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Sample records for advertising consumer protection

  1. A History of Drug Advertising: The Evolving Roles of Consumers and Consumer Protection

    PubMed Central

    Donohue, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs in the United States is controversial. Underlying the debate are disagreements over the role of consumers in medical decision making, the appropriateness of consumers engaging in self-diagnosis, and the ethics of an industry promoting potentially dangerous drugs. Drug advertising and federal policy governing drug advertising have both responded to and reinforced changes in the consumer's role in health care and in the doctor-patient relationship over time. This article discusses the history of DTCA in the context of social movements to secure rights for health care patients and consumers, the modern trend toward consumer-oriented medicine, and the implications of DTCA and consumer-oriented medicine for contemporary health policy debates about improving the health care system. PMID:17096638

  2. Government regulation of gambling advertising: Replacing vice prevention with consumer protection.

    PubMed

    Rothman, M; Robbins, H

    1991-12-01

    From 1895 to 1975, federal law forbade gambling advertising by use of the mail, interstate commerce, and the broadcast media. Congress exempted state lotteries in 1975 and charitable gambling (including casino games) in 1988. However, the Supreme Court requires a significant government interest, directly applied and narrowly tailored, in order to justify a commercial speech regulation. The exemptions for private charity casino games has arguably destroyed any constitutionally defensible government interest in restricting for-profit casinos. Casinos in new gambling jurisdictions (such as Iowa or Illinois) will probably push the hardest for an exemption for all legal gambling, as they have the most to gain from the freedom to advertise. Federal regulation of gambling advertising will fall to the Federal Trade Commission under prohibitions against "unfair or deceptive" trade practices. But as State regulations are not well developed even in states that permit casino gambling, there is a pressing need for new research to review state laws regulating gambling advertising and to propose a model statute. PMID:24243220

  3. Educating the Consumer about Advertising: Some Issues. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    Providing a basic overview of issues related to advertising and the consumer, this digest discusses the omnipresence of advertisements, suggesting ways for consumers to recognize advertising appeals. Deceptive advertising is discussed, with particular attention paid to financial advertising. (RS)

  4. Commercial Speech Protection and Alcoholic Beverage Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Sue

    An examination of the laws governing commercial speech protection and alcoholic beverage advertisements, this document details the legal precedents for and implications of banning such advertising. An introduction looks at the current amount of alcohol consumed in the United States and the recent campaigns to have alcoholic beverage ads banned.…

  5. Children as consumers: advertising and marketing.

    PubMed

    Calvert, Sandra L

    2008-01-01

    Marketing and advertising support the U.S. economy by promoting the sale of goods and services to consumers, both adults and children. Sandra Calvert addresses product marketing to children and shows that although marketers have targeted children for decades, two recent trends have increased their interest in child consumers. First, both the discretionary income of children and their power to influence parent purchases have increased over time. Second, as the enormous increase in the number of available television channels has led to smaller audiences for each channel, digital interactive technologies have simultaneously opened new routes to narrow cast to children, thereby creating a growing media space just for children and children's products. Calvert explains that paid advertising to children primarily involves television spots that feature toys and food products, most of which are high in fat and sugar and low in nutritional value. Newer marketing approaches have led to online advertising and to so-called stealth marketing techniques, such as embedding products in the program content in films, online, and in video games. All these marketing strategies, says Calvert, make children younger than eight especially vulnerable because they lack the cognitive skills to understand the persuasive intent of television and online advertisements. The new stealth techniques can also undermine the consumer defenses even of older children and adolescents. Calvert explains that government regulations implemented by the Federal Communications Commission and the Federal Trade Commission provide some protection for children from advertising and marketing practices. Regulators exert more control over content on scarce television airwaves that belong to the public than over content on the more open online spaces. Overall, Calvert concludes, children live and grow up in a highly sophisticated marketing environment that influences their preferences and behaviors. PMID:21338011

  6. Basic Teaching Kit on Consumer Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor and Gamble Co., Cincinnati, OH.

    This advertising kit was developed by Procter and Gamble in response to requests from teachers and consumer educators who asked for materials from business about business. The kit is not intended to cover the entire field of advertising. Rather, it centers on advertising as it is known and practiced by Procter and Gamble. The purpose of the kit is…

  7. Firearm advertising: product depiction in consumer gun magazines.

    PubMed

    Saylor, Elizabeth A; Vittes, Katherine A; Sorenson, Susan B

    2004-10-01

    In contrast to tobacco, alcohol, and other consumer products associated with health risks, we know very little about how firearm manufacturers advertise their products. The authors examined advertisements for firearms in all 27 ad-accepting magazines listed in Bacon's Magazine Directory "guns and shooting" category. Sixty-three manufacturers spent an estimated $1,195,680 on firearm advertising during the month studied. Annual advertising costs ranged widely; manufacturers spent an estimated $28.16 in advertising per firearm produced. Firearms generally were presented as a part of a lifestyle. Self-protection was noted infrequently in the advertisements. By contrast, attributes of the gun, typically technological characteristics, were noted in almost every advertisement. PMID:15358905

  8. Direct-to-Consumer Advertising of Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Gellad, Ziad F.; Lyles, Kenneth W.

    2014-01-01

    Since the FDA released new guidelines on broadcast direct-to-consumer advertising in 1997, the prevalence of direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs has increased exponentially. The impact on providers, patients and the health care system is varied and dynamic, and the rapid changes in the last several years have markedly altered the health care landscape. To continue providing optimal medical care, physicians and other health-care providers must be able to manage this influence on their practice, and a more thorough understanding of this phenomenon is an integral step toward this goal. This review will summarize the history of direct-to-consumer drug advertisements and the current regulations governing them. It will summarize the evidence concerning the impact of direct-to-consumer advertising on the public, providers and the health care system and conclude with observations regarding the future of direct-to-consumer advertising. PMID:17524744

  9. Attitudes toward physician advertising among rural consumers.

    PubMed

    Kviz, F J

    1984-04-01

    The issue of whether physicians should advertise their services has been the subject of much debate among health policymakers. This study reports data from a survey of rural residents in Illinois regarding attitudes toward physician advertising and reasons for opposition or support of the practice. The results indicate neither strong opposition nor strong support for physician advertising. While those who are opposed are largely nonspecific regarding their reasons, those in favor primarily expect that it will aid in the selection of a physician. However, few respondents indicate a predisposition to shop for a physician. Although the major concern about physician advertising is a danger of false advertising by some physicians, it appears that the respondents are not trusting of advertising in general rather than of advertising by physicians in particular. These findings suggest that regardless of its potential advantages, physician advertising may be relatively ineffective because consumers may be inattentive, unresponsive, or distrusting . PMID:6717113

  10. Impact of Advertising: Implications for Consumer Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Zena; And Others

    This report reviews and analyzes the effects advertising has on consumer choice, national values, and life styles. It is intended to aid consumer educators and others in related fields. The report's focus is on two central issues: consumer sovereignty and patterns of personal, industrial, and national resource allocation. The first of four…

  11. Children as Consumers: Advertising and Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Sandra L.

    2008-01-01

    Marketing and advertising support the U.S. economy by promoting the sale of goods and services to consumers, both adults and children. Sandra Calvert addresses product marketing to children and shows that although marketers have targeted children for decades, two recent trends have increased their interest in child consumers. First, both the…

  12. Protection for the Consumer; Business Education: 6463.07.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finora, Daniel

    This course is designed to acquaint the student with the functions, criticisms, costs, and consumer analysis of advertising; Federal and State regulations of industry operation and advertising; Federal, State, and city agencies for consumer protection; private and business-sponsored organizations for consumer protection; and rights and…

  13. The Lonely Consumer: Advertising and Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Charles U.; Denton, Robert E.

    Advertising plays on the broad feelings of alienation (defined as an individual's frustrated or estranged responses to economic and sociological phenomena which affect that individual's place in society) which are endemic to the American consumer society and are, in Marxist views, symptomatic of any capitalist system. By generating anxieties and…

  14. 27 CFR 6.84 - Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties. 6.84 Section 6.84 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms....84 Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties. (a) General. The act...

  15. Direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs.

    PubMed

    Williams, J R; Hensel, P J

    1995-01-01

    Starting consumers off on the "path to purchase" by encouraging them to seek more information is a major goal of direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising for prescription medications. But the authors found that a consumer's attitude toward DTC advertising can determine which of several paths he or she is likely to take. The attitudes of older adults are especially significant for pharmaceutical marketers because these consumers are heavy users of the drugs being advertised. PMID:10142385

  16. Addendum: Are Supermarket Advertisements Designed to Deceive Consumers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, J. Barry; Wilkinson, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    Assesses the magnitude and incidence of experimentally determined deceptive advertising decisions in supermarket advertisements. Shows that many reduced-priced items are displayed less prominently, lessening a consumer's ability to show economically. (RL)

  17. A Case Against First Amendment Protections for Commercial Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Kent R.

    Although extending constitutional protection to commercial expression might benefit the consumer, the First Amendment is the wrong instrument for carrying out what are basically economic policies. While in most First Amendment cases the nature of the content determines whether it is constitutionally protected, advertising is distinct in that it…

  18. Direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs.

    PubMed

    Frosch, Dominick L; Grande, David

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the pharmaceutical industry spent more than $4.9 billion on direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs in the U.S. Controversy over DTCA has grown since the Food and Drug Administration liberalized its regulations in 1997. Proponents claim that such advertising educates consumers, promotes patient participation in clinical decisions, and improves patient adherence to medication instructions. Opponents argue that such advertising is meant to persuade, not educate, and that it promotes inappropriate use of prescription drugs, or diverts consumers from better alternatives. This Issue Brief summarizes the evidence about the effects of DTCA, and proposes guidelines for improving the utility of prescription drug advertising. PMID:20469541

  19. 27 CFR 6.84 - Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties. 6.84 Section 6.84 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.84 Point of sale advertising...

  20. 27 CFR 6.84 - Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties. 6.84 Section 6.84 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.84 Point of sale advertising...

  1. 27 CFR 6.84 - Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties. 6.84 Section 6.84 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.84 Point of sale advertising...

  2. What Does Advertising Do for the Consumer? Resource Paper Prepared by the Sub-Council on Advertising and Promotion of the National Business Council for Consumer Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Business Council for Consumer Affairs, Washington, DC.

    The report gives a picture, drawn from consumer research, of how the consumer perceives and uses advertising and establishes that the service advertising performs is at least comparable in value to the service it performs for manufacturers. Two major headings are included: (1) Advertising and the Consumer clarifies the terms, "advertising" and…

  3. Effects of consumer motives on search behavior using internet advertising.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kenneth C C

    2004-08-01

    Past studies on uses and gratifications theory suggested that consumer motives affect how they will use media and media contents. Recent advertising research has extended the theory to study the use of Internet advertising. The current study explores the effects of consumer motives on their search behavior using Internet advertising. The study employed a 2 by 2 between-subjects factorial experiment design. A total of 120 subjects were assigned to an experiment condition that contains an Internet advertisement varying by advertising appeals (i.e., rational vs. emotional) and product involvement levels (high vs. low). Consumer search behavior (measured by the depth, breadth, total amount of search), demographics, and motives were collected by post-experiment questionnaires. Because all three dependent variables measuring search behavior were conceptually related to each other, MANCOVA procedures were employed to examine the moderating effects of consumer motives on the dependent variables in four product involvement-advertising appeal conditions. Results indicated that main effects for product involvements and advertising appeals were statistically significant. Univariate ANOVA also showed that advertising appeals and product involvement levels influenced the total amount of search. Three-way interactions among advertising appeals, product involvement levels, and information motive were also statistically significant. Implications and future research directions are discussed. PMID:15331030

  4. Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertising and the Public

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Robert A; Kravitz, Richard L; Wilkes, Michael S

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Drug manufacturers are intensely promoting their products directly to consumers, but the impact has not been widely studied. Consumers' awareness and understanding of, attitudes toward, and susceptibility to direct-to-consumer (DTC) drug advertising were examined. DESIGN Random-digit dialing telephone survey with a random household member selection procedure (completion and response rates, 58% and 69%, respectively). SETTING Respondents were interviewed while they were at their residences. PARTICIPANTS Complete data were obtained from 329 adults in Sacramento County, California. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Outcome measures included awareness of advertisements for 10 selected drugs, misconceptions about DTC advertising, attitudes toward DTC ads, and behavioral responses to such promotions. The influence of demographic characteristics, health status, attitudes, beliefs, and media exposure on awareness and behaviors was examined. On average, respondents were aware of advertisements for 3.7 of the 10 drugs; awareness varied from 8% for Buspar (buspirone) to 72% for Claritin (loratadine). Awareness was associated with prescription drug use, media exposure, positive attitudes toward DTC advertising, poorer health, and insurance status. Substantial misconceptions were revealed; e.g., 43% thought that only “completely safe” drugs could be advertised. Direct-to-consumer advertisements had led one third of respondents to ask their physicians for drug information and one fifth to request a prescription. CONCLUSIONS Direct-to-consumer advertisements are reaching the public, but selectively so, and affecting their behaviors. Implications for public policy are examined. PMID:10571712

  5. Firearm Advertising: Product Depiction in Consumer Gun Magazines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Elizabeth A.; Vittes, Katherine A.; Sorenson, Susan B.

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to tobacco, alcohol, and other consumer products associated with health risks, we know very little about how firearm manufacturers advertise their products. The authors examined advertisements for firearms in all 27 ad-accepting magazines listed in "Bacon's Magazine Directory" "guns and shooting" category. Sixty-three manufacturers…

  6. The attitudes of consumers toward direct advertising of prescription drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, L A; Brinberg, D; Klimberg, R; Rivera, C; Millstein, L G

    1986-01-01

    Attitudes about prescription drug advertising directed to consumers were assessed in 1,509 persons who had viewed prototypical advertisements for fictitious prescription drug products. Although many subjects were generally favorable toward the concept of drug advertising directed to consumers, strong reservations were also expressed, especially about television advertising. Prescription drug advertising did not appear to undermine the physician's authority, since respondents viewed the physician as the primary drug decision-maker. However, the physician was not perceived as the sole source of prescription drug information. Television advertising appeared to promote greater information-seeking about particular drugs; however, magazine ads were more fully accepted by subjects. Furthermore, magazine ads led to enhanced views of the patient's authority in drug decision-making. The greater information conveyed in magazine ads may have given subjects more confidence in their own ability to evaluate the drug and the ad. Ads that integrated risk information into the body of the advertisement were more positively viewed than ads that gave special emphasis to the risk information. The results suggest that consumer attitudes about prescription drug advertising are not firmly held and are capable of being influenced by the types of ads people view. Regulation of such ads may need to be flexed to adapt to the way different media are used and processed by consumers. PMID:3080797

  7. Commercial and Advertising Content in Free Consumer Curriculum Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, Joel

    The results of the first systematic content analysis of free consumer curriculum materials indicate the extent to which such business sponsored materials are an advertising vehicle for their producers. The business sponsored materials in this sample of 116 items contain nearly twice as many advertising statements as the non-business materials.…

  8. Nutrition Advertisements in Consumer Magazines: Health Implications for African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Charlotte A.; Pratt, Cornelius B.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the "Ladies' Home Journal" and two popular consumer magazines that target blacks to determine the proportions of food and beverage advertisements, nutrition advertisements and their promotional messages, and the health implications they reveal. Findings reveal these magazines had a significantly higher number of alcohol ads, limited…

  9. Advertising Directed at Children: Endorsements in Advertising. Reports by the Committee on Consumer Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    In the framework of its activities concerning marketing practices, the Committee on Consumer Policy, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, has examined the subjects of advertising directed at children and endorsements in advertising. These subjects raise common problems in member countries and result in a variety of responses.…

  10. 27 CFR 6.84 - Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties. 6.84 Section 6.84 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions §...

  11. Physicians' and consumers' conflicting attitudes toward health care advertising.

    PubMed

    Krohn, F B; Flynn, C

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the conflicting attitudes held by physicians and health care consumers toward health care advertising in an attempt to resolve the question. The paper introduces the differing positions held by the two groups. The rationale behind physicians' attitudes is then presented that advertising can be unethical, misleading, deceptive, and lead to unnecessary price increases. They believe that word-of-mouth does and should play the major role in attracting new patients. The opposite view of consumers is then presented which contends that health care advertising leads to higher consumer awareness of services, better services, promotes competitive pricing, and lowers rather than raises health care costs. The final section of the paper compares the arguments presented and concludes that health care advertising clearly has a place in the health care industry. PMID:11968299

  12. FDA direct-to-consumer advertising for prescription drugs: what are consumer preferences and response tendencies?

    PubMed

    Khanfar, Nile; Loudon, David; Sircar-Ramsewak, Feroza

    2007-01-01

    The effect of direct-to-consumer (DTC) television advertising of prescription medications is a growing concern of the United States (U.S.) Congress, state legislatures, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This research study was conducted in order to examine consumers' perceived preferences of DTC television advertisement in relation to "reminder" "help-seeking," and "product-claim" FDA-approved advertisement categories. An additional objective was to examine the influence of DTC television advertising of prescription drugs on consumers' tendency to seek more information about the medication and/or the medical condition. The research indicates that DTC television drug ads appear to be insufficient for consumers to make informed decisions. Their mixed perception and acceptance of the advertisements seem to influence them to seek more information from a variety of medical sources. PMID:19042521

  13. Regulating firearm advertisements that promise home protection. A public health intervention.

    PubMed

    Vernick, J S; Teret, S P; Webster, D W

    1997-05-01

    Firearms are a consumer product responsible for 38500 deaths in the United States in 1994. Like other products, firearms are advertised. In the absence of rules governing the design of firearms, regulating the way guns are advertised may be a useful public health intervention. Some gun advertisements include messages suggesting that bringing a handgun into the home is generally protective for the occupants of the home. The best available scientific information contradicts this message. Given this disjunction, regulating those advertisements may be an appropriate response. Under federal law, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has authority to prohibit advertisements that are "deceptive" or "unfair." Under the FTC's deception analysis, the focus is on whether consumers are misled by an advertisement. For a finding of unfairness, the FTC looks for advertisements that may cause substantial injury to consumers. Under either analysis, a strong argument can be made that firearm advertisements promising home protection are unlawful. On February 14, 1996, several organizations sent separate petitions to the FTC asking it to consider the issues raised by firearm advertisements that promise home protection. The FTC is still reviewing the information presented. There are no First Amendment or Second Amendment impediments to FTC regulation of deceptive firearm advertising under the US Constitution. PMID:9134946

  14. Models of physician-patient relationships in pharmaceutical direct-to-consumer advertising and consumer interviews.

    PubMed

    Arney, Jennifer; Lewin, Benjamin

    2013-07-01

    The rise of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) has mirrored, if not facilitated, the shift toward more active health care consumers. We used content analysis to identify models of physician-patient interaction in DTCA from the 1997 to 2006 issues of a broad sample of women's, men's, and common readership magazines. We also conducted 36 in-depth interviews to examine the ways consumers receive and regard advertising messages, and to explore their preferences for clinical communication and decision making. We identified four models of physician-patient relationships that vary in their locus of control (physician, patient, or shared) and the form of support sought or obtained in the relationship (emotional or instrumental). Whereas consumer interviews reflected references to all four models of interaction, only two appeared in DTCA. The limited range of interactions seen in these advertisements creates a lack of congruity between interaction styles found in advertisements vs. styles reported by actual consumers. PMID:23645149

  15. Direct-to-consumer advertising affects provider / patient relationship.

    PubMed

    1998-12-01

    Family planning program clients are increasingly seeking oral contraceptive pills by brand name. Direct-to-consumer ads have spurred this recent increase in brand-specific requests for prescription drugs. While print consumer pitches for prescription drugs have been around for a long time, proposed guidance issued by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in August 1997 allows pharmaceutical companies to more easily broadcast product claim commercials on television and radio. Now, half of all direct-to-consumer advertising dollars spent by pharmaceutical companies during January-February 1998 were directed to television ads, almost twice the share spent upon television last year. Last year, pharmaceutical companies spent more than $1 billion on direct-to-consumer advertising. The effects of this new policy are presenting in providers' offices. Before the FDA guidance, 41% of physicians participating in a national survey observed an increase in patients' requests for brand name drugs. However, since the change, 65% surveyed to date have observed an increase in such requests. With the increase in advertising comes a potential for violations of the US Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, which regulates provider and consumer prescription drug advertising. 125 companies were cited for violations in 1998, 6 specifically for violations connected with contraceptive information they disseminated. PMID:12321805

  16. Multilingualism and Web Advertising: Addressing French-Speaking Consumers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Drawing inferences from both quantitative and qualitative data, this study examines the extent to which American companies tailor their Web advertising for global audiences with a particular focus on French-speaking consumers in North America, Europe, Africa, the Caribbean and French Polynesia. Explored from a sociolinguistic and social semiotic…

  17. Direct-to-consumer advertising of predictive genetic tests: a health belief model based examination of consumer response.

    PubMed

    Rollins, Brent L; Ramakrishnan, Shravanan; Perri, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising of predictive genetic tests (PGTs) has added a new dimension to health advertising. This study used an online survey based on the health belief model framework to examine and more fully understand consumers' responses and behavioral intentions in response to a PGT DTC advertisement. Overall, consumers reported moderate intentions to talk with their doctor and seek more information about PGTs after advertisement exposure, though consumers did not seem ready to take the advertised test or engage in active information search. Those who perceived greater threat from the disease, however, had significantly greater behavioral intentions and information search behavior. PMID:25120046

  18. Consumer attitudes about advertisements for medicinal drugs.

    PubMed

    Morris, L A; Brinberg, D; Klimberg, R; Millstein, L; Rivera, C

    1986-01-01

    Approximately 1500 subjects were exposed to magazine or television advertisements for fictitious prescription drug products. The ads varied the way risk information was incorporated into the ad. Ads presented in the magazine, ads that contained detailed and specific descriptions of the drug's risks, and ads that used communications devices to emphasize risks (graphic subtitles or a separate announcer to read the risk material) were negatively evaluated. Television ads were more likely to lead subjects to state that they would consult a doctor about the medicine but not to be upset if the doctor refused to prescribe it. Evidently, television produced more positive but more tentative impressions about the product compared to the magazine. General risks informing people about the importance of the doctor in making prescribing decisions appeared to be reassuring. Older subjects had more positive views of the drug and the ad, were more receptive to the doctor's advice and were more concerned about the disease. The elderly may have viewed drugs as a symbol of health, whereas, younger subjects may have viewed them as a symbol of illness. PMID:3715502

  19. Awareness of and attitudes toward direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising among young adults.

    PubMed

    Alperstein, Neil M

    2014-01-01

    This study examines awareness and knowledge of and attitudes toward direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertising among young adults between 18 and 24 years of age. The study finds that young adults are not as aware of prescription drug advertising as older consumers, however, they are aware of specific heavily advertised drugs, especially those for allergy medications, birth control, and sleep aids. Young adults hold mixed to negative views about advertising in general, and they do not view DTC prescription drug advertising as a beneficial source of information, nor do they believe such advertising serves to educate consumers. PMID:25120044

  20. Direct-to-consumer advertising and its utility in health care decision making: a consumer perspective.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Aparna; Menon, Ajit; Perri, Matthew; Zinkhan, George

    2004-01-01

    The growth in direct-to-consumer advertising(DTCA)over the past two decades has facilitated the communication of prescription drug information directly to consumers. Data from a 1999 national survey are employed to determine the factors influencing consumers' opinions of the utility of DTC ads for health care decision making. We also analyze whether consumers use DTC ad information in health care decision making and who are the key drivers of such information utilization. The study results suggest that consumers have positive opinions of DTCA utility, varying across demographics and perceptions of certain advertisement features. Specifically, consumers value information about both risks and benefits, but the perception of risk information is more important in shaping opinions of ad utility than the perception of benefit information. Consumers still perceive, however that the quality of benefit information in DTC ads is better than that of risk information. Opinions about ad utility significantly influence whether information from DTC ads is used in health care decision making. PMID:15764449

  1. Limitations of direct-to-consumer advertising for clinical genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Gollust, Sarah E; Hull, Sara Chandros; Wilfond, Benjamin S

    2002-10-01

    Although direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertisements for pharmaceuticals have been appearing in the mass media for 20 years, DTC advertisements for genetic testing have only recently appeared. Advertisements for genetic testing can provide both consumers and physicians with information about test availability in an expanding market. However, 3 factors limit the value and appropriateness of advertisements: complex information, a complicated social context surrounding genetics, and a lack of consensus about the clinical utility of some tests. Consideration of several advertisements suggests that they overstate the value of genetic testing for consumers' clinical care. Furthermore, advertisements may provide misinformation about genetics, exaggerate consumers' risks, endorse a deterministic relationship between genes and disease, and reinforce associations between diseases and ethnic groups. Advertising motivated by factors other than evidence of the clinical value of genetic tests can manipulate consumers' behavior by exploiting their fears and worries. At this time, DTC advertisements are inappropriate, given the public's limited sophistication regarding genetics and the lack of comprehensive premarket review of tests or oversight of advertisement content. Existing Federal Trade Commission and Food and Drug Administration regulations for other types of health-related advertising should be applied to advertisements for genetic tests. PMID:12365961

  2. Educational content and health literacy issues in direct-to-consumer advertising of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Mackert, Michael; Love, Brad

    2011-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) pharmaceutical advertisements have been analyzed in many ways, but richer conceptualizations of health literacy have been largely absent from this research. With approximately half of U.S. adults struggling to understand health information, it is important to consider consumers' health literacy when analyzing DTC advertisements. This project, framed by the health belief model, analyzed 82 advertisements. Advertisements provided some kinds of educational content (e.g., drugs' medical benefits) but typically failed to offer other useful information (e.g., other strategies for dealing with conditions). Issues likely to be barriers to low health literate consumers, such as nonstandard text formatting, are common. PMID:21815739

  3. The economics of direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription-only drugs: prescribed to improve consumer welfare?

