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Sample records for advertisement loudness mitigation

  1. 78 FR 70907 - Implementation of the Commercial Advertisement Loudness Mitigation (CALM) Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    .... ``PROCEDURAL MATTERS'' heading of the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of this document. FOR FURTHER..., 77 FR 40276, July 9, 2012 (CALM Act Report and Order). \\4\\ See infra para. 7. II. Background 2. On... differences between loudness and dynamic range.'' Id. III. Discussion 4. As an initial matter, we address...

  2. 76 FR 32116 - Implementation of the Commercial Advertisement Loudness Mitigation (CALM) Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ...''). \\7\\ See 1984 Order, FCC 84-300, 49 FR 28077, July 10, 1984 (``1984 Order'') (observing in 1984 that..., FCC 11-36, 76 FR 14856, March 18, 2011 (``Video Description NPRM''). See also ATSC A/53, Part 5: 2010... sound stimulates the ear''). \\24\\ Metadata or ``data about the (audio) data'' is...

  3. 77 FR 40276 - Implementation of the Commercial Advertisement Loudness Mitigation (CALM) Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... Order, FCC 84-300, 49 FR 28077, July 10, 1984 (``1984 Order'') (observing in 1984 that ``the Commission....'' See 1984 Order at para. 14. See 1979 NOI, 44 FR 40532, July 11, 1979. The NTSC analog television... Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010, MB Docket No. 11-43, Report and Order, 76...

  4. How Loud Is Too Loud?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Menu Home Health Info Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Balance Taste and Smell Voice, Speech, and Language ... here Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness How Loud is Too Loud? Video Scientists measure ...

  5. Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFazio, Frank A.; Arnold, Douglas

    1988-01-01

    Reaching students and donors through advertising is discussed in several articles including: "Proven Effective," on what makes three advertising campaigns work; "Commercial Appeal," on how advertising can help institutions meet its goals (Frank A. DeFazio); "Desperately Seeking Savvy," on finding the right advertising agency (Douglas Arnold); and…

  6. Binaural Loudness Constancy.

    PubMed

    Culling, John F; Dare, Helen

    2016-01-01

    In binaural loudness summation, diotic presentation of a sound usually produces greater loudness than monaural presentation. However, experiments using loudspeaker presentation with and without earplugs find that magnitude estimates of loudness are little altered by the earplug, suggesting a form of loudness constancy. We explored the significance of controlling stimulation of the second ear using meatal occlusion as opposed to the deactivation of one earphone. We measured the point of subjective loudness equality (PSLE) for monaural vs. binaural presentation using an adaptive technique for both speech and noise. These stimuli were presented in a reverberant room over a loudspeaker to the right of the listener, or over lightweight headphones. Using the headphones, stimuli were either presented dry, or matched to those of the loudspeaker by convolution with impulse responses measured from the loudspeaker to the listener position, using an acoustic manikin. The headphone response was also compensated. Using the loudspeaker, monaural presentation was achieved by instructing the listener to block the left ear with a finger. Near perfect binaural loudness constancy was observed using loudspeaker presentation, while there was a summation effect of 3-6 dB for both headphone conditions. However, only partial constancy was observed when meatal occlusion was simulated. These results suggest that there may be contributions to binaural loudness constancy from residual low frequencies at the occluded ear as well as a cognitive element, which is activated by the knowledge that one ear is occluded.

  7. Overall loudness of steady sounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howes, W. L.; Canright, V. R.

    1980-01-01

    Loudness (in sones) and loudness level (in phons) of any sound that is steady for tenths of second can be calculated using computer program derived from new operational theory of loudness. Theory is constructed from psychoacoustic and physiological data on mammalian (monkey) auditory systems. Computer program permits prediction of loudness of any steady sound including, for example, transportation noises, machinery noises, and other environmental noises, with possible additional applications to broadcasting, sound reproduction, establishment and enforcement of noise laws.

  8. Effects of expectations on loudness and loudness difference.

    PubMed

    Parker, Scott; Moore, Julianne M; Bahraini, Sara; Gunthert, Kathleen; Zellner, Debra A

    2012-08-01

    To determine how expectations affect loudness and loudness difference, in two experiments we induced some subjects to expect loud sounds (condition L), some to expect soft sounds (condition S), and others to have no particular expectations (control). In Experiment 1, all subjects estimated the loudnesses of the same set of three moderately loud 1-kHz tones. Estimates were greatest for subjects in condition S and smallest for subjects in condition L. Control subjects' estimates were intermediate but closer to those of condition S subjects. In Experiment 2, subjects estimated the difference in loudness for pairs of moderately loud 1-kHz tones. Again, estimates were smallest for condition L subjects; estimates were greatest for control subjects, and condition S subjects' estimates were closer to control estimates than to condition L estimates. This pattern of results is explainable by a combination of (1) Parducci's (1995) range-frequency theory and (2) a gain control mechanism in the auditory system under top-down governance (Schneider, Parker, & Murphy, 2011).

  9. Hearing Sensation Changes When a Warning Predicts a Loud Sound in the False Killer Whale (Pseudorca crassidens).

    PubMed

    Nachtigall, Paul E; Supin, Alexander Y

    2016-01-01

    Stranded whales and dolphins have sometimes been associated with loud anthropogenic sounds. Echolocating whales produce very loud sounds themselves and have developed the ability to protect their hearing from their own signals. A false killer whale's hearing sensitivity was measured when a faint warning sound was given just before the presentation of an increase in intensity to 170 dB. If the warning occurred within 1-9 s, as opposed to 20-40 s, the whale showed a 13-dB reduction in hearing sensitivity. Warning sounds before loud pulses may help mitigate the effects of loud anthropogenic sounds on wild animals. PMID:26611027

  10. Hearing Sensation Changes When a Warning Predicts a Loud Sound in the False Killer Whale (Pseudorca crassidens).

    PubMed

    Nachtigall, Paul E; Supin, Alexander Y

    2016-01-01

    Stranded whales and dolphins have sometimes been associated with loud anthropogenic sounds. Echolocating whales produce very loud sounds themselves and have developed the ability to protect their hearing from their own signals. A false killer whale's hearing sensitivity was measured when a faint warning sound was given just before the presentation of an increase in intensity to 170 dB. If the warning occurred within 1-9 s, as opposed to 20-40 s, the whale showed a 13-dB reduction in hearing sensitivity. Warning sounds before loud pulses may help mitigate the effects of loud anthropogenic sounds on wild animals.

  11. Loud music listening.

    PubMed

    Petrescu, Nicolae

    2008-07-01

    Over the past four decades, there has been increasing interest in the effects of music listening on hearing. The purpose of this paper is to review published studies that detail the noise levels, the potential effects (e.g. noise-induced hearing loss), and the perceptions of those affected by music exposure in occupational and non-occupational settings. The review employed Medline, PubMed, PsychINFO, and the World Wide Web to find relevant studies in the scientific literature. Considered in this review are 43 studies concerning the currently most significant occupational sources of high-intensity music: rock and pop music playing and employment at music venues, as well as the most significant sources of non-occupational high-intensity music: concerts, dicotheques (clubs), and personal music players. Although all of the activities listed above have the potential for hearing damage, the most serious threat to hearing comes from prolonged exposures to amplified live music (concerts). The review concludes that more research is needed to clarify the hearing loss risks of music exposure from personal music players and that current scientific literature clearly recognizes an unmet hearing health need for more education regarding the risks of loud music exposure and the benefits of wearing hearing protection, for more hearing protection use by those at risk, and for more regulations limiting music intensity levels at music entertainment venues.

  12. Tinnitus severity, loudness, and depression.

    PubMed

    Folmer, R L; Griest, S E; Meikle, M B; Martin, W H

    1999-07-01

    Answers to questionnaires filled out by 436 patients who visited our tinnitus clinic were analyzed. Patients were asked to report the presence or absence of depression and to rate the loudness and severity of their tinnitus. Responses to questions about tinnitus loudness and severity from 121 patients who reported current depression were compared with responses from 285 patients who reported no history of depression. There was no significant difference in reported loudness of tinnitus between patients with and without depression. However, patients with current depression scored significantly higher than patients without depression on all 12 questions relating to tinnitus severity. We conclude that depression and tinnitus severity are linked in some patients. Treatment of depression with medications and psychotherapy is likely to reduce tinnitus severity for many of these patients. PMID:10388877

  13. Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? KidsHealth > For Kids > Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Print A A A Text ... up? Oh! You want to know if loud music can hurt your ears . Are you asking because ...

  14. Radio Loud AGNs are Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiaberge, Marco; Gilli, Roberto; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Norman, Colin

    2015-06-01

    We measure the merger fraction of Type 2 radio-loud and radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z\\gt 1 using new samples. The objects have Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images taken with Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) in the IR channel. These samples are compared to the 3CR sample of radio galaxies at z\\gt 1 and to a sample of non-active galaxies. We also consider lower redshift radio galaxies with HST observations and previous generation instruments (NICMOS and WFPC2). The full sample spans an unprecedented range in both redshift and AGN luminosity. We perform statistical tests to determine whether the different samples are differently associated with mergers. We find that all (92%-14%+8%) radio-loud galaxies at z\\gt 1 are associated with recent or ongoing merger events. Among the radio-loud population there is no evidence for any dependence of the merger fraction on either redshift or AGN power. For the matched radio-quiet samples, only 38%-15+16 are merging systems. The merger fraction for the sample of non-active galaxies at z\\gt 1 is indistinguishable from radio-quiet objects. This is strong evidence that mergers are the triggering mechanism for the radio-loud AGN phenomenon and the launching of relativistic jets from supermassive black holes (SMBHs). We speculate that major black hole (BH)-BH mergers play a major role in spinning up the central SMBHs in these objects.

  15. Basilar membrane nonlinearity and loudness.

    PubMed

    Schlauch, R S; DiGiovanni, J J; Ries, D T

    1998-04-01

    Loudness matching functions for tones for persons with one shifted-threshold ear (hearing loss and noise-shifted thresholds) and one ear within normal limits were used to derive the presumed basilar membrane (BM) input-output (I/O) function in a normal ear. The comparison was made by assuming that the BM I/O function for the ear with the cochlear threshold shift has a slope of one (a linearized cochlea). The function for the normal ear was derived from the loudness matching function based on this assumption. Comparisons were made for archival basilar membrane data [M. A. Ruggero, N. C. Rich, A. Recio, S. S. Narayan, and L. Robles, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 101, 2151-2163 (1997)] for chinchilla and archival loudness matches for long-duration tones for persons with various degrees of cochlear hearing loss [F. Miskolczy-Fodor, J. Acoust Soc. Am. 32, 486-492 (1960)]. Comparisons were made also between BM I/O functions and ones derived from loudness matches for persons with unilateral hearing loss simulated by broadband noise. The results show a close resemblance between the basilar membrane I/O function and the function derived from loudness matches for long-duration tones, even though the comparison was between human and chinchilla data. As the degree of threshold shift increases from 40 to 80 dB, the derived BM I/O functions become shallower, with slopes for losses of 60 dB or more falling in the range of values reported for physiological data. Additional measures with short-duration tones in noise show that the slope of the loudness function and the slope of the derived basilar membrane I/O function are associated with the behavioral threshold for the tone. The results for long-duration tones suggest a correspondence between BM displacement and loudness perception in cases of recruitment, but the relation between the degree of loss and the amount of BM compression and the relation between signal duration and compression suggests that other factors, such as the neural

  16. Radio Loud AGNs are Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiaberge, Marco; Gilli, Roberto; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Norman, Colin

    2015-06-01

    We measure the merger fraction of Type 2 radio-loud and radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z\\gt 1 using new samples. The objects have Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images taken with Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) in the IR channel. These samples are compared to the 3CR sample of radio galaxies at z\\gt 1 and to a sample of non-active galaxies. We also consider lower redshift radio galaxies with HST observations and previous generation instruments (NICMOS and WFPC2). The full sample spans an unprecedented range in both redshift and AGN luminosity. We perform statistical tests to determine whether the different samples are differently associated with mergers. We find that all (92%-14%+8%) radio-loud galaxies at z\\gt 1 are associated with recent or ongoing merger events. Among the radio-loud population there is no evidence for any dependence of the merger fraction on either redshift or AGN power. For the matched radio-quiet samples, only 38%-15+16 are merging systems. The merger fraction for the sample of non-active galaxies at z\\gt 1 is indistinguishable from radio-quiet objects. This is strong evidence that mergers are the triggering mechanism for the radio-loud AGN phenomenon and the launching of relativistic jets from supermassive black holes (SMBHs). We speculate that major black hole (BH)–BH mergers play a major role in spinning up the central SMBHs in these objects.

  17. Mental imagery for musical changes in loudness.

    PubMed

    Bailes, Freya; Bishop, Laura; Stevens, Catherine J; Dean, Roger T

    2012-01-01

    Musicians imagine music during mental rehearsal, when reading from a score, and while composing. An important characteristic of music is its temporality. Among the parameters that vary through time is sound intensity, perceived as patterns of loudness. Studies of mental imagery for melodies (i.e., pitch and rhythm) show interference from concurrent musical pitch and verbal tasks, but how we represent musical changes in loudness is unclear. Theories suggest that our perceptions of loudness change relate to our perceptions of force or effort, implying a motor representation. An experiment was conducted to investigate the modalities that contribute to imagery for loudness change. Musicians performed a within-subjects loudness change recall task, comprising 48 trials. First, participants heard a musical scale played with varying patterns of loudness, which they were asked to remember. There followed an empty interval of 8 s (nil distractor control), or the presentation of a series of four sine tones, or four visual letters or three conductor gestures, also to be remembered. Participants then saw an unfolding score of the notes of the scale, during which they were to imagine the corresponding scale in their mind while adjusting a slider to indicate the imagined changes in loudness. Finally, participants performed a recognition task of the tone, letter, or gesture sequence. Based on the motor hypothesis, we predicted that observing and remembering conductor gestures would impair loudness change scale recall, while observing and remembering tone or letter string stimuli would not. Results support this prediction, with loudness change recalled less accurately in the gestures condition than in the control condition. An effect of musical training suggests that auditory and motor imagery ability may be closely related to domain expertise. PMID:23227014

  18. Function of loud calls in wild bonobos.

    PubMed

    White, Frances; Waller, Michel; Boose, Klaree; Merrill, Michelle; Wood, Kimberley

    2015-07-20

    Under the social origins hypothesis, human language is thought to have evolved within the framework of non-human primate social contexts and relationships. Our two closest relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos, however, have very different social relationships and this may be reflected in their use of loud calls. Much of loud calling in the male-bonded and aggressive chimpanzee functions for male alliance formation and intercommunity aggression. Bonobos, however, are female bonded and less aggressive and little is known on the use and function of their loud calls. Data on frequencies, context, and locations of vocalizations were collected for wild bonobos, Pan paniscus, at the Lomako Forest study site in the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 1983 to 2009. Both males and females participated in loud calls used for inter-party communication. Calling and response rates by both males and females were higher during party fusion than party fission and were common at evening nesting. The distribution of loud calls within the community range of loud calls was not random with males calling significantly more towards the periphery of the range and females calling significantly more in central areas. Calling and party fission were common at food patches. Responses were more frequent for female calls than for male calls. Calling, followed by fusion, was more frequent when a small party called from a large patch. We conclude that bonobo females and males loud calls can function in inter-party communication to call others to large food patches. Females call to attract potential allies and males call to attract potential mates. Our results support the social hypothesis of the origin of language because differences in the function and use of loud calls reflect the differing social systems of chimpanzees and bonobos. Bonobo loud calls are important for female communication and function in party coordination and, unlike chimpanzees, are less important in male cooperative aggression

  19. Function of loud calls in wild bonobos.

    PubMed

    White, Frances; Waller, Michel; Boose, Klaree; Merrill, Michelle; Wood, Kimberley

    2015-07-20

    Under the social origins hypothesis, human language is thought to have evolved within the framework of non-human primate social contexts and relationships. Our two closest relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos, however, have very different social relationships and this may be reflected in their use of loud calls. Much of loud calling in the male-bonded and aggressive chimpanzee functions for male alliance formation and intercommunity aggression. Bonobos, however, are female bonded and less aggressive and little is known on the use and function of their loud calls. Data on frequencies, context, and locations of vocalizations were collected for wild bonobos, Pan paniscus, at the Lomako Forest study site in the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 1983 to 2009. Both males and females participated in loud calls used for inter-party communication. Calling and response rates by both males and females were higher during party fusion than party fission and were common at evening nesting. The distribution of loud calls within the community range of loud calls was not random with males calling significantly more towards the periphery of the range and females calling significantly more in central areas. Calling and party fission were common at food patches. Responses were more frequent for female calls than for male calls. Calling, followed by fusion, was more frequent when a small party called from a large patch. We conclude that bonobo females and males loud calls can function in inter-party communication to call others to large food patches. Females call to attract potential allies and males call to attract potential mates. Our results support the social hypothesis of the origin of language because differences in the function and use of loud calls reflect the differing social systems of chimpanzees and bonobos. Bonobo loud calls are important for female communication and function in party coordination and, unlike chimpanzees, are less important in male cooperative aggression.

  20. Loudness of steady sounds - A new theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howes, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    A new mathematical theory for calculating the loudness of steady sounds from power summation and frequency interaction, based on psychoacoustic and physiological information, assuems that loudness is a subjective measure of the electrical energy transmitted along the auditory nerve to the central nervous system. The auditory system consists of the mechanical part modeled by a bandpass filter with a transfer function dependent on the sound pressure, and the electrical part where the signal is transformed into a half-wave reproduction represented by the electrical power in impulsive discharges transmitted along neurons comprising the auditory nerve. In the electrical part the neurons are distributed among artificial parallel channels with frequency bandwidths equal to 'critical bandwidths for loudness', within which loudness is constant for constant sound pressure. The total energy transmitted to the central nervous system is the sum of the energy transmitted in all channels, and the loudness is proportional to the square root of the total filtered sound energy distributed over all channels. The theory explains many psychoacoustic phenomena such as audible beats resulting from closely spaced tones, interaction of sound stimuli which affect the same neurons affecting loudness, and of individually subliminal sounds becoming audible if they lie within the same critical band.

  1. Categorical loudness scaling and equal-loudness contours in listeners with normal hearing and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Rasetshwane, Daniel M; Trevino, Andrea C; Gombert, Jessa N; Liebig-Trehearn, Lauren; Kopun, Judy G; Jesteadt, Walt; Neely, Stephen T; Gorga, Michael P

    2015-04-01

    This study describes procedures for constructing equal-loudness contours (ELCs) in units of phons from categorical loudness scaling (CLS) data and characterizes the impact of hearing loss on these estimates of loudness. Additionally, this study developed a metric, level-dependent loudness loss, which uses CLS data to specify the deviation from normal loudness perception at various loudness levels and as function of frequency for an individual listener with hearing loss. CLS measurements were made in 87 participants with hearing loss and 61 participants with normal hearing. An assessment of the reliability of CLS measurements was conducted on a subset of the data. CLS measurements were reliable. There was a systematic increase in the slope of the low-level segment of the CLS functions with increase in the degree of hearing loss. ELCs derived from CLS measurements were similar to standardized ELCs (International Organization for Standardization, ISO 226:2003). The presence of hearing loss decreased the vertical spacing of the ELCs, reflecting loudness recruitment and reduced cochlear compression. Representing CLS data in phons may lead to wider acceptance of CLS measurements. Like the audiogram that specifies hearing loss at threshold, level-dependent loudness loss describes deficit for suprathreshold sounds. Such information may have implications for the fitting of hearing aids.

  2. Restoration of loudness summation and differential loudness growth in hearing-impaired listeners.

    PubMed

    Strelcyk, Olaf; Nooraei, Nazanin; Kalluri, Sridhar; Edwards, Brent

    2012-10-01

    When normal-hearing (NH) listeners compare the loudness of narrowband and wideband sounds presented at identical sound pressure levels, the wideband sound will most often be perceived as louder than the narrowband sound, a phenomenon referred to as loudness summation. Hearing-impaired (HI) listeners typically show less-than-normal loudness summation, due to reduced cochlear compressive gain and degraded frequency selectivity. In the present study, loudness summation at 1 and 3 kHz was estimated monaurally for five NH and eight HI listeners by matching the loudness of narrowband and wideband noise stimuli. The loudness summation was measured as a function both of noise bandwidth and level. The HI listeners were tested unaided and aided using three different compression systems to investigate the possibility of restoring loudness summation in these listeners. A compression system employing level-dependent compression channels yielded the most promising outcome. The present results inform the development of future loudness models and advanced compensation strategies for the hearing impaired. PMID:23039449

  3. Spectro-temporal weighting of loudness.

    PubMed

    Oberfeld, Daniel; Heeren, Wiebke; Rennies, Jan; Verhey, Jesko

    2012-01-01

    Real-world sounds like speech or traffic noise typically exhibit spectro-temporal variability because the energy in different spectral regions evolves differently as a sound unfolds in time. However, it is currently not well understood how the energy in different spectral and temporal portions contributes to loudness. This study investigated how listeners weight different temporal and spectral components of a sound when judging its overall loudness. Spectral weights were measured for the combination of three loudness-matched narrowband noises with different center frequencies. To measure temporal weights, 1,020-ms stimuli were presented, which randomly changed in level every 100 ms. Temporal weights were measured for each narrowband noise separately, and for a broadband noise containing the combination of the three noise bands. Finally, spectro-temporal weights were measured with stimuli where the level of the three narrowband noises randomly and independently changed every 100 ms. The data consistently showed that (i) the first 300 ms of the sounds had a greater influence on overall loudness perception than later temporal portions (primacy effect), and (ii) the lowest noise band contributed significantly more to overall loudness than the higher bands. The temporal weights did not differ between the three frequency bands. Notably, the spectral weights and temporal weights estimated from the conditions with only spectral or only temporal variability were very similar to the corresponding weights estimated in the spectro-temporal condition. The results indicate that the temporal and the spectral weighting of the loudness of a time-varying sound are independent processes. The spectral weights remain constant across time, and the temporal weights do not change across frequency. The results are discussed in the context of current loudness models.

  4. Spectro-Temporal Weighting of Loudness

    PubMed Central

    Oberfeld, Daniel; Heeren, Wiebke; Rennies, Jan; Verhey, Jesko

    2012-01-01

    Real-world sounds like speech or traffic noise typically exhibit spectro-temporal variability because the energy in different spectral regions evolves differently as a sound unfolds in time. However, it is currently not well understood how the energy in different spectral and temporal portions contributes to loudness. This study investigated how listeners weight different temporal and spectral components of a sound when judging its overall loudness. Spectral weights were measured for the combination of three loudness-matched narrowband noises with different center frequencies. To measure temporal weights, 1,020-ms stimuli were presented, which randomly changed in level every 100 ms. Temporal weights were measured for each narrowband noise separately, and for a broadband noise containing the combination of the three noise bands. Finally, spectro-temporal weights were measured with stimuli where the level of the three narrowband noises randomly and independently changed every 100 ms. The data consistently showed that (i) the first 300 ms of the sounds had a greater influence on overall loudness perception than later temporal portions (primacy effect), and (ii) the lowest noise band contributed significantly more to overall loudness than the higher bands. The temporal weights did not differ between the three frequency bands. Notably, the spectral weights and temporal weights estimated from the conditions with only spectral or only temporal variability were very similar to the corresponding weights estimated in the spectro-temporal condition. The results indicate that the temporal and the spectral weighting of the loudness of a time-varying sound are independent processes. The spectral weights remain constant across time, and the temporal weights do not change across frequency. The results are discussed in the context of current loudness models. PMID:23209670

  5. The Radio-Loud Narrow-Line Quasar SDSS J172206.03+565451.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komossa, Stefanie; Voges, Wolfgang; Adorf, Hans-Martin; Xu, Dawei; Mathur, Smita; Anderson, Scott F.

    2006-03-01

    We report identification of the radio-loud narrow-line quasar SDSS J172206.03+565451.6, which we found in the course of a search for radio-loud narrow-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs). SDSS J172206.03+565451.6 is only about the fourth securely identified radio-loud narrow-line quasar and the second-most radio loud, with a radio index R1.4~100-700. Its black hole mass, MBH~=(2-3)×107 Msolar estimated from Hβ line width and 5100 Å luminosity, is unusually small given its radio loudness, and the combination of mass and radio index puts SDSS J172206.03+565451.6 in a scarcely populated region of MBH-R diagrams. SDSS J172206.03+565451.6 is a classical narrow-line Seyfert 1-type object with FWHMHβ~=1490 km s-1, an intensity ratio of [O III]/Hβ~=0.7, and Fe II emission complexes with Fe II λ4570/Hβ~=0.7. The ionization parameter of its narrow-line region, estimated from the line ratio [O II]/[O III], is similar to Seyferts, and its high ratio of [Ne V]/[Ne III] indicates a strong EUV-to-soft X-ray excess. We advertise the combined usage of [O II]/[O III] and [Ne V]/[Ne III] diagrams as a useful diagnostic tool to estimate ionization parameters and to constrain the EUV-soft X-ray continuum shape relatively independently from other parameters.

  6. Loudness enhancement - Monaural, binaural, and dichotic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmasian, R.; Galambos, R.

    1975-01-01

    When one tone burst (T) precedes another (S) by 100 msec, variations in the intensity of T systematically influence the loudness of S. When T is more intense than S, S is increased; and when T is less intense, S loudness is decreased. This occurs in monaural, binaural, and dichotic paradigms of signal presentation. When T and S are presented to the same ear (monaural or binaural), there is more enhancement with less intersubject variability than when they are presented to different ears (dichotic paradigm). Monaural enhancements as large as 30 dB can readily be demonstrated, but decrements rarely exceed 5 dB. Possible physiological mechanisms are discussed for this loudness enhancement, which apparently shares certain characteristics with time-order error, assimilation, and temporal partial masking experiments.

  7. Increased perception of loudness in autism.

    PubMed

    Khalfa, Stéphanie; Bruneau, Nicole; Rogé, Bernadette; Georgieff, Nicolas; Veuillet, Evelyne; Adrien, Jean-Louis; Barthélémy, Catherine; Collet, Lionel

    2004-12-01

    Clinical reports on autism describe abnormal responses to auditory stimuli such as intolerance to sounds. The present study assessed subjective perception of loudness in subjects with autism compared to healthy controls, using two psychoacoustic tests. First, the auditory dynamic range was evaluated at six different tone frequencies. Secondly, loudness growth as a function of the intensity level of a 1 kHz tone was estimated. Verbal responses from a group of 11 children and adolescents with autism were compared to responses of 11 age- and gender- matched healthy controls. Smaller auditory dynamic ranges were found in the autistic group than in the control group, as well as increased perception of loudness, indicating hyperacusis in subjects with autism.

  8. Loudness in listening to music with portable headphone stereos.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, T

    1999-04-01

    The usual listening levels of music (loudness) using portable headphone stereos were measured for 46 young volunteers. Loudness was associated with sex, Extraversion scores, a subjective mental health state, and impression of the music.

  9. The effect of loudness on the reverberance of music: reverberance prediction using loudness models.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doheon; Cabrera, Densil; Martens, William L

    2012-02-01

    This study examines the auditory attribute that describes the perceived amount of reverberation, known as "reverberance." Listening experiments were performed using two signals commonly heard in auditoria: excerpts of orchestral music and western classical singing. Listeners adjusted the decay rate of room impulse responses prior to convolution with these signals, so as to match the reverberance of each stimulus to that of a reference stimulus. The analysis examines the hypothesis that reverberance is related to the loudness decay rate of the underlying room impulse response. This hypothesis is tested using computational models of time varying or dynamic loudness, from which parameters analogous to conventional reverberation parameters (early decay time and reverberation time) are derived. The results show that listening level significantly affects reverberance, and that the loudness-based parameters outperform related conventional parameters. Results support the proposed relationship between reverberance and the computationally predicted loudness decay function of sound in rooms. PMID:22352494

  10. The effect of loudness on the reverberance of music: reverberance prediction using loudness models.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doheon; Cabrera, Densil; Martens, William L

    2012-02-01

    This study examines the auditory attribute that describes the perceived amount of reverberation, known as "reverberance." Listening experiments were performed using two signals commonly heard in auditoria: excerpts of orchestral music and western classical singing. Listeners adjusted the decay rate of room impulse responses prior to convolution with these signals, so as to match the reverberance of each stimulus to that of a reference stimulus. The analysis examines the hypothesis that reverberance is related to the loudness decay rate of the underlying room impulse response. This hypothesis is tested using computational models of time varying or dynamic loudness, from which parameters analogous to conventional reverberation parameters (early decay time and reverberation time) are derived. The results show that listening level significantly affects reverberance, and that the loudness-based parameters outperform related conventional parameters. Results support the proposed relationship between reverberance and the computationally predicted loudness decay function of sound in rooms.

  11. Q: How Does Loud Noise Affect Hearing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, William C.

    2010-01-01

    This is an appropriate question, especially in light of the recent news that the incidence of hearing loss in teens has been increased by a third. To understand how loud noise affects hearing, you need to know the basics of how your ear works. To understand how your ear works, it will help if you do the following activities and ignore that they…

  12. Subjective loudness of "minimized" sonic boom waveforms.

    PubMed

    Niedzwiecki, A; Ribner, H S

    1978-12-01

    For very long supersonic aircraft the "midfield" sonic boom signature may not have evolved fully into an N wave at ground level. Thus in current boom minimization techniques the shape of the aircraft may be tailored to optimize this midfield wave form for reduced subjective loudness. The present investigation tests a family of "flat-top" waveforms cited by Darden: all but one have a front shock height (deltapSH) less than the peak amplitude (deltapMAX). For equal subjective loudness, "flat top" vs N wave (peak overpressure deltapN), the peak amplitude of the "flat top" signature was found to be substantially higher than that of the N wave; thus for equal peak amplitude the "flat-top" signature was quieter. The results for equal loudness were well fitted by an emperical law deltapSH + 0.11deltapMAX = deltapN; the equivalence shows how the front shock amplitude (deltapSH) dominates the loudness. All this was found compatible with predictions by the method of Johnson and Robinson. PMID:739097

  13. Loudness function derives from data on electrical discharge rates in auditory nerve fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howes, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    Judgements of the loudness of pure-tone sound stimuli yield a loudness function which relates perceived loudness to stimulus amplitude. A loudness function is derived from physical evidence alone without regard to human judgments. The resultant loudness function is L=K(q-q0), where L is loudness, q is effective sound pressure (specifically q0 at the loudness threshold), and K is generally a weak function of the number of stimulated auditory nerve fibers. The predicted function is in agreement with loudness judgment data reported by Warren, which imply that, in the suprathreshold loudness regime, decreasing the sound-pressure level by 6 db results in halving the loudness.

  14. The effect of stimulus bandwidth on binaural loudness summation.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhiyue; Mo, Fangshuo; Mao, Dongxing

    2015-09-01

    Binaural loudness summation is an important property of the human auditory system. This paper presents an experimental investigation of how binaural loudness summation varies with stimulus bandwidth. Loudness matches were obtained between dichotic stimuli, with interaural level differences (ILDs) of 2-12 dB, and diotic stimuli. The stimuli were noise bands with seven center frequencies and four bandwidths. Results showed that the loudness of dichotic stimuli increased nonlinearly with ILD, the increase being slightly less with broader bandwidths. There was a bandwidth-dependent difference between the listening tests results and the predictions of Moore and Glasberg's [(2007) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 121, 1604-1612] loudness model. The size of the difference was, however, small. A characteristic function was derived describing how overall loudness depends on stimulus bandwidth and ILD. PMID:26428788

  15. Spectral loudness summation as a function of duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhey, Jesko L.; Kollmeier, Birger

    2002-03-01

    Loudness was measured as a function of signal bandwidth for 10-, 100-, and 1000-ms-long signals. The test and reference signals were bandpass-filtered noise spectrally centered at 2 kHz. The bandwidth of the test signal was varied from 200 to 6400 Hz. The reference signal had a bandwidth of 3200 Hz. The reference levels were 45, 55, and 65 dB SPL. The level to produce equal loudness was measured with an adaptive, two-interval, two-alternative forced-choice procedure. A loudness matching procedure was used, where the tracks for all signal pairs to be compared were interleaved. Mean results for nine normal-hearing subjects showed that the magnitude of spectral loudness summation depends on signal duration. For all reference levels, a 6- to 8-dB larger level difference between equally loud signals with the smallest (Δf=200 Hz) and largest (Δf=6400 Hz) bandwidth is found for 10-ms-long signals than for the 1000-ms-long signals. The duration effect slightly decreases with increasing reference loudness. As a consequence, loudness models should include a duration-dependent compression stage. Alternatively, if a fixed loudness ratio between signals of different duration is assumed, this loudness ratio should depend on the signal spectrum.

  16. Development and current status of the "Cambridge" loudness models.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brian C J

    2014-10-13

    This article reviews the evolution of a series of models of loudness developed in Cambridge, UK. The first model, applicable to stationary sounds, was based on modifications of the model developed by Zwicker, including the introduction of a filter to allow for the effects of transfer of sound through the outer and middle ear prior to the calculation of an excitation pattern, and changes in the way that the excitation pattern was calculated. Later, modifications were introduced to the assumed middle-ear transfer function and to the way that specific loudness was calculated from excitation level. These modifications led to a finite calculated loudness at absolute threshold, which made it possible to predict accurately the absolute thresholds of broadband and narrowband sounds, based on the assumption that the absolute threshold corresponds to a fixed small loudness. The model was also modified to give predictions of partial loudness-the loudness of one sound in the presence of another. This allowed predictions of masked thresholds based on the assumption that the masked threshold corresponds to a fixed small partial loudness. Versions of the model for time-varying sounds were developed, which allowed prediction of the masked threshold of any sound in a background of any other sound. More recent extensions incorporate binaural processing to account for the summation of loudness across ears. In parallel, versions of the model for predicting loudness for hearing-impaired ears have been developed and have been applied to the development of methods for fitting multichannel compression hearing aids.

  17. Temporal weighting of loudness: Comparison between two different psychophysical tasks.

    PubMed

    Ponsot, Emmanuel; Susini, Patrick; Oberfeld, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Psychophysical studies on loudness have so far examined the temporal weighting of loudness solely in level-discrimination tasks. Typically, listeners were asked to discriminate hundreds of level-fluctuating sounds regarding their global loudness. Temporal weights, i.e., the importance of each temporal portion of the stimuli for the loudness judgment, were then estimated from listeners' responses. Consistent non-uniform "u-shaped" temporal weighting patterns were observed, with greater weights assigned to the first and the last temporal portions of the stimuli, revealing significant primacy and recency effects, respectively. In this study, the question was addressed whether the same weighting pattern could be found in a traditional loudness estimation task. Temporal loudness weights were compared between a level-discrimination (LD) task and an absolute magnitude estimation (AME) task. Stimuli were 3-s broadband noises consisting of 250-ms segments randomly varying in level. Listeners were asked to evaluate the global loudness of the stimuli by classifying them as "loud" or "soft" (LD), or by assigning a number representing their loudness (AME). Results showed non-uniform temporal weighting in both tasks, but also significant differences between the two tasks. An explanation based on the difference in complexity between the evaluation processes underlying each task is proposed. PMID:26827035

  18. Effect of sonic boom asymmetry on subjective loudness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, Jack D.; Sullivan, Brenda M.

    1992-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center's sonic boom apparatus was used in an experimental study to quantify subjective loudness response to a wide range of asymmetrical N-wave sonic boom signatures. Results were used to assess the relative performance of several metrics as loudness estimators for asymmetrical signatures and to quantify in detail the effects on subjective loudness of varying both the degree and direction of signature loudness asymmetry. Findings of the study indicated that Perceived Level (Steven's Mark 7) and A-weighted sound exposure level were the best metrics for quantifying asymmetrical boom loudness. Asymmetrical signatures were generally rated as being less loud than symmetrical signatures of equivalent Perceived Level. The magnitude of the loudness reductions increased as the degree of boom asymmetry increased, and depended upon the direction of asymmetry. These loudness reductions were not accounted for by any of the metrics. Corrections were determined for use in adjusting calculated Perceived Level values to account for these reductions. It was also demonstrated that the subjects generally incorporated the loudness components of the complete signatures when making their subjective judgments.

  19. Advertising Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandage, C. H.; Fryburger, Vernon

    The social and economic functions of advertising, its role in business, how it works, and how it is planned and created are the subject of this textbook. Sections include basic values and functions, background for planning advertising strategy, the advertising message, advertising media, testing advertising effectiveness, and the advertising…

  20. Intensity perception. VIII. Loudness comparisons between different types of stimuli.

    PubMed

    Lim, J S; Rabinowtiz, W M; Braida, L D; Durlach, N I

    1977-11-01

    In this paper, we describe an extension of our preliminary theory of intensity resolution [Durlach and Braida, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 46, 372-383 (1969)] to include loudness comparisons among different types of stimuli. The extended theory relates mean loudness matches to discrimination and provides a framework for the interpretation of results on the intrasubject variability of loudness comparisons. The predicted relation between mean loudness matches and discrimination is essentially the same as that proposed by Riesz [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 5, 211-216 (1933)]. With regard to the variability of loudness comparisons, the extended model is essentially the same as the preliminary model except that a new term is included in the trace-mode memory variance to account for the dissimilarity of the stimuli being compared. The model is compared to some published data on loudness matching and discrimination and to some new data of our own on the variability of loudness comparisons obtained in a two-interval, roving-level, loudness-discrimination experiment. PMID:915119

  1. Rate and Loudness Manipulations in Dysarthria: Acoustic and Perceptual Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Gregory E.

