Science.gov

Sample records for advertising agency food

  1. Advertising Agencies: An Analysis of Industry Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sandra J.

    Noting that advertising agencies have not been examined as a collective industry, this paper looks at the development and structure of the advertising agency industry. The first portion of the paper discusses the development of the agency. The remaining two sections deal with trends in and the structure of the industry including: (1) the growth of…

  2. Do television food advertisements portray advertised foods in a 'healthy' food context?

    PubMed

    Adams, Jean; Tyrrell, Rachel; White, Martin

    2011-03-01

    Exposure to food promotion influences food preferences and diet. As food advertisements tend to promote 'less healthy' products, food advertising probably plays some role in the 'obesity epidemic'. Amid calls for increased regulation, food manufacturers are beginning to engage in a variety of health-promoting marketing initiatives. Positioning products in the context of a 'healthy', balanced diet in television advertisements is one such initiative. We explored whether the wider food context in which foods are advertised on television are 'healthier' than the advertised foods themselves. All foods shown in food advertisements broadcast during 1 week on one commercial UK channel were identified and classified as 'primary' (i.e. the focus of advertisements) or 'incidental'. The nutritional content of all foods was determined and that of primary and incidental foods were compared. Almost two-thirds of food advertisements did not include any incidental foods. When a wider food context was present, this tended to be 'healthier' than the primary foods that were the focus of food advertisements - particularly in terms of the food groups represented. It is not yet clear what effect this may have on consumers' perceptions and behaviour, and whether or not this practice should be encouraged or discouraged from a public health perspective.

  3. Medicalisation of food advertising. Nutrition and health claims in magazine food advertisements 1990-2008.

    PubMed

    Zwier, Sandra

    2009-08-01

    Food advertising increasingly portrays food as a type of medicine. A content analysis of magazine food advertisements in 1990 through 2008 shows that this was manifested with time more in the (a) nutrition claims and (b) health claims made in food advertisements, as well as the (c) food groups and (d) media genres to which nutrition and health claims in food advertising pertained. This so-called "medicalisation" of food advertising may promote images of the body and mind as malfunctioning unless remedied by the use of--advertised--products.

  4. 76 FR 51308 - Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... CFR Part 424 Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade... impact of the FTC's rule for ``Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices'' (``Unavailability... Store Advertising and Marketing Practices: Statement of Basis and Purpose: The Rule, 36 FR 8777 (May...

  5. 48 CFR 5.504 - Use of advertising agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of advertising... ACQUISITION PLANNING PUBLICIZING CONTRACT ACTIONS Paid Advertisements 5.504 Use of advertising agencies. (a) General. Basic ordering agreements may be placed with advertising agencies for assistance in producing...

  6. 48 CFR 5.504 - Use of advertising agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of advertising... ACQUISITION PLANNING PUBLICIZING CONTRACT ACTIONS Paid Advertisements 5.504 Use of advertising agencies. (a) General. Basic ordering agreements may be placed with advertising agencies for assistance in producing...

  7. 48 CFR 5.504 - Use of advertising agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of advertising... ACQUISITION PLANNING PUBLICIZING CONTRACT ACTIONS Paid Advertisements 5.504 Use of advertising agencies. (a) General. Basic ordering agreements may be placed with advertising agencies for assistance in producing...

  8. Television food advertising to children in Malta.

    PubMed

    Cauchi, Daniel; Reiff, Sascha; Knai, Cecile; Gauci, Charmaine; Spiteri, Joanna

    2015-10-25

    To undertake a cross-sectional survey of the extent and nature of food and beverage advertising to children on Maltese national television stations. Seven national free-to-air channels were recorded for seven consecutive days in March 2014 between 07:00 and 22:00 h. Advertisements were coded according to predefined categories, with a focus on advertisements aired during 'peak' children's viewing times, defined as periods during which more than 25% of children were likely to be watching television on any channel. Food and beverage advertisements were classified as core (healthy), non-core (unhealthy) or miscellaneous foods. Malta. Whole population, with a focus on children. Food and drinks were the most heavily advertised product category (26.9% of all advertisements) across all channels. The proportion of non-core food/drink advertisements was significantly greater during peak compared with non-peak children's viewing times (52 vs 44.6%; p ≤ 0.001). A majority of advertisements aimed at children are for non-core foods, and are typically shown during family-oriented programmes in the late evening rather than being restricted to children's programmes. 'Taste', 'enjoyment' and 'peer status' were the primary persuasive appeals used in adolescent and child-focused advertisements. This first content analysis of television advertising in Malta suggests that there is scope for the implementation of statutory regulation regarding advertising of foods high in fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) during times when children are likely to watch television, rather than during children's programmes only. Ongoing, systematic monitoring is essential for evaluation of the effectiveness of regulations designed to reduce children's exposure to HFSS food advertising on television.

  9. Restriction of television food advertising in South Korea: impact on advertising of food companies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soyoung; Lee, Youngmi; Yoon, Jihyun; Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Hyogyoo

    2013-03-01

    The association between exposure to television (TV) food advertising and children's dietary habits has been well established in previous studies. However, the efficacy of restrictions on TV food advertising in the prevention of childhood obesity remains controversial. The South Korean government has recently enforced a regulation, termed the Special Act on Safety Management of Children's Dietary Life, which restricts TV advertising of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods targeting children. This study aimed to determine the impact of this regulation by examining changes in the TV advertising practices of South Korean food companies since the scheduled enforcement date of January 2010. The total advertising budget, number of advertisement placements and gross rating points (GRPs) for advertisements on EDNP foods aired on the five representative TV channels in South Korea were compared and analyzed for the year before and after January 2010. After January 2010, the total adverting budget, number of advertisement placements and GRPs decreased during regulated hours. Even during non-regulated hours, a significant decline was noticed in the number of advertisement placements and GRPs. The total advertising budget for non-EDNP foods increased, whereas that for EDNP foods decreased at a higher rate in addition to a drop in its percentage share. These results suggest positive changes in TV advertising practices of food companies because of the regulation, thereby lowering children's exposure to TV advertising of EDNP foods and promoting a safer environment that may facilitate child health improvement in South Korea.

  10. 48 CFR 5.504 - Use of advertising agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION PLANNING PUBLICIZING CONTRACT ACTIONS Paid Advertisements 5.504 Use of advertising agencies. (a... placing advertisements when a significant number will be placed in several publications and in national... the media for placement of the advertisement, contacting the media in the interest of the...

  11. 48 CFR 5.504 - Use of advertising agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... media. Services of advertising agencies include, but are not limited to, counseling as to selection of... commission-paying media. The services of advertising agencies in placing advertising with media often can be obtained at no cost to the Government, over and above the space cost, as many media give...

  12. Food advertising on Australian television: the extent of children's exposure.

    PubMed

    Neville, Leonie; Thomas, Margaret; Bauman, Adrian

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the extent and nature of food advertising during Australian children's television (TV) viewing hours and programs, and to determine whether confectionery and fast food restaurant advertisements were more likely to be broadcast during children's programs than during adults' programs on Sydney television stations. One week (390 h) of Australian advertising data broadcast during children's TV viewing hours over 15 television stations were analysed to determine the proportion of food advertisements and, in turn, the proportion of those advertisements promoting foods high in fat and/or sugar. One week (346 h) of confectionery and fast food restaurant advertisements broadcast over three Sydney television stations were analysed to determine whether these types of advertisements were more likely to be advertised during children's programs than adults' programs. Half of all food advertisements promoted foods high in fat and/or sugar. 'Confectionery' and 'fast food restaurants' were the most advertised food categories during children's TV viewing hours. Confectionery advertisements were three times as likely, and fast food restaurant advertisements twice as likely, to be broadcast during children's programs than adults' programs. It can be concluded that foods most advertised during children's viewing hours are not those foods that contribute to a healthy diet for children. Confectionery and fast food restaurant advertising appears to target children. Australian children need protection from the targeted promotion of unhealthy foods on television, but currently little exists.

  13. Priming Effects of Television Food Advertising on Eating Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jennifer L.; Bargh, John A.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Health advocates have focused on the prevalence of advertising for calorie-dense low-nutrient foods as a significant contributor to the obesity epidemic. This research tests the hypothesis that exposure to food advertising during television viewing may also contribute to obesity by triggering automatic snacking of available food. Design In Experiments 1a and 1b, elementary-school-aged children watched a cartoon that contained either food advertising or advertising for other products and received a snack while watching. In Experiment 2, adults watched a television program that included food advertising that promoted snacking and/or fun product benefits, food advertising that promoted nutrition benefits or no food advertising. The adults then tasted and evaluated a range of healthy to unhealthy snack foods in an apparently separate experiment. Main Outcome Measures Amount of snack foods consumed during and after advertising exposure. Results Children consumed 45% more when exposed to food advertising. Adults consumed more of both healthy and unhealthy snack foods following exposure to snack food advertising compared to the other conditions. In both experiments, food advertising increased consumption of products not in the presented advertisements, and these effects were not related to reported hunger or other conscious influences. Conclusion These experiments demonstrate the power of food advertising to prime automatic eating behaviors and thus influence far more than brand preference alone. PMID:19594263

  14. Children's food preferences: effects of weight status, food type, branding and television food advertisements (commercials).

    PubMed

    Halford, Jason C G; Boyland, Emma J; Cooper, Gillian D; Dovey, Terence M; Smith, Cerise J; Williams, Nicola; Lawton, Clare L; Blundell, John E

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To investigate the effects of weight status, food type and exposure to food and non-food advertisements on children's preference for branded and non-branded foods. DESIGN. A within-subjects, counterbalanced design with control (toy advertisement) and experimental (food advertisement) conditions. Subjects. A total of 37 school students (age: 11-13 years; weight status: 24 lean, 10 overweight, 3 obese). Measurements. Advertisement recall list, two food preference measures; the Leeds Food Preference Measure (LFPM), the Adapted Food Preference Measure (AFPM) and a food choice measure; the Leeds Forced-choice Test (LFCT). RESULTS. Normal weight children selected more branded and non-branded food items after exposure to food advertisements than in the control (toy advertisement) condition. Obese and overweight children showed a greater preference for branded foods than normal weight children per se, and also in this group only, there was a significant correlation between food advertisement recall and the total number of food items chosen in the experimental (food advertisement) condition. CONCLUSION. Exposure to food advertisements increased the preference for branded food items in the normal weight children. This suggests that television food advertisement exposure can produce the same 'obesigenic' food preference response found in overweight and obese children in their normal weight counterparts.

  15. A content analysis of food advertising on Turkish television.

    PubMed

    Akçil Ok, Mehtap; Ercan, Aydan; Kaya, Fatih Suleyman

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive content analysis of Television (TV) food advertising and compare various food advertisements on free-to-air Turkish national TV channels by broadcast time (duration) and frequency over the period of a week (19-25 April 2012). TV food advertisements were the unit of content analysis in this study. Each advertisement identified as promoting a food product was analysed for content; non-food advertisements were not analysed, although they were counted as a proportion of the advertisements aired. We recorded all programmes for 4 h each per day (7 p.m.-11 p.m.), totalling 84 h. Five types of food-related advertisements were identified (basic foods, junk foods, meat products, beverages and fast food), and six types of non-food advertisements. The Student t-test and ANOVA were used to compare the mean broadcast time of all prime time advertising for the two groups. The mean broadcast times for prime time, non-food advertisements showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05). This difference is related to the prime time period 7 p.m.-8 p.m. being considered dinner time for most Turkish families. Additionally, the number and broadcast times of beverage advertisements increased during this time period, while the broadcast time per beverage advertisement decreased (ratio = 20.8 s per ads). As a result, TV food advertising increased not only during dinner time but also in overall broadcast time (per advertisement). These findings may be useful for explaining how advertising can negatively influence food choices, thereby increasing public awareness of the need for health messages targeting obesity.

  16. Television Food Advertising to Children: A Global Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Halford, Jason C.G.; Boyland, Emma J.; Chapman, Kathy; Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Berg, Christina; Caroli, Margherita; Cook, Brian; Coutinho, Janine G.; Effertz, Tobias; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Keller, Kathleen; Leung, Raymond; Manios, Yannis; Monteiro, Renata; Pedley, Claire; Prell, Hillevi; Raine, Kim; Recine, Elisabetta; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Singh, Sonia; Summerbell, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We compared television food advertising to children in several countries. Methods. We undertook a collaboration among 13 research groups in Australia, Asia, Western Europe, and North and South America. Each group recorded programming for 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days between 6:00 and 22:00, for the 3 channels most watched by children, between October 2007 and March 2008. We classified food advertisements as core (nutrient dense, low in energy), noncore (high in undesirable nutrients or energy, as defined by dietary standards), or miscellaneous. We also categorized thematic content (promotional characters and premiums). Results. Food advertisements composed 11% to 29% of advertisements. Noncore foods were featured in 53% to 87% of food advertisements, and the rate of noncore food advertising was higher during children's peak viewing times. Most food advertisements containing persuasive marketing were for noncore products. Conclusions. Across all sampled countries, children were exposed to high volumes of television advertising for unhealthy foods, featuring child-oriented persuasive techniques. Because of the proven connections between food advertising, preferences, and consumption, our findings lend support to calls for regulation of food advertising during children's peak viewing times. PMID:20634464

  17. A Necessary Course for the 1990s: The Student-Run Advertising Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marra, James L.

    Current advertising courses and educational practices reflect advertising education's allegiance to the real world, particularly the real world as defined by large advertising agencies. A student-run ad agency provides students with a total learning experience on a small advertising agency scale in line with what they are likely to experience in…

  18. The use of negative themes in television food advertising.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Simone; Roberts, Michele; Chapman, Kathy; Quester, Pascale; Miller, Caroline

    2012-04-01

    The ability of food advertising to trigger food consumption and influence social norms relating to food consumption has resulted in increasing attention being given to the prevalence and nature of food advertising. The present study investigated the use of negative themes in food advertisements aired on Australian television to determine the prevalence of depictions of violence/aggression, mocking, nagging, boredom, loneliness, food craving, mood enhancement, and the emotional use of food across 61 days of programming time. The results suggest that advertisers are using negative themes to capture attention and invoke an emotional response in the target audience. Sixteen percent (14,611) of the 93,284 food advertisements contained negative themes, with mood enhancement and food craving being the most commonly depicted negative themes. Advertisements with negative themes were more likely to be for non-core foods and to be aired during children's popular viewing times than at other times. The potential for negative themes in food advertising to promote unhealthy food consumption behaviors among children is likely to be of concern to policy makers. Building on this exploratory study, further research is needed to investigate how nutrition-related decision making is affected by exposure to food advertisements employing negative emotional themes.

  19. 77 FR 38395 - Agency Information Collection Activities (Advertising, Sales, and Enrollment Materials, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection Activities (Advertising, Sales, and Enrollment Materials, and... ``OMB Control No. 2900-0682.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Advertising, Sales, and Enrollment... advertising, sales materials, enrollment materials, or candidate handbooks that educational institutions...

  20. Content Analysis of Food Advertising in Iranian Children's Television Programs

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Maryam; Omidvar, Nasrin; Yeatman, Heather; Shariat-Jafari, Shadab; Eslami-Amirabadi, Maryam; Zahedirad, Malihe

    2014-01-01

    Background: Advertisements can influence children's health related behaviors. Television advertisements are the main avenues directing commercials at children in Iran. This study aimed to explore the content of food advertisement during children's television programs in 2007-8 and to compare it with those reported in 2000. Methods: All advertisements broadcasted before, during, and after children's programs aired on two major Iran national television networks were videotaped for a period of 4 weeks during 2007-8. For each advertisement, type of product(s) and mode of presentation (s) were coded. Results: A total of 229 television advertisements were broadcasted. Food commercials were the most frequent group (31%) across the two channels. Among the food products advertised, calorie dense foods, including chocolate, soft drinks, extruded cereals, ice cream, cookies and candies were the most frequent. The appeal mainly used in television food advertisements was “stimulation of hunger/thirst” (38.5%). The advertisements were mostly presented as animations (54%) and the messages used were mainly directed to good taste. Conclusion: Although the total number of food advertisements during children's television programs has decreased but the consumption of high fat, high sugar, low nutrient dense foods continues to be promoted. Policies to address the issue should be scrutinized. PMID:25400894

  1. Content of Food Advertising for Young Adolescents on Television

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Setu; Kalra, Swati; Kaushik, Jaya Shankar; Gupta, Piyush

    2017-01-01

    Background: Food related advertisements on television may have a major influence on the dietary habits and obesity among young adolescents. Objective: To evaluate the frequency and typology of food advertisements on most popular television channels, watched by school-going young adolescents in Delhi. Methodology: Biphasic study to (a) identify the three television channels most frequently watched by administering a questionnaire to 400 school going young adolescents; and (b) view each of these channels for 2 hours per day for 6 days each, and observe the content of advertisements related to foods, beverages, and food outlets. Results: Four hundred and three food related advertisements were viewed over 36 hour on Discovery, MTV and Disney Channels. Among 235 food related advertisements 163 (69.3%) pertained to candies, chocolates and confectionary and 35 (14.8%) to salty snacks. Sugar sweetened soft drinks contributed 90 of 106 (85%) of beverage advertisements. Of 62 advertisements related to food outlets, 59 were of fast food joints. Conclusion: Majority of food advertising content on television most commonly watched by young adolescents is related to unhealthy foods and beverages, igh in energy and low in micronutrient content. PMID:28331253

  2. Cultural Penetration in Latin America through Multinational Advertising Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Toro, Wanda

    Few studies have addressed the issue of cultural penetration of Latin American countries by multinational corporations (MNCs) and multinational advertising agencies (MAAs). Whether they are considered multinational or transnational, MAAs have expanded as a form of international communication in the global market, forming the backbone of MNCs.…

  3. How much food advertising is there on Australian television?

    PubMed

    Chapman, Kathy; Nicholas, Penny; Supramaniam, Rajah

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive content analysis of television food advertising and provide data on current levels of food advertising in Australia. All three commercial stations available on free-to-air Australian television were concurrently videotaped between 7 a.m. and 9 p.m. on two weekdays and both weekend days in four locations across Australia to provide a total of 645 h for analysis. Each advertisement was categorized as 'non-food ad', 'healthy/core food ad' or 'unhealthy/non-core food ad' according to set criteria. Thirty-one percent of the advertisements analyzed were for food. Eighty-one percent of the food advertisements identified were for unhealthy/non-core foods. When comparing the results of this study with previous research, it was found that the number of unhealthy advertisements screened per hour had not changed over the past few years. On weekdays, the number of advertisements increased throughout the day to peak at more than five advertisements per hour in the 6 p.m. to 9 p.m. time slot. The early morning time slot on Saturday was the most concentrated period for advertising unhealthy/non-core food with more than six advertisements screened per hour. The regional areas screened a significantly lower level of unhealthy/non-core food advertisements (19.5%) compared with the metropolitan areas (29.5%). Fast food and takeaway was the most advertised food category, followed by chocolate and confectionery. A total 194 breaches of the Children's Television Standards were identified according to our interpretation of the standard. It is well recognized that childhood obesity is a worldwide problem. The heavy marketing of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods influences food choices and contributes to the incidence of overweight and obesity in children. Despite the recognition of this growing problem, little has been done to ensure children are protected against the use of large volumes of unhealthy/non-core food advertising.

  4. Snack food advertising in stores around public schools in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Chacon, Violeta; Letona, Paola; Villamor, Eduardo; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2014-01-01

    Obesity in school-age children is emerging as a public heath concern. Food marketing influences preferences and increases children's requests for food. This study sought to describe the type of snack foods advertised to children in stores in and around public schools and assess if there is an association between child-oriented snack food advertising and proximity to schools. All food stores located inside and within a 200 square meter radius from two preschools and two primary schools were surveyed. We assessed store type, number and type of snack food advertisements including those child-oriented inside and outside stores. We surveyed 55 stores and found 321 snack food advertisements. Most were on sweetened beverages (37%) and soft drinks (30%). Ninety-two (29%) were child-oriented. Atoles (100.0%), cereals (94.1%), and ice cream and frozen desserts (71.4%) had the greatest proportion of child-oriented advertising. We found more child-oriented advertisements in stores that were closer (<170 m) to schools compared to those farther away. In conclusion, the food industry is flooding the market, taking advantage of the lack of strict regulation in Guatemala. Child-oriented advertisements are available in almost all stores within a short walking distance from schools, exposing children to an obesogenic environment. PMID:25821350

  5. Obesogenic television food advertising to children in Malaysia: sociocultural variations

    PubMed Central

    Ng, See H.; Kelly, Bridget; Se, Chee H.; Chinna, Karuthan; Sameeha, Mohd Jamil; Krishnasamy, Shanthi; MN, Ismail; Karupaiah, Tilakavati

    2014-01-01

    Background Food advertising on television (TV) is well known to influence children's purchasing requests and models negative food habits in Western countries. Advertising of unhealthy foods is a contributor to the obesogenic environment that is a key driver of rising rates of childhood obesity. Children in developing countries are more at risk of being targeted by such advertising, as there is a huge potential for market growth of unhealthy foods concomitant with poor regulatory infrastructure. Further, in developing countries with multi-ethnic societies, information is scarce on the nature of TV advertising targeting children. Objectives To measure exposure and power of TV food marketing to children on popular multi-ethnic TV stations in Malaysia. Design Ethnic-specific popular TV channels were identified using industry data. TV transmissions were recorded for each channel from November 2012 to August 2013 (16 hr/day) for randomly selected weekdays and weekend days during normal days and repeated during school holidays (n=88 days). Coded food/beverage advertisements were grouped into core (healthy), non-core (non-healthy), or miscellaneous (unclassified) food categories. Peak viewing time (PVT) and persuasive marketing techniques were identified. Results Non-core foods were predominant in TV food advertising, and rates were greater during school holidays compared to normal days (3.51 vs 1.93 food ads/hr/channel, p<0.001). During normal days’ PVT, the ratio of non-core to core food advertising was higher (3.25 food ads/hr/channel), and this more than trebled during school holidays to 10.25 food ads/hr/channel. Popular channels for Indian children had the lowest rate of food advertising relative to other ethnic groups. However, sugary drinks remained a popular non-core product advertised across all broadcast periods and channels. Notably, promotional characters doubled for non-core foods during school holidays compared to normal days (1.91 vs 0.93 food ads

  6. Are Food Advertisements Promoting More Unhealthy Foods and Beverages over Time? Evidence from Three Swedish Food Magazines, 1995-2014.

    PubMed

    Håkansson, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Unhealthy food in advertising has been suggested as a mediator for the increase in diet-related illness. This study quantitatively investigates changes in food advertising between 1995 and 2014 in terms of food categories promoted, macronutrient content, and percentage of foods classified as heathy or unhealthy from a sample of 7,199 ads from three Swedish food magazines. With the exception of increased alcoholic beverage and decreased carbohydrate-rich-food promotion, no monotonic trends of increasingly unhealthy food advertisement are found. From these findings, it is argued that food magazine advertising is not a mediator of the adverse dietary trend.

  7. [Food advertising: advice or merely stimulation of consumption?].

    PubMed

    Marins, Bianca Ramos; de Araújo, Inesita Soares; Jacob, Silvana do Couto

    2011-09-01

    Current advertising messages for food products deserve special attention, since they indicate that the media has played a central role in shaping new eating habits. The food industry, seeking to serve a new customer segment (increasingly preoccupied with health and physical well-being), and with a specific interest in this promising market, has intensified its marketing strategies for stimulating consumption of diet and light food products. This study analyzed 20 food advertisements published from June to October 2006 in Brazilian magazines and newspapers with nationwide circulation. The following elements were analyzed in the advertisements: the advertiser; the audience; the language; and the message. It was seen that the advertising message mainly targeted women, proposing guilt-free consumption, promising a combination of esthetics and health. In order to enhance their product, several advertisements omitted relevant nutritional information while others promoted hazardous combinations with pharmaceutical products, and still others induced the target public to replace regular meals with their product. The results signal the need to broaden the discussion on the strategies for food advertising, as the citizen's right to information and health cannot be subjugated to market values.

  8. 77 FR 14811 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Direct-to-Consumer Television Advertisements-the Food and Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Direct-to-Consumer Television Advertisements--the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 Direct-to-Consumer Television Ad Pre-Dissemination Review Program; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice....

  9. Modern foraging: Presence of food and energy density influence motivational processing of food advertisements.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Rachel L

    2016-12-01

    More energy dense foods are preferable from an optimal foraging perspective, which suggests these foods are more motivationally relevant due to their greater capability of fulfilling biological imperatives. This increase in motivational relevance may be exacerbated in circumstances where foraging will be necessary. This study examined how food energy density and presence of food in the immediate environment interacted to influence motivational processing of food advertisements. N = 58 adults viewed advertisements for foods varying in energy density in contexts where the advertised food was actually present in the viewing room or not. Advertisements for more energy dense foods elicited greater skin conductivity level compared to ads for less energy dense foods when food was not present. All ads elicited decreases in corrugator supercilii activation indicating positive emotional response resultant from appetitive motivational activation, though the greatest activation was exhibited toward higher energy density foods when food was present. This supports an optimal foraging perspective and has implications for healthy eating interventions.

  10. Food advertising towards children and young people in Norway.

    PubMed

    Bugge, Annechen Bahr

    2016-03-01

    Despite the fact that no studies have been carried out to map the amount of unhealthy food advertising aimed at Norwegian children and adolescents, it is still widely held belief that this type of advertising is disproportionately common. As a consequence, one of the issues high on the agenda in Norway in the 2000s was the possibility of imposing restrictions on advertising for unhealthy foods to children. The purpose of this study is to contribute with a research-based foundation for implementing this health initiative by mapping food marketing in media channels widely used by children and adolescents. In sum, the study shows that the food industry spends a lot of resources to influence young consumers' eating and drinking habits. Compared with studies from USA, UK and Australia, however, there are, strong indications that there is significantly less unhealthy food advertising in Scandinavian countries. Similar to a previous Swedish study, this study shows that Norwegian children and young people were exposed to little advertising for unhealthy food products through media channels such as TV, the Internet, magazines, comics and cinemas. The study also supports critical remarks from some researchers that the extensive use of the international discourse as a political argument and recommendation for Norwegian conditions is not accurate. For the future it may be beneficial to look more closely at the relationship between advertising and health policy, and how this relationship can be further developed to improve children and young people's diet.

  11. Food-related advertisements and food intake among adult men and women.

    PubMed

    Wonderlich-Tierney, Anna L; Wenzel, Kevin R; Vander Wal, Jillon S; Wang-Hall, Jennifer

    2013-12-01

    Television viewing may contribute to obesity via promotion of sedentary behavior and exposure to food-related commercials. However, the mechanisms by which food-related commercials promote food intake are not well understood. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of television advertisements on food intake according to sex and transportability, or the tendency to become engrossed in what one is viewing. Eighty-three undergraduate students, free of disordered eating symptoms, were stratified by sex and randomly assigned to one of three conditions (food-related advertisements, neutral advertisements, or no advertisements). They were then identified as high or low in transportability according to a median split. A significant interaction was found between advertisement condition and transportability such that those high in transportability ate more in the food than other advertisement conditions. A second interaction was found between sex and transportability with women high in transportability eating more food than women low in transportability irrespective of advertisement condition. No significant main effects of advertisement condition, sex, or transportability were found. Results suggest the importance of studying the impact of individual difference variables on the relationship between food-related advertising and food intake.

  12. [Mothers and food advertising directed at children: perceptions and experiences].

    PubMed

    Castronuovo, Luciana; Gutkowski, Patricia; Tiscornia, Victoria; Allemandi, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze how food advertising is perceived by mothers from different socioeconomic sectors of the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Between May and November 2015, eight focus groups were conducted with the participation of 49 mothers of different education levels living in the study area. The results show how the purchasing decisions of mothers are influenced by the requests of their children, which are in turn prompted by food advertising and promotion. The study also shows how food advertising and promotion are combined with other environmental factors (greater supply of food products, "more demanding" children) that affect the decision-making process of mothers regarding their children's nutrition and foster the consumption of certain unhealthy products. This situation was observed in all the focus groups, without differences among education levels.

  13. Effects of a Food Advertising Literacy Intervention on Taiwanese Children's Food Purchasing Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Li-Ling; Lai, I.-Ju; Chang, Li-Chun; Lee, Chia-Kuei

    2016-01-01

    Unhealthy food advertising is an important contributor to childhood obesity. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the impact of a food advertising literacy program that incorporated components of health-promoting media literacy education on fifth-grade children. Participants were 140 fifth-graders (10 and 11 years old) from one school…

  14. The effects of food advertising and cognitive load on food choices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Advertising has been implicated in the declining quality of the American diet, but much of the research has been conducted with children rather than adults. This study tested the effects of televised food advertising on adult food choice. Methods Participants (N = 351) were randomized into one of 4 experimental conditions: exposure to food advertising vs. exposure to non-food advertising, and within each of these groups, exposure to a task that was either cognitively demanding or not cognitively demanding. The number of unhealthy snacks chosen was subsequently measured, along with total calories of the snacks chosen. Results Those exposed to food advertising chose 28% more unhealthy snacks than those exposed to non-food-advertising (95% CI: 7% - 53%), with a total caloric value that was 65 kcal higher (95% CI: 10-121). The effect of advertising was not significant among those assigned to the low-cognitive-load group, but was large and significant among those assigned to the high-cognitive-load group: 43% more unhealthy snacks (95% CI: 11% - 85%) and 94 more total calories (95% CI: 19-169). Conclusions Televised food advertising has strong effects on individual food choice, and these effects are magnified when individuals are cognitively occupied by other tasks. PMID:24721289

  15. Australian children's views about food advertising on television.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Kaye; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul; Magarey, Anthea; Spurrier, Nicola; Udell, Tuesday

    2010-08-01

    This study explored children's views about food advertising on television in the light of recent public interest in childhood obesity and obesogenic environments. Thirty-seven children aged between 8 and 11 years, discussed their perceptions of food advertising, in focus groups. The children engaged as consumers of advertising, noticing technical aspects, and expressing their likes and dislikes of particular techniques. While they understood the persuasive intent of advertising, they nevertheless desired products and made purchase requests. They particularly desired energy-dense nutrient-poor foods. The children demonstrated sophisticated levels of advertising literacy through their articulation of problems such as deception, impacts on children's health and wellbeing, and family conflict. They revealed themselves as sentient beings, with the capacity to react, respond and reflect on their experience of advertising. This study makes a contribution to research on consumer socialisation by introducing the perspective of Australian children. As stakeholders in the childhood obesity problem, the views of children should also be of interest to health policymakers.

  16. The effectiveness of parental communication in modifying the relation between food advertising and children's consumption behaviour.

    PubMed

    Buijzen, Moniek

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of various types of parental communication in modifying children's responses to television food advertising. In a combined diary-survey study among 234 parents of 4- to 12-year-old children, I investigated how different styles of advertising mediation (active vs. restrictive) and consumer communication (concept-oriented vs. socio-oriented) moderated the relation between children's advertising exposure and their consumption of advertised energy-dense food products. Interaction analysis in regression showed that active advertising mediation (i.e. explaining the purpose and nature of advertising), and socio-oriented consumer communication (i.e. emphasizing control and restrictions) significantly reduced the impact of advertising on children's food consumption. Parental restrictions of advertising exposure were only effective among younger children (<8). These results suggest that critical discussion about advertising and rule making about consumption are most effective in countering the impact of food advertising.

  17. Volney B. Palmer, 1799-1864: The Nation's First Advertising Agency Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Donald R.

    This monograph examines the life of Volney B. Palmer, who was the prototype of the modern advertising person. The first section discusses his background and early experience in Pennsylvania. The second section discusses the American Newspaper Agency, established as the first advertising agency in 1842. The third section examines the kind of man…

  18. Reliability and validity of television food advertising questionnaire in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zalma, Abdul Razak; Safiah, Md Yusof; Ajau, Danis; Khairil Anuar, Md Isa

    2015-09-01

    Interventions to counter the influence of television food advertising amongst children are important. Thus, reliable and valid instrument to assess its effect is needed. The objective of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of such a questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered twice on 32 primary schoolchildren aged 10-11 years in Selangor, Malaysia. The interval between the first and second administration was 2 weeks. Test-retest method was used to examine the reliability of the questionnaire. Intra-rater reliability was determined by kappa coefficient and internal consistency by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Construct validity was evaluated using factor analysis. The test-retest correlation showed moderate-to-high reliability for all scores (r = 0.40*, p = 0.02 to r = 0.95**, p = 0.00), with one exception, consumption of fast foods (r = 0.24, p = 0.20). Kappa coefficient showed acceptable-to-strong intra-rater reliability (K = 0.40-0.92), except for two items under knowledge on television food advertising (K = 0.26 and K = 0.21) and one item under preference for healthier foods (K = 0.33). Cronbach's alpha coefficient indicated acceptable internal consistency for all scores (0.45-0.60). After deleting two items under Consumption of Commonly Advertised Food, the items showed moderate-to-high loading (0.52, 0.84, 0.42 and 0.42) with the Scree plot showing that there was only one factor. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin was 0.60, showing that the sample was adequate for factor analysis. The questionnaire on television food advertising is reliable and valid to assess the effect of media literacy education on television food advertising on schoolchildren.

  19. Effects of a food advertising literacy intervention on Taiwanese children's food purchasing behaviors.

    PubMed

    Liao, Li-Ling; Lai, I-Ju; Chang, Li-Chun; Lee, Chia-Kuei

    2016-08-01

    Unhealthy food advertising is an important contributor to childhood obesity. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the impact of a food advertising literacy program that incorporated components of health-promoting media literacy education on fifth-grade children. Participants were 140 fifth-graders (10 and 11 years old) from one school who were randomly divided into three groups. Experimental Group A received a food advertising literacy program, experimental Group B received a comparable knowledge-based nutrition education program and the control group did not receive any nutrition education. Repeated measures analysis of variance and multivariate analysis of covariance were used to test mean changes between pretest, posttest and follow-up on participants' nutritional knowledge, food advertising literacy and food purchasing behavior. Results showed that, as compared with Group B and the control groups, Group A showed higher nutritional knowledge, food advertising literacy and food purchasing behavior at post-intervention, but had no significant improvements in nutritional knowledge and food purchasing behavior at the 1-month follow-up. Although some improvements were observed, future studies should consider a long-term, settings-based approach that is closely connected with children's daily lives, as this might be helpful to solidify children's skills in recognizing, evaluating and understanding unhealthy food advertising.

  20. A Quarter Century of TV Food Advertising Targeted at Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Margaret; Cotugna, Nancy

    1999-01-01

    Analyzed current trends in television advertising targeting children, comparing results to the historical perspective of the last quarter century. Researchers evaluated 16 hours of Saturday morning children's programming on four network channels for commercial content based on Food Guide Pyramid and USDA Child Nutrition criteria. Overall,…

  1. Adolescent Weight Status and Receptivity to Food TV Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Sutherland, Lisa A.; Longacre, Meghan R.; Beach, Michael L.; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Gibson, Jennifer J.; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between adolescent weight status and food advertisement receptivity. Design: Survey-based evaluation with data collected at baseline (initial and at 2 months), and at follow-up (11 months). Setting: New Hampshire and Vermont. Participants: Students (n = 2,281) aged 10-13 in 2002-2005. Main Outcome…

  2. Portraying Physical Activity in Food Advertising Targeting Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castonguay, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Childhood obesity is a serious health concern (World Health Organization (WHO), 2013) and advertising exposure is known to be a contributing factor (Institute of Medicine (IOM), 2006). In recent years consumers have expressed an increased interest in products appearing healthy and food companies have committed to changing their…

  3. Effect of Restrictions on Television Food Advertising to Children on Exposure to Advertisements for ‘Less Healthy’ Foods: Repeat Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Jean; Tyrrell, Rachel; Adamson, Ashley J.; White, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2007, new scheduling restrictions on television food advertising to children in the UK were announced. The aim of the restrictions was to “reduce significantly the exposure of children under 16 to high fat, salt or sugar (HFSS) advertising”. We explored the impact of the restrictions on relative exposure to HFSS food advertising among all viewers and among child television viewers, as well as adherence to the restrictions. Methods We conducted two cross-sectional studies of all advertisements broadcast in one region of the UK over one week periods – the first (week 1) six months before the restrictions were introduced, and the second (week 2) six months after. Data on what products were advertised were linked to data on how many people watched each advertisement. Nutritional content of foods advertised was added to the dataset and used to calculate HFSS status. Relative exposure was calculated as the proportion of all advertising person-minute-views (PMVs) that were for HFSS foods. Results 1,672,417 advertising PMV were included. 14.6% of advertising PMV were for food and 51.1% of these were for HFSS food. Relative exposure of all viewers to HFSS food advertising increased between study weeks 1 and 2 (odds ratio (99% confidence intervals) = 1·54 (1·51 to 1·57)). Exposure of children to HFSS food advertising did not change between study weeks 1 and 2 (odds ratio (99% confidence intervals) = 1·05 (0·99 to 1·12)). There was almost universal adherence to the restrictions. Conclusions Despite good adherence to the restrictions, they did not change relative exposure of children to HFSS advertising and were associated with an increase in relative exposure of all viewers to HFSS advertising. Stronger restrictions targeting a wider range of advertisements are necessary to reduce exposure of children to marketing of less healthful foods. PMID:22355376

  4. Television food advertising in Singapore: the nature and extent of children's exposure.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liyan; Mehta, Kaye; Wong, Mun Loke

    2012-06-01

    Television advertising is an effective medium for reaching young children and influencing their food choice. Studies have shown that messages conveyed by food advertisements are rarely consistent with healthy eating messages. With the increasing purchasing power of children, food companies are focusing on children as lucrative target audiences. Extensive marketing of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods to children potentially contributes to the 'obesogenic' environment. This study aims to determine the degree and nature of food advertisements that Singaporean children are exposed to on television. Ninety-eight hours of children's television programmes broadcast by free-to-air stations were recorded and analysed. Advertisements with the intent of selling and sponsorships for programmes were included. Foods advertised were considered healthy if they met the criteria of the Healthier Choice Symbol in Singapore. Of the 1344 advertisements and sponsorships identified, 33% were for food. Of the food advertisements, 38% were considered healthy, while 57% were not. Candy, confectionery and fast food advertisements accounted for 46% of total food advertisements. Significantly more unhealthy food advertisements were screened on weekends compared with weekdays (p < 0.001). This is the first content analysis of television advertisements in Singapore and the results of this study provide background data on the extent of food advertising that children in Singapore are exposed to. Consistent with other countries, unhealthy food advertisements continue to dominate children's television programmes. This study suggests that Singaporean children are exposed to high levels of advertising for unhealthy foods. The study provides a baseline against which measures aimed at reducing children's exposure to television food advertising can be evaluated.