    PubMed

    Morgan, Steven; Mintzes, Barbara; Barer, Morris

    2003-10-01

    According to economic theory, one might expect that the informational content of direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription-only drugs would improve consumers' welfare. However, contrasting the models of consumer and market behaviour underlying this theory with the realities of the prescription-only drug market reveals that this market is distinct in ways that render it unlikely that advertising will serve an unbiased and strictly informative function. A review of qualitative evidence regarding the informational content of drug advertising supports this conclusion. Direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising concentrates on particular products, and features of those products, to the exclusion of others, and the information provided has frequently been found to be biased or misleading in regulatory and academic evaluations. Governments that have so far resisted direct-to-consumer advertising should invest in independent sources of evidence that could help consumers and professionals to better understand the risks and benefits of treating disease with alternative drug and non-drug therapies, rather than permitting direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising. PMID:14596759

  4. Do perceptions of direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising vary based on urban versus rural living?

    PubMed

    Spake, Deborah F; Joseph, Mathew; Megehee, Carol M

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the connection between perceptions of direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising based on where people live and shop. Urban consumers were found to be more skeptical of DTC advertising, but more likely to believe that physicians select pharmaceuticals based on the efficacy of the product. Those living in rural areas were more motivated to visit a doctor and more likely to feel an equal doctor-patient relationship after exposure to DTC advertising. Interaction effects among gender, income, and education were detected, as well as an interaction effects between location and income on views of DTC advertising. PMID:24617721

  5. The past, present, and future of direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising.

    PubMed

    Perri, M; Shinde, S; Banavali, R

    1999-10-01

    Since the first experiences with direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertising in the early 1980s, pharmaceutical marketers, government regulators, researchers, health practitioners, and consumers have been both perplexed and intrigued by this practice. As experience with DTC advertising has expanded, so has knowledge and understanding of its risks and rewards. This article discusses important issues in DTC advertising, such as the effects it may have on the patient-practitioner relationship, the diffusion and adoption of new drugs, prices, and competition. It also discusses the future of DTC advertising. PMID:10566574

  6. The educational potential of direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising.

    PubMed

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; DeJong, William

    2004-01-01

    Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations for direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertising allow broadcast advertisements with incomplete risk information if the ads refer consumers to physicians, pharmacists, and supplemental information sources. New research reveals several problems with both television advertisements and supplemental text materials that might compromise their ability to meet the FDA's requirement for "fair balance" in the presentation of risks and benefits. In response, we make several recommendations to improve the educational quality of DTC advertising, which can be implemented through either voluntary agreements or revised FDA regulations. PMID:15318574

  7. Consumers' various and surprising responses to direct-to-consumer advertisements in magazine print.

    PubMed

    Arney, Jennifer; Street, Richard L; Naik, Aanand D

    2013-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) is ubiquitous in media outlets, but little is known about the ways in which consumers' values, needs, beliefs, and biases influence the perceived meaning and value of DTCA. This article aims to identify the taxonomy of readership categories that reflect the complexity of how health care consumers interact with DTCA, with particular focus on individuals' perceptions of print DTCA in popular magazines. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit 18 male and female magazine readers and 18 male and female prescription medication users aged 18-71 years. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews with consumers about their attentiveness, motivations, perceived value, and behavioral responses to DTCA were conducted. The analyses were guided by principles of grounded theory analysis; four categories that vary in consumers' attentiveness, motivations, perceived value, and behavioral responses to DTCA were identified. Two categories - the lay physician and the informed shopper - see value in information from DTCA and are likely to seek medical care based on the information. One category - the voyeur - reads DTCA, but is not likely to approach a clinician regarding advertised information. The fourth category - the evader - ignores DTCA and is not likely to approach a clinician with DTCA information. Responses to DTCA vary considerably among consumers, and physicians should view patients' understanding and response to DTCA within the context of their health-related needs. Patients' comments related to DTCA may be used as an opportunity to engage and understand patients' perspectives about illness and medication use. Clinicians may use information about these categories to facilitate shared understanding and improve communication within the doctor-patient relationship. PMID:23378746

  8. Direct-to-consumer advertisements of prescription medications over the Internet.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Joshua; Novick, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This study sought data on the impact of direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertisements and both intentions and frequency to seek more information about the drug being advertised. Data were collected from 498 college students regarding intention to seek and how frequently they obtained more information about prescription medications. For intentions, grocery or pharmacy and radio advertisements were associated with lesser intentions. For frequency, Internet advertisements were associated, while newspaper and spam e-mail advertisements were not. Types of sources associated with seeking additional information were doctor, Internet, and 1-800 information numbers. A significant interaction existed for seeing Internet advertisements for drugs and then seeking additional information from a doctor and not from the Internet. In conclusion, Internet advertising is associated with seeking additional information from a reliable source such as a doctor. PMID:19916099

  9. Parent and Adolescent Interaction in Television Advertisements as Consumer Socialization Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmete, Emine

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the interaction between parents and adolescents pertaining to television advertisements as a consumer socialization agent and the effects of advertisements on the purchasing decisions of adolescents. The effects of age and sex were also investigated. The sample included 240 high school students in grades 9, 10 and…

  10. Are Direct to Consumer Advertisements of Prescription Drugs Educational?: Comparing 1992 to 2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Timothy Jon; Jarosch, Jeff; Pacholok, Shelley

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the educational value of direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertisements from 58 popular magazines published in 1992 and 2002. We find that the number of DTC prescription drug ads increased nine-fold from 1992 to 2002, while the advertisements for other health care products increased only slightly. We examine changes in…

  11. Do Antidepressant Advertisements Educate Consumers and Promote Communication Between Patients with Depression and Their Physicians?

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Robert A.; Taylor, Laramie D.; Kravitz, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine how online depression support group members respond to direct-to-consumer (DTC) antidepressant advertising. Methods Survey of 148 depression forum members, administered via an online questionnaire. Results Chronicity was high, as 79.1% had received a diagnosis of depression 3 or more years earlier. Respondents reported seeing advertisements for an average of 4.3 of 7 brands investigated. A majority rated the information quality of these advertisements as “poor” or “fair.” Attitudes toward antidepressant advertisements were neutral (mean: 2.96 on a 5-point scale). More than half (52.4%) visited official websites provided in these advertisements, 39.9% had talked with a doctor after seeing an advertisement, 20.3% made an advertisement-induced prescription request, and 25.7% said these advertisements reminded them to take their antidepressants. Amount of attention given to these advertisements correlated positively with belief in the brain chemical imbalance causal model, but belief in this model did not predict prescription requests. Conclusion Awareness of DTC antidepressant advertisements is high among individuals with depression, but so is skepticism. Practice Implications Among members of an on-line support group, these advertisements encourage patient-doctor dialogue, prescription requests, and adherence, but might also reduce the acceptability of psychotherapy and encourage doctor switching in a small number of patients. PMID:20176456

  12. Consumer Protection and New Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norrgard, Lee

    1995-01-01

    Looks at the problems of consumer fraud related to assistive technology for consumers, usually older adults. Notes two examples of abuse: (1) a firm selling personal emergency response systems at a price related to the value of the house or yearly income of the consumer and (2) eight hearing aid manufacturers who made unsubstantiated claims about…

  13. Consumer Perceptions of Sponsors of Disease Awareness Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Danika V.; Jones, Sandra C.; Iverson, Donald C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In many countries there is emerging concern regarding alliances between the pharmaceutical industry and health non-profit organizations (NPOs), and the increase of co-sponsored marketing activities such as disease awareness advertising. The current study aims to explore Australian women's perceptions of disease awareness advertising with…

  14. Pharmacy Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Evaluation of Direct-to-Consumer Advertising

    PubMed Central

    Borrego, Matthew E.; Gupchup, Gireesh V.; Dodd, Melanie; Sather, Mike R.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To assess pharmacy students' knowledge, attitudes, and evaluation of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA). Methods A cross sectional, self-administered, 106-item survey instrument was used to assess first, second, and third professional year pharmacy students' knowledge about DTCA regulations, attitudes toward DTCA, and evaluation of DTC advertisements with different brief summary formats (professional labeling and patient labeling) and in different media sources (print and television). Results One hundred twenty (51.3%) of the 234 students enrolled participated in the study. The mean percentage knowledge score was 48.7% ± 12.5%. Based on the mean scores per item, pharmacy students had an overall negative attitude toward DTC advertisements. Students had an overall negative attitude toward television and print advertisements using the professional labeling format but an overall positive attitude toward the print advertisement using the patient labeling format. Conclusions Lectures discussing DTC advertising should be included in the pharmacy curriculum. PMID:17998983

  15. Direct-to-consumer drug advertising: you get what you pay for.

    PubMed

    Jeffords, James M

    2004-01-01

    Between 1997 and 2001 spending on direct-to-consumer (DTC) drug advertising more than doubled. Opinions differ as to whether and to what extent DTC advertising benefits the doctor-patient relationship. Some analysts argue that the current regulatory regime is sufficient, others advocate a stricter enforcement, and still others promote an outright ban. An alternative may be to use the purchasing power of the federal government to require the inclusion of comparative quality data, thus creating a basis for more informed consumer choice. This approach could create incentives for the pharmaceutical industry to adjust spending on DTC advertising while avoiding "big government" interference with commercial free speech. PMID:15452003

  16. Understanding the role consumer involvement plays in the effectiveness of hospital advertising.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Tammy; Dodge, H Robert

    2002-01-01

    Both intensified competition and greater consumer participation in the choice process for healthcare has increased the importance of advertising for health care providers and seriously challenged many of the preconceptions regarding advertising. This study investigates the effectiveness of advertising under conditions of high and low involvement using the Elaboration Likelihood Model to develop hypotheses that are tested in a 2 x 2 x 2 experimental design. The study findings provide insights into the influence of message content and message source on consumers categorized as high or low involvement. It was found that consumers classified as high-involvement are more influenced by a core service-relevant message than those consumers classified as low-involvement. Moreover, a non-physician spokesperson was found to have as much or more influence as a physician spokesperson regardless of the consumers' involvement level. PMID:12077808

  17. Benefits and harms of direct to consumer advertising: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Gilbody, S; Wilson, P; Watt, I

    2005-01-01

    Background: Direct to consumer advertising is increasingly used by the pharmaceutical industry, but its benefits and harms have yet to be summarised in a comprehensive and rigorous manner. Methods: A systematic review was conducted of robust evaluations of the impact (positive and negative) of direct to consumer advertising. A broad range of databases and data sources (including Cinahl, Embase, HMIC, HSRProj, Medline, PsycInfo, and the internet) were searched from inception to 2004. Results: From 2853 citations only four reports were found that met the strict inclusion criteria and provided usable results. Direct to consumer advertising is associated with increased prescription of advertised products and there is substantial impact on patients' request for specific drugs and physicians' confidence in prescribing. No additional benefits in terms of health outcomes were demonstrated. Discussion: Direct to consumer advertising is banned in most countries, and the research evidence tends to support the negative impact that is feared by those who support a legislative ban. Further research is needed into the clinical and economic impact of direct to consumer advertising in healthcare systems. PMID:16076787

  18. Neural responsivity during soft drink intake, anticipation, and advertisement exposure in habitually consuming youth

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Kyle S.; Stice, Eric

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although soft drinks are heavily advertised, widely consumed, and have been associated with obesity, little is understood regarding neural responsivity to soft drink intake, anticipated intake, and advertisements. METHODS Functional MRI was used to assess examine neural response to carbonated soft drink intake, anticipated intake and advertisement exposure as well as milkshake intake in 27 adolescents that varied on soft drink consumer status. RESULTS Intake and anticipated intake of carbonated Coke® activated regions implicated in gustatory, oral somatosensory, and reward processing, yet high-fat/sugar milkshake intake elicited greater activation in these regions versus Coke intake. Advertisements highlighting the Coke product vs. non-food control advertisements, but not the Coke logo, activated gustatory and visual brain regions. Habitual Coke consumers vs. non-consumers showed greater posterior cingulate responsivity to Coke logo ads, suggesting that the logo is a conditioned cue. Coke consumers exhibited less ventrolateral prefrontal cortex responsivity during anticipated Coke intake relative to non-consumers. CONCLUSIONS Results indicate that soft drinks activate reward and gustatory regions, but are less potent in activating these regions than high-fat/sugar beverages, and imply that habitual soft drink intake promotes hyper-responsivity of regions encoding salience/attention toward brand specific cues and hypo-responsivity of inhibitory regions while anticipating intake. PMID:23836764

  19. Consumers' preferences for the communication of risk information in drug advertising.

    PubMed

    Davis, Joel J

    2007-01-01

    Research was conducted to identify consumers' preferences regarding the form, content, and placement of drug side-effect information in direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising. Specific questions explored preferences for the presence or absence of numeric information, the use of placebo and discontinuation groups as a context for understanding drug risk, the sequence in which side effects are presented, and the placement of side-effect statements on DTC Web sites. Consumers prefer detailed, readily accessible risk information--preferences that are a major departure from current advertiser practices and from what current and proposed Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations require. PMID:17485767

  20. Pharmaceutical direct-to-consumer advertising and US Hispanic patient-consumers.

    PubMed

    Barker, Kristin K; Vasquez Guzman, Cirila Estela

    2015-11-01

    Hispanic Americans use prescription medications at markedly lower rates than do non-Hispanic whites. At the same time, Hispanics are the largest racial-ethnic minority in the USA. In a recent effort to reach this underdeveloped market, the pharmaceutical industry has begun to create Spanish-language direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) campaigns. The substantive content of these campaigns is being tailored to appeal to the purported cultural values, beliefs and identities of Latino consumers. We compare English-language and Spanish-language television commercials for two prescription medications. We highlight the importance of selling medicine to a medically under-served population as a key marketing element of Latino-targeted DTCA. We define selling medicine as the pharmaceutical industry's explicit promotion of medicine's cultural authority as a means of expanding its markets and profits. We reflect on the prospects of this development in terms of promoting medicalisation in a US subgroup that has heretofore eluded the pharmaceutical industry's marketing influence. Our analysis draws on Nikolas Rose's insights concerning variations in the degree to which certain groups of people are more medically made up than others, by reflecting on the racial and ethnic character of medicalisation in the USA and the role DTCA plays in shaping medicalisation trends. A video abstract of this article can be found at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZabCle9-jHw&feature=youtu.be. PMID:26235537

  1. "Be ready against cancer, now": direct-to-consumer advertising for genetic testing.

    PubMed

    William-Jones, Bryn

    2006-04-01

    A recent addition to the debate about the benefits and harms of direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising of medicines and pharmaceuticals is a growing critique of DTC marketing and sale of genetic tests. Academic and policy literatures exploring this issue have, however, tended to focus on the sale of genetic tests, paying rather less attention to the particular implications of advertising. The globalization of broadcast media and ever increasing access to the Internet mean that public exposure to advertising for medical technologies is a reality that national regulatory bodies will be hard pressed to constrain. Working through a case study detailing Myriad Genetics' 2002 pilot advertising campaign for their BRACAnalysis genetic susceptibility test for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, this paper highlights some of the diverse and often overlooked and unregulated approaches to DTC advertising, and the associated social, ethical and policy implications. PMID:17312631

  2. Attitudinal Factors Affecting Viral Advertising Pass-On Behaviour of Online Consumers in Food Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Salleh, Nurhidayah; Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Zakuan, Norhayati; Sulaiman, Zuraidah; Zameri Mat Saman, Muhamad

    2016-05-01

    The increase number of active users of social media, especially Facebook, stimulates viral advertising behaviour among them, thus attracting e-marketers to focus on viral advertising in promoting their products. In global market, use of Facebook platform indicated that food services/restaurant of food industry is ranked number 11 with 18.8% users’ response rate within the platform. This development calls for e-marketers in Malaysia to use Facebook as their viral advertising channel. Attitudinal factors affecting the viral advertising pass-on behaviour (VAPB) especially among members of social media is of interest to many researchers. The typical attitudinal factors used were attitude toward social media (ATSM), attitude toward advertising in social media (AASM) and attitude toward advertising in general (AAIG). Attitude toward advertised brand (ATAB) is important in fast food industry because users of social media tend to share their experience about tastes and features of the food. However, ATAB is less emphasized in the conceptual model between attitudinal factors and VAPB. These four factors of consumer attitude served as independent variables in the conceptual model of this study and their effect on viral advertising pass-on behaviour among members of Domino's Pizza Malaysia Facebook page was examined. Online survey using a set of questionnaire which was sent to the members of this group via private message was employed. A total of 254 sets of usable questionnaires were collected from the respondents. All the attitudinal factors, except for AASM, were found to have positive and significant effect on VAPB. AAIG exerted the strongest effect on VAPB. Therefore, e-marketers should emphasize on developing a favourable attitude toward advertising in general among members of a social media to get them involve in viral advertising. In addition, instilling a favourable attitude towards advertised brand is also vital as it influences the members to viral the brand

  3. The Electronic Dilemma of TV Advertising: Documentation, The Reactions of Business, Cultural Consequences and Consumer Implications. Working Paper No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sepstrup, Preben

    This discussion of the influence of advertising on the development of new media covers ways in which advertising uses the media and the implications of new information technologies for consumers and marketing activities. The first of four sections describes how television advertising has been altered by the development of new technologies--cable,…

  4. Advertising the "New Fun-Tier": Selling Casinos to Consumers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullan, John L.; Miller, Delthia

    2010-01-01

    There is an absence of research on the commercial advertising of gambling as it relates to casinos. This study examines print, radio, television and point of sale casino ads that aired in Canada. Using quantitative and qualitative methods we analyze a convenience sample of 367 ads that aired or were printed in 2005 and 2006. Our findings indicate…

  5. Direct-to-consumer (DTC) antidepressant advertising and consumer misperceptions about the chemical imbalance theory of depression: the moderating role of skepticism.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Seong; Ahn, Ho-Young Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Based on a survey with members of an online consumer panel (N= 699), this study revealed that: (a) a substantial percentage of consumers held misperceptions about the chemical imbalance theory of depression; (b) personal and interpersonal experiences with depression positively related to such misperceptions; (c) overall, exposure to direct-to-consumer (DTC) antidepressant advertising did not significantly relate to misperceptions; and (d) DTC exposure magnified misperceptions when consumers were highly trustful of DTC advertising, whereas exposure diluted misperceptions when consumers were highly skeptical. Theoretical and practical implications of the research are discussed, especially in light of the social responsibility of DTC advertising. PMID:24308414

  6. Perceptions of Direct-to-Consumer Advertising and the Older Adult Population.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Trista Askins; Fenney, Megan

    2016-04-01

    Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) has become a prominent feature of our society and reaches many consumers through their televisions, radios, and computer screens. In 2004, the average United States citizen was exposed to more than 16 hours of DTCA per year, and the number of hours has steadily increased. Drug advertising is a multi-billion dollar business for pharmaceutical manufacturers and affects public perception of medications, both prescription and over-the counter. Studies have shown advertisements can have both positive and negative effects, including educating consumers, but can harm the patient-physician relationship. This article addresses the perceptions older adults have toward DTCA and discusses how pharmacists can play a role in helping older adults understand and effectively use DTCA. PMID:27056358

  7. Literacy demands of product information intended to supplement television direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertisements.

    PubMed

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Rudd, Rima E; DeJong, William; Daltroy, Lawren H

    2004-11-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allows television direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertisements that do not fully disclose drug risks if the ads include "adequate provision" for dissemination of the drug's approved labeling. This requirement can be met in part by referring consumers to multiple text sources of product labeling. This study was designed to assess the materials to which consumers were referred in 23 DTC television advertisements. SMOG assessments showed that the average reading grade levels were in the high school range for the main body sections of the materials and college-level range for the brief summary sections. The Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM) instrument identified specific difficulties with the materials, including content, graphics, layout, and typography features. Stronger plain language requirements are recommended. Health care providers should be aware that patients who ask about an advertised drug might not have the full information required to make an informed decision. PMID:15530767

  8. On the nature and properties of appeals used in direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs.

    PubMed

    Pinto, M B

    2000-04-01

    The past decade has seen a steady rise in expenditures for direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising. While total revenues across all media are approaching the $1 billion dollar mark, surprisingly little is known about the effectiveness of these types of advertisements, including the appropriateness of various forms of emotional and informational appeal. A content analysis of direct-to-consumer advertising in 24 popular magazines shows that these advertisements are found in every category of magazine, the advertisements employ a mix of informational and emotional appeals, all types of emotional appeals are used, and to date, the type of appeal (emotional and/or informational) tends not to be based on the type of drug advertised. Implications of this content analysis are considered and directions for research on appeals used in direct-to-consumer advertising are suggested. PMID:10840918

  9. Health literacy knowledge among direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising professionals.

    PubMed

    Mackert, Michael

    2011-09-01

    While direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertising has been the subject of ongoing debate, to this point the perspective of the advertising professionals engaged in creating these ads has been absent from the discussion. This study, consisting of in-depth interviews with advertising professionals (N = 22), was an initial investigation focused on these individuals. The primary purpose of this study was to explore advertising professionals' understanding of health literacy-consumers' ability to obtain, process, and act on health information; with that context in place, participants' views on the role of DTC advertising, industry regulations, and the future of the industry were also investigated. While some participants knew nothing about health literacy or had a relatively simple conceptualization (e.g., grade level of written materials), others exhibited more nuanced understanding of health literacy (e.g., the need to pair relevant images with text to enhance understanding). Participants spoke of the potential public health benefit of DTC advertising in educating consumers about health issues, but were realistic that such efforts on the part of pharmaceutical companies were driven primarily by business concerns-educational messages need to be tied directly to an advertised medication and its benefits. These professionals spoke of industry regulations as presenting additional barriers to effective communication and suggested that industry trends toward more niche products will necessitate more patient education about less well-known health issues. Directions for future research are considered, as more investigation of this understudied group is necessary to enrich the DTC prescription drug advertising debate. PMID:21469006

  10. The Role of Advertising in Adolescent Consumer Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Roy L.; Moschis, George P.

    A total of 734 sixth through twelfth grade students completed two questionnaires in a study that focused on the development of consumer skills, the sources of consumer skill acquisition, the effects of cognitive development and social factors on the socialization processes, and the effects of levels of competency on various consumer skills. A…

  11. Factors influencing consumers' attitudinal and behavioral responses to direct-to-consumer and over-the-counter drug advertising.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mina; Whitehill King, Karen; Reid, Leonard N

    2015-04-01

    Using a model developed from the research literature, the authors compared consumers' attitudinal and behavioral responses to direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising (DCTA) and over-the-counter nonprescription drug advertising (OTCA) of drugs. Adults 18 years of age and older who had taken any prescription drugs in the past 6 months completed online survey questionnaires. Variables measured included demographics (age, gender, race, education, and income), health-related characteristics (health status, prescription and over-the-counter drug use, health consciousness, and involvement with prescription or over-the-counter drugs), perceived amount of attention and exposure to DTCA and OTCA, attitudinal outcomes (skepticism toward DTCA/OTCA and attitude toward DTCA/OTCA), and behavioral outcomes triggered by DTCA and OTCA. The findings indicate that exposure to drug advertising is one of the most significant predictors of attitudinal and behavioral outcomes. Some audience factors such as health status, involvement with drugs, health consciousness, drug use, income, and age also were differentially associated with consumer responses to drug advertising. PMID:25730505

  12. 12 CFR 1030.8 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advertising. 1030.8 Section 1030.8 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 1030.8 Advertising. (a) Misleading or inaccurate advertisements. An advertisement shall not: (1) Be misleading or inaccurate...

  13. 12 CFR 1030.8 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advertising. 1030.8 Section 1030.8 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 1030.8 Advertising. (a) Misleading or inaccurate advertisements. An advertisement shall not: (1) Be misleading or inaccurate...

  14. 12 CFR 1030.8 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advertising. 1030.8 Section 1030.8 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 1030.8 Advertising. (a) Misleading or inaccurate advertisements. An advertisement shall not: (1) Be misleading or inaccurate...

  15. The cost-effectiveness of direct-to-consumer advertising for prescription drugs.

    PubMed

    Atherly, Adam; Rubin, Paul H

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we use published information to analyze the economic value of Direct to Consumer Advertising (DTCA). The reviewed research finds that DTCA leads to increased demand for the advertised drug and that the effect of the drug tends to be class-wide rather than product specific. There is weak evidence that DTCA may increase compliance and improve clinical outcomes. However, there is little research on the effect of DTCA on inappropriate prescribing or on the characteristics of patients who respond to treatment. On net, if the advertised drugs are cost effective on average and the patients using the drugs in response to the advertisement are similar to other users, DTCA is likely cost effective. Overall, the literature to date is consistent with the idea that DTCA is beneficial, but further research is needed before definitive conclusions can be drawn. PMID:19423875

  16. Patient Privacy: A Consumer Protection Approach

    PubMed Central

    Brannigan, Vincent M.

    1983-01-01

    In the United States, a “Constitutional Analysis” of medical data privacy has been so far unsuccessful in obtaining significant protection. Statutory protection has evolved primarily to protect the citizen against the state, not to vindicate the privacy interest of the individual. A “Consumer Protection” approach rather than a right to privacy approach can be used to develop a coherent, practical approach to the needs of various parties in the health care system in the U.S.