    2004-01-01

    Both rate reduction and increased loudness reportedly are associated with an increase in the size of the articulatory-acoustic working space and improved acoustic distinctiveness for speakers with dysarthria. Improved intelligibility also has been reported. Few studies have directly compared rate and loudness effects for speakers with dysarthria,…

  2. A striking reduction of simple loudness adaptation in autism

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Rebecca P.; Aylward, Jessica; White, Sarah; Rees, Geraint

    2015-01-01

    Reports of sensory disturbance, such as loudness sensitivity or sound intolerance, are ubiquitous in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) but a mechanistic explanation for these perceptual differences is lacking. Here we tested adaptation to loudness, a process that regulates incoming sensory input, in adults with ASD and matched controls. Simple loudness adaptation (SLA) is a fundamental adaptive process that reduces the subjective loudness of quiet steady-state sounds in the environment over time, whereas induced loudness adaptation (ILA) is a means of generating a reduction in the perceived volume of louder sounds. ASD participants showed a striking reduction in magnitude and rate of SLA relative to age and ability-matched typical adults, but in contrast ILA remained intact. Furthermore, rate of SLA predicted sensory sensitivity coping strategies in the ASD group. These results provide the first evidence that compromised neural mechanisms governing fundamental adaptive processes might account for sound sensitivity in ASD. PMID:26537694

  3. Modeling Newspaper Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Joseph; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a mathematical model for simulating a newspaper financial system. Includes the effects of advertising and circulation for predicting advertising linage as a function of population, income, and advertising rate. (RL)

  4. A comparison of the temporal weighting of annoyance and loudness.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Kerstin; Oberfeld, Daniel

    2009-12-01

    The influence of single temporal portions of a sound on global annoyance and loudness judgments was measured using perceptual weight analysis. The stimuli were 900-ms noise samples randomly changing in level every 100 ms. For loudness judgments, Pedersen and Ellermeier [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 123, 963-972 (2008)] found that listeners attach greater weight to the beginning and ending than to the middle of a stimulus. Qualitatively similar weights were expected for annoyance. Annoyance and loudness judgments were obtained from 12 listeners in a two-interval forced-choice task. The results demonstrated a primacy effect for the temporal weighting of both annoyance and loudness. However, a significant recency effect was observed only for annoyance. Potential explanations of these weighting patterns are discussed. Goodness-of-fit analysis showed that the prediction of annoyance and loudness can be improved by allowing a non-uniform weighting of single temporal portions of the signal, rather than assuming a uniform weighting as in measures like the energy-equivalent level (L(eq)). A second experiment confirmed that the listeners were capable of separating annoyance and loudness of the stimuli. Noises with the same L(eq) but different amplitude modulation depths were judged to differ in annoyance but not in loudness.

  5. Musical Expertise and the Ability to Imagine Loudness

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Laura; Bailes, Freya; Dean, Roger T.

    2013-01-01

    Most perceived parameters of sound (e.g. pitch, duration, timbre) can also be imagined in the absence of sound. These parameters are imagined more veridically by expert musicians than non-experts. Evidence for whether loudness is imagined, however, is conflicting. In music, the question of whether loudness is imagined is particularly relevant due to its role as a principal parameter of performance expression. This study addressed the hypothesis that the veridicality of imagined loudness improves with increasing musical expertise. Experts, novices and non-musicians imagined short passages of well-known classical music under two counterbalanced conditions: 1) while adjusting a slider to indicate imagined loudness of the music and 2) while tapping out the rhythm to indicate imagined timing. Subtests assessed music listening abilities and working memory span to determine whether these factors, also hypothesised to improve with increasing musical expertise, could account for imagery task performance. Similarity between each participant’s imagined and listening loudness profiles and reference recording intensity profiles was assessed using time series analysis and dynamic time warping. The results suggest a widespread ability to imagine the loudness of familiar music. The veridicality of imagined loudness tended to be greatest for the expert musicians, supporting the predicted relationship between musical expertise and musical imagery ability. PMID:23460791

  6. Quality and loudness judgments for music subjected to compression limiting.

    PubMed

    Croghan, Naomi B H; Arehart, Kathryn H; Kates, James M

    2012-08-01

    Dynamic-range compression (DRC) is used in the music industry to maximize loudness. The amount of compression applied to commercial recordings has increased over time due to a motivating perspective that louder music is always preferred. In contrast to this viewpoint, artists and consumers have argued that using large amounts of DRC negatively affects the quality of music. However, little research evidence has supported the claims of either position. The present study investigated how DRC affects the perceived loudness and sound quality of recorded music. Rock and classical music samples were peak-normalized and then processed using different amounts of DRC. Normal-hearing listeners rated the processed and unprocessed samples on overall loudness, dynamic range, pleasantness, and preference, using a scaled paired-comparison procedure in two conditions: un-equalized, in which the loudness of the music samples varied, and loudness-equalized, in which loudness differences were minimized. Results indicated that a small amount of compression was preferred in the un-equalized condition, but the highest levels of compression were generally detrimental to quality, whether loudness was equalized or varied. These findings are contrary to the "louder is better" mentality in the music industry and suggest that more conservative use of DRC may be preferred for commercial music.

  7. Musical expertise and the ability to imagine loudness.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Laura; Bailes, Freya; Dean, Roger T

    2013-01-01

    Most perceived parameters of sound (e.g. pitch, duration, timbre) can also be imagined in the absence of sound. These parameters are imagined more veridically by expert musicians than non-experts. Evidence for whether loudness is imagined, however, is conflicting. In music, the question of whether loudness is imagined is particularly relevant due to its role as a principal parameter of performance expression. This study addressed the hypothesis that the veridicality of imagined loudness improves with increasing musical expertise. Experts, novices and non-musicians imagined short passages of well-known classical music under two counterbalanced conditions: 1) while adjusting a slider to indicate imagined loudness of the music and 2) while tapping out the rhythm to indicate imagined timing. Subtests assessed music listening abilities and working memory span to determine whether these factors, also hypothesised to improve with increasing musical expertise, could account for imagery task performance. Similarity between each participant's imagined and listening loudness profiles and reference recording intensity profiles was assessed using time series analysis and dynamic time warping. The results suggest a widespread ability to imagine the loudness of familiar music. The veridicality of imagined loudness tended to be greatest for the expert musicians, supporting the predicted relationship between musical expertise and musical imagery ability.

  8. Loudness predicts prominence: Fundamental frequency lends little

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanski, G.; Grabe, E.; Coleman, J.; Rosner, B.

    2005-08-01

    We explored a database covering seven dialects of British and Irish English and three different styles of speech to find acoustic correlates of prominence. We built classifiers, trained the classifiers on human prominence/nonprominence judgments, and then evaluated how well they behaved. The classifiers operate on 452 ms windows centered on syllables, using different acoustic measures. By comparing the performance of classifiers based on different measures, we can learn how prominence is expressed in speech. Contrary to textbooks and common assumption, fundamental frequency (f0) played a minor role in distinguishing prominent syllables from the rest of the utterance. Instead, speakers primarily marked prominence with patterns of loudness and duration. Two other acoustic measures that we examined also played a minor role, comparable to f0. All dialects and speaking styles studied here share a common definition of prominence. The result is robust to differences in labeling practice and the dialect of the labeler.

  9. Effectiveness of a loudness model for time-varying sounds in equating the loudness of sentences subjected to different forms of signal processing.

    PubMed

    Zorilă, Tudor-Cătălin; Stylianou, Yannis; Flanagan, Sheila; Moore, Brian C J

    2016-07-01

    A model for the loudness of time-varying sounds [Glasberg and Moore (2012). J. Audio. Eng. Soc. 50, 331-342] was assessed for its ability to predict the loudness of sentences that were processed to either decrease or increase their dynamic fluctuations. In a paired-comparison task, subjects compared the loudness of unprocessed and processed sentences that had been equalized in (1) root-mean square (RMS) level; (2) the peak long-term loudness predicted by the model; (3) the mean long-term loudness predicted by the model. Method 2 was most effective in equating the loudness of the original and processed sentences. PMID:27475164

  10. Effectiveness of a loudness model for time-varying sounds in equating the loudness of sentences subjected to different forms of signal processing.

    PubMed

    Zorilă, Tudor-Cătălin; Stylianou, Yannis; Flanagan, Sheila; Moore, Brian C J

    2016-07-01

    A model for the loudness of time-varying sounds [Glasberg and Moore (2012). J. Audio. Eng. Soc. 50, 331-342] was assessed for its ability to predict the loudness of sentences that were processed to either decrease or increase their dynamic fluctuations. In a paired-comparison task, subjects compared the loudness of unprocessed and processed sentences that had been equalized in (1) root-mean square (RMS) level; (2) the peak long-term loudness predicted by the model; (3) the mean long-term loudness predicted by the model. Method 2 was most effective in equating the loudness of the original and processed sentences.

  11. Advertising on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jugenheimer, Donald W.

    1996-01-01

    States that although many advertisers have intentions of utilizing the Internet for advertising, which can provide specific audience targeting and buyer/seller interactivity, few have been successful. Explains advantages and disadvantages of using the Internet for advertising purposes. Cites special problems with Internet advertising and successes…

  12. Children's Advertising Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Better Business Bureaus, Inc., New York, NY.

    These guidelines have been developed for the use of advertisers and advertising agencies and for the self-regulatory mechanism which these groups have established, the National Advertising Division, to help ensure that advertising directed to children is truthful, accurate, and fair to children's perceptions. Preliminary sections set forth basic…

  13. Decibels Via Loudness - Distance Properties of a Loudspeaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Alan

    2014-05-01

    Loudness, or sound intensity level, is a human perceived or subjective measurement with units, decibels, based on the response of the human ear to different sound intensities. The response of the human ear at fixed frequency is close to being logarithmic. The experiment reported here investigates the relationship between measured sound intensity level, or loudness, and distance from a sound source such as a loudspeaker.

  14. Radio-Loud AGN: The Suzaku View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sambruna, Rita

    2009-01-01

    We review our Suzaku observations of Broad-Line Radio Galaxies (BLRGs). The continuum above 2 approx.keV in BLRGs is dominated by emission from an accretion flow, with little or no trace of a jet, which is instead expected to emerge at GeV energies and be detected by Fermi. Concerning the physical conditions of the accretion disk, BLRGs are a mixed bag. In some sources the data suggest relatively high disk ionization, in others obscuration of the innermost regions, perhaps by the jet base. While at hard X-rays the distinction between BLRGs and Seyferts appears blurry, one of the cleanest observational differences between the two classes is at soft X-rays, where Seyferts exhibit warm absorbers related to disk winds while BLRGs do not. We discuss the possibility that jet formation inhibits disk winds, and thus is related to the remarkable dearth of absorption features at soft X-rays in BLRGs and other radio-loud AGN.

  15. When advertising turns "cheeky"!

    PubMed

    Burkitt, Jennifer A; Saucier, Deborah M; Thomas, Nicole A; Ehresman, Crystal

    2006-05-01

    Portraits typically exhibit leftward posing biases, with people showing more of their left cheek than their right. The current study investigated posing biases in print advertising to determine whether the product advertised affects the posing bias. As the posing bias may be decreasing over time, we also investigated changes in posing biases over a span of more than 100 years. The current investigation coded 2664 advertisements from two time periods; advertisements were coded for target group of advertisement (men, women, both) and posing bias (rightward, leftward, or central). Unlike other studies that typically observe a leftward posing bias, print advertisements exhibit a rightward posing bias, regardless of time-frame. Thus, print advertisements differ greatly from portraits, which may relate to the purpose of advertisements and the role of attractiveness in advertising. PMID:16644564

  16. Dependence of loudness evaluation by drivers on vehicle styling.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Junji; Igata, Takumi

    2012-12-01

    Influence of participants' impressions of vehicle styling on loudness of acceleration sounds was investigated. A series of images of luxury and sporty vehicles were presented to the participants while acceleration sounds were being replayed. The results indicated that frequent drivers perceived that the sound associated with luxury vehicles was louder than that associated with sporty vehicles. On the other hand, infrequent drivers perceived almost no difference between the loudness of the two vehicle types. Then, the infrequent drivers underwent a pseudo-loudness evaluation test to increase amount of experience for listening vehicle sound with vehicle styling image. After the procedure, the influence of vehicle styling on loudness was investigated again for the infrequent drivers. The result showed that the influence for the infrequent drivers was quite different from that for the frequent drivers. The participants who rarely drove perceived that the sound associated with luxury vehicles was softer than that associated with sporty vehicles. Furthermore, a questionnaire was filled out by both groups to investigate their preferred vehicle characteristics such as exterior design and engine performance. As a result, loudness was clarified to depend on both the participants' impressions of vehicle styling and their preferred vehicle characteristics. PMID:23231117

  17. Adolescents' reported hearing symptoms and attitudes toward loud music.

    PubMed

    Landälv, Daniel; Malmström, Lennart; Widén, Stephen E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the adolescents' attitudes toward loud music in relation to a set of self-perceived auditory symptoms and psychological variables such as norms, preparedness to take risks and risk-judgment in noisy situations. A questionnaire on hearing and preventive behavior was distributed to 281 upper secondary school students aged 15-19 years. The questionnaire included youth attitude to noise scale, questions about perceived hearing symptoms such as tinnitus and sound sensitivity and finally statements on perceived behavioral norms regarding hearing protection use, risk-taking and risk-judgment in noisy settings. Self-perceived auditory symptoms such as sound sensitivity and permanent tinnitus had a significant relationship with less tolerant attitudes toward loud music. Permanent tinnitus and sound sensitivity together accounted for 15.9% of the variation in attitudes toward loud music. Together with the psychological variables norms, preparedness to take risks and risk-judgment 48.0% of the variation in attitudes could be explained. Although perceived hearing symptoms (sound sensitivity and permanent tinnitus) was associated with less tolerant attitudes toward loud music, psychological variables such as norms, preparedness to take risks and risk-judgment were found to be more strongly associated with attitudes toward loud music and should therefore be considered more in future preventive work. Health promotive strategies should focus on changing not merely individual attitudes, but also societal norms and regulations in order to decrease noise induced auditory symptoms among adolescents.

  18. Dependence of loudness evaluation by drivers on vehicle styling.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Junji; Igata, Takumi

    2012-12-01

    Influence of participants' impressions of vehicle styling on loudness of acceleration sounds was investigated. A series of images of luxury and sporty vehicles were presented to the participants while acceleration sounds were being replayed. The results indicated that frequent drivers perceived that the sound associated with luxury vehicles was louder than that associated with sporty vehicles. On the other hand, infrequent drivers perceived almost no difference between the loudness of the two vehicle types. Then, the infrequent drivers underwent a pseudo-loudness evaluation test to increase amount of experience for listening vehicle sound with vehicle styling image. After the procedure, the influence of vehicle styling on loudness was investigated again for the infrequent drivers. The result showed that the influence for the infrequent drivers was quite different from that for the frequent drivers. The participants who rarely drove perceived that the sound associated with luxury vehicles was softer than that associated with sporty vehicles. Furthermore, a questionnaire was filled out by both groups to investigate their preferred vehicle characteristics such as exterior design and engine performance. As a result, loudness was clarified to depend on both the participants' impressions of vehicle styling and their preferred vehicle characteristics.

  19. Advertising and Student Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, William B.

    Rhetoric, the persuasive use of language to influence public thought and action, is experienced in advertising, and advertising can be used as a medium for teaching rhetoric. Advertising demonstrates both admirable and creative use of English and despicable corruption of both language and thought. Both aspects can be employed in teaching…

  20. Home Study Advertising Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Michael P., Ed.; Welch, Sally R., Ed.

    This handbook contains a collections of nine articles on the subject of direct-response advertising. The handbook gives advice on how to create effective advertisements for home study courses. The nine articles are the following: "Overview of Home Study Advertising in the 1990s" (Michael P. Lambert); "Ad Features that Sell" (Nancie E. Robertson);…

  1. Comparing the impacts of mitigation and non-mitigation on mountain pine beetle populations.

    PubMed

    Coggins, Sam B; Coops, Nicholas C; Wulder, Michael A; Bater, Christopher W; Ortlepp, Stephanie M

    2011-01-01

    Mountain pine beetles, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Hopkins) attack and can ultimately kill individuals and groups of pine trees, specifically lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex. Loud var. latifolia Engl.). In British Columbia, beetle attack has increased from 164 000 ha in 1999 to over 13 million ha in 2008. Mitigation efforts can play a key role in addressing the impact beetle infestations can have on the forested landscape. In this research, the impact of mitigation on a mountain pine beetle infestation is examined within a network of 28 research plots where sanitation harvesting was completed (10 mitigated plots) and not completed (18 unmitigated plots). Three forest stand level modelling scenarios which predict the number of attacked trees, based on current infestation within the plots, were utilized to compare the differences between mitigated and non-mitigated plots. In the first scenario in the non-mitigated plots, 125 trees were infested after 10 years, while in the mitigated plots no trees were infested in the same time period. The second scenario indicates the level of mitigation required to suppress beetle infestations where the proportion of mitigated trees was calculated for each plot by counting the residual attack and the number of mitigated trees. The average mitigation rate over all plots of 43% (range 0-100%) is not sufficient to provide control. In the non-mitigated plots, the average population expansion rate was 5 (range of 0-18) which requires a detection accuracy of 74% to reliably detect infestation. The third scenario estimated the length of time required for ongoing detection, monitoring, and mitigation to bring an infestation under control. If mitigation efforts were maintained at the current rate of 43%, the beetle population would not be adequately controlled. However, when aided by continued detection and monitoring of attacked trees, mitigation rates greater than 50% are sufficient to control infestations, especially with

  2. Comparing the impacts of mitigation and non-mitigation on mountain pine beetle populations.

    PubMed

    Coggins, Sam B; Coops, Nicholas C; Wulder, Michael A; Bater, Christopher W; Ortlepp, Stephanie M

    2011-01-01

    Mountain pine beetles, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Hopkins) attack and can ultimately kill individuals and groups of pine trees, specifically lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex. Loud var. latifolia Engl.). In British Columbia, beetle attack has increased from 164 000 ha in 1999 to over 13 million ha in 2008. Mitigation efforts can play a key role in addressing the impact beetle infestations can have on the forested landscape. In this research, the impact of mitigation on a mountain pine beetle infestation is examined within a network of 28 research plots where sanitation harvesting was completed (10 mitigated plots) and not completed (18 unmitigated plots). Three forest stand level modelling scenarios which predict the number of attacked trees, based on current infestation within the plots, were utilized to compare the differences between mitigated and non-mitigated plots. In the first scenario in the non-mitigated plots, 125 trees were infested after 10 years, while in the mitigated plots no trees were infested in the same time period. The second scenario indicates the level of mitigation required to suppress beetle infestations where the proportion of mitigated trees was calculated for each plot by counting the residual attack and the number of mitigated trees. The average mitigation rate over all plots of 43% (range 0-100%) is not sufficient to provide control. In the non-mitigated plots, the average population expansion rate was 5 (range of 0-18) which requires a detection accuracy of 74% to reliably detect infestation. The third scenario estimated the length of time required for ongoing detection, monitoring, and mitigation to bring an infestation under control. If mitigation efforts were maintained at the current rate of 43%, the beetle population would not be adequately controlled. However, when aided by continued detection and monitoring of attacked trees, mitigation rates greater than 50% are sufficient to control infestations, especially with

  3. Decibels via Loudness--Distance Properties of a Loudspeaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Loudness, or sound intensity level, is a human perceived or subjective measurement with units, decibels, based on the response of the human ear to different sound intensities. The response of the human ear at fixed frequency is close to being logarithmic. The experiment reported here investigates the relationship between measured sound intensity…

  4. Subjective loudness of N-wave sonic booms.

    PubMed

    Niedzwiecki, A; Ribner, H S

    1978-12-01

    A loudspeaker-driven simulation booth with extended rise-time capability (down to 0.22 ms) has been used for subjective loudness tests of N-wave sonic booms. The test series compared signatures over a range of 0.22--10 ms in rise time, 100--250 ms in duration and 0.5--2.5 psf (24--120 Pa) in peak overpressure. In one sequence, the tradeoff between rise time and overpressure was measured for equal loudness; in another, the tradeoff between duration and overpressure. For equal loudness 10-ms rise time required 8-dB higher overpressure than for 1-ms rise time. Duration had little effect in the range 100--200 ms, but at 250 ms noticeably enhanced the loudness. These results confirm those measured by Shepherd and Sutherland made at 1-ms rise time and above (except for the anomalous enhancement at 250-ms duration), and extend the measurements down to 0.22 ms. There is also good agreement with theoretical predictions (Johnson-Robinson, Zepler-Harel methods) except for the 10-ms rise time and 250-ms duration cases. PMID:739096

  5. Pitch and Loudness Tinnitus in Individuals with Presbycusis

    PubMed Central

    Seimetz, Bruna Macangnin; Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro; Rosito, Leticia Petersen Schmidt; Flores, Leticia Sousa; Pappen, Carlos Henrique; Dall'igna, Celso

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tinnitus is a symptom that is often associated with presbycusis. Objective This study aims to analyze the existence of association among hearing thresholds, pitch, and loudness of tinnitus in individuals with presbycusis, considering the gender variable. Methods Cross-sectional, descriptive, and prospective study, whose sample consisted of individuals with tinnitus and diagnosis of presbycusis. For the evaluation, we performed anamnesis along with otoscopy, pure tone audiometry, and acuphenometry to analyze the psychoacoustic characteristics of tinnitus individuals. Results The sample consisted of 49 subjects, with a mean age of 69.57 ± 6.53 years, who presented unilateral and bilateral tinnitus, therefore, a sample of 80 ears. In analyzing the results, as for acuphenometry, the loudness of tinnitus was more present at 0dB and the pitch was 6HKz and 8HKz. Regarding the analysis of the association between the frequency of greater hearing threshold and tinnitus pitch, no statistical significance (p = 0.862) was found. As for the association between the intensity of greater hearing threshold and tinnitus loudness, no statistical significance (p = 0.115) was found. Conclusion There is no significant association between the hearing loss of patients with presbycusis and the pitch and loudness of tinnitus. PMID:27746834

  6. Loudness Change in Response to Dynamic Acoustic Intensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Kirk N.; Stevens, Catherine J.; Tardieu, Julien

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments investigate psychological, methodological, and domain-specific characteristics of loudness change in response to sounds that continuously increase in intensity (up-ramps), relative to sounds that decrease (down-ramps). Timbre (vowel, violin), layer (monotone, chord), and duration (1.8 s, 3.6 s) were manipulated in Experiment 1.…

  7. Bright Sneezes and Dark Coughs, Loud Sunlight and Soft Moonlight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Lawrence E.

    1982-01-01

    In a series of four experiments, subjects used scales of loudness, pitch, and brightness to evaluate the meanings of a variety of synesthetic metaphors--expressions in which words or phrases describing experiences proper to one sense modality transfer their meaning to another modality. (Author/PN)

  8. Not so great: ten important myths about food advertising targeted to children in Canada.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Charlene; Cook, Brian

    2013-08-01

    Rising rates of childhood obesity have led to a greater concern over the impact of food advertising on children's health. Although public policy interventions seek to mitigate the impact of advertising on children, several pervasive myths often sidetrack effective discussions. This Perspective outlines and responds to ten common myths.

  9. Not so great: ten important myths about food advertising targeted to children in Canada.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Charlene; Cook, Brian

    2013-08-01

    Rising rates of childhood obesity have led to a greater concern over the impact of food advertising on children's health. Although public policy interventions seek to mitigate the impact of advertising on children, several pervasive myths often sidetrack effective discussions. This Perspective outlines and responds to ten common myths. PMID:23777270

  10. Relations among pure-tone sound stimuli, neural activity, and the loudness sensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howes, W. L.

    1972-01-01

    Both the physiological and psychological responses to pure-tone sound stimuli are used to derive formulas which: (1) relate the loudness, loudness level, and sound-pressure level of pure tones; (2) apply continuously over most of the acoustic regime, including the loudness threshold; and (3) contain no undetermined coefficients. Some of the formulas are fundamental for calculating the loudness of any sound. Power-law formulas relating the pure-tone sound stimulus, neural activity, and loudness are derived from published data.

  11. Relationships between Electrically Evoked Potentials and Loudness Growth in Bilateral Cochlear Implant Users

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Benjamin; Brown, Carolyn; Abbas, Paul; Etler, Christine; O’Brien, Sara

    2011-01-01

    SHORT SUMMARY Bilateral cochlear implantation has motivated efforts to ensure that sounds presented at equal levels to each ear are perceived as equally loud. Psychophysical loudness balancing is not always practical, especially with pediatric users. Electrophysiological potentials -- electrically evoked auditory brain stem response (EABR) and electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) measures -- may provide a means of approximating loudness balance. It was hypothesized that stimuli evoking equal amplitude neural responses would be more closely matched in loudness than stimuli with equal current levels. No significant differences in loudness discrepancy across ears were found for ECAP, EABR or matched current levels. PMID:22246138

  12. Induced Loudness Reduction and Enhancement in Acoustic and Electric Hearing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ningyuan; Kreft, Heather; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2016-08-01

    The loudness of a tone can be reduced by preceding it with a more intense tone. This effect, known as induced loudness reduction (ILR), has been reported to last for several seconds. The underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. One possible contributor to the effect involves changes in cochlear gain via the medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferents. Since cochlear implants (CIs) bypass the cochlea, investigating whether and how CI users experience ILR should help provide a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. In the present study, ILR was examined in both normal-hearing listeners and CI users by examining the effects of an intense precursor (50 or 500 ms) on the loudness of a 50-ms target, as judged by comparing it to a spectrally remote 50-ms comparison sound. The interstimulus interval (ISI) between the precursor and the target was varied between 10 and 1000 ms to estimate the time course of ILR. In general, the patterns of results from the CI users were similar to those found in the normal-hearing listeners. However, in the short-precursor short-ISI condition, an enhancement in the loudness of target was observed in CI subjects that was not present in the normal-hearing listeners, consistent with the effects of an additional attenuation present in the normal-hearing listeners but not in the CI users. The results suggest that the MOC may play a role but that it is not the only source of these loudness context effects. PMID:27033086

  13. Attention competition with advertisement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  14. Attention competition with advertisement.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant. PMID:25314476

  15. Attention competition with advertisement.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  16. Some Advertising Sales Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schick, C. Dennis

    1980-01-01

    Enumerates information that advertising sales people for school newspapers should have before they call on potential customers. Includes ideas on what to know about a number of items, including the publication, readers and nonreaders, advertising, sales opportunities, prospects, prospects' problems, shopping factors, and stores' images. (TJ)

  17. The Significance of Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsteller, William A.

    This pamphlet discusses some of the values and responsibilities of advertising in a free competitive economy. One of the primary objectives of advertising is to communicate truthfully. The laws of the Federal Trade Commission exist to protect the public from wrong and misleading information, but the greatest protection is the hard light of…

  18. Advertisements Demand Sense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clanton, Brandolyn; And Others

    Self-contained units of study on advertising will help secondary students to critically analyze the utility, completeness, and accuracy of various sources of product information. In the first of five units, students are asked to think about the many benefits consumers and producers derive from advertising. The second unit makes students aware that…

  19. Advertising in School Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Helen M-E.

    The needs of publication advisers in general and specifically those whose responsibility it is to direct the advertising staffs of school publications are the concern of this booklet. It is also designed to be a framework of reference and a guide which will enable the adviser to make the advertising experience of the staff members exciting and…

  20. Print Advertisements in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashim, Azirah

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines print advertisements in Malaysia to determine how advertisers seek to achieve their primary goal of persuading or influencing an audience by the use of both language and visuals. It describes the main component moves and rhetorical strategies used by writers to articulate the communicative purpose of the genre and the language…

  1. Argonne OutLoud Public Lecture Series: Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Roger Blomquist

    2012-12-10

    On November 15, 2012, Argonne National Laboratory opened its doors to the public for a presentation/discussion titled "Getting to Know Nuclear: Past, Present and Future." The speaker was Argonne researcher Roger Blomquist. The event was the latest in the Argonne OutLoud Public Lecture Series. For more information, visit the Argonne Nuclear Engineering Division website (http://www.ne.anl.gov/About/headlines...).

  2. Loudness estimation in the presence of vertical vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parizet, Etienne; Marpe, Benjamin

    2005-04-01

    The goal of the study was to check whether vibrations submitted to a subject can modify his loudness evaluation. For that purpose, the subject was seated on a rigid chair vertically moved by a shaker, at the frequency of 28 Hz and at 6 different levels. He was also exposed to a pure sound: either a 28 Hz tone produced by a subwoofer, or a 1000 Hz tone produced by headphones. For each combination of sound and vibration levels, the subject had to estimate the magnitude of the loudness of the tone, as compared to a reference tone, heard without any vibration excitation. He also had to evaluate the magnitude of vibration using a 10 point scale. Twenty subjects participated in the experiment. The results showed that vibrations did not influence loudness estimation. On the other hand, the estimation of vibration level was significantly influenced by the level of the 28 Hz pure tone, which can indicate an interaction between the perception of sound by the body and the perception of vibrations.

  3. Reverberation mapping of two radio-loud quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Anirban; Brotherton, Michael S.; Mason, Michelle; Roberts, Caroline Anna; Singh, Vikram; Johnson-Groh, Mara; Erickson, Nicholas; Lundquist, Michael J.; Alexander, Michael J.; Staudaher, Shawn; Cales, Sabrina; DiPompeo, Michael A.; Smullen, Rachel; Eftekharzadeh, Sarah; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Nyugen, My; Chatterjee, Ritaban; Chatterjee, Suchetana; Runnoe, Jessie C.; Dale, Daniel A.

    2016-06-01

    We present results of a reverberation mapping (RM) campaign on two radio-loud quasars, 3C 382 and PG 2209+184, using the Wyoming Infrared Observatory (WIRO). For 3C 382 we determine a Hβ time lag of η = 47.2 ^{16.8}_{-30.4} days, with a RMS line dispersion of 2317±195 km s^{-1}, and a corresponding mass of 2.12^{0.92}_{-1.46} × 10^8 M_⊙. For PG 2209+184, we determine a Hβ time lag of τ = 38.9 ^{11.9}_{-21} days, with a RMS line dispersion of 2114±121 km s^{-1}, and a corresponding mass of 1.45^{0.58}_{-0.87} × 10^8 M_⊙. These two objects are consistent with the radius-luminosity relationship for H$β and bring the total of radio-loud quasars reverberation mapped to seven. Radio-loud quasars bring the potential of investigating orientation biases in quasar black hole mass determination.

  4. MAGNETIC FLUX PARADIGM FOR RADIO LOUDNESS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Sikora, Marek; Begelman, Mitchell C. E-mail: mitch@jila.colorado.edu

    2013-02-20

    We argue that the magnetic flux threading the black hole (BH), rather than BH spin or Eddington ratio, is the dominant factor in launching powerful jets and thus determining the radio loudness of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Most AGNs are radio quiet because the thin accretion disks that feed them are inefficient in depositing magnetic flux close to the BH. Flux accumulation is more likely to occur during a hot accretion (or thick disk) phase, and we argue that radio-loud quasars and strong emission-line radio galaxies occur only when a massive, cold accretion event follows an episode of hot accretion. Such an event might be triggered by the merger of a giant elliptical galaxy with a disk galaxy. This picture supports the idea that flux accumulation can lead to the formation of a so-called magnetically choked accretion flow. The large observed range in radio loudness reflects not only the magnitude of the flux pressed against the BH, but also the decrease in UV flux from the disk, due to its disruption by the ''magnetosphere'' associated with the accumulated flux. While the strongest jets result from the secular accumulation of flux, moderate jet activity can also be triggered by fluctuations in the magnetic flux deposited by turbulent, hot inner regions of otherwise thin accretion disks, or by the dissipation of turbulent fields in accretion disk coronae. These processes could be responsible for jet production in Seyferts and low-luminosity AGNs, as well as jets associated with X-ray binaries.

  5. Internet Advertising: Ethics and Etiquette.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machovec, George S.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the growth of the Internet and the attitudes of users toward advertising, provides examples of kinds of advertising used on electronic networks, and lists several companies that help advertisers use the Internet. Fifteen guidelines are suggested to help advertisers use the Internet in a reasonable and appropriate way. (Contains 11…

  6. "Ruralizing" Presidential Job Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leist, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Rural community college presidential job advertisements that focus on geography, politics, and culture can improve the likelihood of a good fit between the senior leader and the institution. (Contains 2 figures.)

  7. [Advertising and health education].

    PubMed

    López González, M L; Cueto Espinar, A; Martínez Cuervo, F; Redondo Cornejo, M L; Suárez González, J R; Secall Mellén, L

    1990-01-01

    Health education and advertising have a common aim: to modify human behaviour. Health education tries to induce healthy behaviours. In some occasions Publicity proposes risky behaviours. Ads appearing during a two-month period in magazines of the largest circulation in Spain are analyzed here. A total of 1,726 ads which could have a negative influence on health either because of the product or service offered or for the use of health as a persuasive argument in their text, are considered. The magazines Hola and Lecturas had the highest ratio ads/magazine. Spirits, food and drugs were the most frequently advertised products. And more than 50% of the ads used health and welfare as argument for better selling. Health educators should know and teach the critical analysis of publicity, and use advertisements as a teaching tool to enable people to see through misleading advertising. PMID:2086532

  8. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    PubMed

    Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W

    2002-06-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube. PMID:12068260

  9. Eight worst advertising mistakes.

    PubMed

    Maley, Catherine

    2010-11-01

    This article presents strategies for advertising the medical practice. The emphasis is on breaking out of the old rules of how one should advertise and delves into asking questions that lead to a true strategy unique to one's medical practice and offerings. The article discusses the myriad ways to think about and create a patient-centered approach, turning from "here is what we offer" to instead "what you want we offer." PMID:20974390

  10. Ultrafast outflows in radio-loud active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tombesi, F.; Tazaki, F.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Ueda, Y.; Cappi, M.; Gofford, J.; Reeves, J. N.; Guainazzi, M.

    2014-09-01

    Recent X-ray observations show absorbing winds with velocities up to mildly relativistic values of the order of ˜0.1c in a limited sample of six broad-line radio galaxies. They are observed as blueshifted Fe XXV-XXVI K-shell absorption lines, similarly to the ultrafast outflows (UFOs) reported in Seyferts and quasars. In this work we extend the search for such Fe K absorption lines to a larger sample of 26 radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) observed with XMM-Newton and Suzaku. The sample is drawn from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope 58-month catalogue and blazars are excluded. X-ray bright Fanaroff-Riley Class II radio galaxies constitute the majority of the sources. Combining the results of this analysis with those in the literature we find that UFOs are detected in >27 per cent of the sources. However, correcting for the number of spectra with insufficient signal-to-noise ratio, we can estimate that the incidence of UFOs is this sample of radio-loud AGN is likely in the range f ≃ (50 ± 20) per cent. A photoionization modelling of the absorption lines with XSTAR allows us to estimate the distribution of their main parameters. The observed outflow velocities are broadly distributed between vout ≲ 1000 km s-1 and vout ≃ 0.4c, with mean and median values of vout ≃ 0.133c and vout ≃ 0.117c, respectively. The material is highly ionized, with an average ionization parameter of logξ ≃ 4.5 erg s-1 cm, and the column densities are larger than NH > 1022 cm-2. Overall, these characteristics are consistent with the presence of complex accretion disc winds in a significant fraction of radio-loud AGN and demonstrate that the presence of relativistic jets does not preclude the existence of winds, in accordance with several theoretical models.

  11. Modeling Gyrosynchrotron Coronae of Radio-Loud Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Fast gyrosynchrotron codes are used to model the emission in close, active binary star systems. Multiple magnetic field topologies, plasma densities, and scale heights for the emitting plasma are tested for in an attempt to duplicate the emission characteristics detected using high-resolution VLBI imaging of the close active binaries UX Arietis and Algol. Also included are effects of occlusion by the companion star. It is found that a co-orbiting coronal loop oriented toward the companion star with its feet anchored on the poles of the active star is consistent with the observed emission from these two radio-loud stars.