  5. Prevention before profits: a levy on food and alcohol advertising.

    PubMed

    Harper, Todd A; Mooney, Gavin

    2010-04-05

    The recent interest in health promotion and disease prevention has drawn attention to the role of the alcohol and junk-food industries. Companies supplying, producing, advertising or selling alcohol or junk food (ie, foods with a high content of fat, sugar or salt) do so to generate profits. Even companies marketing "low-carbohydrate" beers, "mild" cigarettes, or "high-fibre" sugary cereals are not primarily concerned about population health, more so increased sales and profits. In a competitive market, it is assumed that consumers make fully informed choices about costs and benefits before purchasing. However, consumers are not being fully informed of the implications of their junk-food and alcohol choices, as advertising of these products carries little information on the health consequences of consumption. We propose that there should be a levy on advertising expenditure for junk food and alcoholic beverages to provide an incentive for industry to promote healthier products. Proceeds of the levy could be used to provide consumers with more complete and balanced information on the healthy and harmful impacts of food and alcohol choices. Our proposal addresses two of the greatest challenges facing Australia's preventable disease epidemic - the imbalance between the promotion of healthier and unhealthy products, and securing funds to empower consumer choice.

  6. Iranian Television Advertisement and Children's Food Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadehoghaz, Masoomeh; Amini, Maryam; Abdollahi, Afsoun

    2016-01-01

    Background: In this study, the nature of food commercials in children's television (TV) was monitored and analyzed; simultaneously, the relationship between recalling TV food commercials and children's interest in them and in the consumption of the same food products was evaluated. Methods: A total of 108 h children's programs broadcast on two channels (Two and Amouzesh) of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) media organization were monitored (May 6–12, 2015). Simultaneously, a cross-sectional study using 403 primary schoolchildren (201 boys) in four schools of Shirvan, Northeast of Iran, was executed. The children were prompted to recall all TV commercials broadcast on IRIB. Meanwhile, they were directed to define in the list of recalled TV food commercials those were interested in and the commercials (food products) they actually were willing to consume. Results: Regarding the frequency and duration of broadcasting, food commercials ranked fifth and sixth, respectively. Fruit leather and plum paste were the most frequently broadcast food commercials. “High quality” (19%), “good taste” (15%), “novelty”, and “message on nutritional composition” (13%) were the most frequent messages used in promoting the sale of food products, respectively. In addition, focus on “high quality/precision in the preparation of the food products” was the most frequently used appeals in TV commercials. There was a significant relationship between recalling TV food commercials and the interest in five out of eight of the commercials (62.5%) (P < 0.05). The relationship between recalling TV food commercials and the interest in the consumption of the same food product (“Tomato paste B”) was statistically significant for 12.5% of the commercials (P < 0.05). Conclusions: TV food commercials do not encourage healthy eating. The current study provides convincing evidence for policy-makers and researchers to pay more attention to this area. PMID:28105293

  7. Children's exposure to food advertising on free-to-air television: an Asia-Pacific perspective.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Bridget; Hebden, Lana; King, Lesley; Xiao, Yang; Yu, Yang; He, Gengsheng; Li, Liangli; Zeng, Lingxia; Hadi, Hamam; Karupaiah, Tilakavati; Hoe, Ng See; Noor, Mohd Ismail; Yoon, Jihyun; Kim, Hyogyoo

    2016-03-01

    There is an established link between food promotions and children's food purchase and consumption. Children in developing countries may be more vulnerable to food promotions given the relative novelty of advertising in these markets. This study aimed to determine the scope of television food advertising to children across the Asia-Pacific to inform policies to restrict this marketing. Six sites were sampled, including from China, Indonesia, Malaysia and South Korea. At each site, 192 h of television were recorded (4 days, 16 h/day, three channels) from May to October 2012. Advertised foods were categorized as core/healthy, non-core/unhealthy or miscellaneous, and by product type. Twenty-seven percent of advertisements were for food/beverages, and the most frequently advertised product was sugar-sweetened drinks. Rates of non-core food advertising were highest during viewing times most popular with children, when between 3 (South Korea) and 15 (Indonesia) non-core food advertisements were broadcast each hour. Children in the Asia-Pacific are exposed to high volumes of unhealthy food/beverage television advertising. Different policy arrangements for food advertising are likely to contribute to regional variations in advertising patterns. Cities with the lowest advertising rates can be identified as exemplars of good policy practice.

  8. How Television Fast Food Marketing Aimed at Children Compares with Adult Advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Amy M.; Wilking, Cara; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Bergamini, Elaina; Marijnissen, Jill; Sargent, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Quick service restaurant (QSR) television advertisements for children’s meals were compared with adult advertisements from the same companies to assess whether self-regulatory pledges for food advertisements to children had been implemented. Methods All nationally televised advertisements for the top 25 US QSR restaurants from July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2010 were obtained and viewed to identify those advertising meals for children and these advertisements were compared with adult advertisements from the same companies. Content coding included visual and audio assessment of branding, toy premiums, movie tie-ins, and depictions of food. For image size comparisons, the diagonal length of the advertisement was compared with the diagonal length of salient food and drink images. Results Almost all of the 92 QSR children’s meal advertisements that aired during the study period were attributable to McDonald’s (70%) or Burger King (29%); 79% of 25,000 television placements aired on just four channels (Cartoon Network, Nickelodeon, Disney XD, and Nicktoons). Visual branding was more common in children’s advertisements vs. adult advertisements, with food packaging present in 88% vs. 23%, and street view of the QSR restaurant present in 41% vs. 12%. Toy premiums or giveaways were present in 69% vs. 1%, and movie tie-ins present in 55% vs. 14% of children’s vs. adult advertisements. Median food image diagonal length was 20% of the advertisement diagonal for children’s and 45% for adult advertisements. The audio script for children’s advertisements emphasized giveaways and movie tie-ins whereas adult advertisements emphasized food taste, price and portion size. Conclusions Children’s QSR advertisements emphasized toy giveaways and movie tie-ins rather than food products. Self-regulatory pledges to focus on actual food products instead of toy premiums were not supported by this analysis. PMID:24015250

  9. The hospital marketer and the advertising agency: who should do what--and to whom.

    PubMed

    Keyser, J A

    1987-01-01

    Close cooperation between advertising agencies and their clients is an essential ingredient of a successful advertising campaign. Expectations and responsibilities must be clearly defined in writing, and realistic deadlines should be set and adhered to. Campaigns lacking these crucial components are handicapped from the start, and results produced will be less effective than a carefully planned and executed campaign.

  10. How to Get Entry-Level Employment at the Top 100 Advertising Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, William J.

    1994-01-01

    Reports on a survey which quantifies the entry-level market in top advertising agencies. Discusses employment projections, entry-level job distribution, source of entry-level employment, college degree of entry-level employees, academic major of entry-level employees, and entry-level assignments by major. Concludes that an advertising major is far…

  11. Comparing the Ethical Beliefs of Advertising Agency Practitioners to Corporate Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krugman, Dean M.; Ferrell, O. C.

    A survey was conducted of advertising practitioners in advertising agencies and in corporations to determine their beliefs about their own ethics, the ethics of their peers, the ethics of their management, and their opportunities to engage in certain potentially unethical situations. It was hypothesized that no differences exist between the two…

  12. Nutritional Content of Foods Advertised During the Television Programs Children Watch Most

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Kristen; Marske, Amy L.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to code food (nutritional content and food type and eating occasion) and character (cartoon and live action) attributes of food advertisements airing during television programs heavily viewed by children, and to represent and evaluate the nutritional content of advertised foods in terms of the nutrition facts label. Methods. Food advertisements (n=426) aimed at general and child audiences were coded for food and character attributes. “Nutrition Facts” label data for advertised foods (n=275) were then analyzed. Results. Convenience/fast foods and sweets comprised 83% of advertised foods. Snacktime eating was depicted more often than breakfast, lunch, and dinner combined. Apparent character body size was unrelated to eating behavior. A 2000-calorie diet of foods in the general-audience advertisements would exceed recommended daily values (RDVs) of total fat, saturated fat, and sodium. A similar diet of foods in the child-audience advertisements would exceed the sodium RDV and provide 171 g (nearly 1 cup) of added sugar. Conclusions. Snack, convenience, and fast foods and sweets continue to dominate food advertisements viewed by children. Advertised foods exceed RDVs of fat, saturated fat, and sodium, yet fail to provide RDVs of fiber and certain vitamins and minerals. PMID:16118368

  13. Trends in exposure to television food advertisements in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Euna; Powell, Lisa M; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2013-03-01

    Given the increased concern about the impact of TV food advertisements (ads) on individual food choices, we provide important evidence on TV food ad exposure between 2004 and 2009 in South Korea. We used monthly targeted ratings data by age group as the number of ads seen daily from Korean Nielsen Media Research. We generated six food groups: beverages (milk, soda, fruit drinks, sports/energy drinks, water, coffee/tea products, and other); snacks/sweets (cookies/chips, candy, and chewing gum); fast food (Domino's pizza, Lotteria, McDonald's, Mr. Pizza, Pizza Hut, local chicken and pizza franchises, and other); instant noodle; full-service restaurants; and other. From 2004 to 2009, overall exposure to television food ads fell by 19.0% (from 6.8 to 5.5 ads daily), although exposure to full-service restaurant ads increased over that time period by 45.7%. While fast-food ad exposure fell overall, exposure to ads for local fried chicken franchises nearly doubled, making them the most commonly seen fast-food ads by 2009. Fast-food and instant noodle ads made up larger proportions of total ad exposure in 2009 than in 2004 in all age groups, with the largest increase among adolescents. Beverage ads continue to be the most prevalent food ads seen in South Korea. Differential trends found in exposure across and within food product categories and differences by age groups highlight the need for continued monitoring to help inform the regulatory policy debate on food advertising, particularly with regards to ads directed at children and adolescents.

  14. Nine out of 10 food advertisements shown during Saturday morning children's television programming are for foods high in fat, sodium, or added sugars, or low in nutrients.

    PubMed

    Batada, Ameena; Seitz, Maia Dock; Wootan, Margo G; Story, Mary

    2008-04-01

    A 2005 review by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies concluded that food marketing influences children's food preferences, consumption, and health. Given the powerful influence of marketing on children's diets, this cross-sectional study examined the types of foods, the nutritional quality of those foods, and the marketing techniques and messages used in food advertising during Saturday morning children's television programming. During 27.5 hours of programming in May 2005, 49% of advertisements shown were for food (281 food advertisements out of 572 total advertisements). The most commonly advertised food categories were ready-to-eat breakfast cereal and cereal bars (27% of all food advertisements), restaurants (19% of food advertisements), and snack foods (18% of food advertisements). Ninety-one percent of food advertisements were for foods or beverages high in fat, sodium, or added sugars or were low in nutrients. Cartoon characters were used in 74% of food advertisements, and toy or other giveaways were used in 26% of food advertisements. About half of food advertisements contained health/nutrition or physical activity messages and 86% of food advertisements contained emotional appeals. This study provides food and nutrition professionals with information about the amount and types of food children are encouraged to eat during Saturday morning television programming. The findings can help food and nutrition professionals counsel children about healthful eating and/or develop programs or policies to balance those advertisements with healthful eating messages.

  15. Television food advertisement exposure and FTO rs9939609 genotype in relation to excess consumption in children

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Emond, Jennifer A.; Lansigan, Reina K.; Rapuano, Kristina M.; Kelley, William M.; Heatherton, Todd F.; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE Exposure to food advertisements may cue overeating among children, especially among those genetically predisposed to respond to food cues. We aimed to assess how television food advertisements affect eating in the absence of hunger among children in a randomized trial. We hypothesized that the Fat Mass and Obesity Associated Gene (FTO) rs9939609 single nucleotide polymorphism would modify the effect of food advertisements. SUBJECTS/METHODS In this randomized experiment, 200 children aged 9–10 years old were served a standardized lunch and then shown a 34-minute television show embedded with either food or toy advertisements. Children were provided with snack food to consume ad libitum while watching the show and we measured caloric intake. Children were genotyped for rs9939609 and analyses were conducted in the overall sample and stratified by genotype. A formal test for interaction of the food ad effect on consumption by rs9939609 was conducted. RESULTS 172 unrelated participants were included in this analysis. Children consumed on average 453 (SD=185) kCals during lunch and 482 (SD=274) kCals during the experimental exposure. Children who viewed food advertisements consumed an average of 48 kCals (95% CI: 10, 85; P=0.01) more of a recently advertised food than those who viewed toy advertisements. There was a statistically significant interaction between genotype and food advertisement condition (P for interaction = 0.02), where the difference in consumption of a recently advertised food related to food advertisement exposure increased linearly with each additional FTO risk allele, even after controlling for BMI percentile. CONCLUSIONS Food advertisement exposure was associated with greater caloric consumption of a recently advertised food, and this effect was modified by an FTO genotype. Future research is needed to understand the neurological mechanism underlying these associations. PMID:27654143

  16. The effects of television advertisements for junk food versus nutritious food on children's food attitudes and preferences.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Helen G; Scully, Maree L; Wakefield, Melanie A; White, Victoria M; Crawford, David A

    2007-10-01

    Television (TV) food advertising has attracted criticism for its potential role in promoting unhealthy dietary practices among children. Content analyses indicate junk food advertising is prevalent on Australian children's TV; healthy eating is rarely promoted. This paper presents (a) a cross-sectional survey examining associations between children's regular TV viewing habits and their food-related attitudes and behaviour; and (b) an experiment assessing the impact of varying combinations of TV advertisements (ads) for unhealthy and healthy foods on children's dietary knowledge, attitudes and intentions. The experimental conditions simulated possible models for regulating food ads on children's TV. Participants were 919 grade five and six students from schools in Melbourne, Australia. The survey showed that heavier TV use and more frequent commercial TV viewing were independently associated with more positive attitudes toward junk food; heavier TV use was also independently associated with higher reported junk food consumption. The experiment found that ads for nutritious foods promote selected positive attitudes and beliefs concerning these foods. Findings are discussed in light of methodological issues in media effects research and their implications for policy and practice. It is concluded that changing the food advertising environment on children's TV to one where nutritious foods are promoted and junk foods are relatively unrepresented would help to normalize and reinforce healthy eating.

  17. 77 FR 3779 - Guidance for Industry on Product Name Placement, Size, and Prominence in Advertising and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... Prominence in Advertising and Promotional Labeling; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... guidance document entitled ``Product Name Placement, Size, and Prominence in Advertising and Promotional..., size, prominence, and frequency in promotional labeling and advertising for prescription human...

  18. 75 FR 75936 - Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements; Research Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Cigarette Packages and Advertisements; Research Report AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... warnings and accompanying graphics to be displayed on cigarette packages and in cigarette advertisements... health warning statements appear on cigarette packages and in cigarette advertisements. Section 201...

  19. 76 FR 66074 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... Cigarette Packages and Advertisements; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... industry entitled ``Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements--Small Entity Compliance... entitled ``Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements--Small Entity Compliance Guide''...

  20. Effect of the exposure to TV food advertisements on the consumption of foods by mothers and children.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Ramírez, Glenda; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Souto-Gallardo, Maria de las Cruces; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    Foods advertised were recorded in 2 television (TV) channels. The present article studies the association between products advertised and those consumed by mothers and children. A total of 365 mothers and their children were assessed. A positive correlation was observed between the food advertisements that the mothers recalled and the frequency of TV food advertisements (Rho = 0.44, P = 0.03). A positive correlation was found between the frequency of the foods advertised on TV and the consumption of these by the mothers (r = 0.73, P = 0.0001) and their children (Rho = 0.66, P = 0.0001). These results suggest that TV advertisements influence the food choices of mothers and children.

  1. Exposure to food advertising on television: associations with children's fast food and soft drink consumption and obesity.

    PubMed

    Andreyeva, Tatiana; Kelly, Inas Rashad; Harris, Jennifer L

    2011-07-01

    There is insufficient research on the direct effects of food advertising on children's diet and diet-related health, particularly in non-experimental settings. We employ a nationally-representative sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and the Nielsen Company data on spot television advertising of cereals, fast food restaurants and soft drinks to children across the top 55 designated-market areas to estimate the relation between exposure to food advertising on television and children's food consumption and body weight. Our results suggest that soft drink and fast food television advertising is associated with increased consumption of soft drinks and fast food among elementary school children (Grade 5). Exposure to 100 incremental TV ads for sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drinks during 2002-2004 was associated with a 9.4% rise in children's consumption of soft drinks in 2004. The same increase in exposure to fast food advertising was associated with a 1.1% rise in children's consumption of fast food. There was no detectable link between advertising exposure and average body weight, but fast food advertising was significantly associated with body mass index for overweight and obese children (≥85th BMI percentile), revealing detectable effects for a vulnerable group of children. Exposure to advertising for calorie-dense nutrient-poor foods may increase overall consumption of unhealthy food categories.

  2. Persuasive food marketing to children: use of cartoons and competitions in Australian commercial television advertisements.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Bridget; Hattersley, Libby; King, Lesley; Flood, Victoria

    2008-12-01

    While there is a recognized link between high levels of exposure to advertising of unhealthy foods and overweight and obesity among children, there is little research on the extent to which these exposures include persuasive marketing techniques. This study aimed to measure children's exposure to the use of persuasive marketing within television food advertisements. Advertisements broadcast on all three commercial Australian television channels were recorded for an equivalent 1 week period in May 2006 and 2007 (714 h). Food advertisements were analysed for their use of persuasive marketing, including premium offers, such as competitions, and the use of promotional characters, including celebrities and cartoon characters. Advertised foods were categorized as core, non-core or miscellaneous foods. Commercial data were purchased to determine children's peak viewing times and popular programs. A total of 20 201 advertisements were recorded, 25.5% of which were for food. Significantly more food advertisements broadcast during children's peak viewing times, compared to non-peak times, contained promotional characters (P < 0.05) and premium offers (P < 0.001). During programs most popular with children, there were 3.3 non-core food advertisements per hour containing premium offers, compared to 0.2 per hour during programs most popular with adults. The majority of advertisements containing persuasive marketing during all viewing periods were for non-core foods. Persuasive marketing techniques are frequently used to advertise non-core foods to children, to promote children's brand recognition and preference for advertised products. Future debate relating to television advertising regulations must consider the need to restrict the use of persuasive marketing techniques to children.

  3. Using commercial advertising agencies in micronutrient promotion: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Torres, M P

    1998-01-01

    Lack of knowledge, beliefs about food, customs, and poverty are the main factors preventing millions of people from eating enough micronutrient-rich foods. Globally, more than 2 billion people are at risk of iron, vitamin A, and iodine deficiencies. Opportunities for Micronutrient Intervention (OMNI), a 5-year project funded by the Office of Health and Nutrition, US Agency for International Development, is dedicated to preventing and controlling micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries. OMNI's general approaches to reducing micronutrient deficiencies include fortification, supplementation, and dietary diversification. For all of those approaches, the project has stressed a social marketing methodology to define and motivate feasible behavior changes which will benefit maternal and child health and nutrition. The Manoff Group, the OMNI partner most responsible for behavior change, has had many positive experiences using social marketing to address micronutrient malnutrition, breast-feeding, and child feeding in many countries. Focusing mainly upon supplementation and dietary diversification, OMNI's experience to date in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Ecuador, and Bolivia is summarized.

  4. Nutrition recommendations and the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative's 2014 approved food and beverage product list.

    PubMed

    Schermbeck, Rebecca M; Powell, Lisa M

    2015-04-23

    We compare the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative's (CFBAI's) April 2014 list of food and beverage products approved to be advertised on children's television programs with the federal Interagency Working Group's nutrition recommendations for such advertised products. Products were assessed by using the nutrients to limit (saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and sodium) component of the Interagency Working Group's recommendations. Fifty-three percent of the listed products did not meet the nutrition recommendations and, therefore, were ineligible to be advertised. We recommend continued monitoring of food and beverage products marketed to children.

  5. 76 FR 36541 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Office of Management and Budget Approval; Prescription Drug Advertisements AGENCY: Food and Drug... collection of information entitled ``Prescription Drug Advertisements'' has been approved by the Office...

  6. Protecting Young People From Junk Food Advertising: Implications of Psychological Research for First Amendment Law

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jennifer L.; Graff, Samantha K.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, one third of children and adolescents are overweight or obese, yet food and beverage companies continue to target them with advertising for products that contribute to this obesity crisis. When government restrictions on such advertising are proposed, the constitutional commercial speech doctrine is often invoked as a barrier to action. We explore incongruities between the legal justifications for the commercial speech doctrine and the psychological research on how food advertising affects young people. A proper interpretation of the First Amendment should leave room for regulations to protect young people from advertising featuring calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages. PMID:22390435

  7. Protecting young people from junk food advertising: implications of psychological research for First Amendment law.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennifer L; Graff, Samantha K

    2012-02-01

    In the United States, one third of children and adolescents are overweight or obese, yet food and beverage companies continue to target them with advertising for products that contribute to this obesity crisis. When government restrictions on such advertising are proposed, the constitutional commercial speech doctrine is often invoked as a barrier to action. We explore incongruities between the legal justifications for the commercial speech doctrine and the psychological research on how food advertising affects young people. A proper interpretation of the First Amendment should leave room for regulations to protect young people from advertising featuring calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages.

  8. A nutritional comparison of foods and beverages marketed to children in two advertising policy environments.

    PubMed

    Potvin Kent, Monique; Dubois, Lise; Wanless, Alissa

    2012-09-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with children's exposure to food/beverage marketing. Policy options in this area are being sought in order to reduce childhood obesity rates on a population-level. We examined the nutritional quality of foods advertised to children during their preferred television viewing in Ontario (Canada), where advertising is self-regulated by industry, and in Quebec (Canada), where a child-directed advertising ban exists. A total of 428 children aged 10-12 years completed television viewing diaries for 7 days. Thirty-two television stations were recorded simultaneously between 6 AM and midnight. A content analysis of 90 h of English Ontario, French Quebec, and English Quebec children's preferred viewing was then undertaken. A total of 429 food and beverage advertisements were analyzed and their nutritional quality was assessed. Food advertisements in the Quebec French sample were statistically significantly higher in total fat, saturated fat and protein, and lower in carbohydrates and sugar per 100 g, and as a percentage of energy than food ads in the two English samples. A statistically significantly lower percentage of the Quebec French food advertisements were classified as either high fat, sugar or sodium and a smaller proportion of food ads were classified as "less healthy" compared to the Ontario and Quebec English samples. These results suggest that the Quebec advertising ban is influencing the macronutrient profile of advertised foods viewed by French Quebec children during their preferred viewing and that their promotions are marginally healthier than that viewed by the English samples.

  9. Integrating Children's Television Food Advertising Research with the Delay of Gratification and Resistance to Temptation Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Brenda; Jeffrey, D. Balfour

    This review considers parents' ability to control their children's consumption of heavily advertised, low-nutrition foods and children's ability to control their own consumption of these foods. In particular, research on television advertising's effect on children and children's development of the ability to delay gratification and resist…

  10. Effect of TV food advertising restriction on food environment for children in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngmi; Yoon, Jihyun; Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Hyogyoo; Kim, Soyoung

    2013-11-12

    This study attempted to determine the effects of restrictions on television (TV) food advertising on children's food environments in South Korea. It examined changes that occurred in the marketing mix of food companies following enactment of those restrictions. An on-line survey was conducted with marketers or R&D managers of 108 food companies. A questionnaire was used to inquire about changes that occurred in Product, Place, Price and Promotion as a result of the restrictions placed on TV food advertising. Analysis was performed on the data collected from the responding 63 food companies (58.3%). The results of their answers showed that among the four marketing mix components the restrictions exerted relatively stronger effects on Product. Effects were stronger on companies that produced foods within the product categories of Energy-Dense and Nutrient-Poor foods (EDNP companies) in comparison with companies that did not (non-EDNP companies). The restrictions exerted positive effects on EDNP companies with respect to compliance with labeling requirements and reinforcement of nutritional contents examination, as well as changes to products such as reducing unhealthy ingredients and fortifying nutrients. Overall, the results revealed the possibility that restrictions on TV food advertising could improve children's food environments by encouraging EDNP companies to make favorable product changes. On the one hand, the results also found that some food companies attempted to bypass the regulations by changing marketing channels from TV to others and by reducing product serving sizes. Thus, future measures should be implemented to prevent food companies from bypassing regulations and to control children's exposure to marketing channels other than TV.

  11. Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFazio, Frank A.; Arnold, Douglas

    1988-01-01

    Reaching students and donors through advertising is discussed in several articles including: "Proven Effective," on what makes three advertising campaigns work; "Commercial Appeal," on how advertising can help institutions meet its goals (Frank A. DeFazio); "Desperately Seeking Savvy," on finding the right advertising…

  12. 78 FR 69691 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Product Name Placement, Size, and Prominence in Advertising and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ..., and Prominence in Advertising and Promotional Labeling; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... Advertising and Promotional Labeling.'' When finalized, the draft guidance will replace the guidance of the... placement, size, prominence, and frequency in promotional labeling and advertising for prescription...

  13. Content Analysis of Food and Beverages Advertisements Targeting Children and Adults on Television in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Prathapan, Shamini; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Low, Wah Yun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Food marketing is one of the main factors in the increase in childhood obesity. The objective is to compare the strategies used for promotion of food and beverages advertisements on Sri Lankan television for children and adults. Method Among 16 analog television channels in Sri Lanka, 50% of the channels were selected randomly after stratifying according to language. Recording was during weekdays and weekends. In total, 95 different food and beverages advertisements were analyzed irrespective of the channel. Results Among all food and beverages–related advertisements, 78% were child focused, and among these 74% claimed health benefits. A statistically significant difference was found in terms of implications related to nutrition or health (P < .05). None of the advertisements contained disclaimers. Conclusion and recommendations The Ministry of Health needs to pursue all food and beverages–focused advertisements for policy formulation and implementation. PMID:26658325

  14. Food Advertising and Eating Disorders: Marketing Body Dissatisfaction, the Drive for Thinness, and Dieting in Women's Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Nona L.; Blackhurst, Anne E.

    1999-01-01

    States that although the influence of fashion advertising on women's relationships with food and their bodies has received considerable attention, the role of food advertising in women's magazines has been virtually unexplored. Argues that food advertisements reflect and contribute to the primary precursors of eating disorders: body…

  15. Effect of television advertisements for foods on food consumption in children.

    PubMed

    Halford, Jason C G; Gillespie, Jane; Brown, Victoria; Pontin, Eleanor E; Dovey, Terence M

    2004-04-01

    The impact of television (TV) advertisements (commercials) on children's eating behaviour and health is of critical interest. In a preliminary study we examined lean, over weight and obese children's ability to recognise eight food and eight non-food related adverts in a repeated measures design. Their consumption of sweet and savoury, high and low fat snack foods were measured after both sessions. Whilst there was no significant difference in the number of non-food adverts recognised between the lean and obese children, the obese children did recognise significantly more of the food adverts. The ability to recognise the food adverts significantly correlated with the amount of food eaten after exposure to them. The overall snack food intake of the obese and overweight children was significantly higher than the lean children in the control (non-food advert) condition. The consumption of all the food offered increased post food advert with the exception of the low-fat savoury snack. These data demonstrate obese children's heightened alertness to food related cues. Moreover, exposure to such cues induce increased food intake in all children. As suggested the relationship between TV viewing and childhood obesity appears not merely a matter of excessive sedentary activity. Exposure to food adverts promotes consumption.

  16. Analysis of food advertising to children on Spanish television: probing exposure to television marketing

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Daniel; Hernández-Torres, Juan José; Agil, Ahmad; Comino, Mariano; López, Juan Carlos; Macías, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to assess longitudinal changes in television (TV) food advertising during 2013 compared to 2007, measuring children's exposure to healthy and unhealthy advertisements, after the new European and Spanish Public Health laws published in 2011. Material and methods Two thematic channels for children (TC), and 2 generalist channels (GC) for all ages were recorded, between April and May 2013, on 2 week and 2 weekend days. Food advertisements were classified as core (CFA) (nutrient dense, low energy), non-core (NCFA) (unbalanced energy profile or high in energy), or others (OFA) (supermarkets and special food). Results One thousand two hundred sixty-three food advertisements were recorded (TC: 579/GC: 684) in 2013. NCFA were the most shown (54.9%) in the regular full day TV programming (p < 0.001). In 2013, children watching GC had a higher relative risk of being exposed to fast food advertisements than when watching TC (RR = 2.133, 95% CI: 1.398–3.255); CFA were broadcast most frequently in 2013 (GC: 23.7%; and TC: 47.2%) vs. 2007 (TC: 22.9%) (p < 0.001). The proportion of broadcasting between NCFA/CFA and OFA food advertisements in children's peak time slots was higher on TC (203/162) during 2013 than on GC (189/140), and significantly higher than that shown on TC in 2007 (180/36, p < 0.001). Conclusions Broadcasting of unhealthy TV food advertising on TC is lower today than six years ago; but, children's exposure to TV advertising of unhealthy food is worrying in Spain, and there is more exposure to unhealthy than healthy food by TV. Watching GC in 2013 had higher risk of being exposed to fast food advertisements than watching TC. PMID:27478462

  17. Food advertisements during children's Saturday morning television programming: are they consistent with dietary recommendations?

    PubMed

    Kotz, K; Story, M

    1994-11-01

    Children in the United States spend more time watching television than they do in any other activity except sleep. Given the number of food commercials to which children are exposed, we thought it would be of interest to examine current food advertising during children's television programs and to assess whether the products advertised are consistent with dietary recommendations for good health. The 52.5 hours of children's Saturday morning television we viewed from five major networks contained 997 commercials selling a product and 68 public service announcements. Of the 564 food advertisements (56.5% of all advertisements), 43.6% advertised foods classified in the fats, oils, and sweet food group. The most frequently advertised product was high-sugar cereals. We found that commercials broadcast during children's Saturday morning programming promote foods predominantly high in fat and/or sugar, many of which have relatively low nutritional value. As such, the diet presented on Saturday morning television is the antithesis of what is recommended for healthful eating for children. We conclude that the issue of television food advertising to young children be revisited on a national level.

  18. Students as subjects in food advertising studies. An appraisal of appropriateness.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hojoon; Reid, Leonard N

    2014-10-01

    Considerable knowledge on food advertising has been generated by research on consumers' psychological reactions to food advertising messaging using either students or nonstudents as subjects. Building on past research, this article investigates the methodological question of whether students are appropriate surrogates for nonstudents in food advertising studies. Following exposure to print advertisements featuring healthy and unhealthy foods with two different nutrient attribute-based message appeals, student and nonstudent subjects were asked to complete five standard evaluative response measures to the food ads: claim believability, attitude-toward-the ad, attitude-toward-the-product, attitude-toward-the-brand, and purchase intention. Among the findings, students were found to react differently and more negatively to identical food advertisements than nonstudents. Overall, the message sent to health communication researchers, policy officials, and practicing professionals is - unless certain criteria are satisfied - students should be considered inadequate subjects to represent all age groups of the general population in food advertising research. Thus, conclusions drawn from student-based research about advertising processing and effects should be questioned and broad generalizations avoided.

  19. What's on Malaysian television? - A survey on food advertising targeting children.

    PubMed

    Karupaiah, Tilakavati; Chinna, Karuthan; Mee, Loi Huei; Mei, Lim Siau; Noor, Mohd Ismail

    2008-01-01

    The Malaysian government recently introduced a ban on fast food advertisements targeting children on television. This study reports on data covering 6 months of television food advertising targeting children. Six out of seven of the Nation's commercial television networks participated (response rate = 85.7%). Based on reported timings of children's programmes, prime time significantly differed ( p <0.05) between weekdays (mean = 1.89 +/- 0.18 hr) and weekends (mean = 4.61 +/- 0.33 hr). The increased trend during weekends, school vacation and Ramadhan was evident. Over the six-month period, the mean number of food advertisements appearing per month varied greatly between television stations (C = 1104; D = 643; F = 407; B = 327; A = 59; E = 47). Food advertising also increased the most in September (n = 3158), followed by July (n = 2770), August (n = 2431), October (n = 2291), November (n = 2245) and June (n = 2211). Content analysis of advertisements indicated snacks were the highest (34.5%), followed by dairy products (20.3%), sugars and candies (13.4%), biscuits (11.2%), fast food (6.7%), breakfast cereal (6.4%), beverages (4.1%), supplements (0.9%), rice (0.6%), noodles (0.5%), bread (0.3%), miscellaneous and processed foods (0.2%). Paradoxically, we found that the frequency of snack food advertised during children's prime time was 5 times more than fast foods. The sodium content (mean = 620 mg per 100g) of these snack foods was found to be highest.

  20. [Regulation of food advertising in Brazil: convergence and conflicts of interest].

    PubMed

    Henriques, Patricia; Dias, Patricia Camacho; Burlandy, Luciene

    2014-06-01

    This study conducted a comparative analysis of a bill to regulate advertising for unhealthy food and beverages with low nutritional value, submitted to public hearings in 2006, and the Resolution passed in 2010. The analysis was based on data from official documents pertaining to food advertising, identification of key actors, and their underlying arguments. As approved, the Resolution is less detailed and rigorous from the regulatory perspective. The final documents removed bans and requirements on the format, content, and theme of food advertising, especially targeting children. Stronger discussion is needed on the constitution of the public arena, public interests, and the mechanisms and processes to help guarantee them.

  1. Do the foods advertised in Australian supermarket catalogues reflect national dietary guidelines?

    PubMed

    Cameron, Adrian J; Sayers, Stacey J; Sacks, Gary; Thornton, Lukar E

    2015-09-16

    Unhealthy diets are the major contributor to poor health in Australia and many countries globally. The majority of food spending in Australia occurs in supermarkets, which stock and sell both healthy and unhealthy foods. This study aimed to compare the foods advertised in the marketing catalogues (circulars) from four Australian supermarket chains with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. The content of national online weekly supermarket catalogues from four major Australian supermarket retailers was audited from June-September 2013 (12 weeks). Advertised products were categorized as (i) foods in the five core food groups (plus water); (ii) discretionary foods plus fats and oils; (iii) alcohol and (iv) other (food not fitting into any other category). Across all chains combined, 34.2% of foods advertised were from the five core food groups, 43.3% were discretionary foods, 8.5% were alcohol and the remaining 14.0% were 'other' foods. The percentage of advertised foods in the five core food groups varied between 29.3 and 38.3% across the four chains, whereas the percentage of discretionary foods varied between 34.8 and 49.0%. Australian supermarket catalogues heavily promote discretionary foods and contribute towards an environment that supports unhealthy eating behaviour. Strategies to increase the ratio of healthy-to-unhealthy foods need to be explored as part of efforts to improve population diets.