  17. The 2007 ABJS Marshall Urist Award: The impact of direct-to-consumer advertising in orthopaedics.

    PubMed

    Bozic, Kevin J; Smith, Amanda R; Hariri, Sanaz; Adeoye, Sanjo; Gourville, John; Maloney, William J; Parsley, Brian; Rubash, Harry E

    2007-05-01

    Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) has become an influential factor in healthcare delivery in the United States. We evaluated the influence of DTCA on surgeon and patient opinions and behavior in orthopaedics by surveying orthopaedic surgeons who perform hip and knee arthroplasties and patients who were scheduled to have hip or knee arthro-plasty. Respondents were asked for their opinions of and experiences with DTCA, including the influence of DTCA on surgeon and patient decision making. Greater than 98% of surgeon respondents had experience with patients who were exposed to DTCA. The majority of surgeon respondents reported DTCA had an overall negative impact on their practice and their interaction with patients (74%), and their patients often were confused or misinformed about the appropriate treatment for their condition based on an advertisement (77%). Fifty-two percent of patient respondents recalled seeing or hearing advertisements related to hip or knee arthroplasty. These patients were more likely to request a specific type of surgery or brand of implant from their surgeon and to see more than one surgeon before deciding to have surgery. Direct-to-consumer advertising seems to play a substantial role in surgeon and patient decision making in orthopaedics. Future efforts should be aimed at improving the quality and accuracy of information contained in consumer-directed advertisements related to orthopaedic implants and procedures. PMID:17353799

  18. Rote learning after exposure to a direct-to-consumer television advertisement for a prescription drug.

    PubMed

    Schommer, J C; Doucette, W R; Mehta, B H

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to: (1) test the rote learning response; and (2) investigate the effects of selected consumer demographic/psychographic, information-access, and health-related knowledge/experience variables on rote learning after exposure to a televised direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertisement that was developed and broadcast under new US Food and Drug Administration guidelines. A judgment (nonprobability) sample of 202 individuals waiting for their appointments at a university-based general medicine clinic was selected to view a televised advertisement and complete a questionnaire. One participant returned an unusable form; 24 others held positions in health care occupations and were omitted from the analysis. Results based on responses from the 177 eligible participants showed that the presentation of both promotional and risk-related product information in the same broadcast advertisement may lead to viewer problems with rote learning of each type of information. PMID:9663375

  19. Impact of celebrity pitch in direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs.

    PubMed

    Bhutada, Nilesh S; Menon, Ajit M; Deshpande, Aparna D; Perri, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Online surveys were conducted to determine the impact of endorser credibility, endorser effectiveness, and consumers' involvement in direct-to-consumer advertising. In a randomized posttest only study, using the elaboration likelihood model, survey participants (U.S. adults) were either exposed to a fictitious prescription drug ad with a celebrity or a noncelebrity endorser. There was no significant difference in credibility and effectiveness between the celebrity and the noncelebrity endorser. High involvement consumers viewed the ad more favorably and exhibited significantly stronger drug inquiry intentions during their next doctor visit. Further, consumers' involvement did not moderate the effect of celebrity endorser. PMID:22416924

  20. Nonbranded or branded direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising-which is more effective?

    PubMed

    Rollins, Brent L; King, Karen; Zinkhan, George; Perri, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Recently, pharmaceutical manufacturers have increased the amount of nonbranded, disease-education focused, direct-to-consumer advertisements. A comparison to branded, product-specific, ads was examined through a series of survey questions measuring consumer attitudes and the role of involvement. Nonbranded ads compared favorably to branded ads and should remain a viable part of the marketing mix. Consumers' level of disease state involvement was the strongest determinant of attitudes overall and within the two ad groupings, as highly involved consumers had significantly more positives attitudes regarding the nonbranded ads. Regardless of involvement level, however, nonbranded ads maintained positive attitude levels. PMID:21347943

  1. Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFazio, Frank A.; Arnold, Douglas

    1988-01-01

    Reaching students and donors through advertising is discussed in several articles including: "Proven Effective," on what makes three advertising campaigns work; "Commercial Appeal," on how advertising can help institutions meet its goals (Frank A. DeFazio); "Desperately Seeking Savvy," on finding the right advertising agency (Douglas Arnold); and…

  2. Risks of online advertisement of direct-to-consumer thermography for breast cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Lovett, Kimberly M; Liang, Bryan A

    2011-12-01

    Direct-to-consumer online advertising for thermography as a sole agent with which to diagnose breast cancer is misleading and exploits women who are seeking preventive health care for breast cancer. Regulatory action should be taken against companies who continue to mislead the public to ensure patient safety and evidence-based public health information. PMID:22216479

  3. 75 FR 15376 - Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertisements; Presentation of the Major Statement in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... Register of May 6, 1998 (63 FR 24996 at 25002), FTC summarized the factors it takes into account in... these services to avoid the abuse of consumers. In the Federal Register of August 9, 1993 (58 FR 42364... prescription drug television broadcast advertisements (72 FR 47051, August 22, 2007). FDA recognizes...

  4. Direct-to-consumer advertising in black and white: racial differences in placement patterns of print advertisements for health products and messages.

    PubMed

    Crawley, LaVera M; Hisaw, Lisa; Illes, Judy

    2009-01-01

    If direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) increases consumer participation in healthcare, then it may provide a useful strategy for addressing health disparities, in part, where patient-level barriers have contributed to such disparities. However, this presumes equitable access to DTCA. Using mixed methods, we explored advertisement patterns in matched African American and general audience magazines across a range of genres and ad types. Results suggest no significant differences in ad frequencies by race. However other meaningful categorical and qualitative differences were found, suggesting that advertisers may fall short in maximizing DTCA as an adjunctive strategy for empowering populations at risk for health disparities. PMID:19916095

  5. Making sense scientific claims in advertising. A study of scientifically aware consumers.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Rachel E; Tseëlon, Efrat; Weitkamp, Emma L C

    2008-04-01

    Evidence that science is becoming increasingly embedded in culture comes from the proliferation of discourses of ethical consumption, sustainability, and environmental awareness. Al Gore's recent award, along with UN's Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the Nobel peace prize-- provided a recent high profile linking of consumption and science. It is not clear to what extent the public at large engages in evaluating the scientific merits of the arguments about the link between human consumption and global environmental catastrophes. But on a local scale, we are routinely required to evaluate, scientific and pseudoscientific claims in advertising. Since advertising is used to sell products, the discourse of scientifically framed claims is being used to persuade consumers of the benefits of these products. In the case of functional foods and cosmetics, such statements are deployed to promote the health benefits and effectiveness of their products. This exploratory study examines the views of British consumers about the scientific and pseudoscientific claims made in advertisements for foods, with particular reference to functional foods, and cosmetics. The participants in the study all worked in scientific environments, though they were not all scientists. The study found that scientific arguments that were congruent with existing health knowledge tended to be accepted while pseudoscientific knowledge was regarded skeptically and concerns were raised over the accuracy and believability of the pseudoscientific claims. It appears that scientific awareness may play a part in consumers' ability to critically examine scientifically and pseudoscientifically based advertising claims. PMID:19391378

  6. The effects of direct-to-consumer advertising on medication use among Medicaid children with asthma.

    PubMed

    McRoy, Luceta; Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Bradford, W David; Menachemi, Nir; Morrisey, Michael; Kilgore, Meredith

    2016-01-01

    Asthma medication adherence is low, particularly among Medicaid enrollees. There has been much debate on the impact of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) on health care use, but the impact on medication use among children with asthma has been unexamined. The study sample included 180,584 children between the ages of 5 and 18 with an asthma diagnosis from a combined dataset of Medicaid Analytic eXtract and national advertising data. We found that DTCA expenditure during the study period was significantly associated with an increase in asthma medication use. However, the effectiveness declined after a certain level. PMID:27440407

  7. A content analysis of direct-to-consumer television prescription drug advertisements.

    PubMed

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; DeJong, William; Rudd, Rima E; Daltroy, Lawren H

    2004-01-01

    This article reports the results of a content analysis of 23 direct-to-consumer (DTC) product-specific television prescription drug advertisements broadcast during 2001. A majority of ads used both medical and lay terms to convey medical ideas. Most gave consumers somewhat more time to absorb facts about benefits than those about risks, which could have implications for the "fair balance" requirement. Complete references to additional product information were given only in text, casting doubt on whether these ads are making"adequate provision"for dissemination of detailed product information. Overall, our results call into question the potential of these ads to educate consumers. PMID:15764450

  8. Consumer Perceptions of Health Claims in Advertisements and Food Labels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazis, Michael B.; Raymond, Mary Anne

    1997-01-01

    Of sample of 180 women, 60 received information from ads, 60 from product labels, and 60 from labels with nutrition information. Beliefs about products did not differ whether health claims appeared in ads or on labels. Nutrition information influenced beliefs. Health claims challenged by the Federal Trade Commission or consumer groups were less…

  9. [Advertising].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombard, Jim

    1979-01-01

    The author presents examples of subliminal or indirect advertising in the mass media and suggests that advertising analysis be part of the elementary curriculum so that children can become sensitized to such nonverbal influences on their behavior. (SJL)

  10. Guidelines on Advertising Substantiation. Report of the Sub-Council on Advertising and Promotion of the National Business Council for Consumer Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1972

    These guidelines are intended broadly to promote ultimate consumer satisfaction with performance of products as related to consumers' understanding of claims made for those products. Although the guidelines should be of interest to all concerned with the subject of claims documentation, they were developed particularly for advertisers in the…

  11. Issue Papers To Consumer Protection in Postsecondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1974

    This document is intended to present background information on the basic consumer protection issues in postsecondary education. Topics discussed are: (1) recruitment practices of postsecondary schools; (2) the role of a state agency in consumer protection; (3) consumer rights, responsibilities and redress of consumer protection; (4) advertising…

  12. Advertising and the Management of Aggregate Consumer Demand: A Cross-National Test of the Galbraithian Argument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarles, Rebecca C.; And Others

    John Kenneth Galbraith maintains that advertising is the prime instrument for the management of total consumer demand and results in increased consumption. Galbraith also maintains that television is a more effective advertising tool, in that it reaches people in all spectrums of intelligence. Other economists disagree, holding that it is actually…

  13. Consumer protection act for digital products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampel, Viktor E.

    1996-03-01

    This report proposes a `Consumer Protection Act for Digital Products' to support electronic commerce and to control the increasing abuse and lack of security on the national information highways. Patterned after the `Food and Drug Act of 1906 (21 USC)' and subsequent legislation, a new agency similar to that of the FDA would have the authority `to develop administrative policy with regard to the safety, effectiveness, and labeling of digital products and their communications for human use, and to review and evaluate new applications of such products.' Specifically, it is proposed that standards, originally developed by the defense industry for the labeling, enveloping, and authentication of digital products delivered to the Government, be extended to promote global electronic commerce by protecting the intellectual property rights of producers, establishing their liability for the end-use of digital products, and give consumers means for informed decision making and purchase.

  14. Direct-to-consumer advertising skepticism and the use and perceived usefulness of prescription drug information sources.

    PubMed

    DeLorme, Denise E; Huh, Jisu; Reid, Leonard N

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates advertising skepticism in the context of consumers' prescription drug information seeking behavior. Results of a telephone survey found that: (a) the overall level of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) skepticism among consumers was neutral; (b) DTCA skepticism was unrelated to age, positively related to education and income, and varied by race; (c) however, when all the antecedent variables were considered concurrently, only education emerged as a significant predictor (consumers with higher education were more skeptical of DTCA); (d) DTCA skepticism was not significantly related to perceived importance of prescription drug information; (e) DTCA skepticism was not associated with use of advertising and interpersonal sources of prescription drug information; and (f) DTCA skepticism was negatively related to perceived usefulness of advertising sources but unrelated to perceived usefulness of professional interpersonal sources (i.e., physicians and pharmacists). The article concludes with a discussion of findings and directions for future research. PMID:19916096

  15. Changing effects of direct-to-consumer broadcast drug advertising information sources on prescription drug requests.

    PubMed

    Lee, Annisa Lai

    2009-06-01

    This study tracks the changes of the effects of 4 information sources for direct-to-consumer drug advertising on patients' requests for prescription drugs from physicians since the inception of the "Guidance for Industry about Consumer-directed Broadcast Advertisements." The Guidance advises pharmaceuticals to use four information sources for consumers to seek further information to supplement broadcast drug advertisements: small-print information, the Internet, a toll-free number, and health-care providers (nurses, doctors, and pharmacists). Logistic models were created by using survey data collected by the Food and Drug Administration in 1999 and 2002. Results show that throughout the years, health-care providers remain the most used and strongest means associated with patients' direct requests for nonspecific and specific prescription drugs from doctors. The small-print information source gains power and changes from an indirect means associated with patients' discussing drugs with health-care providers to a direct means associated with patients' asking about nonspecific and specific drugs from their doctors. The Internet is not directly related to drug requests, but the effect of its association with patients seeking information from health-care providers grew 11-fold over the course of the study. The toll-free number lost its power altogether for both direct request for a prescription drug and further discussion with health-care providers. Patient demographics will be considered for specific policy implications. PMID:19499430

  16. Direct-to-consumer advertising of pharmaceuticals: developed countries experiences and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Semin, Semih; Aras, Sahbal; Guldal, Dilek

    2007-03-01

    While several major problems concerning drugs occur in the world, the attempts to direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) has gained a considerable impetus lately in both developed and developing countries. DTCA has increasingly become an appealing advertising alternative for the pharmaceutical industry as drug companies have come to wrestle with such problems as the expansion of the drug market; the decline of the medical representatives' work efficiency; drug reimbursement restrictions; and the escalating role of the Internet in the consumer market. Some of the main disadvantages of the DTCA are: increasing drug expenditures, unnecessary drug consumption and adverse effect risks. Even though the influence of pharmaceuticals on health services and the economy hold the same importance in the developed and developing countries, its negative consequences have increased by encompassing developing countries in its grip. Therefore, in this review, using Turkey as an example, the situation of direct-to-consumer advertisements in developing countries is analysed in relation with developed countries. PMID:17324191

  17. The impact of direct-to-consumer television and magazine advertising on antidepressant use.

    PubMed

    Avery, Rosemary J; Eisenberg, Matthew D; Simon, Kosali I

    2012-09-01

    We examine whether exposure to direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) for antidepressant drugs affects individual use of these medications among those suffering from depression. Prior studies have almost exclusively relied on making connections between national or market-level advertising volume/expenditures and national or individual-level usage of medications. This is the first study to: estimate the impact of individual-level exposure to DTCA on individual-level use of antidepressants; estimate the impact of individual-level exposure to television DTCA on individual-level use in any drug class; consider the relative and interactive impact of DTCA in two different media in any drug class; and, consider the heterogeneity of impact among different populations in an econometric framework in the antidepressant market. There are also important limitations to note. Unlike prior market level studies that use monthly data, we are limited to aggregated annual data. Our measures of potential advertising exposure are constructed assuming that media consumption patterns are stable during the year. We are also not able to study the impact of advertising on use of antidepressants for conditions other than depression, such as anxiety disorders. We find that: DTCA impacts antidepressant use in a statistically and economically significant manner; that these effects are present in both television and magazine advertising exposure but do not appear to have interactive effects; are stronger for women than for men in the magazine medium, but are about equally strong for men and women in the TV medium; and, are somewhat stronger for groups suffering from more severe forms of depression. The overall size of the effect is a 6-10 percentage point increase in antidepressant use from being exposed to television advertising; the corresponding magazine effects are between 3 and 4 percentage points. PMID:22835472

  18. A consumer-empowered response to direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Donald W; Mettler, Molly

    2002-01-01

    Welcome to "Consumer-Centered Care." In this column we examine health care quality issues from the consumer's point of view. Our focus on quality highlights, not only how consumers can find quality providers and quality information, but also how patients can help their doctors provide the best treatments and avoid medical mistakes. We bring you news and views, ideas and opinions on what is right and what is wrong in consumer health. Any practice, procedure, or approach that does not meet the consumer's best interest is open to review. We welcome your comments and suggestions for future discussion. Send your ideas to consumercenteredcare@healthwise.org. PMID:12148483

  19. Developing a consumer evaluation tool of weight control strategy advertisements on the Internet.

    PubMed

    Luevorasirikul, Kanokrat; Gray, Nicola J; Anderson, Claire W

    2008-06-01

    To develop two evaluation tools for weight loss and weight gain advertisements on the Internet in order to help consumers to evaluate the quality of information within these advertisements. One hundred websites identified by Internet search engines for weight loss and weight gain strategies (50 websites each) were evaluated using two specific scoring instruments, developed by adapting questions from the 'DISCERN' tool and reviewing all related weight control guidelines and advertising regulations. The validity and reliability of the adapted tools were tested. Our evaluation tools rated the information from most websites as poor quality (70%). In the case of weight loss strategies, statements about rapid (18%) and permanent (28%) weight loss caused concern as well as lack of sensible advice about dieting and a lack of product warnings (84%). Safety concerns relating to weight gain products were the lack of warnings about side effects in products containing steroids and creatine (92%). The adapted tools exhibited acceptable validity and reliability. Quality of information within weight control advertisements on the Internet was generally poor. Problems of false claims, little advice on healthy ways to modify weight and few warnings on side effects have been highlighted in this study. PMID:17827469

  20. 40 CFR 51.368 - Public information and consumer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public information and consumer.../Maintenance Program Requirements § 51.368 Public information and consumer protection. (a) Public awareness... the test that were failed. (b) Consumer protection. The oversight agency shall institute...

  1. Global Reach of Direct-to-Consumer Advertising Using Social Media for Illicit Online Drug Sales

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Bryan A

    2013-01-01

    Background Illicit or rogue Internet pharmacies are a recognized global public health threat that have been identified as utilizing various forms of online marketing and promotion, including social media. Objective To assess the accessibility of creating illicit no prescription direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) online pharmacy social media marketing (eDTCA2.0) and evaluate its potential global reach. Methods We identified the top 4 social media platforms allowing eDTCA2.0. After determining applicable platforms (ie, Facebook, Twitter, Google+, and MySpace), we created a fictitious advertisement advertising no prescription drugs online and posted it to the identified social media platforms. Each advertisement linked to a unique website URL that consisted of a site error page. Employing Web search analytics, we tracked the number of users visiting these sites and their location. We used commercially available Internet tools and services, including website hosting, domain registration, and website analytic services. Results Illicit online pharmacy social media content for Facebook, Twitter, and MySpace remained accessible despite highly questionable and potentially illegal content. Fictitious advertisements promoting illicit sale of drugs generated aggregate unique user traffic of 2795 visits over a 10-month period. Further, traffic to our websites originated from a number of countries, including high-income and middle-income countries, and emerging markets. Conclusions Our results indicate there are few barriers to entry for social media–based illicit online drug marketing. Further, illicit eDTCA2.0 has globalized outside US borders to other countries through unregulated Internet marketing. PMID:23718965

  2. Effect of Direct-to-Consumer Advertising on Asthma Medication Sales and Healthcare Use

    PubMed Central

    Daubresse, Matthew; Hutfless, Susan; Kim, Yoonsang; Kornfield, Rachel; Qato, Dima M.; Huang, Jidong; Miller, Kay; Emery, Sherry L.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: The United States is one of only two countries that permit direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs, and many questions remain regarding its effects. Objectives: To quantify the association between asthma-related DTCA, pharmacy sales, and healthcare use. Methods: This was an ecological study from 2005 through 2009 using linked data from Nielsen (DTCA television ratings), the IMS Health National Prescription Audit (pharmacy sales), and the MarketScan Commercial Claims data (healthcare use) for 75 designated market areas in the United States. We used multilevel Poisson regression to model the relationship between DTCA and rates of prescriptions and use within and across designated market areas. Main outcome measures include (1) volume of total, new, and refilled prescriptions for advertised products based on pharmacy sales; (2) prescription claims for asthma medications; and asthma-related (3) emergency department use, (4) hospitalizations, and (5) outpatient encounters among the commercially insured. Measurements and Main Results: Four Food and Drug Administration–approved asthma medicines were advertised during the period examined: (1) fluticasone/salmeterol (Advair), (2) mometasone furoate (Asmanex), (3) montelukast (Singulair), and (4) budesonide/formoterol (Symbicort). After adjustment, each additional televised advertisement was associated with 2% (incident rate ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.01–1.03) higher pharmacy sales rate from 2005 through 2009, although this effect varied across the three consistently advertised therapies examined. Among the commercially insured, DTCA was positively and significantly associated with emergency room visits related to asthma (incident rate ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.01–1.04), but there was no relationship with hospitalizations or outpatient encounters. Conclusions: Among this population, DTCA was associated with higher prescription sales and asthma-related emergency

  3. 12 CFR 1026.24 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advertising. 1026.24 Section 1026.24 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Closed-End Credit § 1026.24 Advertising. (a) Actually available terms. If an advertisement for credit states specific...

  4. 12 CFR 1026.24 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advertising. 1026.24 Section 1026.24 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Closed-End Credit § 1026.24 Advertising. (a) Actually available terms. If an advertisement for credit states specific...

  5. 12 CFR 1026.24 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advertising. 1026.24 Section 1026.24 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Closed-End Credit § 1026.24 Advertising. (a) Actually available terms. If an advertisement for credit states specific...

  6. Cancer-related direct-to-consumer advertising: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Kontos, Emily Z; Viswanath, K

    2011-02-01

    The direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) phenomenon has received attention because of its attempt to reach out to consumers by bypassing important gatekeepers such as physicians. The emergence of new information platforms and the introduction of genetic tests directly to the consumer have heightened the concern with DTCA and its potential consequences. These effects of DTCA are particularly important given the communication inequalities among social groups, with class, race and ethnicity influencing how people access, seek, process and act on information. This Science and Society article reviews the major issues regarding general and cancer-related DTCA and also offers data from a national survey in the United States as an example of the communication inequalities in genetic testing awareness. PMID:21258398

  7. Effects of comparative claims in prescription drug direct-to-consumer advertising on consumer perceptions and recall.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, Amie C; Williams, Pamela A; Sullivan, Helen W; Boudewyns, Vanessa; Squire, Claudia; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts

    2014-11-01

    Although pharmaceutical companies cannot make comparative claims in direct-to-consumer (DTC) ads for prescription drugs without substantial evidence, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration permits some comparisons based on labeled attributes of the drug, such as dosing. Researchers have examined comparative advertising for packaged goods; however, scant research has examined comparative DTC advertising. We conducted two studies to determine if comparative claims in DTC ads influence consumers' perceptions and recall of drug information. In Experiment 1, participants with osteoarthritis (n=1934) viewed a fictitious print or video DTC ad that had no comparative claim or made an efficacy comparison to a named or unnamed competitor. Participants who viewed print (but not video) ads with named competitors had greater efficacy and lower risk perceptions than participants who viewed unnamed competitor and noncomparative ads. In Experiment 2, participants with high cholesterol or high body mass index (n=5317) viewed a fictitious print or video DTC ad that had no comparative claim or made a comparison to a named or unnamed competitor. We varied the type of comparison (of indication, dosing, or mechanism of action) and whether the comparison was accompanied by a visual depiction. Participants who viewed print and video ads with named competitors had greater efficacy perceptions than participants who viewed unnamed competitor and noncomparative ads. Unlike Experiment 1, named competitors in print ads resulted in higher risk perceptions than unnamed competitors. In video ads, participants who saw an indication comparison had greater benefit recall than participants who saw dosing or mechanism of action comparisons. In addition, visual depictions of the comparison decreased risk recall for video ads. Overall, the results suggest that comparative claims in DTC ads could mislead consumers about a drug's efficacy and risk; therefore, caution should be used when presenting

  8. Still the Great Debate – "Fair Balance" in Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertising

    PubMed Central

    Rollins, Brent L.

    2016-01-01

    The above titled paper examined the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) warning letters and notice of violations (NOV) over a 10-year period. Findings from this content analysis reinforced what has been the primary issue for prescription direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) since its beginning, the fair balance of risk and benefit information. As opposed to another analysis in 2026 about this still being an issue, is there anything that can be done to prevent this problem from continuing? PMID:27239875

  9. Direct-to-consumer advertisements for HIV antiretroviral medications: a progress report.

    PubMed

    Kallen, Alexander; Woloshin, Steven; Shu, Jennifer; Juhl, Ellen; Schwartz, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertisements for HIV anti-retrovirals are controversial and have been criticized in the past for including deceptive images and underplaying HIV drug limitations. We sought to describe the state of recent DTC ads for HIV antiretrovirals in popular magazines by performing a content analysis of all complete DTC ads for antiretroviral medications appearing in eight national magazines during a one-year period. Current ads appear to have addressed previous concerns, but important problems still exist, such as failing to specify the medication's role in current treatment, to quantify drug efficacy, or to highlight life-threatening side effects. PMID:17848450

  10. The role of nutrition labels and advertising claims in altering consumers' evaluation and choice.

    PubMed

    Bialkova, Svetlana; Sasse, Lena; Fenko, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Despite policy efforts, consumers' well-informed healthful choice is a challenge. Due to increasing number of benefit claims advertising taste or health front of pack (FOP), consumers face the dilemma to trade taste for health. To understand the mechanisms underlying food evaluation, this study investigates the health-pleasure trade-off and its effect on consumers' choice. 240 EU consumers took part in a taste experiment, after being presented with the product FOP. Half of the products carried a nutrition label FOP, respectively, reduced fat for potato chips, reduced sugar for cereal bars. Further, one third of the products carried health benefit claim, one third taste benefit claim, and one third no additional claim FOP. Attention to information and its effect on experienced taste, health perception and the buying intention were measured. The results show that the message displayed FOP altered consumers evaluation and choice. The effectiveness of the FOP message further depended on consumers' health motivation and the healthfulness perception of carrier products. The outcomes are summarized in a framework of health-pleasure trade-off. Current findings call for the establishment of standards to avoid the use of misleading information FOP. PMID:26341955

  11. Protecting young people from junk food advertising: implications of psychological research for First Amendment law.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennifer L; Graff, Samantha K

    2012-02-01

    In the United States, one third of children and adolescents are overweight or obese, yet food and beverage companies continue to target them with advertising for products that contribute to this obesity crisis. When government restrictions on such advertising are proposed, the constitutional commercial speech doctrine is often invoked as a barrier to action. We explore incongruities between the legal justifications for the commercial speech doctrine and the psychological research on how food advertising affects young people. A proper interpretation of the First Amendment should leave room for regulations to protect young people from advertising featuring calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages. PMID:22390435

  12. Protecting Young People From Junk Food Advertising: Implications of Psychological Research for First Amendment Law

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jennifer L.; Graff, Samantha K.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, one third of children and adolescents are overweight or obese, yet food and beverage companies continue to target them with advertising for products that contribute to this obesity crisis. When government restrictions on such advertising are proposed, the constitutional commercial speech doctrine is often invoked as a barrier to action. We explore incongruities between the legal justifications for the commercial speech doctrine and the psychological research on how food advertising affects young people. A proper interpretation of the First Amendment should leave room for regulations to protect young people from advertising featuring calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages. PMID:22390435

  13. Image Advertisements for Alcohol Products: Is Their Appeal Associated with Adolescents' Intention to Consume Alcohol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Kathleen J.; Edwards, Ruth W.