  12. Advertising Ethics: The Role of the Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazer, Charles F.

    1979-01-01

    Urges advertising educators to examine their own orientations toward research and scholarship in advertising, to encourage student research and scholarship in advertising, and to provide students with opportunities to develop a personal philosophy of advertising. (RL)

  13. Representation of Instantaneous and Short-Term Loudness in the Human Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Thwaites, Andrew; Glasberg, Brian R.; Nimmo-Smith, Ian; Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Moore, Brian C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic signals pass through numerous transforms in the auditory system before perceptual attributes such as loudness and pitch are derived. However, relatively little is known as to exactly when these transformations happen, and where, cortically or sub-cortically, they occur. In an effort to examine this, we investigated the latencies and locations of cortical entrainment to two transforms predicted by a model of loudness perception for time-varying sounds: the transforms were instantaneous loudness and short-term loudness, where the latter is hypothesized to be derived from the former and therefore should occur later in time. Entrainment of cortical activity was estimated from electro- and magneto-encephalographic (EMEG) activity, recorded while healthy subjects listened to continuous speech. There was entrainment to instantaneous loudness bilaterally at 45, 100, and 165 ms, in Heschl's gyrus, dorsal lateral sulcus, and Heschl's gyrus, respectively. Entrainment to short-term loudness was found in both the dorsal lateral sulcus and superior temporal sulcus at 275 ms. These results suggest that short-term loudness is derived from instantaneous loudness, and that this derivation occurs after processing in sub-cortical structures. PMID:27199645

  14. Representation of Instantaneous and Short-Term Loudness in the Human Cortex.

    PubMed

    Thwaites, Andrew; Glasberg, Brian R; Nimmo-Smith, Ian; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Moore, Brian C J

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic signals pass through numerous transforms in the auditory system before perceptual attributes such as loudness and pitch are derived. However, relatively little is known as to exactly when these transformations happen, and where, cortically or sub-cortically, they occur. In an effort to examine this, we investigated the latencies and locations of cortical entrainment to two transforms predicted by a model of loudness perception for time-varying sounds: the transforms were instantaneous loudness and short-term loudness, where the latter is hypothesized to be derived from the former and therefore should occur later in time. Entrainment of cortical activity was estimated from electro- and magneto-encephalographic (EMEG) activity, recorded while healthy subjects listened to continuous speech. There was entrainment to instantaneous loudness bilaterally at 45, 100, and 165 ms, in Heschl's gyrus, dorsal lateral sulcus, and Heschl's gyrus, respectively. Entrainment to short-term loudness was found in both the dorsal lateral sulcus and superior temporal sulcus at 275 ms. These results suggest that short-term loudness is derived from instantaneous loudness, and that this derivation occurs after processing in sub-cortical structures. PMID:27199645

  15. It's not your father's recruitment: A new view of loudness growth in cochlear hearing loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florentine, Mary; Buus, Søren

    2002-05-01

    For over 60 years, one of the most commonly held beliefs in audiology has been that loudness grows more rapidly than normal near the elevated thresholds of listeners with cochlear hearing losses. This belief was based on the untested assumption that loudness at threshold is the same-often incorrectly assumed to be zero-in normal listeners and listeners with cochlear hearing losses. Recent tests of this assumption indicate that loudness at threshold is not zero in either group of listeners. These data also indicate that loudness near threshold grows at a normal rate in listeners with cochlear hearing losses. In other words, recruitment in the sense of a rapid growth of loudness near an elevated threshold does not occur. How, then, can intense sounds have approximately normal loudness in listeners with cochlear hearing losses? The explanation is that loudness at threshold is greater when the threshold is elevated by a cochlear loss than when it is normal. We call this softness imperception. Therefore, listeners with cochlear hearing losses not only have reduced dynamic range of audibility; they also have reduced dynamic range of loudness. Implications for the design of hearing aids will be discussed. [Work supported by NIH/NIDCD grant R01DC02241.

  16. Effects of Loud and Amplified Speech on Sentence and Word Intelligibility in Parkinson Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neel, Amy T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: In the two experiments in this study, the author examined the effects of increased vocal effort (loud speech) and amplification on sentence and word intelligibility in speakers with Parkinson disease (PD). Methods: Five talkers with PD produced sentences and words at habitual levels of effort and using loud speech techniques. Amplified…

  17. Comfortable loudness level: stimulus effects, long-term reliability, and predictability.

    PubMed

    Cox, R M

    1989-12-01

    This paper reports the results of a series of investigations of comfortable loudness levels with particular reference to their application to hearing aid gain prescriptions. Experiment 1 studied the effects of several stimulus waveforms, bandwidths, and durations on comfortable loudness levels for normal and hearing impaired listeners. Speech band comfort levels were found to be significantly higher than equal-duration noise band or warble tone comfort levels. Comfortable loudness levels were found to be independent of warble tone modulation parameters and of stimulus bandwidth (stimuli did not exceed critical bandwidths). In Experiment 2, reliability of comfortable loudness levels was evaluated in hearing-impaired subjects over two consecutive 1-year periods. Results indicated that comfortable loudness levels were slightly less reliable than thresholds. In addition, the results were consistent with a hypothesis that exposure to amplified sound produces a small increase in comfortable loudness levels. In Experiment 3, data from 67 hearing-impaired subjects were used to develop regression equations for prediction of comfortable loudness levels. Thresholds at the test frequencies were combined with comfortable loudness data at 500 Hz and 4,000 Hz. The prediction method was then evaluated using a new group of 25 subjects. Accuracy of predictions of comfort levels was substantially better with the new method than with an older method that relied exclusively on threshold data. Relevance of the outcomes to hearing aid fitting procedures is discussed.

  18. Development of a loudness normalisation strategy for combined cochlear implant and acoustic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Francart, Tom; McDermott, Hugh J

    2012-12-01

    Users of a cochlear implant together with a hearing aid in the non-implanted ear currently use devices that were developed separately and are often fitted separately. This results in very different growth of loudness with level in the two ears, potentially leading to decreased wearing comfort and suboptimal perception of interaural level differences. A loudness equalisation strategy, named 'SCORE bimodal', is proposed. It equalises loudness growth for the two modalities using existing models of loudness for acoustic and electric stimulation, and is suitable for implementation in wearable devices. Loudness balancing experiments were performed with six bimodal listeners to validate the strategy. In a first set of experiments, the function of each loudness model used was validated by balancing the loudness of four harmonic complexes of different bandwidths, ranging from 200 Hz to 1000 Hz, separately for each ear. Both the electric and acoustic loudness models predicted the data well. In a second set of experiments, binaural balancing was done for the same stimuli. It was found that SCORE significantly improved binaural balance.

  19. The Relationship of Vocal Loudness Manipulation to Prosodic F0 and Durational Variables in Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Peter J.; Hughes, Deanna

    2006-01-01

    This investigation was motivated by observations that when persons with dysarthria increase loudness their speech improves. Some studies have indicated that this improvement may be related to an increase of prosodic variation. Studies have reported an increase of fundamental frequency (F0) variation with increased loudness, but there has been no…

  20. Male Songbird Indicates Body Size with Low-Pitched Advertising Songs

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Michelle L.; Kingma, Sjouke A.; Peters, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Body size is a key sexually selected trait in many animal species. If size imposes a physical limit on the production of loud low-frequency sounds, then low-pitched vocalisations could act as reliable signals of body size. However, the central prediction of this hypothesis – that the pitch of vocalisations decreases with size among competing individuals – has limited support in songbirds. One reason could be that only the lowest-frequency components of vocalisations are constrained, and this may go unnoticed when vocal ranges are large. Additionally, the constraint may only be apparent in contexts when individuals are indeed advertising their size. Here we explicitly consider signal diversity and performance limits to demonstrate that body size limits song frequency in an advertising context in a songbird. We show that in purple-crowned fairy-wrens, Malurus coronatus coronatus, larger males sing lower-pitched low-frequency advertising songs. The lower frequency bound of all advertising song types also has a significant negative relationship with body size. However, the average frequency of all their advertising songs is unrelated to body size. This comparison of different approaches to the analysis demonstrates how a negative relationship between body size and song frequency can be obscured by failing to consider signal design and the concept of performance limits. Since these considerations will be important in any complex communication system, our results imply that body size constraints on low-frequency vocalisations could be more widespread than is currently recognised. PMID:23437221

  1. The temporal weighting of loudness: effects of the level profile.

    PubMed

    Oberfeld, Daniel; Plank, Tina

    2011-01-01

    In four experiments, we studied the influence of the level profile of time-varying sounds on temporal perceptual weights for loudness. The sounds consisted of contiguous wideband noise segments on which independent random-level perturbations were imposed. Experiment 1 showed that in sounds with a flat level profile, the first segment receives the highest weight (primacy effect). If, however, a gradual increase in level (fade-in) was imposed on the first few segments, the temporal weights showed a delayed primacy effect: The first unattenuated segment received the highest weight, while the fade-in segments were virtually ignored. This pattern argues against a capture of attention to the onset as the origin of the primacy effect. Experiment 2 demonstrated that listeners adjust their temporal weights to the level profile on a trial-by-trial basis. Experiment 3 ruled out potentially inferior intensity resolution at lower levels as the cause of the delayed primacy effect. Experiment 4 showed that the weighting patterns cannot be explained by perceptual segmentation of the sounds into a variable and a stable part. The results are interpreted in terms of memory and attention processes. We demonstrate that the prediction of loudness can be improved significantly by allowing for nonuniform temporal weights.

  2. Online Advertising in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagherjeiran, Abraham; Bhatt, Rushi P.; Parekh, Rajesh; Chaoji, Vineet

    Online social networks offer opportunities to analyze user behavior and social connectivity and leverage resulting insights for effective online advertising. This chapter focuses on the role of social network information in online display advertising.

  3. Bilingual Advertising in Melbourne Chinatown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Sherry Yong

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the function of bilingual advertising by analyzing a case study of bilingual advertising in the Chinatown of Melbourne, Australia. The use of bilingual advertising in an immigrant setting differentiates itself from those in Asian settings where English is not used by dominant proportion of speakers in the society, and this…

  4. Advertising: Art as Society's Mirror.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Catherine E. B.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a historical overview of U.S. print advertising from the 1890s to the 1990s. Demonstrates how advertisers adapt their messages and target audiences to the changes each era brings. Conveys that advertising reflects society by giving an image of an era as it aims to persuade. Offers six teaching activities. (CMK)

  5. Information Content of Newspaper Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasadeos, Yorgo; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Indicates that nearly all of the newspaper advertisements examined contained at least one information cue and that one-third contained four or more cues, with an average of 2.8 per ad. Suggests that newspaper advertisements are more "informative" than television and magazine advertisements. (JD)

  6. Morphometric Differences of Vocal Tract Articulators in Different Loudness Conditions in Singing

    PubMed Central

    Echternach, Matthias; Burk, Fabian; Burdumy, Michael; Traser, Louisa; Richter, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dynamic MRI analysis of phonation has gathered interest in voice and speech physiology. However, there are limited data addressing the extent to which articulation is dependent on loudness. Material and Methods 12 professional singer subjects of different voice classifications were analysed concerning the vocal tract profiles recorded with dynamic real-time MRI with 25fps in different pitch and loudness conditions. The subjects were asked to sing ascending scales on the vowel /a/ in three loudness conditions (comfortable = mf, very soft = pp, very loud = ff, respectively). Furthermore, fundamental frequency and sound pressure level were analysed from the simultaneously recorded optical audio signal after noise cancellation. Results The data show articulatory differences with respect to changes of both pitch and loudness. Here, lip opening and pharynx width were increased. While the vertical larynx position was rising with pitch it was lower for greater loudness. Especially, the lip opening and pharynx width were more strongly correlated with the sound pressure level than with pitch. Conclusion For the vowel /a/ loudness has an effect on articulation during singing which should be considered when articulatory vocal tract data are interpreted. PMID:27096935

  7. Ethical issues in professional advertising.

    PubMed

    Peters, C R

    1989-07-01

    Physician advertising has received considerable attention since the courts decided in favor of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) in its initial complaint against the American Medical Association in the 1970s. Continued investigations by the FTC into AMA opinions on advertising and publicity have promulgated a new freedom in advertising by physicians. False and deceptive advertising though is the grounds for court action as well as license revocation. This is an attempt to analyze where physician advertising is most prevalent, which physicians are doing it and why. PMID:2600578

  8. Fossil shell emission in dying radio loud AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kino, M.; Ito, H.; Kawakatu, N.; Orienti, M.; Nagai, H.; Wajima, K.; Itoh, R.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate shell emission associated with dying radio loud AGNs. First, based on our recent work by Ito et al. (2015), we describe the dynamical and spectral evolution of shells after stopping the jet energy injection. We find that the shell emission overwhelms that of the radio lobes soon after stopping the jet energy injection because fresh electrons are continuously supplied into the shell via the forward shock, while the radio lobes rapidly fade out without jet energy injection. We find that such fossil shells can be a new class of target sources for SKA telescope. Next, we apply the model to the nearby radio source 3C84. Then, we find that the fossil shell emission in 3C84 is less luminous in the radio band while it is bright in the TeV γ-ray band and can be detectable by CTA. Data from STELLA

  9. Continuous loudness response to acoustic intensity dynamics in melodies: effects of melodic contour, tempo, and tonality.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Kirk N; Stevens, Catherine J; Dean, Roger T; Bailes, Freya

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate perceived loudness change in response to melodies that increase (up-ramp) or decrease (down-ramp) in acoustic intensity, and the interaction with other musical factors such as melodic contour, tempo, and tonality (tonal/atonal). A within-subjects design manipulated direction of linear intensity change (up-ramp, down-ramp), melodic contour (ascending, descending), tempo, and tonality, using single ramp trials and paired ramp trials, where single up-ramps and down-ramps were assembled to create continuous up-ramp/down-ramp or down-ramp/up-ramp pairs. Twenty-nine (Exp 1) and thirty-six (Exp 2) participants rated loudness continuously in response to trials with monophonic 13-note piano melodies lasting either 6.4s or 12s. Linear correlation coefficients >.89 between loudness and time show that time-series loudness responses to dynamic up-ramp and down-ramp melodies are essentially linear across all melodies. Therefore, 'indirect' loudness change derived from the difference in loudness at the beginning and end points of the continuous response was calculated. Down-ramps were perceived to change significantly more in loudness than up-ramps in both tonalities and at a relatively slow tempo. Loudness change was also greater for down-ramps presented with a congruent descending melodic contour, relative to an incongruent pairing (down-ramp and ascending melodic contour). No differential effect of intensity ramp/melodic contour congruency was observed for up-ramps. In paired ramp trials assessing the possible impact of ramp context, loudness change in response to up-ramps was significantly greater when preceded by down-ramps, than when not preceded by another ramp. Ramp context did not affect down-ramp perception. The contribution to the fields of music perception and psychoacoustics are discussed in the context of real-time perception of music, principles of music composition, and performance of musical dynamics.

  10. Radio-Loud Coronal Mass Ejections without Shocks near Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, S.; Gopalswamy, N.; Xie, H.; Yashiro, S.; Makela, P. A.; St Cyr, O. C.; MacDowall, R. J.; Kaiser, M. L.

    2010-12-01

    Type II radio bursts are produced by low energy electrons accelerated in shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). One can infer shocks near the Sun, in the Interplanetary medium, and near Earth depending on the wavelength range in which the type II bursts are produced. In fact, type II bursts are good indicators of CMEs that produce solar energetic particles. If the type II burst occurs from a source on the Earth-facing side of the solar disk, it is highly likely that a shock arrives at Earth in 2-3 days and hence can be used to predict shock arrival at Earth. However, a significant fraction of CMEs producing type II bursts were not associated shocks at Earth, even though the CMEs originated close to the disk center. There are several reasons for the lack of shock at 1 AU. CMEs originating at large central meridian distances (CMDs) may be driving a shock, but the shock may not be extended sufficiently to reach to the Sun-Earth line. Another possibility is CME cannibalism because of which shocks merge and one observes a single shock at Earth. Finally, the CME-driven shock may become weak and dissipate before reaching 1 AU. We examined a set of 30 type II bursts observed by the Wind/WAVES experiment that had the solar sources very close to the disk center (within a CMD of 15 degrees), but did not have shock at Earth. We find that the near-Sun speeds of the associated CMEs average to ~600 km/s, only slightly higher than the average speed of CMEs associated with radio-quiet shocks. However, the fraction of halo CMEs is only ~28%, compared to 40% for radio-quiet shocks and 72% for all radio-loud shocks. We conclude that the disk-center radio loud CMEs with no shocks at 1 AU are generally of lower energy and they drive shocks only close to the Sun.

  11. Multiphase ISM in Radio Loud Early Type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Sheetal Kumar; Chaware, Laxmikant; Pandey, S. K.

    We present optical, IR and X-ray photometric study of a sample of radio loud early type galaxies chosen from B2 sample. To get radial profiles of various photometric and geometrical parameters, We per- formed multiband surface photometry on CCD images of our sample gala- xies in ’BVR’ broad band filter and Hα narrow band filter obtained from IUCAA Girawali Observatory(IGO 2m telescope) Pune(INDIA),that descri- be elliptical isophotes fitted to the 2D light distribution of the galaxies. The main focus of our study is to analyze radial profiles of quantities such as the (local) surface brightness, the ellipticity, and the deviations from elliptical isophotes parametrized by the Fourier coefficients. We generated color maps,residual maps,dust extinction maps, Hα emission maps and x-ray diffuse maps (obtained from CHANDRA data archive) of the galaxies to study the morphology of the dust, ionized and hot gas content present in the galaxies. We carried out detailed analysis of the dust properties(mass and temperature of the dust) for sample galaxies. We also made use of the HST(WFPC2) archival optical images to investigate properties of the dust in the central region(˜10 arcsec) of our sample galaxies, including this we also estimated molecular gas mass, mass loss by red giant stars and mass loss rate from evolved stars in the sample galaxies obtained from IRAS fluxes. This multiwavelength study of our sample galaxies enabled us to find physical correlation among different phases of ISM also to address various issues related to dust i.e origin, nature and ate(evolution)of dust in radio-loud early type galaxies, coexistence of multiphase ISM in extra-galactic environment and its possible implications for the scenarios of formation and evolution of galaxies.

  12. Advertising media and cigarette demand.

    PubMed

    Goel, Rajeev K

    2011-01-01

    Using state-level panel data for the USA spanning three decades, this research estimates the demand for cigarettes. The main contribution lies in studying the effects of cigarette advertising disaggregated across five qualitatively different groups. Results show cigarette demand to be near unit elastic, the income effects to be generally insignificant and border price effects and habit effects to be significant. Regarding advertising effects, aggregate cigarette advertising has a negative effect on smoking. Important differences across advertising media emerge when cigarette advertising is disaggregated. The effects of public entertainment and Internet cigarette advertising are stronger than those of other media. Anti-smoking messages accompanying print cigarette advertising seem relatively more effective. Implications for smoking control policy are discussed.

  13. Influence of pitch, loudness, and timbre on the perception of instrument dynamics.

    PubMed

    Fabiani, Marco; Friberg, Anders

    2011-10-01

    The effect of variations in pitch, loudness, and timbre on the perception of the dynamics of isolated instrumental tones is investigated. A full factorial design was used in a listening experiment. The subjects were asked to indicate the perceived dynamics of each stimulus on a scale from pianissimo to fortissimo. Statistical analysis showed that for the instruments included (i.e., clarinet, flute, piano, trumpet, and violin) timbre and loudness had equally large effects, while pitch was relevant mostly for the first three. The results confirmed our hypothesis that loudness alone is not a reliable estimate of the dynamics of musical tones. PMID:21974491

  14. Influence of impression of vehicle styling on loudness of acceleration sounds in cabin.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Junji; Igata, Takumi

    2011-07-01

    The influence of participants' impressions of vehicle styling on the loudness of acceleration sounds was investigated. A series of images of luxury or sporty vehicles was presented to the participants as acceleration sounds were being replayed. The results indicated that participants who were frequent drivers felt that the sound associated with luxury vehicles was louder than that associated with sporty vehicles. However, participants who rarely drove perceived almost no difference between the loudness of the two vehicles types. Thus, the loudness was shown to depend on both the participants' impression of the vehicle and their driving frequency.

  15. Teaching Burke Using Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Charles U.

    Kenneth Burke's concepts of identification, the five terms of dramatism, and strategic uses of ambiguity can be successfully taught to undergraduates if appropriate and familiar examples are used. Print and electronic advertising offer the instructor an up-to-date, familiar, and abundant source of classroom examples. Market segmentation models…

  16. Children's Advertisement Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Andrew; Beard, Roger

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores primary school children's ability to engage with "the power of the text" by tackling persuasive writing in the form of an advertisement. It is eclectically framed within genre theory and rhetorical studies and makes use of linguistic tools and concepts. The paper argues that writing research has not built upon earlier…

  17. Physician Advertising: The Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruhn, Diane; Alley, Susan

    In the area of commercial speech, the courts face two competing rights: the public's right to know and the state's right to discipline members of the medical profession. The Federal Trade Commission has taken strong action against medical advertising prohibitions, and legal precedents have been set in Virginia Board of Pharmacy v. Virginia…

  18. Smaller hospitals accept advertising.

    PubMed

    Mackesy, R

    1988-07-01

    Administrators at small- and medium-sized hospitals gradually have accepted the role of marketing in their organizations, albeit at a much slower rate than larger institutions. This update of a 1983 survey tracks the increasing competitiveness, complexity and specialization of providing health care and of advertising a small hospital's services. PMID:10288550

  19. Advertising in dentistry.

    PubMed

    ter Horst, G

    1987-06-01

    Due to a rapid increase of unemployment among dentists in many countries, the interest in advertising as a means of stimulating the demand for dental care is increasing. In some countries (i.e. USA, Canada, Finland and Holland) campaigns have been organized and the results have been published. In order to give as complete a picture as possible of all promotional activities in the field of dentistry, the member organizations of the FDI have been asked to answer the following questions: (1) Are individual dentists in your country allowed to solicit new patients by means of advertisements? (2) Do you, as an organization, have guidelines for your members in this respect? (3) Have there been any joint promotional activities by dentists in your country aimed at increasing the demand for dental care? (a) If so, in what form (e.g. advertisements, television or radio commercials)? (b) How much money was invested in such activities? (c) What were the results achieved? The results are presented. The effectiveness of specific methods used in stimulating the demand for dental care are analysed. Moreover, a comparison is made between studies on the attitudes of dentists toward advertising in Holland and the United States. PMID:3476465

  20. The Rhetoric of Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andren, Gunnar

    1980-01-01

    Presents results of a study of 300 magazine advertisements assessing the level at which the ads are objective and informative. Discusses how these ads are communications designed to influence consumer behavior to the extent that they correspond to the facts, are relevant, comprehensive, adequately supported, intelligible, and logical. (JMF)

  1. The Children's Advertising Battle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKie, Alexander

    A number of relevant issues surround the arguments of both opponents and proponents of the Federal Trade Commission's proposals to ban or control certain advertising during children's television programs. Groups against regulatory action point out that parents, not children, are the consumers and have a right to free choice in their purchases.…

  2. Language in Food Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plata, Maximino

    1992-01-01

    Analyses 476 food advertisements in newspapers from 3 different sized cities. Finds that brand names, food names, and descriptive vocabulary comprise the majority of language in food ads across newspaper groups. Offers suggestions for using newspaper ads in the classroom. (RS)

  3. 12 CFR 230.8 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 230.8 Section 230.8 Banks and... SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 230.8 Advertising. (a) Misleading or inaccurate advertisements. An advertisement... obtain the advertised annual percentage yield. For tiered-rate accounts, the minimum balance required...

  4. 12 CFR 707.8 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 707.8 Section 707.8 Banks and... Advertising. (a) Misleading or inaccurate advertisements. An advertisement must not: (1) Be misleading or... balance required to earn the advertised annual percentage yield. For tiered-rate accounts, the...

  5. Advertising Faculty Describes Theory v. Practice Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Kent M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines perceptions and activities of advertising educators concerning the gap between advertising education and the advertising industry. Finds that most advertising educators have extensive experience in the advertising industry. Identifies differing opinions over the time that should be devoted to research and the value of doctoral level…

  6. Job and Career Satisfaction among Advertising Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jugenheimer, Donald W.

    A questionnaire survey of 300 advertising practitioners was used to determine the degree of job and career satisfaction among advertising practitioners. The subjects were separated according to whether they worked for advertising agencies, advertisers, or advertising media; 100 subjects in each area were selected from the prestigious directories…

  7. Policy Implications of Advertising to Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Emilie

    Since its inception the Children's Advertising Review Unit has turned to research in order to better evaluate children's advertisements, to develop guidelines for children's advertisers and to resolve some perplexing questions about certain types of advertising content. Although some work has been done in advertising directed toward children, most…

  8. Leftward lighting in advertisements increases advertisement ratings and purchase intention.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Jennifer; Thomas, Nicole A; Elias, Lorin

    2011-07-01

    It has been reliably shown that light is assumed to come from above. There is also some suggestion that light from the left might be preferred. Leftward lighting biases have been observed across various mediums such as paintings, portraits, photographs, and advertisements. As advertisements are used to persuade the public to purchase products, it was of interest to better understand whether leftward lighting would influence future intention to purchase. Participants gave preference ratings for pairs of advertisements with opposing lighting directions. Attitude towards the advertisement and the brand as well as future purchase intention was then rated. Overall, participants indicated that they preferred advertisements with leftward lighting and were more likely to purchase these products in the future than when the same products were lit from the right. Findings are consistent with previously observed leftward lighting biases and suggest that advertisements with a leftward lighting bias might be more effective. PMID:21038169

  9. Application of magnitude estimation scaling to the assessment of subjective loudness response to simulated sonic booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdaniel, S.; Leatherwood, J. D.; Sullivan, B. M.

    1992-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted for the following reasons: (1) to investigate the application of magnitude estimation scaling for evaluating the subjective loudness of sonic booms; and (2) to compare the relative merits of magnitude estimation and numerical category scaling for sonic boom loudness evaluation. The study was conducted in the NASA LeRC's sonic boom simulator and used a total of 80 test subjects (48 for magnitude estimation and 32 for numerical category scaling). Results demonstrated that magnitude estimation was a practical and effective method for quantifying subjective loudness of sonic booms. When using magnitude estimation, the subjects made valid and consistent ratio judgments of sonic boom loudness irrespective of the frequency of presentation of the standard stimulus. Presentation of the standard as every fourth stimulus was preferred by the subjects and is recommended as the standard presentation frequency to be used in future tests.

  10. [The level of the musical loud sound and noise induced hearing impairment].

    PubMed

    Ono, H; Deguchi, T; Ino, T; Okamoto, K; Takyu, H

    1986-03-20

    Recently, there has been an increasing number of reports concerning hearing impairment which musical loud sound is thought to be one of the causes. We are getting more of this musical loud sound as cassette tape recorders with head phones such as Walkman and so forth get popular as well as occasions to attending rock concerts and going to discotheques increase. This hearing impairment is generally called discotheque deafness and the following three types are considered; 1) deafness which have fixed by accumulation of loud sound over a long period of time as seen in people involved in musical performance such as rock musicians and mixing engineers; 2) abrupt noise induced hearing impairment triggered by loud sound and 3) state of deafness which is a progressing stage towards recovery of noise induced temporary threshold shift (NITTS), which occurs temporarily by a loud sound stimulus, and hearing ability recovers afterward. However, it is considered that these musical loud sounds not only changes every moment according to method of performing or type of music, but the volume of the sound actually reaching the auditory sense differs largely by locations and direction of the ear and speakers. So it becomes necessary to measure the accumulation of the noise which each individual is exposed under over a long period of time and at the same time carry out the regular medical checkups including hearing test to check the initiation and advancement of the noise induced hearing impairment. Then we can examine the relationship between loudness of the environmental noise and initiation and advancement of the hearing impairment. However, there has not been a device which is compact and measures noise exposure individually over a long period of time. So we have experimentally produced ultra compact noise dosimeter which we named Noise Badge, and with it we actually measured individual noise exposure over a long time in rock music, noise in discotheque and noisy factory. Then we

  11. fMRI activation in relation to sound intensity and loudness.

    PubMed

    Langers, Dave R M; van Dijk, Pim; Schoenmaker, Esther S; Backes, Walter H

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this fMRI study was to relate cortical fMRI responses to both physical and perceptual sound level characteristics. Besides subjects with normal hearing, subjects with high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss were included, as distortion of loudness perception is a characteristic of such impairment. Cortical responses in both subject groups were analyzed as a function of the physical intensity and the perceived loudness of low and high-frequency stimuli. For the low-frequency stimuli, intensity levels ranged from 0 to 70 dB SL; for the high-frequency stimuli, intensity levels were set such that the corresponding loudness levels matched those of the low-frequency stimuli. Responses were found to increase significantly and predominantly linearly with intensity level and with loudness level. Response saturation at the highest levels was not apparent, but activation exhibited a steep rise between 0 and 10 dB for the low-frequency stimuli. The activation in the subjects with hearing loss increased significantly more strongly with stimulus intensity than that in the normally hearing subjects. This reflects loudness recruitment, characterized by a disproportionate increase in loudness with stimulus intensity. In contrast, the rate of activation increase as a function of loudness level did not differ between both subject groups. This demonstrates that fMRI activation at the level of the auditory cortex is more closely related to the percept of a stimulus (i.e., loudness) rather than to its physical characteristics (i.e., intensity). PMID:17254802

  12. Binaural loudness summation for speech presented via earphones and loudspeaker with and without visual cues.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Michael; Florentine, Mary

    2012-05-01

    Preliminary data [M. Epstein and M. Florentine, Ear. Hear. 30, 234-237 (2009)] obtained using speech stimuli from a visually present talker heard via loudspeakers in a sound-attenuating chamber indicate little difference in loudness when listening with one or two ears (i.e., significantly reduced binaural loudness summation, BLS), which is known as "binaural loudness constancy." These data challenge current understanding drawn from laboratory measurements that indicate a tone presented binaurally is louder than the same tone presented monaurally. Twelve normal listeners were presented recorded spondees, monaurally and binaurally across a wide range of levels via earphones and a loudspeaker with and without visual cues. Statistical analyses of binaural-to-monaural ratios of magnitude estimates indicate that the amount of BLS is significantly less for speech presented via a loudspeaker with visual cues than for stimuli with any other combination of test parameters (i.e., speech presented via earphones or a loudspeaker without visual cues, and speech presented via earphones with visual cues). These results indicate that the loudness of a visually present talker in daily environments is little affected by switching between binaural and monaural listening. This supports the phenomenon of binaural loudness constancy and underscores the importance of ecological validity in loudness research.

  13. The neural correlates of subjectively perceived and passively matched loudness perception in auditory phantom perception

    PubMed Central

    De Ridder, Dirk; Congedo, Marco; Vanneste, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A fundamental question in phantom perception is determining whether the brain creates a network that represents the sound intensity of the auditory phantom as measured by tinnitus matching (in dB), or whether the phantom perception is actually only a representation of the subjectively perceived loudness. Methods In tinnitus patients, tinnitus loudness was tested in two ways, by a numeric rating scale for subjectively perceived loudness and a more objective tinnitus-matching test, albeit it is still a subjective measure. Results Passively matched tinnitus does not correlate with subjective numeric rating scale, and has no electrophysiological correlates. Subjective loudness, in a whole-brain analysis, is correlated with activity in the left anterior insula (alpha), the rostral/dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (beta), and the left parahippocampus (gamma). A ROI analysis finds correlations with the auditory cortex (high beta and gamma) as well. The theta band links gamma band activity in the auditory cortex and parahippocampus via theta–gamma nesting. Conclusions Apparently the brain generates a network that represents subjectively perceived tinnitus loudness only, which is context dependent. The subjective loudness network consists of the anterior cingulate/insula, the parahippocampus, and the auditory cortex. The gamma band activity in the parahippocampus and the auditory cortex is functionally linked via theta–gamma nested lagged phase synchronization. PMID:25874164

  14. Loudness and annoyance response to simulated outdoor and indoor sonic booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, Jack D.; Sullivan, Brenda M.

    1993-01-01

    The sonic boom simulator of the Langley Research Center was used to quantify subjective loudness and annoyance response to simulated indoor and outdoor sonic boom signatures. The indoor signatures were derived from the outdoor signatures by application of house filters that approximated the noise reduction characteristics of a residential structure. Two indoor listening situations were simulated: one with the windows open and the other with the windows closed. Results were used to assess loudness and annoyance as sonic boom criterion measures and to evaluate several metrics as estimators of loudness and annoyance. The findings indicated that loudness and annoyance were equivalent criterion measures for outdoor booms but not for indoor booms. Annoyance scores for indoor booms were significantly higher than indoor loudness scores. Thus, annoyance was recommended as the criterion measure of choice for general use in assessing sonic boom subjective effects. Perceived level was determined to be the best estimator of annoyance for both indoor and outdoor booms, and of loudness for outdoor booms. It was recommended as the metric of choice for predicting sonic boom subjective effects.

  15. Loudness of subcritical sounds as a function of bandwidth, center frequency, and level.

    PubMed

    Hots, J; Rennies, J; Verhey, J L

    2014-03-01

    Level differences at equal loudness between band-pass noise and pure tones with a frequency equal to the center frequency of the noise were measured in normal-hearing listeners using a loudness matching procedure. The center frequencies were 750, 1500, and 3000 Hz and noise bandwidths from 5 to 1620 Hz were used. The level of the reference pure tone was 30, 50, or 70 dB. For all center frequencies and reference levels, the level at equal loudness was close to 0 dB for the narrowest bandwidth, increased with bandwidth for bandwidths smaller than the critical bandwidth, and decreased for bandwidths larger than the critical bandwidth. For bandwidths considerably larger than the critical bandwidth, the level difference was negative. The maximum positive level difference was measured for a bandwidth close to the critical bandwidth. This maximum level difference decreased with increasing reference level. A similar effect was found when the level differences were derived from data of an additional categorical loudness scaling experiment. The results indicate that the decrease of loudness at equal level with increasing subcritical bandwidth is a common property of the auditory system which is not taken into account in current loudness models. PMID:24606270

  16. Reversible Inactivation of the Auditory Thalamus Disrupts HPA Axis Habituation to Repeated Loud Noise Stress Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Day, Heidi E.W.; Masini, Cher V.; Campeau, Serge

    2009-01-01

    Although habituation to stress is a widely observed adaptive mechanism in response to repeated homotypic challenge exposure, its brain location and mechanism of plasticity remains elusive. And while habituation-related plasticity has been suggested to take place in central limbic regions, recent evidence suggests that sensory sites may provide the underlying substrate for this function. For instance, several brainstem, midbrain, thalamic, and/or cortical auditory processing areas, among others, could support habituation-related plasticity to repeated loud noise exposures. In the present study, the auditory thalamus was tested for its putative role in habituation to repeated loud noise exposures, in rats. The auditory thalamus was inactivated reversibly by muscimol injections during repeated loud noise exposures to determine if brainstem or midbrain auditory nuclei would be sufficient to support habituation to this specific stressor, as measured during an additional and drug-free loud noise exposure test. Our results indicate that auditory thalamic inactivation by muscimol disrupts acute HPA axis response specifically to loud noise. Importantly, habituation to repeated loud noise exposures was also prevented by reversible auditory thalamic inactivation, suggesting that this form of plasticity is likely mediated at, or in targets of, the auditory thalamus. PMID:19379718

  17. Radio-Loud Coronal Mass Ejections Without Shocks Near Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; SaintCyr, O. C.; MacDowall, R. J.; Kaiser, M. L.; Xie, H.; Makela, P.; Akiyama, S.

    2010-01-01

    Type II radio bursts are produced by low energy electrons accelerated in shocks driven by corona) mass ejections (CMEs). One can infer shocks near the Sun, in the Interplanetary medium, and near Earth depending on the wavelength range in which the type II bursts are produced. In fact, type II bursts are good indicators of CMEs that produce solar energetic particles. If the type 11 burst occurs from a source on the Earth-facing side of the solar disk, it is highly likely that a shock arrives at Earth in 2-3 days and hence can be used to predict shock arrival at Earth. However, a significant fraction of CMEs producing type II bursts were not associated shocks at Earth, even though the CMEs originated close to the disk center. There are several reasons for the lack of shock at 1 AU. CMEs originating at large central meridian distances (CMDs) may be driving a shock, but the shock may not be extended sufficiently to reach to the Sun-Earth line. Another possibility is CME cannibalism because of which shocks merge and one observes a single shock at Earth. Finally, the CME-driven shock may become weak and dissipate before reaching 1 AU. We examined a set of 30 type II bursts observed by the Wind/WAVES experiment that had the solar sources very close to the disk center (within a CMD of 15 degrees), but did not have shock at Earth. We find that the near-Sun speeds of the associated CMEs average to approx.600 km/s, only slightly higher than the average speed of CMEs associated with radio-quiet shocks. However, the fraction of halo CMEs is only approx.28%, compared to 40% for radio-quiet shocks and 72% for all radio-loud shocks. We conclude that the disk-center radio loud CMEs with no shocks at 1 AU are generally of lower energy and they drive shocks only close to the Sun.

  18. Internet and Advertisement.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2016-02-01

    The Internet has revolutionized the way knowledge is currently produced, stored and disseminated. A few finger clicks on a keyboard can save time and many hours of search in libraries or shopping in stores. Online trademarks with an (e-) prefix such as e-library, e-business, e-health etc., are increasingly part of our daily professional vocabularies. However, the Internet has also produced multiple negative side effects, ranging from an unhealthy dependency to a dehumanization of human relationships. Fraudulent, unethical and scam practices are also flourishing through for example misleading online advertising methods. Some social and professional networks gather users' profiles for selling and advertising purposes, sometimes by making it technically difficult to unsubscribe. Here, I discuss some of these unethical aspects and propose some potential solutions to reduce them.