  2. Culture as Advertisement: A Synoptic Survey of Fast Food and Family Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burd, Gene

    Exploring the idea that urban culture has changed food sharing practices and, in effect, produced a cultural "advertisement" in the marketing and selling of the fast food franchise, this paper discusses the commercial replication of community and the communion of food sharing in this new fast food culture. Following an introduction that…

  3. Compliance with children’s television food advertising regulations in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the Australian co-regulatory system in limiting children’s exposure to unhealthy television food advertising by measuring compliance with mandatory and voluntary regulations. An audit was conducted on food and beverage television advertisements broadcast in five major Australian cities during children’s programming time from 1st September 2010 to 31st October 2010. The data were assessed against mandatory and voluntary advertising regulations, the information contained in an industry report of breaches, and the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Results During the two months of data collection there were a total of 951 breaches of the combined regulations. This included 619 breaches of the mandatory regulations (CTS) and 332 breaches of the voluntary regulations (RCMI and QSRI). Almost 83% of all food and beverages advertised during children’s programming times were for foods classified as ‘Extras’ in the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. There were also breaches in relation to the amount of advertising repetition and the use of promotional appeals such as premium offers, competitions, and endorsements by popular children’s characters. The self-regulatory systems were found to have flaws in their reporting and there were errors in the Australian Food and Grocery Council’s compliance report. Conclusions This audit suggests that current advertising regulations are inadequate. Regulations need to be closely monitored and more tightly enforced to protect children from advertisements for unhealthy foods. PMID:23039855

  4. The Effectiveness of Parental Communication in Modifying the Relation between Food Advertising and Children's Consumption Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buijzen, Moniek

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of various types of parental communication in modifying children's responses to television food advertising. In a combined diary-survey study among 234 parents of 4- to 12-year-old children, I investigated how different styles of advertising mediation (active vs. restrictive) and consumer…

  5. Attitudinal Factors Affecting Viral Advertising Pass-On Behaviour of Online Consumers in Food Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Salleh, Nurhidayah; Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Zakuan, Norhayati; Sulaiman, Zuraidah; Zameri Mat Saman, Muhamad

    2016-05-01

    The increase number of active users of social media, especially Facebook, stimulates viral advertising behaviour among them, thus attracting e-marketers to focus on viral advertising in promoting their products. In global market, use of Facebook platform indicated that food services/restaurant of food industry is ranked number 11 with 18.8% users’ response rate within the platform. This development calls for e-marketers in Malaysia to use Facebook as their viral advertising channel. Attitudinal factors affecting the viral advertising pass-on behaviour (VAPB) especially among members of social media is of interest to many researchers. The typical attitudinal factors used were attitude toward social media (ATSM), attitude toward advertising in social media (AASM) and attitude toward advertising in general (AAIG). Attitude toward advertised brand (ATAB) is important in fast food industry because users of social media tend to share their experience about tastes and features of the food. However, ATAB is less emphasized in the conceptual model between attitudinal factors and VAPB. These four factors of consumer attitude served as independent variables in the conceptual model of this study and their effect on viral advertising pass-on behaviour among members of Domino's Pizza Malaysia Facebook page was examined. Online survey using a set of questionnaire which was sent to the members of this group via private message was employed. A total of 254 sets of usable questionnaires were collected from the respondents. All the attitudinal factors, except for AASM, were found to have positive and significant effect on VAPB. AAIG exerted the strongest effect on VAPB. Therefore, e-marketers should emphasize on developing a favourable attitude toward advertising in general among members of a social media to get them involve in viral advertising. In addition, instilling a favourable attitude towards advertised brand is also vital as it influences the members to viral the brand

  6. Frequency and Types of Foods Advertised on Saturday Morning and Weekday Afternoon English- and Spanish-Language American Television Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Robert A.; Cassady, Diana; Culp, Jennifer; Alcalay, Rina

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe food advertised on networks serving children and youth, and to compare ads on English-language networks with ads on Spanish networks. Design: Analysis of television food advertisements appearing on Saturday morning and weekday afternoons in 2005-2006. A random sample of 1,130 advertisements appearing on 12 networks catering…

  7. 75 FR 12756 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Prescription Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Prescription Drug Advertisements AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS..., contained in FDA's regulations on prescription drug advertisements. DATES: Submit written or electronic... of information technology. Prescription Drug Advertisements--21 CFR 202.1 (OMB Control Number...

  8. 75 FR 34142 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Study of Clinical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ...-Consumer Print Advertisements for Prescription Drugs AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Direct-to-Consumer (DTC) Print Advertisements for Prescription Drugs. This study is designed to... through approved labeling and to consumers through print advertisements. DATES: Submit either...

  9. Evidence of a possible link between obesogenic food advertising and child overweight.

    PubMed

    Lobstein, T; Dibb, S

    2005-08-01

    A recent review of the literature concluded that advertising of foods on television may influence children's food choices and encourage unhealthy diets, but the review acknowledged there was a lack of clear evidence in coming to this conclusion. The present paper examines ecological evidence for a link between advertising to children and the risk of overweight using data from surveys of advertising on children's television and estimates of the prevalence of overweight among children, in the USA, Australia and eight European countries. A significant association was found between the proportion of children overweight and the numbers of advertisements per hour on children's television, especially those advertisements that encourage the consumption of energy-dense, micronutrient-poor foods (r = 0.81, P < 0.005). A weaker, negative association was found between the proportion of children overweight and the number of advertisements encouraging healthier diets (r = -0.56, P < 0.10). The quantity of advertising on children's television appears to be related to the prevalence of excess body weight among children. Furthermore, the content of the advertising appears to have a specific effect. The findings justify the need for taking precautionary measures to reduce children's exposure to obesogenic marketing practices.

  10. Food advertising during children's television programming on broadcast and cable channels.

    PubMed

    Stitt, Carmen; Kunkel, Dale

    2008-11-01

    The rise in the number of overweight and obese children in the United States is recognized as a serious health threat. Among the factors contributing to this increase is the preponderance of food marketing on television targeted at children. Previous content analysis studies have identified patterns of food product types that are commonly associated with unhealthy diets, but few have attempted to independently evaluate the nutritional quality of advertised foods. This study identifies the nature and extent of food marketing messages presented during children's television programs, while also classifying the products advertised using a U.S. Department of Health and Human Services consumer food rating scheme. The findings indicate that food advertising accounts for nearly half of all commercial messages on children's programs. An average hour includes 11 food ads that account for 4:25 of total ad time. Broadcast channels deliver more food advertising than cable channels, although the types of food products marketed on both channels are highly similar. The overwhelming majority of foods ads directed to children are for high-calorie, low nutrient food products that should not be part of a regular diet. These data provide a baseline for evaluating anticipated future industry efforts at reform, such as attempts to comply with a recent Institute of Medicine (2006) policy recommendation that food marketing to children should be balanced between more healthy and less healthy food products within two years time.

  11. Differential Impact of Message Appeals, Food Healthiness, and Poverty Status on Evaluative Responses to Nutrient-Content Claimed Food Advertisements.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hojoon; Reid, Leonard N

    2015-01-01

    A 2 × 3 × 2 mixed factorial experimental design was used to examine how three message appeals (benefit-seeking vs. risk-avoidance vs. taste appeals), food healthiness (healthy vs. unhealthy foods), and consumer poverty status (poverty vs. nonpoverty groups) impact evaluative responses to nutrient-content claimed food advertisements. Subjects were partitioned into two groups, those below and those above the poverty line, and exposed to nutrient-content claimed advertisement treatments for healthy and unhealthy foods featuring the three appeals. The findings reaffirmed the interaction effects between perceivably healthy and unhealthy foods and different appeals reported in previous studies, and found interaction effects between consumer poverty level and response to the message appeals featured in the experimental food advertisements. Age, body mass index, current dieting status, education, and gender were examined as covariates.

  12. Government can regulate food advertising to children because cognitive research shows that it is inherently misleading.

    PubMed

    Graff, Samantha; Kunkel, Dale; Mermin, Seth E

    2012-02-01

    The childhood obesity crisis has prompted repeated calls for government action to curb the marketing of unhealthy food to children. Food and entertainment industry groups have asserted that the First Amendment prohibits such regulation. However, case law establishes that the First Amendment does not protect "inherently misleading" commercial speech. Cognitive research indicates that young children cannot effectively recognize the persuasive intent of advertising or apply the critical evaluation required to comprehend commercial messages. Given this combination--that government can prohibit "inherently misleading" advertising and that children cannot adequately understand commercial messages--advertising to children younger than age twelve should be considered beyond the scope of constitutional protection.

  13. Food advertisements in two popular U.S. parenting magazines: results of a five-year analysis.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Hammond, Rodney; Ethan, Danna; Samuel, Lalitha

    2013-12-24

    Obesity rates among American youth have prompted an examination of food advertisements geared towards children. Research indicates children's high exposure to these advertisements and their influence on food preferences. Less is known about the presence of these advertisements in parenting magazines. This study's objective was to examine prevalence of food advertisements in popular parenting magazines and identify products by USDA food category. We analyzed 116 issues of two popular U.S. parenting magazines across five years. All food and beverage advertisements for USDA Food Category were coded. Breakfast cereals were coded for nutritional quality. The coding took place at varied libraries in New Jersey, in the United States. A total of 19,879 food and beverage products were analyzed. One-third of advertisements (32.5%) were for baked goods, snacks, and sweets -- products generally low in nutrient density. Two-thirds of the breakfast cereals were low in nutritional quality (64.6%). Beverages comprised 11% of the advertisements, fruit juices the highest proportion. Less than 3% of advertisements were for fruits and vegetables combined. No significant food product trends were evident across the five-year period. Food advertisements identified in parenting magazines were generally low in nutritional value. Additional research is necessary to determine the influence of food advertisements on parents' purchasing habits.

  14. Food Advertisements in Two Popular U.S. Parenting Magazines: Results of a Five-Year Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Basch, Corey H.; Hammond, Rodney N.; Ethan, Danna; Samuel, Lalitha

    2014-01-01

    Obesity rates among American youth have prompted an examination of food advertisements geared towards children. Research indicates children’s high exposure to these advertisements and their influence on food preferences. Less is known about the presence of these advertisements in parenting magazines. This study’s objective was to examine prevalence of food advertisements in popular parenting magazines and identify products by USDA food category. We analyzed 116 issues of two popular U.S. parenting magazines across five years. All food and beverage advertisements for USDA Food Category were coded. Breakfast cereals were coded for nutritional quality. The coding took place at varied libraries in New Jersey, in the United States. A total of 19,879 food and beverage products were analyzed. One-third of advertisements (32.5%) were for baked goods, snacks, and sweets -- products generally low in nutrient density. Two-thirds of the breakfast cereals were low in nutritional quality (64.6%). Beverages comprised 11% of the advertisements, fruit juices the highest proportion. Less than 3% of advertisements were for fruits and vegetables combined. No significant food product trends were evident across the five-year period. Food advertisements identified in parenting magazines were generally low in nutritional value. Additional research is necessary to determine the influence of food advertisements on parents’ purchasing habits. PMID:24576378

  15. Agro-food industry growth and obesity in China: what role for regulating food advertising and promotion and nutrition labelling?

    PubMed

    Hawkes, C

    2008-03-01

    Taking a food supply chain approach, this paper examines the regulation of food marketing and nutrition labelling as strategies to help combat obesity in China in an era of rapid agro-food industry growth. China is the largest food producer and consumer in the world. Since the early 1980s, the agro-food industry has undergone phenomenal expansion throughout the food supply chain, from agricultural production to trade, agro-food processing to food retailing, and from food service to advertising and promotion. This industry growth, alongside related socioeconomic changes and government policies, has encouraged a 'nutrition transition'. China's population, especially in urban areas, is now consuming significantly more energy from dietary fat, which is leading to higher rates of obesity. Regulation of food advertising and promotion and nutrition labelling has the potential to help prevent the further growth of obesity in China and encourage the agro-food industry to supplier healthier foods. Government legislation and guidance, as well as self-regulation and voluntary initiatives, are needed to reduce children's exposure to food advertising and promotion, and increase the effectiveness of nutrition labelling. Policies on food marketing and nutrition labelling should be adapted to the China context, and accompanied by further action throughout the food supply chain. Given China's unique characteristics and position in the world today, there is an opportunity for the government and the agro-food industry to lead the world by creating a balanced, health promoting model of complementary legislation and industry action.

  16. Associations between children's television advertising exposure and their food consumption patterns: a household diary-survey study.

    PubMed

    Buijzen, Moniek; Schuurman, Joris; Bomhof, Elise

    2008-01-01

    In a diary-survey study in 234 households with children aged 4-12 years, we investigated the associations between children's exposure to food advertising and their consumption of (a) advertised food brands, (b) advertised energy-dense food product categories, and (c) food products overall. Relations were examined using multiple hierarchical regression analysis, while controlling for various child (i.e., age, sex, television viewing time) and family variables (i.e., family income and consumption-related communication styles). Results showed that children's exposure to food advertising was significantly related to their consumption of advertised brands (beta=.21) and energy-dense product categories (beta=.19). The relation between advertising exposure and overall food consumption only held in lower-income families (beta=.19). In addition, consumption-related family communication was an important moderator of the relations between advertising and the food consumption variables. Socio-oriented family communication (i.e., striving for harmony and conformity) was particularly successful in reducing these relations. In conclusion, consistent with communication theories predicting spill-over effects of advertising, the impact of television food advertising exceeded the advertised brand and generalized to more generic unhealthy consumption patterns. Theoretical and societal consequences, as well as the important role of the family are discussed.

  17. Governing childhood obesity: framing regulation of fast food advertising in the Australian print media.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Julie; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul; Taylor, Anne

    2009-11-01

    Childhood obesity is widely constructed as reaching epidemic proportions with consumption of fast food viewed as a contributing factor. This paper analyses media reporting of the regulation of fast food consumption to children. A media search of five Australian newspapers for the period January 2006 to June 2008 elicited 100 articles relating to the regulation of fast food advertising to children. Content and thematic analysis of the articles reveal conflicting perspectives on the role of the state; the level of accountability of the food and advertising industries; and responsibilities of parents for regulating fast food consumption in children. The Federal Government, food and advertising industries and free to air broadcasters favour industry self-regulation and personal responsibility for fast food consumption while the proponents of government regulation include consumer groups, state government health ministers, nutrition and public health academics and medical and health foundations. The regulation of fast food advertising to children is discussed in relation to ideas about governance and the public health strategies which follow from these ideas. The paper argues that all proposed solutions are indicative of a neoliberal approach to the governance of health insofar as the responsibility for regulation of food marketing is viewed as lying with industry and the regulation of lifestyle risk is viewed as an individual responsibility.

  18. Changes in food advertisements during 'prime-time' television from 1991 to 2006 in the UK and Canada.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jean; Hennessy-Priest, Kathleen; Ingimarsdóttir, Sigrún; Sheeshka, Judy; Østbye, Truls; White, Martin

    2009-08-01

    Food advertisements on mainstream television have received less research attention than those on children's television. Little is known about how television food advertisements vary internationally or if there have been changes over recent years. We describe food-related television advertisements and the nutrient content of foods advertised during prime-time television in Ontario, Canada and the UK in 1991 and 2006. Information on what advertisements were broadcast were obtained from video recordings and audience research bureaux. Data on nutrient content of foods advertised were obtained from manufacturers and standard food tables. The proportion of advertisements that were food related decreased between 1991 and 2006 in both countries. The frequency of food-related advertisements was relatively constant in Canada but decreased between 1991 and 2006 in the UK. In 1991, advertisements for beverages and meals predominated in both countries. By 2006, food-related advertisements in Canada were dominated by meals and restaurants. In the UK advertisements for food stores and beverages predominated. The 'TV diet' in Canada in 1991 was relatively high in fat, high in alcohol and low in fibre, compared to current recommendations. By 2006, this had changed to high in fat and sodium and low in fibre. The 'TV diet' in the UK in 1991 was high in fat, sodium, sugar and alcohol and low in fibre compared to current recommendations. By 2006, the UK 'TV diet' was high in sodium, sugar and alcohol and low in fibre. Foods advertised on 'prime-time' television do not reflect a healthful diet.

  19. [Regulation of food advertising on television for the prevention of childhood obesity].

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Catalina González; Samur, Eduardo Atalah

    2011-09-01

    Obesity is a serious global epidemic and the prevention strategies implemented have been insufficient. Numerous environmental factors have been associated with risk of obesity and their full consideration in prevention policies is important. The connection between food advertising on television and childhood obesity has been demonstrated. The large number of advertisements for unhealthy foods targeted at children through television and its possible impact on health has led some countries to legislate on this matter. However, a conceptual framework of reference enabling legislation must be internationally defined in order to achieve a real impact in preventing childhood obesity. This paper reviews scientific evidence on the relationship between food advertising and childhood obesity as a basis for developing public policies to regulate food marketing on television.

  20. Food advertisements on UK television popular with children: a content analysis in relation to dental health.

    PubMed

    Al-Mazyad, M; Flannigan, N; Burnside, G; Higham, S; Boyland, E

    2017-02-10

    Objective To quantify the prevalence of advertising for foods and beverages potentially detrimental to dental health on UK television watched by children.Design Content analysis of pre-recorded television advertisements (adverts).Materials and methods Three hundred and fifty-two hours of television were recorded (one weekday and one weekend day, 6 am - 10 pm) from the main commercial channel (ITV1). All adverts were coded using pre-defined criteria.Setting UK television recorded between January and December 2012.Results Of 9,151 adverts, foods and beverages were the second most commonly advertised products (16.7%; n = 1,532). Nearly two-thirds of food adverts were for items that are potentially harmful to dental health (61%; n = 934). Of these, 96.6% were cariogenic and 11% were acidogenic foods. During peak children's viewing hours, the proportion of foods that are potentially harmful to dental health was significantly higher than for non-harmful foods (65.9% vs. 34.1%; p = 0.011). Adverts for foods potentially harmful to dental health were rare around children's programmes, but significantly more frequent during other programmes watched by children (p <0.001).Conclusion UK children are exposed to a particularly high proportion of advertisements for foods that are potentially detrimental to their dental health during their peak viewing hours and around the programmes they watch the most.

  1. Food Advertising and Marketing Directed at Children and Adolescents in the US.

    PubMed

    Story, Mary; French, Simone

    2004-02-10

    In recent years, the food and beverage industry in the US has viewed children and adolescents as a major market force. As a result, children and adolescents are now the target of intense and specialized food marketing and advertising efforts. Food marketers are interested in youth as consumers because of their spending power, their purchasing influence, and as future adult consumers. Multiple techniques and channels are used to reach youth, beginning when they are toddlers, to foster brand-building and influence food product purchase behavior. These food marketing channels include television advertising, in-school marketing, product placements, kids clubs, the Internet, toys and products with brand logos, and youth-targeted promotions, such as cross-selling and tie-ins. Foods marketed to children are predominantly high in sugar and fat, and as such are inconsistent with national dietary recommendations. The purpose of this article is to examine the food advertising and marketing channels used to target children and adolescents in the US, the impact of food advertising on eating behavior, and current regulation and policies.

  2. Food Advertising and Marketing Directed at Children and Adolescents in the US

    PubMed Central

    Story, Mary; French, Simone

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, the food and beverage industry in the US has viewed children and adolescents as a major market force. As a result, children and adolescents are now the target of intense and specialized food marketing and advertising efforts. Food marketers are interested in youth as consumers because of their spending power, their purchasing influence, and as future adult consumers. Multiple techniques and channels are used to reach youth, beginning when they are toddlers, to foster brand-building and influence food product purchase behavior. These food marketing channels include television advertising, in-school marketing, product placements, kids clubs, the Internet, toys and products with brand logos, and youth-targeted promotions, such as cross-selling and tie-ins. Foods marketed to children are predominantly high in sugar and fat, and as such are inconsistent with national dietary recommendations. The purpose of this article is to examine the food advertising and marketing channels used to target children and adolescents in the US, the impact of food advertising on eating behavior, and current regulation and policies. PMID:15171786

  3. The role of attentional bias in the effect of food advertising on actual food intake among children.

    PubMed

    Folkvord, Frans; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Wiers, Reinout W; Buijzen, Moniek

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the potential moderating role of attentional bias (i.e., gaze duration, number of fixations, latency of initial fixation) in the effect of advergames promoting energy-dense snacks on children's snack intake. A randomized between-subject design was conducted with 92 children who played an advergame that promoted either energy-dense snacks or nonfood products. Eye movements and reaction times to food and nonfood cues were recorded to assess attentional bias during playtime using eye-tracking methods. Children could eat freely after playing the game. The results showed that playing an advergame containing food cues increased total intake. Furthermore, children with a higher gaze duration for the food cues ate more of the advertised snacks. In addition, children with a faster latency of initial fixation to the food cues ate more in total and ate more of the advertised snacks. The number of fixations on the food cues did not increase actual snack intake. Food advertisements are designed to grab attention, and this study shows that the extent to which a child's attention is directed to a food cue increases the effect of the advertisement.

  4. Food advertising to children and its effects on diet: review of recent prevalence and impact data.

    PubMed

    Boyland, Emma Jane; Whalen, Rosa

    2015-08-01

    In the context of a global obesity epidemic that has led to an unprecedented burden of non-communicable disease, the role of food and beverage marketing to children has been scrutinised in numerous studies. This article discusses the broader concept of an obesity-promoting food environment, before reviewing key, recent (last 5 yr) international research findings with regard to both the prevalence and effects of food and beverage advertising on children's intake. Evidence relating to the two main avenues of food marketing exposure, television, and the Internet, is explored and consideration is given to the differences in consumer experience of these types of promotion. Despite methodological differences and the varying population samples studied, the outcomes are broadly consistent - food advertising is prevalent, it promotes largely energy dense, nutrient poor foods, and even short-term exposure results in children increasing their food consumption. Policymakers are implored to drive forward meaningful changes in the food environment to support healthier choices and reduce the incidence of obesity and related diseases. This article aims at providing an overview of recent developments in this field. After limiting the search to the last five full years 2009-2014, we searched the following databases: Web of Knowledge and PubMed (keyword search terms used: television, Internet, new media, food advertising, food marketing, children, food intake, energy intake, consumption, and combinations of these terms). In addition we used the references from the articles obtained by this method to check for additional relevant material.

  5. Advertising of ultra-processed foods and beverages: children as a vulnerable population.

    PubMed

    Mallarino, Christina; Gómez, Luis F; González-Zapata, Laura; Cadena, Yazmín; Parra, Diana C

    2013-10-01

    The rapid nutrition transition occurring in Latin America has resulted in a sharp increase of childhood overweight and obesity. Recent evidence has shown that food and beverage advertising has a great influence on children's eating behavior. This population has become a key target market for the ultra-processed foods and beverages industry, which is marketing products in an aggressive way. Evidence shows that Latin American countries have poor regulation of ultra-processed foods and beverages advertising, where the discourse of self-regulation still prevails over statutory regulations. The following commentary explores how advertising might play an important role in developing unhealthy dietary patterns and obesity in Latin American children, as well as the urgent need for government action and the involvement of civil society to tackle this public health issue.

  6. The regulatory pyramid meets the food pyramid: can regulatory theory improve controls on television food advertising to Australian children?

    PubMed

    Reeve, Belinda

    2011-09-01

    This article examines whether responsive regulation has potential to improve the regulatory framework which controls free-to-air television advertising to children, so that the regulatory scheme can be used more effectively as a tool for obesity prevention. It presents two apparently conflicting arguments, the first being that responsive regulation, particularly monitoring and enforcement measures, can be used to refine the regulation of children's food advertising. The second argument is that there are limits to the improvements that responsive regulation can achieve, since it is trying to achieve the wrong goal, namely placing controls on misleading or deceptive advertising techniques rather than diminishing the sheer volume of advertisements to which children are exposed. These two positions reflect a conflict between public health experts and governments regarding the role of industry in chronic disease prevention, as well as a broader debate about how best to regulate industry.

  7. Nutritional Content of Food and Beverage Products in Television Advertisements Seen on Children's Programming

    PubMed Central

    Schermbeck, Rebecca M.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: Given the high rates of childhood obesity, assessing the nutritional content of food and beverage products in television (TV) advertisements to which children are exposed is important. Methods: TV ratings data for children 2–5 and 6–11 years of age were used to examine the nutritional content of food and beverage products in advertisements seen by children on all programming and children's programming (≥35% child-audience share). Nutritional content was assessed based on the federal Interagency Working Group (IWG) recommended nutrients to limit (NTL), including saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and sodium. Results: A total of 46.2% of 2- to 5-year-olds' and 43.5% of 6- to 11-year-olds' total exposure to food and beverage TV advertising was for ads seen on children's programming. Among children 2–5 and 6–11 years, respectively, 84.1 and 84.4% of ads seen on all programming and 95.8 and 97.3% seen on children's programming were for products high in NTL, and 97.8 and 98.1% of Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI) company-member ads seen on children's programming were for products high in NTL, compared to 80.5 and 89.9% of non-CFBAI product ads. Conclusions: Most food and beverage products in TV ads seen by children do not meet the IWG nutrition recommendations and less than one half of such ads are covered by self-regulation. Products advertised on children's versus general-audience programming and by CFBAI- versus non-CFBAI-member companies are particularly of low nutritional quality, suggesting that self-regulation has not successfully protected children from exposure to advertising for unhealthy foods and that continued monitoring is required. PMID:24206260

  8. Systematic literature review of the effects of food and drink advertising on food and drink-related behaviour, attitudes and beliefs in adult populations.

    PubMed

    Mills, S D H; Tanner, L M; Adams, J

    2013-04-01

    A large body of research confirms that food advertising affects the food preferences and behaviour of children. The impact of food advertising on adults is less clear. We conducted a systematic review exploring the effects of advertising of food and non-alcoholic drinks (referred to as 'food' throughout) on food-related behaviour, attitudes and beliefs in adult populations. We searched seven electronic databases, grey literature sources, and references and citations of included material for experimental studies written in English investigating the effects of commercial food advertising on the food-related behaviours, attitudes and beliefs of adults aged 16 years and over. Nine studies, rated moderate to poor quality, were included in the review; all were from developed countries and explored the impact of televised food advertising. Overall, the results did not show conclusively whether or not food advertising affects food-related behaviour, attitudes or beliefs in adults, but suggest that the impact varies inconsistently within subgroups, including gender, weight and existing food psychology. The identification of a small number of relevant studies, none of which were high quality, and with substantial heterogeneity, highlights the need for further research. Future studies investigating longer term outcomes, diverse advertising formats, and in countries with different levels of economic development will be of particular value.

  9. Nutrition Recommendations and the Children’s Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative’s 2014 Approved Food and Beverage Product List

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    We compare the Children’s Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative’s (CFBAI’s) April 2014 list of food and beverage products approved to be advertised on children’s television programs with the federal Interagency Working Group’s nutrition recommendations for such advertised products. Products were assessed by using the nutrients to limit (saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and sodium) component of the Interagency Working Group’s recommendations. Fifty-three percent of the listed products did not meet the nutrition recommendations and, therefore, were ineligible to be advertised. We recommend continued monitoring of food and beverage products marketed to children. PMID:25906434

  10. Tobacco advertising and sales practices in licensed retail outlets after the Food and Drug Administration regulations.

    PubMed

    Frick, Ryan G; Klein, Elizabeth G; Ferketich, Amy K; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2012-10-01

    To assess retailer compliance with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations on tobacco sales and advertising practices, including point-of-sale advertisements, in two distinct Columbus, Ohio neighborhood groups by income. Data were gathered from a random sample of 129 licensed tobacco retailers, which included data on both exterior and interior advertisements as well as sales practices. Descriptive analyses compared retail outlets by high and low income neighborhood locations. Compliance with FDA regulations was high in the random sample of urban tobacco retail outlets. None of the retail outlets sold loose cigarettes or offered free items with purchase. Less than 10% of the outlets surveyed offered self-service access to cigarettes or smokeless tobacco products. From all surveyed retail outlets 95% had cigarette, 57% had smokeless, and 57% had cigar advertisements at the point-of-sale. There were no significant differences in compliance by income, but the mean number of advertisements on the building and self-service access to cigars was significantly different by neighborhood income. There was a high degree of compliance with the new FDA regulation on tobacco marketing and sales practices in urban retail tobacco outlets in Columbus, Ohio. Tobacco advertising and marketing remain highly prevalent in retail outlets, with some significant differences between high and low income neighborhoods.

  11. Children's understanding of the selling versus persuasive intent of junk food advertising: implications for regulation.

    PubMed

    Carter, Owen B J; Patterson, Lisa J; Donovan, Robert J; Ewing, Michael T; Roberts, Clare M

    2011-03-01

    Evidence suggests that until 8 years of age most children are cognitively incapable of appreciating the commercial purpose of television advertising and are particularly vulnerable to its persuasive techniques. After this age most children begin to describe the 'selling' intent of advertising and it is widely assumed this equips them with sufficient cognitive defences to protect against advertisers' persuasion attempts. However, much of the previous literature has been criticised for failing to differentiate between children's awareness of 'selling' versus 'persuasive' intent, the latter representing a more sophisticated understanding and superior cognitive defence. Unfortunately there is little literature to suggest at what age awareness of 'persuasive intent' emerges; our aim was to address this important issue. Children (n = 594) were recruited from each grade from Pre-primary (4-5 years) to Grade 7 (11-12 years) from ten primary schools in Perth, Western Australia and exposed to a McDonald's television advertisement. Understanding the purpose of television advertising was assessed both nonverbally (picture indication) and verbally (small discussion groups of 3-4), with particular distinction made between selling versus persuasive intent. Consistent with previous literature, a majority of children described the 'selling' intent of television advertising by 7-8 years both nonverbally and verbally, increasing to 90% by 11-12 years. Awareness of 'persuasive' intent emerged slowly as a function of age but even by our oldest age-group was only 40%. Vulnerability to television advertising may persist until children are far older than previously thought. These findings have important implications regarding the debate surrounding regulation of junk food (and other) advertising aimed at children.

  12. Persuasive techniques used in television advertisements to market foods to UK children.

    PubMed

    Boyland, Emma J; Harrold, Joanne A; Kirkham, Tim C; Halford, Jason C G

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the nature and extent of use of persuasive marketing techniques in television advertisements (adverts) to promote foods to children. Popular UK commercial television channels broadcasting children's/family viewing were recorded for 2 days (6 am-10 pm) every month in 2008 and recordings were screened for adverts. Eighteen thousand eight hundred and eighty eight adverts were for food and these were coded for peak/non-peak children's viewing time and representation of core (healthy)/non-core (unhealthy)/miscellaneous foods. The analysis assessed use of persuasive appeals, premium offers, promotional characters (brand equity and licensed characters), celebrity endorsers and website promotion in food adverts. Promotional characters, celebrity endorsers and premium offers were used more frequently to promote non-core than core foods, even on dedicated children's channels. Brand equity characters featured on a greater proportion of food adverts than licensed characters. A food brand website was promoted in a third of food adverts (websites are not covered by the statutory regulation on food advertising). This extensive analysis of television adverts demonstrated that the use of persuasive marketing techniques to promote unhealthy foods was extensive in broadcasting popular with children despite regulations. Further studies should incorporate an analysis of the content of websites promoted during food adverts.

  13. An analysis of sodium, total fat and saturated fat contents of packaged food products advertised in Bronx-based supermarket circulars.

    PubMed

    Samuel, L; Basch, C H; Ethan, D; Hammond, R; Chiazzese, K

    2014-08-01

    Americans' consumption of sodium, fat, and saturated fat exceed federally recommended limits for these nutrients and has been identified as a preventable leading cause of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. More than 40% of the Bronx population comprises African-Americans, who have increased risk and earlier onset of hypertension and are also genetically predisposed to salt-sensitive hypertension. This study analyzed nutrition information for packaged foods advertised in Bronx-based supermarket circulars. Federally recommended limits for sodium, saturated fat and total fat contents were used to identify foods that were high in these nutrients. The proportion of these products with respect to the total number of packaged foods was calculated. More than a third (35%) and almost a quarter (24%) of the 898 advertised packaged foods were high in saturated fat and sodium respectively. Such foods predominantly included processed meat and fish products, fast foods, meals, entrees and side dishes. Dairy and egg products were the greatest contributors of high saturated fat. Pork and beef products, fast foods, meals, entrees and side dishes had the highest median values for sodium, total fat and saturated fat content. The high proportion of packaged foods that are high in sodium and/or saturated fat promoted through supermarket circulars highlights the need for nutrition education among consumers as well as collaborative public health measures by the food industry, community and government agencies to reduce the amounts of sodium and saturated fat in these products and limit the promotion of foods that are high in these nutrients.

  14. 75 FR 80821 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for... Professional Labeling and Direct-to-Consumer Print Advertisements for Prescription Drugs; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  15. 78 FR 49271 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... Advertising AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... Direct-to-Consumer (DTC) Advertising'' has been approved by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB...-Consumer (DTC) Advertising'' to OMB for review and clearance under 44 U.S.C. 3507. An Agency may...

  16. Effects of exposure to television advertising for energy-dense/nutrient-poor food on children's food intake and obesity in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bora; Kim, Hyogyoo; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Yoon, Jihyun; Chung, Sang-Jin

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of television food advertising on participant food intake and risk of obesity. A total of 2419 children aged 11-13 years were selected from 118 elementary schools in South Korea. All participants completed a self-administered questionnaire with questions about height, weight, television viewing times, food preferences, and food intakes. To estimate actual exposure to food advertising, we asked participants to specify the times at which they usually watched television. We then collected data on the various types of food advertisement broadcast on five different television networks during those viewing times over the course of the previous 7 months. The amount of television watched and exposure to energy-dense/nutrient-poor (EDNP) food advertising were associated with an increased risk of being overweight or obese. Exposure to television advertising for EDNP food was also significantly associated with higher EDNP food preference and intake and lower fruit and vegetable intake. However, these relationships disappeared for all foods after adjusting for the overall amount of television watched. Although it was not possible to conclude that exposure to television advertising for EDNP food was associated with an increased risk of obesity, preference for EDNP foods, or overall food intake due to the strong comprehensive effects of television viewing time, there was a reason to believe the evidence of the effects of advertising in this study. Future longitudinal studies are needed to determine the exclusive effects of exposure to television advertising for EDNP food.

  17. Healthfulness of Foods Advertised in Small and Nontraditional Urban Stores in Minneapolis–St. Paul, Minnesota, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Jennifer E.; Erickson, Darin J.; Caspi, Caitlin E.; Harnack, Lisa J.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Shopping at small food stores, such as corner stores and convenience stores, is linked with unhealthful food and beverage purchases, poor diets, and high risk of obesity. However, information on how foods and beverages are marketed at small stores is limited. The objective of this study was to examine advertisements and product placements for healthful and less healthful foods and beverages at small stores in Minneapolis–St. Paul, Minnesota. Methods We conducted in-store audits of 119 small and nontraditional food retailers (corner/small grocery stores, food–gas marts, pharmacies, and dollar stores) randomly selected from licensing lists in Minneapolis–St. Paul in 2014. We analyzed data on exterior and interior advertisements of foods and beverages and product placement. Results Exterior and interior advertisements for healthful foods and beverages were found in less than half of stores (exterior, 37% [44 of 119]; interior, 20% [24 of 119]). Exterior and interior advertisements for less healthful items were found in approximately half of stores (exterior, 46% [55 of 119]); interior, 66% [78 of 119]). Of the 4 store types, food–gas marts were most likely to have exterior and interior advertisements for both healthful and less healthful items. Corner/small grocery stores and dollar stores had fewer advertisements of any type. Most stores (77%) had at least 1 healthful item featured as an impulse buy (ie, an item easily reached at checkout), whereas 98% featured at least 1 less healthful item as an impulse buy. Conclusion Findings suggest imbalanced advertising and product placement of healthful and less healthful foods and beverages at small food stores in Minneapolis–St. Paul; less healthful items were more apt to be featured as impulse buys. Future interventions and polices should encourage reductions in advertisements and impulse-buy placements of unhealthful products, particularly in food–gas marts, and encourage advertisements of

  18. Experimental Evidence on the Impact of Food Advertising on Children's Knowledge about and Preferences for Healthful Food

    PubMed Central

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Gwozdz, Wencke; De Henauw, Stefaan; Lascorz, Natalia; Pigeot, Iris

    2013-01-01

    To understand the rising prevalence of childhood obesity in affluent societies, it is necessary to take into account the growing obesity infrastructure, which over past decades has developed into an obesogenic environment. This study examines the effects of one of the constituent factors of consumer societies and a potential contributory factor to childhood obesity: commercial food communication targeted to children. Specifically, it investigates the impact of TV advertising on children's food knowledge and food preferences and correlates these findings with their weight status. Evaluations of traditional information- and education-based interventions suggest that they may not sustainably change food patterns. Based on prior consumer research, we propose five hypotheses, which we then test using a subsample from the IDEFICS study, a large-scale pan-European intervention study on childhood obesity. The results indicate that advertising has divergent effects on children's food knowledge and preferences and that food knowledge is unrelated to food preferences. This finding has important implications for both future research and public policy. PMID:23691285

  19. Experimental evidence on the impact of food advertising on children's knowledge about and preferences for healthful food.

    PubMed

    Reisch, Lucia A; Gwozdz, Wencke; Barba, Gianvincenzo; De Henauw, Stefaan; Lascorz, Natalia; Pigeot, Iris

    2013-01-01

    To understand the rising prevalence of childhood obesity in affluent societies, it is necessary to take into account the growing obesity infrastructure, which over past decades has developed into an obesogenic environment. This study examines the effects of one of the constituent factors of consumer societies and a potential contributory factor to childhood obesity: commercial food communication targeted to children. Specifically, it investigates the impact of TV advertising on children's food knowledge and food preferences and correlates these findings with their weight status. Evaluations of traditional information- and education-based interventions suggest that they may not sustainably change food patterns. Based on prior consumer research, we propose five hypotheses, which we then test using a subsample from the IDEFICS study, a large-scale pan-European intervention study on childhood obesity. The results indicate that advertising has divergent effects on children's food knowledge and preferences and that food knowledge is unrelated to food preferences. This finding has important implications for both future research and public policy.

  20. Food advertising and television exposure: influence on eating behavior and nutritional status of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Costa, Suzane Mota Marques; Horta, Paula Martins; dos Santos, Luana Caroline

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of food advertising and television exposure on eating behaviour and nutritional status of children and adolescents. It was a cross sectional study developed among 116 students from a private school in Brazil. Socio-demographic and health conditions were evaluated. Anthropometric data, food consumption, physical activity, television viewing habits and behaviour in relation to food advertising were also investigated. Among the results, a 1:2 relationship was identified between the number of televisions and residents per household. Excessive weight was present in 25.8% of subjects and 66.4% of children watched television while eating. Children were exposed to television for a median of 3.0 hours daily (95% CI: 2.9 to 3.6). There was a direct association between attraction to foods advertised and purchasing the product (p < 0.001) and a positive relationship between the number of televisions per household and body weight (r = 0.246, p = 0.015) and the amount of liquid consumed during meals (r = 0.277, p = 0.013). Findings also highlighted the association between watching television while eating and the reduced probability of fruit consumption (p = 0.032), contrasted with a greater likelihood of daily artificial juice intake (p = 0.039). In conclusion, watching television is associated with lower probability of daily consumption of fruits and the number of television at household is positively related to BMI in children and adolescents.

