and also to provide the theoretical basis for full effects of purification function of macrophytes to reduce the negative effects on the aquatic plants after algae blooms gathered during the higher temperature (not lower 25 degrees C) through simulating experiments. Results showed the dissolved oxygen quickly consumed in root zone of aquatic plants after algae blooms gathered and showed a lack of oxygen (DO < 0.2 mg x L(-1)); and the ORP was lower than -100 mV after 1 d, and it declined to -200 mV at the end of the experiment, and pH declined 0. 7unit compared with that of control group ( CK). There were lots of nutrients releasing to the water after the algae cell died and the NH4+ -N concentration was 102 times higher than that of the control group root zone. And the macrophytes photosynthesis reduced quickly and the plant body damaged with the intimidation of higher NH4+ -N concentration (average content was 45.6 mg x L(-1)) and hypoxia after algae cell decomposed. The average net photosynthesis rate, leaf transpiration rate were 0.6 times, 0.55 times of the control group, and they reduced to 3.96 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1), 1.38 mmol x (m2 x s)(-1), respectively. At the end of the experiment, they were 22.0 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1) and 7.61 mmol x (m2 x s)(-1) for the control group. Results also showed the algae bloom together had the irreversible damage to the aquatic plants. So in the practice of ecological restoration, it should

  2. The impact of environmental stress on male reproductive development in plants: biological processes and molecular mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    de Storme, Nico; Geelen, Danny

    2014-01-01

    In plants, male reproductive development is extremely sensitive to adverse climatic environments and (a)biotic stress. Upon exposure to stress, male gametophytic organs often show morphological, structural and metabolic alterations that typically lead to meiotic defects or premature spore abortion and male reproductive sterility. Depending on the type of stress involved (e.g. heat, cold, drought) and the duration of stress exposure, the underlying cellular defect is highly variable and either involves cytoskeletal alterations, tapetal irregularities, altered sugar utilization, aberrations in auxin metabolism, accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS; oxidative stress) or the ectopic induction of programmed cell death (PCD). In this review, we present the critically stress-sensitive stages of male sporogenesis (meiosis) and male gametogenesis (microspore development), and discuss the corresponding biological processes involved and the resulting alterations in male reproduction. In addition, this review also provides insights into the molecular and/or hormonal regulation of the environmental stress sensitivity of male reproduction and outlines putative interaction(s) between the different processes involved. PMID:23731015

  3. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements C Appendix C to Part 273 Navigation and... Environmental Impact Statements 1. Description of the problem. a. Pests. Identify the pest to be controlled by.... Relationship to environmental situation. Non-target organisms and integrated pest management programs....

  4. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements C Appendix C to Part 273 Navigation and... Environmental Impact Statements 1. Description of the problem. a. Pests. Identify the pest to be controlled by.... Relationship to environmental situation. Non-target organisms and integrated pest management programs....

  5. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements C Appendix C to Part 273 Navigation and... Environmental Impact Statements 1. Description of the problem. a. Pests. Identify the pest to be controlled by.... Relationship to environmental situation. Non-target organisms and integrated pest management programs....

  6. Assessing the Impacts of Herbivory on Plant Silica Accumulation across a Global Network of Grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, K.

    2015-12-01

    Plants, especially grasses, have a profound impact on the biogeochemical cycling of silicon. Silicic acid (Si(OH)4) in soil water is absorbed by plant roots, transported via the transpiration stream, and deposited as solid silica (SiO2) phytoliths in leaf tissue. Evidence indicates that plant phytolith accumulation may have evolved as an anti-herbivore strategy, and modern studies reveal that these silica particles are abrasive to animal mouthparts and can interfere with digestion. Furthermore, several studies have shown that grasses have the ability to respond to insect and mammal herbivory by modifying the amount of silicon they absorb from soil, a property known as inducible defense. However, herbivory studies remain largely limited to a laboratory setting, and research in natural systems has only been conducted at a regional spatial scale. To address whether these localized patterns persist at the global scale, we utilized data from a network of 40 grassland sites occurring on six continents. Vegetation samples including grasses, forbs, and litter, were collected in and out of 6m x 6m herbivore exclosures by a team of collaborating scientists for an on-going research effort known as the Nutrient Network (NutNet). We utilized near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to create a calibration for plant silica which allowed for the rapid analysis of more than 1000 samples. Preliminary analyses indicate that silica content of grasses was higher outside of exclosures, where herbivores had access to vegetation. Our data reveal that herbivores play a significant role in modifying plant silicon uptake, and hence, the rates of silicon cycling in grasslands across the globe.

  7. Coping with coal quality impacts on power plant operation and maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Hatt, R.

    1998-12-31

    The electric power industry is rapidly changing due to deregulation. The author was present one hot day in June of this year, when a southeastern utility company was selling electricity for $5,000.00 per megawatt with $85.00 cost. Typical power cost range from the mid teens at night to about $30.00 on a normal day. The free market place will challenge the power industry in many ways. Fuel is the major cost in electric power. In a regulated industry the cost of fuel was passed on to the customers. Fuels were chosen to minimize problems such as handling, combustion, ash deposits and other operational and maintenance concerns. Tight specifications were used to eliminate or minimize coals that caused problems. These tight specifications raised the price of fuel by minimizing competition. As the power stations become individual profit centers, plant management must take a more proactive role in fuel selection. Understanding how coal quality impacts plant performance and cost, allows better fuel selection decisions. How well plants take advantage of their knowledge may determine whether they will be able to compete in a free market place. The coal industry itself can provide many insights on how to survive in this type of market. Coal mines today must remain competitive or be shut down. The consolidation of the coal industry indicates the trends that can occur in a competitive market. These trends have already started, and will continue in the utility industry. This paper will discuss several common situations concerning coal quality and potential solutions for the plant to consider. All these examples have mill maintenance and performance issues in common. This is indicative of how important pulverizers are to the successful operation of a power plant.

  8. Plant responses to increasing CO2 reduce estimates of climate impacts on drought severity.

    PubMed

    Swann, Abigail L S; Hoffman, Forrest M; Koven, Charles D; Randerson, James T

    2016-09-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 will make Earth warmer, and many studies have inferred that this warming will cause droughts to become more widespread and severe. However, rising atmospheric CO2 also modifies stomatal conductance and plant water use, processes that are often are overlooked in impact analysis. We find that plant physiological responses to CO2 reduce predictions of future drought stress, and that this reduction is captured by using plant-centric rather than atmosphere-centric metrics from Earth system models (ESMs). The atmosphere-centric Palmer Drought Severity Index predicts future increases in drought stress for more than 70% of global land area. This area drops to 37% with the use of precipitation minus evapotranspiration (P-E), a measure that represents the water flux available to downstream ecosystems and humans. The two metrics yield consistent estimates of increasing stress in regions where precipitation decreases are more robust (southern North America, northeastern South America, and southern Europe). The metrics produce diverging estimates elsewhere, with P-E predicting decreasing stress across temperate Asia and central Africa. The differing sensitivity of drought metrics to radiative and physiological aspects of increasing CO2 partly explains the divergent estimates of future drought reported in recent studies. Further, use of ESM output in offline models may double-count plant feedbacks on relative humidity and other surface variables, leading to overestimates of future stress. The use of drought metrics that account for the response of plant transpiration to changing CO2, including direct use of P-E and soil moisture from ESMs, is needed to reduce uncertainties in future assessment. PMID:27573831

  9. The Impact of Admission Serum Creatinine Derived Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate on Major Adverse Cardiac Events in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Uluganyan, Mahmut; Karaca, Gurkan; Ulutas, Turker Kemal; Ekmekci, Ahmet; Tusun, Eyup; Murat, Ahmet; Koroglu, Bayram; Uyarel, Huseyin; Bakhshaliyev, Nijad; Eren, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Background The impact of Cockroft-Gault (C-G) derived estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) on mortality and major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was assessed. Methods A total of 884 patients were classified into four categories according to admission creatine derived eGFR: < 60, 60 - < 90, 90 - < 120, and ≥ 120 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results In-hospital and long-term MACEs were significantly higher in eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 subgroup (P < 0.001 and P = 0.028). Multivariate analysis demonstrated 7.78-fold (95% CI: 0.91 - 66.8) higher mortality risk in eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 subgroup. Conclusion As an easily applicable bedside method, C-G derived eGFR could be important for prediction of in-hospital and long-term mortality and MACE in STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI. PMID:26985253

  10. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM THE MONTICELLO COAL FIRED POWER PLANT.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; SUBRAMANIAN, S.; FEAGIN, L.; WILLIAMS, J.; BOYD, A.

    2006-10-31

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as currently proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when fully implemented will lead to reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by 70 percent to fifteen tons per year by 2018. The EPA estimates that mercury deposition would be reduced 8 percent on average in the Eastern United States. The CAMR permits cap-and-trade approach that requires the nationwide emissions to meet the prescribed level, but do not require controls on each individual power plant. This has led to concerns that there may be hot-spots of mercury contamination near power plants. Partially because of this concern, many states including Pennsylvania have implemented, or are considering, state regulations that are stricter on mercury emissions than those in the CAMR. This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury ''hot spots'', using two types of evidence. First, the world-wide literature was searched for reports of deposition around mercury sources, including coal-fired power plants. Second, soil samples from around two mid-sized U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of ''hot spots'' and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (A) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (B) sediment increments of 18-30%, (C) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (D) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg deposition and fish content

  11. Dynamic role and importance of surrogate species for assessing potential adverse environmental impacts of genetically engineered insect-resistant plants on non-target organisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surrogate species have a long history of use in research and regulatory settings to understand the potentially harmful effects of toxic substances including pesticides. More recently, surrogate species have been used to evaluate the potential effects of proteins contained in genetically engineered ...

  12. Dynamic role and importance of surrogate species for assessing potential adverse environmental impacts of genetically engineered insect-resistant plants on non-target organisms.

    PubMed

    Wach, Michael; Hellmich, Richard L; Layton, Raymond; Romeis, Jörg; Gadaleta, Patricia G

    2016-08-01

    Surrogate species have a long history of use in research and regulatory settings to understand the potentially harmful effects of toxic substances including pesticides. More recently, surrogate species have been used to evaluate the potential effects of proteins contained in genetically engineered insect resistant (GEIR) crops. Species commonly used in GEIR crop testing include beneficial organisms such as honeybees, arthropod predators, and parasitoids. The choice of appropriate surrogates is influenced by scientific factors such as the knowledge of the mode of action and the spectrum of activity as well as societal factors such as protection goals that assign value to certain ecosystem services such as pollination or pest control. The primary reasons for using surrogates include the inability to test all possible organisms, the restrictions on using certain organisms in testing (e.g., rare, threatened, or endangered species), and the ability to achieve greater sensitivity and statistical power by using laboratory testing of certain species. The acceptance of surrogate species data can allow results from one region to be applied or "transported" for use in another region. On the basis of over a decade of using surrogate species to evaluate potential effects of GEIR crops, it appears that the current surrogates have worked well to predict effects of GEIR crops that have been developed (Carstens et al. GM Crops Food 5:1-5, 2014), and it is expected that they should work well to predict effects of future GEIR crops based on similar technologies. PMID:26922585

  13. Adverse antibiotic drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Bint, A J; Burtt, I

    1980-07-01

    There is enormous potential for drug interactions in patients who, today, often receive many drugs. Antibiotics are prominent amongst the groups of drugs commonly prescribed. Many interactions take place at the absorption stage. Antacids and antidiarrhoeal preparations, in particular, can delay and reduce the absorption of antibiotics such as tetracyclines and clindamycin, by combining with them in the gastrointestinal tract to form chelates or complexes. Other drugs can affect gastric motility, which in turn often controls the rate at which antibiotics are absorbed. Some broad spectrum antibiotics can alter the bacterial flora of the gut which may be related to malabsorption states. The potentiation of toxic side effects of one drug by another is a common type of interaction. Antibiotics which are implicated in this type of interaction are those which themselves possess some toxicity such as aminoglycosides, some cephalosporins, tetracyclines and colistin. Some of the most important adverse interactions with antibiotics are those which involve other drugs which have a low toxicity/efficacy ratio. These include anticoagulants such as warfarin, anticonvulsants such as phenytoin and phenobarbitone and oral antidiabetic drugs like tolbutamide. Risk of interaction arises when the metabolism of these drugs is inhibited by liver microsomal enzyme inhibitors such as some sulphonamides and chloramphenicol, or is enhanced by enzyme inducers such as rifampicin. PMID:6995091

  14. ADVERSE CUTANEOUS DRUG REACTION

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Surajit; Acharjya, Basanti

    2008-01-01

    In everyday clinical practice, almost all physicians come across many instances of suspected adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDR) in different forms. Although such cutaneous reactions are common, comprehensive information regarding their incidence, severity and ultimate health effects are often not available as many cases go unreported. It is also a fact that in the present world, almost everyday a new drug enters market; therefore, a chance of a new drug reaction manifesting somewhere in some form in any corner of world is unknown or unreported. Although many a times, presentation is too trivial and benign, the early identification of the condition and identifying the culprit drug and omit it at earliest holds the keystone in management and prevention of a more severe drug rash. Therefore, not only the dermatologists, but all practicing physicians should be familiar with these conditions to diagnose them early and to be prepared to handle them adequately. However, we all know it is most challenging and practically difficult when patient is on multiple medicines because of myriad clinical symptoms, poorly understood multiple mechanisms of drug-host interaction, relative paucity of laboratory testing that is available for any definitive and confirmatory drug-specific testing. Therefore, in practice, the diagnosis of ACDR is purely based on clinical judgment. In this discussion, we will be primarily focusing on pathomechanism and approach to reach a diagnosis, which is the vital pillar to manage any case of ACDR. PMID:19967009

  15. Environmental impact analysis of chemicals and energy consumption in wastewater treatment plants: case study of Oslo, Norway.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, G; Brattebø, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plants, while performing the important function of treating wastewater to meet the prescribed discharge standards, consume energy and a variety of chemicals. This paper analyses the consumption of energy and chemicals by wastewater treatment plants in Oslo over eight years, and their potential environmental impacts. Global warming and acidification were the dominant impacts for chemicals and energy, respectively. Avoided impacts due to usable by-products - sludge, ammonium nitrate and biogas - play a key role in shrinking the environmental footprint of the wastewater plants. The scope for decreasing this footprint by streamlining energy and chemicals consumption is limited, however, considering that over 70% of the impact is accounted for by the eutrophication potential (thanks to the nitrogen and phosphorus which is discharged to the sink) of the treated effluent wastewater. PMID:21411954

  16. Urban heat island impacts on plant phenology: intra-urban variability and response to land cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zipper, Samuel C.; Schatz, Jason; Singh, Aditya; Kucharik, Christopher J.; Townsend, Philip A.; Loheide, Steven P., II

    2016-05-01

    Despite documented intra-urban heterogeneity in the urban heat island (UHI) effect, little is known about spatial or temporal variability in plant response to the UHI. Using an automated temperature sensor network in conjunction with Landsat-derived remotely sensed estimates of start/end of the growing season, we investigate the impacts of the UHI on plant phenology in the city of Madison WI (USA) for the 2012–2014 growing seasons. Median urban growing season length (GSL) estimated from temperature sensors is ∼5 d longer than surrounding rural areas, and UHI impacts on GSL are relatively consistent from year-to-year. Parks within urban areas experience a subdued expression of GSL lengthening resulting from interactions between the UHI and a park cool island effect. Across all growing seasons, impervious cover in the area surrounding each temperature sensor explains >50% of observed variability in phenology. Comparisons between long-term estimates of annual mean phenological timing, derived from remote sensing, and temperature-based estimates of individual growing seasons show no relationship at the individual sensor level. The magnitude of disagreement between temperature-based and remotely sensed phenology is a function of impervious and grass cover surrounding the sensor, suggesting that realized GSL is controlled by both local land cover and micrometeorological conditions.

  17. Impact of a phosphate fertilizer plant on the contamination of marine biota by heavy elements.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Maria; Arnaudguilhem, Carine; El Samad, Omar; Khozam, Rola Bou; Lobinski, Ryszard

    2015-10-01

    Due to their toxicity, persistence, and bioaccumulation, metals are important marine environment pollutants, especially in low renewal rate water such as the Mediterranean Sea, receiving a lot of untreated industrial waste. The impact of a phosphate fertilizer plant on the marine biota metal contamination was studied. Several types of organisms: crabs, mussels, patella and fish were collected from two areas of the Lebanese coast, one subjected to the impact of the plant and another away from it; samples were analyzed for Zn, U, Cr, V, Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, As, Cd and Pb by ICP-MS. Higher accumulation was in crabs, patella, and mussels. Fish accumulated principally Zn, Cu, and Cd; a difference was observed between species and tissues. Cytosol metal fractionation using size-exclusion LC-ICP-MS showed principally Pb, As, Co, and Mn in the low molecular weight fraction (<1.8 Da); Cd, Zn, and Cu in the metallothionein fraction (1.8--18 k Da), and Ni in high molecular weight fraction (>20 kDa). PMID:26002362

  18. Ozone depletion and UVB radiation: impact on plant DNA damage in southern South America.

    PubMed

    Rousseaux, M C; Ballaré, C L; Giordano, C V; Scopel, A L; Zima, A M; Szwarcberg-Bracchitta, M; Searles, P S; Caldwell, M M; Díaz, S B

    1999-12-21

    The primary motivation behind the considerable effort in studying stratospheric ozone depletion is the potential for biological consequences of increased solar UVB (280-315 nm) radiation. Yet, direct links between ozone depletion and biological impacts have been established only for organisms of Antarctic waters under the influence of the ozone "hole;" no direct evidence exists that ozone-related variations in UVB affect ecosystems of temperate latitudes. Indeed, calculations based on laboratory studies with plants suggest that the biological impact of ozone depletion (measured by the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in DNA) is likely to be less marked than previously thought, because UVA quanta (315-400 nm) may also cause significant damage, and UVA is unaffected by ozone depletion. Herein, we show that the temperate ecosystems of southern South America have been subjected to increasingly high levels of ozone depletion during the last decade. We found that in the spring of 1997, despite frequent cloud cover, the passages of the ozone hole over Tierra del Fuego (55 degrees S) caused concomitant increases in solar UV and that the enhanced ground-level UV led to significant increases in DNA damage in the native plant Gunnera magellanica. The fluctuations in solar UV explained a large proportion of the variation in DNA damage (up to 68%), particularly when the solar UV was weighted for biological effectiveness according to action spectra that assume a sharp decline in quantum efficiency with increasing wavelength from the UVB into the UVA regions of the spectrum. PMID:10611381

  19. SO{sub 3}'s impacts on plant O & M: part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, R.E.

    2006-10-15

    The visible consequences of sulfuric acid aerosol emissions, opaque stack emissions called 'blue plumes', are merely the tip of an iceberg. In sufficient concentration, SO{sub 3} also can increase corrosion and fouling of equipment and components downstream of the furnace while decreasing their efficiency and penalizing overall plant heat rate. This article, the first in a three part series, details the negative impacts of SO{sub 3} on operations and maintenance of back-end plant equipment. These include: reduction of unit heat rate and increased corrosion of downstream equipment due to the raising of dew point by SO{sub 3}; fouling of air heaters and SCR catalysts due to the reaction of SO{sub 3} with ammonia and competition of SO{sub 3} with mercury for adsorption sites on carbon particles, reducing the effectiveness of mercury emissions control. Part II will explain and quantify the potential benefits of limiting the concentration of SO{sub 3} in flue gas to 3ppm at the entrance to the air heater. Part III will describe the characteristics of an optimal SO{sub 3} removal technology and present the technical details and operating experience of one patented process that has worked successfully at a half dozen plants for up to three years. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  20. Environmental impacts of coal mine and thermal power plant to the surroundings of Barapukuria, Dinajpur, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Nazir; Paul, Shitangsu Kumar; Hasan, Md Muyeed

    2015-04-01

    The study was carried out to analyse the environmental impacts of coal mine and coal-based thermal power plant to the surrounding environment of Barapukuria, Dinajpur. The analyses of coal, water, soil and fly ash were carried out using standard sample testing methods. This study found that coal mining industry and coal-based thermal power plant have brought some environmental and socio-economic challenges to the adjacent areas such as soil, water and air pollution, subsidence of agricultural land and livelihood insecurity of inhabitants. The pH values, heavy metal, organic carbon and exchangeable cations of coal water treated in the farmland soil suggest that coal mining deteriorated the surrounding water and soil quality. The SO4(2-) concentration in water samples was beyond the range of World Health Organisation standard. Some physico-chemical properties such as pH, conductivity, moisture content, bulk density, unburned carbon content, specific gravity, water holding capacity, liquid and plastic limit were investigated on coal fly ash of Barapukuria thermal power plant. Air quality data provided by the Barapukuria Coal Mining Company Limited were contradictory with the result of interview with the miners and local inhabitants. However, coal potentially contributes to the development of economy of Bangladesh but coal mining deteriorates the environment by polluting air, water and soil. In general, this study includes comprehensive baseline data for decision makers to evaluate the feasibility of coal power industry at Barapukuria and the coalmine itself. PMID:25800369

  1. Impacts of simulated herbivory on VOC emission profiles from coniferous plants

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Faiola, C. L.; Jobson, B. T.; VanReken, T. M.