    1998-01-01

    Seeks to determine if adolescents who drink, or have intentions to drink, find image advertisements for alcohol more appealing than product advertisements. Results indicate that image advertising was preferred to product advertising, particularly by younger adolescents. Evidence of an association between preference for image advertisements and…

  14. 16 CFR 0.17 - Bureau of Consumer Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bureau of Consumer Protection. 0.17 Section... ORGANIZATION § 0.17 Bureau of Consumer Protection. The Bureau investigates unfair or deceptive acts or... seeks civil penalties or consumer redress for their violation, as well as injunctive and other...

  15. 16 CFR 0.17 - Bureau of Consumer Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bureau of Consumer Protection. 0.17 Section... ORGANIZATION § 0.17 Bureau of Consumer Protection. The Bureau investigates unfair or deceptive acts or... seeks civil penalties or consumer redress for their violation, as well as injunctive and other...

  16. 16 CFR 0.17 - Bureau of Consumer Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bureau of Consumer Protection. 0.17 Section... ORGANIZATION § 0.17 Bureau of Consumer Protection. The Bureau investigates unfair or deceptive acts or... seeks civil penalties or consumer redress for their violation, as well as injunctive and other...

  17. Health care providers and direct-to-consumer access and advertising of genetic testing in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Marketing pressures, regulatory policies, clinical guidelines, and consumer demand all affect health care providers' knowledge and use of health-related genetic tests that are sold and/or advertised to consumers. In addition, clinical guidelines, regulatory policies, and educational efforts are needed to promote the informed use of genetic tests that are sold and advertised to consumers and health care providers. A shift in culture regarding the regulation of genetic tests that are sold directly to consumers is suggested: by recent actions taken by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), including letters sent to direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing companies stating that their tests meet the definition of medical devices; by public meetings held by the FDA to discuss laboratory developed tests; and by the convening of the Molecular and Clinical Genetics Panel to gather input on scientific issues concerning DTC genetic tests that make medical claims. This review provides a brief overview of DTC advertising and the regulation of pharmaceuticals and genetic tests in the United States. It highlights recent changes in the regulatory culture regarding genetic tests that are sold to consumers, and discusses the impact on health care providers of selling and advertising genetic tests directly to consumers. PMID:22204616

  18. Health care providers and direct-to-consumer access and advertising of genetic testing in the United States.

    PubMed

    Myers, Melanie F

    2011-01-01

    Marketing pressures, regulatory policies, clinical guidelines, and consumer demand all affect health care providers' knowledge and use of health-related genetic tests that are sold and/or advertised to consumers. In addition, clinical guidelines, regulatory policies, and educational efforts are needed to promote the informed use of genetic tests that are sold and advertised to consumers and health care providers. A shift in culture regarding the regulation of genetic tests that are sold directly to consumers is suggested: by recent actions taken by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), including letters sent to direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing companies stating that their tests meet the definition of medical devices; by public meetings held by the FDA to discuss laboratory developed tests; and by the convening of the Molecular and Clinical Genetics Panel to gather input on scientific issues concerning DTC genetic tests that make medical claims. This review provides a brief overview of DTC advertising and the regulation of pharmaceuticals and genetic tests in the United States. It highlights recent changes in the regulatory culture regarding genetic tests that are sold to consumers, and discusses the impact on health care providers of selling and advertising genetic tests directly to consumers. PMID:22204616

  19. Comprehension of information in three direct-to-consumer television prescription drug advertisements among adults with limited literacy.

    PubMed

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Rudd, Rima E; Dejong, William; Daltroy, Lawren H

    2005-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) television advertisements present a number of facts about prescription drug risks and benefits in a brief time. This study assessed comprehension of information in three advertisements among 50 adults with limited literacy. Participants correctly answered an average of 59% of comprehension questions. The percentage of respondents correctly answering individual comprehension questions ranged from 26% to 92%. A multivariate analysis suggested that type of information (risk vs. other) and channel (text vs. audio) predicted comprehension. There was a significant interaction effect for literacy and place of birth. Our results suggest key areas for future research on comprehension of DTC advertising. PMID:16278198

  20. Impact of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) on patient health-related behaviors and issues.

    PubMed

    Polen, Hyla H; Khanfar, Nile M; Clauson, Kevin A

    2009-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry spends billions of dollars annually on direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA). Patient perspectives on the impact of televised DTCA on health-related behaviors and issues were assessed by means of a 68-question survey. 58.6% of respondents believed that DTCA allowed consumers to have a more active role in managing their health. However, 27.6% felt DTCA caused confusion, and an alarming 17.8% of respondents stopped taking their medication because of concerns about serious side effects mentioned in DTCA. Overall, participants believed DTCA plays a useful role in health self-management; however, a considerable percentage thought that the cost outweighs the benefits. PMID:19197587

  1. Consumers’ various and surprising responses to direct-to-consumer advertisements in magazine print

    PubMed Central

    Arney, Jennifer; Street, Richard L; Naik, Aanand D

    2013-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) is ubiquitous in media outlets, but little is known about the ways in which consumers’ values, needs, beliefs, and biases influence the perceived meaning and value of DTCA. This article aims to identify the taxonomy of readership categories that reflect the complexity of how health care consumers interact with DTCA, with particular focus on individuals’ perceptions of print DTCA in popular magazines. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit 18 male and female magazine readers and 18 male and female prescription medication users aged 18–71 years. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews with consumers about their attentiveness, motivations, perceived value, and behavioral responses to DTCA were conducted. The analyses were guided by principles of grounded theory analysis; four categories that vary in consumers’ attentiveness, motivations, perceived value, and behavioral responses to DTCA were identified. Two categories – the lay physician and the informed shopper – see value in information from DTCA and are likely to seek medical care based on the information. One category – the voyeur – reads DTCA, but is not likely to approach a clinician regarding advertised information. The fourth category – the evader – ignores DTCA and is not likely to approach a clinician with DTCA information. Responses to DTCA vary considerably among consumers, and physicians should view patients’ understanding and response to DTCA within the context of their health-related needs. Patients’ comments related to DTCA may be used as an opportunity to engage and understand patients’ perspectives about illness and medication use. Clinicians may use information about these categories to facilitate shared understanding and improve communication within the doctor–patient relationship. PMID:23378746

  2. Relating Economic Ideology to Consumer Protection: A Suggested Unit in Consumer Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Robert O.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a suggested unit in consumer education designed to give students insight into the controversy about consumer protection policy and proposals, and compares the basic views of three economic belief systems: neoclassical, managerial, and liberal-Galbraithian. (MF)

  3. Drug Advertising and the FDA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levesque, Cynthia

    With increases in consumer focused advertising for prescription drugs, the Federal Drug Administration has renewed efforts to protect the public from false advertising. In 1982, it charged that the press kits Eli Lilly and Company distributed to reporters on its new antiarthritis drug, Oraflex, misrepresented the product. It recommended that Lilly…

  4. Online Gambling Advertising Regulations in Spain. A Study on the Protection of Minors.

    PubMed

    Buil, Pilar; Solé Moratilla, Maria José; García Ruiz, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the online gambling advertising regulations in Spain currently in effect to assess the actual protection of underage youth. In recent years, online gambling among youth has increased. Through advertising, online gambling companies incite and encourage an involvement that can be harmful for vulnerable audiences. Some studies have demonstrated that advertising influences youths' assessment of gambling by increasing its appeal. We demonstrate that the shortcomings of the legal framework in force results in effective vulnerability of minors. We claim that society should seek to implement a regulatory framework to protect children from the risk of developing an addiction. PMID:26437313

  5. Living in the "land of no"? Consumer perceptions of healthy lifestyle portrayals in direct-to-consumer advertisements of prescription drugs.

    PubMed

    Frosch, Dominick L; May, Suepattra G; Tietbohl, Caroline; Pagán, José A

    2011-10-01

    Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs is the most common form of health communication Americans are exposed to. The effects of DTCA on prescription requests and utilization are well established, but little is known about the effects of advertisements on health behaviors. Many advertisements, especially those promoting drugs to prevent or treat cardiovascular disease, refer to lifestyle change as a way to improve health. However, no studies have examined how consumers interpret these frequently ambiguous messages. We used in-depth interviews with 45 participants, recruited in Los Angeles, USA between April 2007 and July 2008, to explore perceptions of 5 advertisements for drugs that prevent or treat cardiovascular disease (Lipitor(®), Vytorin(®), Zetia(®), Caduet(®), Plavix(®)). We found that participants interpreted advertising messages within their own life context and identified four trajectories for enacting behavior change versus taking prescription drugs: Negotiators, Avoiders, Embracers and Jumpstarters. Underlying these four typologies were beliefs about whether lifestyle change was something an individual could do or was willing to do. Our results also show how an advertisement narrative could potentially shift perceptions of causality by suggesting that high cholesterol is primarily hereditary, thereby obviating the need for lifestyle change. Some participants stated that they would prefer lifestyle change to a particular prescription drug, but felt that others would be more likely to embrace taking a prescription drug. This "Third Person Effect" may be masking participants' intentions by identifying a more socially desirable route to therapeutic change. These findings raise questions about how the typologies are distributed in the population and how advertising may shift consumers' beliefs over time, thereby contributing to new forms of medicalization. Effective regulation of DTCA may require expanding scrutiny beyond the

  6. Direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription medication in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Every-Palmer, Susanna; Duggal, Rishi; Menkes, David B

    2014-08-29

    The last decade has seen increasing measures aimed at regulating the influence of 'Big Pharma' following a number of scandals relating to unethical marketing. Despite these international trends, New Zealand continues to tolerate direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription medication, a controversial pharmaceutical marketing strategy that has been prohibited in all but two countries in the industrialised world. While the pharmaceutical industry asserts that DTCA is informational and empowers consumers, in this viewpoint article we argue that DTCA is a heavily biased source of health information that favours representation of benefits over harms, and is associated with unnecessary prescribing, iatrogenic harm and increased costs to the taxpayer. In this paper, we show that DTCA provides unbalanced information to consumers who may misconstrue DTCA as public health messages, and fail to recognise inherent commercial bias. We describe how DTCA has been linked with inappropriate prescribing and overtreatment, with evidence indicating that patients request and receive specific medications in response to DTCA, even when treatment is not clinically indicated. This exposes patients to unnecessary adverse effects and iatrogenic harm, and increases costs for the health-care sector through the prescription of expensive branded medication. We use local examples to illustrate these points. New Zealand remains an outlier in allowing DTCA to continue which, in our view, is a controversial and harmful practice. The available evidence suggests that consumers and health care professionals are generally opposed to DTCA. Therefore, we believe that the New Zealand government should review its stance on DTCA. PMID:25225761

  7. Ethical and epistemic issues in direct-to-consumer drug advertising: where is patient agency?

    PubMed

    Womack, Catherine A

    2013-05-01

    Arguments for and against direct-to-consumer drug advertising (DTCA) center on two issues: (1) the epistemic effects on patients through access to information provided by the ads; and (2) the effects of such information on patients' abilities to make good choices in the healthcare marketplace. Advocates argue that DTCA provides useful information for patients as consumers, including information connecting symptoms to particular medical conditions, information about new drug therapies for those conditions. Opponents of DTCA point out substantial omissions in information provided by the ads and argue that the framing of the ads may mislead patients about the indications, uses, and effectiveness of the drugs advertised. They also suggest that DTCA has a number of potentially negative effects on the doctor-patient relationship. The standard arguments appear to assume a simplistic correlation-more information means more agency for patients. However, empirical studies on medical decision making suggest that this relationship is much more complex and nuanced. I examine recent research on ways in which patients are vulnerable with respect to DTCA. In order to address the complex issues of information acquisition and consumer decision-making in the health care marketplace, the focus should not be simply on what information patients need in order to make medical decisions, but also on the conditions under which patients actually are able to make medical decisions requiring complex medication information. This requires examining both the cognitive limitations of patients with respect to drug information and investigating patients' preferences and needs in a variety of medical contexts. PMID:23526336

  8. Consumers don’t play dice, influence of social networks and advertisements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groot, Robert D.

    2006-05-01

    Empirical data of supermarket sales show stylised facts that are similar to stock markets, with a broad (truncated) Lévy distribution of weekly sales differences in the baseline sales [R.D. Groot, Physica A 353 (2005) 501]. To investigate the cause of this, the influence of social interactions and advertisements are studied in an agent-based model of consumers in a social network. The influence of network topology was varied by using a small-world network, a random network and a Barabási-Albert network. The degree to which consumers value the opinion of their peers was also varied. On a small-world and random network we find a phase transition between an open market and a locked-in market that is similar to condensation in liquids. At the critical point, fluctuations become large and buying behaviour is strongly correlated. However, on the small world network the noise distribution at the critical point is Gaussian, and critical slowing down occurs which is not observed in supermarket sales. On a scale-free network, the model shows a transition between a gas-like phase and a glassy state, but at the transition point the noise amplitude is much larger than what is seen in supermarket sales. To explore the role of advertisements, a model is studied where imprints are placed on the minds of consumers that ripen when a decision for a product is made. The correct distribution of weekly sales returns follows naturally from this model, as well as the noise amplitude, the correlation time and cross-correlation of sales fluctuations. For particular parameter values, simulated sales correlation shows power-law decay in time. The model predicts that social interaction helps to prevent aversion, and that products are viewed more positively when their consumption rate is higher.

  9. The politics and strategy of industry self-regulation: the pharmaceutical industry's principles for ethical direct-to-consumer advertising as a deceptive blocking strategy.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Denis G; Oakley, James L

    2013-06-01

    As the pharmaceutical industry lobbies European regulators to permit direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs in the European Union, we found that five leading companies violated industry-developed and -promulgated standards for ethical advertising in the United States. Utilizing multiple data sources and methods, we demonstrate a consistent failure by companies that market erectile dysfunction drugs to comply with the industry's guiding principles for ethical DTCA over a four-year period despite pledges of compliance by company leaders. Noncompliance resulted in children being exposed to sexually themed promotional messages more than 100 billion times. We argue that the guidelines are a coordinated effort by the industry to prevent unwanted federal regulation, and we introduce the concept of a blocking strategy to explain company behavior and to advance theoretical understanding of firms' public affairs strategies. We recommend policy responses to prevent deceptive practices, protect children from adult content, and promote genuine health care education. PMID:23418365

  10. Direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs: European Commission persists in putting industry's interests first.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    In late September 2010, Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) issued their verdict on European Commission proposals aimed at lifting the ban on pharmaceutical companies communicating directly with the general public about prescription drugs. The MEPs were able to limit the scope of some of the more harmful aspects of these proposals, in particular by proposing that drug regulatory agencies should pre-screen the "information" produced by drug companies before it is made available to the public. In December 2010, faced with ongoing opposition from European Member States, the Commission appeared to back down, announcing that it was drawing up "amended proposals". They were publicly released in February 2012 but still leave the door open to direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs, particularly "reminder advertising". As of 4 July 2012, the amended proposals had not yet been examined by Member States, thus obstructing the legislative process. Public health and management of the costs of social services for Member States are at stake. The Medicines in Europe Forum (MiEF) and the International Society of Drug Bulletins (ISDB) urge Member States to continue to refuse to examine the Commission's proposals, and have drawn up concrete counterproposals that would enable the general public to obtain relevant health information. PMID:23373084

  11. How does direct to consumer advertising affect the stigma of mental illness?

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Kosyluk, Kristin A; Fokuo, J Konadu; Park, Jin Hee

    2014-10-01

    Stigma interferes with life goals of people with mental illness. Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) may impact stigmatizing attitudes. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of psychiatric medication DTCA on the stigmatizing and affirming attitudes of the general population versus individuals self-identified with mental illness. Participants (n = 272) were randomly assigned to watch a DTCA about Cymbalta, an antidepressant, embedded in two other advertisements for non-pharmaceutical products. Participants completed measures of stigmatizing and affirming attitudes before and after viewing this DTCA. Results indicate that the Cymbalta DTCA worsened the attitudes of the general public. These participants were less likely to offer help, endorse recovery, and agree with self-determination attitudes towards people with mental illness following viewing the DTCA. The self-identified group reported less blame, less dangerousness, less social avoidance, more pity, and greater willingness to help after viewing the DTCA. Moreover, there was significant improvement in their endorsement of recovery. Results suggest that DTCAs about psychiatric medication may increase the public's stigma towards people with mental illness but reduce stigma among individuals who identify as having a mental illness. Findings are somewhat limited by selection biases and self-report. Implications for further development of DTCAs are considered. PMID:24488184

  12. Effect of presentation modality in direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug television advertisements.

    PubMed

    Wogalter, Michael S; Shaver, Eric F; Kalsher, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) drug advertising markets medications requiring a physician's script to the general public. In television advertising, risk disclosures (such as side effects and contraindications) may be communicated in either auditory (voice) or visual (text) or both in the commercials. This research examines presentation modality factors affecting the communication of the risk disclosures in DTC prescription drug television commercials. The results showed that risk disclosures presented either visually only or both visually and auditorily increased recall and recognition compared to no presentation. Risk disclosures presented redundantly in both the visual and auditory modalities produced the highest recall and recognition. Visual only produced better performance than auditory only. Simultaneous presentation of non-risk information together with risk disclosures produced lower recall and recognition compared to risk disclosures alone-without concurrent non-risk information. Implications for the design of DTC prescription drug television commercials and other audio-visual presentations of risk information including on the Internet, are discussed. PMID:24377979

  13. Prescription drug coupons: evolution and need for regulation in direct-to-consumer advertising.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Tim K; Yagi, Nozomi; Liang, Bryan A

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceutical marketing in the United States had undergone a shift from largely exclusively targeting physicians to considerable efforts in targeting patients through various forms of direct-to-consumer advertising ("DTCA"). This includes the use of DTCA in prescription drug coupons ("PDCs"), a new form of DTCA that offers discounts and rebates directly to consumers to lower costs of drug purchasing. Our examination of PDCs reveals that the use and types of PDC programs is expanding and includes promotion of the vast majority of top grossing pharmaceuticals. However, controversy regarding this emerging form of DTCA has given rise to health policy concerns about their overall impact on prescription drug expenditures for consumers, payers, and the health care system, and whether they lead to optimal long-term utilization of pharmaceuticals. In response to these concerns and the growing popularity of PDCs, what we propose here are clearer regulation and regulatory guidance for PDC DTCA use. This would include review for appropriate disclosure of marketing claims, increased transparency in PDC use for pharmaceutical pricing, and leveraging potential positive benefits of PDC use for vulnerable or underserved patient populations. PMID:24120330

  14. A Model of Consumer Response to Over-the-Counter Drug Advertising: Antecedents and Influencing Factors.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jisu; Delorme, Denise E; Reid, Leonard N

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs in the health care marketplace and lack of systematic research on OTC drug advertising (OTCA) effects, this study tested a theory-based, product category-specific OTCA effects model. Structural equation modeling analysis of data for 1 OTC drug category, analgesics, supported the proposed model, explaining the OTCA effect process from key consumer antecedents to ad involvement, from ad involvement to ad attention, from ad attention to cognitive responses, then to affective/evaluative responses, leading to the final behavioral outcome. Several noteworthy patterns also emerged: (a) Product involvement was directly linked to ad attention, rather than exerting an indirect influence through ad involvement; (b) ad attention was significantly related to both cognitive and affective/evaluative responses to different degrees, with stronger links to cognitive responses; and PMID:26312772

  15. It's time to shine the light on direct-to-consumer advertising.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutical marketing is undergoing a transition as the business, delivery, and consumption of health care have increasingly become part of a growing digital landscape. Changes in pharmaceutical promotion also coincide with federal "sunshine" regulations newly implemented under the Affordable Care Act that require disclosure of certain marketing and industry payments to physicians. Collectively, these trends could lead to fundamental shifts in physician-directed and direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) that have yet to be adequately identified or explored. In response, we advocate for greater DTCA transparency, especially in the emerging digital forms of DTCA, to complement forthcoming sunshine transparency data. This will allow more robust study and understanding of changes in overall pharmaceutical marketing trends and their impact on health care consumption and behavior. This can also lead to more targeted state and federal policy interventions leveraging existing federal transparency regulations to ensure appropriate marketing, sales, and consumption of pharmaceutical products. PMID:25583897

  16. It’s Time to Shine the Light on Direct-to-Consumer Advertising

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Tim K.; Liang, Bryan A.

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutical marketing is undergoing a transition as the business, delivery, and consumption of health care have increasingly become part of a growing digital landscape. Changes in pharmaceutical promotion also coincide with federal “sunshine” regulations newly implemented under the Affordable Care Act that require disclosure of certain marketing and industry payments to physicians. Collectively, these trends could lead to fundamental shifts in physician-directed and direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) that have yet to be adequately identified or explored. In response, we advocate for greater DTCA transparency, especially in the emerging digital forms of DTCA, to complement forthcoming sunshine transparency data. This will allow more robust study and understanding of changes in overall pharmaceutical marketing trends and their impact on health care consumption and behavior. This can also lead to more targeted state and federal policy interventions leveraging existing federal transparency regulations to ensure appropriate marketing, sales, and consumption of pharmaceutical products. PMID:25583897

  17. 16 CFR 0.17 - Bureau of Consumer Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bureau of Consumer Protection. 0.17 Section 0.17 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.17 Bureau of Consumer Protection. The Bureau investigates unfair or deceptive acts...

  18. 26 CFR 1.7702B-1 - Consumer protection provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Consumer protection provisions. 1.7702B-1 Section 1.7702B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7702B-1 Consumer protection provisions. (a) In general. Under...

  19. 78 FR 14625 - National Consumer Protection Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-05394 Filed 3-5-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... March 6, 2013 Part II The President Proclamation 8937--National Consumer Protection Week, 2013... 8937 of March 1, 2013 National Consumer Protection Week, 2013 By the President of the United States...

  20. 77 FR 13959 - National Consumer Protection Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-5787... Protection Week, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Millions of Americans... practices pose serious risks to consumers and our economy alike. During National Consumer Protection...

  1. 40 CFR 51.368 - Public information and consumer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the area, as described in § 51.369(b)(1) of this subpart. Motorists that fail the I/M test shall also... protection. 51.368 Section 51.368 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR.../Maintenance Program Requirements § 51.368 Public information and consumer protection. (a) Public...

  2. An exploratory study of adolescent female reactions to direct-to-consumer advertising: the case of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Leader, Amy E; Cashman, Rebecca; Voytek, Chelsea D; Baker, Jillian L; Brawner, Bridgette M; Frank, Ian

    2011-10-01

    When the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was approved in 2006, an extensive direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising campaign raised awareness and promoted vaccination. This study explores adolescents' exposure to and understanding of the messages in these advertisements. Sixty-seven African American females participated in a focus group about DTC advertising for the HPV vaccine. Virtually all adolescents had seen an HPV vaccine DTC advertisement, but most did not understand the health information contained in it. If DTC advertising is to be an effective source of health information for adolescents in the future, it must take into account the unique features of an adolescent audience. PMID:22054031

  3. Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection Accountability Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Posey, Bill [R-FL-8

    2013-02-01

    10/29/2013 Hearings Held by the Subcommittee on Financial Institutions and Consumer Credit Prior to Referral. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Consumer Financial Protection Commission Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Duffy, Sean P. [R-WI-7

    2013-06-17

    10/29/2013 Hearings Held by the Subcommittee on Financial Institutions and Consumer Credit Prior to Referral. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Selling Health to the Distracted: Consumer Responses to Source Credibility and Ad Appeal Type in a Direct-to-Consumer Advertisement.

    PubMed

    Lemanski, Jennifer L; Villegas, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Since 1997, when the U.S. Food and Drug Administration first allowed prescription drug companies to release ads directly targeting the public, direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising has become an integral part of the pharmaceutical industry marketing toolkit, reaching over $4 billion in 2005. In an experiment where cognitive load, a task that requires the investment of a subject's memory in an unrelated task; source credibility; and advertising appeal type (affective or cognitive) were manipulated, attitude toward the ad was measured for a print DTC meningitis vaccine ad. Main effect results for source credibility and advertising appeal type on attitude toward the ad were found, and interactions between manipulated variables were apparent when the individual difference variables related to a specific illness (vaccination history, living in a dorm, family members or friends who had suffered the illness) were taken into account. PMID:26368298

  6. Digital Direct-to-Consumer Advertising: A Perfect Storm of Rapid Evolution and Stagnant Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Tim K.

    2016-01-01

    The adoption and use of digital forms of direct-to-consumer advertising (also known as "eDTCA") is on the rise. At the same time, the universe of eDTCA is expanding, as technology on Internet-based platforms continues to evolve, from static websites, to social media, and nearly ubiquitous use of mobile devices. However, little is known about how this unique form of pharmaceutical marketing impacts consumer behavior, public health, and overall healthcare utilization. The study by Kim analyzing US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) notices of violations (NOVs) and warning letters regarding online promotional activities takes us in the right direction, but study results raise as many questions as it does answers. Chief among these are unanswered concerns about the unique regulatory challenges posed by the "disruptive" qualities of eDTCA, and whether regulators have sufficient resources and oversight powers to proactively address potential violations. Further, the globalization of eDTCA via borderless Internet-based technologies raises larger concerns about the potential global impact of this form of health marketing unique to only the United States and New Zealand. Collectively, these challenges make it unlikely that regulatory science will be able to keep apace with the continued rapid evolution of eDTCA unless more creative policy solutions are explored. PMID:27239871

  7. Consumer Response to Web Sites and Their Influence on Advertising Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Ronald E.; Lafferty, Barbara A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study of undergraduates that tested four hypotheses regarding the effects of viewing Web sites on Internet advertising. Highlights include attitudes toward ads in marketing communications and advertising research; recalling brand names seen on the Internet; perceived advantages and disadvantages of online advertising; and recalling ads…

  8. Cinema Screen Advertising: An Old Technology with New Promise for Consumer Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Bruce A.