  1. Not all nutrition claims are perceived equal: anchoring effects and moderating mechanisms in food advertising.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Yoon, Hye Jin; Hove, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Despite the increased use of health claims in food advertising, few studies have investigated how specific nutrition claims have differential effects depending on how they are presented. In this context, the current study tests the anchoring hypothesis. Anchoring refers to a common human tendency to evaluate information differently depending on the presence or absence of a numerical "anchor" or reference point. Two (pilot and main) experimental studies explore anchoring effects on audience response to food advertising both directly and moderated by cognitive, motivational, and message factors. The pilot study finds that food product ads employing nutrition claims with an anchor rather than without an anchor generate two results: First, participants perceive the product to have lower fat/lower calorie contents (anchoring hypothesis); second, they prefer the messages with an anchor over those without an anchor. The main study reports that when anchoring is successfully evoked, it produces favorable attitudes toward the ad, favorable attitudes toward the brand, and purchase intention-but only when moderated by health orientation, claim believability, and nutrition knowledge. Practical implications are provided with respect to regulatory guidelines and effective communication strategies for promoting low-fat and low-calorie products in food advertising.

  2. The impact of initiatives to limit the advertising of food and beverage products to children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Galbraith-Emami, S; Lobstein, T

    2013-12-01

    In response to increasing evidence that advertising of foods and beverages affects children's food choices and food intake, several national governments and many of the world's larger food and beverage manufacturers have acted to restrict the marketing of their products to children or to advertise only 'better for you' products or 'healthier dietary choices' to children. Independent assessment of the impact of these pledges has been difficult due to the different criteria being used in regulatory and self-regulatory regimes. In this paper, we undertook a systematic review to examine the data available on levels of exposure of children to the advertising of less healthy foods since the introduction of the statutory and voluntary codes. The results indicate a sharp division in the evidence, with scientific, peer-reviewed papers showing that high levels of such advertising of less healthy foods continue to be found in several different countries worldwide. In contrast, the evidence provided in industry-sponsored reports indicates a remarkably high adherence to voluntary codes. We conclude that adherence to voluntary codes may not sufficiently reduce the advertising of foods which undermine healthy diets, or reduce children's exposure to this advertising.

  3. Television advertising and branding. Effects on eating behaviour and food preferences in children.

    PubMed

    Boyland, Emma J; Halford, Jason C G

    2013-03-01

    Television provides one of the first, and most intimate, experiences of commercial food promotion. Therefore, unsurprisingly, the effects of television advertising on children's brand preferences are well established. However, its effect on actual food intake and the food choices in children of various weight statuses has only recently been characterised. Despite regulation, children in the UK are exposed to considerable numbers of food adverts on television. These are predominantly for foods high in fat, salt and sugar (HFSS), which are marketed to children using promotional characters and themes of fun. Such adverts have been shown to cause significant increases in intake, particularly in overweight and obese children, and enhanced preference for high carbohydrate and high fat foods in children who consume the greatest amounts of televisual media.

  4. The impact of media and advertising of food on the eating behaviour of adolescent girls in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Jaaly, Elham

    2016-12-12

    This study aims to detect differences in eating behaviours demonstrated by adolescent girls in Jeddah Saudi Arabia, according to the influence of the media through TV advertisements. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of 1519 girls from 20 schools in Jeddah. Survey questions included information regarding media advertising and its effect on eating behaviour. Bivariate analyses were performed to define differences in eating behaviour according to media influence and Chi-square analyses to detect significant relationships. The results indicated a significant correlation between dessert consumption and advertising exposure (P = 0.035). Adolescent girls exposed to such advertising were more likely to consume dessert [n=299 (48.5%)], to shop for food [n=316 (50.7%)], and had attempted to lose weight [n=373 (59.5%)]. The results emphasize the role and obligation of decision-makers to protect young consumers through increased legislation and control of media content (particularly food advertisements) targeting young people.

  5. Trends in the Nutritional Content of TV Food Advertisements Seen by Children in the US: Analyses by Age, Food Categories and Companies

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Lisa M.; Schermbeck, Rebecca M.; Szczypka, Glen; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Braunschweig, Carol L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine trends in children's exposure to food-related advertising on television by age, product category and company. Design Nutritional content analysis using television ratings data for the years 2003, 2005, 2007, and 2009 for children. Setting Annual age-specific television ratings data captured children's exposure to broadcast network, cable network, syndicated and spot television food advertising from all (except Spanish language) programming. Participants Children ages 2–5 and 6–11. Main Exposure Television ratings. Main Outcome Measures Children's exposure to food-related advertising on television with nutritional assessments for food and beverage products for grams of saturated fat, sugar and fiber, and milligrams of sodium. Results Children ages 2–5 and 6–11, respectively, saw, on average, 10.9 and 12.7 food-related television advertisements daily, in 2009, down 17.8% and 6.9% from 2003. Exposure to food and beverage products high in saturated fat, sugar or sodium (SAFSUSO) fell 37.9% and 27.7% but fast food advertising exposure increased by 21.1% and 30.8% among 2–5 and 6–11 year olds, respectively, between 2003 and 2009. In 2009, 86% of ads seen by children were for products high in SAFSUSO, down from 94% in 2003. Conclusions Exposure to unhealthy food and beverage product advertisements has fallen, whereas exposure to fast food ads increased from 2003 to 2009. By 2009, there was not a substantial improvement in the nutritional content of food and beverage advertisements that continued to be advertised and viewed on television by U.S. children. PMID:21810626

  6. Beyond-brand effect of television (TV) food advertisements/commercials on caloric intake and food choice of 5-7-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Halford, Jason C G; Boyland, Emma J; Hughes, Georgina; Oliveira, Lorraine P; Dovey, Terence M

    2007-07-01

    Food advert exposure has been shown to influence calorie intake and food choice in 9-11 year olds. However, little is known about the effect of food advertisements on feeding behaviour in younger children. Therefore, we conducted a study with 93 children aged 5-7 years, 28 of whom were over weight or obese. The children were exposed to 10 non-food adverts and 10 food adverts in a repeated measures design. Their consumption of sweet and savoury, high and low fat snack foods, and fruit were measured following both sessions. Food advert exposure produced a significant increase in total food intake in young children. The collection of recognition data was incomplete. These data replicate previous findings in that exposure to food adverts increases food intake in all children, but recognition of food adverts is related to body mass index (BMI). Beyond their effects on brand choice, exposure to food advertisements (commercials) promotes over-consumption in younger children.

  7. To the Federal Trade Commission in the Matter of a Trade Regulation Rule on Food/Nutrition Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Robert B.

    Food advertising and its effects on children are discussed in this document petitioning the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to amend a proposed rule on food promotion for the benefit of children under twelve. Extensive information is presented on television food commercials and their influence on children's nutritional beliefs and eating habits.…

  8. Attention to food and beverage advertisements as measured by eye-tracking technology and the food preferences and choices of youth.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, Cayley E; Pasch, Keryn E

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how objective measures of attention to food/beverage advertising were associated with the unhealthy food/beverage preferences and choices of children and adolescents. A self-report survey and eye-tracking session were completed by 102 youth (mean age=11.6 years; 56.4% were white; 43.1% were female) between April and November 2010. Participants viewed 40 food/beverage advertisements on a computer and their eye movements were recorded. Objective attention measures included total viewing time, fixation length (time spent viewing characters/logos, unhealthy food/beverage items), and fixation count (number of times an individual stops to examine characters/logos, unhealthy food/beverage items). Food/beverage preferences and choices were measured by self-report. The preferences index summed responses to 12 questions measuring snack food and sugar-sweetened beverage preferences and the choices index summed responses to eight questions measuring consumption of snack foods and sugar-sweetened beverages. Regression models examined whether attention to food/beverage advertising was associated with food preferences and choices, controlling for sex, age, and body mass index z score. The length of time and number of times participants looked at unhealthy food and beverage items within advertisements were each significantly associated with unhealthy food/beverage preferences of youth (P<0.05). Associations were no longer significant after controlling for demographic characteristics. Attention to advertising was not significantly associated with food/beverage choices. Research with larger samples is needed to more fully understand the role of attention. Future research should also examine the association between attention to advertising and purchase requests, given the important role of parents in the decision-making process surrounding food choice.

  9. The A.A.A.A. [American Association of Advertising Agencies] Educational Foundation Grants: Purpose, Results, Application; On the 22 Research Grants Awarded by the Foundation from 1968 through 1973, with Bibliographies of Published Material Which Resulted from the Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinkham, Spencer F.

    The Educational Foundation of the American Association of Advertising Agencies was established by the Association's board to foster the accomplishment of six major goals: to create a bridge between advertising and university research, to attract top young people to the study of advertising, to raise the academic stature of advertising, to enlarge…

  10. 78 FR 4153 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Labeling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Labeling; Notification Procedures for Statements on Dietary Supplements AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration...

  11. 77 FR 4273 - Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertisements; Presentation of the Major Statement in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ...-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertisements; Presentation of the Major Statement in Television and Radio Advertisements in a Clear, Conspicuous, and Neutral Manner; Notice of Availability of Study Data AGENCY: Food and...) television and radio advertisements relating to the side effects and contraindications of an...

  12. Health discourse in Swedish television food advertising during children's peak viewing times.

    PubMed

    Prell, Hillevi; Palmblad, Eva; Lissner, Lauren; Berg, Christina M

    2011-06-01

    Food marketing influences children's food preferences and consumption and is important to consider in the prevention of child obesity. In this paper, health messages in commercials during children's peak viewing times were analysed by examining how food is articulated in the health discourse. In total, 82 food commercials from 66h of television recordings of the most popular commercial channels with children in Sweden (TV3, TV4 and Channel 5) were analysed with discourse theoretical tools according to Laclau and Mouffe and with a focus on rhetoric. Physical, mental and social health aspects were present in 71% of the commercials. Three health discourse types; a medical (food as protection and treatment), a hedonic (food as feeling good) and a social discourse type (food as caring) were discerned. In relation to these, the heart symbol, lifestyle associations and nature/the natural were elements that could be interpreted in different ways. Moreover, foods carrying unhealthy associations were promoted in the health discourse and presented as especially healthy by offensive rhetoric. The analysis raises awareness of the prevailing health messages in food marketing. Children and parents should be encouraged to develop their critical thinking about television food advertising and how it may influence social norms and dietary practices.

  13. Attitudinal Ambivalence as a Protective Factor Against Junk Food Advertisements: A Moderated Mediation Model of Behavioral Intention.

    PubMed

    Ran, Weina; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates the role of attitudinal ambivalence in moderating the effects of junk food advertisements on behavioral intentions by tapping different facets of this construct-felt ambivalence, potential ambivalence, and affective-cognitive ambivalence. Results based on an online survey of college students indicate that attention to junk food advertisements has an indirect positive effect on intentions to eat junk food through its positive effect on attitudes toward junk food. A moderated mediation model reveals that this indirect effect of junk food advertisements is weakened as respondents' levels of felt ambivalence increase. This moderating role is not observed for the measures of potential ambivalence and affective-cognitive ambivalence. Implications are discussed for health interventions.

  14. [News and advertising on foods, diet and obesity].

    PubMed

    di Diodoro, Danilo

    2005-03-01

    In recent decades a new ideal of beauty has evolved characterised by slim women and muscular men; obesity, which in past centuries was considered healthy and attractive, is now "out of fashion". The news media devote ample space, especially during spring and summer, to diet and fitness programs, and many diets and devices, without any scientific evidence, are presented as miracle cures. The business of diets and "natural" products generates intensive campaigns developed to promote foods, nutritional programs, and specific tools for losing weight as rapidly and effortlessly as possible. In this context, general practitioners and specialists have a fundamental role to play in correcting the often distorted messages that the general public receives, through educational programs designed to promote a correct understanding of the cardiovascular risks of obesity and healty methods and treatments for losing weight and safely achieving real health objectives.

  15. Fill in the Blank: Culture Jamming and the Advertising of Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert-Beatty, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    This article is a review on billboard liberation and some other projects that develop the idea of talking back or over advertising in a playful and youthful way. In one of them, Ji Lee's Bubble Project, an artist places blank thought-bubble stickers on street advertisements and waits to see what people write on them, completing the work of art and…

  16. The Courts, the Agencies and the Advertiser: Does the Spirit Really Give Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huttenstine, Marian L.; Kean, Lynn

    This paper provides an analysis and review of recent court cases in which advertising was a major factor in determinations as to whether a breach of warranty or a false advertising claim existed. Special attention is given both to implied and to expressed warranty. When possible, discussion is structured to provide definitional or rule-making…

  17. Workshop on funding opportunities within the Food Standards Agency.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Margaret

    2004-11-01

    During this workshop, held as part of a joint Nutrition Society and Food Standards Agency (Agency) meeting on Micronutrient interactions and public health, several precepts for a successful funding application to the Agency were discussed. These precepts, many of which can be used as guiding principles for project proposals to other funding bodies, are summarised as follows: remember that the Agency only supports research that will help them formulate or change human food policy; read the research requirements document thoroughly and plan your project to answer the call; remember that the Agency issues contracts, not grants; your project will be just one project within a focused and coordinated programme; collaborative work is encouraged, but this type of approach is not a licence to double or treble your costs; write a one-page executive summary and attach it to the front of the form;the statistical basis for your experimental design and proposed statistical analysis of your results are important criteria in the evaluation of your proposal; your plans for dissemination and exploitation are very important;match your project duration against your research plan; abide by the Agency plan for quality assurance for the management of research; make full use of the programme adviser and the Agency policy contact and the 'feedback' stage to refine your scientific ideas in line with Agency policy.

  18. It’s the season! Seasonal changes of MyPyramid food groups in weekly Sunday grocery store sale advertisements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Faced with tens of thousands of food choices, consumers frequently turn to promotional advertising, such as Sunday sales circulars, to make purchasing decisions. To date, little research has examined the content of sales circulars over multiple seasons. Methods: Food items from 12 months...

  19. 76 FR 4117 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Prescription Drug Advertisements AGENCY: Food... ``Prescription Drug Advertisements''. Also include the FDA docket number found in brackets in the heading of this... Advertisements--(OMB Control Number 0910)--New Section 502(n) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the...

  20. Food allergy--science and policy needs--The UK Food Standards Agency Research Programme.

    PubMed

    Buck, Joelle; Hattersley, Sue; Kimber, Ian

    2010-12-30

    Food allergy is a significant health issue in the UK, affecting between 1 and 2% of adults and 5 and 8% of children. The UK Food Standards Agency seeks to ensure the safety of food allergic consumers by providing them with information and guidance on food choices. Since 1995, with the aim of addressing important policy issues and improving the quality of the support and guidance available for food allergic consumers, the Agency (and before that the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food), has had a programme of research dedicated to investigating the causes and mechanisms of food allergy and delivering benefits for UK consumers. In this paper, we outline some of the major scientific challenges that the programme has sought to address. We reflect on how the findings have been used as a basis for the development of sound, evidence-based policy and advice for UK consumers, and the current direction of research being supported by the programme.

  1. Children's Advertising Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Better Business Bureaus, Inc., New York, NY.

    These guidelines have been developed for the use of advertisers and advertising agencies and for the self-regulatory mechanism which these groups have established, the National Advertising Division, to help ensure that advertising directed to children is truthful, accurate, and fair to children's perceptions. Preliminary sections set forth basic…

  2. 41 CFR 102-38.345 - Do we have to withdraw personal property advertised for public sale if a State Agency for Surplus...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Do we have to withdraw personal property advertised for public sale if a State Agency for Surplus Property wants to buy it? 102-38... for public sale if a State Agency for Surplus Property wants to buy it? No, you are not required...

  3. Responsiveness to healthy television (TV) food advertisements/commercials is only evident in children under the age of seven with low food neophobia.

    PubMed

    Dovey, Terence M; Taylor, Lauren; Stow, Rachael; Boyland, Emma J; Halford, Jason C G

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to television advertisements for unhealthy foods has been shown to subsequently increase the amount of snack food consumed in children between the ages of five and eleven. However, it has yet to be elucidated whether healthy food television advertisements have a different effect on subsequent food intake in children. The current study explored the role of food neophobia in 'responsiveness' to food adverts in children between the ages of five and seven. Sixty-six children were exposed to unhealthy food adverts, healthy food adverts and toy adverts embedded into a cartoon in a counterbalanced order on three different occasions. Following the cartoon, children were offered a snack consisting of six food items (chocolate, jelly sweets, potato crisps, Snack-a-Jacks, green seedless grapes and carrot sticks). Food advert exposure, irrespective of content (either unhealthy or healthy food items), increased food intake by 47 kcal (11%) in high food neophobic children. Children who scored lower on the food neophobia scale ate significantly more (63 kcal, 14%) following the unhealthy food adverts only. In the healthy advert condition low food neophobic children consumed less chocolate (p=0.003) but did not increase their consumption of fruit and vegetables. Presentation of healthy foods does not alter food preferences in the short-term. Children with low levels of food neophobia appear to respond to healthy food messages but children with higher levels of food neophobia do not. Instead, high food neophobic children will continue to consume more chocolate following exposure to food adverts irrespective of the healthy or unhealthy message they contain.

  4. Variations in food and drink advertising in UK monthly women's magazines according to season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers: a descriptive study of publications over 12 months

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are recognised nationally and internationally as key public health challenges. Food and drink advertising is one of the array of factors that influence both diet and physical activity choices and, hence, body weight and obesity. Little previous work has focused on food and drink advertising in magazines. We studied food and drink advertising in a wide range of popular UK monthly women's magazines published over a full year. We explored differences in the prevalence of food and drink advertising and the type of food and drinks advertised according to season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers. Methods All advertisements in all issues of 18 popular UK monthly women's magazines published over 12 months were identified. For each food or drink advertisement, branded food and drinks were noted and categorised into one of seven food groups. All analyses were at the level of the individual advertisement. Results A total of 35 053 advertisements were identified; 1380 (3.9%) of these were for food or drink. The most common food group represented was 'food and drinks high in fat and/or sugar' (28.0% of food advertisements), the least common group was 'fruits & vegetables' (2.0% of food advertisements). Advertisements for alcohol accounted for 10.1% of all food advertisements. Food and drink advertisements were most common in summer, general interest magazines, and those with the most affluent readerships. There were some differences in the type of food and drink advertised across season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers. Conclusions Food and drink advertisements represented only a small proportion of advertisements in UK women's monthly magazines. Food and drink advertisements in these magazines feature a high proportion of 'less healthy' foods. There were a number of differences across season, magazine type and according to the socio-economic profile of readers in the prevalence of food and drink

  5. Folate bioavailability: UK Food Standards Agency workshop report.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Peter; McNulty, Helene; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; McDowell, Ian F W; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Finglas, Paul M; Gregory, Jess F

    2003-08-01

    The UK Food Standards Agency convened a group of expert scientists to review current research investigating folate bioavailability. The workshop aimed to overview current research and establish priorities for future research. Discrepancies were observed in the evidence base for folate bioavailability, especially with regard to the relative bioavailability of natural folates compared with folic acid. A substantial body of evidence shows folic acid to have superior bioavailability relative to food folates; however, the exact relative bioavailability still needs to be determined, and in particular with regard to mixed diets. The bioavailability of folate in a mixed diet is probably not a weighted average of that in the various foods consumed; thus the workshop considered that assessment of folate bioavailability of whole diets should be a high priority for future research.

  6. The Frequency of Unhealthy Food Advertising on Mainland Chinese Television (TV) and Children and Adolescents’ Risk of Exposure to Them

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhenghua; Diao, Qinqin; Shao, Nan; Liang, Youke; Lin, Li; Lei, Yan; Zheng, Lingmei

    2015-01-01

    Objective To conduct an analysis of the frequency of unhealthy food advertising on mainland Chinese television (TV) and children and adolescents’ risk of exposure to them. Methods The frequencies of all types of advertisements (ads) on forty TV channels in mainland China, the exact ad broadcast times, and the name and brand of all snacks and western fast foods advertised were recorded from 0800 hours to 2400 hours on both a weekday and a weekend day in a week. The difference in the frequencies of the diverse types of ads over eight time intervals (each time interval was 2 hours) were compared, and the trends in ad frequencies during the time intervals were described. Results The TV channels broadcast 155 (91-183) (expressed as median [P25-P75]) food ads, 87 (38-123) snack ads, 49 (11-85) beverage ads, and 58 (25-76) ads of snacks suitable for limited consumption (SSLCs) in a day. The proportion of snack ads among food ads (SPF%) was 55.5% (40.3%-71.0%), and the proportion of SSLC ads among snack ads (LPS%) was 67.4% (55.4%-79.3%). The ad frequencies for food, snacks, SSLCs, and beverages demonstrated significant differences among the eight time intervals (all P=0.000). TV channels broadcast the most frequent ads for food, snacks, SSLCs, and beverages during the time interval from 2000 hours to 2200 hours among the eight time intervals. Conclusions Chinese children and adolescents may be at a high risk of exposure to unhealthy food advertising on TV. Reducing the exposure risk strongly requires multisectoral cooperation. PMID:26133984

  7. Convenience stores surrounding urban schools: an assessment of healthy food availability, advertising, and product placement.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, Hilary; Laska, Melissa Nelson

    2011-08-01

    Adolescent obesity is a national public health problem, particularly among urban populations. Recent evidence has linked neighborhood food environments to health and nutrition status, with easier access to convenience stores being associated with increased risk for obesity. Little is known about the availability of healthy purchasing options within small, urban food stores, or the extent to which these factors are relevant to youth. The objective of this research was to characterize various features of the food environment within small convenience stores located nearby urban junior high and high schools. In-store audits were conducted in 63 stores located within 800 m of 36 urban Minnesota public secondary schools. Results indicated that a limited number of healthier beverages (i.e., water and 100% fruit juice) and snack options (i.e., nuts and pretzels) were available at most stores (≥85%). However, a wide range of healthy snack options were typically not available, with many specific items stocked in less than half of stores (e.g., low-fat yogurt in 27% of stores and low-fat granola bars in 43%). Overall, 51% of stores had fresh fruit and 49% had fresh vegetables. Few stores carried a range of healthier snack alternatives in single-serving packages. All stores had less healthful impulse purchase items available (e.g., candy) while only 46% carried healthier impulse items (e.g., fruit). Most stores (97%) had food/beverage advertising. Overall, convenience stores located in close proximity to secondary schools represent an important and understudied component of the youth food environment.

  8. Application of the British Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system in a French food composition database.

    PubMed

    Julia, Chantal; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Touvier, Mathilde; Méjean, Caroline; Fezeu, Léopold; Hercberg, Serge

    2014-11-28

    Nutrient profiling systems are powerful tools for public health initiatives, as they aim at categorising foods according to their nutritional quality. The British Food Standards Agency (FSA) nutrient profiling system (FSA score) has been validated in a British food database, but the application of the model in other contexts has not yet been evaluated. The objective of the present study was to assess the application of the British FSA score in a French food composition database. Foods from the French NutriNet-Santé study food composition table were categorised according to their FSA score using the Office of Communication (OfCom) cut-off value ('healthier' ≤ 4 for foods and ≤ 1 for beverages; 'less healthy' >4 for foods and >1 for beverages) and distribution cut-offs (quintiles for foods, quartiles for beverages). Foods were also categorised according to the food groups used for the French Programme National Nutrition Santé (PNNS) recommendations. Foods were weighted according to their relative consumption in a sample drawn from the NutriNet-Santé study (n 4225), representative of the French population. Classification of foods according to the OfCom cut-offs was consistent with food groups described in the PNNS: 97·8 % of fruit and vegetables, 90·4 % of cereals and potatoes and only 3·8 % of sugary snacks were considered as 'healthier'. Moreover, variability in the FSA score allowed for a discrimination between subcategories in the same food group, confirming the possibility of using the FSA score as a multiple category system, for example as a basis for front-of-pack nutrition labelling. Application of the FSA score in the French context would adequately complement current public health recommendations.

  9. 78 FR 23939 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ...-Consumer Television Advertising AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... ``Experimental Study: Examination of Corrective Direct-to-Consumer Television Advertising'' has been approved by... ``Experimental Study: Examination of Corrective Direct-to-Consumer Television Advertising'' to OMB for review...

  10. 75 FR 75477 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... Professional Labeling and Direct-to-Consumer Print Advertisements for Prescription Drugs AGENCY: Food and Drug... Clinical Efficacy Information in Professional Labeling and Direct-to-Consumer (DTC) Print Advertisements... Information in Professional Labeling and Direct-to-Consumer (DTC) Print Advertisements for Prescription...

  11. 78 FR 20612 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Food Programs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... nutrition assistance programs. Its mission is to increase food security and reduce hunger in partnership...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--Food Programs Reporting System AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service (FNS),...

  12. 76 FR 3080 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Food Programs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... nutrition assistance programs. Its mission is to increase food security and reduce hunger in partnership...: mainly program evaluation, planning, audits, funding, research, regulatory compliance, and general... Request--Food Programs Reporting System AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), USDA. ACTION:...

  13. 77 FR 19670 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Contact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Food Contact Substance Notification Program AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... solicits comments on the collection of information associated with the Food Contact Substance Notification... document. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: With regard to the information collection: Denver Presley,...

  14. 76 FR 67197 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Cigarette Packages and Advertisements; Availability; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... of a guidance for industry entitled ``Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and...

  15. Exposure to 'healthy' fast food meal bundles in television advertisements promotes liking for fast food but not healthier choices in children.

    PubMed

    Boyland, Emma J; Kavanagh-Safran, Melissa; Halford, Jason C G

    2015-03-28

    Due to regulatory changes, fast food companies often depict healthy foods in their television advertisements to children. The present study examined how exposure to advertising for 'healthy' meal bundles to children influenced the selection of food in children. A total of fifty-nine children (thirty-seven males) aged 7-10 years (8·8 (SD 0·9) years) took part in the present study. The within-participant, counterbalanced design had two conditions: control (exposure to ten toy adverts across two breaks of five adverts each) and experimental (the middle advert in each break replaced with one for a McDonald's Happy Meal® depicting the meal bundle as consisting of fish fingers, a fruit bag and a bottle of mineral water). Following viewing of the adverts embedded in a cartoon, children completed a hypothetical menu task that reported liking for McDonald's food and fast food, in general. Nutritional knowledge, height and weight of the children were measured. There was no significant difference between the two advert conditions for the nutritional content of the meal bundles selected. However, children's liking for fast food, in general, increased after exposure to the food adverts relative to control (P= 0·004). Compared to children with high nutritional knowledge, those with low scores selected meals of greater energy content (305 kJ) after viewing the food adverts (P= 0·016). Exposure to adverts for 'healthy' meal bundles did not drive healthier choices in children, but did promote liking for fast food. These findings contribute to debates about food advertising to children and the effectiveness of related policies.

  16. Emotional and rational product appeals in televised food advertisements for children: analysis of commercials shown on US broadcast networks.

    PubMed

    Page, Randy M; Brewster, Aaron

    2007-12-01

    The aggressive advertising and marketing of high caloric food products to children is implicated as a potential causative factor in the childhood obesity epidemic. This study analyzed 147 commercials appearing during children's programming on U.S. broadcast networks for a wide range of potential emotional and rational advertising appeals. The most prominent emotional appeals were fun/happiness and play followed by fantasy/ imagination, social enhancement/peer acceptance, and coolness/hipness. Many of the products used the term ;super-charged' or a similar adjective to describe the powerful taste or other physical properties of the product. More than one-third of all the commercials used a fruit appeal or association. Statements or depictions that a product was healthy or nutritious were quite rare among the commercials. This seems to imply that health and nutrition claims are understood by food marketers to not be salient concerns among children and as such are not a selling point to children. Commercials for high sugar cereal products and fast food restaurants differed in several respects. This study can serve to guide child health care professionals and other child advocates in designing measures that counter food advertising messages directed at children.

  17. Longitudinal Trends in Tobacco Availability, Tobacco Advertising, and Ownership Changes of Food Stores, Albany, New York, 2003–2015

    PubMed Central

    Done, Douglas H.; Michaels, Isaac H.; Guarasi, Diana C.; Kammer, Jamie R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Frequency of visiting convenience and corner grocery stores that sell tobacco is positively associated with the odds of ever smoking and the risk of smoking initiation among youth. We assessed 12-year trends of tobacco availability, tobacco advertising, and ownership changes in various food stores in Albany, New York. Methods Eligible stores were identified by multiple government lists and community canvassing in 2003 (n = 107), 2009 (n = 117), 2012 (n = 135), and 2015 (n = 137). Tobacco availability (all years) and advertising (2009, 2012, and 2015) were directly measured; electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) were included in 2015. Results Percentage of stores selling tobacco peaked at 83.8% in 2009 and declined to 74.5% in 2015 (P for trend = .11). E-cigarettes were sold by 63.7% of tobacco retailers. The largest decline in tobacco availability came from convenience stores that went out of business (n = 11), followed by pharmacies that dropped tobacco sales (n = 4). The gain of tobacco availability mostly came from new convenience stores (n = 24) and new dollar stores (n = 8). Significant declining trends (P < .01) were found in tobacco availability and any tobacco advertising in pharmacies and in low (<3 feet) tobacco advertising in convenience stores and stores overall. Only one-third of stores that sold tobacco in 2003 continued to sell tobacco with the same owner in 2015. Conclusion The observed subtle declines in tobacco availability and advertising were explained in part by local tobacco control efforts, the pharmacy industry’s self-regulation of tobacco sales, and an increase in the state’s tobacco retailer registration fee. Nonetheless, overall tobacco availability remained high (>16 retailers per 10,000 population) in this community. The high store ownership turnover rate suggests that a moratorium of new tobacco retailer registrations would be an integral part of a multi-prong policy strategy to reduce tobacco availability and

  18. Competition in Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Discusses five ways (high school newspaper and yearbook advertising, summer jobs, internships, contests, and student-run advertising agencies) students can start to prepare for a career in the competitive field of advertising while still in high school and college. (SR)

  19. Private governance, public purpose? Assessing transparency and accountability in self-regulation of food advertising to children.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Belinda

    2013-06-01

    Reducing non-core food advertising to children is an important priority in strategies to address childhood obesity. Public health researchers argue for government intervention on the basis that food industry self-regulation is ineffective; however, the industry contends that the existing voluntary scheme adequately addresses community concerns. This paper examines the operation of two self-regulatory initiatives governing food advertising to children in Australia, in order to determine whether these regulatory processes foster transparent and accountable self-regulation. The paper concludes that while both codes appear to establish transparency and accountability mechanisms, they do not provide for meaningful stakeholder participation in the self-regulatory scheme. Accordingly, food industry self-regulation is unlikely to reflect public health concerns or to be perceived as a legitimate form of governance by external stakeholders. If industry regulation is to remain a feasible alternative to statutory regulation, there is a strong argument for strengthening government oversight and implementing a co-regulatory scheme.

  20. Structural responses to the obesity and non-communicable diseases epidemic: the Chilean Law of Food Labeling and Advertising.

    PubMed

    Corvalán, C; Reyes, M; Garmendia, M L; Uauy, R

    2013-11-01

    In 12 July 2012, the Chilean Senate approved the Law of Food Labeling and Advertising, resulting from the joint efforts of a group of health professionals, researchers and legislators who proposed a regulatory framework in support of healthy diets and active living. Its goal was to curb the ongoing epidemic increase of obesity and non-communicable diseases. Two actions included: (i) improving point of food purchase consumer information by incorporating easy-to-understand front-of-packages labeling and specific messages addressing critical nutrients, and (ii) decreasing children's exposure to unhealthy foods by restricting marketing, advertising and sales. We summarize the work related to the law's release and discuss the conclusions reached by the various expert committees that were convened by the Ministry of Health to guide the development of the regulatory norms. Throughout the process, the food industry has overtly expressed its disagreement with the regulatory effort. The final content of the regulatory norms is still pending; however there are suggestions that its implementation will be delayed and might be modified based on the industry lobbying actions. These lessons should contribute to show the need of anticipating and addressing potential barriers to obesity-prevention policy implementation, particularly with respect to the role of the private sector.

  1. The effects of TV unhealthy food brand placement on children. Its separate and joint effect with advertising.

    PubMed

    Uribe, Rodrigo; Fuentes-García, Alejandra

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the effect of unhealthy food brand placement on children across different age groups (9, 12 and 15 year-old children). Results show that both brand awareness, and the behavioral disposition (toward junk food and McDonald's) increased when children were exposed to this marketing technique (in comparison with the control group). In the case of age, older groups (12-15) performed better in brand awareness, but scored lower in behavioral disposition than the 9-year-old group. Moreover, the joint use of advertising and placement (synergy) increased the effect of these communication tactics on children. Results are discussed in terms of previous results of the studies providing evidence of the influence of promotional tools of junk food on children.

  2. A Comparison of the Nutritional Quality of Food Products Advertised in Grocery Store Circulars of High- versus Low-Income New York City Zip Codes

    PubMed Central

    Ethan, Danna; Basch, Corey H.; Rajan, Sonali; Samuel, Lalitha; Hammond, Rodney N.

    2013-01-01

    Grocery stores can be an important resource for health and nutrition with the variety and economic value of foods offered. Weekly circulars are a means of promoting foods at a sale price. To date, little is known about the extent that nutritious foods are advertised and prominently placed in circulars. This study’s aim was to compare the nutritional quality of products advertised on the front page of online circulars from grocery stores in high- versus low-income neighborhoods in New York City (NYC). Circulars from grocery stores in the five highest and five lowest median household income NYC zip codes were analyzed. Nutrition information for food products was collected over a two-month period with a total of 805 products coded. The study found no significant difference between the nutritional quality of products advertised on the front page of online circulars from grocery stores in high- versus low-income neighborhoods in New York City (NYC). In both groups, almost two-thirds of the products advertised were processed, one-quarter were high in carbohydrates, and few to no products were low-sodium, high-fiber, or reduced-, low- or zero fat. Through innovative partnerships with health professionals, grocery stores are increasingly implementing in-store and online health promotion strategies. Weekly circulars can be used as a means to regularly advertise and prominently place more healthful and seasonal foods at an affordable price, particularly for populations at higher risk for nutrition-related chronic disease. PMID:24384775

  3. A comparison of the nutritional quality of food products advertised in grocery store circulars of high- versus low-income New York City zip codes.

    PubMed

    Ethan, Danna; Basch, Corey H; Rajan, Sonali; Samuel, Lalitha; Hammond, Rodney N

    2013-12-31

    Grocery stores can be an important resource for health and nutrition with the variety and economic value of foods offered. Weekly circulars are a means of promoting foods at a sale price. To date, little is known about the extent that nutritious foods are advertised and prominently placed in circulars. This study's aim was to compare the nutritional quality of products advertised on the front page of online circulars from grocery stores in high- versus low-income neighborhoods in New York City (NYC). Circulars from grocery stores in the five highest and five lowest median household income NYC zip codes were analyzed. Nutrition information for food products was collected over a two-month period with a total of 805 products coded. The study found no significant difference between the nutritional quality of products advertised on the front page of online circulars from grocery stores in high- versus low-income neighborhoods in New York City (NYC). In both groups, almost two-thirds of the products advertised were processed, one-quarter were high in carbohydrates, and few to no products were low-sodium, high-fiber, or reduced-, low- or zero fat. Through innovative partnerships with health professionals, grocery stores are increasingly implementing in-store and online health promotion strategies. Weekly circulars can be used as a means to regularly advertise and prominently place more healthful and seasonal foods at an affordable price, particularly for populations at higher risk for nutrition-related chronic disease.

  4. The Outdoor MEDIA DOT: The Development and Inter-Rater Reliability of a Tool Designed to Measure Food and Beverage Outlets and Outdoor Advertising

    PubMed Central

    Poulos, Natalie S.; Pasch, Keryn E.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies of the food environment have collected primary data, and even fewer have reported reliability of the tool used. This study focused on the development of an innovative electronic data collection tool used to document outdoor food and beverage (FB) advertising and establishments near 43 middle and high schools in the Outdoor MEDIA Study. Tool development used GIS based mapping, an electronic data collection form on handheld devices, and an easily adaptable interface to efficiently collect primary data within the food environment. For the reliability study, two teams of data collectors documented all FB advertising and establishments within one half-mile of six middle schools. Inter-rater reliability was calculated overall and by advertisement or establishment category using percent agreement. A total of 824 advertisements (n=233), establishment advertisements (n=499), and establishments (n=92) were documented (range=8–229 per school). Overall inter-rater reliability of the developed tool ranged from 69–89% for advertisements and establishments. Results suggest that the developed tool is highly reliable and effective for documenting the outdoor FB environment. PMID:26022774

  5. The Outdoor MEDIA DOT: The development and inter-rater reliability of a tool designed to measure food and beverage outlets and outdoor advertising.

    PubMed

    Poulos, Natalie S; Pasch, Keryn E

    2015-07-01

    Few studies of the food environment have collected primary data, and even fewer have reported reliability of the tool used. This study focused on the development of an innovative electronic data collection tool used to document outdoor food and beverage (FB) advertising and establishments near 43 middle and high schools in the Outdoor MEDIA Study. Tool development used GIS based mapping, an electronic data collection form on handheld devices, and an easily adaptable interface to efficiently collect primary data within the food environment. For the reliability study, two teams of data collectors documented all FB advertising and establishments within one half-mile of six middle schools. Inter-rater reliability was calculated overall and by advertisement or establishment category using percent agreement. A total of 824 advertisements (n=233), establishment advertisements (n=499), and establishments (n=92) were documented (range=8-229 per school). Overall inter-rater reliability of the developed tool ranged from 69-89% for advertisements and establishments. Results suggest that the developed tool is highly reliable and effective for documenting the outdoor FB environment.