    2014-09-18

    The largest global source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere is from biogenic emissions. Plant stressors associated with a changing environment can alter both the quantity and composition of the compounds that are emitted. This study investigated the effects of one global change stressor, increased herbivory, on plant emissions from five different coniferous species: bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata), blue spruce (Picea pungens), western redcedar (Thuja plicata), grand fir (Abies grandis), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsugas menziesii). Herbivory was simulated in the laboratory via exogenous application of methyl jasmonate, an herbivory proxy. Gas-phase species were measured continuously with a gas chromatographmore » coupled to a mass spectrometer and flame ionization detector (GC-MS-FID). Stress responses varied between the different plant types and even between experiments using the same set of saplings. The compounds most frequently impacted by the stress treatment were alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, 1,8-cineol, beta-myrcene, terpinolene, limonene, and the cymene isomers. Individual compounds within a single experiment often exhibited a different response to the treatment from one another.« less

  2. Impacts of simulated herbivory on volatile organic compound emission profiles from coniferous plants

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Faiola, C. L.; Jobson, B. T.; VanReken, T. M.

    2015-01-28

    The largest global source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere is from biogenic emissions. Plant stressors associated with a changing environment can alter both the quantity and composition of the compounds that are emitted. This study investigated the effects of one global change stressor, increased herbivory, on plant emissions from five different coniferous species: bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata), blue spruce (Picea pungens), western redcedar (Thuja plicata), grand fir (Abies grandis), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). Herbivory was simulated in the laboratory via exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a herbivory proxy. Gas-phase species were measured continuously with a gasmore » chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer and flame ionization detector (GC–MS–FID). Stress responses varied between the different plant types and even between experiments using the same set of saplings. The compounds most frequently impacted by the stress treatment were alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, 1,8-cineol, beta-myrcene, terpinolene, limonene, and the cymene isomers. Individual compounds within a single experiment often exhibited a different response to the treatment from one another.« less

  3. Impacts of simulated herbivory on volatile organic compound emission profiles from coniferous plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faiola, C. L.; Jobson, B. T.; VanReken, T. M.

    2015-01-01

    The largest global source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere is from biogenic emissions. Plant stressors associated with a changing environment can alter both the quantity and composition of the compounds that are emitted. This study investigated the effects of one global change stressor, increased herbivory, on plant emissions from five different coniferous species: bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata), blue spruce (Picea pungens), western redcedar (Thuja plicata), grand fir (Abies grandis), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). Herbivory was simulated in the laboratory via exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a herbivory proxy. Gas-phase species were measured continuously with a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer and flame ionization detector (GC-MS-FID). Stress responses varied between the different plant types and even between experiments using the same set of saplings. The compounds most frequently impacted by the stress treatment were alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, 1,8-cineol, beta-myrcene, terpinolene, limonene, and the cymene isomers. Individual compounds within a single experiment often exhibited a different response to the treatment from one another.

  4. Impacts of simulated herbivory on VOC emission profiles from coniferous plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faiola, C. L.; Jobson, B. T.; VanReken, T. M.

    2014-09-01

    The largest global source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere is from biogenic emissions. Plant stressors associated with a changing environment can alter both the quantity and composition of the compounds that are emitted. This study investigated the effects of one global change stressor, increased herbivory, on plant emissions from five different coniferous species: bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata), blue spruce (Picea pungens), western redcedar (Thuja plicata), grand fir (Abies grandis), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsugas menziesii). Herbivory was simulated in the laboratory via exogenous application of methyl jasmonate, an herbivory proxy. Gas-phase species were measured continuously with a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer and flame ionization detector (GC-MS-FID). Stress responses varied between the different plant types and even between experiments using the same set of saplings. The compounds most frequently impacted by the stress treatment were alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, 1,8-cineol, beta-myrcene, terpinolene, limonene, and the cymene isomers. Individual compounds within a single experiment often exhibited a different response to the treatment from one another.

  5. Impact of Hybrid Wet/Dry Cooling on Concentrating Solar Power Plant Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, M. J.; Kutscher, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the sensitivity of Rankine cycle plant performance to dry cooling and hybrid (parallel) wet/dry cooling combinations with the traditional wet-cooled model as a baseline. Plants with a lower temperature thermal resource are more sensitive to fluctuations in cooling conditions, and so the lower temperature parabolic trough plant is analyzed to assess the maximum impact of alternative cooling configurations. While low water-use heat rejection designs are applicable to any technology that utilizes a Rankine steam cycle for power generation, they are of special interest to concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies that are located in arid regions with limited water availability. System performance is evaluated using hourly simulations over the course of a year at Daggett, CA. The scope of the analysis in this paper is limited to the power block and the heat rejection system, excluding the solar field and thermal storage. As such, water used in mirror washing, maintenance, etc., is not included. Thermal energy produced by the solar field is modeled using NREL's Solar Advisor Model (SAM).

  6. Impact of common cytostatic drugs on pollen fertility in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Mišík, Miroslav; Kundi, Michael; Pichler, Clemens; Filipic, Metka; Rainer, Bernhard; Mišíková, Katarina; Nersesyan, Armen; Knasmueller, Siegfried

    2016-08-01

    Cytostatic drugs are among the most toxic chemicals which are produced. Many of them cause damage of the genetic material which may affect the fertility of higher organisms. To study the impact of the widely used anticancer drugs [cisplatin (CisPt), etoposide (Et), and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)] on the reproduction of higher plants, pollen abortion experiments were conducted with species which belong to major plant families, namely with Tradescantia paludosa (Commelinaceae), Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae), Chelidonium majus (Papaveraceae), and Alisma plantago-aquatica (Alismataceae). All compounds increased the frequencies of abortive grains. The lowest effective doses were in general in a narrow range (i.e., 1 and 10 mg/kg of dry soil). The effects of the individual drugs were similar in T. paludosa, A. plantago-aquatica, and Ch. majus, while A. thaliana was consistently less sensitive. The highest abortion rate was obtained in most experiments with CisPt, followed by 5-FU and Et. Comparisons of the doses which caused effects in the present experiments in the different species with the predicted environment concentrations and with the levels of the cytostatics which were detected in hospital wastewaters show that the realistic environmental concentrations of the drugs are 4-6 orders of magnitude lower. Therefore, it is unlikely that these drugs affect the fertility of higher plants in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:25779110

  7. Herbivore Impact on Tundra Plant Community Dynamics Using Long-term Remote Sensing Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Q.; Engstrom, R.; Shiklomanov, N. I.

    2014-12-01

    Arctic tundra biome is now experiencing dramatic environmental changes accentuated by summer sea-ice decline, permafrost thaw, and shrub expansion. Multi-decadal time-series of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, a spectral metric of vegetation productivity) shows an overall "greening" trend across the Arctic tundra biome. Regional trends in climate plausibly explain large-scale patterns of increasing plant productivity, as diminished summer sea-ice extent warms the adjacent land causing tundra vegetation to respond positively (increased photosynthetic aboveground biomass). However, at more local scales, there is a great deal of spatial variability in NDVI trends that likely reflects differences in hydrology and soil conditions, disturbance history, and use by wildlife and humans. Particularly, habitat use by large herbivores, such as reindeer and caribou, has large impacts on vegetation dynamics at local and regional scales, but the role of herbivores in modulating the response of vegetation to warming climate has received little attention. This study investigates regional tundra plant community dynamics within inhabits of different sizes of wild caribou/reindeer herds across the Arctic using GIMMS NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) 3g data product. The Taimyr herd in Russia is one of the largest herds in the world with a population increase from 450,000 in 1975 to about 1 million animals in 2000. The population of the porcupine caribou herd has fluctuated in the past three decades between 100,000 and 180,000. Time-series of the maximum NDVI within the inhabit area of the Taimyr herd has increased about 2% per decade over the past three decades, while within the inhabit area of the Porcupine herd the maximum NDVI has increased about 5% per decade. Our results indicate that the impact of large herbivores can be detected from space and further analyses on seasonal dynamics of vegetation indices and herbivore behavior may provide more

  8. Salt marsh plants as key mediators on the level of cadmium impact on microbial denitrification.

    PubMed

    Almeida, C Marisa R; Mucha, Ana P; da Silva, Marta Nunes; Monteiro, Maria; Salgado, Paula; Necrasov, Tatiana; Magalhães, Catarina

    2014-09-01

    The fate of excess nitrogen in estuaries is determined by the microbial-driven nitrogen cycle, being denitrification a key process since it definitely removes fixed nitrogen as N2. However, estuaries receive and retain metals, which may negatively affect this process efficiency. In this study, we evaluated the role of salt marsh plants in mediating cadmium (Cd) impact on microbial denitrification process. Juncus maritimus and Phragmites australis from an estuary were collected together with the sediment involving their roots, each placed in vessels and maintained in a greenhouse, exposed to natural light, with tides simulation. Similar non-vegetated sediment vessels were prepared. After 3 weeks of accommodation, nine vessels (three per plant species plus three non-vegetated) were doped with 20 mg/L Cd(2+) saline solution, nine vessels were doped with 2 mg/L Cd(2+) saline solution and nine vessels were left undoped. After 10 weeks, vessels were dissembled and denitrification potential was measured in sediment slurries. Results revealed that the addition of Cd did not cause an effect on the denitrification process in non-vegetated sediment but had a clear stimulation in colonized ones (39 % for P. australis and 36 % for J. maritimus). In addition, this increase on denitrification rates was followed by a decrease on N2O emissions and on N2O/N2 ratios in both J. maritimus and P. australis sediments, increasing the efficiency of the N2O step of denitrification pathway. Therefore, our results suggested that the presence of salt marsh plants functioned as key mediators on the degree of Cd impact on microbial denitrification. PMID:24792983

  9. An analysis of the impacts of economic incentive programs on commercial nuclear power plant operations and maintenance costs

    SciTech Connect

    Kavanaugh, D.C.; Monroe, W.H.; Wood, R.S.

    1996-02-01

    Operations and Maintenance (O and M) expenditures by nuclear power plant owner/operators possess a very logical and vital link in considerations relating to plant safety and reliability. Since the determinants of O and M outlays are considerable and varied, the potential linkages to plant safety, both directly and indirectly, can likewise be substantial. One significant issue before the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is the impact, if any, on O and M spending from state programs that attempt to improve plant operating performance, and how and to what extent these programs may affect plant safety and pose public health risks. The purpose of this study is to examine the role and degree of impacts from state promulgated economic incentive programs (EIPs) on plant O and M spending. A multivariate regression framework is specified, and the model is estimated on industry data over a five-year period, 1986--1990. Explanatory variables for the O and M spending model include plant characteristics, regulatory effects, financial strength factors, replacement power costs, and the performance incentive programs. EIPs are found to have statistically significant effects on plant O and M outlays, albeit small in relation to other factors. Moreover, the results indicate that the relatively financially weaker firms are more sensitive in their O and M spending to the presence of such programs. Formulations for linking spending behavior and EIPs with plant safety performance remains for future analysis.

  10. Combined hydrogen and carbon isotopes of plant waxes as an indicator of drought impacts on ancient Maya agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, P. M.; Pagani, M.; Eglinton, T. I.; Brenner, M.; Hodell, D. A.; Curtis, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    drier climates inhibiting C4 agriculture. Comparison with studies of modern vegetation and lake sediments indicate that these co-occurring isotopic shifts are not primarily due to differences in plant-wax δD between plant groups. We have developed a preliminary drought impact index based on differences between standardized residuals of plant-wax δD and δ13C records. This index suggests strong climate impacts on agriculture directly before and during the Terminal Classic period in both the southern and northern Maya lowlands. We also find evidence for smaller scale drought impacts on agriculture at the end of the Preclassic Period (ca. 1800 years BP) and at 2500 years BP. Differences in the timing of plant-wax δD and δ13C between the northern and southern Maya Lowlands suggest spatial differences in drought impacts on agriculture that could relate to different societal outcomes of the Terminal Classic between these two regions. Combined analyses of plant-wax δD and δ13C records can provide a potentially valuable indicator of drought impacts on ancient agriculture in regions with longstanding C4-plant agricultural traditions.

  11. Impacts of invasive nonnative plant species on the rare forest herb Scutellaria montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikkema, Jordan J.; Boyd, Jennifer N.

    2015-11-01

    Invasive plant species and overabundant herbivore populations have the potential to significantly impact rare plant species given their increased risk for local extirpation and extinction. We used interacting invasive species removal and grazer exclusion treatments replicated across two locations in an occurrence of rare Scutellaria montana (large-flowered skullcap) in Chattanooga, Tennessee, USA, to assess: 1) competition by invasive Ligustrum sinense (Chinese privet) and Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle) and 2) the role of invasive species in mediating Oedocoilus virginianus (white-tailed deer) grazing of S. montana. Contrary to our hypothesis that invasive species presence would suppress S. montana directly via competition, S. montana individuals experienced a seasonal increase in stem height when invasive species were intact but not when invasive species were removed. Marginally significant results indicated that invasive species may afford S. montana protection from grazers, and we suggest that invasive species also could protect S. montana from smaller herbivores and/or positively influence abiotic conditions. In contrast to growth responses, S. montana individuals protected from O. virginianus exhibited a decrease in flowering between seasons relative to unprotected plants, but invasive species did not affect this variable. Although it has been suggested that invasive plant species may negatively influence S. montana growth and fecundity, our findings do not support related concerns. As such, we suggest that invasive species eradication efforts in S. montana habitat could be more detrimental than positive due to associated disturbance. However, the low level of invasion of our study site may not be representative of potential interference in more heavily infested habitat.

  12. Chloroplast Iron Transport Proteins – Function and Impact on Plant Physiology

    PubMed Central

    López-Millán, Ana F.; Duy, Daniela; Philippar, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplasts originated about three billion years ago by endosymbiosis of an ancestor of today’s cyanobacteria with a mitochondria-containing host cell. During evolution chloroplasts of higher plants established as the site for photosynthesis and thus became the basis for all life dependent on oxygen and carbohydrate supply. To fulfill this task, plastid organelles are loaded with the transition metals iron, copper, and manganese, which due to their redox properties are essential for photosynthetic electron transport. In consequence, chloroplasts for example represent the iron-richest system in plant cells. However, improvement of oxygenic photosynthesis in turn required adaptation of metal transport and homeostasis since metal-catalyzed generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) causes oxidative damage. This is most acute in chloroplasts, where radicals and transition metals are side by side and ROS-production is a usual feature of photosynthetic electron transport. Thus, on the one hand when bound by proteins, chloroplast-intrinsic metals are a prerequisite for photoautotrophic life, but on the other hand become toxic when present in their highly reactive, radical generating, free ionic forms. In consequence, transport, storage and cofactor-assembly of metal ions in plastids have to be tightly controlled and are crucial throughout plant growth and development. In the recent years, proteins for iron transport have been isolated from chloroplast envelope membranes. Here, we discuss their putative functions and impact on cellular metal homeostasis as well as photosynthetic performance and plant metabolism. We further consider the potential of proteomic analyses to identify new players in the field. PMID:27014281

  13. Root causes and impacts of severe accidents at large nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Högberg, Lars

    2013-04-01

    The root causes and impacts of three severe accidents at large civilian nuclear power plants are reviewed: the Three Mile Island accident in 1979, the Chernobyl accident in 1986, and the Fukushima Daiichi accident in 2011. Impacts include health effects, evacuation of contaminated areas as well as cost estimates and impacts on energy policies and nuclear safety work in various countries. It is concluded that essential objectives for reactor safety work must be: (1) to prevent accidents from developing into severe core damage, even if they are initiated by very unlikely natural or man-made events, and, recognizing that accidents with severe core damage may nevertheless occur; (2) to prevent large-scale and long-lived ground contamination by limiting releases of radioactive nuclides such as cesium to less than about 100 TBq. To achieve these objectives the importance of maintaining high global standards of safety management and safety culture cannot be emphasized enough. All three severe accidents discussed in this paper had their root causes in system deficiencies indicative of poor safety management and poor safety culture in both the nuclear industry and government authorities. PMID:23423737

  14. Commercial Impact and Optimum Capacity Determination of Pumped Storage Hydro Plant for a Practical Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latha, P. G.; Anand, S. R.; Imthias, Ahamed T. P.; Sreejith, P. S., Dr.

    2013-06-01

    This paper attempts to study the commercial impact of pumped storage hydro plant on the operation of a stressed power system. The paper further attempts to compute the optimum capacity of the pumped storage scheme that can be provided on commercial basis for a practical power system. Unlike the analysis of commercial aspects of pumped storage scheme attempted in several papers, this paper is presented from the point of view of power system management of a practical system considering the impact of the scheme on the economic operation of the system. A realistic case study is presented as the many factors that influence the pumped storage operation vary widely from one system to another. The suitability of pumped storage for the particular generation mix of a system is well explored in the paper. To substantiate the economic impact of pumped storage on the system, the problem is formulated as a short-term hydrothermal scheduling problem involving power purchase which optimizes the quantum of power to be scheduled and the duration of operation. The optimization model is formulated using an algebraic modeling language, AMPL, which is then solved using the advanced MILP solver CPLEX.

  15. MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS LOCAL IMPACTS ON HUMAN HEALTH RISK.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, F.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; PENA, R.; BLAKE, R.

    2005-12-01

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. However, there are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg{sub 0} in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg

  16. Invasiveness does not predict impact: response of native land snail communities to plant invasions in riparian habitats.

    PubMed

    Horáčková, Jitka; Juřičková, Lucie; Šizling, Arnošt L; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Pyšek, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Studies of plant invasions rarely address impacts on molluscs. By comparing pairs of invaded and corresponding uninvaded plots in 96 sites in floodplain forests, we examined effects of four invasive alien plants (Impatiens glandulifera, Fallopia japonica, F. sachalinensis, and F.× bohemica) in the Czech Republic on communities of land snails. The richness and abundance of living land snail species were recorded separately for all species, rare species listed on the national Red List, and small species with shell size below 5 mm. The significant impacts ranged from 16-48% reduction in snail species numbers, and 29-90% reduction in abundance. Small species were especially prone to reduction in species richness by all four invasive plant taxa. Rare snails were also negatively impacted by all plant invaders, both in terms of species richness or abundance. Overall, the impacts on snails were invader-specific, differing among plant taxa. The strong effect of I. glandulifera could be related to the post-invasion decrease in abundance of tall nitrophilous native plant species that are a nutrient-rich food source for snails in riparian habitats. Fallopia sachalinensis had the strongest negative impact of the three knotweeds, which reflects differences in their canopy structure, microhabitat humidity and litter decomposition. The ranking of Fallopia taxa according to the strength of impacts on snail communities differs from ranking by their invasiveness, known from previous studies. This indicates that invasiveness does not simply translate to impacts of invasion and needs to be borne in mind by conservation and management authorities. PMID:25238059

  17. Invasiveness Does Not Predict Impact: Response of Native Land Snail Communities to Plant Invasions in Riparian Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Horáčková, Jitka; Juřičková, Lucie; Šizling, Arnošt L.; Pyšek, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Studies of plant invasions rarely address impacts on molluscs. By comparing pairs of invaded and corresponding uninvaded plots in 96 sites in floodplain forests, we examined effects of four invasive alien plants (Impatiens glandulifera, Fallopia japonica, F. sachalinensis, and F.×bohemica) in the Czech Republic on communities of land snails. The richness and abundance of living land snail species were recorded separately for all species, rare species listed on the national Red List, and small species with shell size below 5 mm. The significant impacts ranged from 16–48% reduction in snail species numbers, and 29–90% reduction in abundance. Small species were especially prone to reduction in species richness by all four invasive plant taxa. Rare snails were also negatively impacted by all plant invaders, both in terms of species richness or abundance. Overall, the impacts on snails were invader-specific, differing among plant taxa. The strong effect of I. glandulifera could be related to the post-invasion decrease in abundance of tall nitrophilous native plant species that are a nutrient-rich food source for snails in riparian habitats. Fallopia sachalinensis had the strongest negative impact of the three knotweeds, which reflects differences in their canopy structure, microhabitat humidity and litter decomposition. The ranking of Fallopia taxa according to the strength of impacts on snail communities differs from ranking by their invasiveness, known from previous studies. This indicates that invasiveness does not simply translate to impacts of invasion and needs to be borne in mind by conservation and management authorities. PMID:25238059

  18. Impact of Obstructive Sleep Apnea on the Levels of Placental Growth Factor (PlGF) and Their Value for Predicting Short-Term Adverse Outcomes in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Barcelo, Antonia; Bauça, Josep Miquel; Yañez, Aina; Fueyo, Laura; Gomez, Cristina; de la Peña, Monica; Pierola, Javier; Rodriguez, Alberto; Sanchez-de-la-Torre, Manuel; Abad, Jorge; Mediano, Olga; Amilibia, Jose; Masdeu, Maria Jose; Teran, Joaquin; Montserrat, Josep Maria; Mayos, Mercè; Sanchez-de-la-Torre, Alicia; Barbé, Ferran

    2016-01-01

    Background Placental growth factor (PlGF) induces angiogenesis and promotes tissue repair, and plasma PlGF levels change markedly during acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Currently, the impact of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with AMI is a subject of debate. Our objective was to evaluate the relationships between PlGF levels and both the severity of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and short-term outcomes after ACS in patients with and without OSA. Methods A total of 538 consecutive patients (312 OSA patients and 226 controls) admitted for ACS were included in this study. All patients underwent polygraphy in the first 72 hours after hospital admission. The severity of disease and short-term prognoses were evaluated during the hospitalization period. Plasma PlGF levels were measured using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Results Patients with OSA were significantly older and more frequently hypertensive and had higher BMIs than those without OSA. After adjusting for age, smoking status, BMI and hypertension, PlGF levels were significantly elevated in patients with OSA compared with patients without OSA (19.9 pg/mL, interquartile range: 16.6–24.5 pg/mL; 18.5 pg/mL, interquartile range: 14.7–22.7 pg/mL; p<0.001), and a higher apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was associated with higher PlGF concentrations (p<0.003). Patients with higher levels of PlGF had also an increased odds ratio for the presence of 3 or more diseased vessels and for a Killip score>1, even after adjustment. Conclusions The results of this study show that in patients with ACS, elevated plasma levels of PlGF are associated with the presence of OSA and with adverse outcomes during short-term follow-up. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01335087 PMID:26930634

  19. Adverse Reactions to Hallucinogenic Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Roger E. , Ed.

    This reports a conference of psychologists, psychiatrists, geneticists and others concerned with the biological and psychological effects of lysergic acid diethylamide and other hallucinogenic drugs. Clinical data are presented on adverse drug reactions. The difficulty of determining the causes of adverse reactions is discussed, as are different…

  20. Impact of drought on U.S. steam electric power plant cooling water intakes and related water resource management issues.