    Few individuals think of the theatrically exhibited motion picture as supported by advertising like other major forms of mass communications. Cinema screen advertising can be defined as the presentation of individual advertising messages on movie theatre screens in a distinct and discrete fashion. Screenvision ads run prior to the start of each…

  9. Captains of Consciousness: Advertising and the Social Roots of the Consumer Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewen, Stuart

    This volume traces the historical roots of advertising from the early years of this century, with special emphasis on the role of industrialization and capitalism during the 1920s. Using the words of early practitioners of advertising and business, analyzing the texts of old and contemporary advertisements, making constant reference to the broad…

  10. Message strategies in direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising: a content analysis using Taylor's six-segment message strategy wheel.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wan-Hsiu Sunny; Lancaster, Alyse R

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study applies Taylor's (1999) six-segment message strategy wheel to direct-to-consumer (DTC) pharmaceutical television commercials to understand message strategies adopted by pharmaceutical advertisers to persuade consumers. A convenience sample of 96 DTC commercial campaigns was analyzed. The results suggest that most DTC drug ads used a combination approach, providing consumers with medical and drug information while simultaneously appealing to the viewer's ego-related needs and desires. In contrast to ration and ego strategies, other approaches including routine, acute need, and social are relatively uncommon while sensory was the least common message strategy. Findings thus recognized the educational value of DTC commercials. PMID:22905945

  11. Prevalence and Global Health Implications of Social Media in Direct-to-Consumer Drug Advertising

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Bryan A

    2011-01-01

    Background Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA), linked to inappropriate medication use and higher health care expenditures, is the fastest growing form of pharmaceutical marketing. DTCA is legal only in the United States and New Zealand. However, the advent of online interactive social media “Web 2.0” technologies—that is, eDTCA 2.0—may circumvent DTCA legal proscriptions. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of DTCA of leading pharmaceutical company presence and drug product marketing in online interactive social media technologies (eDTCA 2.0). Methods We conducted a descriptive study of the prevalence of eDTCA 2.0 marketing in the top 10 global pharmaceutical corporations and 10 highest grossing drugs of 2009. Results All pharmaceutical companies reviewed (10/10, 100%) have a presence in eDTCA 2.0 on Facebook, Twitter/Friendster, sponsored blogs, and really simple syndication (RSS) feeds. In addition, 80% (8/10) have dedicated YouTube channels, and 80% (8/10) developed health care communication-related mobile applications. For reviewed drugs, 90% (9/10) have dedicated websites, 70% (7/10) have dedicated Facebook pages, 90% (9/10) have health communications-related Twitter and Friendster traffic, and 80% (8/10) have DTCA television advertisements on YouTube. We also found 90% (9/10) of these drugs had a non-corporate eDTCA 2.0 marketing presence by illegal online drug sellers. Conclusion Pharmaceutical companies use eDTCA 2.0 to market themselves and their top-selling drugs. eDTCA 2.0 is also used by illicit online drug sellers. Regulators worldwide must take into account the current eDTCA 2.0 presence when attempting to reach policy and safety goals. PMID:21880574

  12. Creating Demand for Prescription Drugs: A Content Analysis of Television Direct-to-Consumer Advertising

    PubMed Central

    Frosch, Dominick L.; Krueger, Patrick M.; Hornik, Robert C.; Cronholm, Peter F.; Barg, Frances K.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE American television viewers see as many as 16 hours of prescription drug advertisements (ads) each year, yet no research has examined how television ads attempt to influence consumers. This information is important, because ads may not meet their educational potential, possibly prompting consumers to request prescriptions that are clinically inappropriate or more expensive than equally effective alternatives. METHODS We coded ads shown during evening news and prime time hours for factual claims they make about the target condition, how they attempt to appeal to consumers, and how they portray the medication and lifestyle behaviors in the lives of ad characters. RESULTS Most ads (82%) made some factual claims and made rational arguments (86%) for product use, but few described condition causes (26%), risk factors (26%), or prevalence (25%). Emotional appeals were almost universal (95%). No ads mentioned lifestyle change as an alternative to products, though some (19%) portrayed it as an adjunct to medication. Some ads (18%) portrayed lifestyle changes as insufficient for controlling a condition. The ads often framed medication use in terms of losing (58%) and regaining control (85%) over some aspect of life and as engendering social approval (78%). Products were frequently (58%) portrayed as a medical breakthrough. CONCLUSIONS Despite claims that ads serve an educational purpose, they provide limited information about the causes of a disease or who may be at risk; they show characters that have lost control over their social, emotional, or physical lives without the medication; and they minimize the value of health promotion through lifestyle changes. The ads have limited educational value and may oversell the benefits of drugs in ways that might conflict with promoting population health. PMID:17261859

  13. Variables associated with seeking information from doctors and the internet after exposure to direct-to-consumer advertisements for prescription medications.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Joshua; Teichman, Chaim

    2014-01-01

    This study examines variables associated with seeking information from doctors, the Internet, and a combination of both doctors and Internet after exposure to direct-to-consumer advertisements. Data were analyzed from 462 college students. Younger age, women, and health insurance were associated with greater odds for doctor; women, subjective norms, intentions, and greater time since seen doctor were associated with greater odds for Internet; and African American, Hispanic, subjective norms, intentions, and health insurance were associated with greater odds for both doctor and Internet. Marketers of direct-to-consumer advertisements can use these findings for tailoring and targeting direct-to-consumer advertisements. PMID:24878404

  14. Self-reported responsiveness to direct-to-consumer drug advertising and medication use: results of a national survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing of pharmaceuticals is controversial, yet effective. Little is known relating patterns of medication use to patient responsiveness to DTC. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected in national telephone survey on knowledge of and attitudes toward DTC advertisements. The survey of 1081 U.S. adults (response rate = 65%) was conducted by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Responsiveness to DTC was defined as an affirmative response to the item: "Has an advertisement for a prescription drug ever caused you to ask a doctor about a medical condition or illness of your own that you had not talked to a doctor about before?" Patients reported number of prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) medicines taken as well as demographic and personal health information. Results Of 771 respondents who met study criteria, 195 (25%) were responsive to DTC. Only 7% respondents taking no prescription were responsive, whereas 45% of respondents taking 5 or more prescription medications were responsive. This trend remained significant (p trend .0009) even when controlling for age, gender, race, educational attainment, income, self-reported health status, and whether respondents "liked" DTC advertising. There was no relationship between the number of OTC medications taken and the propensity to discuss health-related problems in response to DTC advertisements (p = .4). Conclusion There is a strong cross-sectional relationship between the number of prescription, but not OTC, drugs used and responsiveness to DTC advertising. Although this relationship could be explained by physician compliance with patient requests for medications, it is also plausible that DTC advertisements have a particular appeal to patients prone to taking multiple medications. Outpatients motivated to discuss medical conditions based on their exposure to DTC advertising may require a careful medication history to evaluate for therapeutic duplication or

  15. Self-reported responsiveness to direct-to-consumer drug advertising and medication use: results of a national survey.

    PubMed

    Dieringer, Nicholas J; Kukkamma, Lisa; Somes, Grant W; Shorr, Ronald I

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing of pharmaceuticals is controversial, yet effective. Little is known relating patterns of medication use to patient responsiveness to DTC. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected in national telephone survey on knowledge of and attitudes toward DTC advertisements. The survey of 1081 U.S. adults (response rate = 65%) was conducted by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Responsiveness to DTC was defined as an affirmative response to the item: "Has an advertisement for a prescription drug ever caused you to ask a doctor about a medical condition or illness of your own that you had not talked to a doctor about before?" Patients reported number of prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) medicines taken as well as demographic and personal health information. RESULTS: Of 771 respondents who met study criteria, 195 (25%) were responsive to DTC. Only 7% respondents taking no prescription were responsive, whereas 45% of respondents taking 5 or more prescription medications were responsive. This trend remained significant (p trend .0009) even when controlling for age, gender, race, educational attainment, income, self-reported health status, and whether respondents "liked" DTC advertising. There was no relationship between the number of OTC medications taken and the propensity to discuss health-related problems in response to DTC advertisements (p = .4). CONCLUSION: There is a strong cross-sectional relationship between the number of prescription, but not OTC, drugs used and responsiveness to DTC advertising. Although this relationship could be explained by physician compliance with patient requests for medications, it is also plausible that DTC advertisements have a particular appeal to patients prone to taking multiple medications. Outpatients motivated to discuss medical conditions based on their exposure to DTC advertising may require a careful medication history to evaluate for therapeutic

  16. 78 FR 26101 - Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... Office of the Secretary Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection AGENCY: Office of the.... SUMMARY: This notice announces the fourth meeting of the Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer.... to 5:00 p.m., Eastern Time. ] ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held in the Federal...

  17. 77 FR 53961 - Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... Office of the Secretary Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection AGENCY: Office of the.... SUMMARY: This notice announces the third meeting of the Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer... contact Nicholas Lowry, Senior Attorney, Office of the Assistant General Counsel for Aviation...

  18. 77 FR 35465 - Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection AGENCY: Office of the.... SUMMARY: This notice announces the first meeting of the Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer..., Senior Attorney, Office of the Assistant General Counsel for Aviation Enforcement and Proceedings,...

  19. 77 FR 43135 - Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Office of the Secretary Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection AGENCY: Office of the.... SUMMARY: This notice announces the second meeting of the Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer..., Senior Attorney, Office of the Assistant General Counsel for Aviation Enforcement and Proceedings,...

  20. 26 CFR 1.7702B-1 - Consumer protection provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Consumer protection provisions. 1.7702B-1 Section 1.7702B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7702B-1 Consumer...

  1. 78 FR 71706 - Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... Office of the Secretary Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection AGENCY: Office of the.... SUMMARY: This notice announces the fifth meeting of the Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer.... Department of Transportation, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC. Attendance is open to the public...

  2. 78 FR 55327 - Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... Office of the Secretary Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection AGENCY: Office of the.... SUMMARY: This notice announces the fifth meeting of the Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer.... Department of Transportation, 1200 New Jersey Ave. SE., Washington, DC 20590; 202-366-9342 (phone),...

  3. The Michigan Consumer Protection Act of 1976. Consumer Education Training Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monsma, Charles

    This guide for secondary teachers is designed to identify and illustrate specified illegal practices identified in the Michigan Consumer Protection Act of 1976. The guide also explains procedures that a consumer or law-enforcement agency can take to enforce the provisions of this law. Since the act is a broad one, students learn not only about…

  4. Influence on consumer behavior: the impact of direct-to-consumer advertising on medication requests for gastroesophageal reflux disease and social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Khanfar, Nile M; Polen, Hyla H; Clauson, Kevin A

    2009-01-01

    A 68-question Internet survey was used to determine the impact of televised direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) on consumer-initiated medication changes for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD). Of the 427 respondents, 10% that viewed DTCA for GERD and 6% that viewed DTCA for SAD reported that they subsequently initiated a conversation with their physician. Nearly half of respondents, 47.4% for GERD and 40% for SAD, reported that a change in therapy occurred as a direct result of these discussions. Televised DTCA for these two drug classes can have a significant impact on patient-initiated prescription requests. PMID:19657925

  5. The Moderating Role of Age in Responses to Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertising.

    PubMed

    Ball, Jennifer G; Manika, Danae; Stout, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    Age is an important factor that can influence processing of and response to health messages. Many studies examining evaluations of and responses to direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising (DTCA) have incorporated age as a predictor variable, moderating variable, or sample criterion. However, findings have been inconsistent. This study attempts to add clarity to this body of research by assessing age differences in the antecedent factors of various DTCA outcomes. A multigroup structural equation modeling analysis revealed several significant differences in variable relationships between older (50+) and younger (<50) adults. Overall, older adults exhibited greater complexity in their consideration of DTCA than younger adults in terms of the sheer number of significant relationships within the model. In particular, trust in mediated health information sources and trust in one's physician appeared to be more relevant predictors for older adults. Trust in DTCA was also distinguished as having an inverse relationship with behavioral intentions among older adults while showing a straightforward positive association with attention among younger adults. Further analysis indicated that health status accounted for some but not all of the age differences. It is suggested that younger adults are more open to seeking additional information following DTCA exposure, whereas older adults remain ambivalent. PMID:26312583

  6. Advertising Appeal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Sandra K.

    The individualized learning package for secondary consumer education deals with consumer buying as influenced by advertising. The teacher's section of the package contains a statement of purpose and instructional objectives. Equipment and materials (specific textbooks, audiovisual aids, and sources for sample post-test advertisements) needed for…

  7. 76 FR 12817 - National Consumer Protection Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-5541 Filed 3-8-11; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... Protection Week, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Each day, families... communities. For more than a decade, National Consumer Protection Week has encouraged Americans to make...

  8. 75 FR 10991 - National Consumer Protection Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-5291 Filed 3-9-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... Protection Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Every day, American... their financial well-being and our Nation's economic stability. National Consumer Protection Week...

  9. The Institution of Advertising: Predictors of Cross-National Differences in Consumer Confidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinkhan, George M.; Balazs, Anne L.

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on advertising and cross-cultural studies by exploring cultural factors affecting customer confidence in advertising. Uses a sample of 16 European nations to test G. Hofstede's theory of cross-national values. Finds that Hofstede's dimensions of uncertainty avoidance, masculinity, and individualism are important…

  10. Consumer Health: Does Advertising Work on You? and Evaluating a Product's Health Claims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Carolyn C.

    This paper describes lessons for teaching middle and high school students how to determine if they are influenced by the power of advertising and how to evaluate a product's health claims. To determine the influence of advertising, teachers have high school students discuss what their latest health product/service purchase was, why they bought it,…

  11. The role of direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertisements and individual differences in getting people to talk to physicians.

    PubMed

    Krezmien, Elyse; Wanzer, Melissa Bekelja; Servoss, Timothy; LaBelle, Sara

    2011-09-01

    In this study, 384 respondents provided quantitative and descriptive information about direct-to-consumer (DTC) pharmaceutical advertisements and factors related to message reception and drug adoption. The authors applied M. Booth-Butterfield's ( 2008 ) Standard Model to explain how DTC advertising is used in getting individuals to talk to their doctors about pharmaceutical drugs. The researchers predicted that individuals who talked with their physicians about a pharmaceutical drug (referred to as talkers) would differ from those who did not talk with their physicians (referred to as nontalkers) in a number of meaningful ways. Findings from this data set indicate that individuals who talked with their physician about a specific medication were more likely to be female, older, higher in need for cognition, and reported higher physician satisfaction. Total number of channels (TV, radio, newspaper, magazines, and the Internet) was negatively associated with talking to a physician about a specific medication, as was exposure to DTC advertisement on television. The authors offer explanations for these findings along with descriptive accounts of how talkers and nontalkers differed in their recall of DTC advertisement information. PMID:21512934

  12. Beer and Wine Advertising: Impact of Electronic Media. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Telecommunications, Consumer Protection, and Finance of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session on H.R. 2526 and H.R. 1901.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    This document presents witness testimonies and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing called to examine the impact of broadcast alcohol advertising on alcohol-related problems, the responsibility of the broadcast media in shaping attitudes about alcohol, and how to reduce any negative impact of advertising. Statements were heard from…

  13. Fair Balance and Adequate Provision in Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Online Banner Advertisements: A Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The current direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) guidelines were developed with print, television, and radio media in mind, and there are no specific guidelines for online banner advertisements. Objective This study evaluates how well Internet banner ads comply with existing Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines for DTCA in other media. Methods A content analysis was performed of 68 banner advertisements. A coding sheet was developed based on (1) FDA guidance documents for consumer-directed prescription drug advertisements and (2) previous DTCA content analyses. Specifically, the presence of a brief summary detailing the drug’s risks and side effects or of a “major statement” identifying the drug’s major risks, and the number and type of provisions made available to consumers for comprehensive information about the drug were coded. In addition, the criterion of “fair balance,” the FDA’s requirement that prescription drug ads balance information relating to the drug’s risks with information relating to its benefits, was measured by numbering the benefit and risk facts identified in the ads and by examining the presentation of risk and benefit information. Results Every ad in the sample included a brief summary of risk information and at least one form of adequate provision as required by the FDA for broadcast ads that do not give audiences a brief summary of a drug’s risks. No ads included a major statement. There were approximately 7.18 risk facts for every benefit fact. Most of the risks (98.85%, 1292/1307) were presented in the scroll portion of the ad, whereas most of the benefits (66.5%, 121/182) were presented in the main part of the ad. Out of 1307 risk facts, 1292 were qualitative and 15 were quantitative. Out of 182 benefit facts, 181 were qualitative and 1 was quantitative. The majority of ads showed neutral images during the disclosure of benefit and risk facts. Only 9% (6/68) of the ads displayed positive images and

  14. 26 CFR 1.7702B-1 - Consumer protection provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consumer protection provisions. 1.7702B-1 Section 1.7702B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME... policies, unintentional lapse, disclosure, prohibitions against post-claims underwriting, minimum...

  15. 16 CFR 0.17 - Bureau of Consumer Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bureau of Consumer Protection. 0.17 Section 0.17 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE... through negotiation consented-to orders, which must be accepted and issued by the Commission....

  16. Fair Balance? An Analysis of the Functional Equivalence of Risk and Benefit Information in Prescription Drug Direct-to-Consumer Television Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird-Harris, Kay

    2009-01-01

    Prescription drug direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) has been a subject of controversy in recent years. Though government regulations require equivalent prominence of risks and benefits, there is concern about the ability of consumers with limited health literacy to fully comprehend the risks and benefits associated with drug use. Evaluating…

  17. Pre-market approval and post-market direct-to-consumer advertising of medical devices in Australia: a case study of breast cancer screening and diagnostic devices.

    PubMed

    Vreugdenburg, T D; Willis, C D; Mundy, L; Hiller, J E

    2013-01-01

    While research investigating direct-to-consumer advertising of therapeutic goods in Australia has historically focused on prescription medicines, recent action taken by regulators against companies promoting medical devices has placed the industry into the spotlight. Despite the need to effectively regulate direct-to-consumer advertising of medical devices due to its potential harms, inadequacies in the current regulatory system have been noted. Under the present system, devices with a questionable evidence base may enter the Australian marketplace without an evaluation of their effectiveness, and regulators are reliant on industry self-regulation and consumer complaints to draw attention to cases of advertising misconduct. Although some successes in the present system have been observed, we argue that the outlined inadequacies continue to enable the promotion of medical devices to consumers without thorough or sufficient examination of evidence. PMID:22032398

  18. Students as Consumers: The Implications of the Consumer Protection Act for Higher Education Institutions in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, K.

    2012-01-01

    The Consumer Protection Act (CPA) lays the basis for the protection of consumer rights in South Africa and comprehensively sets out obligations for "suppliers". There have been differing views expressed as to whether a student should be seen as a consumer. It is clear, however, that this Act applies to HEIs. This article, firstly, explores the…

  19. Communication Strategies in Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertising (DTCA): Application of the Six Segment Message Strategy Wheel.

    PubMed

    Ju, Ilwoo; Park, Jin Seong

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses a void in the literature on direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising (DTCA) with a theory-based content analysis. The findings indicate that Taylor's communication strategy wheel provides insight into what and how pharmaceutical marketers communicate with consumers by means of DTCA. Major findings are summarized as follows: (a) In most DTC ads, informational and transformational message themes and creative approaches were simultaneously used, indicating a combination strategy; (b) DTCA message themes were associated with creative strategies in alignment with Taylor's framework; and (c) message themes and creative strategies varied across therapeutic categories and DTCA categories with different levels of ad spending. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25794304

  20. 77 FR 16973 - Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertisements; Presentation of the Major Statement in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of March 29, 2010 (75 FR 15376), FDA published a proposed... comment, which closed on June 28, 2010. On January 27, 2012 (77 FR 4273), FDA reopened the comment period... prescription drug television advertisements (72 FR 47051, August 22, 2007) (Distraction Study) as it relates...

  1. A wonderful life or diarrhea and dry mouth? Policy issues of direct-to-consumer drug advertising on television.

    PubMed

    Macias, Wendy; Pashupati, Kartik; Lewis, Liza Stavchansky

    2007-01-01

    Over $4 billion is being spent on direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs. Although the greatest proportion of this media budget is spent on television, relatively few studies have investigated the key issues of DTCA on television (DTCA-TV), including fair balance, FDA regulations and if information or appeals is focused on more. This study found that emotional and rational appeals were used to a similar degree in DTCA-TV. Print tends to be more informative than TV. After developing a four-tiered classification scheme (lawbreakers, bare minimums, DTC main pack/peloton and proactives), this study found that DTCA-TV ads are not doing a good job of meeting the FDA's fair balance requirement, particularly in presenting risk information in a comprehensible manner. Today's new active healthcare consumers often want to learn what issues are important to consider when investigating drugs and how to evaluate alternative courses of treatment. Given the proportion of money spent on television, the medical industry is correct to be concerned that education does not appear more important to DTCA advertisers. PMID:17967146

  2. Ethics in medical information and advertising.

    PubMed

    Serour, G I; Dickens, B M

    2004-05-01

    This article presents findings and recommendations of an international conference held in Cairo, Egypt in 2003 concerning issues of ethical practice in how information is provided to and by medical practitioners. Professional advertising to practitioners and the public is necessary, but should exclude misrepresentation of qualifications, resources, and authorship of research papers. Medical institutions are responsible for how staff members present themselves, and their institutions. Medical associations, both governmental licensing authorities and voluntary societies, have powers and responsibilities to monitor professional advertisement to defend the public interest against deception. Medical journals bear duties to ensure authenticity of authorship and integrity in published papers, and the scientific basis of commercial advertisers' claims. A mounting concern is authors' conflict of interest. Mass newsmedia must ensure accuracy and proportionality in reporting scientific developments, and product manufacturers must observe truth in advertising, particularly in Direct-to-Consumer advertising. Consumer protection by government agencies is a continuing responsibility. PMID:15099793

  3. 77 FR 13172 - Guidance on the Use of Rounding in Air Fare Advertisements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... recent consumer rule, ``Enhancing Airline Consumer Protections'' (14 CFR 399.84, 76 FR 23110, 23166, Apr... Office of The Secretary Guidance on the Use of Rounding in Air Fare Advertisements AGENCY: Office of the... Fare Advertisements. SUMMARY: The Department is publishing the following notice providing guidance...

  4. Connecting the Dots between Consumer Protection, Skepticism, and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooding, Julia; Metz, Bill

    2010-01-01

    The concept of relevance is an obvious component in the success of classroom science investigations, but it is also one of the tenets behind the numerous media advertisements that bombard our senses on a daily basis. The authors decided to capitalize on the similarities between process-based science and the world of advertising by initiating…

  5. Cancer-Related Direct-to-Consumer Advertising: Awareness, Perceptions, and Reported Impact Among Patients Undergoing Active Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Abel, Gregory A.; Burstein, Harold J.; Hevelone, Nathanael D.; Weeks, Jane C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Although cancer-related direct-to-consumer advertising (CR-DTCA) is prevalent, little is known about cancer patients' experiences with this controversial medium of medical communication. Methods We administered a 41-item, mailed questionnaire to consecutive patients with breast and hematologic malignancies who were undergoing active treatment at our institution. We assessed awareness of CR-DTCA within the prior year, perceptions of CR-DTCA, and CR-DTCA–prompted patient and provider behaviors. Results We received 348 completed questionnaires (response rate, 75.0%). Overall, 86.2% reported being aware of CR-DTCA, most frequently from television (77.7%). Awareness did not vary with clinical or sociodemographic factors except that patients were more likely to be aware of CR-DTCA for products specific to their cancer types (P < .0001). A majority of those aware reported that CR-DTCA made them “aware of treatments they did not know about” (62.2%), provided information in “a balanced manner” (65.2%), and helped them to have “better discussions” with their provider (56.8%). These perceptions were significantly more favorable among those who had not graduated from college (P < .05 for each). Overall, 11.2% reported that CR-DTCA made them “less confident” in their providers' judgment. Of those aware, 17.3% reported talking to their provider about an advertised medication, although less than one fifth of those reported receiving a prescription for the advertised medication. Conclusion The patients in our cohort were highly aware of CR-DTCA. CR-DTCA was found to be accessible and useful; however, it decreased some patients' confidence in their providers' judgment. CR-DTCA prompted a modest amount of patient-provider discussion but infrequent patient-reported changes in therapy. PMID:19652071

  6. Corporate Policies and Procedures on Advertising & Promotion. Report of the Sub-Council on Advertising and Promotion of the National Business Council for Consumer Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Business Council for Consumer Affairs, Washington, DC.

    This report is the result of efforts to encourage thoughtful individual corporate action in maintaining up-to-date internal policies and procedures relating to the functions of advertising and promotion. Information for the report was gathered by sending letters to the chief executives of major national advertisers requesting a personal review of…

  7. Consumer-oriented social data fusion: controlled learning in social environments, social advertising, and more

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grewe, L.

    2013-05-01

    This paper explores the current practices in social data fusion and analysis as it applies to consumer-oriented applications in a slew of areas including business, economics, politics, sciences, medicine, education and more. A categorization of these systems is proposed and contributions to each area are explored preceded by a discussion of some special issues related to social data and networks. From this work, future paths of consumer-based social data analysis research and current outstanding problems are discovered.

  8. Overview of multimedia content protection in consumer electronics devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskicioglu, Ahmet M.; Delp, Edward J., III

    2000-05-01

    A digital home network is a cluster of digital audio/visual (A/V) devices including set-top boxes, TVs, VCRs, DVD players, and general-purpose computing devices such as personal computers. The network may receive copyrighted digital multimedia content from a number of sources. This content may be broadcast via satellite or terrestrial systems, transmitted by cable operators, or made available as prepackaged media (e.g., a digital tape or a digital video disc). Before releasing their content for distribution, the content owners may require protection by specifying access conditions. Once the content is delivered to the consumer, it moves across home the network until it reaches its destination where it is stored or displayed. A copy protection system is needed to prevent unauthorized access to bit streams in transmission from one A/V device to another or while it is in storage on magnetic or optical media. Recently, two fundamental groups of technologies, encryption and watermarking, have been identified for protecting copyrighted digital multimedia content. This paper is an overview of the work done for protecting content owners' investment in intellectual property.