  6. 77 FR 64390 - Agency Information Collection (Food Service and Nutritional Care Analysis) Activities Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Food Service and Nutritional Care Analysis) Activities Under OMB....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Food Service and Nutritional Care Analysis, VA Form 10-5387. OMB Control... determine whether improvements are needed to enhance patient's nutritional therapy. An agency may...

  7. Susceptibility to Food Advertisements and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake in Non-Hispanic Black and Non-Hispanic White Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cervi, Meredith M; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Dwyer, Laura A; Thai, Chan L; Moser, Richard P; Nebeling, Linda C

    2017-03-04

    Obesity among adolescents in the United States has risen by 16% in the past 30 years. One important contributing factor may be the increased consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs), which is encouraged by advertisements for unhealthy foods and drinks that are targeted to adolescents. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the association between susceptibility to food and drink advertisements and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in non-Hispanic black (NHB) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) adolescents and to examine if BMI is associated with SSB consumption. Data were obtained from 765 NHB and NHW of ages 14-17 who were surveyed in the Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating study sponsored by the National Cancer Institute. Two weighted adjusted logistic regression models were conducted. The first examined the associations of advertisement susceptibility, race, and BMI with SSB consumption. The second examined the associations of race and BMI with advertisement susceptibility. Adolescents with high advertisement susceptibility were more likely to consume at least one SSB daily (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.21, 2.47). Additionally, non-Hispanic blacks were more likely to consume at least one SSB daily (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.08, 2.85) and more likely to be highly susceptible to advertisements (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.19, 2.48) than non-Hispanic whites. No significant associations were found between BMI and advertising susceptibility or BMI and daily SSB consumption. One approach to addressing the consumption of SSBs may be to reduce advertising that markets unhealthy food and beverages to adolescents and minorities.

  8. Food-Related Advertising on Preschool Television: Building Brand Recognition in Young Viewers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: This study used content analysis to explore how much and what type of advertising is present in television programming aimed at toddlers and preschool-aged children and what methods of persuasion are being used to sell products and to promote brands to the youngest viewers. Methods: Four randomly selected, 4-hour blocks (9 AM to 1 PM)…

  9. Health and Nutrient Content Claims in Food Advertisements on Hispanic and Mainstream Prime-Time Television

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbatangelo-Gray, Jodie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Austin, S. Bryn

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Characterize frequency and type of health and nutrient content claims in prime-time weeknight Spanish- and English-language television advertisements from programs shown in 2003 with a high viewership by women aged 18 to 35 years. Design: Comparative content analysis design was used to analyze 95 hours of Spanish-language and 72 hours…

  10. Food and beverage promotions in Vancouver schools: A study of the prevalence and characteristics of in-school advertising, messaging, and signage

    PubMed Central

    Velazquez, Cayley E.; Black, Jennifer L.; Ahmadi, Naseam

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive profile of food-related advertising, messaging, and signage in Vancouver schools and to examine differences in the prevalence and characteristics of promotions between elementary and secondary schools. All food-related promotions were photographed in 23 diverse Vancouver public schools between November 2012 and April 2013. Key attributes, including the location, size, and main purpose of each promotion, as well as the type of food and/or beverage advertised and compliance with provincial school nutrition guidelines, were coded. Descriptive statistics assessed the prevalence and characteristics of promotions. Cross-tabulations examined whether the promotional landscape differed between elementary and secondary schools. All secondary and 80% of elementary schools contained food or beverage promotions (median = 17, range = 0–57 promotions per school). Of the 493 promotions documented, approximately 25% depicted “choose least” or “not recommended” items, prohibited for sale by provincial school nutrition guidelines. Nearly 1/3 of promotions advertised commercial items (e.g., brand name beverages such as Pepsi), in violation of the Board of Education's advertising policies and only 13% conveyed nutrition education messages. Close to half of all promotions were created by students for class projects, many of which marketed minimally nutritious items. In Vancouver schools, food-related promotions are common and are more prevalent in secondary than elementary schools. Students are regularly exposed to messaging for nutritionally poor items that are not in compliance with provincial school nutrition guidelines and which violate school board advertising policies. Stronger oversight of food-related promotional materials is needed to ensure that schools provide health promoting food environments. PMID:26844147

  11. Food and beverage promotions in Vancouver schools: A study of the prevalence and characteristics of in-school advertising, messaging, and signage.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, Cayley E; Black, Jennifer L; Ahmadi, Naseam

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive profile of food-related advertising, messaging, and signage in Vancouver schools and to examine differences in the prevalence and characteristics of promotions between elementary and secondary schools. All food-related promotions were photographed in 23 diverse Vancouver public schools between November 2012 and April 2013. Key attributes, including the location, size, and main purpose of each promotion, as well as the type of food and/or beverage advertised and compliance with provincial school nutrition guidelines, were coded. Descriptive statistics assessed the prevalence and characteristics of promotions. Cross-tabulations examined whether the promotional landscape differed between elementary and secondary schools. All secondary and 80% of elementary schools contained food or beverage promotions (median = 17, range = 0-57 promotions per school). Of the 493 promotions documented, approximately 25% depicted "choose least" or "not recommended" items, prohibited for sale by provincial school nutrition guidelines. Nearly 1/3 of promotions advertised commercial items (e.g., brand name beverages such as Pepsi), in violation of the Board of Education's advertising policies and only 13% conveyed nutrition education messages. Close to half of all promotions were created by students for class projects, many of which marketed minimally nutritious items. In Vancouver schools, food-related promotions are common and are more prevalent in secondary than elementary schools. Students are regularly exposed to messaging for nutritionally poor items that are not in compliance with provincial school nutrition guidelines and which violate school board advertising policies. Stronger oversight of food-related promotional materials is needed to ensure that schools provide health promoting food environments.

  12. Unhealthful Food-and-Beverage Advertising in Subway Stations: Targeted Marketing, Vulnerable Groups, Dietary Intake, and Poor Health.

    PubMed

    Lucan, Sean C; Maroko, Andrew R; Sanon, Omar C; Schechter, Clyde B

    2017-03-07

    Unhealthful food-and-beverage advertising often targets vulnerable groups. The extent of such advertising in subway stations has not been reported and it is not clear how ad placement may relate to subway ridership or community demographics, or what the implications might be for diets and diet-related health in surrounding communities. Riding all subway lines (n = 7) in the Bronx, NY, USA, investigators systematically assessed all print ads (n = 1586) in all stations (n = 68) in 2012. Data about subway ridership came from the Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Demographic data on surrounding residential areas came from the U.S. Census Bureau. Data on dietary intake and diet-related conditions came from a city health-department survey. There were no ads promoting "more-healthful" food-or-beverage items (i.e., fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, water or milk). There were many ads for "less-healthful" items (e.g., candies, chips, sugary cereals, frozen pizzas, "energy" drinks, coffee confections, hard alcohol, and beer). Ad placement did not relate to the number of riders entering at stations. Instead, exposure to food-or-beverage ads generally, and to "less-healthful" ads particularly (specifically ads in Spanish, directed at youth, and/or featuring minorities), was directly correlated with poverty, lower high-school graduation rates, higher percentages of Hispanics, and/or higher percentages of children in surrounding residential areas. Correlations were robust to sensitivity analyses. Additional analyses suggested correlations between ad exposures and sugary-drink consumption, fruit-and-vegetable intake, and diabetes, hypertension, and high-cholesterol rates. Subway-station ads for "less-healthful" items were located disproportionately in areas home to vulnerable populations facing diet and diet-related-health challenges. The fact that uneven ad placement did not relate to total rider counts suggests ads were not directed at the largest

  13. 77 FR 38303 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ...: Effect of Promotional Offers in Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Print Advertisements on Consumer... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget Approval; Experimental Study: Effect of Promotional Offers in...

  14. Politicization and institutional unclarity: the case of the Portuguese food agency.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Mafalda

    2006-09-01

    Recent changes in the institutional framework of food safety in Portugal have been initiated by BSE scandals and by EU legislative impact. Portuguese consumers have only recently moved from a poverty-related fear of food scarcity to modern fears of safety-related problems with food. Food safety is now highly politicized in Portugal, and the organization of food safety policies has been the topic of several parliamentary debates and of governmental reform. The chapter describes the political conflicts generated by the planned establishment of a new Food Agency-controversies which have so far hindered institutional change.

  15. 17 CFR 256.930.1 - General advertising expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... in newspapers, periodicals, billboards, radio, etc. 2. Advertising matter such as posters, bulletins, booklets and related items. 3. Fees and expenses of advertising agencies and commercial artists. 4....

  16. 77 FR 52744 - Food and Drug Administration/European Medicines Agency Orphan Product Designation and Grant Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration/European Medicines Agency Orphan Product Designation and Grant Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. The Food and Drug Administration's...

  17. 78 FR 51732 - The Food and Drug Administration/European Medicines Agency Orphan Product Designation and Grant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration The Food and Drug Administration/European Medicines Agency Orphan Product Designation and Grant Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop. The Food and...

  18. 76 FR 55835 - Non-Face-to-Face Sale and Distribution of Tobacco Products and Advertising, Promotion, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 1140 RIN 0910-AG43 Non-Face-to-Face Sale and Distribution of Tobacco Products and Advertising, Promotion, and Marketing of Tobacco Products AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Advance notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  19. 77 FR 11132 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Improving Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ...: Review of State and Local Capacities.'' The data collection will obtain knowledge of State and local... Collection; Comment Request; Improving Food Safety and Defense Capacity of the State and Local Level: Review of State and Local Capacities AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  20. 25 CFR 215.12 - Advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Advertising costs. 215.12 Section 215.12 Indians BUREAU OF..., QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.12 Advertising costs. All advertising costs, publication fees, expenses incurred for abstracts of lease title, and other expenses incurred in connection with the advertising and sale of...

  1. 25 CFR 215.12 - Advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Advertising costs. 215.12 Section 215.12 Indians BUREAU... LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.12 Advertising costs. All advertising costs, publication fees, expenses incurred for abstracts of lease title, and other expenses incurred in connection with the advertising...

  2. 25 CFR 215.12 - Advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising costs. 215.12 Section 215.12 Indians BUREAU... LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.12 Advertising costs. All advertising costs, publication fees, expenses incurred for abstracts of lease title, and other expenses incurred in connection with the advertising...

  3. [Nutritional content of food, and nonalcoholic beverages advertisements broadcasted in children's slot of Colombian national television].

    PubMed

    Mejía-Díaz, Diana Margarita; Carmona-Garcés, Isabel Cristina; Giraldo-López, Paula Andrea; González-Zapata, Laura

    2014-04-01

    Objetivo: Describir el contenido nutricional de alimentos y bebidas no alcohólicas publicitados en la franja infantil vs general, en dos canales gratuitos privados de televisión nacional colombiana. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal. La grabación se realizó en julio de 2012, durante cuatro días seleccionados aleatoriamente de 6:00 am a 12:30 pm. El contenido nutricional se clasificó según los criterios de perfiles nutricionales de la Food Standards Agency para nutrientes trazadores de riesgo, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud para grasa trans, y la Resolución colombiana 333 de 2011 para clasificar los alimentos como fuente o no, de nutrientes protectores. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva, prueba de Kolmogorov- Smirnov para establecer la normalidad y prueba de Chi cuadrado para la comparación entre variables. Se consideró un p < 0,05. Resultados: En 52 horas de grabación se emitieron 1.560 pautas publicitarias, de las cuales el 23,3% (364 pautas), fue de publicidad de alimentos y bebidas y de estas, el 56,3% se publicitaron en la franja infantil. En cuanto al contenido nutricional, se destacó mayor porcentaje de alimentos y bebidas no alcohólicas clasificados como “altos” en azúcar, sodio y grasa saturada en la franja infantil (69,0%, 56,0%, 57,1%) respecto a la franja general. Por el contrario, el porcentaje de alimentos y bebidas no alcohólicas clasificados como “alto” en grasa total fue mayor en la franja general vs la franja infantil (70,4%, 29,6% respectivamente). Conclusiones: Una mayor exposición a la publicidad de alimentos y bebidas no alcohólicas se evidenció en la franja infantil, caracterizada por alto contenido de nutrientes trazadores de riesgo y bajo contenido de nutrientes protectores de los alimentos y bebidas no alcohólicas publicitados.

  4. Awareness of the Food and Drug Administration's Bad Ad Program and Education Regarding Pharmaceutical Advertising: A National Survey of Prescribers in Ambulatory Care Settings.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, Amie C; Boudewyns, Vanessa; Aikin, Kathryn J; Geisen, Emily; Betts, Kevin R; Southwell, Brian G

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bad Ad program educates health care professionals about false or misleading advertising and marketing and provides a pathway to report suspect materials. To assess familiarity with this program and the extent of training about pharmaceutical marketing, a sample of 2,008 health care professionals, weighted to be nationally representative, responded to an online survey. Approximately equal numbers of primary care physicians, specialists, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners answered questions concerning Bad Ad program awareness and its usefulness, as well as their likelihood of reporting false or misleading advertising, confidence in identifying such advertising, and training about pharmaceutical marketing. Results showed that fewer than a quarter reported any awareness of the Bad Ad program. Nonetheless, a substantial percentage (43%) thought it seemed useful and 50% reported being at least somewhat likely to report false or misleading advertising in the future. Nurse practitioners and physician assistants expressed more openness to the program and reported receiving more training about pharmaceutical marketing. Bad Ad program awareness is low, but opportunity exists to solicit assistance from health care professionals and to help health care professionals recognize false and misleading advertising. Nurse practitioners and physician assistants are perhaps the most likely contributors to the program.

  5. New strategies to improve food marketing to children.

    PubMed

    Dietz, William H

    2013-09-01

    Federal efforts to address the impact of food marketing on children began more than thirty years ago, when the Federal Trade Commission sought comment on strategies to reduce young children's exposure to food advertising. The food, advertising, and television industries mounted a virulent response, and Congress withdrew the commission's authority to regulate unfair advertising to children. The same industries and Congress responded equally aggressively to the proposed nutrition criteria for food products marketed to children drafted by a working group of federal agencies in 2011. Although federal efforts over the past thirty years have led to modest improvements in food quality and marketing practices, commercial interests have consistently overridden the health concerns of children. Mobilization of parents as a political force to improve standards for food marketed to children, use of social media for counteradvertising, and the development of new technologies to decrease exposure to food advertisements could reduce the impact of food marketing to children.

  6. 21 CFR 20.108 - Agreements between the Food and Drug Administration and other departments, agencies, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Food and Drug Administration Web site at http://www.fda.gov once finalized. (c) Agreements and... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Agreements between the Food and Drug Administration and other departments, agencies, and organizations. 20.108 Section 20.108 Food and Drugs FOOD...

  7. 21 CFR 20.108 - Agreements between the Food and Drug Administration and other departments, agencies, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Agreements between the Food and Drug Administration and other departments, agencies, and organizations. 20.108 Section 20.108 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... Specific Categories of Records § 20.108 Agreements between the Food and Drug Administration and...

  8. 21 CFR 20.108 - Agreements between the Food and Drug Administration and other departments, agencies, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Food and Drug Administration Web site at http://www.fda.gov once finalized. (c) Agreements and... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Agreements between the Food and Drug Administration and other departments, agencies, and organizations. 20.108 Section 20.108 Food and Drugs FOOD...

  9. Evaluation of Military Service Youth Advertisements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    the military, and to realign the market research program to better support military advertising . In Fiscal Years 2000 and 2001, a two-pronged...efforts and advertising campaigns that are based on sound market research. The Joint Recruiting Advertising Program (JRAP) and Joint Market Research...assess levels of support provided by advertising agencies, and to recommend improved marketing strategies. The Eskew-Murphy Advertising Review made a

  10. Children's recognition of advertisements on television and on Web pages.

    PubMed

    Blades, Mark; Oates, Caroline; Li, Shiying

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we consider the issue of advertising to children. Advertising to children raises a number of concerns, in particular the effects of food advertising on children's eating habits. We point out that virtually all the research into children's understanding of advertising has focused on traditional television advertisements, but much marketing aimed at children is now via the Internet and little is known about children's awareness of advertising on the Web. One important component of understanding advertisements is the ability to distinguish advertisements from other messages, and we suggest that young children's ability to recognise advertisements on a Web page is far behind their ability to recognise advertisements on television.

  11. Foods advertised in US weekly supermarket sales circulars over one year: a content analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: The MyPyramid food guidance system is an educational tool to assist Americans in following the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA). Consumers mention print advertising—such as sales circulars—most frequently as influencing their grocery shopping decisions. The purpose of this study wa...

  12. How important is the choice of the nutrient profile model used to regulate broadcast advertising of foods to children? A comparison using a targeted data set

    PubMed Central

    Scarborough, P; Payne, C; Agu, C G; Kaur, A; Mizdrak, A; Rayner, M; Halford, J C G; Boyland, E

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objective: The World Health Assembly recommends that children's exposure to marketing of unhealthy foods should be reduced. Nutrient profile models have been developed that define ‘unhealthy' to support regulation of broadcast advertising of foods to children. The level of agreement between these models is not clear. The objective of this study was to measure the agreement between eight nutrient profile models that have been proposed for the regulation of marketing to children over (a) how many and (b) what kind of foods should be permitted to be advertised during television viewed by children. Subjects/Methods: A representative data set of commercials for foods broadcast during television viewed by children in the UK was collected in 2008. The data set consisted of 11 763 commercials for 336 different products or brands. This data set was supplemented with nutrition data from company web sites, food packaging and a food composition table, and the nutrient profile models were applied. Results: The percentage of commercials that would be permitted by the different nutrient profile models ranged from 2.1% (0.4%, 3.7%) to 47.4% (42.1%, 52.6%). Half of the pairwise comparisons between models yielded kappa statistics less than 0.2, indicating that there was little agreement between models. Conclusions: Policy makers considering the regulation of broadcast advertising to children should carefully consider the choice of nutrient profile model to support the regulation, as this choice will have considerable influence on the outcome of the regulation. PMID:23801095

  13. Can counter-advertising reduce pre-adolescent children's susceptibility to front-of-package promotions on unhealthy foods? Experimental research.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Helen; Scully, Maree; Kelly, Bridget; Chapman, Kathy; Wakefield, Melanie

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to test whether counter-advertisements (i.e. messages contesting industry marketing) make pre-adolescent children less susceptible to the influence of food promotions. Since children have lower media literacy levels due to their immature cognitive abilities, specific research questions explored were: (1) whether the effectiveness of counter-ads is contingent on children having understood them; and (2) whether counter-ads may be detrimental when they are misinterpreted. A between-subjects experimental design using a web-based methodology was employed. 1351 grade 5-6 students (mean age 11 years) from schools located in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia participated. Participants were randomly shown an animated web banner advertisement (counter-ad challenging front-of-package promotion or control ad) and a pair of food packages from the same product category comprising an unhealthy product featuring a front-of-package promotion (nutrient content claim or sports celebrity endorsement) and a healthier control pack without a front-of-package promotion. Responses to the assigned advertisement, choice of product (healthy versus unhealthy) and ratings of the unhealthy product and front-of-package promotion on various nutritional and image-related attributes were recorded for each child. Sixty-six percent of children who viewed a counter-ad understood its main message. These children rated the front-of-package promotion as less believable and rated the unhealthy product bearing the front-of-package promotion as less healthy compared to the control group. However, children who misunderstood the counter-ad rated the unhealthy product bearing a front-of-package promotion as more healthy and rated the front-of-package promotion more favourably than those who correctly understood the counter-ad. Counter-advertising may have unintended consequences when misunderstood. If public health organizations or government pursue counter-advertising as a strategy to reduce

  14. 25 CFR 215.12 - Advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Advertising costs. 215.12 Section 215.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.12 Advertising costs. All advertising costs, publication fees,...

  15. 25 CFR 215.12 - Advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Advertising costs. 215.12 Section 215.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.12 Advertising costs. All advertising costs, publication fees,...

  16. 14 CFR 141.23 - Advertising limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising limitations. 141.23 Section 141...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS General § 141.23 Advertising limitations. (a) The... certificate may not advertise that the school is certificated unless it clearly differentiates between...

  17. 44 CFR 19.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Advertising. 19.540 Section 19.540 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 19.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related...

  18. 14 CFR 147.45 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advertising. 147.45 Section 147.45... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES AVIATION MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 147.45 Advertising... aviation maintenance technician school indicates in advertising that it is a certificated school, it...

  19. 14 CFR 142.31 - Advertising limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advertising limitations. 142.31 Section 142...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS General § 142.31 Advertising limitations. (a) A certificate holder may not conduct, and may not advertise to conduct, any training, testing, and checking...

  20. 14 CFR 147.45 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advertising. 147.45 Section 147.45... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES AVIATION MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 147.45 Advertising... aviation maintenance technician school indicates in advertising that it is a certificated school, it...

  1. 44 CFR 19.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Advertising. 19.540 Section 19.540 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Activities Prohibited § 19.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to...

  2. 14 CFR 147.45 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advertising. 147.45 Section 147.45... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES AVIATION MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 147.45 Advertising... aviation maintenance technician school indicates in advertising that it is a certificated school, it...

  3. 14 CFR 147.45 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising. 147.45 Section 147.45... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES AVIATION MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 147.45 Advertising... aviation maintenance technician school indicates in advertising that it is a certificated school, it...

  4. 44 CFR 19.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Advertising. 19.540 Section 19.540 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 19.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related...

  5. 14 CFR 142.31 - Advertising limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising limitations. 142.31 Section 142...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS General § 142.31 Advertising limitations. (a) A certificate holder may not conduct, and may not advertise to conduct, any training, testing, and checking...

  6. 14 CFR 142.31 - Advertising limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advertising limitations. 142.31 Section 142...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS General § 142.31 Advertising limitations. (a) A certificate holder may not conduct, and may not advertise to conduct, any training, testing, and checking...

  7. 14 CFR 147.45 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 147.45 Section 147.45... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES AVIATION MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 147.45 Advertising... aviation maintenance technician school indicates in advertising that it is a certificated school, it...

  8. 14 CFR 141.23 - Advertising limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advertising limitations. 141.23 Section 141...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS General § 141.23 Advertising limitations. (a) The... certificate may not advertise that the school is certificated unless it clearly differentiates between...

  9. 14 CFR 141.23 - Advertising limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advertising limitations. 141.23 Section 141...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS General § 141.23 Advertising limitations. (a) The... certificate may not advertise that the school is certificated unless it clearly differentiates between...

  10. 14 CFR 141.23 - Advertising limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advertising limitations. 141.23 Section 141...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS General § 141.23 Advertising limitations. (a) The... certificate may not advertise that the school is certificated unless it clearly differentiates between...

  11. 14 CFR 142.31 - Advertising limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising limitations. 142.31 Section 142...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS General § 142.31 Advertising limitations. (a) A certificate holder may not conduct, and may not advertise to conduct, any training, testing, and checking...

  12. 44 CFR 19.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Advertising. 19.540 Section 19.540 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 19.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related...

  13. 14 CFR 141.23 - Advertising limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising limitations. 141.23 Section 141...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS General § 141.23 Advertising limitations. (a) The... certificate may not advertise that the school is certificated unless it clearly differentiates between...

  14. 14 CFR 142.31 - Advertising limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advertising limitations. 142.31 Section 142...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS General § 142.31 Advertising limitations. (a) A certificate holder may not conduct, and may not advertise to conduct, any training, testing, and checking...

  15. 44 CFR 19.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising. 19.540 Section 19.540 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 19.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related...

  16. Perceptions of Advertising Influence on Broadcast News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Hubert W.; Barnes, Beth E.

    2001-01-01

    Finds that while students (studying broadcast journalism or advertising) and practitioners (station news directors and agency media directors) were in agreement on the majority of opinion statements discussing advertising's influence on broadcast news content, except students were less bothered by advertising's influence on news content than were…

  17. [Food safety and animal diseases. The French Food Safety Agency, from mad cow disease to bird flu].

    PubMed

    Keck, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    Why has the French food safety agency been particularly mobilized on zoonoses like bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease") or highly pathogenic avian influenza ("bird flu") ? Because sanitary crisis make explicit an ambivalent relationship between humans and animals (animals being perceived alternatively as providers of goods and as bearers of threats), and to the circulation of life in general (the contaminated blood crises being due to the rapprochement of blood giving and blood receiving). The sociology of risks needs therefore to reintegrate the idea of an intention of the risk bearer (risk with enemy), and the sociology of alimentation needs to reintegrate the analysis of the conditions of production. Mad cow disease is the paradigmatic food safety crisis because it brings together the poles of production and consumption, of animals and humans. It therefore belongs to anthropology.

  18. Advertising HIV.

    PubMed

    Mougenez, Stephane; Chad, N'Djamena; Howe, John

    1995-04-05

    Think of advertising and what comes to mind, soap powders, motor cars, baked beans? All of these, of course, are heavily advertised, but what about HIV? Among the most durable of the government's advertisement campaigns have been the ones concerning HIV. Tens of millions of pounds have been spent telling the public of the presence and dangers of the virus.

  19. Functional Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Guy

    With minor modifications, an advertising fundamentals course can stimulate creative development and provide career direction while it presents the basic elements of advertising. A group presentation introduces students to research and familiarizes them with the conflict resolution process useful in preparing advertising. A group project arranges…

  20. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (e) * * *...

  1. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (e) * * *...

  2. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (e) * * *...

  3. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (a)(1)...

  4. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (e) * * *...

  5. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (a)(1)...

  6. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (a)(1)...

  7. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (a)(1)...

  8. UK Food Standards Agency Optimal Nutrition Status Workshop: environmental factors that affect bone health throughout life.

    PubMed

    Burns, Lynn; Ashwell, Margaret; Berry, Jacqueline; Bolton-Smith, Caroline; Cassidy, Aedin; Dunnigan, Matthew; Khaw, Kay Tee; Macdonald, Helen; New, Susan; Prentice, Ann; Powell, Jonathan; Reeve, Jonathan; Robins, Simon; Teucher, Birgit

    2003-06-01

    The UK Food Standards Agency (FSA) convened a group of expert scientists to discuss and review UK FSA- and Department of Health-funded research on diet and bone health. This research focused on the lifestyle factors that are amenable to change and may significantly affect bone health and the risk of osteoporotic fracture. The potential benefits of fruits and vegetables, meat, Ca, vitamins D and K and phyto-oestrogens were presented and discussed. Other lifestyle factors were also discussed, particularly the effect of physical activity and possible gene-nutrient interactions affecting bone health.

  9. Vocational Instructional Materials for Distributive Education Available from Federal Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    This annotated bibliography lists curriculum materials for distributive education which were produced by Federal agencies and are appropriate for these subject matter areas: (1) advertising, (2) apparel and accessories, (3) automotive, (4) finance and credit, (5) food distribution and services, (6) general merchandise, (7) floristry, (8) hardware,…

  10. Advertising Practitioner's Ethical Decision-Making: The Utilitarian Viewpoint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overstreet, Charles William

    A study compared the decision making process of large and small advertising agencies to determine if the size of the agency, in terms of gross annual billing, had any effect on adherence to the rules set forth in the American Association of Advertising's Standards of Practice. Forty agency employees, 20 from agencies with billings less than $2.5…

  11. Understanding advertising in pet nutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R G

    1994-01-01

    Advertising is part of the effort to attract attention of consumers to products, in this case, pet foods. It is generally benign in its effect, but it can be misleading, although rarely deliberately so. It uses a specialized vocabulary, which must be mastered if one is to understand what is intended. For all of the expense and effort, advertising figures directly in relatively few decisions to purchase. Its main intention is to call our attention to a particular pet food and to give that product an image. If the pet food does not perform in the consumer's hands, then all of the advertising on earth will not be persuasive. On the other hand, if a product performs well, the word-of-mouth will be positive and that mode of advertising is one of the most effective. PMID:8076285

  12. 21 CFR 1316.75 - Advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertisement. 1316.75 Section 1316.75 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Seizure, Forfeiture, and Disposition of Property § 1316.75 Advertisement. (a) If the...

  13. The Future of Children's Media: Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, 2007

    2007-01-01

    American companies currently spend $15 billion a year on marketing and advertising to children under the age of 12. Annually, children influence $500 billion in spending on fast food, junk food, toys and other advertised products, and the average child sees thousands of ads on television alone. From video games and the Internet to cell phones and…

  14. Advertising Appeal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Sandra K.

    The individualized learning package for secondary consumer education deals with consumer buying as influenced by advertising. The teacher's section of the package contains a statement of purpose and instructional objectives. Equipment and materials (specific textbooks, audiovisual aids, and sources for sample post-test advertisements) needed for…

  15. Using Vignettes to Tap Into Moral Reasoning in Public Health Policy: Practical Advice and Design Principles From a Study on Food Advertising to Children

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Emily; Hoang, Sylvia; Cook, Brian

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we describe a process for designing and applying vignettes in public health policy research and practice. We developed this methodology for a study on moral reasoning underpinning policy debate on food advertising to children. Using vignettes prompted policy actors who were relatively entrenched in particular ways of speaking professionally about a controversial and ethically challenging issue to converse in a more authentic and reflective way. Vignettes hold benefits and complexities. They can focus attention on moral conflicts, draw out different types of evidence to support moral reasoning, and enable simultaneous consideration of real and ideal worlds. We suggest a process and recommendations on design features for crafting vignettes for public health policy. PMID:25121818

  16. Using vignettes to tap into moral reasoning in public health policy: practical advice and design principles from a study on food advertising to children.

    PubMed

    Mah, Catherine L; Taylor, Emily; Hoang, Sylvia; Cook, Brian

    2014-10-01

    In this article, we describe a process for designing and applying vignettes in public health policy research and practice. We developed this methodology for a study on moral reasoning underpinning policy debate on food advertising to children. Using vignettes prompted policy actors who were relatively entrenched in particular ways of speaking professionally about a controversial and ethically challenging issue to converse in a more authentic and reflective way. Vignettes hold benefits and complexities. They can focus attention on moral conflicts, draw out different types of evidence to support moral reasoning, and enable simultaneous consideration of real and ideal worlds. We suggest a process and recommendations on design features for crafting vignettes for public health policy.

  17. Mixed Messages, Mixed Outcomes: Exposure to Direct-to-Consumer Advertising for Statin Drugs is Associated with More Frequent Visits to Fast Food Restaurants and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Avery, Rosemary J; Kellogg, Maxwell D; Mathios, Alan

    2016-07-18

    This study examines whether exposure to direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCAs) for statin drugs is associated with non-pharmaceutical behaviors to prevent cardiovascular disease. We focus on the relationship between statin drug DTCA exposure and the frequency of (a) visits to fast-food restaurants and (b) exercise. We combine data on the televised broadcast availability of statin drug DTCAs in large media markets in the United States with 18 waves of the Simmons National Consumer Survey (NCS; n = 120, 229) from 2001 to 2009. We find that statin drug DTCA exposure is associated, in a dose-response pattern, with modest increases in the frequency of exercise and large increases in the frequency of fast-food-restaurant visits. The relationship between statin DTCA exposure and fast-food-restaurant visits were largely consistent in direction but differed in magnitude between those without a previous diagnosis of high cholesterol and those treating high cholesterol with a statin. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these results for future research on pharmaceutical DTCA and population health.

  18. 21 CFR 1140.30 - Scope of permissible forms of labeling and advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... advertising. 1140.30 Section 1140.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Advertising § 1140.30 Scope of permissible forms of labeling and advertising. (a)(1) A manufacturer... advertising or labeling which bears a cigarette or smokeless tobacco brand name (alone or in conjunction...

  19. How to use health and nutrition-related claims correctly on food advertising: comparison of benefit-seeking, risk-avoidance, and taste appeals on different food categories.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hojoon; Springston, Jeffrey K

    2014-09-01

    This study applies the concepts of health halos and unhealthy = tasty intuition to examine how the different health and nutrition-related (HNR) appeal types interact with different food product types compared with taste claims. The experiment investigated the impact of benefit-seeking and risk-avoidance HNR appeals compared with that of taste appeals on different food types. The authors found that although respondents evaluated food ads with the two HNR appeals as less risky/more beneficial and healthier than food ads with a taste claim, the respondents showed better ad-related evaluations on the HNR appeals for perceivably healthy food and on taste appeal for perceivably unhealthy food. The findings provide several theoretical and practical implications for health food marketing and public health policy.

  20. 40 CFR 166.7 - User notification; advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false User notification; advertising. 166.7... § 166.7 User notification; advertising. (a) A State or Federal agency that obtains an exemption may... received) delivers or offers to deliver any pesticide, to advertise the pesticide for any use authorized...

  1. 40 CFR 166.7 - User notification; advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false User notification; advertising. 166.7... § 166.7 User notification; advertising. (a) A State or Federal agency that obtains an exemption may... received) delivers or offers to deliver any pesticide, to advertise the pesticide for any use authorized...

  2. 40 CFR 166.7 - User notification; advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false User notification; advertising. 166.7... § 166.7 User notification; advertising. (a) A State or Federal agency that obtains an exemption may... received) delivers or offers to deliver any pesticide, to advertise the pesticide for any use authorized...

  3. 40 CFR 166.7 - User notification; advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false User notification; advertising. 166.7... § 166.7 User notification; advertising. (a) A State or Federal agency that obtains an exemption may... received) delivers or offers to deliver any pesticide, to advertise the pesticide for any use authorized...

  4. Social Responsibility in Advertising: A Marketing Communications Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendrick, Alice; Fullerton, Jami A.; Kim, Yeo Jung

    2013-01-01

    Although advertising has played a key role in bringing corporate social responsibility (CSR) to the public agenda on behalf of agency clients, little effort has been made to define what social responsibility means in advertising. A national survey of 1,045 advertising and marketing communications students from 176 colleges and universities were…

  5. 40 CFR 166.7 - User notification; advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false User notification; advertising. 166.7... § 166.7 User notification; advertising. (a) A State or Federal agency that obtains an exemption may... received) delivers or offers to deliver any pesticide, to advertise the pesticide for any use authorized...

  6. 78 FR 69095 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Canning...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... Acidified Foods and Thermally Processed Low-Acid Foods in Hermetically Sealed Containers; Extension of... Acidified Foods and Thermally Processed Low-Acid Foods in Hermetically Sealed Containers'' that appeared in...-Acid Foods in Hermetically Sealed Containers.'' Under the PRA (44 U.S.C. 3501-3520), Federal...

  7. Investigating the Role of State Permitting and Agriculture Agencies in Addressing Public Health Concerns Related to Industrial Food Animal Production

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Jillian P.; Laestadius, Linnea I.; Grechis, Clare; Nachman, Keeve E.; Neff, Roni A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Industrial food animal production (IFAP) operations adversely impact environmental public health through air, water, and soil contamination. We sought to determine how state permitting and agriculture agencies respond to these public health concerns. Methods We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with staff at 12 state agencies in seven states, which were chosen based on high numbers or rapid increase of IFAP operations. The interviews served to gather information regarding agency involvement in regulating IFAP operations, the frequency and type of contacts received about public health concerns, how the agency responds to such contacts, and barriers to additional involvement. Results Permitting and agriculture agencies’ responses to health-based IFAP concerns are constrained by significant barriers including narrow regulations, a lack of public health expertise within the agencies, and limited resources. Conclusions State agencies with jurisdiction over IFAP operations are unable to adequately address relevant public health concerns due to multiple factors. Combining these results with previously published findings on barriers facing local and state health departments in the same states reveals significant gaps between these agencies regarding public health and IFAP. There is a clear need for regulations to protect public health and for public health professionals to provide complementary expertise to agencies responsible for regulating IFAP operations. PMID:24587087

  8. 77 FR 67655 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Additive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ...) Moderate Category: For a food additive petition without complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, or...) Complex Category: For a food additive petition with complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, and/or... investigational food additive file without complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, or safety issues,...

  9. An Empirical Approach to Determining Advertising Spending Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunoo, D. H.; Lin, Lynn Y. S.

    To assess the relationship between advertising and consumer promotion and to determine the optimal short-term advertising spending level for a product, a research project was undertaken by a major food manufacturer. One thousand homes subscribing to a dual-system cable television service received either no advertising exposure to the product or…

  10. 21 CFR 530.4 - Advertising and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Advertising and promotion. 530.4 Section 530.4... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS General Provisions § 530.4 Advertising and promotion. Nothing in this part shall be construed as permitting the advertising or promotion...

  11. 21 CFR 530.4 - Advertising and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Advertising and promotion. 530.4 Section 530.4... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS General Provisions § 530.4 Advertising and promotion. Nothing in this part shall be construed as permitting the advertising or promotion...

  12. 21 CFR 530.4 - Advertising and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Advertising and promotion. 530.4 Section 530.4... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS General Provisions § 530.4 Advertising and promotion. Nothing in this part shall be construed as permitting the advertising or promotion...

  13. 21 CFR 530.4 - Advertising and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Advertising and promotion. 530.4 Section 530.4... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS General Provisions § 530.4 Advertising and promotion. Nothing in this part shall be construed as permitting the advertising or promotion...

  14. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (e) * * * (6... some particular when the difference has not been demonstrated by substantial evidence. An...

  15. 77 FR 54464 - Eliminating the Prohibition Against General Solicitation and General Advertising in Rule 506 and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... advertising, including advertisements published in newspapers and magazines, communications broadcast over... Prohibition Against General Solicitation and General Advertising in Rule 506 and Rule 144A Offerings AGENCY... against general solicitation and general advertising contained in Rule 502(c) of Regulation D would...

  16. 21 CFR 530.4 - Advertising and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising and promotion. 530.4 Section 530.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... and promotion. Nothing in this part shall be construed as permitting the advertising or promotion...

  17. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    PubMed

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-05-24

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups.