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmell, T. A.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-04-03

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements their overall research effort by evaluating water availability at power plants under drought conditions. While there are a number of competing demands on water uses, particularly during drought conditions, this report focuses solely on impacts to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet. Included are both fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. One plant examined also uses biomass as a fuel. The purpose of this project is to estimate the impact on generation capacity of a drop in water level at U.S. steam electric power plants due to climatic or other conditions. While, as indicated above, the temperature of the water can impact decisions to halt or curtail power plant operations, this report specifically examines impacts as a result of a drop in water levels below power plant submerged cooling water intakes. Impacts due to the combined effects of excessive temperatures of the returned cooling water and elevated temperatures of receiving waters (due to high ambient temperatures associated with drought) may be examined in a subsequent study. For this study, the sources of cooling water used by the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet were examined. This effort entailed development of a database of power plants and cooling water intake locations and depths for those plants that use surface water as a source of cooling water. Development of the database and its general characteristics are described in Chapter 2 of this report. Examination of the database gives an indication of how low water levels can drop before cooling water intakes cease to function. Water level drops are evaluated against a number of different power plant characteristics, such as the nature of the water source (river vs. lake or reservoir) and type

  1. The impact of atmospheric composition on plants: a case study of ozone and poplar.

    PubMed

    Renaut, Jenny; Bohler, Sacha; Hausman, Jean-François; Hoffmann, Lucien; Sergeant, Kjell; Ahsan, Nagib; Jolivet, Yves; Dizengremel, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone is the main atmospheric pollutant that causes damages to trees. The estimation of the threshold for ozone risk assessment depends on the evaluation of the means that this pollutant impacts the plant and, especially, the foliar organs. The available results show that, before any visible symptom appears, carbon assimilation and the underlying metabolic processes are decreased under chronic ozone exposure. By contrast, the catabolic pathways are enhanced, and contribute to the supply of sufficient reducing power necessary to feed the detoxification processes. Reactive oxygen species delivered during ozone exposure serve as toxic compounds and messengers for the signaling system. In this review, we show that the contribution of genomic tools (transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) for a better understanding of the mechanistic cellular responses to ozone largely relies on spectrometric measurements. PMID:18985755

  2. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal phase supplemental environmental impact statement. Implementation plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The Implementation Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Phase Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II) has two primary purposes: (1) To report on the results of the scoping process (2) To provide guidance for preparing SEIS-II SEIS-II will be the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review for WIPP`s disposal phase. Chapter 1 of this plan provides background on WIPP and this NEPA review. Chapter 2 describes the purpose and need for action by the Department of Energy (hereafter DOE or the Department), as well as a description of the Proposed Action and alternatives being considered. Chapter 3 describes the work plan, including the schedule, responsibilities, and planned consultations with other agencies and organizations. Chapter 4 describes the scoping process, presents major issues identified during the scoping process, and briefly indicates how issues will be addressed in SEIS-II.

  3. Ozone depletion and UVB radiation: Impact on plant DNA damage in southern South America

    PubMed Central

    Rousseaux, M. Cecilia; Ballaré, Carlos L.; Giordano, Carla V.; Scopel, Ana L.; Zima, Ana M.; Szwarcberg-Bracchitta, Mariela; Searles, Peter S.; Caldwell, Martyn M.; Díaz, Susana B.

    1999-01-01

    The primary motivation behind the considerable effort in studying stratospheric ozone depletion is the potential for biological consequences of increased solar UVB (280–315 nm) radiation. Yet, direct links between ozone depletion and biological impacts have been established only for organisms of Antarctic waters under the influence of the ozone “hole;” no direct evidence exists that ozone-related variations in UVB affect ecosystems of temperate latitudes. Indeed, calculations based on laboratory studies with plants suggest that the biological impact of ozone depletion (measured by the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in DNA) is likely to be less marked than previously thought, because UVA quanta (315–400 nm) may also cause significant damage, and UVA is unaffected by ozone depletion. Herein, we show that the temperate ecosystems of southern South America have been subjected to increasingly high levels of ozone depletion during the last decade. We found that in the spring of 1997, despite frequent cloud cover, the passages of the ozone hole over Tierra del Fuego (55° S) caused concomitant increases in solar UV and that the enhanced ground-level UV led to significant increases in DNA damage in the native plant Gunnera magellanica. The fluctuations in solar UV explained a large proportion of the variation in DNA damage (up to 68%), particularly when the solar UV was weighted for biological effectiveness according to action spectra that assume a sharp decline in quantum efficiency with increasing wavelength from the UVB into the UVA regions of the spectrum. PMID:10611381

  4. CHANGES IN TERRESTRIAL ECOLOGY RELATED TO A COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT: WISCONSIN POWER PLANT IMPACT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the effects of a coal-fired power plant on terrestrial plants and animals. Research was conducted from 1971 through 1977 at the Columbia Generating Station in the eastern flood-plain of the Wisconsin River in south-central Wisconsin. Initial studies were la...

  5. SO{sub 3}'s impacts on plant O & M: part II

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, R.E.

    2007-02-15

    Part 1 of this three-part series (Power, October 2006, Coal Abstracts entry Jan 2007 00224) explored the negative impacts of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}) on the operation and maintenance of back-end plant equipment. This article lists and quantifies the likely and potential benefits of limiting the concentration of SO{sub 3} in flue gas to 3 ppm at the entrance to the air heater. Benefits include: reduced acid dew point and back-end corrosion; reduced heat rate and fuel costs; reduced or eliminated ABS fouling of air heaters; reduced fireside corrosion; enabling the use of lower-oxidation catalysts; higher mercury removal efficiency; and lower temperature SCR operation. Part III, to appear in April 2007, will describe the characteristics of an optimal SO{sub 3} removal technology and present the technical details and operating experience of one patented process that has worked successfully at a half-dozen plants for up to three years. 1 ref., 5 figs.

  6. Holocene shifts in the assembly of plant and animal communities implicate human impacts.

    PubMed

    Lyons, S Kathleen; Amatangelo, Kathryn L; Behrensmeyer, Anna K; Bercovici, Antoine; Blois, Jessica L; Davis, Matt; DiMichele, William A; Du, Andrew; Eronen, Jussi T; Faith, J Tyler; Graves, Gary R; Jud, Nathan; Labandeira, Conrad; Looy, Cindy V; McGill, Brian; Miller, Joshua H; Patterson, David; Pineda-Munoz, Silvia; Potts, Richard; Riddle, Brett; Terry, Rebecca; Tóth, Anikó; Ulrich, Werner; Villaseñor, Amelia; Wing, Scott; Anderson, Heidi; Anderson, John; Waller, Donald; Gotelli, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how ecological communities are organized and how they change through time is critical to predicting the effects of climate change. Recent work documenting the co-occurrence structure of modern communities found that most significant species pairs co-occur less frequently than would be expected by chance. However, little is known about how co-occurrence structure changes through time. Here we evaluate changes in plant and animal community organization over geological time by quantifying the co-occurrence structure of 359,896 unique taxon pairs in 80 assemblages spanning the past 300 million years. Co-occurrences of most taxon pairs were statistically random, but a significant fraction were spatially aggregated or segregated. Aggregated pairs dominated from the Carboniferous period (307 million years ago) to the early Holocene epoch (11,700 years before present), when there was a pronounced shift to more segregated pairs, a trend that continues in modern assemblages. The shift began during the Holocene and coincided with increasing human population size and the spread of agriculture in North America. Before the shift, an average of 64% of significant pairs were aggregated; after the shift, the average dropped to 37%. The organization of modern and late Holocene plant and animal assemblages differs fundamentally from that of assemblages over the past 300 million years that predate the large-scale impacts of humans. Our results suggest that the rules governing the assembly of communities have recently been changed by human activity. PMID:26675730

  7. [Source emission characteristics and impact factors of volatile halogenated organic compounds from wastewater treatment plant].

    PubMed

    He, Jie; Wang, Bo-Guang; Liu, Shu-Le; Zhao, De-Jun; Tang, Xiao-Dong; Zou, Yu

    2011-12-01

    A low enrichment method of using Tenax as absorbent and liquid nitrogen as refrigerant has been established to sample the volatile halogenated organic compounds in Guangzhou Liede municipal wastewater treatment plant as well as its ambient air. The composition and concentration of target halogenated hydrocarbons were analyzed by combined thermal desorption/GC-MS to explore its sources profile and impact factors. The result showed that 19 halogenated organic compounds were detected, including 11 halogenated alkanets, 3 halogenated alkenes, 3 halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and 2 haloesters, with their total concentrations ranged from 34.91 microg x m(-3) to 127.74 microg x m(-3) and mean concentrations ranged from n.d. to 33.39 microg x m(-3). Main pollutants of the studied plant were CH2Cl2, CHCl3, CFC-12, C2H4Cl2, CFC-11, C2HCl3 and C2Cl4, they came from the wastewater by volatilization. Among the six processing units, the dehydration room showed the highest level of halogenated organic compounds, followed by pumping station, while the sludge thickener was the lowest. The emissions from pumping station, aeration tank and biochemical pool were significantly affected by temperature and humidity of environment. PMID:22468521

  8. Photosynthetic flagellates as model systems for accessing the impact of space conditions on plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebert, Michael; Richter, Peter; Häder, Donat

    Plants are an integral part of the exploration attempts for the planned missions to Mars and Moon. Photosynthetic, motile flagellates like Euglena gracilis can serve as model systems for the better understanding of the impact of microgravity and cosmic radiation on plants. Recent parabolic flights indicate that photosynthesis is impaired by microgravity. While oxygen production decreased during the short-term microgravity phases, other photosynthetic parameters remained constant or increased (photosynthetic yield and Ft as indicated by Pulse Amplitude Modulated Fluorescence measurements (PAM)). Ground-based long-term measurements in static bioreactors indicate a strong circadian rhythm of the related PAM-accessible parameters including oxygen production. Besides the problem of scientific analysis of these findings, practical implications with respect to life support systems or controlled environmental systems (CES) are significant. In two FOTON missions a CES system (AQUACELLS and its successor OMEGAHAB) was flown. The detailed analysis is still ongoing. In the paper oxygen production rates are compared to reference experiments on ground. In addition, the results of an upcoming parabolic flight campaign centred around fast PAM kinetics for a closer understanding of the impaired photosynthetic parameters will be presented.

  9. Photoprotective Response in Plants Impacts Estimation of Biophysical Parameters Using Spectral Reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zygielbaum, A. I.; Arkebauer, T. J.; Walter-Shea, E.

    2014-12-01

    Previously, we reported that reflectance increased across the whole PAR spectrum when plants were subjected to water stress. This effect was shown to exist in maize grown under greenhouse conditions and under field conditions. Greenhouse experiments showed that, in addition to leaf water content, the effect was strongly correlated with incident light intensity. Further, through the use of an integrating sphere, we demonstrated that the change in reflectance was due to a change in absorption rather than in a change scattering or other optical path effect. Time lapse microscopy showed lightening between leaf veins analogous to effects measured by researchers observing cross sections of stressed C4 plants. To further refine our study, additional leaf level and canopy level studies were undertaken. Excised leaf sections were separately exposed to red and white light in the laboratory as the leaf dried. Increasing reflectance and transmittance were observed for the section exposed to white light, while little change was observed under red light. Each of these observations can be explained by chloroplast avoidance movement, a photoprotective response causing chloroplasts to aggregate along cell walls effectively hiding chlorophyll from observation. Chloroplast movement, for example, is driven by blue light; explaining the lack of observed change under red light. Estimation of biophysical parameters, such as chlorophyll content and greenness, are affected by the difference between the "apparent" chlorophyll content and the actual chlorophyll content of leaves and canopies. Up to 30% changes in the VARI remote sensing index have been observed morning to afternoon in field-grown maize. Ten percent changes in chlorophyll estimates have been observed in greenhouse maize. We will report on further research and on the extension of our work to include the impact of chloroplast avoidance on remote sensing of C3 plants, specifically soybean, at leaf and canopy levels.

  10. The Net Climate Impact of Coal-Fired Power Plant Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, D.; Faluvegi, G.

    2010-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants influence climate via both the emission of long-lived carbon dioxide (CO2) and short-lived ozone and aerosol precursors. Using a climate model, we perform the first study of the spatial and temporal pattern of radiative forcing specifically for coal plant emissions. Without substantial pollution controls, we find that near-term net global mean climate forcing is negative due to the well-known aerosol masking of the effects of CO2. Imposition of pollution controls on sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides leads to a rapid realization of the full positive forcing from CO2, however. Long-term global mean forcing from stable (constant) emissions is positive regardless of pollution controls. Emissions from coal-fired power plants until 1970, including roughly 1/3 of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions, likely contributed little net global mean climate forcing during that period though they may have induce weak Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude (NHml) cooling. After that time many areas imposed pollution controls or switched to low sulfur coal. Hence forcing due to emissions from 1970 to 2000 and CO2 emitted previously was strongly positive and contributed to rapid global and especially NHml warming. Most recently, new construction in China and India has increased rapidly with minimal application of pollution controls. Continuation of this trend would add negative near-term global mean climate forcing but severely degrade air quality. Conversely, following the Western and Japanese pattern of imposing air quality pollution controls at a later time could accelerate future warming rates, especially at NHmls. More broadly, our results indicate that due to spatial and temporal inhomogeneities in forcing, climate impacts of multi-pollutant emissions can vary strongly from region to region and can include substantial effects on maximum rate-of-change, neither of which are captured by commonly used global metrics. The method we introduce here to estimate

  11. Air-quality impact analysis for Easton Utilities Commission Power Plant No. 2, units 23 and 24. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, S.; Timbre, K.; Pfeffer, N.; Kahler, M.

    1986-09-01

    This report examines the air-quality impact of the proposed addition of two new diesel units to the two existing diesel units at Easton Utilities Commission Power Plant No. 2. The EPA-approved Industrial Source Complex (ISC) dispersion model was used to predict ground-level concentration impacts from Power Plant No. 2. Five years (1968-1972) of meteorological data characteristic of the site were used for the analysis. It was concluded that the projected emissions from the proposed addition would not cause or contribute to violations of the applicable air-quality standards.

  12. Development of the simulation system {open_quotes}IMPACT{close_quotes} for analysis of nuclear power plant severe accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Naitoh, Masanori; Ujita, Hiroshi; Nagumo, Hiroichi

    1997-07-01

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) has initiated a long-term program to develop the simulation system {open_quotes}IMPACT{close_quotes} for analysis of hypothetical severe accidents in nuclear power plants. IMPACT employs advanced methods of physical modeling and numerical computation, and can simulate a wide spectrum of senarios ranging from normal operation to hypothetical, beyond-design-basis-accident events. Designed as a large-scale system of interconnected, hierarchical modules, IMPACT`s distinguishing features include mechanistic models based on first principles and high speed simulation on parallel processing computers. The present plan is a ten-year program starting from 1993, consisting of the initial one-year of preparatory work followed by three technical phases: Phase-1 for development of a prototype system; Phase-2 for completion of the simulation system, incorporating new achievements from basic studies; and Phase-3 for refinement through extensive verification and validation against test results and available real plant data.

  13. Cost versus life cycle assessment-based environmental impact optimization of drinking water production plants.

    PubMed

    Capitanescu, F; Rege, S; Marvuglia, A; Benetto, E; Ahmadi, A; Gutiérrez, T Navarrete; Tiruta-Barna, L

    2016-07-15

    Empowering decision makers with cost-effective solutions for reducing industrial processes environmental burden, at both design and operation stages, is nowadays a major worldwide concern. The paper addresses this issue for the sector of drinking water production plants (DWPPs), seeking for optimal solutions trading-off operation cost and life cycle assessment (LCA)-based environmental impact while satisfying outlet water quality criteria. This leads to a challenging bi-objective constrained optimization problem, which relies on a computationally expensive intricate process-modelling simulator of the DWPP and has to be solved with limited computational budget. Since mathematical programming methods are unusable in this case, the paper examines the performances in tackling these challenges of six off-the-shelf state-of-the-art global meta-heuristic optimization algorithms, suitable for such simulation-based optimization, namely Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA2), Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II), Indicator-based Evolutionary Algorithm (IBEA), Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm based on Decomposition (MOEA/D), Differential Evolution (DE), and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The results of optimization reveal that good reduction in both operating cost and environmental impact of the DWPP can be obtained. Furthermore, NSGA-II outperforms the other competing algorithms while MOEA/D and DE perform unexpectedly poorly. PMID:27107954

  14. High methylmercury production under ferruginous conditions in sediments impacted by sewage treatment plant discharges.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Andrea G; Bouchet, Sylvain; Guédron, Stéphane; Amouroux, David; Dominik, Janusz; Zopfi, Jakob

    2015-09-01

    Sewage treatment plants (STPs) are important point sources of mercury (Hg) to the environment. STPs are also significant sources of iron when hydrated ferric oxide (HFO) is used as a dephosphatation agent during water purification. In this study, we combined geochemical and microbiological characterization with Hg speciation and sediment amendments to evaluate the impact of STP's effluents on monomethylmercury (MMHg) production. The highest in-situ Hg methylation was found close to the discharge pipe in subsurface sediments enriched with Hg, organic matter, and iron. There, ferruginous conditions were prevailing with high concentrations of dissolved Fe(2+) and virtually no free sulfide in the porewater. Sediment incubations demonstrated that the high MMHg production close to the discharge was controlled by low demethylation yields. Inhibition of dissimilatory sulfate reduction with molybdate led to increased iron reduction rates and Hg-methylation, suggesting that sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) may not have been the main Hg methylators under these conditions. However, Hg methylation in sediments amended with amorphous Fe(III)-oxides was only slightly higher than control conditions. Thus, in addition to iron-reducing bacteria, other non-SRB most likely contributed to Hg methylation. Overall, this study highlights that sediments impacted by STP discharges can become local hot-spots for Hg methylation due to the combined inputs of i) Hg, ii) organic matter, which fuels bacterial activities and iii) iron, which keeps porewater sulfide concentration low and hence Hg bioavailable. PMID:26005785

  15. Stabilization/solidification of battery debris & lead impacted material at Schuylkill Metals, Plant City, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Anguiano, T.; Floyd, D.

    1997-12-31

    The Schuylkill Metals facility in Plant City Florida (SMPCI) operated as a battery recycling facility for approximately 13 years. During its operation, the facility disposed of battery components in surrounding wetland areas. In March of 1991 the U.S. EPA and SMPCI entered into a Consent Decree for the remediation of the SMPCI site using stabilization/solidification and on-site disposal. In November of 1994, ENTACT began remediation at the facility and to date has successfully stabilized/solidified over 228,000 tons of lead impacted battery components and lead impacted material. The ENTACT process reduces the size of the material to be treated to ensure that complete mixing of the phosphate/cement additive is achieved thereby promoting the chemical reactions of stabilization and solidification. ENTACT has met the following performance criteria for treated material at the SMPCI site: (1) Hydraulic Conductivity less than 1x10{sup -6} cm/s, (2) Unconfined Compressive Strength greater than 50 psi, (3) Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic, Chromium TCLP Leachability below hazardous levels.

  16. Introduced grazers can restrict potential soil carbon sequestration through impacts on plant community composition.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Sumanta; Ritchie, Mark E

    2010-08-01

    Grazing occurs over a third of the earth's land surface and may potentially influence the storage of 10(9) Mg year(-1) of greenhouse gases as soil C. Displacement of native herbivores by high densities of livestock has often led to overgrazing and soil C loss. However, it remains unknown whether matching livestock densities to those of native herbivores can yield equivalent soil C sequestration. In the Trans-Himalayas we found that, despite comparable grazing intensities, watersheds converted to pastoralism had 49% lower soil C than watersheds which retain native herbivores. Experimental grazer-exclusion within each watershed type, show that this difference appears to be driven by indirect effects of livestock diet selection, leading to vegetation shifts that lower plant production and reduce likely soil C inputs from vegetation by c. 25 gC m(-2) year(-1). Our results suggest that while accounting for direct impacts (stocking density) is a major step, managing indirect impacts on vegetation composition are equally important in influencing soil C sequestration in grazing ecosystems. PMID:20482575

  17. Impacts from a fossil fuel power plant on ozone levels in Memphis, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, S.F.; Bailey, E.M.