  9. Sun-care product advertising in parenting magazines: what information does it provide about sun protection?

    PubMed

    Kang, Hannah; Walsh-Childers, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed the content of sun-care product advertisements in five major U.S. parenting magazines with high circulation: Family Circle, Parents, Family Fun, Parenting (Early Years), and Parenting (School Years). The study examined what information sun-care product advertisements tell parents about skin cancer prevention and about sunscreen use for themselves or for their children based on the Health Belief Model concepts of perceived benefits and perceived barriers. Results showed that the most commonly mentioned benefit of the product was that it blocks ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) rays. One-third of the ads promoted the product's effectiveness in overcoming four of the barriers that prevent people from using sunscreens: eye irritation, skin irritation, an unpleasant smell, and the need to reapply sunscreen too often or after physical activity. However, only a few of the ads provided information about the consequences of unprotected sun exposure or mentioned methods of sun protection or skin cancer prevention other than sunscreen use. We discuss the implications of these messages for parents' ability to understand correctly how to protect their children from damaging sun exposure. PMID:23066971

  10. Factors associated with the persuasiveness of direct-to-consumer advertising on HPV vaccination among young women.

    PubMed

    Manika, Danae; Ball, Jennifer G; Stout, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative study explored young women's response to direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising (DTCA) for a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. In particular, the study examined (a) the association of factors stemming from consumer research with actual and intended behavioral responses to DTCA for HPV and (b) key elements drawn from commonly used health-related theories to determine the strongest associations with behavioral intentions regarding the HPV vaccine. Survey findings showed that vaccinated women indicated that DTCA played a role in their decision to get vaccinated against HPV more so than those who were not vaccinated. Trust in DTCA for an HPV vaccine brand was significantly related to intentions to seek more information about the vaccine. Also, perceived barriers had the only significant association with behavioral intentions when taking into account perceived threat and response efficacy. These results provide practical implications for key industry decision makers and health communication professionals on the design of effective theory-based health communication message content for an HPV vaccine brand with consequent social implications. PMID:24708436

  11. Protection of Interests of Consumers. Message from the President of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Richard

    Based on the concept of "buyer's rights," this message details the following Presidential recommendations concerning consumer protection: 1) An Office of Consumer Affairs in the Executive Office of the President, with new legislative standing, an expanded budget, and greater responsibilities; 2) A Division of Consumer Protection in the Department…

  12. Alternative consumable anodes for cathodic protection of reinforced concrete bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Russell, James H.; Cryer, C.B.; Laylor, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Alternative consumable anodes were evaluated in the laboratory for use in cathodic protection systems for steel reinforced concrete bridges in coastal environments and in areas where deicing salts are employed. The anode materials included zinc hydrogel foil and thermal-sprayed Zn, Zn-15Al, and Al-12Zn-0.2In alloys. They were evaluated for service in both impressed current (ICCP) and galvanic (GCP) cathodic protection systems. ICCP anodes were electrochemically aged at current densities of five to fifteen times that used by the Oregon Department of Transportation (Oregon DOT) in typical coastal CP systems (2.2 mA/m2 based on anode area). GCP anodes were electrochemically aged at a rate defined by the steel-anode couple. Both types of anodes were exposed to 80°F, a relative humidity of 85 pct, and were periodically wetted with deionized water. The Zn anode gave the best performance in ICCP systems. The four anodes all produced sufficient current density suitable for use in GCP systems. The anodes materials, ranked in increasing order of GCP current output, were: thermal-sprayed Al-12Zn-0.2In, Zn hydrogel, thermal-sprayed Zn-15Al, and thermal-sprayed Zn.

  13. The role of direct-to-consumer advertising in shaping public opinion surrounding prescription drug use to treat depression or anxiety in youth.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Lourdes S; Lewis, Nehama

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of exposure to prescription drug advertisements for antidepressants and antianxiety medications on public opinion regarding preferred treatment options for youth suffering from depression or anxiety. The study randomly recruited a nationally representative adult sample (N = 402) through the 2007 Annenberg National Health Communication Survey. The study examined the distribution of public support for the use of antidepressant drugs to treat depression and anxiety disorders in youth. The analysis adjusted for the effects of demographic characteristics, prior knowledge about prescription drugs, and personal and familial drug history. Attitude toward direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA, for all products) moderated the effect of exposure to ads for these drug treatments on support for their use among youth as a preferred treatment. Among respondents with negative attitude toward direct-to-consumer advertising (for all products), with increased exposure to ads for antidepressants and antianxiety medications, support for the use of these drugs to treat youth decreased. Among this group, with high levels of exposure to advertisements, the predicted probability of support decreased from 0.68 (95% CI: 0.61 to 0.76) to 0.46 (95% CI: 0.38 to 0.56). No effect was found among respondents with positive attitudes toward DTCA (for all products). The implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:19440908

  14. The U.S. infant formula industry: is direct-to-consumer advertising unethical or inevitable?

    PubMed

    Cutler, Bob D; Wright, Robert F

    2002-01-01

    Throughout their history, U.S. based infant formula companies have promoted their products as though they required a prescription. This form of marketing is called "ethical" promotion, which focuses on gaining a physician to parent recommendation for a brand of infant formula. Until Nestle's entry into the U.S. infant formula market in 1988, there was little direct-to-consumer promotion of infant formula. This article provides a background on the history of infant formula practices in the United States and then focuses on a descriptive model to explain how mothers' make their infant formula selection. Finally, we offer suggestions for the "ethical" marketers of infant formula. PMID:12077809

  15. Who are the opinion leaders? The physicians, pharmacists, patients, and direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising.

    PubMed

    Lee, Annisa Lai

    2010-09-01

    A popular perception holds that physicians prescribe requested drugs to patients influenced by mass mediated direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising. The phenomenon poses a serious challenge to the two-step flow model, which emphasizes the influence of opinion leaders on their followers and their legitimating power over the informing power of the mass media. This study investigates a 2002 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) survey and finds that patients searching for drug information through mass and hybrid media in newspapers and magazines' small print, the Internet, and toll-free numbers are more likely to seek information through interpersonal communication channels like health care providers. Patients using small print, toll-free numbers, one's own physician, and other physicians are associated with influencing their physicians with various drug-requesting behaviors. But physicians only prescribe requested drugs to patients who are influenced by other health care providers, such as pharmacists and other physicians, not the mass media. The influence of expert opinion leaders of drugs is so strong that the patients even would switch from their own unyielding physicians who do not prescribe drugs as advised by the pharmacists. Physicians and patients all are influenced more by other expert opinion leaders of drugs than by the mass media and therefore still uphold the basic tenet of the two-step model. PMID:20812124

  16. 77 FR 14811 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Direct-to-Consumer Television Advertisements-the Food and Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... advertisements (TV ads) provision of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act). (The term ``pre... ``Prereview of Television Advertisements.'') The draft guidance describes which TV ads FDA intends to make... submit their TV ads to FDA for pre-dissemination review in compliance with the FD&C Act. These...

  17. Perceptions of Children's Television Advertising: An Empirical Investigation of the Beliefs and Attitudes of Consumer, Industry, and Government Respondents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culley, James D.

    This paper summarizes the findings of a study investigating the beliefs and attitudes of six key respondent groups regarding issues surrounding television advertising and children. The six groups included in the study are spokesmen for Action for Children's Television (ACT); the presidents and top executive officers of advertising agencies…

  18. Still the Great Debate - "Fair Balance" in Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertising Comment on "Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A Content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters".

    PubMed

    Rollins, Brent L

    2016-01-01

    The above titled paper examined the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) warning letters and notice of violations (NOV) over a 10-year period. Findings from this content analysis reinforced what has been the primary issue for prescription direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) since its beginning, the fair balance of risk and benefit information. As opposed to another analysis in 2026 about this still being an issue, is there anything that can be done to prevent this problem from continuing? PMID:27239875

  19. 12 CFR 1013.7 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... advertisement (such as an advertisement appearing on an Internet Web site), that provides a table or schedule of...) Directs the consumer to a written advertisement in a publication of general circulation in the...

  20. 12 CFR 1013.7 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... advertisement (such as an advertisement appearing on an Internet Web site), that provides a table or schedule of...) Directs the consumer to a written advertisement in a publication of general circulation in the...

  1. 14 CFR 374.3 - Compliance with the Consumer Credit Protection Act and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Compliance with the Consumer Credit Protection Act and regulations. 374.3 Section 374.3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CONSUMER CREDIT PROTECTION ACT WITH RESPECT TO AIR CARRIERS...

  2. 12 CFR 190.4 - Federally-related residential manufactured housing loans-consumer protection provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... shall be governed by the provisions of this section and 12 CFR 560.220 until superseding regulations are... housing loans-consumer protection provisions. 190.4 Section 190.4 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE... manufactured housing loans—consumer protection provisions. (a) Definitions. As used in this section:...

  3. 12 CFR 590.4 - Federally-related residential manufactured housing loans-consumer protection provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... housing loans-consumer protection provisions. 590.4 Section 590.4 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT... manufactured housing loans—consumer protection provisions. (a) Definitions. As used in this section: (1... constitute authority for a creditor unilaterally to grant a deferral with respect to which a charge is to...

  4. 12 CFR 190.4 - Federally-related residential manufactured housing loans-consumer protection provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... shall be governed by the provisions of this section and 12 CFR 560.220 until superseding regulations are... housing loans-consumer protection provisions. 190.4 Section 190.4 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE... manufactured housing loans—consumer protection provisions. (a) Definitions. As used in this section:...

  5. 12 CFR 190.4 - Federally-related residential manufactured housing loans-consumer protection provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... shall be governed by the provisions of this section and 12 CFR 560.220 until superseding regulations are... housing loans-consumer protection provisions. 190.4 Section 190.4 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE... manufactured housing loans—consumer protection provisions. (a) Definitions. As used in this section:...

  6. 12 CFR 590.4 - Federally-related residential manufactured housing loans-consumer protection provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... housing loans-consumer protection provisions. 590.4 Section 590.4 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT... manufactured housing loans—consumer protection provisions. (a) Definitions. As used in this section: (1... constitute authority for a creditor unilaterally to grant a deferral with respect to which a charge is to...

  7. 12 CFR 590.4 - Federally-related residential manufactured housing loans-consumer protection provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... housing loans-consumer protection provisions. 590.4 Section 590.4 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT... manufactured housing loans—consumer protection provisions. (a) Definitions. As used in this section: (1... constitute authority for a creditor unilaterally to grant a deferral with respect to which a charge is to...

  8. 12 CFR 590.4 - Federally-related residential manufactured housing loans-consumer protection provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... housing loans-consumer protection provisions. 590.4 Section 590.4 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT... manufactured housing loans—consumer protection provisions. (a) Definitions. As used in this section: (1... constitute authority for a creditor unilaterally to grant a deferral with respect to which a charge is to...

  9. Consumer Protection in Postsecondary Education: A National Invitational Conference. Program Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albanese, Frank N.; And Others

    Twelve preconference papers and background articles that identify issues in consumer protection in postsecondary education are presented. The papers and articles include "Recruitment Practices of Postsecondary Schools" (Frank N. Albanese); "The Role of a State Agency in Consumer Protection" (Philip F. Ashler); "The Three R's of Postsecondary…

  10. 3 CFR 8937 - Proclamation 8937 of March 1, 2013. National Consumer Protection Week, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proclamation 8937 of March 1, 2013. National Consumer Protection Week, 2013 8937 Proclamation 8937 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8937 of March 1, 2013 Proc. 8937 National Consumer Protection Week, 2013By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Over 4 years...

  11. 3 CFR 8482 - Proclamation 8482 of March 5, 2010. National Consumer Protection Week, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proclamation 8482 of March 5, 2010. National Consumer Protection Week, 2010 8482 Proclamation 8482 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8482 of March 5, 2010 Proc. 8482 National Consumer Protection Week, 2010By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Every...

  12. 3 CFR 8782 - Proclamation 8782 of March 5, 2012. National Consumer Protection Week, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Proclamation 8782 of March 5, 2012. National Consumer Protection Week, 2012 8782 Proclamation 8782 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8782 of March 5, 2012 Proc. 8782 National Consumer Protection Week, 2012By the President of the...

  13. Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection Accountability Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Duffy, Sean P. [R-WI-7

    2013-09-26

    10/29/2013 Hearings Held by the Subcommittee on Financial Institutions and Consumer Credit Prior to Referral. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Attention competition with advertisement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  15. Attention competition with advertisement.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant. PMID:25314476

  16. How does direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) affect prescribing? A survey in primary care environments with and without legal DTCA

    PubMed Central

    Mintzes, Barbara; Barer, Morris L.; Kravitz, Richard L.; Bassett, Ken; Lexchin, Joel; Kazanjian, Arminée; Evans, Robert G.; Pan, Richard; Marion, Stephen A.

    2003-01-01

    Background Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs has increased rapidly in the United States during the last decade, yet little is known about its effects on prescribing decisions in primary care. We compared prescribing decisions in a US setting with legal DTCA and a Canadian setting where DTCA of prescription drugs is illegal, but some cross-border exposure occurs. Methods We recruited primary care physicians working in Sacramento, California, and Vancouver, British Columbia, and their group practice partners to participate in the study. On pre- selected days, patients aged 18 years or more completed a questionnaire before seeing their physician. We asked these patients' physicians to complete a brief questionnaire immediately following the selected patient visit. By pairing individual patient and physician responses, we determined how many patients had been exposed to some form of DTCA, the frequency of patients' requests for prescriptions for advertised medicines and the frequency of prescriptions that were stimulated by the patients' requests. We measured physicians' confidence in treatment choice for each new prescription by asking them whether they would prescribe this drug to a patient with the same condition. Results Seventy-eight physicians (Sacramento n = 38, Vancouver n = 40) and 1431 adult patients (Sacramento n = 683, Vancouver n = 748), or 61% of patients who consulted participating physicians on pre-set days, participated in the survey. Exposure to DTCA was higher in Sacramento, although 87.4% of Vancouver patients had seen prescription drug advertisements. Of the Sacramento patients, 7.2% requested advertised drugs as opposed to 3.3% in Vancouver (odds ratio [OR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–4.1). Patients with higher self- reported exposure to advertising, conditions that were potentially treatable by advertised drugs, and/or greater reliance on advertising requested more advertised medicines. Physicians fulfilled

  17. Motorcycle Helmet Laws: A Case Study of Consumer Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dardis, Rachel; Lefkowitz, Camille

    1987-01-01

    The study examines societal losses from 1976 federal legislation on state motorcycle helmet laws. Comprehensive state helmet laws would have had cost-benefit ratios ranging from 0.05 to 0.18. The fact that 31 states did not have comprehensive helmet laws in 1981 raises questions concerning whether society should intervene on behalf of consumers.…

  18. Anti-Aging Medicine: Can Consumers Be Better Protected?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehlman, Maxwell J.; Binstock, Robert H.; Juengst, Eric T.; Ponsaran, Roselle S.; Whitehouse, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    The use of interventions claiming to prevent, retard, or reverse aging is proliferating. Some of these interventions can seriously harm older persons and aging baby boomers who consume them. Others that are merely ineffective may divert patients from participating in beneficial regimens and also cause them economic harm. "Free market regulation"…

  19. 75 FR 29386 - Consumer Protections for Depository Institution Sales of Insurance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Consumer Protections for Depository Institution Sales of Insurance AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comment. SUMMARY: The... Supervision within the Department of the Treasury will submit the proposed information collection...

  20. 3 CFR 8347 - Proclamation 8347 of February 27, 2009. National Consumer Protection Week, 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Federal, State, and local agencies; private sector organizations; and consumer advocacy groups band... save time and money. As part of National Consumer Protection Week, the Federal Trade Commission has... me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim March 1 through March...

  1. 14 CFR 374.3 - Compliance with the Consumer Credit Protection Act and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance with the Consumer Credit... OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CONSUMER CREDIT PROTECTION ACT WITH RESPECT TO AIR CARRIERS AND FOREIGN AIR CARRIERS § 374.3 Compliance with the...

  2. Trust in online prescription drug information among internet users: the impact on information search behavior after exposure to direct-to-consumer advertising.

    PubMed

    Menon, Ajit M; Deshpande, Aparna D; Perri, Matthew; Zinkhan, George M

    2002-01-01

    The proliferation of both manufacturer-controlled and independent medication-related websites has aroused concern among consumers and policy-makers concerning the trustworthiness of Web-based drug information. The authors examine consumers' trust in on-line prescription drug information and its influence on information search behavior. The study design involves a retrospective analysis of data from a 1998 national survey. The findings reveal that trust in drug information from traditional media sources such as television and newspapers transfers to the domain of the Internet. Furthermore, a greater trust in on-line prescription drug information stimulates utilization of the Internet for information search after exposure to prescription drug advertising. PMID:12749596

  3. System for Collecting, Analyzing, and Using Information on Institutional Consumer Protection Practices: Accreditation User Guide. Improving The Consumer Protection Function in Postsecondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Steven M.; And Others

    This accreditation user guide describes: (1) a set of institutional conditions, policies, and practices that are potentially abusive to students, and (2) a system for collecting, analyzing, and using quantitative data on these conditions, policies, and practices. Possible uses include: (1) setting consumer protection standards and goals that…

  4. The Effect of Inconsistency Appeals on the Influence of Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertisements: An Application of Goal Disruption Theory.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Benjamin D; Siegel, Jason T

    2016-01-01

    Scholars across multiple domains have identified the presence of inconsistency-arousing information in direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertisements and have suggested that these appeals, which highlight differences between people's actual and desired lives, may create psychological disequilibrium. However, experimental assessment of the distinct influence of inconsistency-arousing information in this domain is rare. Guided by goal disruption theory-a framework that outlines people's reactions to goal expectation violations-we created direct-to-consumer advertisements designed to make people's life inconsistencies salient. The influence of these ads on people's perceptions of, and intentions to use, prescription drugs was then assessed. Results from a structural equation modeling analysis supported the proposed model, indicating that compared to a control ad, an ad containing a goal expectation violation manipulation resulted in higher levels of psychological disequilibrium; in turn, psychological disequilibrium led to positive evaluations of the ad and the drug, positive outcome expectations of the drug, increased purposive harm endurance, and increased usage intentions. The current results suggest a psychological pathway that begins with a negative goal expectation violation and ends with increased usage intentions and a greater willingness to endure harm to make use possible. PMID:26716683

  5. Advertising the American Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dispenza, Joseph E.

    This illustrated anthology of advertising in the popular press attempts to clarify the manner in which consumers have been conditioned to think about the roles of women in society. More than 2,000 copies of periodicals dating from 1900 to the present were consulted for the cultural information in their advertising. The selection of certain ads…

  6. Advertisements Demand Sense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clanton, Brandolyn; And Others

    Self-contained units of study on advertising will help secondary students to critically analyze the utility, completeness, and accuracy of various sources of product information. In the first of five units, students are asked to think about the many benefits consumers and producers derive from advertising. The second unit makes students aware that…

  7. The effect of search condition and advertising type on visual attention to Internet advertising.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gho; Lee, Jang-Han

    2011-05-01

    This research was conducted to examine the level of consumers' visual attention to Internet advertising. It was predicted that consumers' search type would influence visual attention to advertising. Specifically, it was predicted that more attention to advertising would be attracted in the exploratory search condition than in the goal-directed search condition. It was also predicted that there would be a difference in visual attention depending on the advertisement type (advertising type: text vs. pictorial advertising). An eye tracker was used for measurement. Results revealed that search condition and advertising type influenced advertising effectiveness. PMID:20973730

  8. 12 CFR 1082.1 - Procedures for notifying the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection when a state official takes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Procedures for notifying the Bureau of Consumer... of 2010. 1082.1 Section 1082.1 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION STATE... when a state official takes an action to enforce the Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010....

  9. Attitudes and self-reported behavior of patients, doctors, and pharmacists in New Zealand and Belgium toward direct-to-consumer advertising of medication.

    PubMed

    Dens, Nathalie; Eagle, Lynne C; De Pelsmacker, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Patients', doctors', and pharmacists' attitudes toward direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) for medication and their perceptions of its impact on patient self-reported behavior in terms of request for, and consumption of, advertised medication were investigated. Data were obtained in New Zealand, 1 of only 2 countries that allow mass-media DTCA for prescription medication, and in Belgium, which does not. Attitudes were relatively negative in both countries, but significantly more positive in New Zealand than in Belgium. The impact of DTCA (both in a positive and a negative sense) on self-reported patient behavior and patient interaction with doctors and pharmacists was limited in both countries. Although -- as already established in previous work -- the informativeness and reliability of DTCA can be much improved, and the attitude of medical professionals toward DTCA is negative in both countries, from the point of view of medical professionals and patients, DTCA does not harm the self-reported relationship between doctors, pharmacists, and patients. PMID:18443992

  10. A Study of the Frequency and Social Determinants of Exposure to Cancer-Related Direct-to-Consumer Advertising Among Breast, Prostate, and Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Tan, Andy S L

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-related direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) is controversial because cancer treatment is complex and entails more risks and costs than typical treatments that are advertised for other conditions. Drawing from the Structural Influence Model of Communication, this study explores communication inequalities in DTCA exposure across social determinants among a population-based sample of 2013 patients diagnosed with breast, prostate, or colorectal cancers. Three survey items assessed patients' frequency of encountering ads concerning treatment alternatives for cancer, dealing with side effects of treatment, and doctors or hospitals offering services for cancer following their diagnosis. The analysis showed that overall exposure to DTCA in this study population was modest (median was once per week). Breast cancer patients reported significantly higher exposure to all three ad categories and overall DTCA exposure than prostate and colorectal cancer patients. Older patients consistently reported lower overall exposure to DTCA across the three cancer types. Other significant correlates included ethnicity (higher exposures among African American prostate cancer patients vs. White; lower exposures in Hispanic colorectal cancer patients vs. White) and cancer stage (higher exposures in Stage IV prostate cancer patients vs. Stages 0-II). Education level did not predict patients' DTCA exposure. The implications of these observed inequalities in DTCA exposure on cancer outcomes are discussed. PMID:25357119

  11. 12 CFR 213.7 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advertising. 213.7 Section 213.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM CONSUMER LEASING (REGULATION M) § 213.7 Advertising. (a) General rule. An advertisement for a consumer lease may state that a specific lease of property at specific...

  12. 12 CFR 213.7 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 213.7 Section 213.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM CONSUMER LEASING (REGULATION M) § 213.7 Advertising. (a) General rule. An advertisement for a consumer lease may state that...

  13. POISON POLITICS: A Contentious History of Consumer Protection Against Dangerous Household Chemicals in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Benrubi, Isidore Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The history of consumer protection against household poisons presents a key case study of the uniquely American struggle to balance public health and safety with the interests of business. By the late 19th century, package designs, warning labels, and state statutes had formed an uneven patchwork of protective mechanisms against accidental poisonings. As household chemicals proliferated in the early 20th century, physicians concerned with childhood poisonings pressured the federal government to enact legislation mandating warning labels on packaging for these substances. Manufacturers of household chemicals agreed to labeling requirements for caustic poisons but resisted broader regulation. Accidental poisonings of children continued to increase until the enactment of broad labeling and packaging legislation in the 1960s and 1970s. This history suggests that voluntary agreements between government agencies and manufacturers are inadequate to protect consumers against household poisonings and that, in the United States, protective household chemical regulation proceeds in a reactive rather than a precautionary manner. PMID:23488510

  14. Poison politics: a contentious history of consumer protection against dangerous household chemicals in the United States.

    PubMed

    Jones, Marian Moser; Benrubi, Isidore Daniel

    2013-05-01

    The history of consumer protection against household poisons presents a key case study of the uniquely American struggle to balance public health and safety with the interests of business. By the late 19th century, package designs, warning labels, and state statutes had formed an uneven patchwork of protective mechanisms against accidental poisonings. As household chemicals proliferated in the early 20th century, physicians concerned with childhood poisonings pressured the federal government to enact legislation mandating warning labels on packaging for these substances. Manufacturers of household chemicals agreed to labeling requirements for caustic poisons but resisted broader regulation. Accidental poisonings of children continued to increase until the enactment of broad labeling and packaging legislation in the 1960s and 1970s. This history suggests that voluntary agreements between government agencies and manufacturers are inadequate to protect consumers against household poisonings and that, in the United States, protective household chemical regulation proceeds in a reactive rather than a precautionary manner. PMID:23488510

  15. 75 FR 51168 - Consumer Protections for Depository Institution Sales of Insurance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Consumer Protections for Depository Institution Sales of Insurance AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comment. SUMMARY: The... Collection Comments, Chief Counsel's Office, Office of Thrift Supervision, 1700 G Street, NW., Washington,...

  16. 77 FR 51706 - Transportation of Household Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer Protection Regulations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... the direct final rule published in the Federal Register on July 16, 2012 (77 FR 41699), is confirmed...'s direct final rule procedures (75 FR 29915, May 28, 2010) because it was a routine and... Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer Protection Regulations: Household Goods Motor Carrier...

  17. 76 FR 14014 - Public Roundtables: Protecting Consumers in the Sale and Leasing of Motor Vehicles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... July 21, 2011 as the transfer date. See 75 FR 57252 (Sept. 20, 2010). II. Roundtable Goals and Topics... Public Roundtables: Protecting Consumers in the Sale and Leasing of Motor Vehicles AGENCY: Federal Trade... efforts to fulfill this commitment in connection with the sale, financing, and leasing practices of...

  18. 12 CFR 590.4 - Federally-related residential manufactured housing loans-consumer protection provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Federally-related residential manufactured housing loans-consumer protection provisions. 590.4 Section 590.4 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PREEMPTION OF STATE USURY LAWS § 590.4 Federally-related residential manufactured housing...

  19. 14 CFR 298.30 - Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection. 298.30 Section 298.30 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Limitations and Conditions on Exemptions and Operations § 298.30 Public disclosure of policy on...

  20. 14 CFR 298.30 - Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection. 298.30 Section 298.30 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Limitations and Conditions on Exemptions and Operations § 298.30 Public disclosure of policy on...

  1. 14 CFR 298.30 - Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection. 298.30 Section 298.30 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Limitations and Conditions on Exemptions and Operations § 298.30 Public disclosure of policy on...