  19. Internet and Advertisement.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2016-02-01

    The Internet has revolutionized the way knowledge is currently produced, stored and disseminated. A few finger clicks on a keyboard can save time and many hours of search in libraries or shopping in stores. Online trademarks with an (e-) prefix such as e-library, e-business, e-health etc., are increasingly part of our daily professional vocabularies. However, the Internet has also produced multiple negative side effects, ranging from an unhealthy dependency to a dehumanization of human relationships. Fraudulent, unethical and scam practices are also flourishing through for example misleading online advertising methods. Some social and professional networks gather users' profiles for selling and advertising purposes, sometimes by making it technically difficult to unsubscribe. Here, I discuss some of these unethical aspects and propose some potential solutions to reduce them. PMID:25842044

  20. Contraceptive product advertising.

    PubMed

    Kastor, A

    1985-07-01

    In the US, all national broadcast networks refuse to accept ads for contraceptive products. About 10 years ago, the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB), a trade association, inserted a ban on contraceptive ads in its advertising code for member stations. The ban was voluntary, but all NAB stations adhered to it. When the NAB dropped its advertising code in 1982, for legal reasons unrelated to contraceptive advertising, individual networks established their own codes. These codes continued the ban on contraceptives along with bans on ads for cigarettes, X-rated movies, sex magazines, and astrology services. In recent years, a few local radio and television stations and cable networks began accepting contraceptive ads. The ads, which are tasteful and straightforward, met with little or no public disapproval. Given that the national television networks through their programming willingly expose viewers to an estimated 9230 sexual acts or references a year, it is hard to understand why they persist in refusing to air contraceptive ads or to allow any references to contraceptive use in their programming. There are some hopeful signs. A number of national organizations are now publicly urging the networks to drop their ban. These organizations include the American College of Nurse-Midwives, the American Jewish Congress, and the Society for Adolescent Medicine. The Center for Population Options recently organized a task force to promote contraceptive advertising. The task force is composed of representatives from a wide range of national organizations, including the American Public Health Association and the National Urban League. The task force developed guidelines for the production and selection of contraceptive ads. The guidelines state that ads must provide accurate and clear information on product effectiveness, present comparisons with other products fairly, advise users to read all instructions, and inform listeners if there is an effectiveness waiting

  1. Cash: Advertising Provides Boost to Yearbook Finances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweiger, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Indicates that to build a successful yearbook advertising program an adviser must instill enthusiasm and then find students willing to sell advertising. Provides eight guidelines for structuring an advertising sales program. (TJ)

  2. 33 CFR 136.309 - Advertisement determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Advertisement determinations. (a) The Director, NPFC, determines for each incident the type, geographic scope... shall advertise, in accordance with the requirements of this subpart, the designation and the procedures... this section, the Director, NPFC, may advertise procedures for presenting claims....

  3. Educating the Consumer about Advertising: Some Issues. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    Providing a basic overview of issues related to advertising and the consumer, this digest discusses the omnipresence of advertisements, suggesting ways for consumers to recognize advertising appeals. Deceptive advertising is discussed, with particular attention paid to financial advertising. (RS)

  4. Constraining the Radio-loud Fraction of Quasars at z > 5.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bañados, E.; Venemans, B. P.; Morganson, E.; Hodge, J.; Decarli, R.; Walter, F.; Stern, D.; Schlafly, E.; Farina, E. P.; Greiner, J.; Chambers, K. C.; Fan, X.; Rix, H.-W.; Burgett, W. S.; Draper, P. W.; Flewelling, J.; Kaiser, N.; Metcalfe, N.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.

    2015-05-01

    Radio-loud active galactic nuclei at z˜ 2-4 are typically located in dense environments and their host galaxies are among the most massive systems at those redshifts, providing key insights for galaxy evolution. Finding radio-loud quasars at the highest accessible redshifts (z˜ 6) is important to the study of their properties and environments at even earlier cosmic time. They could also serve as background sources for radio surveys intended to study the intergalactic medium beyond the epoch of reionization in HI 21 cm absorption. Currently, only five radio-loud (R={{f}ν ,5 GHz}/{{f}ν ,4400 \\overset{\\circA }}\\gt 10) quasars are known at z˜ 6. In this paper we search for 5.5≲ z≲ 7.2 quasars by cross-matching the optical Panoramic Survey Telescope & Rapid Response System 1 and radio Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm surveys. The radio information allows identification of quasars missed by typical color-based selections. While we find no good 6.4≲ z≲ 7.2 quasar candidates at the sensitivities of these surveys, we discover two new radio-loud quasars at z˜ 6. Furthermore, we identify two additional z˜ 6 radio-loud quasars that were not previously known to be radio-loud, nearly doubling the current z˜ 6 sample. We show the importance of having infrared photometry for z\\gt 5.5 quasars to robustly classify them as radio-quiet or radio-loud. Based on this, we reclassify the quasar J0203+0012 (z = 5.72), previously considered radio-loud, to be radio-quiet. Using the available data in the literature, we constrain the radio-loud fraction of quasars at z˜ 6, using the Kaplan-Meier estimator, to be 8.1-3.2+5.0%. This result is consistent with there being no evolution of the radio-loud fraction with redshift, in contrast to what has been suggested by some studies at lower redshifts.

  5. 'Puffing' in medical advertising expands liability.

    PubMed

    Hirsh, B D

    1990-05-01

    Advertising is nothing new to the medical profession, although for many years reputable doctors did not advertise their skills. In 1975, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) successfully argued in a case that was appealed to the Supreme Court that the AMA had unlawfully restricted medical advertising. While the FTC usurped the job of policing medical advertising, it seems to regard medical adverstising as a local problem not worthy of FTC attention. It has avoided setting standards for medical advertising and has failed to initiate significant enforcement against deceptive medical advertising. This article briefly reviews the historical role of advertising in modern American medicine and discusses advertising in relation to risk management. PMID:2343421

  6. 77 FR 50071 - Petition for Reconsideration of Action in Rulemaking Proceeding

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ..., released August 13, 2012. The full text of this document is available for viewing and copying in Room CY... Advertisement Loudness Mitigation (CALM) Act, Report and Order, FCC 11-182, published at 77 FR 40276, July...

  7. Assessing Linearity in the Loudness Envelope of the Messa di Voce Singing Exercise Through Acoustic Signal Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Manuj; Cabrera, Densil; Kenny, Dianna T

    2015-09-01

    Messa di voce (MDV) is a singing exercise that involves sustaining a single pitch with a linear change in loudness from silence to maximum intensity (the crescendo part) and back to silence again (the decrescendo part), with time symmetry between the two parts. Previous studies have used the sound pressure level (SPL, in decibels) of a singer's voice to measure loudness, so as to assess the linearity of each part-an approach that has limitations due to loudness and SPL not being linearly related. This article studies the loudness envelope shapes of MDVs, comparing the SPL approach with approaches that are more closely related to human loudness perception. The MDVs were performed by a cohort of tertiary singing students, recorded six times (once per semester) over a period of 3 years. The loudness envelopes were derived for a typical audience listening position, and for listening to one's own singing, using three models: SPL, Stevens' power law-based model, and a computational loudness model. The effects on the envelope shape due to room acoustics (an important effect) and vibrato (minimal effect) were also considered. The results showed that the SPL model yielded a lower proportion of linear crescendi and decrescendi, compared with other models. The Stevens' power law-based model provided results similar to the more complicated computational loudness model. Longitudinally, there was no consistent trend in the shape of the MDV loudness envelope for the cohort although there were some individual singers who exhibited improvements in linearity.

  8. Assessing Linearity in the Loudness Envelope of the Messa di Voce Singing Exercise Through Acoustic Signal Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Manuj; Cabrera, Densil; Kenny, Dianna T

    2015-09-01

    Messa di voce (MDV) is a singing exercise that involves sustaining a single pitch with a linear change in loudness from silence to maximum intensity (the crescendo part) and back to silence again (the decrescendo part), with time symmetry between the two parts. Previous studies have used the sound pressure level (SPL, in decibels) of a singer's voice to measure loudness, so as to assess the linearity of each part-an approach that has limitations due to loudness and SPL not being linearly related. This article studies the loudness envelope shapes of MDVs, comparing the SPL approach with approaches that are more closely related to human loudness perception. The MDVs were performed by a cohort of tertiary singing students, recorded six times (once per semester) over a period of 3 years. The loudness envelopes were derived for a typical audience listening position, and for listening to one's own singing, using three models: SPL, Stevens' power law-based model, and a computational loudness model. The effects on the envelope shape due to room acoustics (an important effect) and vibrato (minimal effect) were also considered. The results showed that the SPL model yielded a lower proportion of linear crescendi and decrescendi, compared with other models. The Stevens' power law-based model provided results similar to the more complicated computational loudness model. Longitudinally, there was no consistent trend in the shape of the MDV loudness envelope for the cohort although there were some individual singers who exhibited improvements in linearity. PMID:25892091

  9. Practical Ranges of Loudness Levels of Various Types of Environmental Noise, Including Traffic Noise, Aircraft Noise, and Industrial Noise

    PubMed Central

    Salomons, Erik M.; Janssen, Sabine A.

    2011-01-01

    In environmental noise control one commonly employs the A-weighted sound level as an approximate measure of the effect of noise on people. A measure that is more closely related to direct human perception of noise is the loudness level. At constant A-weighted sound level, the loudness level of a noise signal varies considerably with the shape of the frequency spectrum of the noise signal. In particular the bandwidth of the spectrum has a large effect on the loudness level, due to the effect of critical bands in the human hearing system. The low-frequency content of the spectrum also has an effect on the loudness level. In this note the relation between loudness level and A-weighted sound level is analyzed for various environmental noise spectra, including spectra of traffic noise, aircraft noise, and industrial noise. From loudness levels calculated for these environmental noise spectra, diagrams are constructed that show the relation between loudness level, A-weighted sound level, and shape of the spectrum. The diagrams show that the upper limits of the loudness level for broadband environmental noise spectra are about 20 to 40 phon higher than the lower limits for narrowband spectra, which correspond to the loudness levels of pure tones. The diagrams are useful for assessing limitations and potential improvements of environmental noise control methods and policy based on A-weighted sound levels. PMID:21776205

  10. Neighborhood-based tobacco advertising targeting adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Ammerman, S D; Nolden, M

    1995-01-01

    Adolescent tobacco use remains a serious problem, and adolescents may be particularly receptive to the glamorous images tobacco companies use in advertisements. A relatively new form of neighborhood-based outdoor advertising, the illuminated bus-stop-shelter billboard, was studied to determine tobacco companies' use of this medium. We hypothesized that in 2 distinct San Francisco, California, neighborhoods, 1 predominantly white and the other mostly Latino, we would find a predominance of tobacco advertising on these billboards in both neighborhoods, that tobacco advertisements would be more prevalent in the minority Latino neighborhood, and that tobacco advertising would target adolescents in both neighborhoods. Each bus-stop-shelter billboard advertisement in the study areas from April 1992 to March 1993 was recorded. The type and frequency of products advertised and qualitative content of tobacco advertisements were analyzed. Adolescents' possible exposure to these advertisements was noted. Our main outcome measures were the percentage of tobacco advertising, possible adolescent exposure to this advertising, and themes of the tobacco advertisements. About 10% of all bus-stop-shelter billboard advertisements in each area promoted tobacco use. Possible exposures to these advertisements were greater in the Latino neighborhood because of a greater adolescent population. Qualitative analyses of tobacco advertisements suggested that adolescents are the primary targets. We urge physicians and educators to explicitly address this form of tobacco advertising, and we urge a ban on neighborhood-based tobacco advertising. PMID:7618311

  11. Deceptive Advertising: Unprotected and Unknown.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducoffe, Robert Hal

    The Supreme Court tentatively extended First Amendment protection to commercial speech, but left the issue of defining and regulating deceptive advertising to the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), which has employed tools such as the cease-and-desist order, affirmative disclosure, and corrective advertising. The FTC Act did not define deception, but…

  12. Drug Advertising and the FDA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levesque, Cynthia

    With increases in consumer focused advertising for prescription drugs, the Federal Drug Administration has renewed efforts to protect the public from false advertising. In 1982, it charged that the press kits Eli Lilly and Company distributed to reporters on its new antiarthritis drug, Oraflex, misrepresented the product. It recommended that Lilly…

  13. Contraceptive product advertising.

    PubMed

    Kastor, A

    1985-07-01

    In the US, all national broadcast networks refuse to accept ads for contraceptive products. About 10 years ago, the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB), a trade association, inserted a ban on contraceptive ads in its advertising code for member stations. The ban was voluntary, but all NAB stations adhered to it. When the NAB dropped its advertising code in 1982, for legal reasons unrelated to contraceptive advertising, individual networks established their own codes. These codes continued the ban on contraceptives along with bans on ads for cigarettes, X-rated movies, sex magazines, and astrology services. In recent years, a few local radio and television stations and cable networks began accepting contraceptive ads. The ads, which are tasteful and straightforward, met with little or no public disapproval. Given that the national television networks through their programming willingly expose viewers to an estimated 9230 sexual acts or references a year, it is hard to understand why they persist in refusing to air contraceptive ads or to allow any references to contraceptive use in their programming. There are some hopeful signs. A number of national organizations are now publicly urging the networks to drop their ban. These organizations include the American College of Nurse-Midwives, the American Jewish Congress, and the Society for Adolescent Medicine. The Center for Population Options recently organized a task force to promote contraceptive advertising. The task force is composed of representatives from a wide range of national organizations, including the American Public Health Association and the National Urban League. The task force developed guidelines for the production and selection of contraceptive ads. The guidelines state that ads must provide accurate and clear information on product effectiveness, present comparisons with other products fairly, advise users to read all instructions, and inform listeners if there is an effectiveness waiting

  14. The Attitudes of Advertising Educators Concerning the Philosophies of Legendary Advertising Practitioners (and Their Implications for Advertising Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanot, Eric J.; Lamp, Joseph

    A study explored the attitudes of professors of advertising toward well-known advertising practitioners, and the effect these famous practitioners have had on the teaching of advertising. Four influential and famous advertising practitioners were selected from a preliminary list of 10. Six statements reflecting each practitioner's advertising…

  15. Generation X and Objectionable Advertising: A Q-Sort of Senior Advertising Students' Attitudes toward Objectionable Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yssel, Johan C.; And Others

    A study investigated what a group of 29 senior advertising students, part of "Generation X," at a midwestern university found "objectionable" in 35 selected contemporary magazine advertising executions. Using a Q-sort, students ranked the advertisements and completed a personal interview. The majority of the advertisements that students found…

  16. Continuous loudness response to acoustic intensity dynamics in melodies: effects of melodic contour, tempo, and tonality.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Kirk N; Stevens, Catherine J; Dean, Roger T; Bailes, Freya

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate perceived loudness change in response to melodies that increase (up-ramp) or decrease (down-ramp) in acoustic intensity, and the interaction with other musical factors such as melodic contour, tempo, and tonality (tonal/atonal). A within-subjects design manipulated direction of linear intensity change (up-ramp, down-ramp), melodic contour (ascending, descending), tempo, and tonality, using single ramp trials and paired ramp trials, where single up-ramps and down-ramps were assembled to create continuous up-ramp/down-ramp or down-ramp/up-ramp pairs. Twenty-nine (Exp 1) and thirty-six (Exp 2) participants rated loudness continuously in response to trials with monophonic 13-note piano melodies lasting either 6.4s or 12s. Linear correlation coefficients >.89 between loudness and time show that time-series loudness responses to dynamic up-ramp and down-ramp melodies are essentially linear across all melodies. Therefore, 'indirect' loudness change derived from the difference in loudness at the beginning and end points of the continuous response was calculated. Down-ramps were perceived to change significantly more in loudness than up-ramps in both tonalities and at a relatively slow tempo. Loudness change was also greater for down-ramps presented with a congruent descending melodic contour, relative to an incongruent pairing (down-ramp and ascending melodic contour). No differential effect of intensity ramp/melodic contour congruency was observed for up-ramps. In paired ramp trials assessing the possible impact of ramp context, loudness change in response to up-ramps was significantly greater when preceded by down-ramps, than when not preceded by another ramp. Ramp context did not affect down-ramp perception. The contribution to the fields of music perception and psychoacoustics are discussed in the context of real-time perception of music, principles of music composition, and performance of musical dynamics. PMID:24809252

  17. Pitch and Loudness from Tinnitus in Individuals with Noise-induced Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Leticia Sousa; Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro; Rosito, Leticia Petersen Schmidt; Seimetz, Bruna Macagnin; Dall'Igna, Celso

    2015-01-01

    Introduction  Tinnitus is one of the symptoms that affects individuals suffering from noise induced hearing loss. This condition can be disabling, leading the affected individual to turn away from work. Objective  This literature review aims to analyze the possible association between gender and tinnitus pitch and loudness, the degree of hearing loss and the frequencies affected in subjects with noise-induced hearing loss. Methods  This contemporary cohort study was conducted through a cross-sectional analysis. The study sample consisted of adults with unilateral or bilateral tinnitus, who had been diagnosed with noise-induced hearing loss. The patients under analysis underwent an otorhinolaryngological evaluation, pure tone audiometry, and acuphenometry. Results  The study included 33 subjects with noise-induced hearing loss diagnoses, of which 22 (66.7%) were men. Authors observed no statistical difference between gender and loudness/pitch tinnitus and loudness/pitch in subjects with bilateral tinnitus. Authors found an inverse relation between tinnitus loudness with intensity greater hearing threshold and the average of the thresholds and the grade of hearing loss. The tinnitus pitch showed no association with higher frequency of hearing threshold. Conclusion  Data analysis shows that, among the individuals evaluated, the greater the hearing loss, the lower the loudness of tinnitus. We did not observe an association between hearing loss and tinnitus pitch. PMID:27413408

  18. Laboratory study of effects of sonic boom shaping on subjective loudness and acceptability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, Jack D.; Sullivan, Brenda M.

    1992-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to determine the effects of sonic boom signature shaping on subjective loudness and acceptability. The study utilized the sonic boom simulator at the Langley Research Center. A wide range of symmetrical, front-shock-minimized signature shapes were investigated together with a limited number of asymmetrical signatures. Subjective loudness judgments were obtained from 60 test subjects by using an 11-point numerical category scale. Acceptability judgments were obtained using the method of constant stimuli. Results were used to assess the relative predictive ability of several noise metrics, determine the loudness benefits of detailed boom shaping, and derive laboratory sonic boom acceptability criteria. These results indicated that the A-weighted sound exposure level, the Stevens Mark 7 Perceived Level, and the Zwicker Loudness Level metrics all performed well. Significant reductions in loudness were obtained by increasing front-shock rise time and/or decreasing front-shock overpressure of the front-shock minimized signatures. In addition, the asymmetrical signatures were rated to be slightly quieter than the symmetrical front-shock-minimized signatures of equal A-weighted sound exposure level. However, this result was based on a limited number of asymmetric signatures. The comparison of laboratory acceptability results with acceptability data obtained in more realistic situations also indicated good agreement.

  19. Relation of distortion-product otoacoustic emission input-output functions to loudness.

    PubMed

    Rasetshwane, Daniel M; Neely, Stephen T; Kopun, Judy G; Gorga, Michael P

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study is to further explore the relationship between distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) measurements and categorical loudness scaling (CLS) measurements using multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis. Recently, Thorson et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 131, 1282-1295 (2012)] obtained predictions of CLS loudness ratings from DPOAE input/output (I/O) functions using MLR analysis. The present study extends that work by (1) considering two different (and potentially improved) MLR models, one for predicting loudness rating at specified input level and the other for predicting the input level for each loudness category and (2) validating the new models' predictions using an independent set of data. Strong correlations were obtained between predicted and measured data during the validation process with overall root-mean-square errors in the range 10.43-16.78 dB for the prediction of CLS input level, supporting the view that DPOAE I/O measurements can predict CLS loudness ratings and input levels, and thus may be useful for fitting hearing aids.

  20. 36 CFR 223.227 - Sale advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale advertisement. 223.227... DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products Advertisement and Bids § 223.227 Sale advertisement. (a) The Forest Service shall advertise any special forest products sales with an appraised...

  1. 36 CFR 1005.1 - Advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertisements. 1005.1....1 Advertisements. Commercial notices or advertisements shall not be displayed, posted, or... by the Executive Director. Such permission may be granted only if the notice or advertisement is...

  2. 36 CFR 5.1 - Advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertisements. 5.1 Section 5... AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.1 Advertisements. Commercial notices or advertisements shall not be... or advertisement is of goods, services, or facilities available within the park area and such...

  3. 32 CFR 644.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Advertising. 644.540 Section 644.540 National... HANDBOOK Disposal Sale Procedure § 644.540 Advertising. (a) Definition and purposes. GSA regulations... for sale. Sales will be made to the highest responsible bidder after advertising. Advertising...

  4. 16 CFR 238.1 - Bait advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bait advertisement. 238.1 Section 238.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.1 Bait advertisement. No advertisement containing an offer to sell a product should be...

  5. 16 CFR 238.1 - Bait advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bait advertisement. 238.1 Section 238.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.1 Bait advertisement. No advertisement containing an offer to sell a product should be...

  6. 16 CFR 238.1 - Bait advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bait advertisement. 238.1 Section 238.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.1 Bait advertisement. No advertisement containing an offer to sell a product should be...

  7. 16 CFR 238.1 - Bait advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bait advertisement. 238.1 Section 238.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.1 Bait advertisement. No advertisement containing an offer to sell a product should be...

  8. 16 CFR 238.1 - Bait advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bait advertisement. 238.1 Section 238.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.1 Bait advertisement. No advertisement containing an offer to sell a product should be...

  9. 25 CFR 215.12 - Advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Advertising costs. 215.12 Section 215.12 Indians BUREAU... LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.12 Advertising costs. All advertising costs, publication fees, expenses incurred for abstracts of lease title, and other expenses incurred in connection with the advertising...

  10. 20 CFR 655.1303 - Advertising requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Advertising requirements. 655.1303 Section... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1303 Advertising requirements. All advertising conducted... the H-2A workers. All advertising must contain the following information: (a) The employer's name...

  11. Advertising to Children: Concepts and Controversies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macklin, M. Carole, Ed.; Carlson, Les, Ed.

    This book presents cutting-edge research designed to stimulate and inform the debate over advertising to the children's market and the effects such advertising has on children. Perspectives are organized in sections to address what children know and think about advertising, how advertising works with children, and what issues are at the forefront…

  12. 12 CFR 707.8 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising. 707.8 Section 707.8 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS TRUTH IN SAVINGS § 707.8 Advertising. (a) Misleading or inaccurate advertisements. An advertisement must not: (1) Be misleading...

  13. 3C 57 as an atypical radio-loud quasar: implications for the radio-loud/radio-quiet dichotomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulentic, J. W.; Martínez-Carballo, M. A.; Marziani, P.; del Olmo, A.; Stirpe, G. M.; Zamfir, S.; Plauchu-Frayn, I.

    2015-06-01

    Lobe-dominated radio-loud (LD RL) quasars occupy a restricted domain in the 4D Eigenvector 1 (4DE1) parameter space which implies restricted geometry/physics/kinematics for this subclass compared to the radio-quiet (RQ) majority of quasars. We discuss how this restricted domain for the LD RL parent population supports the notion for a RQ-RL dichotomy among type 1 sources. 3C 57 is an atypical RL quasar that shows both uncertain radio morphology and falls in a region of 4DE1 space where RL quasars are rare. We present new radio flux and optical spectroscopic measures designed to verify its atypical optical/UV spectroscopic behaviour and clarify its radio structure. The former data confirms that 3C 57 falls off the 4DE1 quasar `main sequence' with both extreme optical Fe II emission (R_{Fe II} ˜ 1) and a large C IV λ1549 profile blueshift (˜-1500 km s-1). These parameter values are typical of extreme Population A sources which are almost always RQ. New radio measures show no evidence for flux change over a 50+ year time-scale consistent with compact steep-spectrum (or young LD) over core-dominated morphology. In the 4DE1 context where LD RL are usually low L/LEdd quasars, we suggest that 3C 57 is an evolved RL quasar (i.e. large blackhole mass) undergoing a major accretion event leading to a rejuvenation reflected by strong Fe II emission, perhaps indicating significant heavy metal enrichment, high bolometric luminosity for a low-redshift source and resultant unusually high Eddington ratio giving rise to the atypical C IV λ1549.

  14. Cigarette advertising and adolescent experimentation with smoking.

    PubMed

    Klitzner, M; Gruenewald, P J; Bamberger, E

    1991-03-01

    The extent to which cigarette advertising contributes to increases in smoking has been debated by public health professionals and the tobacco industry. One aspect of this debate has been the degree to which advertising influences smoking among adolescents. Previous research suggests that there are significant relationships between measures of advertising and smoking. However, potential simultaneous relationships between these measures have not been addressed. Observed correlations may arise from the effects of advertising on smoking or from smokers' selective exposure to advertisements. This study examined relationships between cigarette advertising and smoking experimentation. Using environmental and psychological measures of advertising exposure, it was demonstrated that adolescents who experimented with cigarettes were better able to recognize advertised products than those who had not, a selective exposure effect. Conversely, subjects who were better at recognizing advertised brands were more likely to have experimented with cigarettes, an effect due to their exposure to cigarette advertising.

  15. Advancing astronomy on the American frontier: the career of Frank Herbert Loud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruskin, Steve

    2012-07-01

    Frank Herbert Loud came to Colorado Springs in 1877 to teach mathematics and became interested in astronomy after witnessing the solar eclipse of 1878. His nearly 50-year astronomical career included overseeing the building of two observatories, founding the Western Association for Stellar Photography, supporting expeditions for two solar eclipses, supplying astronomers with meteorological data for the Rocky Mountains, educating students, publishing astronomical articles and giving public lectures, and aiding and influencing two Directors of Harvard College Observatory. Despite this, Loud and the two observatories he directed have been mostly forgotten, although they were well known by contemporary astronomers. Loud and his work deserve to be remembered given the relative scarcity of astronomers and observatories in the American West (i.e. west of the Mississippi River) in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

  16. A study of loudness as a metric for sonic boom acceptability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Needleman, Kathy E.; Darden, Christine M.; Mack, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    A parametric study of loudness levels with respect to weight, altitude, and Mach number for sonic boom signatures generated by two Mach 2.0 conceptual configurations is presented and compared with a similar study for nose shock overpressure. This paper discusses the relative importance of the two sonic boom metrics and the implications of the trends shown. Of the two configurations considered in this study, one was designed for optimum aerodynamic performance and the second was designed to produce a constrained overpressure sonic boom signature at cruise flight conditions. Results indicate that reductions in both loudness and overpressure level are possible when the configuration is shaped to produce a low boom signature. Results also prove that the loudness metric is a more reliable measure of the disturbance due to sonic booms than nose shock overpressure, because the overpressure does not include the sometimes significant effects of embedded shocks which are often present in mid-field low boom signatures.

  17. Subjective loudness and annoyance of filtered N-wave sonic booms.

    PubMed

    Niedzwiecki, A; Ribner, H S

    1979-03-01

    The contribution of the "infrasonic" low-frequency content of sonic boom N waves to subjective loudness and annoyance has been investigated. An extended low-frequency response loudspeaker-driven simulation booth was employed, with computer-generated input test signals. For test N waves of 1 ms rise time and 150 ms duration, frequencies below 25 and 50 Hz, respectively, were cut off by digital filters simulating simple RC circuits. The filtered signal amplitude was adjusted versus the amplitude (48 Pa) of a reference unfiltered N wave (effective low-frequency cutoff approximately 0.1 Hz) until the two sounded equally loud (first experiment) or equally annoying (second experiment). The amplitude differences for equality were very slight: less than 0.6 dB at most. Surprisingly, while loss of the low frequencies slightly decreased the loudness, it slightly increased the annoyance. PMID:447906

  18. Loudness summation and the mismatch negativity event-related brain potential in humans

    PubMed Central

    OCEÁK, ATTILA; WINKLER, ISTVÁN; SUSSMAN, ELYSE; ALHO, KIMMO

    2010-01-01

    Infrequently omitting a sound from a repetitive sequence elicits the mismatch negativity (MMN) ERP response when the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) is less than 200 ms. We contrasted two alternative explanations of omission MMN. (1) Each sound starts a separate temporal integration process. Omissions violate the constancy of the temporal structure within the integration window. (2) Sounds preceding an omission are perceived to be louder than those followed by a sound within the integration period, because omissions allow the full stimulus aftereffect to be included in perceived loudness. We varied the SOA between 117 and 217 ms. For this case, the temporal structure explanation predicts that no MMN will be elicited, whereas the loudness summation explanation predicts that MMN will be elicited. MMN was elicited by tone omissions with random SOA, suggesting that loudness summation plays an important role in the elicitation of omission MMN. PMID:16629681

  19. The modification and generalization of voice loudness in a fifteen-year-old retarded girl.

    PubMed

    Jackson, D A; Wallace, R F

    1974-01-01

    A fifteen-year-old severely disturbed girl was treated for aphonia. Because of the extent of her withdrawal, the subject was conditioned in a laboratory setting and received tokens for speaking loudly enough to operate a voice-operated relay. Conditioning at first consisted of saying 100 monosyllabic words, with the possibility of reinforcement on each word. Later, the subject was required to say a polysyllabic word, and finally, five or six words per token. The subject was shaped to speak with normal loudness in the laboratory, and generalization to a reading situation in the laboratory was measured and observed to occur, at first for a few minutes, and later for a longer period. Generalization to a reading situation in the classroom did not occur, but the subject's voice loudness also increased in the classroom when several new reinforcement contingencies were put into effect there. PMID:4465381

  20. The host galaxies of radio-loud and radio-quiet AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koziel-Wierzbowska, D.; Vale Asari, N.; Stasinska, G.; Sikora, M.

    2016-08-01

    To infer whether the jet production efficiency depends on the host properties or is determined just by intrinsic properties of the accretion flows we compared optical properties of the host galaxies of radio-quiet (RQ) and radio-loud (RL) Type 2 AGNs. We carefully selected galaxies from SDSS, FIRST, and NVSS catalogues. We confirmed that the fraction of RL AGNs increases with the black hole (BH) masses and decreases with the Eddington ratio. Therefore, the comparison of the nature of the hosts of RL and RQ AGNs requires pairmatching techniques. By pairing RL and RQ samples in BH mass, Eddington ratio and redshift, we showed that the radio-loudness correlates with the host-galaxy concentration index and morphological type, and anti-correlates with the recent specific star-formation rate and dust attenuation. Contrary to some previous studies, we found no significant difference between our radio-loud and radio-quiet samples regarding merger/interaction features.

  1. Intensive Voice Treatment (LSVT[R]LOUD) for Parkinson's Disease Following Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielman, Jennifer; Mahler, Leslie; Halpern, Angela; Gilley, Phllip; Klepitskaya, Olga; Ramig, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Intensive voice therapy (LSVT[R]LOUD) can effectively manage voice and speech symptoms associated with idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD). This small-group study evaluated voice and speech in individuals with and without deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) before and after LSVT LOUD, to determine whether outcomes…

  2. The Phenomenology of Outflows from Radio Loud Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Erick Jimenez

    This thesis presents the results of two studies involving collimated outflows in radio loud active galactic nuclei (AGN). The first study examines relativistic outflows from the cores of different classes of AGN, and estimates of bulk Lorentz factors and viewing angles. The second study deals with powerful extended radio galaxies, the relation between their lifetime and their luminosity in directed kinetic energy, or beam power, and the use of these sources for cosmology. Compact radio sources are examined, and the kinematics of their outflows are determined. Two updated sets of Doppler factor estimates, one using the equipartition method and the other using the inverse Compton method, for 100 radio cores are discussed. Intrinsic brightness temperatures based on these Doppler factors are examined along with their relevance to the 'inverse Compton catastrophe'. Intrinsic luminosity densities and luminosities are presented, and the role of systematic errors is discussed. Outflow angles and bulk Lorentz factors are computed for 43 out of the 100 sources on the basis of proper motions compiled by Vermeulen & Cohen (1994). These estimates of outflow angles and bulk Lorentz factors are discussed along with their agreement with orientation unified models of AGN. Powerful extended radio galaxies are examined, and the relation between the active lifetime and the beam power in these sources is investigated by comparing the redshift evolution of characteristic source size to the redshift evolution of the average lobe-lobe size. It is found that the data are described by a model in which the active lifetime of the source, t/*, is written as a power-law in the beam power, Lj. The exponent of the power law is estimated to be βsimeq2.1±0.6, where t/*∝ Lj-β/3, which excludes β=0, an Eddington-limited system. The same comparison of characteristic source sizes to the average lobe-lobe size can be used to constrain cosmological parameters. The data indicate a low value of

  3. The effect of search condition and advertising type on visual attention to Internet advertising.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gho; Lee, Jang-Han

    2011-05-01

    This research was conducted to examine the level of consumers' visual attention to Internet advertising. It was predicted that consumers' search type would influence visual attention to advertising. Specifically, it was predicted that more attention to advertising would be attracted in the exploratory search condition than in the goal-directed search condition. It was also predicted that there would be a difference in visual attention depending on the advertisement type (advertising type: text vs. pictorial advertising). An eye tracker was used for measurement. Results revealed that search condition and advertising type influenced advertising effectiveness.

  4. The effect of search condition and advertising type on visual attention to Internet advertising.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gho; Lee, Jang-Han

    2011-05-01

    This research was conducted to examine the level of consumers' visual attention to Internet advertising. It was predicted that consumers' search type would influence visual attention to advertising. Specifically, it was predicted that more attention to advertising would be attracted in the exploratory search condition than in the goal-directed search condition. It was also predicted that there would be a difference in visual attention depending on the advertisement type (advertising type: text vs. pictorial advertising). An eye tracker was used for measurement. Results revealed that search condition and advertising type influenced advertising effectiveness. PMID:20973730

  5. Advertising increases demand for vasectomy.

    PubMed

    Mehta, M; Mckenzie, M

    1996-01-01

    The recent evaluation of a 2-year no-scalpel vasectomy (NSV) training program providing on-site, hands-on training for physicians working in 43 publicly funded health centers in 17 states found that demand for vasectomy in low-income and minority communities in the US increased following the implementation of innovative advertising strategies. The program also provided sites with surgical instruments, training materials, a press kit, and some help with public information activities. Participating clinics used a range of formal and informal advertising strategies, including radio and printed advertisements, to inform potential clients about vasectomy services. Many interested clients presented to clinics to undergo vasectomy once they had been made aware of the service and its availability. Several providers even stated that advertising caused the demand for vasectomy to exceed their capacity to provide services. The provision of low- or no-cost procedures helped to attract new clients. PMID:12321999

  6. Understanding advertising in pet nutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R G

    1994-01-01

    Advertising is part of the effort to attract attention of consumers to products, in this case, pet foods. It is generally benign in its effect, but it can be misleading, although rarely deliberately so. It uses a specialized vocabulary, which must be mastered if one is to understand what is intended. For all of the expense and effort, advertising figures directly in relatively few decisions to purchase. Its main intention is to call our attention to a particular pet food and to give that product an image. If the pet food does not perform in the consumer's hands, then all of the advertising on earth will not be persuasive. On the other hand, if a product performs well, the word-of-mouth will be positive and that mode of advertising is one of the most effective. PMID:8076285

  7. Effects of Posture and Stimulus Spectral Composition on Peripheral Physiological Responses to Loud Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Jennifer; Flemming, Jan; Zeffiro, Thomas; Rufer, Michael; Orr, Scott P.; Mueller-Pfeiffer, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    In the “loud-tone” procedure, a series of brief, loud, pure-tone stimuli are presented in a task-free situation. It is an established paradigm for measuring autonomic sensitization in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Successful use of this procedure during fMRI requires elicitation of brain responses that have sufficient signal-noise ratios when recorded in a supine, rather than sitting, position. We investigated the modulating effects of posture and stimulus spectral composition on peripheral psychophysiological responses to loud sounds. Healthy subjects (N = 24) weekly engaged in a loud-tone-like procedure that presented 500 msec, 95 dB sound pressure level, pure-tone or white-noise stimuli, either while sitting or supine and while peripheral physiological responses were recorded. Heart rate, skin conductance, and eye blink electromyographic responses were larger to white-noise than pure-tone stimuli (p’s < 0.001, generalized eta squared 0.073–0.076). Psychophysiological responses to the stimuli were similar in the sitting and supine position (p’s ≥ 0.082). Presenting white noise, rather than pure-tone, stimuli may improve the detection sensitivity of the neural concomitants of heightened autonomic responses by generating larger responses. Recording in the supine position appears to have little or no impact on psychophysiological response magnitudes to the auditory stimuli. PMID:27583659

  8. Effects of Posture and Stimulus Spectral Composition on Peripheral Physiological Responses to Loud Sounds.

    PubMed

    Koch, Jennifer; Flemming, Jan; Zeffiro, Thomas; Rufer, Michael; Orr, Scott P; Mueller-Pfeiffer, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    In the "loud-tone" procedure, a series of brief, loud, pure-tone stimuli are presented in a task-free situation. It is an established paradigm for measuring autonomic sensitization in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Successful use of this procedure during fMRI requires elicitation of brain responses that have sufficient signal-noise ratios when recorded in a supine, rather than sitting, position. We investigated the modulating effects of posture and stimulus spectral composition on peripheral psychophysiological responses to loud sounds. Healthy subjects (N = 24) weekly engaged in a loud-tone-like procedure that presented 500 msec, 95 dB sound pressure level, pure-tone or white-noise stimuli, either while sitting or supine and while peripheral physiological responses were recorded. Heart rate, skin conductance, and eye blink electromyographic responses were larger to white-noise than pure-tone stimuli (p's < 0.001, generalized eta squared 0.073-0.076). Psychophysiological responses to the stimuli were similar in the sitting and supine position (p's ≥ 0.082). Presenting white noise, rather than pure-tone, stimuli may improve the detection sensitivity of the neural concomitants of heightened autonomic responses by generating larger responses. Recording in the supine position appears to have little or no impact on psychophysiological response magnitudes to the auditory stimuli. PMID:27583659

  9. Evaluating standard airborne sound insulation measures in terms of annoyance, loudness, and audibility ratings.

    PubMed

    Park, H K; Bradley, J S

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports the results of an evaluation of the merits of standard airborne sound insulation measures with respect to subjective ratings of the annoyance and loudness of transmitted sounds. Subjects listened to speech and music sounds modified to represent transmission through 20 different walls with sound transmission class (STC) ratings from 34 to 58. A number of variations in the standard measures were also considered. These included variations in the 8-dB rule for the maximum allowed deficiency in the STC measure as well as variations in the standard 32-dB total allowed deficiency. Several spectrum adaptation terms were considered in combination with weighted sound reduction index (R(w)) values as well as modifications to the range of included frequencies in the standard rating contour. A STC measure without an 8-dB rule and an R(w) rating with a new spectrum adaptation term were better predictors of annoyance and loudness ratings of speech sounds. R(w) ratings with one of two modified C(tr) spectrum adaptation terms were better predictors of annoyance and loudness ratings of transmitted music sounds. Although some measures were much better predictors of responses to one type of sound than were the standard STC and R(w) values, no measure was remarkably improved for predicting annoyance and loudness ratings of both music and speech sounds. PMID:19603878

  10. Changes to Articulatory Kinematics in Response to Loudness Cues in Individuals with Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Meghan; Huber, Jessica E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) exhibit differences in displacement and velocity of the articulators as compared with older adults. The purpose of the current study was to examine effects of 3 loudness cues on articulatory movement patterns in individuals with PD. Method: Nine individuals diagnosed with idiopathic PD and 9 age-…

  11. Articulatory-to-Acoustic Relations in Response to Speaking Rate and Loudness Manipulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mefferd, Antje S.; Green, Jordan R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this investigation, the authors determined the strength of association between tongue kinematic and speech acoustics changes in response to speaking rate and loudness manipulations. Performance changes in the kinematic and acoustic domains were measured using two aspects of speech production presumably affecting speech clarity:…

  12. "Look Out Below": Helping Children Who Are Loud and Aggressive in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Polly

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author responds to a teacher's request for advice on how to handle students who are loud and aggressive in the classroom. The author provides some suggestions on how to establish a smooth-running classroom. She firmly believes in creating well-thought out policies and procedures and politely, but firmly, insisting that…

  13. Effect of Unpleasant Loud Noise on Hippocampal Activities during Picture Encoding: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Fujita, Masafumi; Watanabe, Kazuko; Niwa, Masami; Takahashi, Toru; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Ido, Yasushi; Tomida, Mihoko; Onozuka, Minoru

    2006-01-01

    The functional link between the amygdala and hippocampus in humans has not been well documented. We examined the effect of unpleasant loud noise on hippocampal and amygdaloid activities during picture encoding by means of fMRI, and on the correct response in humans. The noise reduced activity in the hippocampus during picture encoding, decreased…

  14. Age-Related Changes to Speech Breathing with Increased Vocal Loudness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Jessica E.; Spruill, John, III

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examines the effect of normal aging on respiratory support for speech when utterance length is controlled. Method: Fifteen women (M = 71 years of age) and 10 men (M = 73 years of age) produced 2 sentences of different lengths in 4 loudness conditions while respiratory kinematics were measured. Measures included those…

  15. Effects of broadband noise on cortical evoked auditory responses at different loudness levels in young adults.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mridula; Purdy, Suzanne C; Munro, Kevin J; Sawaya, Kathleen; Peter, Varghese

    2014-03-26

    Young adults with no history of hearing concerns were tested to investigate their /da/-evoked cortical auditory evoked potentials (P1-N1-P2) recorded from 32 scalp electrodes in the presence and absence of noise at three different loudness levels (soft, comfortable, and loud), at a fixed signal-to-noise ratio (+3 dB). P1 peak latency significantly increased at soft and loud levels, and N1 and P2 latencies increased at all three levels in the presence of noise, compared with the quiet condition. P1 amplitude was significantly larger in quiet than in noise conditions at the loudest level. N1 amplitude was larger in quiet than in noise for the soft level only. P2 amplitude was reduced in the presence of noise to a similar degree at all loudness levels. The differential effects of noise on P1, N1, and P2 suggest differences in auditory processes underlying these peaks. The combination of level and signal-to-noise ratio should be considered when using cortical auditory evoked potentials as an electrophysiological indicator of degraded speech processing.