    1998-12-31

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Allen power plant is located on the Mississippi River in the southwest corner of Memphis, Tennessee. Allen has three coal-fired cyclone boilers with a rated capacity of 272 MW each. It is a Phase 2 plant under Title IV of the Clean Air Act and is the largest single source of NO{sub x} in the Memphis area. TVA plans to reduce Allen NOx emissions through a combination of burning low-sulfur coal (which has the benefit of reducing NO{sub x} emissions while also reducing SO{sub 2} emissions) and installing gas re-burn technology. A modeling study using the SAI, Inc., UAM-V photochemical model was conducted to examine the potential impacts of NO{sub x} reductions on ozone levels in the Memphis area. A series of four model simulations were made in which different Allen emissions scenarios were examined. The focus period of the photochemical modeling was 11--14 July 1995 when measurements in and near Memphis indicated peak hourly ozone levels of 135--140 ppb. This analysis primarily examined computed impacts within 50 km of Memphis. Allen was computed to contribute as much as 20--30 ppb to ground ozone levels 20-50 km downwind using its NO{sub x} emission rate before Title IV compliance. After compliance it was computed to contribute only about 10--20 ppb. At the same time, maximum daily ozone reductions due to Allen NO{sub x} titration of ozone were between 30 and 60 ppb. These benefits will be reduced by 30--50% after Title IV compliance, and are expected to occur within 30 km of the plant. More model grid cells indicated dis-benefits (net ground-level ozone increases) than benefits on three of the four episode days using the Title IV compliance emission rate. Significant ozone dis-benefits were expected because of the well-documented NO titration of ozone within plumes having a high ratio of NO to volatile organic compounds.

  18. Arsenic-induced plant growth of arsenic-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata: Impact of arsenic and phosphate rock.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong-He; Yang, Guang-Mei; Fu, Jing-Wei; Guan, Dong-Xing; Chen, Yanshan; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-04-01

    Phosphate rock (PR) has been shown to promote plant growth and arsenic (As) uptake by As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (PV). However, little is known about its behaviors in agricultural soils. In this study, impact of 50 mg kg(-1) As and/or 1.5% PR amendment on plant As accumulation and growth was investigated by growing PV for 90 d in three agricultural soils. While As amendment significantly increased plant As uptake and substantially promoted PV growth, the opposite was observed with PR amendment. Arsenic amendment increased plant frond As from 16.9-265 to 961-6017 mg kg(-1),whereas PR amendment lowered frond As to 10.2-216 mg kg(-1). The As-induced plant growth stimulation was 69-71%. While PR amendment increased plant Ca and P uptake, As amendment showed opposite results. The PV biomass was highly correlated with plant As at r = 0.82, but with weak correlations with plant Ca or P at r < 0.30. This study confirmed that 1) As significantly promoted PV growth, probably independent of Ca or P uptake, 2) PR amendment didn't enhance plant growth or As uptake by PV in agricultural soils with adequate available P, and 3) PV effluxed arsenite (AsIII) growing in agricultural soils. PMID:26874625

  19. Adverse environments and children's creativity development: transforming the notion of "success in adversity" in China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Li; Tan, Mei; Liu, Zhengkui

    2015-01-01

    China has been undergoing great social change due to its new focus on urbanization and globalization. Such change has had a tremendous adverse impact on the living conditions of millions of young children, simultaneously generating new interest in children's creativity development. The intersection of these two issues has important implications for China's future as it brings together one of China's core cultural values-"success in adversity"-the importance of creativity, and very real social and economic needs. "Success in adversity" reflects the strongly held belief that individuals who suffer adverse environments can rise to excellence and success through persistence, effort, and creativity. In this article, we briefly explore the historical sources of this belief and how it is closely related to the Chinese conception of creativity. We then present some studies on the creativity of some of China's migrant children. Findings show that while migrant children as a group may not generally exhibit higher creativity than their urban peers as hypothesized, indications of resilience and creative potential suggest that the notion of success in adversity may contribute to the positive development of China's migrant children more substantially when it is informed by research and augmented by research-supported policy. PMID:25732020

  20. Adverse possession of subsurface minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, P.N.

    1983-01-01

    Concepts applicable to adverse possession of subsurface minerals are generally the same as those that apply to adverse possession of all real estate. However, special requirements must be satisfied in order to perfect title to subsurface minerals by adverse possession, particularly when there has been a severance of the true title between surface and subsurface minerals. In those jurisdictions where senior and junior grants came from the state or commonwealth covering the same or some of the same land and in those areas where descriptions of land were vague or not carefully drawn, adverse possession serves to solidify land and mineral ownership. There may be some public, social, and economic justification in rewarding, with good title, those who take possession and use real estate for its intended use, including the extraction of subsurface minerals. 96 refernces.

  1. Assessment of potential impact of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant thermal effluent on the Watts Bar Reservoir striped bass population

    SciTech Connect

    Heuer, J H; McIntosh, D; Ostrowski, P; Tomljanovich, D A

    1983-11-01

    This report is an assessment of potential adverse impact to striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in Watts Bar Reservoir caused by thermal effluent from operation of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP). The Clinch River arm of Watts Bar Reservoir is occupied by adult striped bass during the warmest months of the year. Concern was raised that operation of the CRBRP, specifically thermal discharges, could conflict with management of striped bass. In all cases examined the thermal plume becomes nearly imperceptible within a short distance from the discharge pipe (about 30 ft (10 m)) compared to river width (about 630 ft (190 m)). Under worst case conditions any presence of the plume in the main channel (opposite side of the river from the discharge) will be confined to the surface layer of the water. An ample portion of river cross sections containing ambient temperature water for passage or residence of adult striped bass will always be available in the vicinity of this thermal effluent. Although a small portion of river cross section would exceed the thermal tolerance of striped bass, the fish would naturally avoid this area and seek out adjacent cooler water. Therefore, it is concluded the CRBRP thermal effluent will not significantly affect the integrity of the striped bass thermal refuge in the Clinch River arm of Watts Bar Reservoir. At this time there is no need to consider alternative diffuser designs and thermal modeling. 8 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  2. Carbon cost of plant nitrogen acquisition: global carbon cycle impact from an improved plant nitrogen cycle in the Community Land Model.

    PubMed

    Shi, Mingjie; Fisher, Joshua B; Brzostek, Edward R; Phillips, Richard P

    2016-03-01

    Plants typically expend a significant portion of their available carbon (C) on nutrient acquisition - C that could otherwise support growth. However, given that most global terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) do not include the C cost of nutrient acquisition, these models fail to represent current and future constraints to the land C sink. Here, we integrated a plant productivity-optimized nutrient acquisition model - the Fixation and Uptake of Nitrogen Model - into one of the most widely used TBMs, the Community Land Model. Global plant nitrogen (N) uptake is dynamically simulated in the coupled model based on the C costs of N acquisition from mycorrhizal roots, nonmycorrhizal roots, N-fixing microbes, and retranslocation (from senescing leaves). We find that at the global scale, plants spend 2.4 Pg C yr(-1) to acquire 1.0 Pg N yr(-1) , and that the C cost of N acquisition leads to a downregulation of global net primary production (NPP) by 13%. Mycorrhizal uptake represented the dominant pathway by which N is acquired, accounting for ~66% of the N uptake by plants. Notably, roots associating with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi - generally considered for their role in phosphorus (P) acquisition - are estimated to be the primary source of global plant N uptake owing to the dominance of AM-associated plants in mid- and low-latitude biomes. Overall, our coupled model improves the representations of NPP downregulation globally and generates spatially explicit patterns of belowground C allocation, soil N uptake, and N retranslocation at the global scale. Such model improvements are critical for predicting how plant responses to altered N availability (owing to N deposition, rising atmospheric CO2 , and warming temperatures) may impact the land C sink. PMID:26473512

  3. Significant inhibitory impact of dibenzyl trisulfide and extracts of Petiveria alliacea on the activities of major drug-metabolizing enzymes in vitro: An assessment of the potential for medicinal plant-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Murray, J; Picking, D; Lamm, A; McKenzie, J; Hartley, S; Watson, C; Williams, L; Lowe, H; Delgoda, R

    2016-06-01

    Dibenzyl trisulfide (DTS) is the major active ingredient expressed in Petiveria alliacea L., a shrub widely used for a range of conditions, such as, arthritis, asthma and cancer. Given its use alone and concomitantly with prescription medicines, we undertook to investigate its impact on the activities of important drug metabolizing enzymes, the cytochromes P450 (CYP), a key family of enzymes involved in many adverse drug reactions. DTS and seven standardized extracts from the plant were assessed for their impact on the activities of CYPs 1A2, 2C19, 2C9, 2D6 and 3A4 on a fluorometric assay. DTS revealed significant impact against the activities of CYPs 1A2, 2C19 and 3A4 with IC50 values of 1.9, 4.0 and 3.2μM, respectively, which are equivalent to known standard inhibitors of these enzymes (furafylline, and tranylcypromine), and the most potent interaction with CYP1A2 displayed irreversible enzyme kinetics. The root extract, drawn with 96% ethanol (containing 2.4% DTS), displayed IC50 values of 5.6, 3.9 and 4.2μg/mL respectively, against the same isoforms, CYPs 1A2, 2C19 and 3A4. These investigations identify DTS as a valuable CYP inhibitor and P. alliacea as a candidate plant worthy of clinical trials to confirm the conclusions that extracts yielding high DTS may lead to clinically relevant drug interactions, whilst extracts yielding low levels of DTS, such as aqueous extracts, are unlikely to cause adverse herb-drug interactions. PMID:27105957

  4. Reverse Engineering Adverse Outcome Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, Edward; Chipman, J.K.; Edwards, Stephen; Habib, Tanwir; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Ronald C.; Van Aggelen, Graham; Vulpe, Chris; Antczak, Philipp; Loguinov, Alexandre

    2011-01-30

    The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or poorly characterized, mechanisms of action. We describe the application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, metabolic, signaling) to characterize adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis in fathead minnows. Gene expression changes in fathead minnow ovaries in response to 7 different chemicals, over different times, doses, and in vivo versus in vitro conditions were captured in a large data set of 868 arrays. We examined potential AOPs of the antiandrogen flutamide using two mutual information theory methods, ARACNE and CLR to infer gene regulatory networks and potential adverse outcome pathways. Representative networks from these studies were used to predict a network path from stressor to adverse outcome as a candidate AOP. The relationship of individual chemicals to an adverse outcome can be determined by following perturbations through the network in response to chemical treatment leading to the nodes associated with the adverse outcome. Identification of candidate pathways allows for formation of testable hypotheses about key biologic processes, biomarkers or alternative endpoints, which could be used to monitor an adverse outcome pathway. Finally, we identify the unique challenges facing the application of this approach in ecotoxicology, and attempt to provide a road map for the utilization of these tools. Key Words: mechanism of action, toxicology, microarray, network inference

  5. Impact of Wet-Weather Peak Flow Blending on Disinfection and Treatment: A Case Study at Three Wastewater Treatment Plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    A U.S. EPA study evaluated the impact on disinfection during peak flows (wet-weather flow events) when a portion of the flow to the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) bypasses secondary treatment prior to disinfection. The practice of bypassing secondary treatment during peak flo...

  6. Impact of Wet Weather Peak Flow Blending on Disinfection and Treatment: A Case Study at Three Wastewater Treatment Plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    A U.S. EPA study evaluated the impact on disinfection during peak flows (wet-weather flow events) when a portion of the flow to the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) bypasses secondary treatment prior to disinfection. The practice of bypassing secondary treatment during peak flo...

  7. Impact of liquid fertilizers on plant growth, yield, fruit quality and fertigation management in an organic processing blackberry production system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of organic fertilizer source on the growth, fruit quality, and yield of blackberry cultivars (‘Marion’ and ‘Black Diamond’) grown in machine-harvested, organic production systems for the processed market was evaluated from 2011-13. The planting was established in spring 2010 using approve...

  8. 15 CFR 971.602 - Significant adverse environmental effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... significant adverse environmental effect or impact (for the purposes of sections 103(a)(2)(D), 105(a)(4), 106.... Determinations will be based upon the best information available, including relevant environmental impact... listed in the license regulations (15 CFR 970.701), require no further environmental assessment....

  9. 15 CFR 971.602 - Significant adverse environmental effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... significant adverse environmental effect or impact (for the purposes of sections 103(a)(2)(D), 105(a)(4), 106.... Determinations will be based upon the best information available, including relevant environmental impact... listed in the license regulations (15 CFR 970.701), require no further environmental assessment....

  10. 15 CFR 971.602 - Significant adverse environmental effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... significant adverse environmental effect or impact (for the purposes of sections 103(a)(2)(D), 105(a)(4), 106.... Determinations will be based upon the best information available, including relevant environmental impact... listed in the license regulations (15 CFR 970.701), require no further environmental assessment....

  11. Assessment of H-Coal process developments: impact on the performance and economics of a proposed commercial plant

    SciTech Connect

    Talib, A.; Gray, D.; Neuworth, M.

    1984-01-01

    This report assesses the performance of the H-Coal process, a catalytic direct liquefaction process, at a process development and large pilot-plant scale of operation. The assessment focused on the evaluation of operating results from selected long-term successful process development unit (PDU) and pilot plant runs made on Illinois No. 6 coal. The pilot plant has largely duplicated the product yield structure obtained during the PDU runs. Also, the quality of products, particularly liquid products, produced during the pilot plant run is quite comparable to that produced during the PDU runs. This confirms the scalability of the H-Coal ebullated-bed reactor system from a PDU-scale, 3 tons of coal per day, to a large pilot scale, 220 tons of coal per day, plant. The minor product yield differences, such as higher yields of C/sub 3/, C/sub 4/, and naphtha fractions, and lower yields of distillate oils obtained during pilot plant runs as compared to the PDU runs, will not impact the projected technical and economic performance of a first-of-a-kind commercial H-Coal plant. Thus, the process yield and operating data collected during the PDU operations provided an adequate basis for projecting the technical and economic performance of the proposed H-Coal commercial plant. 18 references, 9 figures, 56 tables.

  12. Increased fitness of rice plants to abiotic stress via habitat adapted symbiosis: a strategy for mitigating impacts of climate change.

    PubMed

    Redman, Regina S; Kim, Yong Ok; Woodward, Claire J D A; Greer, Chris; Espino, Luis; Doty, Sharon L; Rodriguez, Rusty J

    2011-01-01

    Climate change and catastrophic events have contributed to rice shortages in several regions due to decreased water availability and soil salinization. Although not adapted to salt or drought stress, two commercial rice varieties achieved tolerance to these stresses by colonizing them with Class 2 fungal endophytes isolated from plants growing across moisture and salinity gradients.Plant growth and development, water usage, ROS sensitivity and osmolytes were measured with and without stress under controlled conditions.The endophytes conferred salt, drought and cold tolerance to growth chamber and greenhouse grown plants. Endophytes reduced water consumption by 20-30% and increased growth rate, reproductive yield, and biomass of greenhouse grown plants. In the absence of stress, there was no apparent cost of the endophytes to plants, however, endophyte colonization decreased from 100% at planting to 65% compared to greenhouse plants grown under continual stress (maintained 100% colonization).These findings indicate that rice plants can exhibit enhanced stress tolerance via symbiosis with Class 2 endophytes, and suggest that symbiotic technology may be useful in mitigating impacts of climate change on other crops and expanding agricultural production onto marginal lands. PMID:21750695

  13. Increased Fitness of Rice Plants to Abiotic Stress Via Habitat Adapted Symbiosis: A Strategy for Mitigating Impacts of Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Redman, Regina S.; Kim, Yong Ok; Woodward, Claire J. D. A.; Greer, Chris; Espino, Luis; Doty, Sharon L.; Rodriguez, Rusty J.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change and catastrophic events have contributed to rice shortages in several regions due to decreased water availability and soil salinization. Although not adapted to salt or drought stress, two commercial rice varieties achieved tolerance to these stresses by colonizing them with Class 2 fungal endophytes isolated from plants growing across moisture and salinity gradients. Plant growth and development, water usage, ROS sensitivity and osmolytes were measured with and without stress under controlled conditions. The endophytes conferred salt, drought and cold tolerance to growth chamber and greenhouse grown plants. Endophytes reduced water consumption by 20–30% and increased growth rate, reproductive yield, and biomass of greenhouse grown plants. In the absence of stress, there was no apparent cost of the endophytes to plants, however, endophyte colonization decreased from 100% at planting to 65% compared to greenhouse plants grown under continual stress (maintained 100% colonization). These findings indicate that rice plants can exhibit enhanced stress tolerance via symbiosis with Class 2 endophytes, and suggest that symbiotic technology may be useful in mitigating impacts of climate change on other crops and expanding agricultural production onto marginal lands. PMID:21750695

  14. Increased fitness of rice plants to abiotic stress via habitat adapted symbiosis: A strategy for mitigating impacts of climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Redman, R.S.; Kim, Y.-O.; Woodward, C.J.D.A.; Greer, C.; Espino, L.; Doty, S.L.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change and catastrophic events have contributed to rice shortages in several regions due to decreased water availability and soil salinization. Although not adapted to salt or drought stress, two commercial rice varieties achieved tolerance to these stresses by colonizing them with Class 2 fungal endophytes isolated from plants growing across moisture and salinity gradients. Plant growth and development, water usage, ROS sensitivity and osmolytes were measured with and without stress under controlled conditions. The endophytes conferred salt, drought and cold tolerance to growth chamber and greenhouse grown plants. Endophytes reduced water consumption by 20–30% and increased growth rate, reproductive yield, and biomass of greenhouse grown plants. In the absence of stress, there was no apparent cost of the endophytes to plants, however, endophyte colonization decreased from 100% at planting to 65% compared to greenhouse plants grown under continual stress (maintained 100% colonization). These findings indicate that rice plants can exhibit enhanced stress tolerance via symbiosis with Class 2 endophytes, and suggest that symbiotic technology may be useful in mitigating impacts of climate change on other crops and expanding agricultural production onto marginal lands.

  15. 76 FR 53994 - Final Environmental Impact Statement, Single Nuclear Unit at the Bellefonte Plant Site, Jackson...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... three nuclear plants, 11 coal-fired plants, 12 gas-fired plants, 29 hydroelectric dams, and a pumped... load generation to balance resources with the projected load requirements. Neither coal- fired nor... Unit 1 also would provide TVA more flexibility to idle existing coal plants. These conclusions...

  16. Commentary: Childhood Exposure to Environmental Adversity and the Well-Being of People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, E.

    2013-01-01

    People with intellectual disabilities have poorer health than their non-disabled peers. They are also more likely to be exposed to a wide range of environmental adversities in childhood. Research undertaken in the general population has demonstrated that exposure to environmental adversity in childhood can have an adverse impact on health and…

  17. Impact of radiation embrittlement on integrity of pressure vessel supports for two PWR plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cheverton, R.D.; Pennell, W.E.; Robinson, G.C.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    Recent data from the HFIR vessel surveillance program indicate a substantial radiation embrittlement rate effect at low irradiation temperatures (/approximately/120/degree/F) for A212-B, A350-LF3, A105-II, and corresponding welds. PWR vessel supports are fabricated of similar materials and are subjected to the same low temperatures and fast neutron fluxes (10/sup 8/ to 10/sup 9/ neutrons/cm/sup 2//center dot/s, E > 1.0 MeV) as those in the HFIR vessel. Thus, the embrittlement rate of these structures may be greater than previously anticipated. A study sponsored by the NRC is under way at ORNL to determine the impact of the rate effect on PWR vessel-support life expectancy. The scope includes the interpretation and application of the HFIR data, a survey of all light-water-reactor vessel support designs, and a structural and fracture-mechanics analysis of the supports for two specific PWR plants of particular interest with regard to a potential for support failure as a result of propagation of flaws. Calculations performed thus far indicate best-estimate critical flaw sizes, corresponding to 32 EFPY, of /approximately/0.2 in. for one plant and /approximately/0.4 in. for the other. These flaw sizes are small enough to be of concern. However, it appears that low-cycle fatigue is not a viable mechanism for creation of flaws of this size, and thus, presumably, such flaws would have to exist at the time of fabrication. 59 refs., 128 figs., 49 tabs.