  2. 14 CFR 298.30 - Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection. 298.30 Section 298.30 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Limitations and Conditions on Exemptions and Operations § 298.30 Public disclosure of policy on...

  3. 14 CFR 298.30 - Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection. 298.30 Section 298.30 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Limitations and Conditions on Exemptions and Operations § 298.30 Public disclosure of policy on...

  4. Advertising's Image of Minorities and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Patricia Bell

    1977-01-01

    Home economists and other educators are responsible for making certain that consumers are aware not only of racism and sexism in advertising, but also of their right to complain about advertisements. (TA)

  5. Critical Listening/Reading of Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutolo, Daniel

    1981-01-01

    Discusses techniques used in advertising parity products (products that do not differ from brand to brand) to attract children's attention and advocates consumer education for children to make them aware of advertising claims. (HTH)

  6. Self-reported influence of television-based direct-to-consumer advertising on patient seasonal allergy and asthma medication use: An internet survey

    PubMed Central

    Khanfar, Nile M.; Clauson, Kevin A.; Polen, Hyla H.; Shields, Kelly M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Direct-to-consumer advertising (DDTCA) of medications, a marketing tool used by the pharmaceutical industry to increase patient awareness of products, affects both consumer behavior and, ultimately, physician prescribing practices. Billions of dollars are budgeted each year for DTCA, and its influence is far-reaching. However, little information is available about patient-initiated physician interactions in which television-bbased DTCA has played a role in consumer behavior. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the influence of television-based DTCA on treatment changes in patient-initiated medication use. Methods: A 68-item survey instrument consisting of dichotomous, multiple-choice, and open-ended questions was constructed and sent to a convenience sample of US residents during 3 consecutive months ending in February 2005. The survey, which was accessed through an Internet link provided in the e-mail, was designed to capture data about patient perceptions and behaviors regarding television-based DTCA of prescription medications used for seasonal allergy and asthma as well as demographic information. Inferential and descriptive analyses were performed. Key tests included Crosstabs analysis and normal approximation to the binomial test with the z score. Results: Surveys were sent to 2500 individuals. A total of 427 valid surveys were returned for a 17.1% response rate. Of the 402 respondents (94.1%) who stated that they had seen DTCA for seasonal allergy medication, 50 (12.4%) said they had discussed the advertised medication with their physician and 22 of those discussions (44.0%) resulted in a change in treatment. Three hundred forty-two respondents (80.1%) stated that they had viewed DTCA for prescription asthma medications, and 23 of those respondents (6.7%) said that they had discussed the brand of asthma medication viewed on television with their physician. Those discussions resulted in a change in treatment for 9 respondents (39

  7. Digital Direct-to-Consumer Advertising: A Perfect Storm of Rapid Evolution and Stagnant Regulation Comment on "Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A Content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters".

    PubMed

    Mackey, Tim K

    2016-01-01

    The adoption and use of digital forms of direct-to-consumer advertising (also known as "eDTCA") is on the rise. At the same time, the universe of eDTCA is expanding, as technology on Internet-based platforms continues to evolve, from static websites, to social media, and nearly ubiquitous use of mobile devices. However, little is known about how this unique form of pharmaceutical marketing impacts consumer behavior, public health, and overall healthcare utilization. The study by Kim analyzing US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) notices of violations (NOVs) and warning letters regarding online promotional activities takes us in the right direction, but study results raise as many questions as it does answers. Chief among these are unanswered concerns about the unique regulatory challenges posed by the "disruptive" qualities of eDTCA, and whether regulators have sufficient resources and oversight powers to proactively address potential violations. Further, the globalization of eDTCA via borderless Internet-based technologies raises larger concerns about the potential global impact of this form of health marketing unique to only the United States and New Zealand. Collectively, these challenges make it unlikely that regulatory science will be able to keep apace with the continued rapid evolution of eDTCA unless more creative policy solutions are explored. PMID:27239871

  8. 12 CFR 1082.1 - Procedures for notifying the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection when a State Official takes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Financial Protection when a State Official takes an action to enforce Title X of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street... Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection when a State Official takes an action to enforce Title X of the... office of the Bureau responsible for enforcement of Federal consumer financial law pursuant to Title X...

  9. 12 CFR 1082.1 - Procedures for notifying the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection when a State Official takes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Financial Protection when a State Official takes an action to enforce title X of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street... Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection when a State Official takes an action to enforce title X of the... office of the Bureau responsible for enforcement of Federal consumer financial law pursuant to title X...

  10. The impact of denying a direct-to-consumer advertised drug request on the patient/physician relationship.

    PubMed

    Blose, Julia E; Mack, Rhonda W

    2009-01-01

    Using a scenario-based approach, an experiment is conducted to test whether the decision a physician makes to deny a prescription request (when a patient has requested a drug he or she has seen in a direct-to-consumer [DTC] ad) significantly impacts patient outcomes such as patient satisfaction and compliance intentions. The results suggest physicians can expect patient response to the denial of such a request to vary by the patient's gender in addition to the criticality of the condition being treated. The results also suggest, when treating less critical conditions, a physician can mitigate the negative effects of a denial with relatively little additional effort. PMID:19916097

  11. Discourse and policy making on consumer protection in the areas of mobile telecommunication and tanning.

    PubMed

    Schweikardt, Christoph; Rosentreter, Michael; Gross, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    Perceived health risks from electromagnetic fields in mobile telecommunication and from UV radiation in tanning have become regulation issues in Germany during the last decade. Health risk messages from government expert bodies and the main stakeholders in these areas as well as subsequent consumer protection policy making are investigated. Publications and websites of government expert bodies and the main stakeholders as well as debates in Federal Parliament were analysed to compare argumentation patterns and parliamentary decision-making processes. In both areas, the public received competing health risk messages from the industries and their critics. As a government expert body, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) held the view that alleged health risks from electromagnetic telecommunication were not proven, and propagated the precautionary principle. This opinion did not endanger the agreement of 2001 between the government and mobile telecommunication operators. After the failure to obtain voluntary commitment from the tanning industry, by contrast, the BfS recommended stricter consumer protection legislation, which was subsequently implemented. The BfS was in a key position to demand the prerogative of interpretation concerning mutually excluding health risk messages and to provide the argumentation which led the way to non-ionic radiation health protection measures. PMID:23763237

  12. General public knowledge, perceptions and practice towards pharmaceutical drug advertisements in the Western region of KSA.

    PubMed

    Al-Haddad, Mahmoud S; Hamam, Fayez; Al-Shakhshir, Sami M

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to examine general public knowledge and behavior toward pharmaceutical advertisements in the Western part of KSA. A cross sectional convenience sampling technique was used in this study. A total of 1445 valid questionnaires were received and analyzed using SPSS version 16 at alpha value of 0.05. Majority of respondents were aware of different types of drugs to be advertised and drug advertisements should seek approval from the health authorities. Television and Internet showed the highest effect on consumers. Almost half of the participants preferred an advertised drug over non-advertised one. Most of the respondents indicated that the quality of frequently advertised drugs is not better than those prescribed by the doctors. Majority of participants had positive beliefs toward advertised drugs concerning their role in education and spreading of awareness among the public. Pharmaceutical advertisements harm the doctor-patient relationship as evidenced by one-third of the investigated sample. Moreover, majority of the participants mentioned that they would consult another doctor or even change the current doctor if he/she refused to prescribe an advertised medication. Results of this study could be used to develop awareness programs for the general public and try to enforce the regulations and policies to protect the general public and patients from the business oriented pharmaceutical companies and drug suppliers. PMID:24648823

  13. A Comparative Study of Advertising in Israel and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krohn, Franklin B.; Brahms, Robert

    A study compared advertising media usage, advertising reach, and consumers' attitudes toward advertising in Israel and the United States. The study used data gathered from an Israeli survey of 1,600 consumers and an American survey of 1,500 consumers. The findings revealed that the press was the dominant advertising medium in both countries, in…

  14. 12 CFR 213.7 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising. 213.7 Section 213.7 Banks and... (REGULATION M) § 213.7 Advertising. (a) General rule. An advertisement for a consumer lease may state that a... paragraph (d)(1) of this section shall also state the following items: (i) That the transaction...

  15. Canadian Perspectives on Sex Stereotyping in Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Alice E.; Whipple, Thomas W.

    Based on research findings that sex stereotyping used for product commercials is offensive and often ineffective, recommendations for change have been proposed to the advertising industry. Women, in particular, have been portrayed in advertising in traditional domestic roles, emphasizing the consumer role, especially in television advertising.…

  16. Consumer and farmer safety evaluation of application of botanical pesticides in black pepper crop protection.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Moreno, David; Soffers, Ans E M F; Wiratno; Falke, Hein E; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Murk, Albertinka J

    2013-06-01

    This study presents a consumer and farmer safety evaluation on the use of four botanical pesticides in pepper berry crop protection. The pesticides evaluated include preparations from clove, tuba root, sweet flag and pyrethrum. Their safety evaluation was based on their active ingredients being eugenol, rotenone, β-asarone and pyrethrins, respectively. Botanical pesticides from Acorus calamus are of possible concern because of the genotoxic and carcinogenic ingredient β-asarone although estimated margins of exposure (MOE) for consumers indicate a low priority for risk management. For the other three botanical pesticides the margin of safety (MOS) between established acute reference doses and/or acceptable daily intake values and intake estimates for the consumer, resulting from their use as a botanical pesticide are not of safety concern, with the exception for levels of rotenone upon use of tuba root extracts on stored berries. Used levels of clove and pyrethrum as botanical pesticides in pepper berry crop production is not of safety concern for consumers or farmers, whereas for use of tuba root and sweet flag some risk factors were defined requiring further evaluation and/or risk management. It seems prudent to look for alternatives for use of sweet flag extracts containing β-asarone. PMID:23376780

  17. Consumer rights and responsibilities

    MedlinePlus

    Health care consumer's rights; Rights of the health care consumer ... In March 1998, the Advisory Commission on Consumer Protection and ... Consumer Bill of Rights and Responsibilities. The Commission ...

  18. A time for reexamination: advertising of physician services.

    PubMed

    Hite, R E

    1984-01-01

    How do consumers respond to advertising of physician services? In a thorough study undertaken by the author, this area is explored as well as the importance of consumer demographic characteristics and the appropriateness of the advertising media. The major implication of the study is that it is now time for reexamination of physicians' traditional abstinence from advertising. Tasteful advertisement of physician services cannot only provide benefits to the medical group, but also can answer the cries of consumers for more information. PMID:10265882

  19. Potential spillover educational effects of cancer-related direct-to-consumer advertising on cancer patients' increased information seeking behaviors: results from a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Andy S L

    2014-06-01

    Spillover effects of exposure to direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of cancer treatments on patients' general inquiry about their treatments and managing their illness are not well understood. This study examines the effects of cancer patients' exposure to cancer-related DTCA on subsequent health information seeking behaviors from clinician and non-clinician sources (lay media and interpersonal contacts). Using a longitudinal survey design over 3 years, data was collected from cancer survivors diagnosed with colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer who were randomly sampled from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry. Study outcome measures include patients' information engagement with their clinicians and information seeking from non-medical sources about cancer treatment and quality of life issues, measured in the second survey. The predictor variable is the frequency of exposure to cancer-related DTCA since diagnosis, measured at the round 1 survey. The analyses utilized lagged-weighted multivariate regressions and adjusted for round 1 levels of patient-clinician engagement, information seeking from nonmedical sources, and confounders. Exposure to cancer-related DTCA is associated with increased levels of subsequent patient-clinician information engagement (B = .023, 95% CI = .005-.040, p = .012), controlling for confounders. In comparison, exposure to DTCA is marginally significant in predicting health information seeking from non-clinician sources (B = .009, 95% CI = -.001-.018, p = .067). Cancer-related DTCA has potentially beneficial spillover effects on health information seeking behaviors among cancer patients. Exposure to DTCA predicts (a little) more patient engagement with their physicians. PMID:24254248

  20. Potential Spillover Educational Effects Of Cancer-Related Direct-To-Consumer Advertising On Cancer Patients’ Increased Information Seeking Behaviors: Results From A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Andy SL

    2014-01-01

    Spillover effects of exposure to direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of cancer treatments on patients’ general inquiry about their treatments and managing their illness are not well understood. This study examines the effects of cancer patients’ exposure to cancer-related DTCA on subsequent health information seeking behaviors from clinician and non-clinician sources (lay media and interpersonal contacts). Using a longitudinal survey design over three years, data was collected from cancer survivors diagnosed with colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer who were randomly sampled from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry. Study outcome measures include patients’ information engagement with their clinicians and information seeking from non-medical sources about cancer treatment and quality of life issues, measured in the second survey. The predictor variable is the frequency of exposure to cancer-related DTCA since diagnosis, measured at the round 1 survey. The analyses utilized lagged weighted multivariate regressions and adjusted for round 1 levels of patient-clinician engagement, information seeking from non-medical sources, and confounders. Exposure to cancer-related DTCA is associated with increased levels of subsequent patient-clinician information engagement (B=.023, 95%CI=.005 to .040, p=.012), controlling for confounders. In comparison, exposure to DTCA is marginally significant in predicting health information seeking from non-clinician sources (B=.009, 95%CI=−.001 to .018, p=.067). Cancer-related DTCA has potentially beneficial spillover effects on health information seeking behaviors among cancer patients. Exposure to DTCA predicts (a little) more patient engagement with their physicians. PMID:24254248

  1. The preventative power of "pink": Delineating the effects of social identification and protection motivation theory in breast cancer-related advertisements.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Michael B; Dillard, Sydney

    2016-01-01

    An online experiment was conducted to assess the extent gender-salient breast cancer awareness advertisements had on influencing risk perception, encouraging preventative behaviors, and gathering health information. Social identification theory and protection motivation theory postulate gender-salient pink-branded advertisements trigger defense mechanisms, countering desired outcomes. This study concludes gender-salient ads focusing on women, and displaying the Susan G. Komen logo caused aversive behaviors, whereas gender-neutral ads, showing medical providers and logos such as American Medical Association, improve health-related reporting. Results also highlight a disconnect between women who socially identify as breast cancer survivors/supporters, and those with no prior experience with breast cancer. PMID:27459424

  2. Joseph Pulitzer II and Advertising Censorship, 1929-1939. Journalism Monographs Number Seventy-seven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfaff, Daniel W.

    In an age of little or no consumer protection, the St. Louis "Post-Dispatch," under the guidance of Joseph Pulitzer II, was the first and most successful practitioner of self-imposed censorship of advertising, a practice that continues to this day. Beginning on May 1, 1929, the "Post-Dispatch" announced an aggressive program of advertising…

  3. Advertising and Regulation during the New Deal Era, 1933-1941.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanfranco, Leonard W.

    As the "New Deal" era of the "Great Depression" promised relief from the publicly perceived failures of business and industry, a corresponding attitude of consumerism arose, aimed at "Big Business's" accomplice, advertising. Across the nation, national and local consumer protection organizations arose, and nonconsumer related organizations adopted…

  4. 12 CFR 1011.50 - Advertising disclaimers; subdivisions registered and effective with the Bureau.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advertising disclaimers; subdivisions registered and effective with the Bureau. 1011.50 Section 1011.50 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION PURCHASERS' REVOCATION RIGHTS, SALES PRACTICES AND STANDARDS (REGULATION K)...

  5. 12 CFR 1011.50 - Advertising disclaimers; subdivisions registered and effective with the Bureau.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advertising disclaimers; subdivisions registered and effective with the Bureau. 1011.50 Section 1011.50 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION PURCHASERS' REVOCATION RIGHTS, SALES PRACTICES AND STANDARDS (REGULATION K)...

  6. 12 CFR 1011.50 - Advertising disclaimers; subdivisions registered and effective with the Bureau.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advertising disclaimers; subdivisions registered and effective with the Bureau. 1011.50 Section 1011.50 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION PURCHASERS' REVOCATION RIGHTS, SALES PRACTICES AND STANDARDS (REGULATION K)...

  7. 12 CFR 1009.4 - Disclosures in advertising and on the premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disclosures in advertising and on the premises. 1009.4 Section 1009.4 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS FOR DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS LACKING FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE (REGULATION I) § 1009.4 Disclosures...

  8. The Rhetoric of Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andren, Gunnar

    1980-01-01

    Presents results of a study of 300 magazine advertisements assessing the level at which the ads are objective and informative. Discusses how these ads are communications designed to influence consumer behavior to the extent that they correspond to the facts, are relevant, comprehensive, adequately supported, intelligible, and logical. (JMF)

  9. Functional Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Guy

    With minor modifications, an advertising fundamentals course can stimulate creative development and provide career direction while it presents the basic elements of advertising. A group presentation introduces students to research and familiarizes them with the conflict resolution process useful in preparing advertising. A group project arranges…

  10. Legal examination of physician advertising on the internet.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Jenny

    2006-02-01

    The Internet provides an invaluable resource to physicians seeking to market healthcare services to consumers. No longer considered an unethical practice, physician advertising has transformed over the years into an indispensable business tool in the medical community. While the Internet creates opportunities to reach vast numbers of individuals in a timely and cost-effective manner, physicians must be vigilant in adhering to laws, rules, and regulations designed to protect the public from false and deceptive practices. PMID:16732508

  11. A comparative legal analysis of social media advertising of drugs in Germany and the United States.

    PubMed

    Buechner, Bianca

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical companies use social media such as Facebook and Twitter more and more to advertise their products. Advertising of medicinal products especially in social media is a critical issue confronting patient protection, competition law and ethical concerns in direct-to-consumer advertising. Advertising in the World Wide Web must take into account national and international regulations, depending on which user from which country will have access to the information posted. Different legal requirements, if any, regulate the advertising of medicinal products. This paper discusses, challenges and compares the requirements and regulations of advertising medicinal products in social media, such as Facebook, in the United States on a federal level and the European Union with Germany as a reference Member State. Social media are very active and fast moving. Therefore, it is challenging and necessary at the same time to set guidelines and regulations for the use of social media in drug advertising. This paper is a first step toward promoting an international, consistent approach when talking about regulating advertising of medicinal products in social media. PMID:24640610

  12. Attitudinal Ambivalence as a Protective Factor Against Junk Food Advertisements: A Moderated Mediation Model of Behavioral Intention.

    PubMed

    Ran, Weina; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates the role of attitudinal ambivalence in moderating the effects of junk food advertisements on behavioral intentions by tapping different facets of this construct-felt ambivalence, potential ambivalence, and affective-cognitive ambivalence. Results based on an online survey of college students indicate that attention to junk food advertisements has an indirect positive effect on intentions to eat junk food through its positive effect on attitudes toward junk food. A moderated mediation model reveals that this indirect effect of junk food advertisements is weakened as respondents' levels of felt ambivalence increase. This moderating role is not observed for the measures of potential ambivalence and affective-cognitive ambivalence. Implications are discussed for health interventions. PMID:26020423

  13. Deceptive Advertising: Unprotected and Unknown.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducoffe, Robert Hal

    The Supreme Court tentatively extended First Amendment protection to commercial speech, but left the issue of defining and regulating deceptive advertising to the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), which has employed tools such as the cease-and-desist order, affirmative disclosure, and corrective advertising. The FTC Act did not define deception, but…

  14. 40 CFR 5.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advertising. 5.540 Section 5.540... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  15. How Affiliation Disclosure and Control Over User-Generated Comments Affects Consumer Health Knowledge and Behavior: A Randomized Controlled Experiment of Pharmaceutical Direct-to-Consumer Advertising on Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Vendemia, Megan Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Background More people are seeking health information online than ever before and pharmaceutical companies are increasingly marketing their drugs through social media. Objective The aim was to examine two major concerns related to online direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising: (1) how disclosing an affiliation with a pharmaceutical company affects how people respond to drug information produced by both health organizations and online commenters, and (2) how knowledge that health organizations control the display of user-generated comments affects consumer health knowledge and behavior. Methods We conducted a 2×2×2 between-subjects experiment (N=674). All participants viewed an infographic posted to Facebook by a health organization about a prescription allergy drug. Across conditions, the infographic varied in the degree to which the health organization and commenters appeared to be affiliated with a drug manufacturer, and the display of user-generated comments appeared to be controlled. Results Affiliation disclosure statements on a health organization’s Facebook post increased perceptions of an organization-drug manufacturer connection, which reduced trust in the organization (point estimate –0.45, 95% CI –0.69 to –0.24) and other users who posted comments about the drug (point estimate –0.44, 95% CI –0.68 to –0.22). Furthermore, increased perceptions of an organization-manufacturer connection reduced the likelihood that people would recommend the drug to important others (point estimate –0.35, 95% CI –0.59 to –0.15), and share the drug post with others on Facebook (point estimate –0.37, 95% CI –0.64 to –0.16). An affiliation cue next to the commenters' names increased perceptions that the commenters were affiliated with the drug manufacturer, which reduced trust in the comments (point estimate –0.81, 95% CI –1.04 to –0.59), the organization that made the post (point estimate –0.68, 95% CI –0.90 to –0.49), the

  16. Understanding advertising in pet nutrition.

    PubMed

    Brown, R G

    1994-04-01

    Advertising is part of the effort to attract attention of consumers to products, in this case, pet foods. It is generally benign in its effect, but it can be misleading, although rarely deliberately so. It uses a specialized vocabulary, which must be mastered if one is to understand what is intended. For all of the expense and effort, advertising figures directly in relatively few decisions to purchase. Its main intention is to call our attention to a particular pet food and to give that product an image. If the pet food does not perform in the consumer's hands, then all of the advertising on earth will not be persuasive. On the other hand, if a product performs well, the word-of-mouth will be positive and that mode of advertising is one of the most effective. PMID:8076285

  17. Understanding advertising in pet nutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R G

    1994-01-01

    Advertising is part of the effort to attract attention of consumers to products, in this case, pet foods. It is generally benign in its effect, but it can be misleading, although rarely deliberately so. It uses a specialized vocabulary, which must be mastered if one is to understand what is intended. For all of the expense and effort, advertising figures directly in relatively few decisions to purchase. Its main intention is to call our attention to a particular pet food and to give that product an image. If the pet food does not perform in the consumer's hands, then all of the advertising on earth will not be persuasive. On the other hand, if a product performs well, the word-of-mouth will be positive and that mode of advertising is one of the most effective. PMID:8076285

  18. Youth Alcohol Brand Consumption and Exposure to Brand Advertising in Magazines

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Craig S; Ostroff, Joshua; Siegel, Michael B; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S; Jernigan, David H

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Recently published research has identified the alcohol brands most frequently consumed by underage youth. The present study examines alcohol magazine advertising in 2011 to report age- and sex-specific exposure to advertisements for these brands in contrast with other magazine advertising brands less popular with youth. Method: We licensed magazine advertising occurrence data from Nielsen and magazine audience data from the research company GfK MRI (Growth from Knowledge, Mediamark Research & Intelligence) for national full-run editions for 2011. We contrasted per capita advertising exposure, considering different age- and sex-specific groups, for popular youth brands versus all other magazine brands. For each brand, we reported the age group receiving the highest level of per capita advertising exposure, as well as other age groups within 10% of that peak level. Results: Underage males ages 18–20 were the most heavily exposed age group for 11 of the top 25 brands they consumed and were within 10% of the most heavily exposed group for another 6 brands. Underage females ages 18–20 were most heavily exposed for 16 of the top 25 brands they consumed and were within 10% of the most heavily exposed group for another 2 brands. In contrast, those ages 18–20 were the most heavily exposed group for fewer than 10% of the remaining 308 magazine advertising brands for either sex. Conclusions: These findings suggest a relationship between advertising exposure and youth alcohol brand consumption. Current alcohol industry self-regulatory codes may not be sufficiently protective of youth. PMID:24988260

  19. Assessing the impact of direct-to-consumer advertisements on the AA patient: a multisite survey of patients during the office visit.

    PubMed Central

    Allison-Ottey, Sharon; Ruffin, Karen; Allison, Kimberly; Ottey, Colin C.

    2003-01-01

    The method by which patients receive health information continues to change in this new age of increased information and technology. Long gone are the days of the mystique surrounding the physician's prescribing of a medication to cure their patients ailment. In recent years, this mystique has been replaced with more informed patients that bring their questions and concerns their doctor in anticipation of open dialogue. At the other end of the spectrum are the patients that come to the visit armed with notes, copies of Web pages, information from their home medical reference books and information heard or seen from the latest advertisements directed to the consumer about a medication for a self diagnosed disease. The majority of physicians have welcomed and encouraged patients to take on more responsibility of their health and appreciate the dialogue. This is preferred to the patient who sits motionless and nods his/her head in blind agreement with the proposed plan of action. Physicians have read the data on patient compliance and medical outcomes and understand that an informed patient is an ally and not an enemy. However, is there a difference between an informed patient that asks questions seeking a more active role in their healthcare versus a demanding patient that believes that their knowledge base is equal to the physician, thereby reducing the physician to a vending machine dispensing requested prescriptions with little insight or deviation from the patient's demands? Fundamentally, we know that physicians agree that our profession dictates that we use all of the medical knowledge at our fingertips, our interpersonal skills and judgment in making recommendations to our patients. We refuse to be reduced to a simple dispenser of desired medications with no regard to the patient and their well being and in fact are incensed with the assumption that our profession has been reduced to such mediocrity. However, we prefer the middle ground with our patients

  20. Assessing the impact of direct-to-consumer advertisements on the AA patient: a multisite survey of patients during the office visit.