  16. Voice Loudness and Gender Effects on Jitter and Shimmer in Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockmann, Meike; Storck, Claudio; Carding, Paul N.; Drinnan, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate voice loudness and gender effects on jitter and shimmer in healthy young adults because previous descriptions have been inconsistent. Method: Fifty-seven healthy adults (28 women, 29 men) aged 20-40 years were included in this cross-sectional single-cohort study. Three phonations of /a/ at soft,…

  17. Intensive Voice Treatment (LSVT LOUD) for Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy and Dysarthria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Cynthia Marie; Boliek, Carol Ann

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an intensive voice treatment (Lee Silverman Voice Treatment, commonly known as LSVT LOUD) for children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and dysarthria. Method: A nonconcurrent multiple baseline single-subject design with replication across 5 children with spastic CP was used.…

  18. Radio Loudness of AGNs: Host Galaxy Morphology and the Spin Paradigm

    SciTech Connect

    Stawarz, L.; Sikora, M.; Lasota, J.-P.

    2007-10-15

    We investigate how the total radio luminosity of AGN-powered radio sources depends on their accretion luminosity and the central black hole mass. We find that AGNs form two distinct and well separated sequences on the radio-loudness -- Eddington-ratio plane. We argue that these sequences mark the real upper bounds of radio-loudness of two distinct populations of AGNs: those hosted respectively by elliptical and disk galaxies. Both sequences show the same dependence of the radio-loudness on the Eddington ratio (an increase with decreasing Eddington ratio), which suggests that another parameter in addition to the accretion rate must play a role in determining the jet production efficiency in active galactic nuclei, and that this parameter is related to properties of the host galaxy. The revealed host-related radio dichotomy breaks down at high accretion rates where the dominant fraction of luminous quasars hosted by elliptical galaxies is radio quiet. We argue that the huge difference between the radio-loudness reachable by AGNs in disc and elliptical galaxies can be explained by the scenario according to which the spin of a black hole determines the outflows power, and central black holes can reach large spins only in early type galaxies (following major mergers), and not (in a statistical sense) in spiral galaxies.

  19. Comparisons between detection threshold and loudness perception for individual cochlear implant channels

    PubMed Central

    Bierer, Julie Arenberg; Nye, Amberly D

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of the present study, performed in cochlear implant listeners, was to examine how the level of current required to detect single-channel electrical pulse trains relates to loudness perception on the same channel. The working hypothesis was that channels with relatively high thresholds, when measured with a focused current pattern, interface poorly to the auditory nerve. For such channels a smaller dynamic range between perceptual threshold and the most comfortable loudness would result, in part, from a greater sensitivity to changes in electrical field spread compared to low-threshold channels. The narrower range of comfortable listening levels may have important implications for speech perception. Design Data were collected from eight, adult cochlear implant listeners implanted with the HiRes90k cochlear implant (Advanced Bionics Corp.). The partial tripolar (pTP) electrode configuration, consisting of one intracochlear active electrode, two flanking electrodes carrying a fraction (σ) of the return current, and an extracochlear ground, was used for stimulation. Single-channel detection thresholds and most comfortable listening levels were acquired using the most focused pTP configuration possible (σ ≥ 0.8) to identify three channels for further testing – those with the highest, median, and lowest thresholds – for each subject. Threshold, equal-loudness contours (at 50% of the monopolar dynamic range), and loudness growth functions were measured for each of these three test channels using various partial tripolar fractions. Results For all test channels, thresholds increased as the electrode configuration became more focused. The rate of increase with the focusing parameter σ was greatest for the high-threshold channel compared to the median- and low-threshold channels. The 50% equal-loudness contours exhibited similar rates of increase in level across test channels and subjects. Additionally, test channels with the highest

  20. A false killer whale reduces its hearing sensitivity when a loud sound is preceded by a warning.

    PubMed

    Nachtigall, Paul E; Supin, Alexander Ya

    2013-08-15

    We investigated the possibility of conditioned dampening of whale hearing thresholds when a loud sound is preceded by a warning sound. The loud sound was a tone of 20 kHz, 170 dB re. 1 μPa, 5 s. Hearing sensitivity was measured using pip-train test stimuli and auditory evoked potential recording. The same test-sound stimuli served as warning sounds. The durations of the warning sounds were varied randomly to avoid locking an anticipated conditioning effect to the timing immediately before the loud sound. When the warning sound lasted from 1 to 9 s or from 5 to 35 s prior to the loud sound, hearing thresholds before the loud sound increased, relative to the baseline, by 12.7 and 7.3 dB, respectively. When the warning sound duration varied within a range of 20 to 140 s, the threshold increase was as low as 3.0 dB. The observed hearing threshold increase was not a result of the unconditioned effect of the loud sound, like a temporary threshold shift, so it was considered to be a manifestation of a conditioned dampening of hearing when the subject anticipated the quick appearance of a loud sound, most likely to protect its hearing.

  1. 27 CFR 6.84 - Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Point of sale advertising....84 Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties. (a) General. The act by an industry member of giving or selling point of sale advertising materials and consumer...

  2. 27 CFR 6.84 - Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Point of sale advertising....84 Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties. (a) General. The act by an industry member of giving or selling point of sale advertising materials and consumer...

  3. 27 CFR 6.84 - Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Point of sale advertising....84 Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties. (a) General. The act by an industry member of giving or selling point of sale advertising materials and consumer...

  4. 27 CFR 6.84 - Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Point of sale advertising....84 Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties. (a) General. The act by an industry member of giving or selling point of sale advertising materials and consumer...

  5. Concentration of Tobacco Advertisements at SNAP and WIC Stores, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Chilton, Mariana; Zhao, Qian-Wei; Szymkowiak, Dorota; Coffman, Ryan; Mallya, Giridhar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco advertising is widespread in urban areas with racial/ethnic minority and low-income households that participate in nutrition assistance programs. Tobacco sales and advertising are linked to smoking behavior, which may complicate matters for low-income families struggling with disparate health risks relating to nutrition and chronic disease. We investigated the relationship between the amount and type of tobacco advertisements on tobacco outlets and the outlet type and location. Methods By using field visits and online images, we inspected all licensed tobacco retail outlets in Philadelphia (N = 4,639). Point pattern analyses were used to identify significant clustering of tobacco outlets and outlets with exterior tobacco advertisements. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between the outlet’s acceptance of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and the presence of tobacco advertisements. Results Tobacco outlets with exterior tobacco advertisements were significantly clustered in several high-poverty areas. Controlling for racial/ethnic and income composition and land use, SNAP and WIC vendors were significantly more likely to have exterior (SNAP odds ratio [OR], 2.11; WIC OR, 1.59) and interior (SNAP OR, 3.43; WIC OR, 1.69) tobacco advertisements than other types of tobacco outlets. Conclusion Tobacco advertising is widespread at retail outlets, particularly in low-income and racial/ethnic minority neighborhoods. Policy makers may be able to mitigate the effects of this disparate exposure through tobacco retail licensing, local sign control rules, and SNAP and WIC authorization. PMID:25654220

  6. 48 CFR 803.570 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial advertising. 803.570 Section 803.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL... Commercial advertising....

  7. 32 CFR 705.13 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provisions of 32 CFR part 721. (2) It must be in good taste and not reflect discredit on the Navy or the U.S... exclusively for the use of an advertiser. (d) Navy cooperation in commercial advertising, publicity and...

  8. Attitudes toward physician advertising among rural consumers.

    PubMed

    Kviz, F J

    1984-04-01

    The issue of whether physicians should advertise their services has been the subject of much debate among health policymakers. This study reports data from a survey of rural residents in Illinois regarding attitudes toward physician advertising and reasons for opposition or support of the practice. The results indicate neither strong opposition nor strong support for physician advertising. While those who are opposed are largely nonspecific regarding their reasons, those in favor primarily expect that it will aid in the selection of a physician. However, few respondents indicate a predisposition to shop for a physician. Although the major concern about physician advertising is a danger of false advertising by some physicians, it appears that the respondents are not trusting of advertising in general rather than of advertising by physicians in particular. These findings suggest that regardless of its potential advantages, physician advertising may be relatively ineffective because consumers may be inattentive, unresponsive, or distrusting . PMID:6717113

  9. 48 CFR 803.570 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial advertising. 803.570 Section 803.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL... Commercial advertising....

  10. Basic Teaching Kit on Consumer Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor and Gamble Co., Cincinnati, OH.

    This advertising kit was developed by Procter and Gamble in response to requests from teachers and consumer educators who asked for materials from business about business. The kit is not intended to cover the entire field of advertising. Rather, it centers on advertising as it is known and practiced by Procter and Gamble. The purpose of the kit is…

  11. Attitudes toward Advertisements of the Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada, M.; Moliner, M. A.; Sanchez, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we will analyze the attitude of older adults to advertisements, differentiating between advertisements that contain rhetorical figures (trope ads) and those that do not (explicit ads). We will also study their attitude toward the brand advertised according to their degree of involvement with the product. In the course of the…

  12. 25 CFR 215.12 - Advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Advertising costs. 215.12 Section 215.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.12 Advertising costs. All advertising costs, publication fees,...

  13. Adolescence, Advertising, and the Ideology of Menstruation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merskin, Debra

    1999-01-01

    Conducted a content analysis of 10 years of feminine hygiene advertisements in "Seventeen" and "Teen" magazines. Finds that advertising copy in these magazines works to dispel myths about menstruation but that few black models are shown. Discusses advertising as an element of socialization for adolescent girls. (SLD)

  14. Canadian Perspectives on Sex Stereotyping in Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Alice E.; Whipple, Thomas W.

    Based on research findings that sex stereotyping used for product commercials is offensive and often ineffective, recommendations for change have been proposed to the advertising industry. Women, in particular, have been portrayed in advertising in traditional domestic roles, emphasizing the consumer role, especially in television advertising.…

  15. 25 CFR 162.606 - Advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertisement. 162.606 Section 162.606 Indians BUREAU OF... § 162.606 Advertisement. Except as otherwise provided in this part, prior to granting a lease or permit.... Advertisements will call for sealed bids and will not offer preference rights....

  16. 6 CFR 17.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 17.540 Section 17.540 Domestic... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 17.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  17. 31 CFR 28.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising. 28.540 Section 28.540... Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 28.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation,...

  18. Persuasive and Informative Advertising: A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeborn, Beth A.; Hulbert, Jason P.

    2011-01-01

    The authors outline a pair of classroom activities designed to provide an intuitive foundation to the theoretical introduction of advertising in monopoly markets. The roles of both informative and persuasive advertising are covered. Each student acts as a monopolist and chooses the number of (costly) advertisements and the price. The experiments…

  19. 14 CFR 142.31 - Advertising limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising limitations. 142.31 Section 142...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS General § 142.31 Advertising limitations. (a) A certificate holder may not conduct, and may not advertise to conduct, any training, testing, and checking...

  20. 38 CFR 23.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising. 23.540 Section 23.540 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  1. 45 CFR 618.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising. 618.540 Section 618.540 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  2. 14 CFR 147.45 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 147.45 Section 147.45... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES AVIATION MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 147.45 Advertising... aviation maintenance technician school indicates in advertising that it is a certificated school, it...

  3. 13 CFR 113.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 113.540 Section 113.540 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FINANCIAL... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  4. 12 CFR 213.7 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 213.7 Section 213.7 Banks and... (REGULATION M) § 213.7 Advertising. (a) General rule. An advertisement for a consumer lease may state that a... paragraph (d)(1) of this section shall also state the following items: (i) That the transaction...

  5. 45 CFR 2555.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising. 2555.540 Section 2555.540 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  6. 7 CFR 1955.146 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Advertising. 1955.146 Section 1955.146 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.146 Advertising. (a... real estate brokers, it is the servicing official's responsibility to ensure adequate advertising...

  7. 24 CFR 3.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising. 3.540 Section 3.540 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  8. 12 CFR 528.4 - Nondiscriminatory advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nondiscriminatory advertising. 528.4 Section... REQUIREMENTS § 528.4 Nondiscriminatory advertising. No savings association may directly or indirectly engage in any form of advertising that implies or suggests a policy of discrimination or exclusion in...

  9. 29 CFR 36.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Advertising. 36.540 Section 36.540 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING... Activities Prohibited § 36.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to...

  10. 7 CFR 15a.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 15a.59 Section 15a.59 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM... Activities Prohibited § 15a.59 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to...

  11. 18 CFR 1317.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising. 1317.540 Section 1317.540 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  12. 16 CFR 307.10 - Cooperative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative advertising. 307.10 Section 307... REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMPREHENSIVE SMOKELESS TOBACCO HEALTH EDUCATION ACT OF 1986 Advertising Disclosures § 307.10 Cooperative advertising. The Act prohibits any manufacturer, packager, or importer of...

  13. 27 CFR 6.52 - Cooperative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooperative advertising. 6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service § 6.52 Cooperative advertising. An arrangement in which an industry member...

  14. 41 CFR 101-4.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Advertising. 101-4.540... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 101-4.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  15. 12 CFR 563.27 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 563.27 Section 563.27 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-OPERATIONS Operation and Structure § 563.27 Advertising. No savings association shall use advertising (which includes...

  16. 15 CFR 8a.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 8a.540 Section 8a.540... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 8a.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  17. 45 CFR 86.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising. 86.59 Section 86.59 Public Welfare... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.59 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  18. 14 CFR 399.84 - Price advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Price advertising. 399.84 Section 399.84... STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Enforcement § 399.84 Price advertising. The Board considers any advertising or solicitation by a direct air carrier, indirect air carrier, or...

  19. 43 CFR 41.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising. 41.540 Section 41.540 Public... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  20. 34 CFR 106.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising. 106.59 Section 106.59 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  1. 32 CFR 196.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising. 196.540 Section 196.540 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  2. 14 CFR 141.23 - Advertising limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising limitations. 141.23 Section 141...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS General § 141.23 Advertising limitations. (a) The... certificate may not advertise that the school is certificated unless it clearly differentiates between...

  3. 47 CFR 32.6613 - Product advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Product advertising. 32.6613 Section 32.6613... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6613 Product advertising. This... the purchase of products and services. This excludes nonproduct-related advertising, such as...

  4. 10 CFR 5.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 5.540 Section 5.540 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL... Prohibited § 5.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment...

  5. 37 CFR 10.32 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising. 10.32 Section 10... of Professional Responsibility § 10.32 Advertising. (a) Subject to § 10.31, a practitioner may advertise services through public media, including a telephone directory, legal directory, newspaper,...

  6. 44 CFR 19.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising. 19.540 Section 19.540 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 19.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related...

  7. 36 CFR 1211.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising. 1211.540 Section 1211.540 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  8. 20 CFR 655.152 - Advertising requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising requirements. 655.152 Section 655... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) Post-Acceptance Requirements § 655.152 Advertising requirements. All advertising conducted to satisfy the required recruitment activities under § 655.151...

  9. 25 CFR 215.12 - Advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising costs. 215.12 Section 215.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.12 Advertising costs. All advertising costs, publication fees,...

  10. Use of Endorsers in Magazine Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Patricia A.; Moon, Young Sook

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes full-page advertisements in four national magazines for the years 1980 to 1986. Finds (1) endorsements occurred in about half of the advertisements; (2) endorsers most used were celebrities; (3) advertisements with endorsers contain less information; and (4) celebrities most often endorsed personal care or apparel products. (RS)

  11. 12 CFR 226.16 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...). If the plan provides for a variable periodic rate, that fact shall be disclosed. (3) Any membership or participation fee that could be imposed. (c) Catalogs or other multiple-page advertisements; electronic advertisements. (1) If a catalog or other multiple-page advertisement, or an...

  12. 27 CFR 7.55 - Comparative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 7.55 Section 7.55 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Advertising of Malt...

  13. 27 CFR 7.55 - Comparative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 7.55 Section 7.55 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Advertising of Malt...

  14. 27 CFR 4.65 - Comparative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 4.65 Section 4.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Advertising of Wine § 4.65...

  15. 27 CFR 5.66 - Comparative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 5.66 Section 5.66 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Advertising of...

  16. 27 CFR 5.66 - Comparative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 5.66 Section 5.66 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Advertising of...

  17. 27 CFR 4.65 - Comparative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 4.65 Section 4.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Advertising of Wine § 4.65...

  18. Corporate Advocacy Advertising and Political Influence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltzer, Herbert

    1988-01-01

    Offers an operational definition and typology of advocacy and image advertising as complementary forms of institutional advertising. Examines two of the more important forms of advocacy advertising--paid print editorials appearing on the "op-ed" page of the "New York Times" and the "advertorials" in two principal professional journals of the…

  19. Advertising Ethics: Student Attitudes and Behavioral Intent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullerton, Jami A.; Kendrick, Alice; McKinnon, Lori Melton

    2013-01-01

    A national survey of 1,045 advertising students measured opinions about the ethical nature of advertising and ethical dilemmas in the advertising business. More than nine out of ten students agreed that working for a company with high ethical standards was important. Students rated all twelve workplace dilemmas presented as somewhat unethical. For…

  20. 41 CFR 101-4.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Advertising. 101-4.540... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 101-4.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  1. 34 CFR 106.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advertising. 106.59 Section 106.59 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  2. 14 CFR 141.23 - Advertising limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising limitations. 141.23 Section 141...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS General § 141.23 Advertising limitations. (a) The... certificate may not advertise that the school is certificated unless it clearly differentiates between...

  3. 32 CFR 196.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advertising. 196.540 Section 196.540 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  4. 12 CFR 528.4 - Nondiscriminatory advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nondiscriminatory advertising. 528.4 Section... REQUIREMENTS § 528.4 Nondiscriminatory advertising. No savings association may directly or indirectly engage in any form of advertising that implies or suggests a policy of discrimination or exclusion in...

  5. 15 CFR 8a.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising. 8a.540 Section 8a.540... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 8a.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  6. 28 CFR 54.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advertising. 54.540 Section 54.540... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  7. 7 CFR 15a.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising. 15a.59 Section 15a.59 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM... Activities Prohibited § 15a.59 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to...

  8. 10 CFR 5.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising. 5.540 Section 5.540 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL... Prohibited § 5.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment...

  9. 18 CFR 1317.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Advertising. 1317.540 Section 1317.540 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  10. 14 CFR 147.45 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising. 147.45 Section 147.45... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES AVIATION MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 147.45 Advertising... aviation maintenance technician school indicates in advertising that it is a certificated school, it...

  11. 22 CFR 229.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Advertising. 229.540 Section 229.540 Foreign... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification, or discrimination based...

  12. 37 CFR 10.32 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advertising. 10.32 Section 10... of Professional Responsibility § 10.32 Advertising. (a) Subject to § 10.31, a practitioner may advertise services through public media, including a telephone directory, legal directory, newspaper,...

  13. 14 CFR 142.31 - Advertising limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising limitations. 142.31 Section 142...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS General § 142.31 Advertising limitations. (a) A certificate holder may not conduct, and may not advertise to conduct, any training, testing, and checking...

  14. 7 CFR 1955.146 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising. 1955.146 Section 1955.146 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.146 Advertising. (a... real estate brokers, it is the servicing official's responsibility to ensure adequate advertising...

  15. 38 CFR 23.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advertising. 23.540 Section 23.540 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  16. 43 CFR 41.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Advertising. 41.540 Section 41.540 Public... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  17. 31 CFR 28.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advertising. 28.540 Section 28.540... Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 28.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation,...

  18. 36 CFR 1211.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advertising. 1211.540 Section 1211.540 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  19. 20 CFR 655.152 - Advertising requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Advertising requirements. 655.152 Section 655... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) Post-Acceptance Requirements § 655.152 Advertising requirements. All advertising conducted to satisfy the required recruitment activities under § 655.151...

  20. 12 CFR 563.27 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising. 563.27 Section 563.27 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-OPERATIONS Operation and Structure § 563.27 Advertising. No savings association shall use advertising (which includes...

  1. 6 CFR 17.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising. 17.540 Section 17.540 Domestic... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 17.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  2. 14 CFR 381.7 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising. 381.7 Section 381.7... REGULATIONS SPECIAL EVENT TOURS § 381.7 Advertising. No operator of a Special Event Tour or agent of such an operator shall conduct, or cause or allow to be conducted, any advertising, solicitation or other...

  3. 45 CFR 2555.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Advertising. 2555.540 Section 2555.540 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  4. 14 CFR 399.84 - Price advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Price advertising. 399.84 Section 399.84... STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Enforcement § 399.84 Price advertising. The Board considers any advertising or solicitation by a direct air carrier, indirect air carrier, or...

  5. 27 CFR 6.52 - Cooperative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cooperative advertising. 6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service § 6.52 Cooperative advertising. An arrangement in which an industry member...

  6. 44 CFR 19.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Advertising. 19.540 Section 19.540 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 19.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related...

  7. 45 CFR 618.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Advertising. 618.540 Section 618.540 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  8. 13 CFR 113.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising. 113.540 Section 113.540 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FINANCIAL... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  9. 20 CFR 655.42 - Newspaper advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Newspaper advertisements. 655.42 Section 655... advertisements must satisfy the requirements in § 655.41. (d) The employer must maintain copies of newspaper... containing the text of the printed advertisements and the dates of publication, consistent with the...

  10. Strategies for Teaching Advertising: A Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flory, Joyce

    This paper offers techniques and strategies which high school and college teachers of speech communication can use for teaching units and/or courses in advertising. One such technique is role playing, which can involve the corporate chairperson, the executive coordinator, and chairpersons for magazine advertising, outdoor advertising, broadcast…

  11. Sacred and the Profane in Advertising Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuk, Bill; Dalton, Robert

    This paper examines the arguments for and against inclusion of advertising art in art education programs, and presents a case for the educational benefits of critically examining advertising art based on museum masterpieces. A search for examples of fine art masterpieces used in advertising art examined which masterpieces are commonly used in…

  12. How Advertising History Helps Explain Current Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanfranco, Leonard W.

    Students majoring in advertising can benefit from a study of that field in its historical context because such study helps them to understand current practices and to foresee future developments. One model of teaching advertising history within a required course about advertising and society begins with some basic definitions of the advertising…

  13. 12 CFR 230.8 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising. 230.8 Section 230.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 230.8 Advertising. (a) Misleading or inaccurate advertisements. An...

  14. Re-Designing Business Card Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaub, Laura

    2001-01-01

    Discusses ways to turn information from a business card into an advertisement to be placed in a student publication. Addresses visual interest, typography, and other design issues. Includes several sample advertisements and a classroom activity involving redesigning a business card into an advertisement. (RS)

  15. Perceptions of Advertising Influence on Broadcast News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Hubert W.; Barnes, Beth E.

    2001-01-01

    Finds that while students (studying broadcast journalism or advertising) and practitioners (station news directors and agency media directors) were in agreement on the majority of opinion statements discussing advertising's influence on broadcast news content, except students were less bothered by advertising's influence on news content than were…

  16. Runaway Slave Advertisements: Teaching from Primary Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Tom; Doyle, Brooke

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how children can learn from runaway slave advertisements. The advertisements for runaway slaves that masters placed in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century newspapers are among the documentary sources available to teachers for studying the lives of African-American slaves. Such advertisements often describe a…

  17. Psychoactive drug advertising: content analysis.

    PubMed

    Mastroianni, Patrícia C; Vaz, Amanda Cristina R; Noto, Ana Regina; Galduróz, José Carlos F

    2008-10-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the human figures portrayed in psychoactive drug advertising in terms of gender, age, ethnic group, and social context. Content analysis for 86 new pieces of printed advertisements released in 2005 was carried out. Fisher exact test was used to analyze the association between categories. There was a preponderance of women (62.8%) who were four times more present in advertisements for antidepressants and anxyolitics than men. Most of the people shown were Caucasian (98.8%) young adults (72%). These people were pictured in leisure activities (46.5%), at home (29%), or in contact with nature (16.2%). The message conveyed was that the drugs treat routinely felt subjective symptoms of discomfort, inducing in an irrational appeal that may affect drug prescription.

  18. Children's recognition of advertisements on television and on Web pages.

    PubMed

    Blades, Mark; Oates, Caroline; Li, Shiying

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we consider the issue of advertising to children. Advertising to children raises a number of concerns, in particular the effects of food advertising on children's eating habits. We point out that virtually all the research into children's understanding of advertising has focused on traditional television advertisements, but much marketing aimed at children is now via the Internet and little is known about children's awareness of advertising on the Web. One important component of understanding advertisements is the ability to distinguish advertisements from other messages, and we suggest that young children's ability to recognise advertisements on a Web page is far behind their ability to recognise advertisements on television. PMID:22543303

  19. The merger fraction of radio-loud and radio quiet AGN: clues on the AGN triggering mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiaberge, Marco

    2016-08-01

    Radio-loud AGNs are important objects. They are associated with the most massive black holes and thus with the most massive galaxies, and they are often located in clusters of galaxies. Studying radio galaxies at z>1 not only allows us to get insights on the mechanisms responsible for launching their powerful relativistic jets, but also to better understand important aspects of the formation and evolution of massive galaxies and clusters. I will focus on results obtained from our successful HST snapshot survey of 3CR radio-loud AGN at z>1. Statistical analysis of different samples of carefully selected radio-quiet AGN, radio-loud AGN and non-active galaxies shows strong evidence that galaxy mergers (and possibly black hole mergers) are intimately tied to the triggering mechanism for radio-loud AGN activity. The same may not hold for the radio-quiet AGN class.

  20. Mitigation Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) focuses on mitigation commitments stated in the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) and the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Specific commitments and mitigation implementation actions are listed in Appendix A-Mitigation Actions, and form the central focus of this MAP. They will be updated as needed to allow for organizational, regulatory, or policy changes. It is the intent of DOE to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local environmental, safety, and health laws and regulations. Eighty-six specific commitments were identified in the SEIS and associated ROD which pertain to continued operation of NPR-1 with petroleum production at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER). The mitigation measures proposed are expected to reduce impacts as much as feasible, however, as experience is gained in actual implementation of these measures, some changes may be warranted.

  1. Covering factors of the dusty obscurers in radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Maitrayee; Sikora, Marek; Nalewajko, Krzysztof

    2016-09-01

    We compare covering factors of circumnuclear dusty obscurers in radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars. The radio-loud quasars are represented by a sample of FR II quasars obtained by cross-matching a catalog of the FR II radio sources selected by van Velzen et al. with the SDSS DR7 catalog of quasars. Covering factors of FR II quasars are compared with covering factors of the radio-quiet quasars matched with them in redshift, black hole mass, and Eddington-ratio. We found that covering factors, proxied by the infrared-to-bolometric luminosity ratio, are on average slightly smaller in FR II quasars than in radio-quiet quasars, however, this difference is statistically significant only for the highest Eddington ratios. For both samples, no statistically significant dependence of a median covering factor on Eddington ratio, black hole mass, nor redshift can be claimed.

  2. A study of listening habits in adolescents: Correlating stated loudness preferences with actual listening levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Laura; Warren, Jean; Cheenne, Dominique

    2001-05-01

    Evidence suggests that children are damaging their hearing in substantial numbers [Niskar et al., J. Am. Med. Assoc. (1998)]. Conventional thinking would suggest that cultural norms and attitudes contribute to a desire in children to model what they have seen in the media, thus implying that they would be listening to music at levels that are considered harmful. Our study focused on a gender-balanced group of 316 elementary-age students and aimed at assessing a correlation between an attitudinal survey related to loud music and the children's own listening levels. The study was broader in scope and in sample size than previous work [Fucci, 138th ASA Meeting, 11/99]. Findings were both surprising and encouraging, citing that a majority of children who expressed favoritism towards loud music listened to the presented samples at lower levels than expected. The study also proposes a set of listening level distribution curves that may prove useful for future studies with older participants.

  3. The unification of powerful radio-loud AGN: the multi-wavelength balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podigachoski, Pece; Barthel, Peter; Haas, Martin; Leipski, Christian; Wilkes, Belinda; Rocca-Volmerange, Brigitte; Drouart, Guillaume

    2016-08-01

    Powerful radio-loud AGN, by virtue of their optically-thin low-frequency radio emission, represent unique targets in orientation-based unification studies, and in searches for orientation indicators and orientation invariants. Central in these efforts is the landmark Third Cambridge Catalog of Radio Sources (3CR), a sample which has been observed with most ground- and space-based telescopes over much of the electromagnetic spectrum. Using mainly Herschel and Spitzer photometric data, we recently studied the full infrared spectral energy distributions of the complete sample of 3CR radio sources at redshifts z>1. We found that the radio-loud quasars (QSRs, Type 1) and the radio galaxies (RGs, Type 2) have completely different mid-infrared, but remarkably similar far-infrared colors. These findings are in line with the view that powerful QSRs and RGs belong to the same parent population and support previously reported findings in other wavelength domains.

  4. Radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies with high-velocity outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komossa, S.; Xu, D.; Zensus, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    We have studied four radio-loud Narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies with extreme optical emission-line shifts, indicating radial outflow velocities of up 2450 km s-1. The shifts are accompanied by strong line broadening, up to 2270 km s-1 in [NeV]. A significant ionization stratification (higher line shift at higher ionization potential) of most ions implies that we see a large-scale wind rather than single, localized jet-cloud interactions. The observations are consistent with a scenario, where the signatures of outflows are maximized because of a pole-on view into the central engine of these radio-loud NLS1 galaxies.

  5. RADIO-LOUD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS: IS THERE A LINK BETWEEN LUMINOSITY AND CLUSTER ENVIRONMENT?

    SciTech Connect

    Ineson, J.; Croston, J. H.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kraft, R. P.; Evans, D. A.

    2013-06-20

    We present here the first results from the Chandra ERA (Environments of Radio-loud AGN) Large Project, characterizing the cluster environments of a sample of 26 radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z {approx} 0.5 that covers three decades of radio luminosity. This is the first systematic X-ray environmental study at a single epoch, and has allowed us to examine the relationship between radio luminosity and cluster environment without the problems of Malmquist bias. We have found a weak correlation between radio luminosity and host cluster X-ray luminosity, as well as tentative evidence that this correlation is driven by the subpopulation of low-excitation radio galaxies, with high-excitation radio galaxies showing no significant correlation. The considerable scatter in the environments may be indicative of complex relationships not currently included in feedback models.

  6. Vocal behavior of black-fronted titi monkeys (Callicebus nigrifrons): acoustic properties and behavioral contexts of loud calls.

    PubMed

    Caselli, Christini B; Mennill, Daniel J; Bicca-Marques, Júlio César; Setz, Eleonore Z F

    2014-08-01

    Loud calls can be heard over long distances due to their high amplitude and low frequency. These calls are commonly used for both within- and between-group communication in many bird and primate species. In the Neotropics, mated pairs of socially monogamous titi monkeys (genus Callicebus) emit conspicuous, coordinated loud calls. These vocalizations appear to play a role in territorial defense, a hypothesis derived from studies of only three of the 31 recognized Callicebus species. Here, we describe the acoustic properties and organization of the loud calls of black-fronted titi monkeys (Callicebus nigrifrons). We compare the behavioral and ecological contexts associated with these vocalizations to investigate their role in within- and between-group communication, resource defense, and mate defense. Black-fronted titi monkeys create loud calls by combining a finite number of syllables to form more complex phrases, which are assembled to compose long sequences of loud calls. Bioacoustic features distinguish the loud calls used in different contexts, involving communication within- and between-groups. We found support for the hypothesis that vocalizations used for between-group communication are cooperative displays used by the mated pair and other group members to regulate access to important food resources, such as fruits. On the other hand, we only found weak support for the mate defense hypothesis.

  7. Pleasantness, activation, and sex differences in advertising.

    PubMed

    Whissell, C; McCall, L

    1997-10-01

    Advertisements in men's, women's, girls', and boys' magazines (n = 38,195 words) were scored objectively in terms of 15 measures of linguistic style, e.g., use of common words, use of long words, use of specific words and emotional tone (pleasantness and activation, as measured by the Dictionary of Affect). There were several sex- and age-related differences among advertisements from different sources. Advertisements from boys' magazines were extremely active, those from women's and girls' magazines were shorter and unusually pleasant. In two follow-up studies (N = 122 volunteers), objective emotional measures of advertising text proved to be related to ratings of persuasion and of success of appeal for individual advertisements. The most preferred advertisement for women was pleasant and active, that for men unpleasant and active. When men and women created advertisements, women's were shorter and more pleasant. PMID:9354085

  8. Pleasantness, activation, and sex differences in advertising.

    PubMed

    Whissell, C; McCall, L

    1997-10-01

    Advertisements in men's, women's, girls', and boys' magazines (n = 38,195 words) were scored objectively in terms of 15 measures of linguistic style, e.g., use of common words, use of long words, use of specific words and emotional tone (pleasantness and activation, as measured by the Dictionary of Affect). There were several sex- and age-related differences among advertisements from different sources. Advertisements from boys' magazines were extremely active, those from women's and girls' magazines were shorter and unusually pleasant. In two follow-up studies (N = 122 volunteers), objective emotional measures of advertising text proved to be related to ratings of persuasion and of success of appeal for individual advertisements. The most preferred advertisement for women was pleasant and active, that for men unpleasant and active. When men and women created advertisements, women's were shorter and more pleasant.