  18. The Status of Ethnobotanical Knowledge of Medicinal Plants and the Impacts of Resettlement in Delanta, Northwestern Wello, Northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Meragiaw, Misganaw; Asfaw, Zemede; Argaw, Mekuria

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted in Delanta (Ethiopia) to examine the use of medicinal plants and investigate the impacts of the 1984/85 resettlement program on the local people's knowledge on herbal medicine and its uses. The research was conducted with 72 informants in six study sites through semistructured interviews, group discussion, and market survey. In this study, 133 species belonging to 116 genera and 57 families were documented. These plants were mentioned for uses in the treatment of about 76 human and livestock ailments. The family Asteraceae was represented by the highest number with 14 species. Herbs accounted for 52.6% of the total species and leaves (32.6%) were the most frequently used parts. The analysis showed that the resettlement program has both positive and negative impacts on nature rehabilitation and local knowledge along with many human induced threats. Most of the plant knowledge is held by traditional healers and permanent residents. The people's preference for some medicinal plants gave indications of continuity of the ethnomedicinal information among the inhabitants. The findings inform that efforts need to be directed to in situ conservation in two of the plant community types which could protect a good proportion (about 50%) of the medicinal plant species. PMID:26881004

  19. Impact of Different Time Series Streamflow Data on Energy Generation of a Run-of-River Hydropower Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentel, E.; Cetinkaya, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Global issues such as population increase, power supply crises, oil prices, social and environmental concerns have been forcing countries to search for alternative energy sources such as renewable energy to satisfy the sustainable development goals. Hydropower is the most common form of renewable energy in the world. Hydropower does not require any fuel, produces relatively less pollution and waste and it is a reliable energy source with relatively low operating cost. In order to estimate the average annual energy production of a hydropower plant, sufficient and dependable streamflow data is required. The goal of this study is to investigate impact of streamflow data on annual energy generation of Balkusan HEPP which is a small run-of-river hydropower plant at Karaman, Turkey. Two different stream gaging stations are located in the vicinity of Balkusan HEPP and these two stations have different observation periods: one from 1986 to 2004 and the other from 2000 to 2009. These two observation periods show different climatic characteristics. Thus, annual energy estimations based on data from these two different stations differ considerably. Additionally, neither of these stations is located at the power plant axis, thus streamflow observations from these two stream gaging stations need to be transferred to the plant axis. This requirement introduces further errors into energy estimations. Impact of different streamflow data and transfer of streamflow observations to plant axis on annual energy generation of a small hydropower plant is investigated in this study.

  20. Uncertainties in assessing the environmental impact of amine emissions from a CO2 capture plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, M.; Castell, N.; Simpson, D.; Solberg, S.; Starrfelt, J.; Svendby, T.; Walker, S.-E.; Wright, R. F.

    2014-03-01

    In this study, a new model framework that couples the atmospheric chemistry transport model system WRF-EMEP and the multimedia fugacity level III model was used to assess the environmental impact of amine emissions to air from post-combustion carbon dioxide capture. The modelling framework was applied to a typical carbon capture plant artificially placed at Mongstad, west coast of Norway. WRF-EMEP enables a detailed treatment of amine chemistry in addition to atmospheric transport and deposition. Deposition fluxes of WRF-EMEP simulations were used as input to the fugacity model in order to derive concentrations of nitramines and nitrosamine in lake water. Predicted concentrations of nitramines and nitrosamines in ground-level air and drinking water were found to be highly sensitive to the description of amine chemistry, especially of the night time chemistry with the nitrate (NO3) radical. Sensitivity analysis of the fugacity model indicates that catchment characteristics and chemical degradation rates in soil and water are among the important factors controlling the fate of these compounds in lake water. The study shows that realistic emission of commonly used amines result in levels of the sum of nitrosamines and nitramines in ground-level air (0.6-10 pg m-3) and drinking water (0.04-0.25 ng L-1) below the current safety guideline for human health enforced by the Norwegian Environmental Directorate. The modelling framework developed in this study can be used to evaluate possible environmental impacts of emissions of amines from post-combustion capture in other regions of the world.

  1. Uncertainties in assessing the environmental impact of amine emissions from a CO2 capture plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, M.; Castell, N.; Simpson, D.; Solberg, S.; Starrfelt, J.; Svendby, T.; Walker, S.-E.; Wright, R. F.

    2014-08-01

    In this study, a new model framework that couples the atmospheric chemistry transport model system Weather Research and Forecasting-European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (WRF-EMEP) and the multimedia fugacity level III model was used to assess the environmental impact of in-air amine emissions from post-combustion carbon dioxide capture. The modelling framework was applied to a typical carbon capture plant artificially placed at Mongstad, on the west coast of Norway. The study region is characterized by high precipitation amounts, relatively few sunshine hours, predominantly westerly winds from the North Atlantic and complex topography. Mongstad can be considered as moderately polluted due to refinery activities. WRF-EMEP enables a detailed treatment of amine chemistry in addition to atmospheric transport and deposition. Deposition fluxes of WRF-EMEP simulations were used as input to the fugacity model in order to derive concentrations of nitramines and nitrosamine in lake water. Predicted concentrations of nitramines and nitrosamines in ground-level air and drinking water were found to be highly sensitive to the description of amine chemistry, especially of the night-time chemistry with the nitrate (NO3) radical. Sensitivity analysis of the fugacity model indicates that catchment characteristics and chemical degradation rates in soil and water are among the important factors controlling the fate of these compounds in lake water. The study shows that realistic emission of commonly used amines result in levels of the sum of nitrosamines and nitramines in ground-level air (0.6-10 pg m-3) and drinking water (0.04-0.25 ng L-1) below the current safety guideline for human health that is enforced by the Norwegian Environment Agency. The modelling framework developed in this study can be used to evaluate possible environmental impacts of emissions of amines from post-combustion capture in other regions of the world.

  2. Adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Reiser, Sarah J; McMillan, Katherine A; Wright, Kristi D; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2014-03-01

    Childhood experiences are thought to predispose a person to the development of health anxiety later in life. However, there is a lack of research investigating the influence of specific adverse experiences (e.g., childhood abuse, household dysfunction) on this condition. The current study examined the cumulative influence of multiple types of childhood adversities on health anxiety in adulthood. Adults 18-59 years of age (N=264) completed a battery of measures to assess adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs (i.e., negative affect and trait anxiety). Significant associations were observed between adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicted that adverse childhood experiences were predictive of health anxiety in adulthood; however, the unique contribution of these experience were no longer significant following the inclusion of the other variables of interest. Subsequently, mediation analyses indicated that both negative affect and trait anxiety independently mediated the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood. Increased exposure to adverse childhood experiences is associated with higher levels of health anxiety in adulthood; this relationship is mediated through negative affect and trait anxiety. Findings support the long-term negative impact of cumulative adverse childhood experiences and emphasize the importance of addressing negative affect and trait anxiety in efforts to prevent and treat health anxiety. PMID:24011493

  3. Community-level impacts of white-tailed deer on understorey plants in North American forests: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Habeck, Christopher W.; Schultz, Alexis K.

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of introduced or overabundant large herbivores are a concern for the conservation of forest plant communities and the sustainability of ecosystem function. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are considered ecologically overabundant in much of North America. Previous work suggests that impacts of deer overabundance are broadly negative and are consequently degrading forests at multiple ecological and taxonomic levels. However, no quantitative synthesis currently exists to verify the generality or magnitude of these impacts. Here, we report the results of a meta-analysis quantifying the effects of deer exclusion on the diversity, cover and abundance of woody, herbaceous and whole community components of forest understories in North America. In addition, we explore the relationships of environmental and experimental factors on the direction and magnitude of plant community outcomes using meta-regression. Using 119 calculated effect sizes sourced from 25 peer-reviewed articles, we constructed 10 community-specific data sets and found strongly positive diversity, cover and abundance responses of the woody community to deer exclusion, but no significant effects for the herbaceous or whole community components of forest understories. Local deer density and time since exclusion were significant moderators of both whole community and woody community richness. Local deer density also moderated the effects of deer exclusion on whole community cover. Plot area, in contrast, showed no relationship to any of the community response outcomes. We suggest that the use of inadequate diversity indices, non-native species replacement or legacy effects of chronic deer overabundance might explain why the herbaceous and whole community components of forest understories showed no diversity or cover responses to deer exclusion. We also suggest some strategies to increase opportunities for future quantitative syntheses of deer impacts on forests, including providing

  4. Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident: Atmospheric and oceanic impacts over the five years.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Katsumi

    2016-06-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant (FDNPP) accident resulted in huge environmental and socioeconomic impacts to Japan. To document the actual environmental and socioeconomic effects of the FDNPP accident, we describe here atmospheric and marine contamination due to radionuclides released from the FDNPP accident using papers published during past five years, in which temporal and spatial variations of FDNPP-derived radionuclides in air, deposition and seawater and their mapping are recorded by local, regional and global monitoring activities. High radioactivity-contaminated area in land were formed by the dispersion of the radioactive cloud and precipitation, depending on land topography and local meteorological conditions, whereas extremely high concentrations of (131)I and radiocesium in seawater occurred due to direct release of radioactivity-contaminated stagnant water in addition to atmospheric deposition. For both of atmosphere and ocean, numerical model simulations, including local, regional and global-scale modeling, were extensively employed to evaluate source terms of the FDNPP-derived radionuclides from the monitoring data. These models also provided predictions of the dispersion and high deposition areas of the FDNPP-derived radionuclides. However, there are significant differences between the observed and simulated values. Then, the monitoring data would give a good opportunity to improve numerical modeling. PMID:27032342

  5. Summary of the financial and ratepayer impacts of nuclear power plant regulatory reform

    SciTech Connect

    Turpin, A.Y.

    1985-05-01

    This report estimates the financial impact on utilities and ratepayers of nuclear power plant regulatory reforms. Three situations are investigated: (1) no reform, (2) combined early-site-permit and preapproval-of-design reforms, and (3) total reform. Also, two types of capacity additions are evaluated using two utility companies as case studies: (1) nuclear plus generic capacity, and (2) all-nuclear capacity. Results indicate that both the shorter construction lead-time afforded by nuclear regulatory reform and the timing of new capacity additions are extremely important in enabling a utility to remain in a healthy financial position while adding capacity to meet future demand and at the same time reducing the price of electricity to the ratepayers. The lower added capital costs and fuel cost savings obtained from reformed nuclear units allow a utility dependent on oil and gas steam generation to experience price decreases as these new units begin commercial operation. The study also points out that in simulations excluding the shorter lead-time generic capacity, price increases were greater and financial performance was worse for both utilities. These facts indicate the importance of shortening the construction lead-time through nuclear regulatory reform so that nuclear power will be more competitive with coal. 19 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Monitoring the Impacts of Severe Drought on Plant Species in Southern California Chaparral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennison, P. E.; Coates, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Roth, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne imaging spectrometer and thermal infrared image data acquired for the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) preparatory campaign were used to measure changes in green vegetation fraction and land surface temperature for twelve dominant plant species affected by drought in the Santa Barbara region of California. Relative green vegetation fraction was calculated from seasonally-acquired Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data using pre-drought 2011 AVIRIS data as a baseline. Land surface temperature was retrieved from MODIS-ASTER Simulator (MASTER) data. Deeply rooted tree species, tree species found on more mesic north-facing slopes, and tree species found in riparian areas had the least change in relative green vegetation fraction in 2013 and 2014 (e.g. QUAG and UMCA in the figure below). Coastal sage scrub and chaparral shrub species demonstrated greater variability as well as a long-term decline in relative green vegetation fraction. Three Ceanothus species (CECU, CEME, and CESP in the figure below) had more severe reductions in relative green vegetation fraction in comparison to another common chaparral shrub species, Adenostoma fasciculatum (ADFA). Species formed clusters in the space defined by land surface temperature and relative green vegetation fraction. Declining relative green vegetation fraction corresponded with increasing land surface temperature. Combined, routine acquisition of imaging spectrometer and thermal infrared imagery should provide new opportunities for monitoring drought impacts on ecosystems.

  7. Impacts of hydroelectric dams on alluvial riparian plant communities in Eastern Brazilian Amazonian.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Leandro Valle; Cunha, Denise A; Chaves, Priscilla P; Matos, Darley C L; Parolin, Pia

    2013-09-01

    The major rivers of the Amazon River basin and their biota are threatened by the planned construction of large hydroelectric dams that are expected to have strong impacts on floodplain plant communities. The present study presents forest inventories from three floodplain sites colonized by alluvial riparian vegetation in the Tapajós, Xingu and Tocantins River basins in eastern Amazonian. Results indicate that tree species of the highly specialized alluvial riparian vegetation are clearly distinct among the three river basins, although they are not very distinct from each other and environmental constraints are very similar. With only 6 of 74 species occurring in all three inventories, most tree and shrub species are restricted to only one of the rivers, indicating a high degree of local distribution. Different species occupy similar environmental niches, making these fragile riparian formations highly valuable. Conservation plans must consider species complementarily when decisions are made on where to place floodplain forest conservation units to avoid the irreversible loss of unique alluvial riparian vegetation biodiversity. PMID:24068089

  8. Pipeline corridors through wetlands -- Impacts on plant communities: Norris Brook Crossing Peabody, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Shem, L.M.; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of a survey conducted August 17--19, 1992, at the Norris Brook crossing in the town of Peabody, Essex County, Massachusetts. The pipeline at this site was installed during September and October 1990. A backhoe was used to install the pipeline. The pipe was assembled on the adjacent upland and slid into the trench, after which the backhoe was used again to fill the trench and cover the pipeline. Within two years after pipeline construction, a dense vegetative community, composed predominantly of native perennial species, had become established on the ROW. Compared with adjacent natural areas undisturbed by pipeline installation, there was an increase in purple loosestrife and cattail within the ROW, while large woody species were excluded from the ROW. As a result of the ROW`s presence, habitat diversity, edge-type habitat, and species diversity increased within the site. Crooked-stem aster, Aster prenanthoides (a species on the Massasschusetts list of plants of special concern), occurred in low numbers in the adjacent natural areas and had reinvaded the ROW in low numbers.

  9. Modeling the Impact of Spatial Structure on Growth Dynamics of Invasive Plant Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, James T.; Johnson, Mark P.; Walshe, Ray

    2013-07-01

    Invasive nonindigenous plant species can have potentially serious detrimental effects on local ecosystems and, as a result, costly control efforts often have to be put in place to protect habitats. An example of an invasive problem on a global scale involves the salt marsh grass species from the genus Spartina. The spread of Spartina anglica in Europe and Asia has drawn much concern due to its ability to convert coastal habitats into cord-grass monocultures and to alter the native food webs. However, the patterns of invasion of Spartina species are amenable to spatially-explicit modeling strategies that take into account both temporal and spatio-temporal processes. In this study, an agent-based model of Spartina growth on a simulated mud flat environment was developed in order to study the effects of spatial pattern and initial seedling placement on the invasion dynamics of the population. The spatial pattern of an invasion plays a key role in the rate of spread of the species and understanding this can lead to significant cost savings when designing efficient control strategies. We present here a model framework that can be used to explicitly represent complex spatial and temporal patterns of invasion in order to be able to predict quantitatively the impact of these factors on invasion dynamics. This would be a useful tool for assessing eradication strategies and choosing optimal control solutions in order to be able to minimize future control costs.

  10. Impact of Asphaltenes and Resins on the Wetting Characteristics of Tars at Former Manufactured Gas Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauswirth, S. C.; Birak, P. S.; Rylander, S.; Pedit, J. A.; Miller, C. T.

    2008-12-01

    Tars produced as a byproduct of coal and oil gasification at manufactured gas plants (MGPs) during the 19th and early 20th centuries were often released into the environment through poor disposal practices or leaks in holding tanks and piping. These tars are persistent contaminants, leaching polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into groundwater and posing a significant risk to human and ecological health. MGP tars also have several properties that make them notoriously difficult to remediate. They are denser than water, so they can migrate to depths which make direct removal difficult or impossible, and their relatively high viscosities and ability to alter the wetting characteristics of porous media result in inefficient removal by traditional pump-and-treat methods. In this study, we investigate the last of these properties. Previous studies have linked wetting changes to asphaltenes---polar, high molecular weight compounds present in the tars. However, we have conducted qualitative bottle tests for tar samples collected from two former MGPs which indicate that there is no direct correlation between asphaltene concentration and the tendency to alter wetting characteristics of porous media. To better understand the factors controlling wetting behavior, we isolate asphaltenes and resins, another class of polar compounds, from a tar sample and recombine them with the remaining PAH mixture to create a series of tars of varying composition. We assess the relative impact of each of the fractions on wettability through contact angle measurements conducted at three different pHs.

  11. Environmental impact of natural radionuclides from a coal-fired power plant in Spain.

    PubMed

    Charro, Elena; Peña, Víctor

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a study of the radiological impact of a coal-fired power plant in Spain. Activity concentrations of six natural radionuclides were determined in coal, ash, mine wastes and sediments by gamma-ray spectrometry. The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (226)Ra, (224)Ra, (210)Pb, (232)Th and (40)K in coal were 24, 30, 28, 41, 23 and 242 Bq kg(-1)  and in ash were 103, 128, 101, 124, 88 and 860 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The enrichment factor, radium equivalent activity and alpha index in the ash sample have been estimated. For the five waste pile samples, the absorbed dose rate was higher than the world average dose rate (60 nGy h(-1)). The dependence of radionuclide concentration on the grain size of nine sediments was also studied. The analysis of the radionuclides in waste and sediment samples will demonstrate the distribution and mobility of these elements through the environment, where a potential risk of contamination can be detected. PMID:22807496

  12. Invariant Control of the Technological Plants to Compensate an Impact of Main Disturbances Preemptively

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sniders, A.; Laizans, A.; Komass, T.

    2016-06-01

    The paper considers a survey of the research procedures and results due to invariant control method application perspective for operation quality advancement in several technological plants (wastewater biological treatment tanks and water steam production boilers), which operate under influence of organised and random disturbances. A specified subject of research is the simulation model of the multi-link invariant control system for steam pressure stabilisation in a steam boiler by preemptive compensation of steam load and feed water flow impact on output parameter (steam pressure), developed in MATLAB/SIMULINK. Simulation block-diagram of the steam boiler invariant control system, containing closed loop PID control circuit and open loop DPC circuit, has been composed on the basis of the designed mathematical model of the system components, disturbance compensation algorithms, and operational equation of the invariant control system. Comparative response of the steam boiler, operating under influence of fluctuating disturbances, with conventional PID control and using PID-DPC control with disturbance compensation controller DPC, has been investigated. Simulation results of invariant PID - DPC control system show that output parameter of the steam boiler - pressure remains practically constant under fluctuating disturbances due to a high-speed response of DPC controller.