  18. Advertising Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandage, C. H.; Fryburger, Vernon

    The social and economic functions of advertising, its role in business, how it works, and how it is planned and created are the subject of this textbook. Sections include basic values and functions, background for planning advertising strategy, the advertising message, advertising media, testing advertising effectiveness, and the advertising…

  19. 77 FR 28602 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Early Food Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Early Food Safety Evaluation of New Non-Pesticidal Proteins Produced by New... collection provisions of FDA's procedures for early food safety evaluation of new non-pesticidal proteins... Proteins Produced by New Plant Varieties Intended for Food Use.'' DATES: Submit either electronic...

  20. Modeling Newspaper Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Joseph; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a mathematical model for simulating a newspaper financial system. Includes the effects of advertising and circulation for predicting advertising linage as a function of population, income, and advertising rate. (RL)

  1. Better Advertising Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schick, Dennis

    1979-01-01

    Offers suggestions for selling advertising space in student newspapers. Includes criteria for successful salespeople, a list of common time-wasters, and some principles for advertising salespeople. (TJ)

  2. Contraceptive advertising in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lebow, M A

    1994-01-01

    Despite the fact that most Americans support the advertising of family planning methods, the minority opposition has influenced the formulation of contraceptive advertising policies. This article attempts to clarify the current status of contraceptive advertising and to suggest a sensible public policy for the future. Opening with a review of opinion polls taken since 1985, the article points out that 70% of station managers reported their belief that contraceptive advertising would offend many people despite the fact that 87% of respondents in a public survey indicated no objection to such advertising. The policies that network television stations have adopted are traced from those instituted in the 1960s by the National Association of Broadcaster's Code Authority. These policies govern the airing of Public Service Announcements (PSAs) as well as advertisements. Magazines and newspapers also resist accepting contraceptive advertising, although they do not face the same regulations as the broadcast media. US Food and Drug Administration policies also act as a barrier to product-specific advertisements on network television despite the fact that the American Medical Association no longer opposes such advertising and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists offered to provide valid information about advertising claims to the media. A review of attempts to advertise contraceptives shows that opposition has dropped significantly in the past 10 years for advertisements in newspapers, on cable television, in magazines, on some commercial television stations, and on many radio stations. However, the major television networks still fail to accept such advertisements. Part of the change that is occurring can be attributable to the emergence of AIDS and the need to promote methods to prevent the disease. However, much AIDS-related advertising has been in the form of PSAs, which are less and less available. The major obstacles to contraceptive advertising today

  3. 76 FR 40873 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Food Distribution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... Division, Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 3101 Park Center Drive, Room 500... Agriculture (USDA) assist American farmers and needy people by purchasing and delivering food to State... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF...

  4. 75 FR 16137 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Export of Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ..., and Cosmetic Act (the act) as amended. DATES: Submit written or electronic comments on the collection... the United States under the act Certificate of Free Sale For food, cosmetic products, and dietary... Medicine 855 1 855 1 855 Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition 1,794 5 8,970 2 17,940 Total...

  5. Ethics in medical information and advertising.

    PubMed

    Serour, G I; Dickens, B M

    2004-05-01

    This article presents findings and recommendations of an international conference held in Cairo, Egypt in 2003 concerning issues of ethical practice in how information is provided to and by medical practitioners. Professional advertising to practitioners and the public is necessary, but should exclude misrepresentation of qualifications, resources, and authorship of research papers. Medical institutions are responsible for how staff members present themselves, and their institutions. Medical associations, both governmental licensing authorities and voluntary societies, have powers and responsibilities to monitor professional advertisement to defend the public interest against deception. Medical journals bear duties to ensure authenticity of authorship and integrity in published papers, and the scientific basis of commercial advertisers' claims. A mounting concern is authors' conflict of interest. Mass newsmedia must ensure accuracy and proportionality in reporting scientific developments, and product manufacturers must observe truth in advertising, particularly in Direct-to-Consumer advertising. Consumer protection by government agencies is a continuing responsibility.

  6. 78 FR 11651 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Manufactured Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... program standards are the framework that States should use to design and manage its manufactured food... year for a period of 5 years to be in compliance with the 10 standards. In the first year...

  7. Direct-to-consumer advertising of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Gellad, Ziad F; Lyles, Kenneth W

    2007-06-01

    Since the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released new guidelines on broadcast direct-to-consumer advertising in 1997, the prevalence of direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs has increased exponentially. The impact on providers, patients, and the health care system is varied and dynamic, and the rapid changes in the last several years have markedly altered the health care landscape. To continue providing optimal medical care, physicians and other health care providers must be able to manage this influence on their practice, and a more thorough understanding of this phenomenon is an integral step toward this goal. This review will summarize the history of direct-to-consumer drug advertisements and the current regulations governing them. It will summarize the evidence concerning the impact of direct-to-consumer advertising on the public, providers, and the health care system, and conclude with observations regarding the future of direct-to-consumer advertising.

  8. Advertising on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jugenheimer, Donald W.

    1996-01-01

    States that although many advertisers have intentions of utilizing the Internet for advertising, which can provide specific audience targeting and buyer/seller interactivity, few have been successful. Explains advantages and disadvantages of using the Internet for advertising purposes. Cites special problems with Internet advertising and successes…

  9. School Meal Programs: Changes to Federal Agencies' Procedures Could Reduce Risk of School Children Consuming Recalled Food. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-09-649

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Government Accountability Office, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Over the past few years, several food recalls, such as for beef and peanut products, have affected schools. It is especially important that recalls affecting schools be carried out efficiently and effectively because young children have a higher risk of complications from food-borne illnesses. GAO was asked to determine how federal agencies (1)…

  10. 78 FR 65661 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Safety Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... Listeriosis in Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) Sites According to Age, Pregnancy, and Ethnicity,'' Clinical Infectious Diseases, 54(S5): S401-410, 2012. 4. Goulet, V., Hedberg, C., Le Monnier A... tenderized beef, awareness of foodborne pathogens such as Toxoplasma gondii, and awareness of the...

  11. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Consumer Approach Strand: Foods and Nutrition. Module I-C-2: Regulatory Agencies Responsible for Wholesomeness and Quality of Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar, Evelyn

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on regulatory agencies responsible for wholesomeness and quality of foods is the second in a set of five modules on consumer education related to foods and nutrition. (This set is part of a larger series of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer…

  12. When advertising turns "cheeky"!

    PubMed

    Burkitt, Jennifer A; Saucier, Deborah M; Thomas, Nicole A; Ehresman, Crystal

    2006-05-01

    Portraits typically exhibit leftward posing biases, with people showing more of their left cheek than their right. The current study investigated posing biases in print advertising to determine whether the product advertised affects the posing bias. As the posing bias may be decreasing over time, we also investigated changes in posing biases over a span of more than 100 years. The current investigation coded 2664 advertisements from two time periods; advertisements were coded for target group of advertisement (men, women, both) and posing bias (rightward, leftward, or central). Unlike other studies that typically observe a leftward posing bias, print advertisements exhibit a rightward posing bias, regardless of time-frame. Thus, print advertisements differ greatly from portraits, which may relate to the purpose of advertisements and the role of attractiveness in advertising.

  13. 25 CFR 215.7 - Advertisement of sale of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertisement of sale of leases. 215.7 Section 215.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.7 Advertisement of sale of leases. Upon authority being granted...

  14. 77 FR 64096 - Information Collection; Advertised Timber for Sale

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Advertised Timber for Sale AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... Service is seeking comments from all interested individuals and organizations on the revision with changes of the currently approved information collection 0596-0066 Advertised Timber for Sale....

  15. 76 FR 82115 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections: Full Fare Price Advertising Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... Price Advertising Requirements AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of Transportation (DOT... advertising requirements in 14 CFR 399.84 from January 24, 2012, to January 26, 2012. DATES: The effective... fare and other advertising requirements from January 24, 2012, to January 26, 2012, to...

  16. 77 FR 11618 - Additional Guidance on Airfare/Air Tour Price Advertisements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Office of the Secretary Additional Guidance on Airfare/Air Tour Price Advertisements AGENCY: Office of.../air tour price advertisements. SUMMARY: The Department is publishing the following notice providing additional guidance on airfare/air tour price advertisements. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Nicholas...

  17. 77 FR 13172 - Guidance on the Use of Rounding in Air Fare Advertisements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... Office of The Secretary Guidance on the Use of Rounding in Air Fare Advertisements AGENCY: Office of the... Fare Advertisements. SUMMARY: The Department is publishing the following notice providing guidance on the use of rounding in air fare advertisements. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Nicholas...

  18. Full Page Departmental Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zante, Ben

    1978-01-01

    States that many school newspapers are condensing all advertising into one or two pages. Indicates that advertisers find this to be acceptable, students continue to read the ads, and the content pages look better. (TJ)

  19. Newspaper Ideabook: Creative Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasler, Wayne

    1977-01-01

    Offers suggestions to high school newspaper staffs for designing effective advertisements for local businesses and then selling them to the businesses. Notes that carefully planned advertisements can increase the appeal and value of a publication. (GW)

  20. Neonicotinoids impact bumblebee colony fitness in the field; a reanalysis of the UK's Food & Environment Research Agency 2012 experiment.

    PubMed

    Goulson, Dave

    2015-01-01

    The causes of bee declines remain hotly debated, particularly the contribution of neonicotinoid insecticides. In 2013 the UK's Food & Environment Research Agency made public a study of the impacts of exposure of bumblebee colonies to neonicotinoids. The study concluded that there was no clear relationship between colony performance and pesticide exposure, and the study was subsequently cited by the UK government in a policy paper in support of their vote against a proposed moratorium on some uses of neonicotinoids. Here I present a simple re-analysis of this data set. It demonstrates that these data in fact do show a negative relationship between both colony growth and queen production and the levels of neonicotinoids in the food stores collected by the bees. Indeed, this is the first study describing substantial negative impacts of neonicotinoids on colony performance of any bee species with free-flying bees in a field realistic situation where pesticide exposure is provided only as part of normal farming practices. It strongly suggests that wild bumblebee colonies in farmland can be expected to be adversely affected by exposure to neonicotinoids.

  1. Home Study Advertising Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Michael P., Ed.; Welch, Sally R., Ed.

    This handbook contains a collections of nine articles on the subject of direct-response advertising. The handbook gives advice on how to create effective advertisements for home study courses. The nine articles are the following: "Overview of Home Study Advertising in the 1990s" (Michael P. Lambert); "Ad Features that Sell"…

  2. Advertising and Student Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, William B.

    Rhetoric, the persuasive use of language to influence public thought and action, is experienced in advertising, and advertising can be used as a medium for teaching rhetoric. Advertising demonstrates both admirable and creative use of English and despicable corruption of both language and thought. Both aspects can be employed in teaching…

  3. Nutrition Advertisements in Consumer Magazines: Health Implications for African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Charlotte A.; Pratt, Cornelius B.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the "Ladies' Home Journal" and two popular consumer magazines that target blacks to determine the proportions of food and beverage advertisements, nutrition advertisements and their promotional messages, and the health implications they reveal. Findings reveal these magazines had a significantly higher number of alcohol ads,…

  4. Saturday Morning Children's Television Advertising: A Longitudinal Content Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Content of ads on Saturday children's television programs in 1993 (n=378) and 1999 (n=385) was compared with dietary recommendations and advertising guidelines. Cereals and foods high in sugar or fat dominated ads. Results were compared with earlier studies, finding that over 30 years, ads adhered to advertising guidelines but did not reflect…

  5. You Are What Advertisers Want You To Eat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort, Inza L.

    The media have had an enormous impact on consumption and use of various foods and health and fitness products. More money is spent for out-of-home and frozen ready-made meals than ever before. The use of the words "light" (or "lite") and "lean" by advertisers is questionned. The advertisers' view that women should…

  6. 75 FR 60759 - Enforcement Action Plan for Promotion and Advertising Restrictions; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Enforcement Action Plan for Promotion and Advertising... Plan for Promotion and Advertising Restrictions'' (Enforcement Action Plan), which describes FDA's plan to enforce the restrictions on promotion and advertising of menthol and other cigarettes to youth...

  7. Examining the FDA's oversight of direct-to-consumer advertising.

    PubMed

    Gahart, Martin T; Duhamel, Louise M; Dievler, Anne; Price, Roseanne

    2003-01-01

    Our analysis examined the effects of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) 1997 draft guidance regarding advertisements for prescription drugs broadcast directly to consumers. We found that although direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising spending by pharmaceutical companies has increased, more than 80 percent of their promotional spending is directed to physicians. DTC advertising appears to increase the use of prescription drugs among consumers. The FDA's oversight has not prevented companies from making misleading claims in subsequent advertisements, and a recent policy change has lengthened the FDA's review process, raising the possibility that some misleading campaigns could run their course before review.

  8. Direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs.

    PubMed

    Frosch, Dominick L; Grande, David

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the pharmaceutical industry spent more than $4.9 billion on direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs in the U.S. Controversy over DTCA has grown since the Food and Drug Administration liberalized its regulations in 1997. Proponents claim that such advertising educates consumers, promotes patient participation in clinical decisions, and improves patient adherence to medication instructions. Opponents argue that such advertising is meant to persuade, not educate, and that it promotes inappropriate use of prescription drugs, or diverts consumers from better alternatives. This Issue Brief summarizes the evidence about the effects of DTCA, and proposes guidelines for improving the utility of prescription drug advertising.

  9. Ethical advertising in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Graskemper, Joseph P

    2009-01-01

    Advertising in dentistry has steadily increased since the 1970s to become a leading choice of many dentists to promote their practices. The manner in which advertising progresses within the profession affects all dentists and how patients perceive dentistry as a profession. This paper presents ethical concepts that should be followed when dentists are pursuing practice promotion through advertising. It also raises questions that, hopefully, will increase attention and discussion on dental advertising. The paper concludes that ethical advertising is easily achieved by promoting patient education while not placing the dentist's self-interests ahead of the patient's. With this approach, dentistry may continue to be one of the most trusted professions.

  10. Prospective association between cancer risk and an individual dietary index based on the British Food Standards Agency Nutrient Profiling System.

    PubMed

    Donnenfeld, Mathilde; Julia, Chantal; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Méjean, Caroline; Ducrot, Pauline; Péneau, Sandrine; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Latino-Martel, Paule; Fezeu, Léopold; Hercberg, Serge; Touvier, Mathilde

    2015-11-28

    The Food Standards Agency Nutrient Profiling System (FSA-NPS) constitutes the basis for the Five-Colour Nutrition Label suggested in France to be put on the front-of-pack of food products. At the individual level, a dietary index (FSA-NPS DI) has been derived and validated and corresponds to a weighted mean of all FSA-NPS scores of foods usually consumed by the individual, reflecting the nutritional quality of his/her diet. Our aim was to investigate the association between the FSA-NPS DI and cancer risk in a large cohort. This prospective study included 6435 participants to the SUpplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants cohort (1994-2007) who completed at least six 24 h dietary records during the first 2 years of follow-up. FSA-NPS DI was computed for each subject (higher values representing lower nutritional quality of the diet). After a median follow-up of 12·6 years, 453 incident cancers were diagnosed. Associations were characterised by multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. The FSA-NPS DI was directly associated with overall cancer risk (hazard ratio (HR)for a 1-point increment=1·08 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·15), P trend=0·02; HRQ5 v. Q1=1·34 (95 % CI 1·00, 1·81), P trend=0·03). This association tended to be more specifically observed in subjects with moderate energy intake (≤median, HRfor a 1-point increment=1·10 (95 % CI 1·01-1·20), P trend=0·03). No association was observed in subjects with higher energy intake (P trend=0·3). Results were not statistically significant for breast and prostate cancer risks. For the first time, this study investigated the prospective association between the FSA-NPS individual score and cancer risk. The results suggest that unhealthy food choices may be associated with a 34 % increase in overall cancer risk, supporting the public health relevance of developing front-of-pack nutrition labels based on this score.

  11. 22 CFR 229.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in...

  12. Regulatory beneficiaries and informal agency policymaking.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Nina A

    2007-03-01

    Administrative agencies frequently use guidance documents to set policy broadly and prospectively in areas ranging from Department of Education Title IX enforcement to Food and Drug Administration regulation of direct-to- consumer pharmaceutical advertising. In form, these guidances often closely resemble the policies agencies issue in ordinary notice-and-comment rulemaking. However, guidances are generally developed with little public participation and are often immune from judicial review. Nonetheless, guidances can prompt significant changes in behavior from those the agencies regulate. A number of commentators have guardedly defended the current state of affairs. Though guidances lack some important procedural safeguards, they can help agencies supervise low-level employees and supply valuable information to regulated entities regarding how an agency will implement a program. Thus far, however, the debate has largely ignored the distinct and substantial interests of regulatory beneficiaries--those who expect to benefit from government regulation of others. Regulatory beneficiaries include, among others, pharmaceutical consumers, environmental users, and workers seeking safe workplaces. When agencies make policy informally, regulatory beneficiaries suffer distinctive losses to their ability to participate in the agency's decision and to invoke judicial review. This Article argues that considering the interests of regulatory beneficiaries strengthens the case for procedural reform. The Article then assesses some possible solutions.

  13. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    PubMed

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were surveyed to determine their store's policy regarding tobacco advertising, receipt of monetary incentives from distributors for displaying tobacco ads, and willingness to display antitobacco ads. Six types of stores were involved in the study: 10 supermarkets, 10 privately owned grocery stores, 9 chain convenience food stores that do not sell gasoline, 11 chain convenience food stores that sell gasoline, 11 chain pharmacies, and 10 private pharmacies. Two-thirds of the stores displayed tobacco posters, and 87 percent had promotional items advertising tobacco products, primarily cigarettes. Larger stores, and those that were privately owned, tended to display more posters and promotional items. Eighty percent of tobacco product displays were for cigarettes, 16 percent for smokeless tobacco products, and 4 percent for cigars and pipe tobacco. Convenience stores selling gasoline had the most separate tobacco product displays. Of tobacco product displays, 24 percent were located adjacent to candy and snack displays. Twenty-nine of the 61 store owners or managers indicated that their store had a policy regulating the display of tobacco ads and tobacco product displays. Policies dealt primarily with the location of tobacco posters (for example, no ads in the window) and number of product displays. Only 14 shop owners or managers indicated that they had previously displayed antitobacco information; more than half (31 of 61) said that they would be willing to display antitobaccoads.In many

  14. Consistency of Nutrition Recommendations for Foods Marketed to Children in the United States, 2009–2010

    PubMed Central

    Quilliam, Elizabeth Taylor; Paek, Hye-Jin; Kim, Sookyong; Venkatesh, Sumathi; Plasencia, Julie; Lee, Mira; Rifon, Nora J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Food marketing has emerged as an environmental factor that shapes children’s dietary behaviors. “Advergames,” or free online games designed to promote branded products, are an example of evolving food marketing tactics aimed at children. Our primary objective was to classify foods marketed to children (aged 2–11 y) in advergames as those meeting or not meeting nutrition recommendations of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Food & Drug Administration (FDA), Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI), and the Institute of Medicine (IOM). We document the consistency of classification of those foods across agency guidelines and offer policy recommendations. Methods We used comScore Media Builder Metrix to identify 143 websites that marketed foods (n = 439) to children aged 2 to 11 years through advergames. Foods were classified on the basis of each of the 4 agency criteria. Food nutrient labels provided information on serving size, calories, micronutrients, and macronutrients. Results The websites advertised 254 meals, 101 snacks, and 84 beverages. Proportions of meals and snacks meeting USDA and FDA recommendations were similarly low, with the exception of saturated fat in meals and sodium content in snacks. Inconsistency in recommendations was evidenced by only a small proportion of meals and fewer snacks meeting the recommendations of all the agencies per their guidelines. Beverage recommendations were also inconsistent across the 3 agencies that provide recommendations (USDA, IOM, and CSPI). Most (65%–95%) beverages advertised in advergames did not meet some of these recommendations. Conclusion Our findings indicate that a large number of foods with low nutritional value are being marketed to children via advergames. A standardized system of food marketing guidance is needed to better inform the public about healthfulness of foods advertised to children. PMID:24070037

  15. Lead Agency Responsibilities to Keep Informed of Personnel Needs in the Food and Agricultural Sciences are not being Fully Met.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-28

    General Foods Corp. - processors of packaged grocery products Hershey Foods Corp. - chocolates and confectionary products and pasta International...manpower development requirements for food and agricultural science personnel. FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ACT OF 1977 Future growth of agricultural productivity ...and increases in production , distribution., and consumption efficiency require a continuing supply of qualified graduates in the food and agricul

  16. Advertising in This Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-02-01

    To see a list of advertisers from the three most recent issues of JCE, go to the HTML Ad Index. This will take you to the list of advertisers, each conveniently linked to their home page. To get advertising information via mail, fax, or email, refer to the top portion of the Readers Service Card inserted in the print issue. Whatever method of communication you use, be sure to mention to advertisers that you saw their ad in the Journal of Chemical Education. To view a list of the companies that advertised in this issue of JCE, click here. Advertising Representative McNeill Group, Inc. 301 Oxford Valley Road, Suite 804 Yardley, PA 19067 phone: 215/321-9662 or 800/275-5084 fax: 215/321-9636; email: jchemed@mcneill-group.com

  17. Advertising in This Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-04-01

    To see a list of advertisers from the three most recent issues of JCE, go to the HTML Ad Index. This will take you to the list of advertisers, each conveniently linked to their home page. To get advertising information via mail, fax, or email, refer to the top portion of the Readers Service Card inserted in the print issue. Whatever method of communication you use, be sure to mention to advertisers that you saw their ad in the Journal of Chemical Education. To view a list of the companies that advertised in this issue of JCE, click here. Advertising Representative McNeill Group, Inc. 301 Oxford Valley Road, Suite 804 Yardley, PA 19067 phone: 215/321-9662 or 800/275-5084 fax: 215/321-9636; email: jchemed@mcneill-group.com

  18. Advertising in This Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-07-01

    To see a list of advertisers from the three most recent issues of JCE, go to the HTML Ad Index. This will take you to the list of advertisers, each conveniently linked to their home page. To get advertising information via mail, fax, or email, refer to the top portion of the Readers Service Card inserted in the print issue. Whatever method of communication you use, be sure to mention to advertisers that you saw their ad in the Journal of Chemical Education. To view a list of the companies that advertised in this issue of JCE, click here. Advertising Representative McNeill Group, Inc. 301 Oxford Valley Road, Suite 804 Yardley, PA 19067 phone: 215/321-9662 or 800/275-5084 fax: 215/321-9636; email: jchemed@mcneill-group.com

  19. Advertising in This Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-12-01

    To see a list of advertisers from the three most recent issues of JCE, go to the HTML Ad Index. This will take you to the list of advertisers, each conveniently linked to their home page. To get advertising information via mail, fax, or email, refer to the top portion of the Readers Service Card inserted in the print issue. Whatever method of communication you use, be sure to mention to advertisers that you saw their ad in the Journal of Chemical Education. To view a list of the companies that advertised in this issue of JCE, click here. Advertising Representative McNeill Group, Inc. 301 Oxford Valley Road, Suite 804 Yardley, PA 19067 phone: 215/321-9662 or 800/275-5084 fax: 215/321-9636; email: jchemed@mcneill-group.com

  20. Advertising in This Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    To see a list of advertisers from the three most recent issues of JCE, go to the HTML Ad Index. This will take you to the list of advertisers, each conveniently linked to their home page. To get advertising information via mail, fax, or email, refer to the top portion of the Readers Service Card inserted in the print issue. Whatever method of communication you use, be sure to mention to advertisers that you saw their ad in the Journal of Chemical Education. To view a list of the companies that advertised in this issue of JCE, click here. Advertising Representative McNeill Group, Inc. 301 Oxford Valley Road, Suite 804 Yardley, PA 19067 phone: 215/321-9662 or 800/275-5084 fax: 215/321-9636; email: jchemed@mcneill-group.com

  1. Advertising in This Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    To see a list of advertisers from the three most recent issues of JCE, go to the Ad Index. This will take you to the list of advertisers, each conveniently linked to their home page. To get advertising information via mail, fax, or email, refer to the top portion of the Readers Service Card inserted in the print issue. Whatever method of communication you use, be sure to mention to advertisers that you saw their ad in the Journal of Chemical Education. To view a list of the companies that advertised in this issue of JCE, click here. Advertising Representative McNeill Group, Inc. 301 Oxford Valley Road, Suite 804 Yardley, PA 19067 phone: 215/321-9662 or 800/275-5084 fax: 215/321-9636; email: jchemed@mcneill-group.com

  2. Advertising in This Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    To see a list of advertisers from the three most recent issues of JCE, go to the Ad Index. This will take you to the list of advertisers, each conveniently linked to their home page. To get advertising information via mail, fax, or email, refer to the top portion of the Readers Service Card inserted in the print issue. Whatever method of communication you use, be sure to mention to advertisers that you saw their ad in the Journal of Chemical Education. To view a list of the companies that advertised in this issue of JCE, click here. Advertising Representative McNeill Group, Inc. 301 Oxford Valley Road, Suite 804 Yardley, PA 19067 phone: 215/321-9662 or 800/275-5084 fax: 215/321-9636; email: jchemed@mcneill-group.com

  3. Advertising in This Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-04-01

    To see a list of advertisers from the three most recent issues of JCE, go to the Ad Index. This will take you to the list of advertisers, each conveniently linked to their home page. To get advertising information via mail, fax, or email, refer to the top portion of the Readers Service Card inserted in the print issue. Whatever method of communication you use, be sure to mention to advertisers that you saw their ad in the Journal of Chemical Education. To view a list of the companies that advertised in this issue of JCE, click here. Advertising Representative McNeill Group, Inc. 301 Oxford Valley Road, Suite 804 Yardley, PA 19067 phone: 215/321-9662 or 800/275-5084 fax: 215/321-9636; email: jchemed@mcneill-group.com

  4. Advertising in This Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-09-01

    To see a list of advertisers from the three most recent issues of JCE, go to the HTML Ad Index. This will take you to the list of advertisers, each conveniently linked to their home page. To get advertising information via mail, fax, or email, refer to the top portion of the Readers Service Card inserted in the print issue. Whatever method of communication you use, be sure to mention to advertisers that you saw their ad in the Journal of Chemical Education. To view a list of the companies that advertised in this issue of JCE, click here. Advertising Representative McNeill Group, Inc. 301 Oxford Valley Road, Suite 804 Yardley, PA 19067 phone: 215/321-9662 or 800/275-5084 fax: 215/321-9636; email: jchemed@mcneill-group.com

  5. Advertising in This Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-02-01

    To see a list of advertisers from the three most recent issues of JCE, go to the Ad Index. This will take you to the list of advertisers, each conveniently linked to their home page. To get advertising information via mail, fax, or email, refer to the top portion of the Readers Service Card inserted in the print issue. Whatever method of communication you use, be sure to mention to advertisers that you saw their ad in the Journal of Chemical Education. To view a list of the companies that advertised in this issue of JCE, click here. Advertising Representative McNeill Group, Inc. 301 Oxford Valley Road, Suite 804 Yardley, PA 19067 phone: 215/321-9662 or 800/275-5084 fax: 215/321-9636; email: jchemed@mcneill-group.com

  6. Advertising in This Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    To see a list of advertisers from the three most recent issues of JCE, go to the Ad Index. This will take you to the list of advertisers, each conveniently linked to their home page. To get advertising information via mail, fax, or email, refer to the top portion of the Readers Service Card inserted in the print issue. Whatever method of communication you use, be sure to mention to advertisers that you saw their ad in the Journal of Chemical Education. To view a list of the companies that advertised in this issue of JCE, click here. Advertising Representative McNeill Group, Inc. 301 Oxford Valley Road, Suite 804 Yardley, PA 19067 phone: 215/321-9662 or 800/275-5084 fax: 215/321-9636; email: jchemed@mcneill-group.com

  7. Army Public Service Advertising.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    34 Marketing and Media Decisions, January 1982, p. 63. 6U.S., General Accounting Office, " Advertising for Military Recruiting," p. 10. 7Dean L. Yarwood...talent and necessary training, they said. 4 8 An article in Marketing and Media Decisions 4 9 offered a brief synopsis of military recruitment advertising ...support, public relations, marketing research, and analysis. The N. W. Ayer field representative’s Army counterpart is the Advertising and Sales

  8. Attention competition with advertisement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  9. Attention competition with advertisement.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  10. 75 FR 67666 - Use of Various Winemaking Terms on Wine Labels and in Advertisements; Request for Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... Wine Labels and in Advertisements; Request for Public Comment AGENCY: Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade... various winemaking terms commonly used on labels and in advertisements to provide consumers with... Regulations, the Use of Various Winemaking Terms on Labels and in Advertisements, and Request for Comments...

  11. Regulating pharmaceutical advertising: what will work?

    PubMed

    Shapiro, M F

    1997-02-01

    As Dr. Joel Lexchin makes painfully obvious in this issue (see pages 351 to 356), regulatory processes governing pharmaceutical advertising in Canada and elsewhere are seriously compromised. However, the remedial measures Lexchin proposes are not sufficient. Financial sanctions against improper advertising are likely to be regarded by manufacturers as the cost of doing business, and any regulatory body that includes drug industry representatives or individuals receiving financial support from the drug industry cannot be genuinely independent. Moreover, manufacturers are now using promotional strategies that are particularly difficult to regulate. These include providing drugs at lower than the usual cost to ensure their inclusion in managed-care formularies, and using direct-to-consumer advertising to take advantage of the public's lack of sophistication in interpreting scientific evidence. Our best hope of counteracting the power and influence of the drug industry lies in regulation by government agencies, whose interest is the protection of the public.

  12. 21 CFR 1140.30 - Scope of permissible forms of labeling and advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... advertising. 1140.30 Section 1140.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) TOBACCO PRODUCTS CIGARETTES AND SMOKELESS TOBACCO Labeling and Advertising... labeling which bears a cigarette or smokeless tobacco brand name (alone or in conjunction with any...

  13. 21 CFR 1140.30 - Scope of permissible forms of labeling and advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... advertising. 1140.30 Section 1140.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) TOBACCO PRODUCTS CIGARETTES AND SMOKELESS TOBACCO Labeling and Advertising... labeling which bears a cigarette or smokeless tobacco brand name (alone or in conjunction with any...

  14. 21 CFR 1140.30 - Scope of permissible forms of labeling and advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... advertising. 1140.30 Section 1140.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) TOBACCO PRODUCTS CIGARETTES AND SMOKELESS TOBACCO Labeling and Advertising... labeling which bears a cigarette or smokeless tobacco brand name (alone or in conjunction with any...

  15. 21 CFR 1140.30 - Scope of permissible forms of labeling and advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... advertising. 1140.30 Section 1140.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) TOBACCO PRODUCTS CIGARETTES AND SMOKELESS TOBACCO Labeling and Advertising... labeling which bears a cigarette or smokeless tobacco brand name (alone or in conjunction with any...

  16. Some Advertising Sales Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schick, C. Dennis

    1980-01-01

    Enumerates information that advertising sales people for school newspapers should have before they call on potential customers. Includes ideas on what to know about a number of items, including the publication, readers and nonreaders, advertising, sales opportunities, prospects, prospects' problems, shopping factors, and stores' images. (TJ)

  17. Advertising in School Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Helen M-E.

    The needs of publication advisers in general and specifically those whose responsibility it is to direct the advertising staffs of school publications are the concern of this booklet. It is also designed to be a framework of reference and a guide which will enable the adviser to make the advertising experience of the staff members exciting and…

  18. Advertisements Demand Sense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clanton, Brandolyn; And Others

    Self-contained units of study on advertising will help secondary students to critically analyze the utility, completeness, and accuracy of various sources of product information. In the first of five units, students are asked to think about the many benefits consumers and producers derive from advertising. The second unit makes students aware that…

  19. Advertising the American Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dispenza, Joseph E.

    This illustrated anthology of advertising in the popular press attempts to clarify the manner in which consumers have been conditioned to think about the roles of women in society. More than 2,000 copies of periodicals dating from 1900 to the present were consulted for the cultural information in their advertising. The selection of certain ads…

  20. Advertising Pressures on Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammitt, Harry

    The majority of the media in the United States is funded through revenues derived from the sale of advertising space. The problem that arises from this situation is fundamentally an economic one: if advertisers are paying the bills for the media, how much control over content should they have? This report offers a review of instances in which…

  1. Advertising Public Television

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colihan, William J., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    "Several years ago an unpublished study reported that 85 per cent of established ETV stations (on-the-air two years or longer and replying to the questionnaire) used newspaper advertising for program promotion. The CPB commissioned the study reported here to determine the effects of such newspaper advertising on ETV audience size."…

  2. Print Advertisements in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashim, Azirah

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines print advertisements in Malaysia to determine how advertisers seek to achieve their primary goal of persuading or influencing an audience by the use of both language and visuals. It describes the main component moves and rhetorical strategies used by writers to articulate the communicative purpose of the genre and the language…

  3. Advertising in This Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    If you would like additional information about the products of the advertisers in this issue, the quickest and easiest way is via JCE Online's new service: Ad Index This will take you to the list of advertisers, each conveniently linked to their home page. To get advertising information via mail, fax, or email, refer to the top portion of the Readers Service Card inserted in the print issue. Whatever method of communication you use, be sure to mention to advertisers that you saw their ad in the Journal of Chemical Education. Advertising Representative McNeill Group, Inc. · 301 Oxford Valley Road, Suite 804 Yardley, PA 19067 · phone: 215/321-9662 or 800/275-5084 fax: 215/321-9636; email: jchemed@mcneill-group.com

  4. Advertising in This Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-09-01

    If you would like additional information about the products of the advertisers in this issue, the quickest and easiest way is via JCE Online's new service: Ad Index This will take you to the list of advertisers, each conveniently linked to their home page. To get advertising information via mail, fax, or email, refer to the top portion of the Readers Service Card inserted in the print issue. Whatever method of communication you use, be sure to mention to advertisers that you saw their ad in the Journal of Chemical Education. Advertising Representative McNeill Group, Inc. · 301 Oxford Valley Road, Suite 804 Yardley, PA 19067 · phone: 215/321-9662 or 800/275-5084 fax: 215/321-9636; email: jchemed@mcneill-group.com

  5. Advertising in This Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-12-01

    If you would like additional information about the products of the advertisers in this issue, the quickest and easiest way is via JCE Online's new service: Ad Index This will take you to the list of advertisers, each conveniently linked to their home page. To get advertising information via mail, fax, or email, refer to the top portion of the Readers Service Card inserted in the print issue. Whatever method of communication you use, be sure to mention to advertisers that you saw their ad in the Journal of Chemical Education. Advertising Representative McNeill Group, Inc. · 301 Oxford Valley Road, Suite 804 Yardley, PA 19067 · phone: 215/321-9662 or 800/275-5084 fax: 215/321-9636; email: jchemed@mcneill-group.com

  6. Advertising in This Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-10-01

    If you would like additional information about the products of the advertisers in this issue, the quickest and easiest way is via JCE Online's new service: Ad Index This will take you to the list of advertisers, each conveniently linked to their home page. To get advertising information via mail, fax, or email, refer to the top portion of the Readers Service Card inserted in the print issue. Whatever method of communication you use, be sure to mention to advertisers that you saw their ad in the Journal of Chemical Education. Advertising Representative McNeill Group, Inc. · 301 Oxford Valley Road, Suite 804 Yardley, PA 19067 · phone: 215/321-9662 or 800/275-5084 fax: 215/321-9636; email: jchemed@mcneill-group.com

  7. Advertising and Advertisements: The Simple Art of Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Craig L.

    Developing an aesthetic theory of advertising, this paper offers the premise that advertising is a ritual, that it provides cultural roles, and that it reinforces people's perceptions of their common experiences. The paper discusses advertising and advertising art as a process that both draws from and is sustained by general culture while serving…

  8. 21 CFR 200.200 - Prescription drugs; reminder advertisements and reminder labeling to provide price information to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription drugs; reminder advertisements and... Prescription Drug Consumer Price Listing § 200.200 Prescription drugs; reminder advertisements and reminder labeling to provide price information to consumers. (a) Prescription drug reminder advertisements...

  9. Advertising and obesity: a behavioral perspective.

    PubMed

    Hoek, Janet; Gendall, Philip

    2006-06-01

    Concern over the levels of obesity observed in Western countries has grown as researchers forecast a rapid growth in the medical care that a progressively more obese population will require. As health workers deal with increased incidences of diabetes and other obesity-related disorders, policymakers have examined the factors contributing to this problem. In particular, advertising that promotes high fat and high sugar products to children has come under increasing scrutiny. Advertisers have rejected claims that advertising contributes to obesity by arguing that it cannot coerce people into purchasing a product, and does not affect primary demand. This reasoning overlooks the role advertising plays in reinforcing and normalising behavior, however, and it assumes that only direct causal links merit regulatory attention. Ehrenberg's "weak" theory suggests advertising will support unhealthy eating behaviors, while the wide range of sales promotions employed will prompt trial and reward continued consumption. This article presents an alternative analysis of how marketing contributes to obesity and uses behavior modification theory to analyse the "fast-food" industry's promotions. We also review the New Zealand government's response to obesity and suggest policy interventions that would foster healthier eating behaviors.

  10. Navy Advertising: Targeting Generation Z

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    17 1. Navy Recruiting and Advertising Budget ..................................18 H. JOINT ADVERTISING, MARKET RESEARCH AND STUDIES...7 Figure 3. Projected Continued Increase of Online Marketing and Advertising Spending from 2014 to 2019...thousand DOD Department of Defense DON Department of the Navy JAMRS Joint Advertising, Market Research and Studies NALTS National Lead Tracking

  11. How consumers view physician advertising.

    PubMed

    Johns, H E; Moser, H R

    1989-01-01

    In this study, it was found that consumers generally favor advertising by physicians. They felt that newspaper and professional magazines were more appropriate media for such advertising than television, radio, billboards, telephones, direct mail, and popular magazines. Finally, most consumers have not seen physicians advertise, but of those who have, most have noticed such advertising in a newspaper.