  9. Point-of-sale tobacco advertising in Beirut, Lebanon following a national advertising ban

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to conduct an audit of point-of-sale (POS) tobacco advertising and assess compliance with an advertising ban in a large district of Beirut, Lebanon. Methods The audit was conducted 3 months following the ban on tobacco advertising. Trained students observed all tobacco retail outlets (n = 100) and entered data into a web-based form using iPad® technology. Presence of tobacco advertisements was assessed to determine compliance with the national advertising ban. Results Among the 100 tobacco retail outlets, 62% had tobacco advertisements, including 7% with a tobacco brand logo as part of the main exterior store sign. Conclusions POS tobacco advertising is widespread in Beirut despite the national advertising ban. These findings point to an urgent need for the enforcement of the advertisement ban with tobacco retail outlets in Lebanon. PMID:23731766

  10. A robust asymmetry in loudness between rising- and falling-intensity tones.

    PubMed

    Ponsot, Emmanuel; Susini, Patrick; Meunier, Sabine

    2015-04-01

    Tones rising in intensity over a few seconds are perceived as louder than symmetrical tones falling in intensity. However, the causes for such perceptual asymmetry, as well as its magnitude and dependency on contextual and methodological factors remain unclear. In this paper, two psychophysical experiments were conducted to measure the magnitude of this asymmetry for 2-s, 15-dB intensity-varying tones in different conditions. In the first experiment, participants assessed the global loudness of rising- and falling-intensity sounds with an absolute magnitude estimation procedure (AME); in the second experiment, they compared sounds relatively in an adaptive, two-interval, two-alternative forced-choice task (2I-2AFC). In both experiments, the region of intensity change, the design of experimental blocks, and the type of comparison stimulus were systematically manipulated to test for contextual and methodological factors. Remarkably, the asymmetry was virtually unaffected by the different contexts of presentation and similar results with 2I-2AFC and AME measurements were obtained. In addition, the size of the effect was comparable over all but the highest intensity regions (80-90 dB SPL), at which it was significantly smaller. All together, these results indicate that the loudness asymmetry is preserved under different measurement methods and contexts, and suggest that the underlying mechanism is strong and robust. In short, falling tones have to be about 4 dB higher in level than symmetrically rising tones in order to be perceived with the same global loudness, a finding that is still not predicted by current loudness models. PMID:25609028

  11. Guide to Sources: Advertising. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Lucinda M.

    This guide is designed to introduce the student to some of the major sources of advertising information available in the Fogler Library at the University of Maine. A brief description and exploration of the card catalog, Library of Congress Subject Headings, Library of Congress Classification System, and the Dewey Decimal System are included. In…

  12. Adjective Identification in Television Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abd Rahim, Normaliza

    2013-01-01

    Learning the Malay language has been a challenging task for foreign language learners. Learners have to learn Malay grammar structure rules in order to write simple sentences. The word choice is important in constructing a sentence. Therefore, the study focuses on the use of adjectives in television advertisements among Korean learners at Hankuk…

  13. Description of Children's Television Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcus, F. Earle

    This paper is a report of two studies which were conducted on children's television. The first, "Saturday Children's Television," is a content analysis of programming and advertising matter on four Boston commercial TV stations. The second, "Romper Room, An Analysis," focuses on that program's commercial practices. The first study involved the…

  14. Health advertising: prevention for profit.

    PubMed

    Freimuth, V S; Hammond, S L; Stein, J A

    1988-05-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) estimates on the basis of current knowledge alone that, at a minimum, 30,000 lives could be saved in the year 2000 if Americans would modify their dietary habits. A recent innovative way of responding to this challenge was the Kellogg Company/NCI All-Bran advertising campaign. This paper will describe the campaign, and its impact on consumers, cereal industry sales, food industry advertising practices, health regulatory policy, and the organizational credibility of both NCI and Kellogg. For the past three years, Kellogg has included NCI's cancer prevention messages in their advertisements for All-Bran cereal and on their bran cereal boxes. This collaborative effort has stimulated considerable controversy over whether the health claims made on the cereal label are in violation of federal food labeling regulations. Meanwhile, research has demonstrated the positive impact of the campaign on consumer's knowledge and behavior regarding fiber as well as on Kellogg's profits. Other manufacturers are anxious to jump on the "branwagon"; however, many unanswered questions remain about this new approach to health advertising.

  15. Health advertising: prevention for profit.

    PubMed Central

    Freimuth, V S; Hammond, S L; Stein, J A

    1988-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) estimates on the basis of current knowledge alone that, at a minimum, 30,000 lives could be saved in the year 2000 if Americans would modify their dietary habits. A recent innovative way of responding to this challenge was the Kellogg Company/NCI All-Bran advertising campaign. This paper will describe the campaign, and its impact on consumers, cereal industry sales, food industry advertising practices, health regulatory policy, and the organizational credibility of both NCI and Kellogg. For the past three years, Kellogg has included NCI's cancer prevention messages in their advertisements for All-Bran cereal and on their bran cereal boxes. This collaborative effort has stimulated considerable controversy over whether the health claims made on the cereal label are in violation of federal food labeling regulations. Meanwhile, research has demonstrated the positive impact of the campaign on consumer's knowledge and behavior regarding fiber as well as on Kellogg's profits. Other manufacturers are anxious to jump on the "branwagon"; however, many unanswered questions remain about this new approach to health advertising. PMID:2833125

  16. Advertising and Invasion of Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    The right of privacy as it relates to advertising and the use of a person's name or likeness is discussed in this paper. After an introduction that traces some of the history of invasion of privacy in court decisions, the paper examines cases involving issues such as public figures and newsworthy items, right of privacy waived, right of privacy…

  17. Bicultural Advertising and Hispanic Acculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Wan-Hsiu Sunny; Li, Cong

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of acculturation modes (assimilated, integrated, and separated) on Hispanic consumers' responses to three advertising targeting strategies (Caucasian targeted, bicultural, and Hispanic targeted). The hypotheses were empirically tested in a 3 x 3 factorial experiment with 155 self-identified Hispanic adult…

  18. Children and Advertising: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Better Business Bureaus, Inc., New York, NY. Clearinghouse for Research on Children's Advertising.

    More than 600 entries are contained in this annotated bibliography of materials concerning the effects of television advertising on children. Entries are alphabetized by author and are divided into the following categories: special interest articles; general interest articles; books and pamphlets; government publications; transcripts of oral…

  19. Advertising and Sales Promotion Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document contains teacher materials for a 4-unit, 1-year marketing education course in advertising and sales promotion offered in grades 11 and 12 in North Carolina. The preface contains a rationale for the development of the course, a course description, course objectives, a list of the instructional units of the course, and a list of the…

  20. Global Imagery in Online Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynes, Geraldine E.; Janson, Marius

    2007-01-01

    A well-designed online advertisement is essential for effective communication with potential customers and contributes to successful e-commerce. However, creating online sales messages that appeal to a broad range of cultures can pose unique challenges. Internet ads must offer both a globally appealing and a culture-specific message that in turn…

  1. Effects of pedagogical ideology on the perceived loudness and noise levels in preschools.

    PubMed

    Jonsdottir, Valdis; Rantala, Leena M; Oskarsson, Gudmundur Kr; Sala, Eeva

    2015-01-01

    High activity noise levels that result in detrimental effects on speech communication have been measured in preschools. To find out if different pedagogical ideologies affect the perceived loudness and levels of noise, a questionnaire study inquiring about the experience of loudness and voice symptoms was carried out in Iceland in eight private preschools, called "Hjalli model", and in six public preschools. Noise levels were also measured in the preschools. Background variables (stress level, age, length of working career, education, smoking, and number of children per teacher) were also analyzed in order to determine how much they contributed toward voice symptoms and the experience of noisiness. Results indicate that pedagogical ideology is a significant factor for predicting noise and its consequences. Teachers in the preschool with tighter pedagogical control of discipline (the "Hjalli model") experienced lower activity noise loudness than teachers in the preschool with a more relaxed control of behavior (public preschool). Lower noise levels were also measured in the "Hjalli model" preschool and fewer "Hjalli model" teachers reported voice symptoms. Public preschool teachers experienced more stress than "Hjalli model" teachers and the stress level was, indeed, the background variable that best explained the voice symptoms and the teacher's perception of a noisy environment. Discipline, structure, and organization in the type of activity predicted the activity noise level better than the number of children in the group. Results indicate that pedagogical ideology is a significant factor for predicting self-reported noise and its consequences.

  2. Effects of pedagogical ideology on the perceived loudness and noise levels in preschools.

    PubMed

    Jonsdottir, Valdis; Rantala, Leena M; Oskarsson, Gudmundur Kr; Sala, Eeva

    2015-01-01

    High activity noise levels that result in detrimental effects on speech communication have been measured in preschools. To find out if different pedagogical ideologies affect the perceived loudness and levels of noise, a questionnaire study inquiring about the experience of loudness and voice symptoms was carried out in Iceland in eight private preschools, called "Hjalli model", and in six public preschools. Noise levels were also measured in the preschools. Background variables (stress level, age, length of working career, education, smoking, and number of children per teacher) were also analyzed in order to determine how much they contributed toward voice symptoms and the experience of noisiness. Results indicate that pedagogical ideology is a significant factor for predicting noise and its consequences. Teachers in the preschool with tighter pedagogical control of discipline (the "Hjalli model") experienced lower activity noise loudness than teachers in the preschool with a more relaxed control of behavior (public preschool). Lower noise levels were also measured in the "Hjalli model" preschool and fewer "Hjalli model" teachers reported voice symptoms. Public preschool teachers experienced more stress than "Hjalli model" teachers and the stress level was, indeed, the background variable that best explained the voice symptoms and the teacher's perception of a noisy environment. Discipline, structure, and organization in the type of activity predicted the activity noise level better than the number of children in the group. Results indicate that pedagogical ideology is a significant factor for predicting self-reported noise and its consequences. PMID:26356370

  3. Measured Effects of Turbulence on the Loudness and Waveforms of Conventional and Shaped Minimized Sonic Booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plotkin, Kenneth J.; Maglieri, Domenic J.; Sullivan, Brenda M.

    2005-01-01

    Turbulence has two distinctive effects on sonic booms: there is distortion in the form of random perturbations that appear behind the shock waves, and shock rise times are increased randomly. A first scattering theory by S.C. Crow in the late 1960s quantified the random distortions, and Crow's theory was shown to agree with available flight test data. A variety of theories for the shock thickness have been presented, all supporting the role of turbulence in increasing rise time above that of a basic molecular-relaxation structure. The net effect of these phenomena on the loudness of shaped minimized booms is of significant interest. Initial analysis suggests that there would be no change to average loudness, but this had not been experimentally investigated. The January 2004 flight test of the Shaped Sonic Boom Demonstrator (SSBD), together with a reference unmodified F-5E, included a 12500- foot linear ground sensor array with 28 digitally recorded sensor sites. This data set provides an opportunity to re-test Crow's theory for the post-shock perturbations, and to examine the net effect of turbulence on the loudness of shaped sonic booms.

  4. Effects of individual sound sources on the subjective loudness and acoustic comfort in underground shopping streets.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jian; Meng, Qi; Jin, Hong

    2012-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that human evaluation of subjective loudness and acoustic comfort depends on a series of factors in a particular situation rather than only on sound pressure levels. In the present study, a large-scale subjective survey has been undertaken on underground shopping streets in Harbin, China, to determine how individual sound sources influence subjective loudness and acoustic comfort evaluation. Based on the analysis of case study results, it has been shown that all individual sound sources can increase subjective loudness to a certain degree. However, their levels of influence on acoustic comfort are different. Background music and the public address system can increase acoustic comfort, with a mean difference of 0.18 to 0.32 and 0.21 to 0.27, respectively, where a five-point bipolar category scale is used. Music from shops and vendor shouts can decrease acoustic comfort, with a mean difference of -0.11 to -0.38 and -0.39 to -0.62, respectively. The feasibility of improving acoustic comfort by changing certain sound sources is thus demonstrated.

  5. Vestibular responses to loud dance music: a physiological basis of the "rock and roll threshold"?

    PubMed

    Todd, N P; Cody, F W

    2000-01-01

    In this paper new evidence is provided to indicate that vestibular responses may be obtained from loud dance music for intensities above 90 dB(A) SPL (Impulse-weighted). In a sample of ten subjects acoustically evoked EMG were obtained from the sternocleidomastoid muscle in response to a sample of techno music typical of that which may be experienced in a dance club. Previous research has shown that this response is vestibularly mediated since it can be obtained in subjects with loss of cochlear function, but is absent in subjects with loss of vestibular function (Colebatch et al. [J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. 57, 190-197 (1994)]. Given that pleasurable sensations of self-motion are widely sought after by more normal means of vestibular stimulation, it is suggested that acoustically evoked sensations of self-motion may account for the compulsion to exposure to loud music. Given further the similarity between the thresholds found, and the intensities and frequency distributions that are typical in rock concerts and dance clubs, it is also suggested that this response may be a physiological basis for the minimum loudness necessary for rock and dance music to work-the "rock and roll threshold".

  6. Perceived Loudness of Self-Generated Sounds Is Differentially Modified by Expected Sound Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Reznik, Daniel; Henkin, Yael; Levy, Osnat; Mukamel, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Performing actions with sensory consequences modifies physiological and behavioral responses relative to otherwise identical sensory input perceived in a passive manner. It is assumed that such modifications occur through an efference copy sent from motor cortex to sensory regions during performance of voluntary actions. In the auditory domain most behavioral studies report attenuated perceived loudness of self-generated auditory action-consequences. However, several recent behavioral and physiological studies report enhanced responses to such consequences. Here we manipulated the intensity of self-generated and externally-generated sounds and examined the type of perceptual modification (enhancement vs. attenuation) reported by healthy human subjects. We found that when the intensity of self-generated sounds was low, perceived loudness is enhanced. Conversely, when the intensity of self-generated sounds was high, perceived loudness is attenuated. These results might reconcile some of the apparent discrepancies in the reported literature and suggest that efference copies can adapt perception according to the differential sensory context of voluntary actions. PMID:25992603

  7. Are clinical measurements of uncomfortable loudness levels a valid indicator of real-world auditory discomfort?

    PubMed

    Munro, K J; Patel, R K

    1998-10-01

    A recent study revealed that most patients were wearing National Health Service hearing aids that were capable of exceeding their uncomfortable loudness level (ULL) measured clinically (Munro et al., 1996). However, there is little evidence to show that these clinical measurements are a valid indicator of real-world auditory discomfort. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between ULL and real-world discomfort. The study involved 20 adult subjects, aged 41-92 years, who had been fitted monaurally with an NHS hearing aid. ULLs were measured using a probe-tube microphone situated close to the eardrum. Individual real ear to coupler differences were added to the SSPL90 in order to predict the maximum power output (MPO) of the hearing aid at the eardrum. Subjects completed a questionnaire designed to rate the loudness of different environmental sounds. The results show that the more the MPO value exceeded the ULL value, the more likely it was that the subjects reported loudness tolerance problems to environmental sounds of long duration. There was a statistically significant correlation between the ULL and discomfort ratings for sounds of longer duration, such as traffic and wind noise; but not for shorter-duration sounds, such as door banging. Subjects did not express real-world auditory discomfort when the MPO value matched the ULL value. These findings support the argument for setting hearing-aid MPO close to ULL.

  8. Effects on rat sexual behaviour of acute MDMA (ecstasy) alone or in combination with loud music.

    PubMed

    Cagiano, R; Bera, I; Sabatini, R; Flace, P; Vermesan, D; Vermesan, H; Dragulescu, S I; Bottalico, L; Santacroce, L

    2008-01-01

    The effects on sexual behaviour of acute low doses of methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) (0.3, 1, 3 mg/kg/i.p.), alone or in combination with exposure to loud music (1 h stimulation), were investigated in Wistar rats. Results indicate that acute MDMA, at dose of 3 mg/kg, notably impaired copulatory behavior of sexually experienced male rats. In particular, MDMA-exposed animals exhibited a significant increase in intromission and ejaculation latencies as well as a significant decrease in percentage of rats displaying copulatory activity (one intromission at least). Surprisingly, one hour exposure to loud music, which per se resulted ineffective, antagonized the suppressive effect of MDMA by increasing the percent of animals displaying sexual activity. However, combined treatment of MDMA and music stimulation did not fully restore normal sexual behavior as the animals reaching ejaculation still showed a marked reduction of copulatory efficiency. These findings demonstrate that the systemic administration of a single low dose of MDMA, alone or in combination with loud music, which is commonly present in certain environments such as rave parties, notably impairs copulatory activity of male rats.

  9. Auditory fMRI of Sound Intensity and Loudness for Unilateral Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Behler, Oliver; Uppenkamp, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We report a systematic exploration of the interrelation of sound intensity, ear of entry, individual loudness judgments, and brain activity across hemispheres, using auditory functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The stimuli employed were 4 kHz-bandpass filtered noise stimuli, presented monaurally to each ear at levels from 37 to 97 dB SPL. One diotic condition and a silence condition were included as control conditions. Normal hearing listeners completed a categorical loudness scaling procedure with similar stimuli before auditory fMRI was performed. The relationship between brain activity, as inferred from blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrasts, and both sound intensity and loudness estimates were analyzed by means of linear mixed effects models for various anatomically defined regions of interest in the ascending auditory pathway and in the cortex. The results indicate distinct functional differences between midbrain and cortical areas as well as between specific regions within auditory cortex, suggesting a systematic hierarchy in terms of lateralization and the representation of sensory stimulation and perception.

  10. The impact of medical tourism and the code of medical ethics on advertisement in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Makinde, Olusesan Ayodeji; Brown, Brandon; Olaleye, Olalekan

    2014-01-01

    Advances in management of clinical conditions are being made in several resource poor countries including Nigeria. Yet, the code of medical ethics which bars physician and health practices from advertising the kind of services they render deters these practices. This is worsened by the incursion of medical tourism facilitators (MTF) who continue to market healthcare services across countries over the internet and social media thereby raising ethical questions. A significant review of the advertisement ban in the code of ethics is long overdue. Limited knowledge about advances in medical practice among physicians and the populace, the growing medical tourism industry and its attendant effects, and the possibility of driving brain gain provide evidence to repeal the code. Ethical issues, resistance to change and elitist ideas are mitigating factors working in the opposite direction. The repeal of the code of medical ethics against advertising will undoubtedly favor health facilities in the country that currently cannot advertise the kind of services they render. A repeal or review of this code of medical ethics is necessary with properly laid down guidelines on how advertisements can be and cannot be done. PMID:25722776

  11. The impact of medical tourism and the code of medical ethics on advertisement in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Makinde, Olusesan Ayodeji; Brown, Brandon; Olaleye, Olalekan

    2014-01-01

    Advances in management of clinical conditions are being made in several resource poor countries including Nigeria. Yet, the code of medical ethics which bars physician and health practices from advertising the kind of services they render deters these practices. This is worsened by the incursion of medical tourism facilitators (MTF) who continue to market healthcare services across countries over the internet and social media thereby raising ethical questions. A significant review of the advertisement ban in the code of ethics is long overdue. Limited knowledge about advances in medical practice among physicians and the populace, the growing medical tourism industry and its attendant effects, and the possibility of driving brain gain provide evidence to repeal the code. Ethical issues, resistance to change and elitist ideas are mitigating factors working in the opposite direction. The repeal of the code of medical ethics against advertising will undoubtedly favor health facilities in the country that currently cannot advertise the kind of services they render. A repeal or review of this code of medical ethics is necessary with properly laid down guidelines on how advertisements can be and cannot be done. PMID:25722776

  12. The impact of medical tourism and the code of medical ethics on advertisement in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Makinde, Olusesan Ayodeji; Brown, Brandon; Olaleye, Olalekan

    2014-01-01

    Advances in management of clinical conditions are being made in several resource poor countries including Nigeria. Yet, the code of medical ethics which bars physician and health practices from advertising the kind of services they render deters these practices. This is worsened by the incursion of medical tourism facilitators (MTF) who continue to market healthcare services across countries over the internet and social media thereby raising ethical questions. A significant review of the advertisement ban in the code of ethics is long overdue. Limited knowledge about advances in medical practice among physicians and the populace, the growing medical tourism industry and its attendant effects, and the possibility of driving brain gain provide evidence to repeal the code. Ethical issues, resistance to change and elitist ideas are mitigating factors working in the opposite direction. The repeal of the code of medical ethics against advertising will undoubtedly favor health facilities in the country that currently cannot advertise the kind of services they render. A repeal or review of this code of medical ethics is necessary with properly laid down guidelines on how advertisements can be and cannot be done.

  13. Mitigation Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Report (SEIR) (September 1992) for the Proposed Renewal of the Contract between the United States Department of Energy and The Regents of the University of California for the Operation and Management of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory identifies the environmental impacts associated with renewing the contract and specifies a series of measures designed to mitigate adverse impacts to the environment. This Mitigation Monitoring Plan describes the procedures the University will use to implement the mitigation measures adopted in connection with the approval of the Contract.

  14. Ultra-Fast Outflows in Radio-Loud AGN: New Constraints on Jet-Disk Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambruna, Rita

    There is strong observational and theoretical evidence that outflows/jets are coupled to accretion disks in black hole accreting systems, from Galactic to extragalactic sizes. While in radio-quiet AGN there is ample evidence for the presence of Ultra-Fast Outflows (UFOs) from the presence of blue-shifted absorption features in their 4-10~keV spectra, sub-relativistic winds are expected on theoretical basis in radio-loud AGN but have not been observed until now. Our recent Suzaku observations of 5 bright Broad- Line Radio Galaxies (BLRGs, the radio-loud counterparts of Seyferts) has started to change this picture. We found strong evidence for UFOs in 3 out of 5 BLRGs, with ionization parameters, column densities, and velocities of the absorber similar to Seyferts. Moreover, the outflows in BLRGs are likely to be energetically very significant: from the Suzaku data of the three sources, outflow masses similar to the accretion masses and kinetic energies of the wind similar to the X-ray luminosity and radio power of the jet are inferred. Clearly, UFOs in radio-loud AGN represent a new key ingredient to understand their central engines and in particular, the jet-disk linkage. Our discovery of UFOs in a handful of BLRGs raises the questions of how common disk winds are in radio-loud AGN, what the absorber physical and dynamical characteristics are, and what is the outflow role in broader picture of galaxy-black hole connection for radio sources, i.e., for large-scale feedback models. To address these and other issues, we propose to use archival XMM-Newton and Suzaku spectra to search for Ultra-Fast Outflows in a large number of radio sources. Over a period of two years, we will conduct a systematic, uniform analysis of the archival X-ray data, building on our extensive experience with a similar previous project for Seyferts, and using robust analysis and statistical methodologies. As an important side product, we will also obtain accurate, self- consistent measurements

  15. Obscuration, orientation, and the infrared properties of radio-loud active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, Timothy M.; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Baum, Stefi A.; Laurikainen, Eija

    1994-01-01

    We report on a study of the mid- and far-infrared (MFIR) properties of several different classes of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) using the IRAS database. Our goal is to try to improve the understanding of the possible relationships between the diverse classes of AGNs. The MFIR and radio properties of radio-loud AGNs are especially useful in this regard, since (excluding the blazar class, which we do not study here) the radio emission is thought to be emitted isotropically, and the radio and MFIR radiation should be much less affected by dust obscuration than radiation at shorter wavelengths. We have first compared samples of 3CR broad-line radio galaxies (BLRGs) and narrow-line radio galaxies (NLRGs) matched in radio flux and mean redshift. We find that the BLRGs are stronger than the NLRGs by a factor of 4-5 in their mid-IR emission but are similar to the NLRGs in the far-IR. This is qualitatively consistent with recent 'unification' models for NLRGs and BLRGs which invoke thermal MFIR emission from dusty 'obscuring tori,' but there may be an additional source of far-IR emission present in the more luminous broad-line objects (the radio-loud quasars) studied previously by Heckman, Chambers & Postman (1992). We have also compared samples of Fanaroff-Riley class I (FRI) and Fanaroff-Riley class II (FRII) radio galaxies matched in radio flux and redshift. The FRII galaxies are stronger MFIR emitters than the FRI galaxies by a factor of about 4. This is consistent with suggestions that the central engine in FRI galaxies produces relatively little radiant energy per unit jet power (expecially since we find that the weak MFIR emission from the FRI galaxies may not be powered by the AGN). Comparing samples of gigahertz-peaked spectrum (GPS) and compact steep spectrum (CSS) sources versus non-GPS-CSS sources, we find that the GPS-CSS and non-GPS-CSS sources have similar MFIR strengths. This suggests that the efficiency of the conversion of jet kinetic energy

  16. 33 CFR 136.313 - Content of advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Content of advertisement. 136.313... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Designation of Source and Advertisement § 136.313 Content of advertisement. Each advertisement required by this subpart may be required to contain...

  17. 48 CFR 852.203-70 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial advertising... Commercial advertising. As prescribed in 803.570-2, insert the following clause: Commercial Advertising (JAN... solicitation, he/she will not advertise the award of the contract in his/her commercial advertising in such...

  18. 48 CFR 852.203-70 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial advertising... Commercial advertising. As prescribed in 803.570-2, insert the following clause: Commercial Advertising (JAN... solicitation, he/she will not advertise the award of the contract in his/her commercial advertising in such...

  19. 12 CFR 328.3 - Official advertising statement requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Official advertising statement requirements... OF GENERAL POLICY ADVERTISEMENT OF MEMBERSHIP § 328.3 Official advertising statement requirements. (a... advertising statement. The official advertising statement shall be in substance as follows: “Member of...

  20. 16 CFR 14.15 - In regard to comparative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... trade associations and the advertising media regarding their comparative advertising policies. In the... position that industry self-regulation should not restrain the use by advertisers of truthful comparative... advertisers, advertising agencies, broadcasters, and self-regulation entities to restate its current...

  1. 16 CFR 14.15 - In regard to comparative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... trade associations and the advertising media regarding their comparative advertising policies. In the... position that industry self-regulation should not restrain the use by advertisers of truthful comparative... advertisers, advertising agencies, broadcasters, and self-regulation entities to restate its current...

  2. 16 CFR 14.15 - In regard to comparative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... trade associations and the advertising media regarding their comparative advertising policies. In the... position that industry self-regulation should not restrain the use by advertisers of truthful comparative... advertisers, advertising agencies, broadcasters, and self-regulation entities to restate its current...

  3. 16 CFR 14.15 - In regard to comparative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... trade associations and the advertising media regarding their comparative advertising policies. In the... position that industry self-regulation should not restrain the use by advertisers of truthful comparative... advertisers, advertising agencies, broadcasters, and self-regulation entities to restate its current...

  4. Young Children's Ability to Recognize Advertisements in Web Page Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Moondore; Blades, Mark; Oates, Caroline; Blumberg, Fran

    2009-01-01

    Identifying what is, and what is not an advertisement is the first step in realizing that an advertisement is a marketing message. Children can distinguish television advertisements from programmes by about 5 years of age. Although previous researchers have investigated television advertising, little attention has been given to advertisements in…

  5. The Influence of Advertising on Attendance at Park Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyburn, Jerry H.; Knudson, Douglas M.

    1975-01-01

    Investigated were the effects on attendance of four types of pre-program advertising: no advertising, personal invitation, signs, and innovation. All three advertising treatments increased program attendance over no advertising. Each advertising technique has advantages and disadvantages. Signs are impersonal, but effective. Personal invitation is…

  6. A Q-Analysis of College Students Attitudes Toward Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Ernest F.

    Eighty college students were administered 26 Likert-type statements designed to measure their attitudes toward advertising along four different dimensions: economic effects of advertising, social effects of advertising, ethics of advertising, and regulation of advertising. Analysis of the responses revealed five clusters or "types" of individuals…

  7. Mitigation win-win

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Dominic; Lucas, Amanda; Barnes, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    Win-win messages regarding climate change mitigation policies in agriculture tend to oversimplify farmer motivation. Contributions from psychology, cultural evolution and behavioural economics should help to design more effective policy.

  8. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    PubMed

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-05-24

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups.

  9. Advertising of toothpaste in parenting magazines.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey H; Hammond, Rodney; Guinta, Alexis; Rajan, Sonali; Basch, Charles E

    2013-10-01

    We assessed advertisements for children's toothpaste in two widely read US parenting magazines. Data on the number and type of toothpaste advertisements in two parenting magazines were collected from 116 magazine issues between 2007 and 2011. The number of children's toothpaste advertisements per year and across magazines was computed. The amount of toothpaste presented in each advertisement was categorized. We noted whether the toothpaste advertisement stated that the toothpaste was fluoridated. We identified a total of 117 children's toothpaste advertisements in these magazines and confirmed that the majority of the magazine issues contained at least one toothpaste advertisement. Of the 31 advertisements that depicted a picture of a toothbrush with toothpaste, all but one (96.8 %) depicted a full swirl of toothpaste covering the entire toothbrush head, which is well over the recommended amount. The pictures on the advertisements show an excessive amount of toothpaste on the brush, which directly conflicts with the instructions on many toothpastes and dentist recommendations. Those advertisements with photographs that depict a toothbrush with a full brush head of toothpaste are showing over four times the recommended amount for children. PMID:23674195

  10. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    PubMed

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-01-01

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups. PMID:23618638

  11. Advertising of toothpaste in parenting magazines.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey H; Hammond, Rodney; Guinta, Alexis; Rajan, Sonali; Basch, Charles E

    2013-10-01

    We assessed advertisements for children's toothpaste in two widely read US parenting magazines. Data on the number and type of toothpaste advertisements in two parenting magazines were collected from 116 magazine issues between 2007 and 2011. The number of children's toothpaste advertisements per year and across magazines was computed. The amount of toothpaste presented in each advertisement was categorized. We noted whether the toothpaste advertisement stated that the toothpaste was fluoridated. We identified a total of 117 children's toothpaste advertisements in these magazines and confirmed that the majority of the magazine issues contained at least one toothpaste advertisement. Of the 31 advertisements that depicted a picture of a toothbrush with toothpaste, all but one (96.8 %) depicted a full swirl of toothpaste covering the entire toothbrush head, which is well over the recommended amount. The pictures on the advertisements show an excessive amount of toothpaste on the brush, which directly conflicts with the instructions on many toothpastes and dentist recommendations. Those advertisements with photographs that depict a toothbrush with a full brush head of toothpaste are showing over four times the recommended amount for children.

  12. RFI Mitigation Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-05-01

    The increased sensitivity of passive instrumentation in radio astronomy and remote sensing and the intensifying active use of the spectrum have led to an increasing level of radio frequency interference (RFI) of the active services on the passive use of the spectrum. Advances in technology and computing have opened up new possibilities for mitigating the effects of certain classes of interference in the observing data. Interference in allocated bands always leads to data loss for the passive users of the spectrum even if interference mitigation is applied. However, interference mitigation in non-allocated spectral bands may facilitate the partial use of this spectrum for passive (non-interfering) observations. There is no generic method to mitigate all types of interference, so a multi-layered system approach may be advisable to reduce detrimental effects for a congested interference environment. Specific mitigation methods implemented at different points in the data acquisition chain will thus result in a cumulative mitigation effect on the data. This third RFI Mitigation Workshop considered RFI mitigation in radio astronomy in all its facets with the aim of facilitating the implementation of instrumental and data processing techniques. This workshop aimed to take a forward look at applications for the next generation of radio instruments, such as the SKA and its pathfinders and LOFAR, as well as considering their application to existing instruments. This workshop has been organized by ASTRON and NAIC, with support from the Engineering Forum of FP7 RadioNet, the SKA Project Development Office, and in collaboration with CRAF and IUCAF.

  13. Contraceptive advertising in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lebow, M A

    1994-01-01

    Despite the fact that most Americans support the advertising of family planning methods, the minority opposition has influenced the formulation of contraceptive advertising policies. This article attempts to clarify the current status of contraceptive advertising and to suggest a sensible public policy for the future. Opening with a review of opinion polls taken since 1985, the article points out that 70% of station managers reported their belief that contraceptive advertising would offend many people despite the fact that 87% of respondents in a public survey indicated no objection to such advertising. The policies that network television stations have adopted are traced from those instituted in the 1960s by the National Association of Broadcaster's Code Authority. These policies govern the airing of Public Service Announcements (PSAs) as well as advertisements. Magazines and newspapers also resist accepting contraceptive advertising, although they do not face the same regulations as the broadcast media. US Food and Drug Administration policies also act as a barrier to product-specific advertisements on network television despite the fact that the American Medical Association no longer opposes such advertising and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists offered to provide valid information about advertising claims to the media. A review of attempts to advertise contraceptives shows that opposition has dropped significantly in the past 10 years for advertisements in newspapers, on cable television, in magazines, on some commercial television stations, and on many radio stations. However, the major television networks still fail to accept such advertisements. Part of the change that is occurring can be attributable to the emergence of AIDS and the need to promote methods to prevent the disease. However, much AIDS-related advertising has been in the form of PSAs, which are less and less available. The major obstacles to contraceptive advertising today

  14. Costly advertising and the evolution of cooperation.

    PubMed

    Brede, Markus

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I investigate the co-evolution of fast and slow strategy spread and game strategies in populations of spatially distributed agents engaged in a one off evolutionary dilemma game. Agents are characterized by a pair of traits, a game strategy (cooperate or defect) and a binary 'advertising' strategy (advertise or don't advertise). Advertising, which comes at a cost [Formula: see text], allows investment into faster propagation of the agents' traits to adjacent individuals. Importantly, game strategy and advertising strategy are subject to the same evolutionary mechanism. Via analytical reasoning and numerical simulations I demonstrate that a range of advertising costs exists, such that the prevalence of cooperation is significantly enhanced through co-evolution. Linking costly replication to the success of cooperators exposes a novel co-evolutionary mechanism that might contribute towards a better understanding of the origins of cooperation-supporting heterogeneity in agent populations. PMID:23861752

  15. Is it time to ban alcohol advertising?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter

    2009-04-01

    Children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of alcohol, with heavy drinking risking impaired brain development and future alcohol dependence. Advertisements increase expectancies about alcohol, leading to a greater likelihood of drinking. A systematic review of 13 longitudinal studies of over 38,000 young people found convincing evidence of an impact of media exposure and alcohol advertising on subsequent alcohol use, including initiation of drinking and heavier drinking among existing drinkers. All European countries, with the exception of the UK, have a ban on one or more types of advertising. Since self-regulation is reported as failing to prevent marketing which has an impact on younger people, and since advertising commonly crosses country borders, there is an argument to approximate advertising rules across Europe banning alcohol advertising targeted at young people, a highly cost-effective measure to reduce harmful alcohol use, and one supported by European citizens and case law. PMID:19435114

  16. Whatalotwegot--the messages in drug advertisements.

    PubMed Central

    Ferner, R. E.; Scott, D. K.

    1994-01-01

    Advertisers are increasingly using symbols to circumvent logical argument when trying to persuade people (the "targets" of the advertisement) to make choices that are not strictly rational. Symbols can convey covert meanings and awaken or exploit subconscious feelings, such as a desire for power or a fear of doing harm. Some of the ways in which pharmaceutical advertisements use these techniques are examined: advertising by contagion; adding to our worries; polarity of choices; teasers; idealisation. Rational prescribing should be based on logic, but advertisements do not depend on logical arguments for their most powerful effects: the advertisers may subvert us by appealing to our unconscious desires. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 FIG 5 FIG 6 PMID:7820006

  17. Is it time to ban alcohol advertising?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter

    2009-04-01

    Children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of alcohol, with heavy drinking risking impaired brain development and future alcohol dependence. Advertisements increase expectancies about alcohol, leading to a greater likelihood of drinking. A systematic review of 13 longitudinal studies of over 38,000 young people found convincing evidence of an impact of media exposure and alcohol advertising on subsequent alcohol use, including initiation of drinking and heavier drinking among existing drinkers. All European countries, with the exception of the UK, have a ban on one or more types of advertising. Since self-regulation is reported as failing to prevent marketing which has an impact on younger people, and since advertising commonly crosses country borders, there is an argument to approximate advertising rules across Europe banning alcohol advertising targeted at young people, a highly cost-effective measure to reduce harmful alcohol use, and one supported by European citizens and case law.

  18. Advertising emergency department wait times.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Scott G

    2013-03-01

    Advertising emergency department (ED) wait times has become a common practice in the United States. Proponents of this practice state that it is a powerful marketing strategy that can help steer patients to the ED. Opponents worry about the risk to the public health that arises from a patient with an emergent condition self-triaging to a further hospital, problems with inaccuracy and lack of standard definition of the reported time, and directing lower acuity patients to the higher cost ED setting instead to primary care. Three sample cases demonstrating the pitfalls of advertising ED wait times are discussed. Given the lack of rigorous evidence supporting the practice and potential adverse effects to the public health, caution about its use is advised.

  19. Advertising emergency department wait times.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Scott G

    2013-03-01

    Advertising emergency department (ED) wait times has become a common practice in the United States. Proponents of this practice state that it is a powerful marketing strategy that can help steer patients to the ED. Opponents worry about the risk to the public health that arises from a patient with an emergent condition self-triaging to a further hospital, problems with inaccuracy and lack of standard definition of the reported time, and directing lower acuity patients to the higher cost ED setting instead to primary care. Three sample cases demonstrating the pitfalls of advertising ED wait times are discussed. Given the lack of rigorous evidence supporting the practice and potential adverse effects to the public health, caution about its use is advised. PMID:23599836

  20. Eye movements when viewing advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Emily; Leinenger, Mallorie; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads), before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet). Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research. PMID:24672500

  1. 12 CFR 328.3 - Official advertising statement requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... advertisements, which do not exceed thirty (30) seconds in time; (9) Advertisements which are of the type or.... (f) Official advertising statement in non-English language. The non-English equivalent of...