  13. Impact of Vector Dispersal and Host-Plant Fidelity on the Dissemination of an Emerging Plant Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Johannesen, Jes; Foissac, Xavier; Kehrli, Patrik; Maixner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Dissemination of vector-transmitted pathogens depend on the survival and dispersal of the vector and the vector's ability to transmit the pathogen, while the host range of vector and pathogen determine the breath of transmission possibilities. In this study, we address how the interaction between dispersal and plant fidelities of a pathogen (stolbur phytoplasma tuf-a) and its vector (Hyalesthes obsoletus: Cixiidae) affect the emergence of the pathogen. Using genetic markers, we analysed the geographic origin and range expansion of both organisms in Western Europe and, specifically, whether the pathogen's dissemination in the northern range is caused by resident vectors widening their host-plant use from field bindweed to stinging nettle, and subsequent host specialisation. We found evidence for common origins of pathogen and vector south of the European Alps. Genetic patterns in vector populations show signals of secondary range expansion in Western Europe leading to dissemination of tuf-a pathogens, which might be newly acquired and of hybrid origin. Hence, the emergence of stolbur tuf-a in the northern range was explained by secondary immigration of vectors carrying stinging nettle-specialised tuf-a, not by widening the host-plant spectrum of resident vectors with pathogen transmission from field bindweed to stinging nettle nor by primary co-migration from the resident vector's historical area of origin. The introduction of tuf-a to stinging nettle in the northern range was therefore independent of vector's host-plant specialisation but the rapid pathogen dissemination depended on the vector's host shift, whereas the general dissemination elsewhere was linked to plant specialisation of the pathogen but not of the vector. PMID:23284774

  14. Signal Molecules Mediate the Impact of the Earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa on Growth, Development and Defence of the Plant Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Puga-Freitas, Ruben; Barot, Sébastien; Taconnat, Ludivine; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Blouin, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Earthworms have generally a positive impact on plant growth, which is often attributed to a trophic mechanism: namely, earthworms increase the release of mineral nutrients from soil litter and organic matter. An alternative hypothesis has been proposed since the discovery of a signal molecule (Indole Acetic Acid) in earthworm faeces. In this study, we used methodologies developed in plant science to gain information on ecological mechanisms involved in plant-earthworm interaction, by looking at plant response to earthworm presence at a molecular level. First, we looked at plant overall response to earthworm faeces in an in vitro device where only signal molecules could have an effect on plant growth; we observed that earthworms were inducing positive or negative effects on different plant species. Then, using an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant with an impaired auxin transport, we demonstrated the potential of earthworms to stimulate root growth and to revert the dwarf mutant phenotype. Finally, we performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana in the presence and absence of earthworms; we found that genes modulated in the presence of earthworms are known to respond to biotic and abiotic stresses, or to the application of exogenous hormones. A comparison of our results with other studies found in databases revealed strong analogies with systemic resistance, induced by signal molecules emitted by Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and/or elicitors emitted by non-virulent pathogens. Signal molecules such as auxin and ethylene, which are considered as major in plant-microorganisms interactions, can also be of prior importance to explain plant-macroinvertebrates interactions. This could imply revisiting ecological theories which generally stress on the role of trophic relationships. PMID:23226498

  15. Predicting the impacts of climate change on the potential distribution of major native non-food bioenergy plants in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenguo; Tang, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Qili; Pan, Ke; Hu, Qichun; He, Mingxiong; Li, Jiatang

    2014-01-01

    Planting non-food bioenergy crops on marginal lands is an alternative bioenergy development solution in China. Native non-food bioenergy plants are also considered to be a wise choice to reduce the threat of invasive plants. In this study, the impacts of climate change (a consensus of IPCC scenarios A2a for 2080) on the potential distribution of nine non-food bioenergy plants native to China (viz., Pistacia chinensis, Cornus wilsoniana, Xanthoceras sorbifolia, Vernicia fordii, Sapium sebiferum, Miscanthus sinensis, M. floridulus, M. sacchariflorus and Arundo donax) were analyzed using a MaxEnt species distribution model. The suitable habitats of the nine non-food plants were distributed in the regions east of the Mongolian Plateau and the Tibetan Plateau, where the arable land is primarily used for food production. Thus, the large-scale cultivation of those plants for energy production will have to rely on the marginal lands. The variables of "precipitation of the warmest quarter" and "annual mean temperature" were the most important bioclimatic variables for most of the nine plants according to the MaxEnt modeling results. Global warming in coming decades may result in a decrease in the extent of suitable habitat in the tropics but will have little effect on the total distribution area of each plant. The results indicated that it will be possible to grow these plants on marginal lands within these areas in the future. This work should be beneficial for the domestication and cultivation of those bioenergy plants and should facilitate land-use planning for bioenergy crops in China. PMID:25365425

  16. Predicting the Impacts of Climate Change on the Potential Distribution of Major Native Non-Food Bioenergy Plants in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenguo; Tang, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Qili; Pan, Ke; Hu, Qichun; He, Mingxiong; Li, Jiatang

    2014-01-01

    Planting non-food bioenergy crops on marginal lands is an alternative bioenergy development solution in China. Native non-food bioenergy plants are also considered to be a wise choice to reduce the threat of invasive plants. In this study, the impacts of climate change (a consensus of IPCC scenarios A2a for 2080) on the potential distribution of nine non-food bioenergy plants native to China (viz., Pistacia chinensis, Cornus wilsoniana, Xanthoceras sorbifolia, Vernicia fordii, Sapium sebiferum, Miscanthus sinensis, M. floridulus, M. sacchariflorus and Arundo donax) were analyzed using a MaxEnt species distribution model. The suitable habitats of the nine non-food plants were distributed in the regions east of the Mongolian Plateau and the Tibetan Plateau, where the arable land is primarily used for food production. Thus, the large-scale cultivation of those plants for energy production will have to rely on the marginal lands. The variables of “precipitation of the warmest quarter” and “annual mean temperature” were the most important bioclimatic variables for most of the nine plants according to the MaxEnt modeling results. Global warming in coming decades may result in a decrease in the extent of suitable habitat in the tropics but will have little effect on the total distribution area of each plant. The results indicated that it will be possible to grow these plants on marginal lands within these areas in the future. This work should be beneficial for the domestication and cultivation of those bioenergy plants and should facilitate land-use planning for bioenergy crops in China. PMID:25365425

  17. Impact of Offshore Wind Energy Plants on the Soil Mechanical Behaviour of Sandy Seafloors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Nina; Lambers-Huesmann, Maria; Zeiler, Manfred; Zoellner, Christian; Kopf, Achim

    2010-05-01

    Over the last decade, wind energy has become an important renewable energy source. Especially, the installation of offshore windfarms offers additional space and higher average wind speeds than the well-established windfarms onshore. Certainly, the construction of offshore wind turbines has an impact on the environment. In the framework of the Research at Alpha VEntus (RAVE) project in the German offshore wind energy farm Alpha Ventus (north of the island Borkum in water depths of about 30 m) a research plan to investigate the environmental impact had been put into place. An ongoing study focuses on the changes in soil mechanics of the seafloor close to the foundations and the development of scour. Here, we present results of the first geotechnical investigations after construction of the plants (ca. 1 - 6 months) compared to geotechnical measurements prior to construction. To study the soil mechanical behaviour of the sand, sediment samples from about thirty different positions were measured in the laboratory to deliver, e.g., grain size (0.063 - 0.3 mm), friction angles (~ 32°), unit weight (~ 19.9 kN/m³) and void ratios (~ 0.81). For acoustic visualisation, side-scan-sonar (towed and stationary) and multibeam-echosounders (hull mounted) were used. Data show a flat, homogenous seafloor prior to windmill erection, and scouring effects at and in the vicinity of the foundations afterwards. Geotechnical in-situ measurements were carried out using a standard dynamic Cone Penetration Testing lance covering the whole windfarm area excluding areas in a radius < 50 m from the installed windmills (due the accessibility with the required research vessel). In addition, the small free-fall penetrometer Nimrod was deployed at the same spots, and furthermore, in the areas close to the tripod foundations (down to a distance of ~ 5 m from the central pile). Before construction, CPT as well as Nimrod deployments confirm a flat, homogenous sandy area with tip resistance values

  18. Impacts of alien invasive plants on soil nutrients are correlated with initial site conditions in NW Europe.

    PubMed

    Dassonville, Nicolas; Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Vanparys, Valérie; Hayez, Mathieu; Gruber, Wolf; Meerts, Pierre

    2008-08-01

    Alien invasive plants are capable of modifying ecosystem function. However, it is difficult to make generalisations because impacts often appear to be species- and site-specific. In this study, we examined the impacts of seven highly invasive plant species in NW Europe (Fallopia japonica, Heracleum mantegazzianum, Impatiens glandulifera, Prunus serotina, Rosa rugosa, Senecio inaequidens, Solidago gigantea) on nutrient pools in the topsoil and the standing biomass. We tested if the impacts follow predictable patterns, across species and sites or, alternatively, if they are entirely idiosyncratic. To that end, we compared invaded and adjacent uninvaded plots in a total of 36 sites with widely divergent soil chemistry and vegetation composition. For all species, invaded plots had increased aboveground biomass and nutrient stocks in standing biomass compared to uninvaded vegetation. This suggests that enhanced nutrient uptake may be a key trait of highly invasive plant species. The magnitude and direction of the impact on topsoil chemical properties were strongly site-specific. A striking finding is that the direction of change in soil properties followed a predictable pattern. Thus, strong positive impacts (higher topsoil nutrient concentrations in invaded plots compared to uninvaded ones) were most often found in sites with initially low nutrient concentrations in the topsoil, while negative impacts were generally found under the opposite conditions. This pattern was significant for potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, manganese and nitrogen. The particular site-specific pattern in the impacts that we observed provides the first evidence that alien invasive species may contribute to a homogenisation of soil conditions in invaded landscapes. PMID:18491146

  19. Loss of a large grazer impacts savanna grassland plant communities similarly in North America and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Eby, Stephanie; Burkepile, Deron E; Fynn, Richard W S; Burns, Catherine E; Govender, Navashni; Hagenah, Nicole; Koerner, Sally E; Matchett, Katherine J; Thompson, Dave I; Wilcox, Kevin R; Collins, Scott L; Kirkman, Kevin P; Knapp, Alan K; Smith, Melinda D

    2014-05-01

    Large herbivore grazing is a widespread disturbance in mesic savanna grasslands which increases herbaceous plant community richness and diversity. However, humans are modifying the impacts of grazing on these ecosystems by removing grazers. A more general understanding of how grazer loss will impact these ecosystems is hampered by differences in the diversity of large herbivore assemblages among savanna grasslands, which can affect the way that grazing influences plant communities. To avoid this we used two unique enclosures each containing a single, functionally similar large herbivore species. Specifically, we studied a bison (Bos bison) enclosure at Konza Prairie Biological Station, USA and an African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) enclosure in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Within these enclosures we erected exclosures in annually burned and unburned sites to determine how grazer loss would impact herbaceous plant communities, while controlling for potential fire-grazing interactions. At both sites, removal of the only grazer decreased grass and forb richness, evenness and diversity, over time. However, in Kruger these changes only occurred with burning. At both sites, changes in plant communities were driven by increased dominance with herbivore exclusion. At Konza, this was caused by increased abundance of one grass species, Andropogon gerardii, while at Kruger, three grasses, Themeda triandra, Panicum coloratum, and Digitaria eriantha increased in abundance. PMID:24554031

  20. Impact factors identification of spatial heterogeneity of herbaceous plant diversity on five southern islands of Miaodao Archipelago in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Yuan; Shi, Honghua; Wang, Xiaoli; Qin, Xuebo; Zheng, Wei; Peng, Shitao

    2016-09-01

    Herbaceous plants are widely distributed on islands and where they exhibit spatial heterogeneity. Accurately identifying the impact factors that drive spatial heterogeneity can reveal typical island biodiversity patterns. Five southern islands in the Miaodao Archipelago, North China were studied herein. The spatial distribution of herbaceous plant diversity on these islands was analyzed, and the impact factors and their degree of impact on spatial heterogeneity were identified using CCA ordination and ANOVA. The results reveal 114 herbaceous plant species, belonging to 94 genera from 34 families in the 50 plots sampled. The total species numbers on different islands were significantly positively correlated with island area, and the average α diversity was correlated with human activities, while the β diversity among islands was more affected by island area than mutual distances. Spatial heterogeneity within islands indicated that the diversities were generally high in areas with higher altitude, slope, total nitrogen, total carbon, and canopy density, and lower moisture content, pH, total phosphorus, total potassium, and aspect. Among the environmental factors, pH, canopy density, total K, total P, moisture content, altitude, and slope had significant gross effects, but only canopy density exhibited a significant net effect. Terrain affected diversity by restricting plantation, plantation in turn influenced soil properties and the two together affected diversity. Therefore, plantation was ultimately the fundamental driving factor for spatial heterogeneity in herbaceous plant diversity on the five islands.

  1. Impact factors identification of spatial heterogeneity of herbaceous plant diversity on five southern islands of Miaodao Archipelago in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Yuan; Shi, Honghua; Wang, Xiaoli; Qin, Xuebo; Zheng, Wei; Peng, Shitao

    2016-01-01

    Herbaceous plants are widely distributed on islands and where they exhibit spatial heterogeneity. Accurately identifying the impact factors that drive spatial heterogeneity can reveal typical island biodiversity patterns. Five southern islands in the Miaodao Archipelago, North China were studied herein. The spatial distribution of herbaceous plant diversity on these islands was analyzed, and the impact factors and their degree of impact on spatial heterogeneity were identified using CCA ordination and ANOVA. The results reveal 114 herbaceous plant species, belonging to 94 genera from 34 families in the 50 plots sampled. The total species numbers on different islands were significantly positively correlated with island area, and the average α diversity was correlated with human activities, while the β diversity among islands was more affected by island area than mutual distances. Spatial heterogeneity within islands indicated that the diversities were generally high in areas with higher altitude, slope, total nitrogen, total carbon, and canopy density, and lower moisture content, pH, total phosphorus, total potassium, and aspect. Among the environmental factors, pH, canopy density, total K, total P, moisture content, altitude, and slope had significant gross effects, but only canopy density exhibited a significant net effect. Terrain affected diversity by restricting plantation, plantation in turn influenced soil properties and the two together affected diversity. Therefore, plantation was ultimately the fundamental driving factor for spatial heterogeneity in herbaceous plant diversity on the five islands.

  2. Biologics in dermatology: adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Pandhi, Deepika; Khurana, Ananta

    2015-12-01

    Biologics are a group of drugs that precisely affect certain specific steps in the immune response and are an extremely useful group when used in an appropriate setting. However, their use can often be a double-edged sword. Careful patient selection and thorough knowledge of adverse effects is a key to their successful use in various disorders. The initial enthusiasm has gradually given way to a more cautious approach wherein a balance is sought between clinical usefulness and expected side effects. The adverse effects of the biologics most commonly used in dermatology have been carefully listed for ready reference. The plausible causes of the adverse reactions are succinctly outlined along with their incriminating factor(s). Besides, in brief, the attention has been focused on their management. The content should provide an essential didactic content for educating the practitioner. PMID:26147909

  3. Impact of Plant Cover on Fitness and Behavioural Traits of Captive Red-Eyed Tree Frogs (Agalychnis callidryas)

    PubMed Central

    Preziosi, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of ex situ conservation programmes as highlighted in the Amphibian Conservation Action Plan, there are few empirical studies that examine the influence of captive conditions on the fitness of amphibians, even for basic components of enclosure design such as cover provision. Maintaining the fitness of captive amphibian populations is essential to the success of ex situ conservation projects. Here we examined the impact of plant cover on measures of fitness and behaviour in captive red-eyed tree frogs (Agalychnis callidryas). We found significant effects of plant provision on body size, growth rates and cutaneous bacterial communities that together demonstrate a compelling fitness benefit from cover provision. We also demonstrate a strong behavioural preference for planted rather than non-planted areas. We also assessed the impact of plant provision on the abiotic environment in the enclosure as a potential driver of these behavioural and fitness effects. Together this data provides valuable information regarding enclosure design for a non-model amphibian species and has implications for amphibian populations maintained in captivity for conservation breeding programmes and research. PMID:24740289

  4. Impact of plant cover on fitness and behavioural traits of captive red-eyed tree frogs (Agalychnis callidryas).

    PubMed

    Michaels, Christopher J; Antwis, Rachael E; Preziosi, Richard F

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of ex situ conservation programmes as highlighted in the Amphibian Conservation Action Plan, there are few empirical studies that examine the influence of captive conditions on the fitness of amphibians, even for basic components of enclosure design such as cover provision. Maintaining the fitness of captive amphibian populations is essential to the success of ex situ conservation projects. Here we examined the impact of plant cover on measures of fitness and behaviour in captive red-eyed tree frogs (Agalychnis callidryas). We found significant effects of plant provision on body size, growth rates and cutaneous bacterial communities that together demonstrate a compelling fitness benefit from cover provision. We also demonstrate a strong behavioural preference for planted rather than non-planted areas. We also assessed the impact of plant provision on the abiotic environment in the enclosure as a potential driver of these behavioural and fitness effects. Together this data provides valuable information regarding enclosure design for a non-model amphibian species and has implications for amphibian populations maintained in captivity for conservation breeding programmes and research. PMID:24740289

  5. Usefulness of sediment toxicity tests with estuarine plants and animals to indicate municipal and industrial effluent impact

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.A.; Weber, D.E.

    1994-12-31

    The environmental impact of municipal and industrial effluents has been predicted from results from single species toxicity tests. The goal of these tests is to ensure that water quality criteria and the designated use of the waterbody is not impacted. Recently, the focus of some effluent toxicity evaluation has centered on determining the effluent impact on the sediment in the receiving water. This study evaluated the toxicities of several sediment samples collected above and below six outfalls to the Pensacola Bay system. Toxicities were determined using three macrophytic plants and four animal species. The sediments, with few exceptions, exhibited a low level of toxicity. The mysid shrimp was more sensitive than Ampelisca, Leptocheirus and the sheepshead minnow. The sensitivities of the plants, Echinochloa crusgalli, Scirpus robustus and Sesbania macrocarpa, were comparable to those of the animal species. The toxicity of time sediment, when compared to that of the effluent, determined using standard single species of plants and animals was less. Overall, the sediment toxicity tests were useful in providing insight on the impact of effluents. However, the application and usefulness of this assessment tool is highly dependent upon a variety of factors, including the geomorphological characteristics of the receiving waters.

  6. The impact of shadow evacuation on evacuation time estimates for nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Weinisch, Kevin; Brueckner, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A shadow evacuation is the voluntary evacuation of people from areas outside a declared evacuation area. Shadow evacuees can congest roadways and inhibit the egress of those evacuating from an area at risk. Federal regulations stipulate that nuclear power plant (NPP) licensees in the United States must conduct an Evacuation Time Estimate (ETE) study after each decennial census. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published federal guidance for conducting ETE studies in November 2011. This guidance document recommends the consideration of a Shadow Region which extends 5 miles radially beyond the existing 10-mile Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) for NPPs. The federal guidance also suggests the consideration of the evacuation of 20 percent of the permanent resident population in the Shadow Region in addition to 100 percent of the declared evacuation region within the EPZ when conducting ETE studies. The 20 percent recommendation was questioned in a March 2013 report prepared by the US Government Accountability Office. This article discusses the effects on ETE of increasing the shadow evacuation from 20 to 60 percent for 48 NPPs in the United States. Only five (10 percent) of the 48 sites show a significant increase (30 minutes or greater) in 90th percentile ETE (time to evacuate 90 percent of the population in the EPZ), while seven (15 percent) of the 48 sites show a significant increase in 100th percentile ETE (time to evacuate all population in the EPZ). Study areas that are prone to a significant increase in ETE due to shadow evacuation are classified as one of four types; case studies are presented for one plant of each type to explain why the shadow evacuation significantly affects ETE. A matrix of the four case types can be used by emergency management personnel to predict during planning stages whether the evacuated area is prone to a significant increase in ETE due to shadow evacuation. Potential mitigation tactics that reduce demand (public information

  7. Widespread impact of horizontal gene transfer on plant colonization of land

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Jipei; Hu, Xiangyang; Sun, Hang; Yang, Yongping; Huang, Jinling

    2012-01-01

    In complex multicellular eukaryotes such as animals and plants, horizontal gene transfer is commonly considered rare with very limited evolutionary significance. Here we show that horizontal gene transfer is a dynamic process occurring frequently in the early evolution of land plants. Our genome analyses of the moss Physcomitrella patens identified 57 families of nuclear genes that were acquired from prokaryotes, fungi or viruses. Many of these gene families were transferred to the ancestors of green or land plants. Available experimental evidence shows that these anciently acquired genes are involved in some essential or plant-specific activities such as xylem formation, plant defence, nitrogen recycling as well as the biosynthesis of starch, polyamines, hormones and glutathione. These findings suggest that horizontal gene transfer had a critical role in the transition of plants from aquatic to terrestrial environments. On the basis of these findings, we propose a model of horizontal gene transfer mechanism in nonvascular and seedless vascular plants. PMID:23093189

  8. Adversity and advancing nursing knowledge.

    PubMed

    Reed, Pamela G

    2008-04-01

    This column reports the theme of adversity addressed in reference to theoretical and metatheoretical considerations for advancing nursing knowledge. The development and content of three classic nursing theories are presented by Neuman representatives, and by theorists King and Roy. Topics for continued dialogue are identified as derived from the interface between philosophy of science issues and these theories. PMID:18378823

  9. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Hallucinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, C.L.; Dube, S.R.; Felitti, V.J.; Anda, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: Little information is available about the contribution of multiple adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to the likelihood of reporting hallucinations. We used data from the ACE study to assess this relationship. Methods:: We conducted a survey about childhood abuse and household dysfunction while growing up, with questions about health…

  10. Adverse ocular reactions to drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Spiteri, M. A.; James, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    Drugs acting on various parts of the body may also affect the eye insidiously. Increased awareness of such drug toxicity by the prescribing doctor should encourage him to consider effects on the cornea, lens, retina, optic nerve and elsewhere when checking the patient's progress. The following review concerns adverse ocular effects of systemic drug administration. PMID:6356101

  11. Impact of cell shape in hierarchically structured plant surfaces on the attachment of male Colorado potato beetles (Leptinotarsa decemlineata)

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Robin; Bohn, Holger Florian; Speck, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Summary Plant surfaces showing hierarchical structuring are frequently found in plant organs such as leaves, petals, fruits and stems. In our study we focus on the level of cell shape and on the level of superimposed microstructuring, leading to hierarchical surfaces if both levels are present. While it has been shown that epicuticular wax crystals and cuticular folds strongly reduce insect attachment, and that smooth papillate epidermal cells in petals improve the grip of pollinators, the impact of hierarchical surface structuring of plant surfaces possessing convex or papillate cells on insect attachment remains unclear. We performed traction experiments with male Colorado potato beetles on nine different plant surfaces with different structures. The selected plant surfaces showed epidermal cells with either tabular, convex or papillate cell shape, covered either with flat films of wax, epicuticular wax crystals or with cuticular folds. On surfaces possessing either superimposed wax crystals or cuticular folds we found traction forces to be almost one order of magnitude lower than on surfaces covered only with flat films of wax. Independent of superimposed microstructures we found that convex and papillate epidermal cell shapes slightly enhance the attachment ability of the beetles. Thus, in plant surfaces, cell shape and superimposed microstructuring yield contrary effects on the attachment of the Colorado potato beetle, with convex or papillate cells enhancing attachment and both wax crystals or cuticular folds reducing attachment. However, the overall magnitude of traction force mainly depends on the presence or absence of superimposed microstructuring. PMID:22428097

  12. Is the use-impact on native caatinga species in Brazil reduced by the high species richness of medicinal plants?

    PubMed

    de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; de Oliveira, Rosilane Ferreira

    2007-08-15

    A study of the diversity of uses of medicinal plants and the traditional knowledge associated with the caatinga vegetation was undertaken in the semi-arid region of Pernambuco State, NE Brazil. We tested the utilitarian redundancy model (as an analogy to the ecological redundancy hypothesis) in evaluating the implications of the use of medicinal plants by rural communities to examine whether the presence of numerous species with analogous functions (identical therapeutic applications, for example) would reduce the use-impact on native species in the neighboring caatinga vegetation. Various techniques were used to collect information concerning medicinal plants and their applications from 19 residents considered "local specialists". The vegetation was sampled to determine the abundance of woody plants. Approximately 106 plants that fall into 67 local therapeutic categories were identified. Despite the fact that exotic species compose a significant fraction of the local medicinal flora, the native species represented the greatest percentage of local uses and indications. Amburana cearensis, Myracrodruon urundeuva, Anadenanthera colubrina, Sideroxylon obtusifolium, and Ziziphus joazeiro, for example, are highly sought after plants, and represent key species in terms of conservation and sustainable management. Our model of utilitarian redundancy has important consequences for testing ethnobotanical hypotheses, as well as for indicating strategies for biodiversity conservation. PMID:17616289

  13. Impact of post-infiltration soil aeration at different growth stages of sub-surface trickle-irrigated tomato plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan; Jia, Zong-xia; Niu, Wen-Quan; Wang, Jing-wei

    2016-07-01

    Sensitivity to low rhizosphere soil aeration may change over time and therefore plant response may also depend on different growth stages of a crop. This study quantified effects of soil aeration during 5 different periods, on growth and yield of trickle-irrigated potted single tomato plants. Irrigation levels were 0.6 to 0.7 (low level) or 0.7 to 0.8 (high level) of total water holding capacity of the pots. Soil was aerated by injecting 2.5 l of air into each pot through the drip tubing immediately after irrigation. Fresh fruit yield, above ground plant dry weight, plant height, and leaf area index response to these treatments were measured. For all these 4 response variables, means of post-infiltration aeration between 58 to 85 days after sowing were 13.4, 43.5, 13.7, and 37.7% higher than those for the non-aerated pots, respectively. The results indicated that: post-infiltration soil aeration can positively impact the yield and growth of sub-surface trickle-irrigated potted tomato plants; positive effects on plant growth can be obtained with aeration during the whole growth period or with aeration for partial periods; positive growth effects of partial periods of aeration appears to persist and result in yield benefit.