  12. Advertising for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuFresne, Robert A.; Nasstrom, Roy R.

    1978-01-01

    A six-month publicity and advertising campaign by Winona State University in Minnesota is considered a major factor in the enrollment increase despite a general decline in the state system as a whole. (Author/MLF)

  13. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    PubMed

    Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W

    2002-06-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube.

  14. Trends in Advertising Typography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Sandra Ernst

    1982-01-01

    Reviews advertising typography in general interest, special interest, and trade magazines and concludes that special interest magazine ads are making the most effort to be fashionable, but also have the greatest chance of having functional problems. (FL)

  15. "Ruralizing" Presidential Job Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leist, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Rural community college presidential job advertisements that focus on geography, politics, and culture can improve the likelihood of a good fit between the senior leader and the institution. (Contains 2 figures.)

  16. Eight worst advertising mistakes.

    PubMed

    Maley, Catherine

    2010-11-01

    This article presents strategies for advertising the medical practice. The emphasis is on breaking out of the old rules of how one should advertise and delves into asking questions that lead to a true strategy unique to one's medical practice and offerings. The article discusses the myriad ways to think about and create a patient-centered approach, turning from "here is what we offer" to instead "what you want we offer."

  17. How consumers view hospital advertising.

    PubMed

    Johns, H E; Moser, H R

    1988-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine: (a) consumers' attitudes toward advertising by hospitals; (b) which media consumers feel are appropriate for hospital advertising; and (c) whether consumers are seeing hospital advertisements, and if so, through which media. It was found that consumers indeed have a favorable attitude toward hospitals that advertise. It was also found that consumers feel that most media are appropriate for hospital advertising. Finally, it was found that most consumers have seen hospitals advertise their services, especially on television and radio and in the newspaper.

  18. Using mass transit public service advertising to market family planning.

    PubMed

    Blonna, R; McNally, K; Grasso, C

    1990-03-01

    To increase public awareness of family planning services in New Jersey, the Family Planning Program of the State Department of Health conducted an intermediary marketing campaign using free public service advertising on mass transit. In 1986, the year of the campaign, 237 calls were made to the advertised hotline, resulting in a like number of referrals to family planning service providers. Also, 2664 new patients examined in the state's family planning agencies in 1986 cited exposure to the media campaign as the reason for their visits. The results of the campaign and their implications for other public service agencies are discussed.

  19. Visible Minorities in Mass Media Advertising. Minorites Perceptibles dans la Publicite.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owaisi, Lateef; And Others

    A study was conducted in Canada to quantitatively and qualitatively analyze the presence of minority group members in mass media advertising. Television commercials, store catalogues, newspapers, and magazines were surveyed during a two week period in 1977. Additional surveys were conducted with advertising agencies and firms, the Association of…

  20. 76 FR 31467 - Guide Concerning Fuel Economy Advertising for New Automobiles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... CFR Part 259 Guide Concerning Fuel Economy Advertising for New Automobiles AGENCY: Federal Trade... ``Commission'') gives notice that it is postponing any amendments to its Guide Concerning Fuel Economy Advertising for New Automobiles (``Fuel Economy Guide'' or ``Guide'') pending completion of ongoing review...

  1. Outdoor advertising, obesity, and soda consumption: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent research has shown that neighborhood characteristics are associated with obesity prevalence. While food advertising in periodicals and television has been linked to overweight and obesity, it is unknown whether outdoor advertising is related to obesity. Methods To test the association between outdoor food advertising and obesity, we analyzed telephone survey data on adults, aged 18–98, collected from 220 census tracts in Los Angeles and Louisiana. We linked self-reported information on BMI and soda consumption with a database of directly observed outdoor advertisements. Results The higher the percentage of outdoor advertisements promoting food or non-alcoholic beverages within a census tract, the greater the odds of obesity among its residents, controlling for age, race and educational status. For every 10% increase in food advertising, there was a 1.05 (95% CI 1.003 - 1.093, p<0.03) greater odds of being overweight or obese, controlling for other factors. Given these predictions, compared to an individual living in an area with no food ads, those living in areas in which 30% of ads were for food would have a 2.6% increase in the probability of being obese. Conclusions There is a relationship between the percentage of outdoor food advertising and overweight/obesity. PMID:23305548

  2. Limitations of direct-to-consumer advertising for clinical genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Gollust, Sarah E; Hull, Sara Chandros; Wilfond, Benjamin S

    2002-10-09

    Although direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertisements for pharmaceuticals have been appearing in the mass media for 20 years, DTC advertisements for genetic testing have only recently appeared. Advertisements for genetic testing can provide both consumers and physicians with information about test availability in an expanding market. However, 3 factors limit the value and appropriateness of advertisements: complex information, a complicated social context surrounding genetics, and a lack of consensus about the clinical utility of some tests. Consideration of several advertisements suggests that they overstate the value of genetic testing for consumers' clinical care. Furthermore, advertisements may provide misinformation about genetics, exaggerate consumers' risks, endorse a deterministic relationship between genes and disease, and reinforce associations between diseases and ethnic groups. Advertising motivated by factors other than evidence of the clinical value of genetic tests can manipulate consumers' behavior by exploiting their fears and worries. At this time, DTC advertisements are inappropriate, given the public's limited sophistication regarding genetics and the lack of comprehensive premarket review of tests or oversight of advertisement content. Existing Federal Trade Commission and Food and Drug Administration regulations for other types of health-related advertising should be applied to advertisements for genetic tests.

  3. Cultural schemas for racial identity in Canadian television advertising.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Shyon; Ho, Loretta

    2014-05-01

    What meanings are attached to race in advertising? We analyze a sample of prime-time Canadian television advertising to identify cultural schemas for what it means to be White, Black, and East/Southeast Asian. Our empirical focus is on food and dining advertising. Through quantitative content analysis of associations between race and food subtypes, we show that there are systematic differences in the types of foods that groups are associated with. Through a qualitative content analysis of the commercials, we illuminate these quantitative patterns and discuss six cultural schemas for racial identity. The schemas allow for both diversity and privilege in the representation of Whites, and poignant contrasts regarding status and emotionality in the narrow representations of the other two groups.

  4. Direct-to-consumer advertising in oncology.

    PubMed

    Abel, Gregory A; Penson, Richard T; Joffe, Steven; Schapira, Lidia; Chabner, Bruce A; Lynch, Thomas J

    2006-02-01

    Shortly before his death in 1995, Kenneth B. Schwartz, a cancer patient at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), founded The Kenneth B. Schwartz Center at MGH. The Schwartz Center is a nonprofit organization dedicated to supporting and advancing compassionate health care delivery, which provides hope to patients and support to caregivers while encouraging the healing process. The center sponsors the Schwartz Center Rounds, a monthly multidisciplinary forum in which caregivers reflect on important psychosocial issues faced by patients, their families, and their caregivers, and gain insight and support from fellow staff members. Increasingly, cancer patients are subjected to advertisements related to oncologic therapies and other cancer-related products in the popular media. Such direct-to-consumer advertising is controversial: while it may inform, educate, and perhaps even empower patients, it also has the ability to misinform patients, and strain their relationships with oncology providers. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration requires that direct-to-consumer advertising provide a balanced presentation of a product's benefits, risks, and side effects, but this can be difficult to achieve. Through a discussion of this topic by an oncology fellow, ethicist, cancer survivor, and senior oncologist, the role of direct-to-consumer advertising and its often subtle effects on clinical practice in oncology are explored. Although sparse, the medical literature on this increasingly prevalent type of medical communication is also reviewed.

  5. The Perceived Utility of Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Garrett J.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Reports that audiences found newspaper advertisements to be more useful than those appearing in other media and that the more exposure a person had to a given medium, the more useful s/he perceived its advertisements to be. (FL)

  6. Online Advertising in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagherjeiran, Abraham; Bhatt, Rushi P.; Parekh, Rajesh; Chaoji, Vineet

    Online social networks offer opportunities to analyze user behavior and social connectivity and leverage resulting insights for effective online advertising. This chapter focuses on the role of social network information in online display advertising.

  7. Recruiters, Advertising, and Navy Enlistments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    Population’s Awareness and Advertising Previous studies on advertising have focused on measuring its effects in product markets : the consensus is that...1 June 1973. 4. Clarke, D.G., "Econometric Measurement of the Duration of Advertising Effect on Sales," Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. III...RECRUITERS, ADVERTISING , AND NAVY ENLISTMENTS. CU) MAR So L GOLDBERG UNCLASSIFIED CNA-PP-275 N ROFESSIONAL PAPE 75March 1980 6,) . ..... - R

  8. Nutritional quality of foods marketed to children in Honduras.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Matthew D; Clements, Dennis; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E

    2014-02-01

    Evidence suggests that exposure to advertising of unhealthy foods may contribute to increased rates of obesity in children. This study examined the extent to which television stations marketed unhealthy foods to children during after-school programming aired over one week in La Ceiba, Honduras. Content analysis was performed on four television stations, including one broadcast station and three cable networks. Eighty hours of programming were recorded and analyzed. Advertised products were categorized as food or non-food items, with food items further classified as healthy or unhealthy. Advertisements were coded as those aimed at children, adults, or both, and chi-square tests were used to compare the proportion of unhealthy advertisements by target audience. A total of 2271 advertisements aired during the observation period, with 1120 marketing products (49.3%). Of those, 397 (35.4%) promoted foods-30.2% were for healthy foods and 69.8% for unhealthy foods. The unhealthy foods were all advertised on cable networks and not the broadcast station. Children appeared to be targeted more than adults in advertisements for unhealthy foods (92.1%, p<0.001). Cable television programming during after-school hours advertised primarily unhealthy foods. Exposure to these advertisements may promote consumption of unhealthy foods by children, increasing their risk of obesity.

  9. Information Content of Newspaper Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasadeos, Yorgo; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Indicates that nearly all of the newspaper advertisements examined contained at least one information cue and that one-third contained four or more cues, with an average of 2.8 per ad. Suggests that newspaper advertisements are more "informative" than television and magazine advertisements. (JD)

  10. Bilingual Advertising in Melbourne Chinatown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Sherry Yong

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the function of bilingual advertising by analyzing a case study of bilingual advertising in the Chinatown of Melbourne, Australia. The use of bilingual advertising in an immigrant setting differentiates itself from those in Asian settings where English is not used by dominant proportion of speakers in the society, and this…

  11. The social costs of tobacco advertising and promotions.

    PubMed

    Emery, S; Choi, W S; Pierce, J P

    1999-01-01

    Recent longitudinal evidence suggests that approximately 34% of all new tobacco experimentation occurs because of tobacco advertising and promotions. Based on this figure, in this paper we estimate the long-term impact on mortality and morbidity, as well as the economic and medical costs associated with smoking that is attributable to cigarette advertising and promotions in the United States. This study used several data sources, including the Teenage Attitudes and Practices Survey (TAPS), the 1993 and 1996 Adolescent California Tobacco Surveys (CTS), and the Food and Drug Administration's estimates of annual illness-related benefits of alternative effectiveness rates of banning tobacco advertising. Our resulting estimates are that in each year between 1988 and 1998, tobacco advertising and promotional activities generated approximately 193000 additional adult smokers who began smoking as adolescents because of advertisements and promotions. That decade of tobacco advertising and promotions will also result in approximately 46400 smoking-attributable deaths per year and 698400 years of potential life lost, which translates into costs of approximately $21.7 billion to $33.3 billion in total medical, productivity, and mortality-related costs. Even accounting for quitting behavior, each year of advertising-attributable smoking increases the number of smokers in the population. We conclude that annual costs can be expected to continue to increase if tobacco advertising and promotional activities are not effectively eliminated. If all tobacco industry advertising and promotional activities were banned for the next 25 years, nearly 60000 smoking-attributable deaths per year could be avoided, saving nearly 900000 life-years, $2.6 billion in excess medical expenses, and between $28 billion and $43 billion in mortality costs.

  12. The educational potential of direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising.

    PubMed

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; DeJong, William

    2004-01-01

    Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations for direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertising allow broadcast advertisements with incomplete risk information if the ads refer consumers to physicians, pharmacists, and supplemental information sources. New research reveals several problems with both television advertisements and supplemental text materials that might compromise their ability to meet the FDA's requirement for "fair balance" in the presentation of risks and benefits. In response, we make several recommendations to improve the educational quality of DTC advertising, which can be implemented through either voluntary agreements or revised FDA regulations.

  13. Children as consumers: advertising and marketing.

    PubMed

    Calvert, Sandra L

    2008-01-01

    Marketing and advertising support the U.S. economy by promoting the sale of goods and services to consumers, both adults and children. Sandra Calvert addresses product marketing to children and shows that although marketers have targeted children for decades, two recent trends have increased their interest in child consumers. First, both the discretionary income of children and their power to influence parent purchases have increased over time. Second, as the enormous increase in the number of available television channels has led to smaller audiences for each channel, digital interactive technologies have simultaneously opened new routes to narrow cast to children, thereby creating a growing media space just for children and children's products. Calvert explains that paid advertising to children primarily involves television spots that feature toys and food products, most of which are high in fat and sugar and low in nutritional value. Newer marketing approaches have led to online advertising and to so-called stealth marketing techniques, such as embedding products in the program content in films, online, and in video games. All these marketing strategies, says Calvert, make children younger than eight especially vulnerable because they lack the cognitive skills to understand the persuasive intent of television and online advertisements. The new stealth techniques can also undermine the consumer defenses even of older children and adolescents. Calvert explains that government regulations implemented by the Federal Communications Commission and the Federal Trade Commission provide some protection for children from advertising and marketing practices. Regulators exert more control over content on scarce television airwaves that belong to the public than over content on the more open online spaces. Overall, Calvert concludes, children live and grow up in a highly sophisticated marketing environment that influences their preferences and behaviors.

  14. Advertising media and cigarette demand.

    PubMed

    Goel, Rajeev K

    2011-01-01

    Using state-level panel data for the USA spanning three decades, this research estimates the demand for cigarettes. The main contribution lies in studying the effects of cigarette advertising disaggregated across five qualitatively different groups. Results show cigarette demand to be near unit elastic, the income effects to be generally insignificant and border price effects and habit effects to be significant. Regarding advertising effects, aggregate cigarette advertising has a negative effect on smoking. Important differences across advertising media emerge when cigarette advertising is disaggregated. The effects of public entertainment and Internet cigarette advertising are stronger than those of other media. Anti-smoking messages accompanying print cigarette advertising seem relatively more effective. Implications for smoking control policy are discussed.

  15. Teaching Culture through Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Janet C.

    Some of the literature on the role of teaching culture in second language instruction is reviewed, with some emphasis on the work of Ortunio and the Kluckholn model of French culture. One instructor's use of French print and television advertising to teach French culture is described. Values such as intellectuality, traditionalism, and patriotism…

  16. Teaching Burke Using Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Charles U.

    Kenneth Burke's concepts of identification, the five terms of dramatism, and strategic uses of ambiguity can be successfully taught to undergraduates if appropriate and familiar examples are used. Print and electronic advertising offer the instructor an up-to-date, familiar, and abundant source of classroom examples. Market segmentation models…

  17. Physician Advertising: The Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruhn, Diane; Alley, Susan

    In the area of commercial speech, the courts face two competing rights: the public's right to know and the state's right to discipline members of the medical profession. The Federal Trade Commission has taken strong action against medical advertising prohibitions, and legal precedents have been set in Virginia Board of Pharmacy v. Virginia…

  18. The Rhetoric of Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andren, Gunnar

    1980-01-01

    Presents results of a study of 300 magazine advertisements assessing the level at which the ads are objective and informative. Discusses how these ads are communications designed to influence consumer behavior to the extent that they correspond to the facts, are relevant, comprehensive, adequately supported, intelligible, and logical. (JMF)

  19. Children's Advertisement Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Andrew; Beard, Roger

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores primary school children's ability to engage with "the power of the text" by tackling persuasive writing in the form of an advertisement. It is eclectically framed within genre theory and rhetorical studies and makes use of linguistic tools and concepts. The paper argues that writing research has not built upon earlier…

  20. Saturday Morning Television Advertisements Aired on English and Spanish Language Networks along the Texas-Mexico Border

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Cristina S.; Rodriguez, Dianeth; Camacho, Perla L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this content analysis study is to characterize the TV advertisements aired to an at-risk child population along the Texas-Mexico border. Methods We characterized the early Saturday morning TV advertisements aired by three broadcast network categories (U.S. English language, U.S. Spanish language, and Mexican Spanish language) in Spring 2010. The number, type (food related vs. non-food related), target audience, and persuasion tactics used were recorded. Advertised foods, based on nutrition content, were categorized as meeting or not meeting current dietary guidelines. Results Most commercials were non-food related (82.7%, 397 of 480). The majority of the prepared foods (e.g., cereals, snacks, and drinks) advertised did not meet the current U.S. Dietary Guidelines. Additionally, nutrition content information was not available for many of the foods advertised on the Mexican Spanish language broadcast network category. Conclusions For U.S. children at risk for obesity along the Texas-Mexico border exposure to TV food advertisements may result in the continuation of sedentary behavior as well as an increased consumption of foods of poor nutritional quality. An international regulatory effort to monitor and enforce the reduction of child-oriented food advertising is needed. PMID:22209760

  1. Saturday Morning Television Advertisements Aired on English and Spanish Language Networks along the Texas-Mexico Border.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Cristina S; Rodriguez, Dianeth; Camacho, Perla L

    2011-10-18

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this content analysis study is to characterize the TV advertisements aired to an at-risk child population along the Texas-Mexico border. METHODS: We characterized the early Saturday morning TV advertisements aired by three broadcast network categories (U.S. English language, U.S. Spanish language, and Mexican Spanish language) in Spring 2010. The number, type (food related vs. non-food related), target audience, and persuasion tactics used were recorded. Advertised foods, based on nutrition content, were categorized as meeting or not meeting current dietary guidelines. RESULTS: Most commercials were non-food related (82.7%, 397 of 480). The majority of the prepared foods (e.g., cereals, snacks, and drinks) advertised did not meet the current U.S. Dietary Guidelines. Additionally, nutrition content information was not available for many of the foods advertised on the Mexican Spanish language broadcast network category. CONCLUSIONS: For U.S. children at risk for obesity along the Texas-Mexico border exposure to TV food advertisements may result in the continuation of sedentary behavior as well as an increased consumption of foods of poor nutritional quality. An international regulatory effort to monitor and enforce the reduction of child-oriented food advertising is needed.

  2. A comparison of memory for and attitudes about alcohol, cigarette, and other product advertisements in college students.

    PubMed

    Zinser, O; Freeman, J E; Ginnings, D K

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the attitude ratings and recall scores of cigarette, alcohol, automobile, deodorant, jeans, soft drink, athletic shoe, breakfast cereal, and fast food restaurant advertisements. Male and female college students rated the advertisements of these product groups on a number of traits--adventurous, eye-catching, appealing, informative, believable, good times, recreational, effectiveness, romantic, athletic, buy product, and honesty. Drawing on their everyday experience, the students also were asked to recall as much about the advertisements from these product groups as they could. The results revealed that the rating and recall scores of the alcohol advertisements were significantly higher than those for the cigarette advertisements and among the highest of all of the advertisement groups. The female recall scores generally were significantly higher than the male recall scores. In contrast to the cigarette advertisements, the high scores of the alcohol advertisements were interpreted to be due in part to the wider distribution alcohol advertising has had. That alcohol advertising ranked among the highest of all of the advertising groups indicates that college students view alcohol advertising very favorably.

  3. 27 CFR 5.66 - Comparative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 5..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Advertising of Distilled Spirits § 5.66 Comparative advertising. (a) General. Comparative advertising shall not be disparaging of...

  4. 27 CFR 7.55 - Comparative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 7..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Advertising of Malt Beverages § 7.55 Comparative advertising. (a) General. Comparative advertising shall not be disparaging of...

  5. 12 CFR 707.8 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 707.8 Section 707.8 Banks and... Advertising. (a) Misleading or inaccurate advertisements. An advertisement must not: (1) Be misleading or... balance required to earn the advertised annual percentage yield. For tiered-rate accounts, the...

  6. 27 CFR 4.65 - Comparative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 4..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Advertising of Wine § 4.65 Comparative advertising. (a) General. Comparative advertising shall not be disparaging of a competitor's product....

  7. 12 CFR 1026.24 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advertising. 1026.24 Section 1026.24 Banks and....24 Advertising. (a) Actually available terms. If an advertisement for credit states specific credit... annual rate of interest will apply over the term of the advertised loan, the advertisement shall...

  8. 27 CFR 4.65 - Comparative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 4..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Advertising of Wine § 4.65 Comparative advertising. (a) General. Comparative advertising shall not be disparaging of a competitor's product....

  9. 12 CFR 707.8 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising. 707.8 Section 707.8 Banks and... Advertising. (a) Misleading or inaccurate advertisements. An advertisement must not: (1) Be misleading or... balance required to earn the advertised annual percentage yield. For tiered-rate accounts, the...

  10. 12 CFR 707.8 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advertising. 707.8 Section 707.8 Banks and... Advertising. (a) Misleading or inaccurate advertisements. An advertisement must not: (1) Be misleading or... balance required to earn the advertised annual percentage yield. For tiered-rate accounts, the...

  11. 27 CFR 5.66 - Comparative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 5..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Advertising of Distilled Spirits § 5.66 Comparative advertising. (a) General. Comparative advertising shall not be disparaging of...

  12. 27 CFR 7.55 - Comparative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 7..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Advertising of Malt Beverages § 7.55 Comparative advertising. (a) General. Comparative advertising shall not be disparaging of...

  13. 12 CFR 230.8 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising. 230.8 Section 230.8 Banks and... SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 230.8 Advertising. (a) Misleading or inaccurate advertisements. An advertisement... obtain the advertised annual percentage yield. For tiered-rate accounts, the minimum balance required...

  14. 27 CFR 4.65 - Comparative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 4..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Advertising of Wine § 4.65 Comparative advertising. (a) General. Comparative advertising shall not be disparaging of a competitor's product....

  15. 27 CFR 4.65 - Comparative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 4..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Advertising of Wine § 4.65 Comparative advertising. (a) General. Comparative advertising shall not be disparaging of a competitor's product....

  16. 27 CFR 5.66 - Comparative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 5..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Advertising of Distilled Spirits § 5.66 Comparative advertising. (a) General. Comparative advertising shall not be disparaging of...

  17. 27 CFR 7.55 - Comparative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 7..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Advertising of Malt Beverages § 7.55 Comparative advertising. (a) General. Comparative advertising shall not be disparaging of...

  18. 27 CFR 5.66 - Comparative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 5..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Advertising of Distilled Spirits § 5.66 Comparative advertising. (a) General. Comparative advertising shall not be disparaging of...

  19. 12 CFR 707.8 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advertising. 707.8 Section 707.8 Banks and... Advertising. (a) Misleading or inaccurate advertisements. An advertisement must not: (1) Be misleading or... balance required to earn the advertised annual percentage yield. For tiered-rate accounts, the...

  20. 27 CFR 5.66 - Comparative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 5..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Advertising of Distilled Spirits § 5.66 Comparative advertising. (a) General. Comparative advertising shall not be disparaging of...

  1. 12 CFR 1026.24 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advertising. 1026.24 Section 1026.24 Banks and....24 Advertising. (a) Actually available terms. If an advertisement for credit states specific credit... annual rate of interest will apply over the term of the advertised loan, the advertisement shall...

  2. 27 CFR 7.55 - Comparative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 7..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Advertising of Malt Beverages § 7.55 Comparative advertising. (a) General. Comparative advertising shall not be disparaging of...

  3. 12 CFR 707.8 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advertising. 707.8 Section 707.8 Banks and... Advertising. (a) Misleading or inaccurate advertisements. An advertisement must not: (1) Be misleading or... balance required to earn the advertised annual percentage yield. For tiered-rate accounts, the...

  4. 12 CFR 230.8 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 230.8 Section 230.8 Banks and... SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 230.8 Advertising. (a) Misleading or inaccurate advertisements. An advertisement... obtain the advertised annual percentage yield. For tiered-rate accounts, the minimum balance required...

  5. 27 CFR 7.55 - Comparative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 7..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Advertising of Malt Beverages § 7.55 Comparative advertising. (a) General. Comparative advertising shall not be disparaging of...

  6. Policy Implications of Advertising to Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Emilie

    Since its inception the Children's Advertising Review Unit has turned to research in order to better evaluate children's advertisements, to develop guidelines for children's advertisers and to resolve some perplexing questions about certain types of advertising content. Although some work has been done in advertising directed toward children, most…

  7. 32 CFR 705.13 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... encourages cooperation with advertisers. However, the layout, artwork and text of the proposed advertisement... exclusively for the use of an advertiser. (d) Navy cooperation in commercial advertising, publicity and other... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial advertising. 705.13 Section...

  8. 12 CFR 338.3 - Nondiscriminatory advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... prominently indicate in such advertisement, in a manner appropriate to the advertising medium and format... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nondiscriminatory advertising. 338.3 Section... POLICY FAIR HOUSING Advertising § 338.3 Nondiscriminatory advertising. (a) Any bank which directly...

  9. Leftward lighting in advertisements increases advertisement ratings and purchase intention.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Jennifer; Thomas, Nicole A; Elias, Lorin

    2011-07-01

    It has been reliably shown that light is assumed to come from above. There is also some suggestion that light from the left might be preferred. Leftward lighting biases have been observed across various mediums such as paintings, portraits, photographs, and advertisements. As advertisements are used to persuade the public to purchase products, it was of interest to better understand whether leftward lighting would influence future intention to purchase. Participants gave preference ratings for pairs of advertisements with opposing lighting directions. Attitude towards the advertisement and the brand as well as future purchase intention was then rated. Overall, participants indicated that they preferred advertisements with leftward lighting and were more likely to purchase these products in the future than when the same products were lit from the right. Findings are consistent with previously observed leftward lighting biases and suggest that advertisements with a leftward lighting bias might be more effective.

  10. Competitiveness measurement system in the advertising sector.

    PubMed

    Poveda-Bautista, Rocío; García-Melón, Mónica; Baptista, Doris C

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a new approach to find indicators that can be used to measure companies' competitiveness and performance in an efficient and reliable way is presented. The aim is to assist managers of companies within a specific industrial sector by providing information about their relative position in the market so as to define better action plans that may improve the company's performance. The approach combines the use of the Analytic Network Process, a multicriteria decision method, with the Balanced Scorecard. It allows the definition of a number of competitiveness indicators based on the performance and setting of the advertising sector. In this way it is possible to obtain a Competitiveness Index that allows a company to know its relative position with respect to other companies in the sector, and establish a ranking of the companies ordered by their competitiveness level. A case study in the advertising industry of Venezuela is provided. Results show that improvement plans for the agencies analyzed should promote creativity, innovation and the use of new technologies, as a particular form of innovation. These factors were considered to be the most relevant indicators in the advertising sector. The participating experts agreed that the methodology is useful and an improvement over current competitiveness assessment methods.

  11. Neonicotinoids impact bumblebee colony fitness in the field; a reanalysis of the UK’s Food & Environment Research Agency 2012 experiment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The causes of bee declines remain hotly debated, particularly the contribution of neonicotinoid insecticides. In 2013 the UK’s Food & Environment Research Agency made public a study of the impacts of exposure of bumblebee colonies to neonicotinoids. The study concluded that there was no clear relationship between colony performance and pesticide exposure, and the study was subsequently cited by the UK government in a policy paper in support of their vote against a proposed moratorium on some uses of neonicotinoids. Here I present a simple re-analysis of this data set. It demonstrates that these data in fact do show a negative relationship between both colony growth and queen production and the levels of neonicotinoids in the food stores collected by the bees. Indeed, this is the first study describing substantial negative impacts of neonicotinoids on colony performance of any bee species with free-flying bees in a field realistic situation where pesticide exposure is provided only as part of normal farming practices. It strongly suggests that wild bumblebee colonies in farmland can be expected to be adversely affected by exposure to neonicotinoids. PMID:25825679

  12. 76 FR 36627 - Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations to add a new requirement for the display of health warnings on cigarette packages and in cigarette advertisements. This rule implements a provision of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act) that requires FDA to issue regulations requiring color graphics, depicting the negative health......

  13. Internet and Advertisement.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2016-02-01

    The Internet has revolutionized the way knowledge is currently produced, stored and disseminated. A few finger clicks on a keyboard can save time and many hours of search in libraries or shopping in stores. Online trademarks with an (e-) prefix such as e-library, e-business, e-health etc., are increasingly part of our daily professional vocabularies. However, the Internet has also produced multiple negative side effects, ranging from an unhealthy dependency to a dehumanization of human relationships. Fraudulent, unethical and scam practices are also flourishing through for example misleading online advertising methods. Some social and professional networks gather users' profiles for selling and advertising purposes, sometimes by making it technically difficult to unsubscribe. Here, I discuss some of these unethical aspects and propose some potential solutions to reduce them.

  14. Healthy weight and lifestyle advertisements: an assessment of their persuasive potential.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Helen; Scully, Maree; Cotter, Trish; Maloney, Sarah; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to identify and analyse the content of previously produced and aired adult-targeted public health advertisements (ads) addressing weight, nutrition or physical activity internationally. Ads were identified via keyword searches of Google, YouTube and websites of relevant government agencies and health organizations, and were eligible for inclusion if they were: in English; produced between 2007 and 2012; targeted at adults; ≤60 s; not promoting a particular commercial brand of food, fitness or weight loss product. Of the 99 ads coded, 59% featured supportive/encouraging messages, 36% presented information about health consequences and 17% focussed on social norms/acceptability issues. Supportive/encouraging messages were more frequently used in physical activity ads, while there were a higher proportion of messages about health consequences in weight ads. Execution style differed across lifestyle topics, with simulation/animation more common in nutrition ads and graphic images and negative personal testimonials in weight ads. Ads addressing weight were more likely to evoke high negative emotion and include potentially stigmatizing content. Understanding how weight and lifestyle issues have been addressed in recent public health advertising will help guide future efforts to test the effectiveness of different message types in facilitating positive behaviour changes.

  15. Recruiting Effects of Army Advertising

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    large amount of newspaper advertising was bought through "groups," or aggregates of related newspapers whose space is marketed together. For example, ads ...im rm’ r .. . 2 advertising on private sector markets when firms attempt to influence consumers’ purchasing decisions. When it comes to research on... adding unique data describing the patterns and distribu- tion of Army advertising expenditures between 1981 and 1984. 3 The specific aims of the

  16. Professional advertising and your optometric practice.

    PubMed

    McPherson, D

    1999-09-01

    As advertising by health care professionals becomes more common, it is possible to gain the benefits of well-designed advertising without sacrificing professionalism. This author explains how, with a special emphasis on Yellow Pages advertising.

  17. Point-of-Purchase Advertising. Learning Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackelford, Ray

    1998-01-01

    In this technology education activity, students learn the importance of advertising, conduct a day-long survey of advertising strategies, and design and produce a tabletop point-of-purchase advertisement. (JOW)

  18. Advertising and generic market entry.

    PubMed

    Königbauer, Ingrid

    2007-03-01

    The effect of purely persuasive advertising on generic market entry and social welfare is analysed. An incumbent has the possibility to invest in advertising which affects the prescribing physician's perceived relative qualities of the brand-name and the generic version of the drug. Advertising creates product differentiation and can induce generic market entry which is deterred without differentiation due to strong Bertrand competition. However, over-investment in advertising can deter generic market entry under certain conditions and reduces welfare as compared to accommodated market entry.

  19. Educating the Consumer about Advertising: Some Issues. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    Providing a basic overview of issues related to advertising and the consumer, this digest discusses the omnipresence of advertisements, suggesting ways for consumers to recognize advertising appeals. Deceptive advertising is discussed, with particular attention paid to financial advertising. (RS)

  20. Food Marketing in Irish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Colette; Clerkin, Pauline; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Mulvihill, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Schools are thought to represent a growing marketing opportunity for food advertisers in many countries. Marketing of unhealthy food to children is linked to the increased prevalence of obesity worldwide. This paper aims to explore ways in which schools respond to commercial activity around food marketing. Design/methodology/approach: A…

  1. Solar industry advertising guidelines. Task III

    SciTech Connect

    Hostetler, J.S.

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of these guidelines is to acquaint SEIA members with basic principles of Federal Trade Commission (FTC) law related to advertising and sales representations in order to assist SEIA members in insuring that their advertising is fair and accurate when assessed against FTC standards, thereby avoiding potentially costly FTC action. The following are discussed: the nature of advertising, when is an advertisement deceptive, advertising of product certification and testing results, substantiation for advertising claims, advertising of tax credits, warranty advertising, potential liabilities under the FTC Act, and recommendations for avoiding FTC action. (MHR)

  2. 48 CFR 15.604 - Agency points of contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Agency points of contact... of contact. (a) Preliminary contact with agency technical or other appropriate personnel before... grant programs. (4) Agency points of contact for information regarding advertising, contributions,...

  3. 48 CFR 15.604 - Agency points of contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Agency points of contact... of contact. (a) Preliminary contact with agency technical or other appropriate personnel before... grant programs. (4) Agency points of contact for information regarding advertising, contributions,...

  4. 48 CFR 15.604 - Agency points of contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Agency points of contact... of contact. (a) Preliminary contact with agency technical or other appropriate personnel before... grant programs. (4) Agency points of contact for information regarding advertising, contributions,...

  5. 48 CFR 15.604 - Agency points of contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Agency points of contact... of contact. (a) Preliminary contact with agency technical or other appropriate personnel before... grant programs. (4) Agency points of contact for information regarding advertising, contributions,...

  6. 48 CFR 15.604 - Agency points of contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Agency points of contact... of contact. (a) Preliminary contact with agency technical or other appropriate personnel before... grant programs. (4) Agency points of contact for information regarding advertising, contributions,...

  7. Waving the Red Flag: FTC Regulation of Deceptive Weight-Loss Advertising 1951-2009.

    PubMed

    Lellis, Julie C

    2016-01-01

    This article documents the historical role of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) in regulating deceptive weight-loss advertising, which the commission began to prioritize in the 1990s after a dramatic rise in complaints. It also includes the results of a content analysis of more than 150 FTC complaints filed between 1951 and 2009, which were used to analyze trends in advertising content, liability for deceptive practices, and outcomes. Regulatory efforts may not have curbed the use of bogus weight-loss claims, which have only increased over time. The FTC has made attempts to apply broad liability, but advertisers and corporate leaders continue to be named most frequently over other respondents, including advertising agencies, media outlets, and product endorsers. Although the number of complaints that result in financial penalties is increasing, the FTC lacks systematic and specific policies to adequately deter advertisers and address what continues to be a growing problem.

  8. Critical Media Literacy: Commercial Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Laurie

    Studying the influence of mass media on people's lives allows students to view advertising in a new light. This lesson provides students with the opportunity to look at mass media in a critical way--students become aware of the tremendous amount of advertising that they are exposed to on a daily basis. In the lesson, by looking at advertising…

  9. Institutional Advertising in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittle, Bart

    2000-01-01

    An exploratory study surveyed 59 colleges and universities concerning their advertising practices, specifically media usage, importance of communication objectives for institutional messages, and the importance of audiences targeted for advertising. All major media were used by most of the institutions. Communication objectives mentioned most…

  10. Deceptive Advertising: Unprotected and Unknown.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducoffe, Robert Hal

    The Supreme Court tentatively extended First Amendment protection to commercial speech, but left the issue of defining and regulating deceptive advertising to the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), which has employed tools such as the cease-and-desist order, affirmative disclosure, and corrective advertising. The FTC Act did not define deception, but…

  11. Drug Advertising and the FDA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levesque, Cynthia

    With increases in consumer focused advertising for prescription drugs, the Federal Drug Administration has renewed efforts to protect the public from false advertising. In 1982, it charged that the press kits Eli Lilly and Company distributed to reporters on its new antiarthritis drug, Oraflex, misrepresented the product. It recommended that Lilly…

  12. How To Increase Advertising Revenue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Carmen

    1995-01-01

    Describes advertising sales strategies to help faculty advisers of community college newspapers increase revenues. Argues that sales representatives should know their product well and maintain demographic information on the paper's readership. Includes strategies for organizing advertising staff, searching for potential clients, and taking charge…

  13. Consumer reaction to healthcare advertising.

    PubMed

    Klein, R F

    1998-07-01

    How do consumers view healthcare advertising? This question, along with many others, was addressed in a national survey conducted by Market Strategies for The Alliance For Healthcare Strategy And Marketing, and presented during The Alliance's annual advertising and promotion conference last June.

  14. Teaching the Language of Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodson, Charles Brooks

    Serving as a way to sum up or apply many of the principles students have been studying in a general semantics course, a unit on advertising language is devoted to examining how advertisers select language for its affective and directive uses. The unit shows how language is used to stimulate consumer interest in a product and often to mask the lack…

  15. On Top of the World: Chevrolet Television Advertising 1955 to 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicks, Jan L.