  2. Recommendation advertising method based on behavior retargeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yao; YIN, Xin-Chun; CHEN, Zhi-Min

    2011-10-01

    Online advertising has become an important business in e-commerce. Ad recommended algorithms are the most critical part in recommendation systems. We propose a recommendation advertising method based on behavior retargeting which can avoid leakage click of advertising due to objective reasons and can observe the changes of the user's interest in time. Experiments show that our new method can have a significant effect and can be further to apply to online system.

  3. Advertising's new medium: human experience.

    PubMed

    Rayport, Jeffrey F

    2013-03-01

    We live in a media-saturated world, where consumers are drowning in irrelevant messages delivered from the web, TV, radio, print, outdoor displays, and a proliferating array of mobile devices. Advertising strategies built on persuading through interruption, repetition, and brute ubiquity are increasingly ineffective. To win consumers' attention and trust, marketers must think less about what advertising says to its targets and more about what it does for them. Rayport outlines four domains of human experience: In the public sphere people move from one place or activity to another, both online and off. In the social sphere they interact with and relate to one another. In the tribal sphere they affiliate with groups to define or express their identity. In the psychological sphere they connect language with specific thoughts and feelings. Savvy marketers think about crafting messages that consumers will welcome in these domains. Zappos did that when it placed ads in airport security bins (the public sphere)--reaching people whose minds may be on their shoes. Nintendo identified young mothers who were willing to host Wii parties and provided them with everything they needed for these social-sphere events. Yelp's Elite Squad of reviewers have a heightened sense of tribal affiliation that makes them powerful brand ambassadors. Life is good Inc. is rooted in the psychological sphere: It advertises only through the optimism-promoting logo and slogan on its products.

  4. Advertising's new medium: human experience.

    PubMed

    Rayport, Jeffrey F

    2013-03-01

    We live in a media-saturated world, where consumers are drowning in irrelevant messages delivered from the web, TV, radio, print, outdoor displays, and a proliferating array of mobile devices. Advertising strategies built on persuading through interruption, repetition, and brute ubiquity are increasingly ineffective. To win consumers' attention and trust, marketers must think less about what advertising says to its targets and more about what it does for them. Rayport outlines four domains of human experience: In the public sphere people move from one place or activity to another, both online and off. In the social sphere they interact with and relate to one another. In the tribal sphere they affiliate with groups to define or express their identity. In the psychological sphere they connect language with specific thoughts and feelings. Savvy marketers think about crafting messages that consumers will welcome in these domains. Zappos did that when it placed ads in airport security bins (the public sphere)--reaching people whose minds may be on their shoes. Nintendo identified young mothers who were willing to host Wii parties and provided them with everything they needed for these social-sphere events. Yelp's Elite Squad of reviewers have a heightened sense of tribal affiliation that makes them powerful brand ambassadors. Life is good Inc. is rooted in the psychological sphere: It advertises only through the optimism-promoting logo and slogan on its products. PMID:23451529

  5. 15 CFR 265.42 - Photography for advertising or commercial purposes; advertising and soliciting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Photography for advertising or... COLLINS, COLORADO Buildings and Grounds § 265.42 Photography for advertising or commercial purposes... approval. Photography for advertising and commercial purposes may be conducted only with the...

  6. 15 CFR 265.42 - Photography for advertising or commercial purposes; advertising and soliciting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Photography for advertising or... COLLINS, COLORADO Buildings and Grounds § 265.42 Photography for advertising or commercial purposes... approval. Photography for advertising and commercial purposes may be conducted only with the...

  7. 15 CFR 265.42 - Photography for advertising or commercial purposes; advertising and soliciting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Photography for advertising or... COLLINS, COLORADO Buildings and Grounds § 265.42 Photography for advertising or commercial purposes... approval. Photography for advertising and commercial purposes may be conducted only with the...

  8. 15 CFR 265.42 - Photography for advertising or commercial purposes; advertising and soliciting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Photography for advertising or... COLLINS, COLORADO Buildings and Grounds § 265.42 Photography for advertising or commercial purposes... approval. Photography for advertising and commercial purposes may be conducted only with the...

  9. 15 CFR 265.42 - Photography for advertising or commercial purposes; advertising and soliciting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Photography for advertising or... COLLINS, COLORADO Buildings and Grounds § 265.42 Photography for advertising or commercial purposes... approval. Photography for advertising and commercial purposes may be conducted only with the...

  10. 27 CFR 6.84 - Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties. 6.84 Section 6.84 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.84 Point of sale advertising...

  11. Restriction of television food advertising in South Korea: impact on advertising of food companies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soyoung; Lee, Youngmi; Yoon, Jihyun; Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Hyogyoo

    2013-03-01

    The association between exposure to television (TV) food advertising and children's dietary habits has been well established in previous studies. However, the efficacy of restrictions on TV food advertising in the prevention of childhood obesity remains controversial. The South Korean government has recently enforced a regulation, termed the Special Act on Safety Management of Children's Dietary Life, which restricts TV advertising of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods targeting children. This study aimed to determine the impact of this regulation by examining changes in the TV advertising practices of South Korean food companies since the scheduled enforcement date of January 2010. The total advertising budget, number of advertisement placements and gross rating points (GRPs) for advertisements on EDNP foods aired on the five representative TV channels in South Korea were compared and analyzed for the year before and after January 2010. After January 2010, the total adverting budget, number of advertisement placements and GRPs decreased during regulated hours. Even during non-regulated hours, a significant decline was noticed in the number of advertisement placements and GRPs. The total advertising budget for non-EDNP foods increased, whereas that for EDNP foods decreased at a higher rate in addition to a drop in its percentage share. These results suggest positive changes in TV advertising practices of food companies because of the regulation, thereby lowering children's exposure to TV advertising of EDNP foods and promoting a safer environment that may facilitate child health improvement in South Korea.

  12. Restriction of television food advertising in South Korea: impact on advertising of food companies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soyoung; Lee, Youngmi; Yoon, Jihyun; Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Hyogyoo

    2013-03-01

    The association between exposure to television (TV) food advertising and children's dietary habits has been well established in previous studies. However, the efficacy of restrictions on TV food advertising in the prevention of childhood obesity remains controversial. The South Korean government has recently enforced a regulation, termed the Special Act on Safety Management of Children's Dietary Life, which restricts TV advertising of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods targeting children. This study aimed to determine the impact of this regulation by examining changes in the TV advertising practices of South Korean food companies since the scheduled enforcement date of January 2010. The total advertising budget, number of advertisement placements and gross rating points (GRPs) for advertisements on EDNP foods aired on the five representative TV channels in South Korea were compared and analyzed for the year before and after January 2010. After January 2010, the total adverting budget, number of advertisement placements and GRPs decreased during regulated hours. Even during non-regulated hours, a significant decline was noticed in the number of advertisement placements and GRPs. The total advertising budget for non-EDNP foods increased, whereas that for EDNP foods decreased at a higher rate in addition to a drop in its percentage share. These results suggest positive changes in TV advertising practices of food companies because of the regulation, thereby lowering children's exposure to TV advertising of EDNP foods and promoting a safer environment that may facilitate child health improvement in South Korea. PMID:22717614

  13. The Social Effects of Advertising as Perceived by Advertising Executives, Businessmen, and the General Public.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surlin, Stuart H.

    This study attempts to compare the perceptions and self-reported behavior of high, middle, and low authoritarian advertising executives, business executives, and members of the general public concerning the social effects of advertising. For the advertising sample, a total of 393 men and women were selected according to their executive positions…

  14. Small Business Advertising: A Springboard for Advertising Majors and a Service to the Business Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, Patricia J.

    Intended to give experience to students hoping to begin careers in advertising and also to serve a neglected segment of advertisers, a specialized senior-level course in small business advertising was developed at Clarion University of Pennsylvania. Early in the semester, lectures and demonstration clients focused on the distinct promotional…

  15. Remedies by competitors for false advertising.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, B D; Wilcox, D P

    1990-05-01

    Patients who are victimized as a consequence of false medical advertising are not the only ones who can sue for damages. Under section 43(a) of the Lanham Act, effective November 17, 1989, anyone "who believes that he or she is or is likely to be damaged" by deceptive advertising may bring a civil action for damages (1). Competing physicians may sue other physicians who falsely advertise that they possess unique skills and achieve better results than other physicians because they employ exclusive methods of treatment or claim that certain surgical procedures they perform in the office are absolutely safe and without risk or who advertise false professional credentials to lure patients. Voluntary informed consent excludes the use of deceit. Misrepresentation through advertising deprives a patient of the right to exercise an informed consent (2). A patient who relies on a doctor's false advertising in agreeing to a procedure that causes the patient injury may sue for malpractice even if the procedure was performed without negligence. False medical advertising also exposes the advertiser to litigation by competitors for unfair competition. This article is concerned with the remedy that may be available for instituting private litigation against physicians and other health care providers who engage in untruthful advertising. PMID:2343426

  16. 47 CFR 32.6613 - Product advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6613 Product advertising. This account shall include costs incurred in developing and implementing promotional strategies to...

  17. Is there addiction to loud music? Findings in a group of non-professional pop/rock musicians.

    PubMed

    Schmuziger, Nicolas; Patscheke, Jochen; Stieglitz, Rolf; Probst, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    Listening to loud music may be connected to addictive behavior possibly leading to damaging effects on the cochlea. We hypothesized that members of non-professional pop/rock bands with regular exposure to loud music are more likely to show an addictive-like behavior for loud music than matched control subjects. Fifty non-professional musicians and 50 matched control subjects were asked to complete the Northeastern Music Listening Survey (NEMLS) with two basic components. The first comprises an adaptation of the validated Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (MAST) to study the addictive-like behavior towards loud music. The second comprises the criteria outlined by the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) of the American Psychiatric Society for the diagnosis of substance dependence. The NEMLS was scored using the same point system as used in the MAST. The DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence were met by nine of the musician group and by one control subject. Seven of these nine musicians also had a positive NEMLS score. Traits of addictive-like behavior to loud music were detected more often in members of nonprofessional pop/rock bands than in control subjects.

  18. Awareness is essential for differential delay eyeblink conditioning with soft-tone but not loud-tone conditioned stimuli.

    PubMed

    Huang, He; Wu, Bing; Li, Qiong; Yao, Juan; Li, Xuan; Yang, Yi; Wu, Guang-Yan; Sui, Jian-Feng

    2014-06-01

    The role of awareness in differential delay eyeblink conditioning (DEC) remains controversial. Here, we investigated the involvement of awareness in differential DEC with a soft or a loud tone as the conditioned stimulus (CS). In the experiment, 36 participants were trained in differential DEC with a soft tone (60 dB) or a loud tone (85 dB) as the CS, paired with a corneal air-puff as the unconditioned stimulus (US). After conditioning, awareness of the relationship between the CS and the US was assessed with a 17-item true/false questionnaire. Interestingly, during differential DEC with a soft-tone CS, a higher proportion of differential conditioned responses (CRs) was evident in participants who were aware than those who were unaware. In contrast, when a loud tone was used as the CS, the proportion of differential CRs of the aware participants did not differ significantly from those who were unaware over any of the blocks of 20 trials. In unaware participants, the percentage of differential CRs with a loud-tone CS was significantly higher than that with a soft-tone CS; however in participants classified as aware, the percentage of differential CRs with a loud-tone CS did not differ significantly from that with a soft-tone CS. The present findings suggest that awareness is critical for differential DEC when the delay task is rendered more difficult.

  19. Similarity in loudness and distortion product otoacoustic emission input/output functions: implications for an objective hearing aid adjustment.

    PubMed

    Müller, Jörg; Janssen, Thomas

    2004-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) to loudness with regard to the potentiality of DPOAEs to determine characteristic quantities of the cochlear-impaired ear and to derive objective hearing aid parameters. Recently, Neely et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 1499-1507 (2003)] compared DPOAE input/output functions to the Fletcher and Munson [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 5, 82-108 (1933)] loudness function finding a close resemblance in the slope characteristics of both measures. The present study extended their work by performing both loudness and DPOAE measurements in the same subject sample, and by developing a method for the estimation of gain needed to compensate for loss of cochlear sensitivity and compression. DPOAEs and loudness exhibited similar behavior when plotted on a logarithmic scale and slope increased with increasing hearing loss, confirming the findings of Neely et al. To compensate for undesired nonpathological impacts on the magnitude of DPOAE level, normalization of DPOAE data was implemented. A close resemblance between gain functions based on loudness and normalized DPOAE data was achieved. These findings suggest that DPOAEs are able to quantify the loss of cochlear sensitivity and compression and thus might provide parameters for a noncooperative hearing aid adjustment.

  20. Is there addiction to loud music? Findings in a group of non-professional pop/rock musicians

    PubMed Central

    Schmuziger, Nicolas; Patscheke, Jochen; Stieglitz, Rolf; Probst, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    Listening to loud music may be connected to addictive behavior possibly leading to damaging effects on the cochlea. We hypothesized that members of non-professional pop/rock bands with regular exposure to loud music are more likely to show an addictive-like behavior for loud music than matched control subjects. Fifty non-professional musicians and 50 matched control subjects were asked to complete the Northeastern Music Listening Survey (NEMLS) with two basic components. The first comprises an adaptation of the validated Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (MAST) to study the addictive-like behavior towards loud music. The second comprises the criteria outlined by the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) of the American Psychiatric Society for the diagnosis of substance dependence. The NEMLS was scored using the same point system as used in the MAST. The DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence were met by nine of the musician group and by one control subject. Seven of these nine musicians also had a positive NEMLS score. Traits of addictive-like behavior to loud music were detected more often in members of nonprofessional pop/rock bands than in control subjects. PMID:26557326

  1. Effects of pedagogical ideology on the perceived loudness and noise levels in preschools

    PubMed Central

    Jonsdottir, Valdis; Rantala, Leena M.; Oskarsson, Gudmundur Kr.; Sala, Eeva

    2015-01-01

    High activity noise levels that result in detrimental effects on speech communication have been measured in preschools. To find out if different pedagogical ideologies affect the perceived loudness and levels of noise, a questionnaire study inquiring about the experience of loudness and voice symptoms was carried out in Iceland in eight private preschools, called “Hjalli model”, and in six public preschools. Noise levels were also measured in the preschools. Background variables (stress level, age, length of working career, education, smoking, and number of children per teacher) were also analyzed in order to determine how much they contributed toward voice symptoms and the experience of noisiness. Results indicate that pedagogical ideology is a significant factor for predicting noise and its consequences. Teachers in the preschool with tighter pedagogical control of discipline (the “Hjalli model”) experienced lower activity noise loudness than teachers in the preschool with a more relaxed control of behavior (public preschool). Lower noise levels were also measured in the “Hjalli model” preschool and fewer “Hjalli model” teachers reported voice symptoms. Public preschool teachers experienced more stress than “Hjalli model” teachers and the stress level was, indeed, the background variable that best explained the voice symptoms and the teacher's perception of a noisy environment. Discipline, structure, and organization in the type of activity predicted the activity noise level better than the number of children in the group. Results indicate that pedagogical ideology is a significant factor for predicting self-reported noise and its consequences. PMID:26356370

  2. THE RADIO PROPERTIES OF RADIO-LOUD NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXIES ON PARSEC SCALES

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Minfeng; Chen, Yongjun; Shen, Zhiqiang; Komossa, S.; Zensus, J. A.; Yuan, Weimin; Wajima, Kiyoaki; Zhou, Hongyan

    2015-11-15

    We present the detection of the compact radio structures of 14 radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies from Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations at 5 GHz performed in 2013. While 50% of the sources of our sample show a compact core only, the remaining 50% exhibit a core-jet structure. The measured brightness temperatures of the cores range from 10{sup 8.4} to 10{sup 11.4} K with a median value of 10{sup 10.1} K, indicating that the radio emission is from non-thermal jets, and that, likely, most sources are not strongly beamed, thus implying a low jet speed in these radio-loud NLS1 galaxies. In combination with archival data taken at multiple frequencies, we find that seven sources show flat or even inverted radio spectra, while steep spectra are revealed in the remaining seven objects. Although all of these sources are very radio-loud with R > 100, their jet properties are diverse in terms of their milliarcsecond (mas) scale (parsec scale) morphology and their overall radio spectral shape. The evidence for slow jet speeds (i.e., less relativistic jets), in combination with the low kinetic/radio power, may offer an explanation for the compact VLBA radio structure in most sources. The mildly relativistic jets in these high accretion rate systems are consistent with a scenario where jets are accelerated from the hot corona above the disk by the magnetic field and the radiation force of the accretion disk. Alternatively, a low jet bulk velocity can be explained by low spin in the Blandford–Znajek mechanism.

  3. BLACK HOLE SPIN AND THE RADIO LOUD/QUIET DICHOTOMY OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Tchekhovskoy, Alexander; Narayan, Ramesh; McKinney, Jonathan C. E-mail: rnarayan@cfa.harvard.ed

    2010-03-01

    Radio loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are on average 1000 times brighter in the radio band compared to radio quiet AGNs. We investigate whether this radio loud/quiet dichotomy can be due to differences in the spin of the central black holes (BHs) that power the radio-emitting jets. Using general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we construct steady state axisymmetric numerical models for a wide range of BH spins (dimensionless spin parameter 0.1 <= a <= 0.9999) and a variety of jet geometries. We assume that the total magnetic flux through the BH horizon at radius r{sub H}(a) is held constant. If the BH is surrounded by a thin accretion disk, we find that the total BH power output depends approximately quadratically on the angular frequency of the hole, P {proportional_to} OMEGA{sup 2}{sub H} {proportional_to} (a/r{sub H}){sup 2}. We conclude that, in this scenario, differences in the BH spin can produce power variations of only a few tens at most. However, if the disk is thick such that the jet subtends a narrow solid angle around the polar axis, then the power dependence becomes much steeper, P {proportional_to} OMEGA{sup 4}{sub H} or even {proportional_to}OMEGA{sup 6}{sub H}. Power variations of 1000 are then possible for realistic BH spin distributions. We derive an analytic solution that accurately reproduces the steeper scaling of jet power with OMEGA{sub H} and we provide a numerical fitting formula that reproduces all our simulation results. We discuss other physical effects that might contribute to the observed radio loud/quiet dichotomy of AGNs.

  4. Radio-Loudness of Active Galactic Nuclei: Observational Facts and Theoretical Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Sikora, Marek; Stawarz, Lukasz; Lasota, Jean-Pierre; /Paris, Inst. Astrophys.

    2007-01-30

    We investigate how the total radio luminosity of AGN-powered radio sources depends on their accretion luminosity and the central black hole mass. Our studies cover about seven orders of magnitude in accretion luminosity (expressed in Eddington units, i.e. as Eddington ratios) and the full range of AGN black hole masses. We find that AGNs form two distinct and well separated sequences on the radio-loudness--Eddington-ratio plane. The ''upper'' sequence is formed by radio selected AGNs, the ''lower'' sequence contains mainly optically selected objects. Whereas an apparent ''gap'' between the two sequences may be an artifact of selection effects, the sequences themselves mark the real upper bounds of radio-loudness of two distinct populations of AGNs: those hosted respectively by elliptical and disk galaxies. Both sequences show the same dependence of the radio-loudness on the Eddington ratio (an increase with decreasing Eddington ratio), which suggests that the normalization of this dependence is determined by the black hole spin. This implies that central black holes in giant elliptical galaxies have (on average) much larger spins than black holes in spiral/disc galaxies. This galaxy-morphology related radio-dichotomy breaks down at high accretion rates where the dominant fraction of luminous quasars hosted by elliptical galaxies is radio quiet. This led to speculations in the literature that formation of powerful jets at high accretion rates is intermittent and related to switches between two disk accretion modes, as directly observed in some BH X-ray binaries. We argue that such intermittency can be reconciled with the spin paradigm, provided that successful formation of relativistic jets by rotating black holes requires collimation by MHD outflows from accretion disks.

  5. Temporal loudness weights for sounds with increasing and decreasing intensity profiles.

    PubMed

    Ponsot, Emmanuel; Susini, Patrick; Saint Pierre, Guillaume; Meunier, Sabine

    2013-10-01

    Using molecular psychophysics, temporal loudness weights were measured for 2-s, 1-kHz tones with flat, increasing and decreasing time-intensity profiles. While primacy and recency effects were observed for flat profile stimuli, the so-called "level dominance" effect was observed for both increasing and decreasing profile stimuli, fully determining their temporal weights. The weighs obtained for these profiles were basically zero for all but the most intense parts of these sounds. This supports the view that the "level dominance" effect is prominent with intensity-varying sounds and that it persists over time since temporal weights are not affected by the direction of intensity change.

  6. Effect of unpleasant loud noise on hippocampal activities during picture encoding: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Fujita, Masafumi; Watanabe, Kazuko; Niwa, Masami; Takahashi, Toru; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Ido, Yasushi; Tomida, Mihoko; Onozuka, Minoru

    2006-08-01

    The functional link between the amygdala and hippocampus in humans has not been well documented. We examined the effect of unpleasant loud noise on hippocampal and amygdaloid activities during picture encoding by means of fMRI, and on the correct response in humans. The noise reduced activity in the hippocampus during picture encoding, decreased the correct response and increased the activity of the amygdala. A path diagram using structural equation modeling suggested that hippocampus activity might be depressed by high amygdala activity. Therefore, noise should diminish memory by reducing hippocampal activity, which might be depressed by high amygdala activity.

  7. Temporal loudness weights for sounds with increasing and decreasing intensity profiles.

    PubMed

    Ponsot, Emmanuel; Susini, Patrick; Saint Pierre, Guillaume; Meunier, Sabine

    2013-10-01

    Using molecular psychophysics, temporal loudness weights were measured for 2-s, 1-kHz tones with flat, increasing and decreasing time-intensity profiles. While primacy and recency effects were observed for flat profile stimuli, the so-called "level dominance" effect was observed for both increasing and decreasing profile stimuli, fully determining their temporal weights. The weighs obtained for these profiles were basically zero for all but the most intense parts of these sounds. This supports the view that the "level dominance" effect is prominent with intensity-varying sounds and that it persists over time since temporal weights are not affected by the direction of intensity change. PMID:24116537

  8. Understanding possible electromagnetic counterparts to loud gravitational wave events: Binary black hole effects on electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Palenzuela, Carlos; Lehner, Luis; Yoshida, Shin

    2010-04-15

    In addition to producing loud gravitational waves, the dynamics of a binary black hole system could induce emission of electromagnetic radiation by affecting the behavior of plasmas and electromagnetic fields in their vicinity. We study how the electromagnetic fields are affected by a pair of orbiting black holes through the merger. In particular, we show how the binary's dynamics induce a variability in possible electromagnetically induced emissions as well as an enhancement of electromagnetic fields during the late-merge and merger epochs. These time dependent features will likely leave their imprint in processes generating detectable emissions and can be exploited in the detection of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational waves.

  9. The Disk-Jet Connection in Radio-Loud AGN: The X-Ray Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sambruna, Rita

    2008-01-01

    Unification schemes assume that radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) contain an accretion disk and a relativistic jet perpendicular to the disk, and an obscuring molecular torus. The jet dominance decreases with larger viewing angles from blazars to Broad-Line and Narrow-Line Radio Galaxies. A fundamental question is how accretion and ejecta are related. The X-rays provide a convenient window to study these issues, as they originate in the innermost nuclear regions and penetrate large obscuring columns. I review the data, using observations by Chandra but also from other currently operating high-energy experiments. Synergy with the upcoming GLAST mission will also be highlighted.

  10. Satellite Breakup Risk Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leleux, Darrin P.; Smith, Jason T.

    2006-01-01

    Many satellite breakups occur as a result of an explosion of stored energy on-board spacecraft or rocket-bodies. These breakups generate a cloud of tens or possibly hundreds of thousands of debris fragments which may pose a transient elevated threat to spaceflight crews and vehicles. Satellite breakups pose a unique threat because the majority of the debris fragments are too small to be tracked from the ground. The United States Human Spaceflight Program is currently implementing a risk mitigation strategy that includes modeling breakup events, establishing action thresholds, and prescribing corresponding mitigation actions in response to satellite breakups.

  11. [Advertising and Zeitgeist. The advertising of Schwabe Pharmaceuticals].

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Cornelia; Riha, Ortrun

    2015-01-01

    This contribution explores the advertisements for homeopathic products in magazines in the first half of the twentieth century, focusing on the period between 1933 and 1945 and based on the example of the pharmaceutical company Dr Willmar Schwabe. In the first half of the twentieth century, Schwabe Pharmaceuticals was market leader for homeopathic and other complementary medical products (phytotherapy, biochemicals). The example chosen as well as the time frame complement the existing research. We searched three German publications (the homeopathy journal Leipziger Populäre Zeitschrift für Homöopathie, the medical weekly Münchner Medizinische Wochenschrift and the pharma magazine Pharmazeutische Zeitung) and collected target-group-specific results for laypersons, physicians and pharmacists. Analysis of the images and texts in the selected advertisements often reflected the historical background and the respective health policies (wartime requirements, times of need, "Neue Deutsche Heilkunde"). The history of this traditional company was seen as an important point in advertising, as were the recognisability of the brand through the company logo, the emphasis on the high quality of their products and the reference to the company's own research activities. We furthermore found the kind of argumentation that is typical of natural medicine (naturalness, the power of the sun, prominent representatives). Schwabe met the expectations of its clients, who were interested in complementary medicine, whilst pursuing an approach to homeopathy that was compatible with natural science, and it presented itself as a modern, scientifically oriented enterprise. The company did not lose credibility as a result, but increased its clientele by expanding to include the whole naturopathic market. PMID:26137649

  12. 47 CFR 73.4055 - Cigarette advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cigarette advertising. 73.4055 Section 73.4055 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4055 Cigarette advertising. See 15 U.S.C. 1335....

  13. 47 CFR 73.4055 - Cigarette advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cigarette advertising. 73.4055 Section 73.4055 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4055 Cigarette advertising. See 15 U.S.C. 1335....

  14. 47 CFR 73.4055 - Cigarette advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cigarette advertising. 73.4055 Section 73.4055 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4055 Cigarette advertising. See 15 U.S.C. 1335....

  15. 47 CFR 73.4055 - Cigarette advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cigarette advertising. 73.4055 Section 73.4055 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4055 Cigarette advertising. See 15 U.S.C. 1335....

  16. 47 CFR 73.4055 - Cigarette advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cigarette advertising. 73.4055 Section 73.4055 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4055 Cigarette advertising. See 15 U.S.C. 1335....

  17. Young Adolescents, Tobacco Advertising, and Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santana, Yolanda; Gonzalez, Beatriz; Pinilla, Jaime; Calvo, Jose Ramon; Barber, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Background: In adolescents aged 12-14, we measured attitudes to tobacco advertising. Our purpose is to understand the relation of these attitudes to tobacco use and identify the groups most influenced by the advertising. Methods: Survey of adolescents on Gran Canaria Island, Spain, about aspects of family, school, peers, tobacco consumption, and…

  18. 16 CFR 259.2 - Advertising disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... advertised. Fuel economy estimates assigned to “unique nameplates” (see 40 CFR 600.207-86(a)(2)) apply only... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDE CONCERNING FUEL ECONOMY... express or implied representation in advertising concerning the fuel economy of any new automobile...

  19. Advertising as a Site of Language Contact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piller, Ingrid

    2003-01-01

    Reviews work on language contact phenomena in advertising. More emphasis is being placed on multilingual discourses in advertising and the ways in which these index identities, both of the products and services with which multiple cods are associated and of the consumers who peruse them. Also examines the various functions of different contact…

  20. Advertising Agencies: An Analysis of Industry Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sandra J.

    Noting that advertising agencies have not been examined as a collective industry, this paper looks at the development and structure of the advertising agency industry. The first portion of the paper discusses the development of the agency. The remaining two sections deal with trends in and the structure of the industry including: (1) the growth of…

  1. Commercial Speech Protection and Alcoholic Beverage Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Sue

    An examination of the laws governing commercial speech protection and alcoholic beverage advertisements, this document details the legal precedents for and implications of banning such advertising. An introduction looks at the current amount of alcohol consumed in the United States and the recent campaigns to have alcoholic beverage ads banned.…

  2. 27 CFR 6.52 - Cooperative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cooperative advertising. 6.52 Section 6.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service § 6.52...

  3. 27 CFR 6.98 - Advertising service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Advertising service. 6.98 Section 6.98 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.98 Advertising service. The listing of the names and addresses of two or more...

  4. 27 CFR 6.98 - Advertising service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Advertising service. 6.98 Section 6.98 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.98 Advertising service. The listing of the names and addresses of two or more...

  5. 27 CFR 6.98 - Advertising service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Advertising service. 6.98 Section 6.98 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.98 Advertising service. The listing of the names and addresses of two or more...

  6. 27 CFR 6.98 - Advertising service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Advertising service. 6.98 Section 6.98 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.98 Advertising service. The listing of the names and addresses of two or more...

  7. 27 CFR 6.52 - Cooperative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cooperative advertising. 6.52 Section 6.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service § 6.52...

  8. 27 CFR 6.52 - Cooperative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cooperative advertising. 6.52 Section 6.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service § 6.52...

  9. Merging Advertising and PR: Integrated Marketing Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Patricia B.; Miller, Debra A.

    1994-01-01

    Identifies and compares the perceived educational needs of advertising and public relations practitioners. Explores differences between practitioners in small versus large markets, and assesses practitioners' beliefs about integrated marketing communications (the merger of advertising and public relations under a single organizational unit). (SR)

  10. Energy efficiency public service advertising campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson-Grant, Amanda

    2015-06-12

    The Advertising Council (“the Ad Council”) and The United States Department of Energy (DOE) created and launched a national public service advertising campaign designed to promote energy efficiency. The objective of the Energy Efficiency campaign was to redefine how consumers approach energy efficiency by showing that saving energy can save homeowners money.

  11. Culture Writ Electronic: Themes in Television Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Michael R.

    A content analysis was made of the advertisements broadcast during a half-hour of prime-time television, in an effort to discern the overt (obvious) and covert (underlying) themes present in television advertising. The analysis revealed an overt theme of a world view of individual determination, initiative, self-confidence and self-reliance, and…

  12. [Archeology of the radio pharmaceutical advertisement].

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Thierry

    2002-01-01

    After Second World War, a debate sets in France the partisans and the detractors of the radio advertisement, in particular pharmaceutical advertisement. In this article, the author revises campaigns led, during the thirties, by Robert Desnos for Armand Salacrou. PMID:12731488

  13. 10 CFR 1042.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 1042.540 Section 1042.540 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1042.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any...

  14. 48 CFR 503.570 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising. 503.570 Section 503.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Other Improper Business Practices 503.570 Advertising....

  15. 23 CFR 710.311 - Construction advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to project acquisitions as required by 23 CFR 635.309. For non-Interstate projects, the oversight... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Construction advertising. 710.311 Section 710.311...-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Project Development § 710.311 Construction advertising. The State must manage...

  16. 50 CFR 27.96 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising. 27.96 Section 27.96 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.96 Advertising. Except...

  17. 7 CFR 550.30 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 550.30 Section 550.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Program Management § 550.30 Advertising. The Cooperator will not refer in any manner to the USDA...

  18. 27 CFR 6.98 - Advertising service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising service. 6.98 Section 6.98 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.98 Advertising service. The listing of the...

  19. 49 CFR 25.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising. 25.540 Section 25.540 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 25.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any...

  20. 12 CFR 741.211 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 741.211 Section 741.211 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR... Also Apply to Federally Insured State-Chartered Credit Unions § 741.211 Advertising. Any credit...

  1. 20 CFR 655.151 - Newspaper advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... advertisements. (a) The employer must place an advertisement (in a language other than English, where the CO... as provided in paragraph (b) of this section), in a newspaper of general circulation serving the area... the job opportunity is located in a rural area that does not have a newspaper with a Sunday...

  2. [Children's Television Advertising Excesses and Abuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Robert B.

    This testimony presents evidence of children's television advertising excesses and abuses. The testimony points out that the average TV-watching child sees more than 22,000 commercials a year, and that on the programs most popular with children large numbers of over-the-counter drugs and hazardous products are advertised. The history of private…

  3. 20 CFR 655.1303 - Advertising requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Advertising requirements. 655.1303 Section 655.1303 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY... State in which the advertisement is run; (b) The geographic area(s) of employment with...

  4. 20 CFR 655.1303 - Advertising requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Advertising requirements. 655.1303 Section 655.1303 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY... State in which the advertisement is run; (b) The geographic area(s) of employment with...

  5. 20 CFR 655.152 - Advertising requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Advertising requirements. 655.152 Section 655.152 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY... can be obtained from the SWA of the State in which the advertisement is run; (b) The geographic...

  6. 20 CFR 655.152 - Advertising requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Advertising requirements. 655.152 Section 655.152 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY... can be obtained from the SWA of the State in which the advertisement is run; (b) The geographic...

  7. Job Satisfaction among Women in Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokrywczynski, James V.; Crowley, John H.

    A study examined job satisfaction among women in advertising. Subjects were 48 female respondents from a mail survey of membership of a Midwest advertising club. Two types of job satisfaction measures were used: items from the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire and the action tendency scales developed by E. Locke. The results showed a high level…

  8. Portrayals of Latinos in Magazine Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Charles R.; Bang, Hae-Kyong

    1997-01-01

    Offers a content analysis of U.S. magazine advertisements aimed at general audiences, finding that Latinos are highly underrepresented in magazine advertising. Shows that, although Latinos represent 10.5% of the U.S. population, they were present in just 4.7% of ads, and only 2.2% contained a Latino model in major role. (SR)

  9. It Pays to Advertise...Truthfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Louis W.

    1975-01-01

    Many colleges are using commercial advertising techniques as an aid to recruitment. Federal Trade Commission safeguards against false or misleading advertising currently apply to proprietary schools, and may soon be applied to private non-profit and public schools as well. Administrators should apprise themselves of FTC standards. (NHM)

  10. 12 CFR 226.16 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... that is a finance charge under § 226.4 that could be imposed. (ii) Any periodic rate that may be... variable periodic rate, that fact shall be disclosed. (iii) Any membership or participation fee that could... in the advertisement states a periodic payment amount, the advertisement shall also state the...

  11. 12 CFR 1026.16 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., activity or similar charge that is a finance charge under § 1026.4 that could be imposed. (ii) Any periodic... the plan provides for a variable periodic rate, that fact shall be disclosed. (iii) Any membership or... services specified in the advertisement states a periodic payment amount, the advertisement shall...

  12. 12 CFR 1030.8 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to obtain the advertised annual percentage yield. (5) Effect of fees. A statement that fees could... advertisements—(1) Certain media. If an advertisement is made through one of the following media, it need not... this section: (i) Broadcast or electronic media, such as television or radio; (ii) Outdoor media,...

  13. Some Communication Effects of Charity Advertising Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Roy L.; And Others

    A study was conducted to examine the relationship of advertising exposure to a variety of cognitive and affective variables in a nonprofit charity campaign. The study also tested the transactional model of advertising effects, which combines exposure, motivations, and gratifications for viewing. A sample of 350 adults was randomly selected and…

  14. 12 CFR 741.211 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising. 741.211 Section 741.211 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR... Also Apply to Federally Insured State-Chartered Credit Unions § 741.211 Advertising. Any credit...

  15. 48 CFR 503.570 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Advertising. 503.570 Section 503.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Other Improper Business Practices 503.570 Advertising....

  16. 50 CFR 27.96 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Advertising. 27.96 Section 27.96 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.96 Advertising. Except...

  17. 22 CFR 146.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Advertising. 146.540 Section 146.540 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any...

  18. 7 CFR 550.30 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising. 550.30 Section 550.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Program Management § 550.30 Advertising. The Cooperator will not refer in any manner to the USDA...

  19. 10 CFR 1042.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising. 1042.540 Section 1042.540 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1042.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any...

  20. 49 CFR 25.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Advertising. 25.540 Section 25.540 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 25.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any...

  1. 38 CFR 21.4507 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advertising. 21.4507 Section 21.4507 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Education Loans § 21.4507 Advertising. (a) General. No...

  2. 36 CFR 327.17 - Advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Advertisement. 327.17 Section... all other rules and regulations pertaining to vessels and vehicles. (d) The District Commander shall... present danger to the public health and safety; or (3) The number of persons engaged in the advertising...

  3. 36 CFR 223.63 - Advertised rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.63 Advertised rates. Timber shall be advertised for sale at... estimated cost of constructing all permanent roads specified in the timber sale contract, estimated as...

  4. 36 CFR 223.63 - Advertised rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.63 Advertised rates. Timber shall be advertised for sale at its appraised value. The road construction cost used to... the timber sale contract, estimated as if construction is to be accomplished by the timber...