  14. Strong and weak, unsteady reconfiguration and its impact on turbulence structure within plant canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Ying; Follett, Elizabeth; Chamecki, Marcelo; Nepf, Heidi

    2014-10-01

    Flexible terrestrial and aquatic plants bend in response to fluid motion and this reconfiguration mechanism reduces drag forces, which protects against uprooting or breaking under high winds and currents. The impact of reconfiguration on the flow can be described quantitatively by introducing a drag coefficient that decreases as a power-law function of velocity with a negative exponent known as the Vogel number. In this paper, two case studies are conducted to examine the connection between reconfiguration and turbulence dynamics within a canopy. First, a flume experiment was conducted with a model seagrass meadow. As the flow rate increased, both the mean and unsteady one-dimensional linear elastic reconfiguration increased. In the transition between the asymptotic regimes of negligible and strong reconfiguration, there is a regime of weak reconfiguration, in which the Vogel number achieved its peak negative value. Second, large-eddy simulation was conducted for a maize canopy, with different modes of reconfiguration characterized by increasingly negative values of the Vogel number. Even though the mean vertical momentum flux was constrained by field measurements, changing the mode of reconfiguration altered the distribution, strength, and fraction of momentum carried by strong and weak events. Despite the differences between these two studies, similar effects of the Vogel number on turbulence dynamics were demonstrated. In particular, a more negative Vogel number leads to a more positive peak of the skewness of streamwise velocity within the canopy, which indicates a preferential penetration of strong events into a vegetation canopy. We consider different reconfiguration geometry (one- and two-dimensional) and regime (negligible, weak, and strong) that can apply to a wide range of terrestrial and aquatic canopies.

  15. Adverse childhood experience and asthma onset: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Exley, Daniel; Norman, Alyson; Hyland, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Adverse childhood experiences such as abuse and neglect are associated with subsequent immune dysregulation. Some studies show an association between adverse childhood experiences and asthma onset, although significant disparity in results exists in the published literature. We aimed to review available studies employing a prospective design that investigates associations between adverse childhood experience and asthma. A search protocol was developed and studies were drawn from four electronic journal databases. Studies were selected in accordance with pre-set inclusion criteria and relevant data were extracted. 12 studies, assessing data from a total of 31 524 individuals, were identified that investigate the impact of a range of adverse childhood experiences on the likelihood of developing asthma. Evidence suggests that chronic stress exposure and maternal distress in pregnancy operate synergistically with known triggers such as traffic-related air pollution to increase asthma risk. Chronic stress in early life is associated with an increased risk of asthma onset. There is evidence that adverse childhood experience increases the impact of traffic-related air pollution and inconsistent evidence that adverse childhood experience has an independent effect on asthma onset. PMID:26028641

  16. Control and minimization of allergenic plants impact on bronchial asthma morbidity, based on spatial-temporal data model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuzh, Tatyana Y.; Mokin, Vitaliy B.; Wójcik, Waldemar; Imanbek, Baglan

    2015-12-01

    Control and development of priority measures to minimize the impact of allergenic plants on the state of morbidity, caused by asthma are one of the most common and complex problems for public health in modern cities. Bronchial asthma in humans occurs because of aggregation of various factors, the nature of which varies in time and space. So, we should use spatial-temporal data model for formalization of this problem, but typical data formalization methods and data processing methods need to be improved, taking into consideration the peculiarities of impact, especially of allergenic plants and weather conditions on people in a city. The paper shows a new approach to unified in time and optimal by discretization in space data formalization, concerning the main factors that form the conditions for the emergence of bronchial asthma. The example of such analysis was given, which illustrated the efficiency of the proposed information model and the method of its processing.

  17. Possible Impacts of the Invasive Plant Rubus niveus on the Native Vegetation of the Scalesia Forest in the Galapagos Islands

    PubMed Central

    Rentería, Jorge Luis; Gardener, Mark R.; Panetta, F. Dane; Atkinson, Rachel; Crawley, Mick J.

    2012-01-01

    Originally from Asia, Rubus niveus has become one of the most widespread invasive plant species in the Galapagos Islands. It has invaded open vegetation, shrubland and forest alike. It forms dense thickets up to 4 m high, appearing to displace native vegetation, and threaten the integrity of several native communities. This study used correlation analysis between a R. niveus cover gradient and a number of biotic (vascular plant species richness, cover and vegetation structure) and abiotic (light and soil properties) parameters to help understand possible impacts in one of the last remaining fragments of the Scalesia forest in Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. Higher cover of R. niveus was associated with significantly lower native species richness and cover, and a different forest structure. Results illustrated that 60% R. niveus cover could be considered a threshold for these impacts. We suggest that a maximum of 40% R. niveus cover could be a suitable management target. PMID:23118934

  18. Investigation of the impact of main control room digitalization on operators cognitive reliability in nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Mu, Haiying; Jiang, Jianjun; Zhang, Li

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is a trend in nuclear power plants (NPPs) toward introducing digital and computer technologies into main control rooms (MCRs). Safe generation of electric power in NPPs requires reliable performance of cognitive tasks such as fault detection, diagnosis, and response planning. The digitalization of MCRs has dramatically changed the whole operating environment, and the ways operators interact with the plant systems. If the design and implementation of the digital technology is incompatible with operators' cognitive characteristics, it may have negative effects on operators' cognitive reliability. Firstly, on the basis of three essential prerequisites for successful cognitive tasks, a causal model is constructed to reveal the typical human performance issues arising from digitalization. The cognitive mechanisms which they impact cognitive reliability are analyzed in detail. Then, Bayesian inference is used to quantify and prioritize the influences of these factors. It suggests that interface management and unbalanced workload distribution have more significant impacts on operators' cognitive reliability. PMID:22316806

  19. Possible impacts of the invasive plant Rubus niveus on the native vegetation of the Scalesia forest in the Galapagos islands.

    PubMed

    Rentería, Jorge Luis; Gardener, Mark R; Panetta, F Dane; Atkinson, Rachel; Crawley, Mick J

    2012-01-01

    Originally from Asia, Rubus niveus has become one of the most widespread invasive plant species in the Galapagos Islands. It has invaded open vegetation, shrubland and forest alike. It forms dense thickets up to 4 m high, appearing to displace native vegetation, and threaten the integrity of several native communities. This study used correlation analysis between a R. niveus cover gradient and a number of biotic (vascular plant species richness, cover and vegetation structure) and abiotic (light and soil properties) parameters to help understand possible impacts in one of the last remaining fragments of the Scalesia forest in Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. Higher cover of R. niveus was associated with significantly lower native species richness and cover, and a different forest structure. Results illustrated that 60% R. niveus cover could be considered a threshold for these impacts. We suggest that a maximum of 40% R. niveus cover could be a suitable management target. PMID:23118934

  20. Soil Oxidation-Reduction in Wetlands and Its Impact on Plant Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Pezeshki, S. R.; DeLaune, R. D.

    2012-01-01

    Soil flooding in wetlands is accompanied by changes in soil physical and chemical characteristics. These changes include the lowering of soil redox potential (Eh) leading to increasing demand for oxygen within the soil profile as well as production of soil phytotoxins that are by-products of soil reduction and thus, imposing potentially severe stress on plant roots. Various methods are utilized for quantifying plant responses to reducing soil conditions that include measurement of radial oxygen transport, plant enzymatic responses, and assessment of anatomical/morphological changes. However, the chemical properties and reducing nature of soil environment in which plant roots are grown, including oxygen demand, and other associated processes that occur in wetland soils, pose a challenge to evaluation and comparison of plant responses that are reported in the literature. This review emphasizes soil-plant interactions in wetlands, drawing attention to the importance of quantifying the intensity and capacity of soil reduction for proper evaluation of wetland plant responses, particularly at the process and whole-plant levels. Furthermore, while root oxygen-deficiency may partially account for plant stress responses, the importance of soil phytotoxins, produced as by-products of low soil Eh conditions, is discussed and the need for development of methods to allow differentiation of plant responses to reduced or anaerobic soil conditions vs. soil phytotoxins is emphasized. PMID:24832223

  1. Long-term regional shifts in plant community composition are largely explained by local deer impact experiments.

    PubMed

    Frerker, Katie; Sabo, Autumn; Waller, Donald

    2014-01-01

    The fact that herbivores and predators exert top-down effects to alter community composition and dynamics at lower trophic levels is no longer controversial, yet we still lack evidence of the full nature, extent, and longer-term effects of these impacts. Here, we use results from a set of replicated experiments on the local impacts of white-tailed deer to evaluate the extent to which such impacts could account for half-century shifts in forest plant communities across the upper Midwest, USA. We measured species' responses to deer at four sites using 10-20 year-old deer exclosures. Among common species, eight were more abundant outside the exclosures, seven were commoner inside, and 16 had similar abundances in- and outside. Deer herbivory greatly increased the abundance of ferns and graminoids and doubled the abundance of exotic plants. In contrast, deer greatly reduced tree regeneration, shrub cover (100-200 fold in two species), plant height, plant reproduction, and the abundance of forbs. None of 36 focal species increased in reproduction or grew taller in the presence of deer, contrary to expectations. We compared these results to data on 50-year regional shifts in species abundances across 62 sites. The effects of herbivory by white-tailed deer accurately account for many of the long-term regional shifts observed in species' abundances (R2 = 0.41). These results support the conjecture that deer impacts have driven many of the regional shifts in forest understory cover and composition observed in recent decades. Our ability to link results from shorter-term, local experiments to regional long-term studies of ecological change strengthens the inferences we can draw from both approaches. PMID:25551827

  2. Neighbour Origin and Ploidy Level Drive Impact of an Alien Invasive Plant Species in a Competitive Environment

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Müller-Schärer, Heinz; Schaffner, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the potential mechanisms driving the spread and naturalization of alien plant species has increased over the past decades, but specific knowledge on the factors contributing to their increased impact in the introduced range is still urgently needed. The native European plant Centaurea stoebe occurs as two cytotypes with different life histories (monocarpic diploids, allo-polycarpic tetraploids). However, only tetraploids have been found in its introduced range in North America, where C. stoebe has become a most prominent plant invader. Here, we focus on the ploidy level of C. stoebe and origin of neighbouring community in explaining the high impact during the invasion of new sites in the introduced range. We conducted a mesocosm experiment under open-field conditions with the diploid (EU2x) and tetraploid (EU4x) cytotype of Centaurea stoebe from its native European (EU) range, and with the invasive tetraploid (NA4x) cytotype from the introduced North American (NA) range in competition with EU (old) or NA (new) neighbouring plant communities. In the presence of competition, the biomass of EU neighbouring community was reduced to a comparable level by all three geo-cytotypes of C. stoebe. In contrast, the biomass of the NA neighbouring community was reduced beyond when competing with tetraploid, but not with diploid C. stoebe. The fact that the biomass of all three geo-cytotypes of C. stoebe was correlated with the biomass of the EU neighbouring community, but not with that of the NA neighbouring community suggests that different mechanisms underlie the competitive interactions between C. stoebe and its old vs. new neighbouring communities, such as competition for the same limiting resources at home vs competition through novel allelo-chemicals or differential resource uptake strategies in the introduced range. We therefore caution to simply use the ecosystem impact assessed at home to predict impact in the introduced range. PMID:27203687

  3. Neighbour Origin and Ploidy Level Drive Impact of an Alien Invasive Plant Species in a Competitive Environment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Müller-Schärer, Heinz; Schaffner, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the potential mechanisms driving the spread and naturalization of alien plant species has increased over the past decades, but specific knowledge on the factors contributing to their increased impact in the introduced range is still urgently needed. The native European plant Centaurea stoebe occurs as two cytotypes with different life histories (monocarpic diploids, allo-polycarpic tetraploids). However, only tetraploids have been found in its introduced range in North America, where C. stoebe has become a most prominent plant invader. Here, we focus on the ploidy level of C. stoebe and origin of neighbouring community in explaining the high impact during the invasion of new sites in the introduced range. We conducted a mesocosm experiment under open-field conditions with the diploid (EU2x) and tetraploid (EU4x) cytotype of Centaurea stoebe from its native European (EU) range, and with the invasive tetraploid (NA4x) cytotype from the introduced North American (NA) range in competition with EU (old) or NA (new) neighbouring plant communities. In the presence of competition, the biomass of EU neighbouring community was reduced to a comparable level by all three geo-cytotypes of C. stoebe. In contrast, the biomass of the NA neighbouring community was reduced beyond when competing with tetraploid, but not with diploid C. stoebe. The fact that the biomass of all three geo-cytotypes of C. stoebe was correlated with the biomass of the EU neighbouring community, but not with that of the NA neighbouring community suggests that different mechanisms underlie the competitive interactions between C. stoebe and its old vs. new neighbouring communities, such as competition for the same limiting resources at home vs competition through novel allelo-chemicals or differential resource uptake strategies in the introduced range. We therefore caution to simply use the ecosystem impact assessed at home to predict impact in the introduced range. PMID:27203687

  4. Analysis of Power Plant NOx Emission Changes and Their Impact on Ozone in the Eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, G.; Kim, S.; McKeen, S.; Hsie, E. Y.; Trainer, M.; Peckham, S.; Grell, G.

    2005-12-01

    Changes in NOx emissions from electric power generation plants due to the implementation of pollution controls are measured by Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) and compiled by the EPA. Eastern US power plant NOx emissions decreased between 1999 and 2004 by about 50 percent during the summer ozone season (May - September). CEMS data for the 1999 - 2004 period are analyzed to understand the extent of these emission changes and their temporal and spatial variability. CEMS data are used to construct a nationwide 2004 update to the power plant portion of the EPA's NEI 1999, the most recent final emission inventory available for air quality models. O3 concentrations during the 2004 ozone season are simulated by the Weather Research and Forecasting Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model, with a base emission scenario using the NEI 1999 and a perturbation scenario using the updated 2004 inventory. The impact of these NOx emission trends on O3 in the Eastern US is described.

  5. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact: Biorecycling Technologies, Inc., Noble Biogas and Fertilizer Plant, Fresno County, California

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering a proposal from the California Energy Commission for partial funding up to $1,500,000 of the construction of the biorecycling Technologies, Inc., (BTI) Noble Biogas and Fertilizer Plant in Fresno County, California. BTI along with its contractors and business partners would develop the plant, which would use manure and green waste to produce biogas and a variety of organic fertilizer products. The California Energy Commission has requested funding from the DOE Commercialization Ventures program to assist in the construction of the plant, which would produce up to one megawatt of electricity by burning biogas in a cogeneration unit. The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to provide DOE and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with funding development of the proposed project.

  6. Role of adverse effects in medication nonadherence in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Mago, Rajnish; Borra, Dileep; Mahajan, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    Nonadherence to medications is common and associated with poor or limited clinical outcomes in the treatment of bipolar disorder. A review of the literature discloses that adverse effects are one of the commonly reported reasons for nonadherence to mood stabilizers by patients with bipolar disorder. Nevertheless, other than such broad summaries, relatively little attention has been given to the role of adverse effects in relation to nonadherence. This review article is the first to consolidate the available data on this topic. Weight gain, perceived cognitive impairment, tremors, and sedation are the adverse effects most likely to lead to nonadherence. Further research is needed to anticipate, identify, manage, and potentially minimize the impact of adverse effects. PMID:25377611

  7. A predictive framework and review of the ecological impacts of exotic plant invasions on reptiles and amphibians.

    PubMed

    Martin, Leigh J; Murray, Brad R

    2011-05-01

    The invasive spread of exotic plants in native vegetation can pose serious threats to native faunal assemblages. This is of particular concern for reptiles and amphibians because they form a significant component of the world's vertebrate fauna, play a pivotal role in ecosystem functioning and are often neglected in biodiversity research. A framework to predict how exotic plant invasion will affect reptile and amphibian assemblages is imperative for conservation, management and the identification of research priorities. Here, we present a new predictive framework that integrates three mechanistic models. These models are based on exotic plant invasion altering: (1) habitat structure; (2) herbivory and predator-prey interactions; (3) the reproductive success of reptile and amphibian species and assemblages. We present a series of testable predictions from these models that arise from the interplay over time among three exotic plant traits (growth form, area of coverage, taxonomic distinctiveness) and six traits of reptiles and amphibians (body size, lifespan, home range size, habitat specialisation, diet, reproductive strategy). A literature review provided robust empirical evidence of exotic plant impacts on reptiles and amphibians from each of the three model mechanisms. Evidence relating to the role of body size and diet was less clear-cut, indicating the need for further research. The literature provided limited empirical support for many of the other model predictions. This was not, however, because findings contradicted our model predictions but because research in this area is sparse. In particular, the small number of studies specifically examining the effects of exotic plants on amphibians highlights the pressing need for quantitative research in this area. There is enormous scope for detailed empirical investigation of interactions between exotic plants and reptile and amphibian species and assemblages. The framework presented here and further testing of

  8. Impacts of Photovoltaic Power Plant Sitings and Distributed Solar Panels on Meteorology and Air Quality in Central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastien, L. A.; Jin, L.; Brown, N. J.

    2012-12-01

    California's electric utility companies are required to use renewable energy to produce 20% of their power by 2010 and 33% by 2020. A main source of the power will be solar energy because photovoltaic technologies have advanced so much that large scale installations are being built and will be built in the future with even greater capacity. Rather than being a large emission source, these plants affect the ambient environment through albedo changes and by emission reductions associated with not burning fossil fuels to generate the same amount of electricity. Like conventional power plants, their impact on local meteorology and air quality depends on the specific technology, ambient atmospheric conditions, and the spatial location of the plant. Also, as solar panels on commercial and residential rooftops become even more common, the effect of distributed photovoltaic panels on meteorology and air quality is likely to become significant. In this study, we use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model at high resolution of 4 km x 4 km over several 5-day high-ozone episodes of the summer 2000 to assess the impact of photovoltaic panels on meteorology and air quality in Central California. We investigate the effect of locating a 1.0 Giga watt solar plant in different locations and the effect of distributed rooftop photovoltaic panels in major Californian cities, with a focus on peak and 8-hour average ozone and 24-hour average PM2.5.

  9. Spatial and temporal variation in plant hydraulic traits and their relevance for climate change impacts on vegetation.