    Through a review of data from the Campbell-Ewald Advertising Agency and its creative director, the Chevrolet car company, and a review of the award-winning television commercials, this paper explores the successful relationship between Chevrolet and that agency from 1955 to 1965. Following an introduction and a list the questions asked about both…

  16. Required warnings for cigarette packages and advertisements. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2011-06-22

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations to add a new requirement for the display of health warnings on cigarette packages and in cigarette advertisements. This rule implements a provision of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act) that requires FDA to issue regulations requiring color graphics, depicting the negative health consequences of smoking, to accompany the nine new textual warning statements required under the Tobacco Control Act. The Tobacco Control Act amends the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act (FCLAA) to require each cigarette package and advertisement to bear one of nine new textual warning statements. This final rule specifies the color graphic images that must accompany each of the nine new textual warning statements.

  17. Ban the sunset? Nonpropositional content and regulation of pharmaceutical advertising.

    PubMed

    Biegler, Paul; Vargas, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The risk that direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription pharmaceuticals (DTCA) may increase inappropriate medicine use is well recognized. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration addresses this concern by subjecting DTCA content to strict scrutiny. Its strictures are, however, heavily focused on the explicit claims made in commercials, what we term their "propositional content." Yet research in social psychology suggests advertising employs techniques to influence viewers via nonpropositional content, for example, images and music. We argue that one such technique, evaluative conditioning, is operative in DTCA. We further argue that evaluative conditioning fosters unjustified beliefs about drug safety and efficacy, antagonising the autonomy of viewers' choices about advertised medicines. We conclude that current guidelines are deficient in failing to account for evaluative conditioning, and that more research and debate are needed to determine the permissibility of this and other forms of nonpropositional persuasion.

  18. Competition in the pharmaceutical industry: how do quality differences shape advertising strategies?

    PubMed

    de Frutos, Maria-Angeles; Ornaghi, Carmine; Siotis, Georges

    2013-01-01

    We present a Hotelling model of price and advertising competition between prescription drugs that differ in quality/side effects. Promotional effort results in the endogenous formation of two consumer groups: brand loyal and non-brand loyal ones. We show that advertising intensities are strategic substitutes, with the better quality drugs being the ones that are most advertised. This positive association stems from the higher rents that firms can extract from consumers whose brand loyalty is endogenously determined by promotional effort. The model's main results on advertising and pricing strategies are taken to the data. The latter consists of product level data on prices and quantities, product level advertising data, as well as the qualitative information on drug quality contained in the Orange Book compiled by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The empirical results provide strong support to the model's predictions.

  19. FDA direct-to-consumer advertising for prescription drugs: what are consumer preferences and response tendencies?

    PubMed

    Khanfar, Nile; Loudon, David; Sircar-Ramsewak, Feroza

    2007-01-01

    The effect of direct-to-consumer (DTC) television advertising of prescription medications is a growing concern of the United States (U.S.) Congress, state legislatures, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This research study was conducted in order to examine consumers' perceived preferences of DTC television advertisement in relation to "reminder" "help-seeking," and "product-claim" FDA-approved advertisement categories. An additional objective was to examine the influence of DTC television advertising of prescription drugs on consumers' tendency to seek more information about the medication and/or the medical condition. The research indicates that DTC television drug ads appear to be insufficient for consumers to make informed decisions. Their mixed perception and acceptance of the advertisements seem to influence them to seek more information from a variety of medical sources.

  20. Smokers' responses to advertisements for regular and light cigarettes and potential reduced-exposure tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, William L; Norton, Giulia diStefano; Ouellette, Tammy K; Rhodes, Wiliam M; Kling, Ryan; Connolly, Gregory N

    2004-12-01

    This study examines smokers' responses to advertisements for potentially reduced exposure tobacco products (PREP), light cigarettes, and regular cigarettes. A convenience sample of 600 adult smokers reviewed one actual advertisement for each type of product. Smokers ranked the products on health risk, amount of tar, and carcinogenicity, and identified the messages they perceived the advertisements to convey. Smokers perceived PREP products as having lower health risks (mean = 5.4 on a scale of 1-10) and carcinogens (6.6) than light cigarettes (5.8 and 6.9, respectively, p < .001), and lights as having lower health risks and carcinogen levels than regular cigarettes (8.2 and 8.8, respectively, p <.001). The average PREP rating for level of tar (5.3) was not significantly less than the light mean of 5.4, but both were significantly less than the regular mean of 8.4 (p <.001). Although no advertisements explicitly said that the products were healthy or safe, advertisements for PREP products and light cigarettes were interpreted as conveying positive messages about health and safety. Most smokers believed that claims made in cigarette advertisements must be approved by a government agency. The results indicate that advertisements can and do leave consumers with perceptions of the health and safety of tobacco products that are contrary to the scientific evidence. Explicit and implicit advertising messages may be strengthened by the perceived government endorsement. This supports the Institute of Medicine's recommendation to regulate the promotion, advertising, and labeling of PREP tobacco products and light cigarettes. Effective regulation may need to focus on consumer perceptions resulting from advertisements rather than the explicit content of advertising text.

  1. Medical device labeling and advertising: an overview.

    PubMed

    Basile, E M; Armentrout, E; Reeves, K N

    1999-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has the authority under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA) to regulate the labeling of all medical devices. This statement, however, is not as simple as it appears. The regulation of medical device labels and labeling, closely linked to the advertisement of medical devices, is a dynamic area, and FDA is struggling to address the new issues that arise daily in this area. This article seeks to: 1) provide the background necessary to understand the current law and FDA's regulation of medical devices; 2) summarize the law and regulations governing medical devices; 3) define "intended use" and explain its importance; and 4) discuss several areas that are of particular interest to FDA, including promotion of uncleared or unapproved devices and uses, Internet promotion, press releases, and comparative claims.

  2. 16 CFR 259.2 - Advertising disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... advertised. Fuel economy estimates assigned to “unique nameplates” (see 40 CFR 600.207-86(a)(2)) apply only... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising disclosures. 259.2 Section 259.2... ADVERTISING FOR NEW AUTOMOBILES § 259.2 Advertising disclosures. (a) No manufacturer or dealer shall make...

  3. 20 CFR 655.17 - Advertising requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Advertising requirements. 655.17 Section 655... States (H-2B Workers) § 655.17 Advertising requirements. All advertising conducted to satisfy the... employment which are not less favorable than those to be offered to the H-2B workers. All advertising...

  4. 12 CFR 226.24 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising. 226.24 Section 226.24 Banks and... LENDING (REGULATION Z) Closed-End Credit § 226.24 Advertising. (a) Actually available terms. If an... annual rate of interest will apply over the term of the advertised loan, the advertisement shall...

  5. 36 CFR 223.63 - Advertised rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Advertised rates. 223.63... Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.63 Advertised rates. Timber shall be advertised for sale at... construction is to be accomplished by the timber purchaser. The advertised rates shall be not less than...

  6. 12 CFR 1026.16 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advertising. 1026.16 Section 1026.16 Banks and... Advertising. (a) Actually available terms. If an advertisement for credit states specific credit terms, it... only the periodic payment amount advertised. The disclosure of the total of payments and the...

  7. 36 CFR 223.63 - Advertised rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advertised rates. 223.63... Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.63 Advertised rates. Timber shall be advertised for sale at... construction is to be accomplished by the timber purchaser. The advertised rates shall be not less than...

  8. 12 CFR 338.3 - Nondiscriminatory advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nondiscriminatory advertising. 338.3 Section... POLICY FAIR HOUSING Advertising § 338.3 Nondiscriminatory advertising. (a) Any bank which directly or through third parties engages in any form of advertising of any loan for the purpose of...

  9. 32 CFR 644.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Advertising. 644.540 Section 644.540 National... HANDBOOK Disposal Sale Procedure § 644.540 Advertising. (a) Definition and purposes. GSA regulations... for sale. Sales will be made to the highest responsible bidder after advertising. Advertising...

  10. 12 CFR 230.8 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advertising. 230.8 Section 230.8 Banks and...) TRUTH IN SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 230.8 Advertising. (a) Misleading or inaccurate advertisements. An... obtain the advertised annual percentage yield. For tiered-rate accounts, the minimum balance required...

  11. 12 CFR 226.24 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advertising. 226.24 Section 226.24 Banks and...) TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Closed-End Credit § 226.24 Advertising. (a) Actually available terms. If... annual rate of interest will apply over the term of the advertised loan, the advertisement shall...

  12. 36 CFR 223.63 - Advertised rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advertised rates. 223.63... Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.63 Advertised rates. Timber shall be advertised for sale at... construction is to be accomplished by the timber purchaser. The advertised rates shall be not less than...

  13. 32 CFR 644.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advertising. 644.540 Section 644.540 National... HANDBOOK Disposal Sale Procedure § 644.540 Advertising. (a) Definition and purposes. GSA regulations... for sale. Sales will be made to the highest responsible bidder after advertising. Advertising...

  14. 12 CFR 226.24 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 226.24 Section 226.24 Banks and... LENDING (REGULATION Z) Closed-End Credit § 226.24 Advertising. (a) Actually available terms. If an... annual rate of interest will apply over the term of the advertised loan, the advertisement shall...

  15. 20 CFR 655.1303 - Advertising requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Advertising requirements. 655.1303 Section... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1303 Advertising requirements. All advertising conducted... the H-2A workers. All advertising must contain the following information: (a) The employer's name...

  16. 12 CFR 338.3 - Nondiscriminatory advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nondiscriminatory advertising. 338.3 Section... POLICY FAIR HOUSING Advertising § 338.3 Nondiscriminatory advertising. (a) Any bank which directly or through third parties engages in any form of advertising of any loan for the purpose of...

  17. 20 CFR 655.17 - Advertising requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Advertising requirements. 655.17 Section 655... Advertising requirements. All advertising conducted to satisfy the required recruitment steps under § 655.15... those to be offered to the H-2B workers. All advertising must contain the following information: (a)...

  18. 12 CFR 226.24 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advertising. 226.24 Section 226.24 Banks and... LENDING (REGULATION Z) Closed-End Credit § 226.24 Advertising. (a) Actually available terms. If an... annual rate of interest will apply over the term of the advertised loan, the advertisement shall...

  19. 12 CFR 230.8 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advertising. 230.8 Section 230.8 Banks and...) TRUTH IN SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 230.8 Advertising. (a) Misleading or inaccurate advertisements. An... obtain the advertised annual percentage yield. For tiered-rate accounts, the minimum balance required...

  20. 12 CFR 1026.16 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advertising. 1026.16 Section 1026.16 Banks and... Advertising. (a) Actually available terms. If an advertisement for credit states specific credit terms, it... only the periodic payment amount advertised. The disclosure of the total of payments and the...

  1. 32 CFR 644.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Advertising. 644.540 Section 644.540 National... HANDBOOK Disposal Sale Procedure § 644.540 Advertising. (a) Definition and purposes. GSA regulations... for sale. Sales will be made to the highest responsible bidder after advertising. Advertising...

  2. 12 CFR 230.8 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advertising. 230.8 Section 230.8 Banks and...) TRUTH IN SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 230.8 Advertising. (a) Misleading or inaccurate advertisements. An... obtain the advertised annual percentage yield. For tiered-rate accounts, the minimum balance required...

  3. 32 CFR 644.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Advertising. 644.540 Section 644.540 National... HANDBOOK Disposal Sale Procedure § 644.540 Advertising. (a) Definition and purposes. GSA regulations... for sale. Sales will be made to the highest responsible bidder after advertising. Advertising...

  4. 20 CFR 655.1303 - Advertising requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Advertising requirements. 655.1303 Section... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1303 Advertising requirements. All advertising conducted... the H-2A workers. All advertising must contain the following information: (a) The employer's name...

  5. 36 CFR 223.63 - Advertised rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Advertised rates. 223.63... Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.63 Advertised rates. Timber shall be advertised for sale at... construction is to be accomplished by the timber purchaser. The advertised rates shall be not less than...

  6. 12 CFR 226.24 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advertising. 226.24 Section 226.24 Banks and...) TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Closed-End Credit § 226.24 Advertising. (a) Actually available terms. If... annual rate of interest will apply over the term of the advertised loan, the advertisement shall...

  7. 12 CFR 338.3 - Nondiscriminatory advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nondiscriminatory advertising. 338.3 Section... POLICY FAIR HOUSING Advertising § 338.3 Nondiscriminatory advertising. (a) Any bank which directly or through third parties engages in any form of advertising of any loan for the purpose of...

  8. 12 CFR 338.3 - Nondiscriminatory advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nondiscriminatory advertising. 338.3 Section... POLICY FAIR HOUSING Advertising § 338.3 Nondiscriminatory advertising. (a) Any bank which directly or through third parties engages in any form of advertising of any loan for the purpose of...

  9. 20 CFR 655.1303 - Advertising requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Advertising requirements. 655.1303 Section... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1303 Advertising requirements. All advertising conducted... the H-2A workers. All advertising must contain the following information: (a) The employer's name...

  10. 20 CFR 655.1303 - Advertising requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Advertising requirements. 655.1303 Section... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1303 Advertising requirements. All advertising conducted... the H-2A workers. All advertising must contain the following information: (a) The employer's name...

  11. 32 CFR 644.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Advertising. 644.540 Section 644.540 National... HANDBOOK Disposal Sale Procedure § 644.540 Advertising. (a) Definition and purposes. GSA regulations... for sale. Sales will be made to the highest responsible bidder after advertising. Advertising...

  12. 20 CFR 655.17 - Advertising requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising requirements. 655.17 Section 655... States (H-2B Workers) § 655.17 Advertising requirements. All advertising conducted to satisfy the... employment which are not less favorable than those to be offered to the H-2B workers. All advertising...

  13. 20 CFR 655.1303 - Advertising requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising requirements. 655.1303 Section... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1303 Advertising requirements. All advertising conducted... the H-2A workers. All advertising must contain the following information: (a) The employer's name...

  14. 36 CFR 327.17 - Advertisment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 327.17 Advertisment. (a) Advertising and the distribution of printed matter is allowed within project... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertisment. 327.17 Section... that this activity is not solely commercial advertising. (b) An application for such a permit shall...

  15. 33 CFR 136.309 - Advertisement determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertisement determinations. 136... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Designation of Source and Advertisement § 136.309 Advertisement determinations. (a) The Director, NPFC, determines for each incident the type, geographic...

  16. 16 CFR 238.1 - Bait advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bait advertisement. 238.1 Section 238.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.1 Bait advertisement. No advertisement containing an offer to sell a product should be...

  17. 20 CFR 655.151 - Newspaper advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Newspaper advertisements. 655.151 Section 655... advertisements. (a) The employer must place an advertisement (in a language other than English, where the CO... job opportunity. Newspaper advertisements must satisfy the requirements set forth in § 655.152. (b)...

  18. 36 CFR 5.1 - Advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertisements. 5.1 Section 5... AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.1 Advertisements. Commercial notices or advertisements shall not be... or advertisement is of goods, services, or facilities available within the park area and such...

  19. 36 CFR 1005.1 - Advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertisements. 1005.1....1 Advertisements. Commercial notices or advertisements shall not be displayed, posted, or... by the Executive Director. Such permission may be granted only if the notice or advertisement is...

  20. 36 CFR 223.227 - Sale advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale advertisement. 223.227... DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products Advertisement and Bids § 223.227 Sale advertisement. (a) The Forest Service shall advertise any special forest products sales with an appraised...

  1. Advertising to Children: Concepts and Controversies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macklin, M. Carole, Ed.; Carlson, Les, Ed.

    This book presents cutting-edge research designed to stimulate and inform the debate over advertising to the children's market and the effects such advertising has on children. Perspectives are organized in sections to address what children know and think about advertising, how advertising works with children, and what issues are at the forefront…

  2. Antibiotic drug advertising in medical journals.

    PubMed

    Gilad, Jacob; Moran, Lia; Schlaeffer, Francisc; Borer, Abraham

    2005-01-01

    Advertising is a leading strategy for drug promotion. We analysed 779 advertisements in 24 medical journals, 25% of which featured antibiotics. Antibiotic advertisements showed differences compared to those of other drugs. None addressed the issue of antibiotic resistance. Efforts to prevent antibiotic resistance should take antibiotic advertising into consideration.

  3. The Strategies Used in Japanese Advertisement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurose, Yuki

    This paper investigates the possibility of using Japanese advertising language as a teaching tool in the second language classroom. First, it reviews the aims of advertising and the advantages of learning advertising language in the classroom based on previous research. Next, it discusses language strategies used in Japanese advertising,…

  4. Children’s Food and Beverage Promotion on Television to Parents

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Marietta E.; Mathur, Suman J.; Sargent, James D.; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nutritionally poor foods are heavily advertised to children on television. Whether those same products are also advertised to parents on television has not been systematically examined. METHODS: This study is a content analysis of advertisements for children’s packaged foods and beverages aired over US network, cable, and syndicated television for 1 year (2012 to 2013). The target audience of each advertisement was defined as children or parents based on advertisement content, where parent-directed advertisements included emotional appeals related to family bonding and love. Advertisement characteristics and patterns of airtime were compared across target audience, and the proportion of total airtime devoted to advertisements targeting parents was computed. RESULTS: Fifty-one children’s food or beverage products were advertised over the study year, 25 (49%) of which were advertised directly to parents. Parent-directed advertisements more often featured nutrition and health messaging and an active lifestyle than child-directed advertisements, whereas child-directed advertisements more frequently highlighted fun and product taste. Over all products, 42.4% of total airtime was devoted to advertisements that targeted parents. The products with the most amount of airtime over the study year were ready-to-eat cereals, sugar-sweetened beverages, and children’s yogurt, and the proportion of total advertisement airtime for those products devoted to parents was 24.4%, 72.8%, and 25.8%, respectively. DISCUSSION: Television advertisements for children’s packaged foods and beverages frequently targeted parents with emotional appeals and messaging related to nutrition and health. Findings are of concern if exposure to such advertisements among parents may shape their beliefs about the appropriateness of nutritionally questionable children’s foods and beverages. PMID:26553181

  5. Increasing mental health literacy via narrative advertising.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chingching

    2008-01-01

    This research explored the effectiveness of narrative advertising and argument advertising in increasing mental illness (depression) literacy. Results showed that narrative advertising was more effective than argument advertising at engaging participants in experiential immersion, resulting in greater sympathy toward those suffering from depression. In addition, narrative advertising better involved participants in issue elaboration and increased willingness to seek professional help. Finally, in comparison with argument advertising, narrative advertisements were rated higher in providing vivid information, resulting in an increase in participants' perceived efficacy in recognizing friends or family suffering from depression.

  6. Cigarette advertising and adolescent experimentation with smoking.

    PubMed

    Klitzner, M; Gruenewald, P J; Bamberger, E

    1991-03-01

    The extent to which cigarette advertising contributes to increases in smoking has been debated by public health professionals and the tobacco industry. One aspect of this debate has been the degree to which advertising influences smoking among adolescents. Previous research suggests that there are significant relationships between measures of advertising and smoking. However, potential simultaneous relationships between these measures have not been addressed. Observed correlations may arise from the effects of advertising on smoking or from smokers' selective exposure to advertisements. This study examined relationships between cigarette advertising and smoking experimentation. Using environmental and psychological measures of advertising exposure, it was demonstrated that adolescents who experimented with cigarettes were better able to recognize advertised products than those who had not, a selective exposure effect. Conversely, subjects who were better at recognizing advertised brands were more likely to have experimented with cigarettes, an effect due to their exposure to cigarette advertising.

  7. Breakfast cereal industry pledges to self-regulate advertising to youth: will they improve the marketing landscape?

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Marlene B; Ross, Craig; Harris, Jennifer L; Jernigan, David H; Siegel, Michael; Ostroff, Joshua; Brownell, Kelly D

    2010-04-01

    In 2007, the Council of Better Business Bureaus created the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative to improve the nutritional profile of products marketed to children in the United States. We provide quantitative baseline data describing (a) the amount of child-directed breakfast cereal advertising in 2007; (b) an assessment of the nutritional value for all cereals advertised on television; and (c) the relationship between nutrition quality and child exposure to television advertising for major cereal brands. In 2007, the average American child viewed 757 cereal ads, and 98 per cent of these ads promoted unhealthy cereals that would be prohibited from advertising to children in the United Kingdom. Healthy cereals were advertised in 2007 in the United States, but adults, not children, were predominantly exposed to these ads. These quantitative methods can be used in the future to evaluate the impact of industry self-regulation efforts to improve the marketing landscape.

  8. Recruiters, Advertising, and Navy Enlistments,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    product markets have concluded that advertising increases demand in current and future periods, but its effects decline over time (see reference 2). A study...Apr 1979 2. Clarke, D.G., "Econometric Measurement of the Duration of Advertising Effect on Sales," Journal of Marketing Research, Nov 1976, pp. 345...7AD-AOA6201 CENTER FOR NAVAL ANALYSES ALEXANDRIA VA INST OF NAVAL--ETC F/6 5/9 I RECRUITERS, ADVERTISING , AND NAVY ENLISTMENTS. (U) IOCT 79 L

  9. Direct-to-consumer advertising affects provider / patient relationship.

    PubMed

    1998-12-01

    Family planning program clients are increasingly seeking oral contraceptive pills by brand name. Direct-to-consumer ads have spurred this recent increase in brand-specific requests for prescription drugs. While print consumer pitches for prescription drugs have been around for a long time, proposed guidance issued by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in August 1997 allows pharmaceutical companies to more easily broadcast product claim commercials on television and radio. Now, half of all direct-to-consumer advertising dollars spent by pharmaceutical companies during January-February 1998 were directed to television ads, almost twice the share spent upon television last year. Last year, pharmaceutical companies spent more than $1 billion on direct-to-consumer advertising. The effects of this new policy are presenting in providers' offices. Before the FDA guidance, 41% of physicians participating in a national survey observed an increase in patients' requests for brand name drugs. However, since the change, 65% surveyed to date have observed an increase in such requests. With the increase in advertising comes a potential for violations of the US Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, which regulates provider and consumer prescription drug advertising. 125 companies were cited for violations in 1998, 6 specifically for violations connected with contraceptive information they disseminated.

  10. Advertising increases demand for vasectomy.

    PubMed

    Mehta, M; Mckenzie, M

    1996-01-01

    The recent evaluation of a 2-year no-scalpel vasectomy (NSV) training program providing on-site, hands-on training for physicians working in 43 publicly funded health centers in 17 states found that demand for vasectomy in low-income and minority communities in the US increased following the implementation of innovative advertising strategies. The program also provided sites with surgical instruments, training materials, a press kit, and some help with public information activities. Participating clinics used a range of formal and informal advertising strategies, including radio and printed advertisements, to inform potential clients about vasectomy services. Many interested clients presented to clinics to undergo vasectomy once they had been made aware of the service and its availability. Several providers even stated that advertising caused the demand for vasectomy to exceed their capacity to provide services. The provision of low- or no-cost procedures helped to attract new clients.

  11. British Control of Television Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marting, Leeda P.

    1973-01-01

    A discussion of controlling quantity and quality of television advertising by looking at the approach of Britain's Independent Broadcasting Authority and deals with its possible application in the U.S. (HB)

  12. The effect of search condition and advertising type on visual attention to Internet advertising.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gho; Lee, Jang-Han

    2011-05-01

    This research was conducted to examine the level of consumers' visual attention to Internet advertising. It was predicted that consumers' search type would influence visual attention to advertising. Specifically, it was predicted that more attention to advertising would be attracted in the exploratory search condition than in the goal-directed search condition. It was also predicted that there would be a difference in visual attention depending on the advertisement type (advertising type: text vs. pictorial advertising). An eye tracker was used for measurement. Results revealed that search condition and advertising type influenced advertising effectiveness.

  13. Extraversion and evaluation of humorous advertisements.

    PubMed

    Styśko-Kunkowska, Małgorzata A; Borecka, Dorota

    2010-02-01

    Evaluation of humorous advertisements is supposed to be influenced by the perceivers' traits. The present study assessed the relation of extraversion with ratings of eight characteristics of humorous and informative advertisements. 75 high school students viewed the advertisements; a small positive correlation was found between scores on Extraversion and overall positive ratings of the humorous advertisement, but the correlation of scores on Extraversion with overall ratings of the informative advertisement was not statistically significant. Higher scores for Extraversion were positively correlated with more favorable reactions toward the humorous advertisement. Overall ratings of the humorous advertisement were also positively correlated with the humorousness and informativeness ratings, indicating that the more the advertisement was perceived as humorous and informative, the more positive was the overall rating. The latter ratings were significantly intercorrelated at r(s) = .50. The role of extraversion was small but significant in the evaluation of humorous advertisements.

  14. Responsiveness to healthy advertisements in adults: An experiment assessing beyond brand snack selection and the impact of restrained eating.

    PubMed

    Dovey, Terence M; Torab, Tina; Yen, Dorothy; Boyland, E J; Halford, Jason C G

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the impact of different advertising messages on adults' snack choice. Eighty participants (18-24 years old) were offered the choice between two snack packs following exposure to one of three advertising conditions. The snack packs contained either healthy or high fat, sugar or salt (HFSS) foods. Participants were exposed to commercials containing either non-food products, healthy food products or HFSS food products and their subsequent choice of snack pack was recorded. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) was used to assess the impact of external, restrained and emotional eating behaviour on snack pack selection following exposure to advertisements. The majority of unrestrained participants preferentially choose the HFSS snack pack irrespective of advertisement condition. In contrast, high restrained individuals exposed to the healthy eating advertisement condition preferentially selected the healthy snack pack while those in other advertisement conditions refused to take either snack pack. The healthy eating message, when distributed through mass media, resonated with restrained eaters only. Exposure to healthy food adverts provoked restrained eaters into choosing a snack pack; while exposure to other messages results in restrained eaters refusing to take any foods.

  15. Is tobacco a drug? Administrative agencies as common law courts.

    PubMed

    Sunstein, C R

    1998-04-01

    Professor Cass Sunstein argues that the FDA has the authority to regulate tobacco products. He considers the text of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, which supports the FDA assertion, and the context of its enactment, which argues against the FDA. He resolves the tension between text and context in favor of FDA jurisdiction by turning to the emerging role of administrative agencies. In modern government, he contends, administrative agencies have become America's common law courts, with the power to adapt statutory regimes to new facts and new values when the underlying statute is ambiguous. Professor Sunstein's Article, like the other pieces in this volume, was written after the United States District Court for the Middle District of North Carolina decided Coyne Beahm v. FDA, but before a three judge panel of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit reversed that decision in Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corp. v. FDA. In Coyne Beahm, the District Court held that the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act authorized the FDA to regulate tobacco products, but not tobacco advertising. The Fourth Circuit rejected the District Court's jurisdictional ruling and invalidated the FDA's regulations in their entirety. The Clinton Administration has since requested an en banc rehearing before the Fourth Circuit.

  16. Antidepressants and Advertising: Psychopharmaceuticals in Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Greenslit, Nathan P.; Kaptchuk, Ted J.

    2012-01-01

    As the efficacy and science of psychopharmaceuticals has become increasingly uncertain, marketing of these drugs to both physicians and consumers continues to a central part of a multi-billion dollar per year industry in the United States. We explore how such drug marketing portrays idealized scientific relationships between psychopharmaceuticals and depression; how multiple stakeholders, including scientists, regulatory agencies, and patient advocacy groups, negotiate neurobiological explanations of mental illness; and how the placebo effect has become a critical issue in these debates, including the possible role of drug advertising to influence the placebo effect directly. We argue that if and how antidepressants “work” is not a straightforward objective question, but rather a larger social contest involving scientific debate, the political history of the pharmaceutical industry, cultural discourses surrounding the role of drugs in society, and the interpretive flexibility of personal experience. PMID:22461754

  17. Antidepressants and advertising: psychopharmaceuticals in crisis.

    PubMed

    Greenslit, Nathan P; Kaptchuk, Ted J

    2012-03-01

    As the efficacy and science of psychopharmaceuticals has become increasingly uncertain, marketing of these drugs to both physicians and consumers continues to a central part of a multi-billion dollar per year industry in the United States. We explore how such drug marketing portrays idealized scientific relationships between psychopharmaceuticals and depression; how multiple stakeholders, including scientists, regulatory agencies, and patient advocacy groups, negotiate neurobiological explanations of mental illness; and how the placebo effect has become a critical issue in these debates, including the possible role of drug advertising to influence the placebo effect directly. We argue that if and how antidepressants "work" is not a straightforward objective question, but rather a larger social contest involving scientific debate, the political history of the pharmaceutical industry, cultural discourses surrounding the role of drugs in society, and the interpretive flexibility of personal experience.

  18. Obesogenic Environments: Access to and Advertising of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages in Soweto, South Africa, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Moodley, Gillian; Christofides, Nicola; Norris, Shane A.; Achia, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Rates of obesity and overweight among South Africans are increasing. Food marketing has a profound impact on children and affects their lifelong eating patterns; in urban areas of South Africa, disposable incomes are growing and ultra-processed food is increasingly available at low cost. The combination of these factors will strain an already fragile health system. Our aim was to investigate the density of outdoor sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) advertising and the number of formal and informal vendors selling SSBs in a transforming, historically disadvantaged urban setting of South Africa. Methods A digital camera and global positioning system navigation system were used to record the location of SSB advertisements and food vendors in a demarcated area in Soweto. Data were collected by walking or driving through each street; a food inventory was completed for every food vendor. Spatial analyses were conducted using a geographic information system. Results A total of 145 advertisements for SSBs were found over a driven or walked distance of 111.9 km. The density of advertisements was 3.6 per km2 in relation to schools, and 50% of schools had branded advertising of SSBs on their school property. Most (n = 104; 58%) of the 180 vendors in the study sold SSBs. Conclusion This is the first study in South Africa to document the location of billboard advertisements and vendors in relation to schools. Marketing of products that contribute to obesity is common in urban Soweto. Our findings have implications for policies that regulate SSB advertising, especially in the proximity of schools. PMID:26513442

  19. Hospital advertising in California, 1991-1997.

    PubMed

    Town, Robert J; Currim, Imran

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the advertising behavior of California hospitals from 1991 to 1997. Using highly detailed hospital-level information, we found that hospital advertising in California increased dramatically: annual spending on advertising grew (inflation adjusted) more than sixfold over the period. In addition, advertising expenditures varied significantly across hospitals. We found that hospital advertising increased with market concentration; with the number of nearby potential patients; with the percentage of nearby patients insured through Medicare, health maintenance organizations (HMOs), and indemnity insurance; and with chain affiliation. For-profit hospitals were not found to advertise more than their not-for-profit counterparts.

  20. Measurement and Diagnosis of Student Attitudes Toward a Career in Advertising. Working Paper Series, Center for Marketing Studies Paper No. 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, Richard J.

    A problem currently facing many advertising agencies is the recruitment of top quality business school graduates as potential account managers. Viewing the problem from a marketing perspective, a career in advertising is seen as a product competing with other careers for the market of new graduates. Then it is possible to use one of the…

  1. Medication advertising in Brazil. Can it be regulated?

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Alvaro César

    2009-01-01

    The regulation of medication advertising in Brazil has four weak points. Inspection and punishment of irregularities is carried out a posteriori to the infraction being committed (when the population has already been exposed to a sanitary risk). The fines charged by the Brazilian Sanitary Surveillance Agency (Anvisa) have a derisory value compared to investments in advertising. There is no mechanism that prevents fines from being transferred to prices. The phrase 'If symptoms persist, consult your doctor', rather than warning about the risks of self-medication, encourages using at least the first medication without a prescription, advising a visit to the doctor only if symptoms persist. Anvisa data and academic studies reveal that 90% to 100% of advertising shown in the media contains irregularities. Thus, the Anvisa Collegiate Board of Directors Resolution 102/2000, which seeks to regulate the sector, makes up a system that benefits the infractor and keeps the population at risk. This work analyses alternative regulation, looking at advertising's previous compliance statute through the surveillance system; it studies international statutes and proposes an alteration in the structure of the current model, inserting the logic of sanitary risk prevention.

  2. The Cognitive and Behavioural Impact of Alcohol Promoting and Alcohol Warning Advertisements: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Kyle G.; Stautz, Kaidy; Hollands, Gareth J.; Winpenny, Eleanor M.; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To assess the immediate effect of alcohol promoting and alcohol warning advertisements on implicit and explicit attitudes towards alcohol and on alcohol seeking behaviour. Methods We conducted a between-participants online experiment in which participants were randomly assigned to view one of three sets of advertisements: (a) alcohol promoting, (b) alcohol warning, or (c) unrelated to alcohol. A total of 373 participants (59.5% female) aged 18–40 (M = 28.03) living in the UK were recruited online through a research agency. Positive and negative implicit attitudes and explicit attitudes towards alcohol were assessed before and after advertisements were viewed. Alcohol seeking behaviour was measured by participants' choice of either an alcohol-related or non-alcohol-related voucher offered ostensibly as a reward for participation. Self-reported past week alcohol consumption was also recorded. Results There were no main effects on any of the outcome measures. In heavier drinkers, viewing alcohol promoting advertisements increased positive implicit attitudes (standardized beta = 0.15, P = 0.04) and decreased negative implicit attitudes (standardized beta = −0.17, P = 0.02). In heavier drinkers, viewing alcohol warning advertisements decreased negative implicit attitudes (standardized beta = −0.19, P = 0.01). Conclusions Viewing alcohol promoting advertisements has a cognitive impact on heavier drinkers, increasing positive and reducing negative implicit attitudes towards alcohol. Viewing alcohol warning advertisements reduces negative implicit attitudes towards alcohol in heavier drinkers, suggestive of a reactance effect. PMID:26391367

  3. A dynamic evolution model of human opinion as affected by advertising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Gui-Xun; Liu, Yun; Zeng, Qing-An; Diao, Su-Meng; Xiong, Fei

    2014-11-01

    We propose a new model to investigate the dynamics of human opinion as affected by advertising, based on the main idea of the CODA model and taking into account two practical factors: one is that the marginal influence of an additional friend will decrease with an increasing number of friends; the other is the decline of memory over time. Simulations show several significant conclusions for both advertising agencies and the general public. A small difference of advertising’s influence on individuals or advertising coverage will result in significantly different advertising effectiveness within a certain interval of value. Compared to the value of advertising’s influence on individuals, the advertising coverage plays a more important role due to the exponential decay of memory. Meanwhile, some of the obtained results are in accordance with people’s daily cognition about advertising. The real key factor in determining the success of advertising is the intensity of exchanging opinions, and people’s external actions always follow their internal opinions. Negative opinions also play an important role.

  4. Sweet promises: Candy advertising to children and implications for industry self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennifer L; LoDolce, Megan; Dembek, Cathryn; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2015-12-01

    Candy advertising illustrates limitations of the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI) self-regulatory program to improve food marketing to children. Participating companies pledge to not advertise candy in child-directed media. Yet independent analyses show that children viewed 65% more candy ads on U.S. television in 2011 than in 2007, before CFBAI implementation. The present research corroborates these findings, characterizes the increase, and examines how CFBAI-participating and non-participating companies use child-targeted techniques and media placement to advertise candy on U.S. television. Content analysis identified child-targeted messages and techniques in 2011 television candy ads, and Nielsen data (2008-2011) quantified candy advertising viewed on children's and other types of television programming. Differences between brands according to CFBAI status and use of child-targeted techniques in ads are evaluated. Data were obtained and analyzed in 2013. CFBAI-company non-approved brands represented 65% of candy ads viewed by children in 2011, up from 45% in 2008, and 77% of these ads contained child-targeted techniques. Although CFBAI companies only placed ads for approved brands on children's networks, 31% of ads viewed by children for CFBAI non-approved brands appeared on networks with higher-than-average youth audiences. CFBAI non-participating companies placed child-targeted candy ads primarily on children's networks. Despite CFBAI pledges, companies continue to advertise candy during programming with large youth audiences utilizing techniques that appeal to children. Both increased CFBAI participation and a more effective definition of "child-directed advertising" are required to reduce children's exposure to targeted advertising for foods that can harm their health.

  5. 39 CFR 963.20 - Final agency decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final agency decision. 963.20 Section 963.20 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO VIOLATIONS OF THE PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.20 Final agency decision....

  6. 76 FR 27061 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for... Devices AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... INFORMATION CONTACT: Elizabeth Berbakos, Office of Information Management, Food and Drug Administration,...

  7. 77 FR 6775 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Commodity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... FNS food assistance programs. In all three programs, State and local agencies collect racial/ ethnic... Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Commodity Supplemental Food Program, the Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations,...

  8. 77 FR 8260 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Medical Device...

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    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed... Reporting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... (HFA- 305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers Lane, rm. 1061, Rockville, MD 20852....

  9. 77 FR 27779 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Voluntary...

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    2012-05-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Voluntary Submission of Food/Feed Facility Profile Information AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is...

  10. 76 FR 42713 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

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    2011-07-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Applications for Food and Drug Administration...; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Food and...

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    2013-11-18

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  13. 78 FR 23568 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

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    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for... Waiver Applications AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... INFORMATION CONTACT: Daniel Gittleson, Office of Information Management, Food and Drug Administration,...

  14. 76 FR 2124 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Voluntary...

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    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Voluntary National Retail Food Regulatory Program Standards AGENCY: Food and... an effective regulatory program for retail food establishments, establish basic quality...

  15. 76 FR 40377 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Class II Special...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed... Condoms AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... information to the Division of Dockets Management (HFA- 305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers...

  16. 77 FR 29352 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Irradiation in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

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  17. 76 FR 21379 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Experiment To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Experiment To Evaluate Risk Perceptions of Produce Growers, Food Retailers, and Consumers After a Food Recall Resulting From a Foodborne Illness Outbreak AGENCY: Food and...

  18. 78 FR 41065 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Medical Devices...

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  19. 75 FR 65636 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

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  20. 76 FR 368 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

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    2011-01-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget Approval; Food Labeling Regulations AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... of information entitled ``Food Labeling Regulations'' has been approved by the Office of...