  5. The Digital Medium Meets the Advertising Message.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisenholtz, Martin

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the likelihood that companies will use online services as an advertising medium. Topics addressed include the art of interactive marketing; advertising in the digital age; early experiments with interactive marketing, including the use of videotex and videodisc; and recent trends that set the stage for interactive marketing to personal…

  6. Practical and Constitutional Implications of Legal Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Dirk C.

    Recent Supreme Court decisions have fundamentally altered the attorney's right to advertise. This potentially revolutionary revision in prescribed professional communications has paradoxically had ambiguous results. Despite the freedom to advertise, most attorneys forego this opportunity to maximize profits, expand clientele, or merely enhance…

  7. Media Selection for Public TV Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallstead, William F.

    Since limited funds restrict advertising by Public Broadcasting System (PBS) stations, and since PBS serves a variety of audiences, the selection of appropriate advertising media for PBS programs is difficult. It is further complicated by conflicting research reports on the public use of the daily papers. Availability to the target audience should…

  8. The Future of Children's Media: Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, 2007

    2007-01-01

    American companies currently spend $15 billion a year on marketing and advertising to children under the age of 12. Annually, children influence $500 billion in spending on fast food, junk food, toys and other advertised products, and the average child sees thousands of ads on television alone. From video games and the Internet to cell phones and…

  9. Regulating Children's Television Advertising: Reassessing Parental Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Leonard N.

    In response to public concern over the effects of television commercials on children, the Federal Trade Commission formulated regulatory proposals that would ban certain advertising from children's television and regulate advertising intended for the eight year old to the eleven year old age group. However, in the light of two recent research…

  10. 47 CFR 32.6613 - Product advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Product advertising. 32.6613 Section 32.6613 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6613 Product advertising. This account shall include...

  11. Language, Cognition, and Manipulation in Advertising Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egorova, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    This research examines advertising discourse in Russian and English as acts of communicative exchange and interpersonal relationship between advertising discourse participants. The purpose was to identify and describe the way that viewers process information contained in television commercials and how they become consumers moving from getting…

  12. Perception of Women in Magazine Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Susan R.; Rossi, Joseph S.

    Advertising research has indicated that a high degree of sexism toward women occurs in magazine and television advertising. However, the design of such marketing studies is different from the designs typically used in most psychological research. An experimental approach was used for a study in which 137 college students rated 10 control and 10…

  13. Message Effects of Public Service Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Jerry R.

    Public service advertisements, disseminated via the mass media, have been credited with "positive attitudinal effects" in past research, but only certain kinds of such advertisements are really effective. Of the types of appeals used in television commercials--informative, emotional, "establishment" (or status quo), and fear--the establishment…

  14. 23 CFR 710.311 - Construction advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... to project acquisitions as required by 23 CFR 635.309. For non-Interstate projects, the oversight... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Construction advertising. 710.311 Section 710.311...-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Project Development § 710.311 Construction advertising. The State must manage...

  15. 23 CFR 710.311 - Construction advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to project acquisitions as required by 23 CFR 635.309. For non-Interstate projects, the oversight... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Construction advertising. 710.311 Section 710.311...-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Project Development § 710.311 Construction advertising. The State must manage...

  16. Financing recreational mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Hennagir, T.

    1995-07-01

    Recreational resource area mitigation remains an important operational requirement for hydropower project owners, especially in the western United States. Increasingly, producers of electric capacity must accommodate a rapidly growing demand for public recreation, providing opportunities in accordance with Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) relicensing requirements.

  17. The connection between radio loudness and central surface brightness profiles in optically selected low-luminosity active galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richings, A. J.; Uttley, P.; Körding, E.

    2011-08-01

    Recent results indicate a correlation between nuclear radio loudness of active galaxies and their central stellar surface-brightness profiles, in that 'core' galaxies (with inner logarithmic slope γ≤ 0.3) are significantly more radio loud than 'power-law' galaxies (γ≥ 0.5). This connection, which indicates possible links between radio loudness and galaxy formation history (e.g. through black hole spin), has so far only been confirmed for a radio-selected sample of galaxies. Furthermore, it has since been shown that the Nuker law, which was used to parametrize the brightness profiles in these studies, gives a poor description of the brightness profile, with its parameters varying systematically with the radial fitted extent of the profile. Here, we present an analysis of the central surface brightness profiles of the active galaxies of Hubble type T≤ 3, that were identified by the optically selected Palomar spectroscopic survey of nearby galaxies. We fit the brightness profiles using Sérsic, Core-Sérsic and, where necessary, Double-Sérsic models, which we fit to the semimajor axis brightness profiles extracted from high-resolution images of the galaxies from the Hubble Space Telescope. We use these fits to classify the galaxies as 'Core', 'Sérsic' or 'Double-Sérsic'. We compare the properties of the active galactic nuclei (AGN) and their host galaxies with this classification, and we recover the already established trend for Core galaxies to be more luminous and contain a higher mass supermassive black hole. Defining the radio loudness of an AGN as the ratio of the nuclear radio luminosity to [O III] line luminosity, which allows us to include most of the AGN in our sample and prevents a bias against dim nuclei that are harder to extract from the brightness profiles, we find that AGN hosted in Core galaxies are generally more radio loud than those hosted in Sérsic galaxies, although there is a large overlap between the two subsamples. The correlation

  18. Pharmaceutical advertising and Medicare Part D.

    PubMed

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Sood, Neeraj; Gu, Qian

    2013-12-01

    We explore how and to what extent prescription drug insurance expansions affect incentives for pharmaceutical advertising. When insurance expansions make markets more profitable, firms respond by boosting advertising. Theory suggests this effect will be magnified in the least competitive drug classes, where firms internalize a larger share of the benefits from advertising. Empirically, we find that the implementation of Part D coincides with a 14-19% increase in total advertising expenditures. This effect is indeed concentrated in the least competitive drug classes. The additional advertising raised utilization among non-elderly patients outside the Part D program by about 3.6%. This is roughly half of the direct utilization effect of Part D on elderly beneficiaries. The results suggest the presence of considerable spillover effects from publicly subsidized prescription drug insurance on the utilization and welfare of consumers outside the program. PMID:24308884

  19. Pharmaceutical advertising and Medicare Part D.

    PubMed

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Sood, Neeraj; Gu, Qian

    2013-12-01

    We explore how and to what extent prescription drug insurance expansions affect incentives for pharmaceutical advertising. When insurance expansions make markets more profitable, firms respond by boosting advertising. Theory suggests this effect will be magnified in the least competitive drug classes, where firms internalize a larger share of the benefits from advertising. Empirically, we find that the implementation of Part D coincides with a 14-19% increase in total advertising expenditures. This effect is indeed concentrated in the least competitive drug classes. The additional advertising raised utilization among non-elderly patients outside the Part D program by about 3.6%. This is roughly half of the direct utilization effect of Part D on elderly beneficiaries. The results suggest the presence of considerable spillover effects from publicly subsidized prescription drug insurance on the utilization and welfare of consumers outside the program.

  20. Direct-to-Consumer Advertising of Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Gellad, Ziad F.; Lyles, Kenneth W.

    2014-01-01

    Since the FDA released new guidelines on broadcast direct-to-consumer advertising in 1997, the prevalence of direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs has increased exponentially. The impact on providers, patients and the health care system is varied and dynamic, and the rapid changes in the last several years have markedly altered the health care landscape. To continue providing optimal medical care, physicians and other health-care providers must be able to manage this influence on their practice, and a more thorough understanding of this phenomenon is an integral step toward this goal. This review will summarize the history of direct-to-consumer drug advertisements and the current regulations governing them. It will summarize the evidence concerning the impact of direct-to-consumer advertising on the public, providers and the health care system and conclude with observations regarding the future of direct-to-consumer advertising. PMID:17524744

  1. Ethics in medical information and advertising.

    PubMed

    Serour, G I; Dickens, B M

    2004-05-01

    This article presents findings and recommendations of an international conference held in Cairo, Egypt in 2003 concerning issues of ethical practice in how information is provided to and by medical practitioners. Professional advertising to practitioners and the public is necessary, but should exclude misrepresentation of qualifications, resources, and authorship of research papers. Medical institutions are responsible for how staff members present themselves, and their institutions. Medical associations, both governmental licensing authorities and voluntary societies, have powers and responsibilities to monitor professional advertisement to defend the public interest against deception. Medical journals bear duties to ensure authenticity of authorship and integrity in published papers, and the scientific basis of commercial advertisers' claims. A mounting concern is authors' conflict of interest. Mass newsmedia must ensure accuracy and proportionality in reporting scientific developments, and product manufacturers must observe truth in advertising, particularly in Direct-to-Consumer advertising. Consumer protection by government agencies is a continuing responsibility. PMID:15099793

  2. Pharmaceutical Advertising and Medicare Part D

    PubMed Central

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Sood, Neeraj; Gu, Qian

    2013-01-01

    We explore how and to what extent prescription drug insurance expansions affects incentives for pharmaceutical advertising. When insurance expansions make markets more profitable, firms respond by boosting advertising. Theory suggests this effect will be magnified in the least competitive drug classes, where firms internalize a larger share of the benefits from advertising. Empirically, we find that the implementation of Part D coincides with a 14% to 19% increase in total advertising expenditures. This effect is indeed concentrated in the least competitive drug classes. The additional advertising raised utilization among non-elderly patients outside the Part D program by about 3.6%. This is roughly half of the direct utilization effect of Part D on elderly beneficiaries. The results suggest the presence of considerable spillover effects from publicly subsidized prescription drug insurance on the utilization and welfare of consumers outside the program. PMID:24308884

  3. Continuum reverberation mapping in a z = 1.41 radio-loud quasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goicoechea, L. J.; Shalyapin, V. N.; Gil-Merino, R.; Braga, V. F.

    2012-07-01

    Q0957+561 was the first discovered gravitationally lensed quasar. The mirage shows two images of a radio-loud quasar at redshift z = 1.41. The time lag between these two images is well established around one year. We detected a very prominent variation in the optical brightness of Q0957+561A at the beginning of 2009, which allowed us to predict the presence of significant intrinsic variations in multi-wavelength light curves of Q0957+561B over the first semester of 2010. To study the predicted brightness fluctuations of Q0957+561B, we conducted an X-ray, NUV, optical and NIR monitoring campaign using both ground-based and space-based facilities. The continuum NUV-optical light curves revealed evidence of a centrally irradiated, standard accretion disk. In this paper, we focus on the radial structure of the standard accretion disk and the nature of the central irradiating source in the distant radio-loud active galactic nucleus (AGN).

  4. Schlieren imaging of loud sounds and weak shock waves in air near the limit of visibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargather, Michael John; Settles, Gary S.; Madalis, Matthew J.

    2010-02-01

    A large schlieren system with exceptional sensitivity and a high-speed digital camera are used to visualize loud sounds and a variety of common phenomena that produce weak shock waves in the atmosphere. Frame rates varied from 10,000 to 30,000 frames/s with microsecond frame exposures. Sound waves become visible to this instrumentation at frequencies above 10 kHz and sound pressure levels in the 110 dB (6.3 Pa) range and above. The density gradient produced by a weak shock wave is examined and found to depend upon the profile and thickness of the shock as well as the density difference across it. Schlieren visualizations of weak shock waves from common phenomena include loud trumpet notes, various impact phenomena that compress a bubble of air, bursting a toy balloon, popping a champagne cork, snapping a wooden stick, and snapping a wet towel. The balloon burst, snapping a ruler on a table, and snapping the towel and a leather belt all produced readily visible shock-wave phenomena. In contrast, clapping the hands, snapping the stick, and the champagne cork all produced wave trains that were near the weak limit of visibility. Overall, with sensitive optics and a modern high-speed camera, many nonlinear acoustic phenomena in the air can be observed and studied.

  5. Evaluating signal-to-noise ratios, loudness, and related measures as indicators of airborne sound insulation.

    PubMed

    Park, H K; Bradley, J S

    2009-09-01

    Subjective ratings of the audibility, annoyance, and loudness of music and speech sounds transmitted through 20 different simulated walls were used to identify better single number ratings of airborne sound insulation. The first part of this research considered standard measures such as the sound transmission class the weighted sound reduction index (R(w)) and variations of these measures [H. K. Park and J. S. Bradley, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 126, 208-219 (2009)]. This paper considers a number of other measures including signal-to-noise ratios related to the intelligibility of speech and measures related to the loudness of sounds. An exploration of the importance of the included frequencies showed that the optimum ranges of included frequencies were different for speech and music sounds. Measures related to speech intelligibility were useful indicators of responses to speech sounds but were not as successful for music sounds. A-weighted level differences, signal-to-noise ratios and an A-weighted sound transmission loss measure were good predictors of responses when the included frequencies were optimized for each type of sound. The addition of new spectrum adaptation terms to R(w) values were found to be the most practical approach for achieving more accurate predictions of subjective ratings of transmitted speech and music sounds. PMID:19739735

  6. Loudness changes resulting from an electrically induced middle-ear reflex.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunn, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in order to determine the changes in loudness brought about by electro-cutaneous elicitation of the middle-ear reflex. Subjects were required to judge the relative loudness of the second of three consecutive 30-msec bursts of tone, the second tone being accompanied by an electrical shock to the external auditory meatus, capable of eliciting a contraction of the middle-ear muscles. The difference between these judgments and those of the control condition (shock on the arm) was taken to represent a measure of the attenuation provided by contraction of the middle-ear muscles. Test tones were 500, 1000, 2000, and 3000 Hz at levels of 65, 75, 85, 95, and 105 dB. The results indicate that the middle-ear reflex decreases the middle-ear's transmission mainly for low-frequency sounds. The results fail to lend support to the Loeb-Riopelle hypothesis that the middle-ear reflex acts as a limiter, rather than a linear attenuator.

  7. Use of loud phonation as a voice therapy technique for children with vocal nodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Noriko; Hirose, Hajime; Nishiyama, Koichiro

    2003-10-01

    For the treatment of vocal nodules, educational programs for vocal hygiene and voice training for acquisition of correct phonation are essential. In the case of children, special considerations are necessary as some of their vocal behaviors and reaction to voice disorders are different from those of adults. In this study, a voice therapy program for child vocal nodules were developed and good results were obtained for six children. They were four boys and two girls (Age: 4-11 yr) and bilateral nodules were found for all of them. In addition to a conventional vocal hygiene program for children, correct production of loud voice (so-called gBeltingh) was the major focus of the voice therapy as the visual inspection of the larynges and perceptual evaluations of the voice revealed inappropriate loud voice production with laryngeal constriction in all children. After 5-24 voice therapy sessions, disappearance of the nodules was found in five children and the reduction of the nodule sizes was found in one child. Improvement of the GRBAS scores, longer maximum phonation time, and extension of vocal ranges were found after the completion of the therapy programs.

  8. Stability of individual loudness functions obtained by magnitude estimation and production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellman, R. P.

    1981-01-01

    A correlational analysis of individual magnitude estimation and production exponents at the same frequency is performed, as is an analysis of individual exponents produced in different sessions by the same procedure across frequency (250, 1000, and 3000 Hz). Taken as a whole, the results show that individual exponent differences do not decrease by counterbalancing magnitude estimation with magnitude production and that individual exponent differences remain stable over time despite changes in stimulus frequency. Further results show that although individual magnitude estimation and production exponents do not necessarily obey the .6 power law, it is possible to predict the slope of an equal-sensation function averaged for a group of listeners from individual magnitude estimation and production data. On the assumption that individual listeners with sensorineural hearing also produce stable and reliable magnitude functions, it is also shown that the slope of the loudness-recruitment function measured by magnitude estimation and production can be predicted for individuals with bilateral losses of long duration. Results obtained in normal and pathological ears thus suggest that individual listeners can produce loudness judgements that reveal, although indirectly, the input-output characteristic of the auditory system.

  9. The Far-Infrared Emission of Radio Loud and Radio Quiet Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polletta, M.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Wilkes, B. J.; Hooper, E. J.

    2000-01-01

    Continuum observations at radio, millimeter, infrared and soft X-ray energies are presented for a sample of 22 quasars, consisting of flat and steep spectrum radio loud, radio intermediate and radio quiet objects. The primary observational distinctions, among the different kinds of quasars in the radio and IR energy domains are studied using large observational datasets provided by ISOPHOT on board the Infrared Space Observatory, by the IRAM interferometer, by the sub-millimetre array SCUBA on JCMT, and by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) facilities IRAC1 on the 2.2 m telescope and SEST. The spectral energy distributions of all quasars from radio to IR energies are analyzed and modeled with non-thermal and thermal spectral components. The dominant mechanism emitting in the far/mid-IR is thermal dust emission in all quasars, with the exception of flat spectrum radio loud quasars for which the presence of thermal IR emission remains rather uncertain, since it is difficult to separate it from the bright non-thermal component. The dust is predominantly heated by the optical/ultraviolet radiation emitted from the external components of the AGN. A starburst contributes to the IR emission at different levels, but always less than the AGN (<= 27%). The distribution of temperatures, sizes, masses, and luminosities of the emitting dust are independent of the quasar type.

  10. Do drug advertisements provide therapeutic information?

    PubMed

    Stimson, G V

    1977-03-01

    In this study of advertisements appearing in medical periodicals and by direct mail advertising to general practitioners, Dr. Stimson, a sociologist, concludes that from what is intended to provide therapeutic information hardly any therapeutic information is provided. He reminds the reader of the safeguards which surround all drug advertising by law and by the code of practice of the Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry but these safeguards do not appear to control real or potential sins of omission. Frequently in these advertisements the literature relating to the drug is quoted but Dr. Stimson found that it was difficult to trace all the papers quoted in different types of medical library. (Some references quoted were to unpublished papers but surely the blame should be shared in this situation?) Dr. Stimson also gives a vivid and fascinating glimpse of what he calls the 'images and stereotypes' of the patients who, it is claimed, would benefit from the drug being advertised. Certainly most general practitioners must be aware that when they prescribe that image is displaced by an individual but the portrait gallery is indeed depressing. However, to balance these advertisements drug companies issue data sheets which must be more informative than advertisements and conform to regulations in their format. Unfortunately data sheets are only issued every 15 months whereas the 'average general practitioner is potentially exposed to 1,300 advertisements every month'. In other words, the data sheet and not the advertisement should be the guideline but it arrives too infrequently to offset the lack of therapeutic information contained in advertisements. PMID:870694

  11. DISCLOSING THE RADIO LOUDNESS DISTRIBUTION DICHOTOMY IN QUASARS: AN UNBIASED MONTE CARLO APPROACH APPLIED TO THE SDSS-FIRST QUASAR SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Balokovic, M.; Smolcic, V.; Ivezic, Z.; Zamorani, G.; Schinnerer, E.; Kelly, B. C.

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the dichotomy in the radio loudness distribution of quasars by modeling their radio emission and various selection effects using a Monte Carlo approach. The existence of two physically distinct quasar populations, the radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, is controversial and over the last decade a bimodal distribution of radio loudness of quasars has been both affirmed and disputed. We model the quasar radio luminosity distribution with simple unimodal and bimodal distribution functions. The resulting simulated samples are compared to a fiducial sample of 8300 quasars drawn from the SDSS DR7 Quasar Catalog and combined with radio observations from the FIRST survey. Our results indicate that the SDSS-FIRST sample is best described by a radio loudness distribution which consists of two components, with (12 {+-} 1)% of sources in the radio-loud component. On the other hand, the evidence for a local minimum in the loudness distribution (bimodality) is not strong and we find that previous claims for its existence were probably affected by the incompleteness of the FIRST survey close to its faint limit. We also investigate the redshift and luminosity dependence of the radio loudness distribution and find tentative evidence that at high redshift radio-loud quasars were rarer, on average louder, and exhibited a smaller range in radio loudness. In agreement with other recent work, we conclude that the SDSS-FIRST sample strongly suggests that the radio loudness distribution of quasars is not a universal function, and that more complex models than presented here are needed to fully explain available observations.

  12. Disclosing the Radio Loudness Distribution Dichotomy in Quasars: An Unbiased Monte Carlo Approach Applied to the SDSS-FIRST Quasar Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baloković, M.; Smolčić, V.; Ivezić, Ž.; Zamorani, G.; Schinnerer, E.; Kelly, B. C.

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the dichotomy in the radio loudness distribution of quasars by modeling their radio emission and various selection effects using a Monte Carlo approach. The existence of two physically distinct quasar populations, the radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, is controversial and over the last decade a bimodal distribution of radio loudness of quasars has been both affirmed and disputed. We model the quasar radio luminosity distribution with simple unimodal and bimodal distribution functions. The resulting simulated samples are compared to a fiducial sample of 8300 quasars drawn from the SDSS DR7 Quasar Catalog and combined with radio observations from the FIRST survey. Our results indicate that the SDSS-FIRST sample is best described by a radio loudness distribution which consists of two components, with (12 ± 1)% of sources in the radio-loud component. On the other hand, the evidence for a local minimum in the loudness distribution (bimodality) is not strong and we find that previous claims for its existence were probably affected by the incompleteness of the FIRST survey close to its faint limit. We also investigate the redshift and luminosity dependence of the radio loudness distribution and find tentative evidence that at high redshift radio-loud quasars were rarer, on average louder, and exhibited a smaller range in radio loudness. In agreement with other recent work, we conclude that the SDSS-FIRST sample strongly suggests that the radio loudness distribution of quasars is not a universal function, and that more complex models than presented here are needed to fully explain available observations.

  13. 48 CFR 5.504 - Use of advertising agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of advertising... ACQUISITION PLANNING PUBLICIZING CONTRACT ACTIONS Paid Advertisements 5.504 Use of advertising agencies. (a) General. Basic ordering agreements may be placed with advertising agencies for assistance in producing...

  14. 47 CFR 76.946 - Advertising of rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising of rates. 76.946 Section 76.946... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.946 Advertising of rates. Cable operators that advertise rates for basic service and cable programming service tiers shall be required to advertise...

  15. 48 CFR 552.203-71 - Restriction on Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restriction on Advertising... Restriction on Advertising. As prescribed in 503.570-2, insert the following clause: Restriction on Advertising (SEP 1999) The Contractor shall not refer to this contract in commercial advertising or...

  16. 12 CFR 740.2 - Accuracy of advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accuracy of advertising. 740.2 Section 740.2... ADVERTISING AND NOTICE OF INSURED STATUS § 740.2 Accuracy of advertising. No insured credit union may use any advertising (which includes print, electronic, or broadcast media, displays and signs, stationery, and...

  17. 12 CFR 740.3 - Advertising of excess insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising of excess insurance. 740.3 Section... ACCURACY OF ADVERTISING AND NOTICE OF INSURED STATUS § 740.3 Advertising of excess insurance. Any advertising that mentions share or savings account insurance provided by a party other than the NCUA...

  18. 47 CFR 76.946 - Advertising of rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Advertising of rates. 76.946 Section 76.946... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.946 Advertising of rates. Cable operators that advertise rates for basic service and cable programming service tiers shall be required to advertise...

  19. 48 CFR 552.203-71 - Restriction on Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restriction on Advertising... Restriction on Advertising. As prescribed in 503.570-2, insert the following clause: Restriction on Advertising (SEP 1999) The Contractor shall not refer to this contract in commercial advertising or...

  20. 48 CFR 5.504 - Use of advertising agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of advertising... ACQUISITION PLANNING PUBLICIZING CONTRACT ACTIONS Paid Advertisements 5.504 Use of advertising agencies. (a) General. Basic ordering agreements may be placed with advertising agencies for assistance in producing...

  1. 12 CFR 740.2 - Accuracy of advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accuracy of advertising. 740.2 Section 740.2 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS ACCURACY OF ADVERTISING AND NOTICE OF INSURED STATUS § 740.2 Accuracy of advertising. No insured credit union may use any advertising (which includes...

  2. Effective Application of Psychological Motivators for Social Advertisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severn, Jessica

    Social advertisers--those responsible for public and nonprofit advertising and marketing--must employ many of the major psychological motivations used by commercial advertisers to stimulate desire and action on the part of target audiences. For example, commercial advertisers create psychological stimuli to facilitate motivation of the fulfillment…

  3. Targeting gender: A content analysis of alcohol advertising in magazines.

    PubMed

    Jung, A-Reum; Hovland, Roxanne

    2016-01-01

    Creating target specific advertising is fundamental to maximizing advertising effectiveness. When crafting an advertisement, message and creative strategies are considered important because they affect target audiences' attitudes toward advertised products. This study endeavored to find advertising strategies that are likely to have special appeal for men or women by examining alcohol advertising in magazines. The results show that the substance of the messages is the same for men and women, but they only differ in terms of presentation. However, regardless of gender group, the most commonly used strategies in alcohol advertising are appeals to the target audience's emotions. PMID:27442880

  4. Targeting gender: A content analysis of alcohol advertising in magazines.

    PubMed

    Jung, A-Reum; Hovland, Roxanne

    2016-01-01

    Creating target specific advertising is fundamental to maximizing advertising effectiveness. When crafting an advertisement, message and creative strategies are considered important because they affect target audiences' attitudes toward advertised products. This study endeavored to find advertising strategies that are likely to have special appeal for men or women by examining alcohol advertising in magazines. The results show that the substance of the messages is the same for men and women, but they only differ in terms of presentation. However, regardless of gender group, the most commonly used strategies in alcohol advertising are appeals to the target audience's emotions.

  5. Forest Mitigation Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcidiacono-Barsony, C.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.; Vuichard, N.; Friedlingstein, P.

    2011-01-01

    Deforestation is a major driver of climate change contributing ~ 12% of global anthropogenic CO2 atmospheric emissions. A climate mitigation mechanism called Reduction Emission from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) has been developed to tackle emissions due to forest loss in developing countries. In light of the final document agreed at the 15th UN Conference of the Parties, REDD will be central in any post- 2012 climate agreement. Nonetheless, REDD's political, economical and scientific challenges should still be addressed. To aid the scientific community, a review of current and future deforestation estimates in terms of forest surface change, carbon density, and carbon flux has been prepared. In addition, current estimates of REDD mitigation potential and a simple case study have also been examined. Preliminary results are presented here.

  6. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davey, Victoria

    The emergence of new, transmissible infections poses a significant threat to human populations. As the 2009 novel influenza A/H1N1 pandemic and the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic demonstrate, we have observed the effects of rapid spread of illness in non-immune populations and experienced disturbing uncertainty about future potential for human suffering and societal disruption. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of a newly emerged infectious organism are usually gathered in retrospect as the outbreak evolves and affects populations. Knowledge of potential effects of outbreaks and epidemics and most importantly, mitigation at community, regional, national and global levels is needed to inform policy that will prepare and protect people. Study of possible outcomes of evolving epidemics and application of mitigation strategies is not possible in observational or experimental research designs, but computational modeling allows conduct of `virtual' experiments. Results of well-designed computer simulations can aid in the selection and implementation of strategies that limit illness and death, and maintain systems of healthcare and other critical resources that are vital to public protection. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks.

  7. Analysis of medicine advertisement produced in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Wzorek, Lorilei de Fátima; Correr, Cassyano J.; Badaró Trindade, Angela C.; Pontarolo, Roberto

    Objective To analyze the compliance of drug advertisements with regulations in Brazil, subject to Resolution RDC No. 102/2000 since 2000, which abides by the WHO’s (World Health Organization) Ethical Criteria for Medicinal Drug Promotion, published in 1988. Methods Drug advertisements running within the period of October 2002 to October 2003 were collected and recorded. Media sources included various AM and FM radio stations, television channels, newspapers, and magazines, as well as printed material distributed in doctors’ offices, hospitals, drugstores, conferences, billboards, and bus doors. All sources were located in Curitiba City, Brazil, and its surrounding area. Advertisement content was analyzed according to a conformity checklist prepared based on the legal requirements of RDC No. 102/00. Results A total of 827 advertisements for 517 different products, 83.91% regularly registered as medicinal drugs and 16.09% unregistered products that should be registered according to the Brazilian regulations, were recorded and collected. Approximately 74.73% of the advertisements did not comply with regulations; on average, such advertisements had 4.6 infractions each. Conclusions The results of this research suggest that RDC No. 102/00 is not followed, which strengthens the need to adopt new forms of regulation to prohibit excesses of the pharmaceutical industry and to protect the population from abusive and misleading drug advertising. PMID:25214926

  8. Children's perceptions of advertisements for cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Aitken, P P; Leathar, D S; O'Hagan, F J

    1985-01-01

    Groups of children aged between 6 and 16 years discussed a series of advertisements, including those for cigarettes. Clear patterns emerged in their recognition of cigarette brand imagery. For example, in response to an advertisement for holidays which also presents the brand imagery of John Player Special cigarettes, 22% of primary school children and 91% of secondary school children said it advertises cigarettes. There were consistent trends in responses to the symbolism portrayed. Younger children were very much tied to what was specifically shown in the advertisements; older ones tended to perceive more complex imagery. For example, whereas 10-year-olds said people who like the advertisement for Kim cigarettes (which has symbols for drinking) would smoke and drink, some 12-year-olds and most 14- and 16-year-olds saw Kim as feminine, sociable, trendy and sporty. It seems that some 12-year-olds and most 14- and 16-year-olds perceive cigarette advertisements much in the way that young adults do; therefore advertising campaigns targeted at older teenagers and young adults are likely to present qualities which younger teenagers find attractive. PMID:4071115

  9. X-RAYS FROM A RADIO-LOUD COMPACT BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASAR 1045+352 AND THE NATURE OF OUTFLOWS IN RADIO-LOUD BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, Magdalena; Katarzynski, Krzysztof; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Janiuk, Agnieszka

    2009-11-10

    We present new results on X-ray properties of radio-loud broad absorption line (BAL) quasars and focus on broadband spectral properties of a high-ionization BAL (HiBAL) compact steep spectrum (CSS) radio-loud quasar 1045+352. This HiBAL quasar has a very complex radio morphology indicating either strong interactions between a radio jet and the surrounding interstellar medium or a possible re-start of the jet activity. We detected 1045+352 quasar in a short 5 ksec Chandra ACIS-S observation. We applied theoretical models to explain spectral energy distribution of 1045+352 and argue that non-thermal, inverse-Compton (IC) emission from the innermost parts of the radio jet can account for a large fraction of the observed X-ray emission. In our analysis, we also consider a scenario in which the observed X-ray emission from radio-loud BAL quasars can be a sum of IC jet X-ray emission and optically thin corona X-ray emission. We compiled a sample of radio-loud BAL quasars that were observed in X-rays to date and report no correlation between their X-ray and radio luminosity. However, the radio-loud BAL quasars show a large range of X-ray luminosities and absorption columns. This is consistent with the results obtained earlier for radio-quiet BAL quasars and may indicate an orientation effect in BAL quasars or more complex dependence between X-ray emission, radio emission, and an orientation based on the radio morphology.

  10. How Loud is Too Loud?

    MedlinePlus

    ... activity. Sponsored by the NIDCD, It's a Noisy Planet. Protect Their Hearing aims to increase awareness among ... Articles Living with Hearing Loss / Anatomy of the Human Ear/Questions to Ask your Hearing Professional / NIH ...

  11. Innovative Technology for the Assisted Delivery of Intensive Voice Treatment (LSVT[R]LOUD) for Parkinson Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Angela E.; Ramig, Lorraine O.; Matos, Carlos E. C.; Petska-Cable, Jill A.; Spielman, Jennifer L.; Pogoda, Janice M.; Gilley, Phillip M.; Sapir, Shimon; Bennett, John K.; McFarland, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a newly developed assistive technology system, Lee Silverman Voice Treatment Companion (LSVT[R] Companion[TM], hereafter referred to as "Companion"), to support the delivery of LSVT[R]LOUD, an efficacious speech intervention for individuals with Parkinson disease (PD). Method: Sixteen…

  12. Individual differences in the biomechanical effect of loudness and tempo on upper-limb movements during repetitive piano keystrokes.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Shinichi; Aoki, Tomoko; Nakahara, Hidehiro; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2012-02-01

    The present study addressed the effect of loudness and tempo on kinematics and muscular activities of the upper extremity during repetitive piano keystrokes. Eighteen pianists with professional music education struck two keys simultaneously and repetitively with a combination of four loudness levels and four tempi. The results demonstrated a significant interaction effect of loudness and tempo on peak angular velocity for the shoulder, elbow, wrist and finger joints, mean muscular activity for the corresponding flexors and extensors, and their co-activation level. The interaction effect indicated greater increases with tempo when eliciting louder tones for all joints and muscles except for the elbow velocity showing a greater decrease with tempo. Multiple-regression analysis and K-means clustering further revealed that 18 pianists were categorized into three clusters with different interaction effects on joint kinematics. These clusters were characterized by either an elbow-velocity decrease and a finger-velocity increase, a finger-velocity decrease with increases in shoulder and wrist velocities, or a large elbow-velocity decrease with a shoulder-velocity increase when increasing both loudness and tempo. Furthermore, the muscular load considerably differed across the clusters. These findings provide information to determine muscles with the greatest potential risk of playing-related disorders based on movement characteristics of individual pianists. PMID:21816497

  13. Effect of Rate Reduction and Increased Loudness on Acoustic Measures of Anticipatory Coarticulation in Multiple Sclerosis and Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Gregory E.

    2005-01-01

    The present study compared patterns of anticipatory coarticulation for utterances produced in habitual, loud, and slow conditions by 17 individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS), 12 individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 15 healthy controls. Coarticulation was inferred from vowel F2 frequencies and consonant first-moment coefficients.…

  14. Vowel Acoustics in Parkinson's Disease and Multiple Sclerosis: Comparison of Clear, Loud, and Slow Speaking Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tjaden, Kris; Lam, Jennifer; Wilding, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The impact of clear speech, increased vocal intensity, and rate reduction on acoustic characteristics of vowels was compared in speakers with Parkinson's disease (PD), speakers with multiple sclerosis (MS), and healthy controls. Method: Speakers read sentences in habitual, clear, loud, and slow conditions. Variations in clarity,…

  15. Homosexual imagery in print advertisements: attended, remembered, but disliked.

    PubMed

    Angelini, James R; Bradley, Samuel D

    2010-01-01

    This study examines whether print advertisements featuring homosexual imagery elicit greater attention and recall while eliciting more negative responses than advertisements featuring heterosexual images. Data indicate that these advertisements were indeed better remembered and required more time to cognitively process, likely because of the advertisement's imagery being inconsistent with existing gender schema. Other responses demonstrated that homosexual imagery negatively impacted opinions about the advertisement itself and the brand featured, and elicited more negative self-reported valence and arousal. PMID:20391007

  16. Physician advertising: some reasons for caution.

    PubMed

    Yarborough, M

    1989-12-01

    Physician advertising is a growing trend which, proponents contend, will bring needed reforms to health care. Among these reforms are better informed patients, reduction in the price of health care, improvement in the quality of care, and reduction in the incidence of malpractice litigation and the cost of malpractice insurance. I argue that physician advertising probably will not accomplish these goals. I also discuss problems with the intent, content, monitoring, and costs of advertising, along with how it may adversely affect the way physicians perceive one another.

  17. Two advertisements for TV drug ads.

    PubMed

    Bodenheimer, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The paper by Joel Weissman and colleagues addresses the increasingly important topic of the effects of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) by pharmaceutical companies. The authors claim that their results should be reassuring to "those concerned about potential adverse health care consequences of DTCA". However, the study and analysis of the data are marred by several flaws that diminish the importance and relevance of the findings, including weakness in design, overgenerous interpretations, and failure to address key questions. Rather than informing the debate, the study amounts to little more than an advertisement for drug advertisements. PMID:14527241

  18. The X-ray nuclei of radio-loud AGN from the 2Jy sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardcastle, Martin

    2009-10-01

    X-ray observations of AGN samples provide crucial information about both the AGN themselves and the material that obscures them. Understanding the properties of the active nuclei of radio-loud AGN is particularly vital given that these objects seem likely to have a key role in models of galaxy formation and evolution. The 2Jy sample of radio galaxies and quasars has uniquely good multiwavelength data, but until recently has been poorly studied in the X-ray. We have recently been awarded time to observe all the low-z 2Jy steep-spectrum sample with Chandra, and here propose short observations of the high-z half of the sample with XMM which will give us a complete picture of the nuclear activity in these objects, and allow a wide range of projects to be carried out.

  19. The X-ray nuclei of radio-loud AGN from the 2Jy sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardcastle, Martin

    2010-10-01

    X-ray observations of AGN samples provide crucial information about both the AGN themselves and the material that obscures them. Understanding the properties of the active nuclei of radio-loud AGN is particularly vital given that these objects seem likely to have a key role in models of galaxy formation and evolution. The 2Jy sample of radio galaxies and quasars has uniquely good multiwavelength data, but until recently has been poorly studied in the X-ray. We have recently been awarded time to observe all the low-z 2Jy steep-spectrum sample with Chandra, and here propose short observations of the high-z half of the sample with XMM which will give us a complete picture of the nuclear activity in these objects, and allow a wide range of projects to be carried out.

  20. Development of nonlinear acoustic propagation analysis tool toward realization of loud noise environment prediction in aeronautics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanamori, Masashi; Takahashi, Takashi; Aoyama, Takashi

    2015-10-01

    Shown in this paper is an introduction of a prediction tool for the propagation of loud noise with the application to the aeronautics in mind. The tool, named SPnoise, is based on HOWARD approach, which can express almost exact multidimensionality of the diffraction effect at the cost of back scattering. This paper argues, in particular, the prediction of the effect of atmospheric turbulence on sonic boom as one of the important issues in aeronautics. Thanks to the simple and efficient modeling of the atmospheric turbulence, SPnoise successfully re-creates the feature of the effect, which often emerges in the region just behind the front and rear shock waves in the sonic boom signature.