    PubMed

    Anderegg, William R L

    2015-02-01

    Plant hydraulics mediate terrestrial woody plant productivity, influencing global water, carbon, and biogeochemical cycles, as well as ecosystem vulnerability to drought and climate change. While inter-specific differences in hydraulic traits are widely documented, intra-specific hydraulic variability is less well known and is important for predicting climate change impacts. Here, I present a conceptual framework for this intra-specific hydraulic trait variability, reviewing the mechanisms that drive variability and the consequences for vegetation response to climate change. I performed a meta-analysis on published studies (n = 33) of intra-specific variation in a prominent hydraulic trait - water potential at which 50% stem conductivity is lost (P50) - and compared this variation to inter-specific variability within genera and plant functional types used by a dynamic global vegetation model. I found that intra-specific variability is of ecologically relevant magnitudes, equivalent to c. 33% of the inter-specific variability within a genus, and is larger in angiosperms than gymnosperms, although the limited number of studies highlights that more research is greatly needed. Furthermore, plant functional types were poorly situated to capture key differences in hydraulic traits across species, indicating a need to approach prediction of drought impacts from a trait-based, rather than functional type-based perspective. PMID:25729797

  10. Analysis of mercury in rock varnish samples in areas impacted by coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Nowinski, Piotr; Hodge, Vernon F; Gerstenberger, Shawn; Cizdziel, James V

    2013-08-01

    Rock varnish is a manganese-iron rich coating that forms on rocks, most often in arid climates. To assess its utility as an environmental monitor of mercury contamination, cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS) was used for analysis. Samples were collected in the fallout patterns of two coal-fired power plants in southern Nevada: the defunct Mohave Power Plant (MPP) and the operating Reid Gardner Power Plant (RGPP). The resultant Hg concentrations in rock varnishes were plotted as a function of the distance from each power plant. The highest concentrations of Hg occurred at locations that suggest the power plants are the main source of pollutants. In addition, past tracer plume studies carried out at MPP show that the highest tracer concentrations coincide with the highest rock varnish Hg concentrations. However, additional samples are required to further demonstrate that power plants are indeed the sources of mercury in varnishes. PMID:23669462

  11. Impact of different plants on the gas profile of a landfill cover

    SciTech Connect

    Reichenauer, Thomas G.; Watzinger, Andrea; Riesing, Johann; Gerzabek, Martin H.

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: > Plants influence gas profile and methane oxidation in landfill covers. > Plants regulate water content and increase the availability of oxygen for methane oxidation. > Plant species with deep roots like alfalfa showed more stimulation of methane oxidation than plants with shallow root systems like grasses. - Abstract: Methane is an important greenhouse gas emitted from landfill sites and old waste dumps. Biological methane oxidation in landfill covers can help to reduce methane emissions. To determine the influence of different plant covers on this oxidation in a compost layer, we conducted a lysimeter study. We compared the effect of four different plant covers (grass, alfalfa + grass, miscanthus and black poplar) and of bare soil on the concentration of methane, carbon dioxide and oxygen in lysimeters filled with compost. Plants were essential for a sustainable reduction in methane concentrations, whereas in bare soil, methane oxidation declined already after 6 weeks. Enhanced microbial activity - expected in lysimeters with plants that were exposed to landfill gas - was supported by the increased temperature of the gas in the substrate and the higher methane oxidation potential. At the end of the first experimental year and from mid-April of the second experimental year, the methane concentration was most strongly reduced in the lysimeters containing alfalfa + grass, followed by poplar, miscanthus and grass. The observed differences probably reflect the different root morphology of the investigated plants, which influences oxygen transport to deeper compost layers and regulates the water content.

  12. Impact of plant species, substrate types and porosity on the fractionation of rare-earth elements in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semhi, K.; Clauer, N.; Chaudhuri, S.

    2009-04-01

    The distribution and content of rare-earth elements (REEs) were determined in two radish species (Raphanus sativus and Raphanus raphanistrum) that were grown under laboratory-controlled conditions, in three substrates consisting in illite for one and in smectite for the two others, the two latter being of the same type but with different porosities. The plants were split into two segments: the leaves and the stems+roots. The results indicate that both species pick up systematically higher amounts of REEs when grown in the illite substrate, considering that the smectite contains about 3 times more REEs. In R. sativus, the REE concentration of the leaves and of the stems+roots, whatever the substrate, ranges from 1.4 to 1.9 g/g. After normalization to the substrate in which they grew, the distribution patterns for the leaves of those from illite substrate are nearly flat, but irregular with a positive Eu anomaly. Those for the stems+roots are similar, but enriched in heavy REEs, also with a positive Eu anomaly. The REE concentrations of the leaves and the stems+roots of R. sativus grown in smectite are analytically similar at 1.6 and 1.4 g/g, respectively. The REE distribution patterns for the two organs, normalized again to those of the substrate, are very similar, flat with a distinct Eu anomaly. The heavy REE of the stems+roots of R. sativus grown on illite are enriched relative to those of the leaves, and a distinct positive Eu anomaly is observed in both the leaves and stems+roots from species grown on both illite and smectite. In the case of R. raphanistrum, the REE concentrations of the leaves and the stems+roots for those grown in the illite substrate were found to be significantly different at 11.0 and 6.6 g/g, respectively. The REE distribution patterns for the two different plant organs normalized to those of the substrates were found to be quite similar, all being quite flat, with a more or less pronounced Ce negative anomaly, and a prominent

  13. Reduction of the cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in transgenic potato plants limits photosynthetic sucrose biosynthesis with no impact on plant growth and tuber yield.

    PubMed

    Zrenner, R; Krause, K P; Apel, P; Sonnewald, U

    1996-05-01

    Sucrose produced in source leaves is the predominant carbon source for developing sink tissues in most higher plants. Consequently the rate of sucrose synthesis is likely to be important for sink development and final crop yield. Two sucrose biosynthetic enzymes are believed to possess regulatory properties with respect to the rate of sucrose synthesis: (i) cytosolic FBPase and (ii) sucrose phosphate synthase. To study the impact of reduced photosynthetic sucrose biosynthesis on plant growth and crop yield a cDNA clone encoding cytosolic FBPase was isolated from a potato leaf cDNA library and used for antisense experiments in transgenic potato plants. The cDNA clone cy-F1, containing an open reading frame of 1020 bp highly homologous (85%) to other known sequences of plant cytosolic FBPases, was cloned in reversed orientation between the 35S CaMV promoter and the octopine synthase polyadenylation signal. Out of 75 independent transformants five transgenic lines having 9 to 55% of the wild-type FBPase activity were chosen for further analysis. A 45% reduction of the cytosolic FBPase activity did not cause any measurable change in metabolite concentrations, growth behaviour or photosynthetic parameters of the transgenic plants. Inhibition of cytosolic FBPase activity below 20% of the wild-type activity led to an accumulation of 3-PGA, triose-phosphates and fructose-1,6-biphosphate in source leaves. This resulted in a reduced light-saturated rate of assimilation measured via gas exchange and a decreased photosynthetic rate under conditions of the leaf disc electrode with saturating light and CO2. Measuring photosynthetic carbon fluxes by labelling leaf discs with 14CO2 revealed a 53-65% reduction of sucrose synthesis whereas starch synthesis decreased only by 18-24%. The flux into the anionic and cationic fraction was not altered. Despite these changes steady-state sucrose concentrations were not effected in source leaves from transgenic plants. Starch accumulated by

  14. Cardiovascular adverse effects of phenytoin.

    PubMed

    Guldiken, B; Rémi, J; Noachtar, Soheyl

    2016-05-01

    Phenytoin is an established drug in the treatment of acute repetitive seizures and status epilepticus. One of its main advantages over benzodiazepines is the less sedative effect. However, the possibility of cardiovascular adverse effects with the intravenous use of phenytoin cause a reluctance to its usage, and this has lead to a search for safer anticonvulsant drugs. In this study, we aimed to review the studies which evaluated the safety of phenytoin with respect to cardiovascular adverse effects. The original clinical trials and case reports listed in PUBMED in English language between the years of 1946-2014 were evaluated. As the key words, "phenytoin, diphenylhydantoin, epilepsy, seizure, cardiac toxicity, asystole, arrhythmia, respiratory arrest, hypotension, death" were used. Thirty-two clinical trials and ten case reports were identified. In the case reports, a rapid infusion rate (>50 mg/min) of phenytoin appeared as the major cause of increased mortality. In contrast, no serious cardiovascular adverse effects leading to death were met in the clinical trials which applied the recommended infusion rate and dosages. An infusion rate of 50 mg/min was reported to be safe for young patients. For old patients and patients with a cardiovascular co-morbidity, a slower infusion rate was recommended with a careful follow-up of heart rhythm and blood pressure. No cardiovascular adverse effect was reported in oral phenytoin overdoses except one case with a very high serum phenytoin level and hypoalbuminemia. Phenytoin is an effective and well tolerated drug in the treatment of epilepsy. Intravenous phenytoin is safe when given at recommended infusion rates and doses. PMID:26645393

  15. Secondary compounds in floral rewards of toxic rangeland plants: Impacts on pollinators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study of plant secondary chemistry has been essential in understanding plant consumption by herbivores. There is growing evidence that secondary compounds also occur in floral rewards, including nectar and pollen. Many pollinators are generalist nectar and pollen foragers and thus are exposed to...

  16. Impact of insect management on population dynamics and insecticide resistance of tarnished plant bug (Lygus lineolaris)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot De Beauvois) is a highly polyphagous insect that feeds on numerous wild and cultivated host plants. Although transgenic crops expressing insecticidal toxins have been available for approximately 20 years for some insect crop pests, none have been d...

  17. Gasifier/combined-cycle plant minimizes environmental impacts. [California, coal water process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    The successful operation of the Cool Water integrated gasification/ combined cycle power plant is reported. As the only coal-fired power station in California it has easily met the Federal new-source performance standards for emissions and the State's strict pollution-control laws. Details are given of plant performance and air-polluting emissions.

  18. The impact of plant-based antimicrobials on sensory properties of organic leafy greens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant extracts and essential oils are well known for their antibacterial activity. However, studies concerning their effect on the organoleptic properties of treated foods are limited. The objective was to study the sensory attributes of organic leafy greens treated with plant antimicrobials and ide...

  19. Impact of a Real Microgravity on the Productivity of Tomato Plants and Resistance to Viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, L. T.; Dunich, A. A.; Danilova, O. I.

    2013-02-01

    It was detected that space flight factors increased tomato productivity that is important for using such plants as cosmonauts nutrition in long-term space missions. It was revealed that tomato plants, whose seeds were exposed to long space flight conditions, are more resistant to viruses and have higher polyphenols concentration than in the stationary control.

  20. The impact of microbial symbionts on host plant utilization by herbivorous insects.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Allison K; Moran, Nancy A

    2014-03-01

    Herbivory, defined as feeding on live plant tissues, is characteristic of highly successful and diverse groups of insects and represents an evolutionarily derived mode of feeding. Plants present various nutritional and defensive barriers against herbivory; nevertheless, insects have evolved a diverse array of mechanisms that enable them to feed and develop on live plant tissues. For decades, it has been suggested that insect-associated microbes may facilitate host plant use, and new molecular methodologies offer the possibility to elucidate such roles. Based on genomic data, specialized feeding on phloem and xylem sap is highly dependent on nutrient provisioning by intracellular symbionts, as exemplified by Buchnera in aphids, although it is unclear whether such symbionts play a substantive role in host plant specificity of their hosts. Microorganisms present in the gut or outside the insect body could provide more functions including digestion of plant polymers and detoxification of plant-produced toxins. However, the extent of such contributions to insect herbivory remains unclear. We propose that the potential functions of microbial symbionts in facilitating or restricting the use of host plants are constrained by their location (intracellular, gut or environmental), and by the fidelity of their associations with insect host lineages. Studies in the next decade, using molecular methods from environmental microbiology and genomics, will provide a more comprehensive picture of the role of microbial symbionts in insect herbivory. PMID:23952067

  1. HYDROLOGICAL IMPACTS OF WOODY PLANT ENCROACHMENT IN ARID AND SEMIARID GRASSLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Woody plants may be able to access deeper groundwater for year-round transpiration and thus consume more water than grasses, affecting recharge, soil moisture and runoff. Amount of water available to plants from precipitation is determined in part by nfiltration rates into...

  2. Land Use and Management Practices Impact on Plant Biomass Carbon and Soil Carbon Dioxide Emission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land use and management practices may influence plant C input and soil CO2 emission, a greenhouse gas responsible for global warming. We evaluated the effect of a combination of irrigation, tillage, cropping system, and N fertilization on plant biomass (leaves + stems) C, soil temperature and water ...

  3. Impact of varying planting dates and irrigation regimes on cotton growth and lint yield production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yield enhancements can be obtained in the Mississippi Delta by planting irrigated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) during the first week of April rather than the first week of May. Because it avoids some late season drought stress, early planting might also work for dryland production. Objectives we...

  4. Soil-mediated indirect impacts of an invasive predator on plant growth

    PubMed Central

    Wardle, David A.; Bellingham, Peter J.; Fukami, Tadashi; Bonner, Karen I.

    2012-01-01

    While several studies have shown that invasive plant effects on soil biota influence subsequent plant performance, corresponding studies on how invasive animals affect plants through influencing soil biota are lacking. This is despite the fact that invasive animals often indirectly alter the below-ground subsystem. We studied 18 offshore islands in northern New Zealand, half of which have been invaded by rats that are predators of seabirds and severely reduce their densities, and half of which remain non-invaded; invasion of rats thwarts seabird transfer of resources from ocean to land. We used soil from each island in a glasshouse experiment involving soil sterilization treatments to determine whether rat invasion indirectly influences plant growth through the abiotic pathway (by impairing seabird-driven inputs to soil) or the biotic pathway (by altering the soil community). Rat invasion greatly impaired plant growth but entirely through the abiotic pathway. Plant growth was unaffected by the soil community or its response to invasion, meaning that the responses of plants and soil biota to invasion are decoupled. Our results provide experimental evidence for the powerful indirect effects that predator-instigated cascades can exert on plant and ecosystem productivity, with implications for the restoration of island ecosystems by predator removal. PMID:22496079

  5. Impact of Obstetrician/Gynecologist Hospitalists on Quality of Obstetric Care (Cesarean Delivery Rates, Trial of Labor After Cesarean/Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Rates, and Neonatal Adverse Events).

    PubMed

    Iriye, Brian K

    2015-09-01

    Care via obstetric hospitalists continues to expand, quickly becoming an integral part of labor and delivery management in urban and suburban areas. Overall lower cesarean delivery rates have been found with obstetric hospitalist care. Continuous 24-hour coverage of labor units has displayed lower rates of neonatal adverse events and likely reduces time in decision to delivery. Further study is needed on maternal and neonatal outcomes to corroborate earlier observations, and to closely examine the type of obstetric hospitalist model being observed to aid in planning the ideal deployment of providers in this workforce of the future. PMID:26333637

  6. [Adverse events of psychotropic drugs].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Koichiro; Kikuchi, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    The authors discuss adverse events which are often missed but clinicians should pay attention to in order to preserve patients'quality of life(QOL). Among mood stabilizers, lithium may cause a urinary volume increase, hyperparathyroidism, and serum calcium elevation; sodium valproate possibly increases androgenic hormone levels and the risk of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) as well as hypothyroidism. Moreover, in addition to teratogenesis, it has been reported that fetal exposure to a higher dose of valproate is associated with a lower intelligence quotient and higher incidence of autism spectrum disorders in children. Antidepressants with a higher affinity for serotonin transporters might induce gastrointestinal bleeding, and some antidepressants cause sexual dysfunction more frequently than others. Activation syndrome is still a key side effect which should be noted. Regarding the adverse events of antipsychotics, subjective side effects unpleasant to patients such as dysphoria and a lower subjective well-being should not be overlooked. We clinicians have to cope with adverse events worsening the QOL of patients with psychiatric disorders and, therefore, we need to adopt appropriate counter-measures. PMID:24864567

  7. Reducing the impact of a desalination plant using stochastic modeling and optimization techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcolea, Andres; Renard, Philippe; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Bertone, François

    2009-02-01

    SummaryWater is critical for economic growth in coastal areas. In this context, desalination has become an increasingly important technology over the last five decades. It often has environmental side effects, especially when the input water is pumped directly from the sea via intake pipelines. However, it is generally more efficient and cheaper to desalt brackish groundwater from beach wells rather than desalting seawater. Natural attenuation is also gained and hazards due to anthropogenic pollution of seawater are reduced. In order to minimize allocation and operational costs and impacts on groundwater resources, an optimum pumping network is required. Optimization techniques are often applied to this end. Because of aquifer heterogeneity, designing the optimum pumping network demands reliable characterizations of aquifer parameters. An optimum pumping network in a coastal aquifer in Oman, where a desalination plant currently pumps brackish groundwater at a rate of 1200 m 3/h for a freshwater production of 504 m 3/h (insufficient to satisfy the growing demand in the area) was designed using stochastic inverse modeling together with optimization techniques. The Monte Carlo analysis of 200 simulations of transmissivity and storage coefficient fields conditioned to the response to stresses of tidal fluctuation and three long term pumping tests was performed. These simulations are physically plausible and fit the available data well. Simulated transmissivity fields are used to design the optimum pumping configuration required to increase the current pumping rate to 9000 m 3/h, for a freshwater production of 3346 m 3/h (more than six times larger than the existing one). For this task, new pumping wells need to be sited and their pumping rates defined. These unknowns are determined by a genetic algorithm that minimizes a function accounting for: (1) drilling, operational and maintenance costs, (2) target discharge and minimum drawdown (i.e., minimum aquifer

  8. The Impacts of Thermal and Smouldering Remediation on Soil Properties Related to Rehabilitation and Plant Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pape, A.; Knapp, C.; Switzer, C.

    2012-04-01

    Tens of thousands of sites worldwide are contaminated with toxic non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) reducing their economic and environmental value. As a result a number of treatments involving heat and smouldering have been developed to desorb and extract or destroy these contaminants including; steam injection (<110°C), electrical heating (<110°C), microwave heating (ambient to 400°C),conductive heating (ambient to 800°C) and in-situ smouldering (800°C to 1200°C). Implemented correctly these treatments are efficient enough for the soil to be safe for use, but the heating may unintentionally reduce the capability of the soil to act as a growing media. To investigate the effects of elevated temperature soils samples were heated at fixed temperatures (ambient to 1000°C) for one hour or smouldered after artificial contamination. Temperatures up to 105°C resulted in very little change in soil properties but at 250°C nutrients became more available. At 500°C little organic matter or nitrogen remained in the soil and clay sized particles started to decompose and aggregate. By 1000°C total and available phosphorus were very low, cation exchange capacity had been reduced, pH had increased and the clay fraction had been completely lost. Similar changes were observed in smouldered soils with variations dependent upon remediation conditions. As a result the smouldered soils will require nutrient supplementation to facilitate plant growth. Nutrient addition will also improve the physical properties of the soil and serve to re-inoculate it with microbes, particularly if an organic source such as compost or sewage sludge is used. The soils may remain effective growing media during lower temperature treatments; however some sort of soil inoculant would also be beneficial as these temperatures are sufficient to sterilise the system, which may impact nutrient cycling. Further work involving months-long exposure to the elevated temperatures that are typical of thermal

  9. Local Impacts of Mercury Emissions from the Three Pennsylvania Coal Fired Power Plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan,T.; Adams,J.; Bender, M.; Bu, C.; Piccolo, N.; Campbell, C.

    2008-02-01

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when fully implemented will lead to reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by 70 percent to fifteen tons per year by 2018. The EPA estimates that mercury deposition would be reduced 8 percent on average in the Eastern United States. The CAMR permits cap-and-trade approach that requires the nationwide emissions to meet the prescribed level, but do not require controls on each individual power plant. This has led to concerns that there may be hot-spots of mercury contamination near power plants. Partially because of this concern, many states including Pennsylvania have implemented, or are considering, state regulations that are stricter on mercury emissions than those in the CAMR. This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury 'hot spots'. Soil and oak leaf samples from around three large U.S. coal-fired power plants in Western Pennsylvania were collected and analyzed for evidence of 'hot spots'. These three plants (Conemaugh, Homer City, and Keystone) are separated by a total distance of approximately 30 miles. Each emits over 500 pounds of mercury per year which is well above average for mercury emissions from coal plants in the U.S. Soil and oak leaf sampling programs were performed around each power plant. Sampling rings one-mile apart were used with eight or nine locations on each ring. The prevailing winds in the region are from the west. For this reason, sampling was conducted out to 10 miles from the Conemaugh plant which is southeast of the others. The other plants were sampled to a distance of five miles. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with wind patterns. The study found the following

  10. PFIESTERIA PISCICIDA IMPACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent evidence suggests that the estuarine dinofageflate, Pfiesteria piscicida, may release a toxin(s) which kills fish and adversely affects human health in laboratory and environmental settings. The potential for Pfresferia-like organisms to adversely impact estuarine ecosys...

  11. Impacts of precipitation variability on plant species and community water stress in a temperate deciduous forest in the central US

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gu, Lianhong; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Hosman, Kevin P.; Sun, Ying

    2015-12-11

    Variations in precipitation regimes can shift ecosystem structure and function by altering frequency, severity and timing of plant water stress. There is a need for predictively understanding impacts of precipitation regimes on plant water stress in relation to species water use strategies. Here we first formulated two complementary, physiologically-linked measures of precipitation variability (PV) - Precipitation Variability Index (PVI) and Average Recurrence Interval of Effective Precipitation (ARIEP). We then used nine-year continuous measurements of Predawn Leaf Water Potential Integral (PLWPI) in a central US forest to relate PVI and ARIEP to actual plant water availability and comparative water stress responsesmore » of six species with different capacities to regulate their internal water status. We found that PVI and ARIEP explained nearly all inter-annual variations in PLWPI for all species as well as for the community scaled from species measurements. The six species investigated showed differential sensitivities to variations in precipitation regimes. Their sensitivities were reflected more in the responses to PVI and ARIEP than to the mean precipitation rate. Further, they exhibited tradeoffs between responses to low and high PV. Finally, PVI and ARIEP were clo