    PubMed

    Allison-Ottey, Sharon; Ruffin, Karen; Allison, Kimberly; Ottey, Colin C

    2003-02-01

    The method by which patients receive health information continues to change in this new age of increased information and technology. Long gone are the days of the mystique surrounding the physician's prescribing of a medication to cure their patients ailment. In recent years, this mystique has been replaced with more informed patients that bring their questions and concerns their doctor in anticipation of open dialogue. At the other end of the spectrum are the patients that come to the visit armed with notes, copies of Web pages, information from their home medical reference books and information heard or seen from the latest advertisements directed to the consumer about a medication for a self diagnosed disease. The majority of physicians have welcomed and encouraged patients to take on more responsibility of their health and appreciate the dialogue. This is preferred to the patient who sits motionless and nods his/her head in blind agreement with the proposed plan of action. Physicians have read the data on patient compliance and medical outcomes and understand that an informed patient is an ally and not an enemy. However, is there a difference between an informed patient that asks questions seeking a more active role in their healthcare versus a demanding patient that believes that their knowledge base is equal to the physician, thereby reducing the physician to a vending machine dispensing requested prescriptions with little insight or deviation from the patient's demands? Fundamentally, we know that physicians agree that our profession dictates that we use all of the medical knowledge at our fingertips, our interpersonal skills and judgment in making recommendations to our patients. We refuse to be reduced to a simple dispenser of desired medications with no regard to the patient and their well being and in fact are incensed with the assumption that our profession has been reduced to such mediocrity. However, we prefer the middle ground with our patients

  1. Be a Smart Consumer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPaola, Elizabeth Ann

    This book was prepared especially for the students of the Marie Katzenbach School for the Deaf as a one-year course in consumer education. The purpose of the book is to provide students with necessary information and skills to make wise decisions as consumers in the areas of realizing consumer values and goals; evaluating advertising; managing…

  2. [Drug advertising--users want information. Report of telephone survey conducted by North-Rhine Westphalia Public Health Service on the topic of drug advertising and drug information for users].

    PubMed

    Puteanus, U

    2000-10-01

    In Germany, drug advertising of non-prescription drugs is a controversial subject. On the one hand, consumer organisations plead for placing a ban on advertising or at least to offer a detailed description of medical risks in respect of protection. On the other hand, the pharmaceutical industry is keen on liberalizing the specific advertising law for drugs. A representative telephone survey among the population of North Rhine-Westphalia was conducted in April and May 1999. It showed consumer interest in advertising, the value of information on risks, the institution with maximum credibility in drug information for consumers, the importance of the now obligatory sentence after every advertisement: Regarding risks and side effects read the leaflet in the package and ask your physician or pharmacist, and to what extend the consumer would take advice from independent experts over the telephone about drugs. It was found that, in particular women, about 30% are occasionally interested in advertising, younger people are more open-minded about advertising than older people; and that doctors and pharmacists have the most credibility and are consulted for further information. It was also found that more than 80% of the population demanded precise information on the side effects of drugs. One-third of the consumers declared that the obligatory sentence (see above) led to greater demand for information from doctors or to read attentively the instruction leaflet. Nevertheless, there is a need for more information from more than half of the consumers, who would take advantage of an independent advice centre if this should exist. PMID:11103563

  3. Gender Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goffman, Erving

    A heavily illustrated discussion of the ways in which men and women are portrayed in advertisements is presented. The three essays which precede the 56 pages of illustrations discuss gender expressions, characteristics of public and private pictures, and gender commercials. The author notes that advertisements do not depict how men and women…

  4. [Complaints by private health insurance policy-holders to the Consumer Protection Bureau in Argentina, 2000-2008].

    PubMed

    Luzuriaga, María José; Spinelli, Hugo

    2014-05-01

    This paper analyzes problems experienced by policy-holders of voluntary private health insurance plans in Argentina when insurance companies fail to comply with the Consumer Protection Code. The sample consisted of consumer complaints filed with the Consumer Protection Bureau and rulings by the Bureau from 2000 to 2008. One striking issue was recurrent non-compliance with services included in the Mandatory Medical Program and the companies' attempts to blame policy-holders. According to the study, the lack of an information system hinders scientific studies to adequately address the problem. Thus, a comparison with studies on health insurance in other Latin American countries highlighted the importance of such research, the relationship to health systems, constraints on use and denial of citizens' rights to healthcare, and the increasing judicialization of healthcare provision. PMID:24936814

  5. Protective effects of Houttuynia cordata aqueous extract in mice consuming a high saturated fat diet.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ming-cheng; Hsu, Pei-chun; Yin, Mei-chin

    2013-02-01

    The protective effects of Houttuynia cordata aqueous extract (HCAE) in mice consuming a high saturated fat diet (HFD) were examined. HCAE, at 0.5, 1, or 2%, was supplied in drinking water for 8 weeks. HCAE was rich in phenolic acids and flavonoids. HCAE intake at 1 and 2% decreased body weight, epididymal fat, insulin resistance, triglyceride and total cholesterol contents in plasma and liver from HFD-treated mice (p < 0.05). HFD enhanced hepatic activity of malic enzyme, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase; and augmented the hepatic level of saturated fatty acids (p < 0.05). HCAE intake at 2% reduced malic enzyme and FAS activities, and lowered saturated fatty acids content in liver (p < 0.05). HCAE suppressed HFD induced oxidative and inflammatory stress in the heart and liver via reducing the malondialdehyde level, retaining glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase activity, decreasing tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6 production (p < 0.05). These results support that Houttuynia cordata is a potent food against HFD induced obesity, and oxidative and inflammatory injury. PMID:23165792

  6. Energy efficiency public service advertising campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson-Grant, Amanda

    2015-06-12

    The Advertising Council (“the Ad Council”) and The United States Department of Energy (DOE) created and launched a national public service advertising campaign designed to promote energy efficiency. The objective of the Energy Efficiency campaign was to redefine how consumers approach energy efficiency by showing that saving energy can save homeowners money.

  7. Advertising as a Site of Language Contact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piller, Ingrid

    2003-01-01

    Reviews work on language contact phenomena in advertising. More emphasis is being placed on multilingual discourses in advertising and the ways in which these index identities, both of the products and services with which multiple cods are associated and of the consumers who peruse them. Also examines the various functions of different contact…

  8. Advertising in the Schools. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aidman, Amy

    This digest reviews the recent history of advertising to children, spotlights controversial marketing efforts, and examines the nature of commercial messages directed toward children in public schools. Because of the increase in children's spending power in recent decades, advertisers have closely targeted children as consumers. Advertising…

  9. Language, Cognition, and Manipulation in Advertising Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egorova, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    This research examines advertising discourse in Russian and English as acts of communicative exchange and interpersonal relationship between advertising discourse participants. The purpose was to identify and describe the way that viewers process information contained in television commercials and how they become consumers moving from getting…

  10. Priming Effects of Television Food Advertising on Eating Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jennifer L.; Bargh, John A.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Health advocates have focused on the prevalence of advertising for calorie-dense low-nutrient foods as a significant contributor to the obesity epidemic. This research tests the hypothesis that exposure to food advertising during television viewing may also contribute to obesity by triggering automatic snacking of available food. Design In Experiments 1a and 1b, elementary-school-aged children watched a cartoon that contained either food advertising or advertising for other products and received a snack while watching. In Experiment 2, adults watched a television program that included food advertising that promoted snacking and/or fun product benefits, food advertising that promoted nutrition benefits or no food advertising. The adults then tasted and evaluated a range of healthy to unhealthy snack foods in an apparently separate experiment. Main Outcome Measures Amount of snack foods consumed during and after advertising exposure. Results Children consumed 45% more when exposed to food advertising. Adults consumed more of both healthy and unhealthy snack foods following exposure to snack food advertising compared to the other conditions. In both experiments, food advertising increased consumption of products not in the presented advertisements, and these effects were not related to reported hunger or other conscious influences. Conclusion These experiments demonstrate the power of food advertising to prime automatic eating behaviors and thus influence far more than brand preference alone. PMID:19594263

  11. Social Effects of Mass Media Advertising on the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ruth B.; And Others

    A study examined the effects of media advertising on the elderly to determine whether they use the media to help combat social disengagement, whether they perceived the elderly as positively portrayed in advertising, whether they perceive their role as consumer as declining, whether television advertising reinforced sex roles, and whether the…

  12. An Empirical Approach to Determining Advertising Spending Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunoo, D. H.; Lin, Lynn Y. S.

    To assess the relationship between advertising and consumer promotion and to determine the optimal short-term advertising spending level for a product, a research project was undertaken by a major food manufacturer. One thousand homes subscribing to a dual-system cable television service received either no advertising exposure to the product or…

  13. 16 CFR 255.2 - Consumer endorsements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer endorsements. 255.2 Section 255.2... ENDORSEMENTS AND TESTIMONIALS IN ADVERTISING § 255.2 Consumer endorsements. (a) An advertisement employing...., without using endorsements. Consumer endorsements themselves are not competent and reliable...

  14. Advertisements impact the physiological efficacy of a branded drug

    PubMed Central

    Kamenica, Emir; Naclerio, Robert; Malani, Anup

    2013-01-01

    We conducted randomized clinical trials to examine the impact of direct-to-consumer advertisements on the efficacy of a branded drug. We compared the objectively measured, physiological effect of Claritin (Merck & Co.), a leading antihistamine medication, across subjects randomized to watch a movie spliced with advertisements for Claritin or advertisements for Zyrtec (McNeil), a competitor antihistamine. Among subjects who test negative for common allergies, exposure to Claritin advertisements rather than Zyrtec advertisements increases the efficacy of Claritin. We conclude that branded drugs can interact with exposure to television advertisements. PMID:23878212

  15. Consumer Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornacchia, Harold J.

    Consumer health refers to the potential or actual impact upon the consumer, individually or collectively, of any substances, devices, services, or systems that are offered for the supposed purpose of protecting, preserving, or restoring physical or mental health. This book is an effort to help the consumer to choose intelligently in spending for…

  16. Accuracy of information on printed over-the-counter drug advertisements.

    PubMed

    Sansgiry, S; Sharp, W T; Sansgiry, S S

    1999-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer drug advertising is a useful medium for educating people and disseminating product information. Consumers make product purchase decisions based on the information gained from advertisements. If advertisements are misleading, consumers may not have adequate drug knowledge to detect this misinformation. The objective of this study was to evaluate print advertisements for over-the-counter (OTC) products. Five clinical pharmacists evaluated print advertisements appearing in three consumer periodicals. Advertisements were selected over a nine month period beginning January 1994. Accuracy of information on OTC advertisements was determined based on federal guidelines. Additionally, reviewers identified deficiencies in advertisements that may mislead consumers. According to reviewers, around 50% of advertisements lacked accurate statements. Side effects were indicated on only one advertisement. All advertisements were indicated by reviewers to be more promotional than educational. Reviewers indicated that more than 50% of advertisements lacked information essential for consumers to make an informed choice during self-medication decisions. This study indicates that OTC drug advertisements lack information necessary for consumers to make informed purchase decisions. Inaccurate information and lack of information on side effects could mislead consumers causing harmful adverse events. PMID:11010213

  17. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    PubMed

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-01-01

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups. PMID:23618638

  18. Publishers Still Stand Unprotected from Misappropriation of Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Paul W.

    1980-01-01

    Surveys court rulings on "piracy," or misappropriation, of advertising; concludes that the courts have refused to give advertising the same protection from piracy that they have afforded news material. (GT)

  19. Gender Stereotypes and Selling Techniques in Television Advertising: Effects on Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Debra; Knupfer, Nancy Nelson

    This paper examines gender messages within television advertisements. Society is shaped by the suggestions of television advertisers who influence consumers' beliefs on how people should look or act, and many of these advertisements perpetuate stereotypes. Any consideration of the influence of gender stereotyping within TV advertising must first…

  20. Making Sense out of Sex Stereotypes in Advertising: A Feminist Analysis of Assumptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrante, Karlene

    Sexism and racism in advertising have been well documented, but feminist research aimed at social change must go beyond existing content analyses to ask how advertising is created. Analysis of the "mirror assumption" (advertising reflects society) and the "gender assumption" (advertising speaks in a male voice to female consumers) reveals the fact…

  1. Intervention Model for Contaminated Consumer Products: A Multifaceted Tool for Protecting Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Munerah; Nagin, Deborah; Clark, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Lead-based paint and occupational lead hazards remain the primary exposure sources of lead in New York City (NYC) children and men, respectively. Lead poisoning has also been associated with the use of certain consumer products in NYC. The NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene developed the Intervention Model for Contaminated Consumer Products, a comprehensive approach to identify and reduce exposure to lead and other hazards in consumer products. The model identifies hazardous consumer products, determines their availability in NYC, enforces on these products, and provides risk communication and public education. Implementation of the model has resulted in removal of thousands of contaminated products from local businesses and continues to raise awareness of these hazardous products. PMID:24922141

  2. The Profitability of Consumer Protection: Warranty Policy in the Auto Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Kenneth; Miller, Richard E.

    1980-01-01

    A consumer survey and data obtained through interviews with automobile industry professionals indicate that the automobile industry is biased against the development of goodwill assets because of exclusive reliance on short-term accounting systems. (Author/IRT)

  3. 3 CFR 8634 - Proclamation 8634 of March 4, 2011. National Consumer Protection Week, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... safe online, and understand mortgages and other financial transactions. By seeking out this information... encourage all Americans to learn about their rights as consumers and seek out the knowledge to manage...

  4. Intervention model for contaminated consumer products: a multifaceted tool for protecting public health.

    PubMed

    Hore, Paromita; Ahmed, Munerah; Nagin, Deborah; Clark, Nancy

    2014-08-01

    Lead-based paint and occupational lead hazards remain the primary exposure sources of lead in New York City (NYC) children and men, respectively. Lead poisoning has also been associated with the use of certain consumer products in NYC. The NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene developed the Intervention Model for Contaminated Consumer Products, a comprehensive approach to identify and reduce exposure to lead and other hazards in consumer products. The model identifies hazardous consumer products, determines their availability in NYC, enforces on these products, and provides risk communication and public education. Implementation of the model has resulted in removal of thousands of contaminated products from local businesses and continues to raise awareness of these hazardous products. PMID:24922141

  5. Bicultural Advertising and Hispanic Acculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Wan-Hsiu Sunny; Li, Cong

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of acculturation modes (assimilated, integrated, and separated) on Hispanic consumers' responses to three advertising targeting strategies (Caucasian targeted, bicultural, and Hispanic targeted). The hypotheses were empirically tested in a 3 x 3 factorial experiment with 155 self-identified Hispanic adult…

  6. 78 FR 54629 - Consumer Advisory Board meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION BUREAU Consumer Advisory Board meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION... Consumer Advisory Board (``CAB'' or ``Board'') of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (Bureau)....

  7. Breaking through the Advertising Clutter: A Qualitative Analysis of Broken Stereotypes in Print and Television Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Charles U.

    As a result of the overwhelming amount of print and electronic advertisements which compete for consumer attention, advertisers must find effective methods to get through the ad clutter and capture their audience's interest. Several tactics can accomplish this strategy, including the tactic of breaking or reversing audience expectations or…

  8. Hydrogeologic uncertainties and policy implications: The Water Consumer Protection Act of Tucson, Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, L. G.; Matlock, W. G.; Jacobs, K. L.

    The 1995 Water Consumer Protection Act of Tucson, Arizona, USA (hereafter known as the Act) was passed following complaints from Tucson Water customers receiving treated Central Arizona Project (CAP) water. Consequences of the Act demonstrate the uncertainties and difficulties that arise when the public is asked to vote on a highly technical issue. The recharge requirements of the Act neglect hydrogeological uncertainties because of confusion between "infiltration" and "recharge." Thus, the Act implies that infiltration in stream channels along the Central Wellfield will promote recharge in the Central Wellfield. In fact, permeability differences between channel alluvium and underlying basin-fill deposits may lead to subjacent outflow. Additionally, even if recharge of Colorado River water occurs in the Central Wellfield, groundwater will become gradually salinized. The Act's restrictions on the use of CAP water affect the four regulatory mechanisms in Arizona's 1980 Groundwater Code as they relate to the Tucson Active Management Area: (a) supply augmentation; (b) requirements for groundwater withdrawals and permitting; (c) Management Plan requirements, particularly mandatory conservation and water-quality issues; and (d) the requirement that all new subdivisions use renewable water supplies in lieu of groundwater. Political fallout includes disruption of normal governmental activities because of the demands in implementing the Act. Résumé La loi de 1995 sur la protection des consommateurs d'eau de Tucson (Arizona, États-Unis) a été promulguée à la suite des réclamations des consommateurs d'eau de Tucson alimentés en eau traitée à partir à la station centrale d'Arizona (CAP). Les conséquences de cette loi montrent les incertitudes et les difficultés qui apparaissent lorsque le public est appeléà voter sur un problème très technique. Les exigences de la loi en matière de recharge négligent les incertitudes hydrogéologiques du fait de la

  9. Hydrogeologic uncertainties and policy implications: The Water Consumer Protection Act of Tucson, Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, L. G.; Matlock, W. G.; Jacobs, K. L.

    The 1995 Water Consumer Protection Act of Tucson, Arizona, USA (hereafter known as the Act) was passed following complaints from Tucson Water customers receiving treated Central Arizona Project (CAP) water. Consequences of the Act demonstrate the uncertainties and difficulties that arise when the public is asked to vote on a highly technical issue. The recharge requirements of the Act neglect hydrogeological uncertainties because of confusion between "infiltration" and "recharge." Thus, the Act implies that infiltration in stream channels along the Central Wellfield will promote recharge in the Central Wellfield. In fact, permeability differences between channel alluvium and underlying basin-fill deposits may lead to subjacent outflow. Additionally, even if recharge of Colorado River water occurs in the Central Wellfield, groundwater will become gradually salinized. The Act's restrictions on the use of CAP water affect the four regulatory mechanisms in Arizona's 1980 Groundwater Code as they relate to the Tucson Active Management Area: (a) supply augmentation; (b) requirements for groundwater withdrawals and permitting; (c) Management Plan requirements, particularly mandatory conservation and water-quality issues; and (d) the requirement that all new subdivisions use renewable water supplies in lieu of groundwater. Political fallout includes disruption of normal governmental activities because of the demands in implementing the Act. Résumé La loi de 1995 sur la protection des consommateurs d'eau de Tucson (Arizona, États-Unis) a été promulguée à la suite des réclamations des consommateurs d'eau de Tucson alimentés en eau traitée à partir à la station centrale d'Arizona (CAP). Les conséquences de cette loi montrent les incertitudes et les difficultés qui apparaissent lorsque le public est appeléà voter sur un problème très technique. Les exigences de la loi en matière de recharge négligent les incertitudes hydrogéologiques du fait de la

  10. The effectiveness of parental communication in modifying the relation between food advertising and children's consumption behaviour.

    PubMed

    Buijzen, Moniek

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of various types of parental communication in modifying children's responses to television food advertising. In a combined diary-survey study among 234 parents of 4- to 12-year-old children, I investigated how different styles of advertising mediation (active vs. restrictive) and consumer communication (concept-oriented vs. socio-oriented) moderated the relation between children's advertising exposure and their consumption of advertised energy-dense food products. Interaction analysis in regression showed that active advertising mediation (i.e. explaining the purpose and nature of advertising), and socio-oriented consumer communication (i.e. emphasizing control and restrictions) significantly reduced the impact of advertising on children's food consumption. Parental restrictions of advertising exposure were only effective among younger children (<8). These results suggest that critical discussion about advertising and rule making about consumption are most effective in countering the impact of food advertising. PMID:19972665

  11. A bill to clarify the application of certain leverage and risk-based requirements under the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Collins, Susan M. [R-ME

    2014-03-10

    03/11/2014 Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Subcommittee on Financial Institutions and Consumer Protection. Hearings held. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. [Coordination of governmental and public control in providing sanitary epidemiologic well-being of population and consumers' rights protection].

    PubMed

    Rakitin, I A; Zel'din, A L

    2015-01-01

    The article covers features of govenmental and public control in providing sanitary epidemiologic well-being of population and consumers' rights protection. Based on analysis of contemporary legislation, the authors evaluated terms "control" and "supervision", having different legal nature. The authors determined specific traits and define subjects and objects for public control in relationships aimed to provide sanitary epidemiologic well-being of population, evaluated legislative basis of citizens' claims to Rospotrebnadzor, pointed at difficulties in implementation of public control in connection with necessity to create new organizational and legal mechanisms widening control possibilities. PMID:26859972

  13. Advertising Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandage, C. H.; Fryburger, Vernon

    The social and economic functions of advertising, its role in business, how it works, and how it is planned and created are the subject of this textbook. Sections include basic values and functions, background for planning advertising strategy, the advertising message, advertising media, testing advertising effectiveness, and the advertising…

  14. 40 CFR 166.7 - User notification; advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false User notification; advertising. 166.7... § 166.7 User notification; advertising. (a) A State or Federal agency that obtains an exemption may... received) delivers or offers to deliver any pesticide, to advertise the pesticide for any use authorized...

  15. Classroom Techniques to Evaluate Advertising in Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutolo, Daniel J.

    Teachers should understand how the persuasive process employed by advertisers affects consumers' cognitive responses. They should also be aware of the purposes and techniques employed by the American consumer movement, which is attempting to augment the rights and power of buyers in relation to sellers. Since a review of the current rights of…

  16. Modeling Newspaper Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Joseph; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a mathematical model for simulating a newspaper financial system. Includes the effects of advertising and circulation for predicting advertising linage as a function of population, income, and advertising rate. (RL)

  17. The Tip of the Iceberg of Misleading Online Advertising Comment on "Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A Content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters".

    PubMed

    Mintzes, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Kim's overview of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory actions from 2005 to 2014 is a comprehensive analysis of the US regulatory experience with online direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription medicines. This experience is of relevance internationally as online DTCA reaches the English-speaking public globally, despite the illegality of DTCA in most countries. The most common violations were omissions or minimizations of risk information, overstatements of efficacy, unsubstantiated claims, and promotion of unapproved ("off-label") use. Nearly one fourth of violations involved cancer drugs, raising additional concerns about patient vulnerability, limited treatment advance, and high costs. Based on content analyses of online DTCA, these cases likely reflect a small proportion of unbalanced and misleading promotional information available on the web. The FDA is only able to review a small proportion of promotional materials submitted to them, due to limited staffing, and the delay between first posting and regulatory action means that many people may be exposed to messages that are found to be inaccurate and misleading. The sheer volume of online DTCA, combined with the ability for content to shift continually, poses unique regulatory challenges. PMID:27239883

  18. Pharmaceutical Advertising and Medicare Part D

    PubMed Central

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Sood, Neeraj; Gu, Qian

    2013-01-01

    We explore how and to what extent prescription drug insurance expansions affects incentives for pharmaceutical advertising. When insurance expansions make markets more profitable, firms respond by boosting advertising. Theory suggests this effect will be magnified in the least competitive drug classes, where firms internalize a larger share of the benefits from advertising. Empirically, we find that the implementation of Part D coincides with a 14% to 19% increase in total advertising expenditures. This effect is indeed concentrated in the least competitive drug classes. The additional advertising raised utilization among non-elderly patients outside the Part D program by about 3.6%. This is roughly half of the direct utilization effect of Part D on elderly beneficiaries. The results suggest the presence of considerable spillover effects from publicly subsidized prescription drug insurance on the utilization and welfare of consumers outside the program. PMID:24308884

  19. 49 CFR 371.111 - Must I provide individual shippers with Federal consumer protection information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... methods: (1) Provide a hyperlink on your Internet Web site to the FMCSA Web site containing the... section, and elects to access the same information via the hyperlink on the Internet as provided in... protection information on the Internet. (c) You must obtain a signed, dated, electronic or paper...

  20. An Overview: Consumer Protection in Higher Education. Why? For Whom? How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Sandra L.

    The protection of the student and prospective student at the postsecondary level is examined. Twenty-five possible educational abuses and concerns, such as discriminatory refund policies and misrepresentation, identified by the Federal Interagency on Education are listed. Ten issues selected as the thrust of the first National Conference on…

  1. 40 CFR 166.7 - User notification; advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false User notification; advertising. 166.7 Section 166.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS... received) delivers or offers to deliver any pesticide, to advertise the pesticide for any use authorized...

  2. An approach to improving hospital advertising.

    PubMed

    Gombeski, W R; Luck, C; Camden, C; Pimlott, C; Rucker, J B; Wilker, M

    1996-01-01

    Newspaper ads from hospitals in Ohio were rated for their effectiveness and explicit use of marketing principles. Analysis showed that the advertising could be improved by increasing the motivation for action, emphasizing how the organization's products and services are different from competitors and more thoroughly identifying the benefits the consumer would receive. Use of the two forms in the study can contribute to improved health care advertising. PMID:10161847

  3. Two advertisements for TV drug ads.

    PubMed

    Bodenheimer, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The paper by Joel Weissman and colleagues addresses the increasingly important topic of the effects of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) by pharmaceutical companies. The authors claim that their results should be reassuring to "those concerned about potential adverse health care consequences of DTCA". However, the study and analysis of the data are marred by several flaws that diminish the importance and relevance of the findings, including weakness in design, overgenerous interpretations, and failure to address key questions. Rather than informing the debate, the study amounts to little more than an advertisement for drug advertisements. PMID:14527241

  4. Consumer Issues and Action--One of a Series in Expanded Programs of Consumer Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendenhall, James E.

    This module, one in a series relating to consumer education, is intended as a teaching guide. Topics covered by the guide are: What Should Consumers Know and Do in Order to Get Their Money's Worth?; What Should Consumers Know and Do about Advertising?; What Should Consumers Know and Do about Product Warranties?; What Should Consumers Know and Do…

  5. Consumer of concern early entry program (C-CEEP): protecting against the biological suicidal warfare host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fish, Janet D.

    2014-05-01

    Man has used poisons for assassination purposes ever since the dawn of civilization, not only against individual enemies but also occasionally against armies. According to (Frischknecht, 2003)11 article on the History of Biological Warfare, during the past century, more than 500 million people died of infectious diseases. Several tens of thousands of these deaths were due to the deliberate release of pathogens or toxins. Two international treaties outlawed biological weapons in 1925 and 1972, but they have largely failed to stop countries from conducting offensive weapons research and large-scale production of biological weapons. Before the 20th century, biological warfare took on three main forms: (1) deliberate poisoning of food and water with infectious material, (2) use of microorganisms or toxins in some form of weapon system, and (3) use of biologically inoculated fabrics (Dire, 2013)8. This action plan is aimed at the recognition of the lack of current processes in place under an unidentified lead agency to detect, identify, track, and contain biological agents that can enter into the United States through a human host. This action plan program has been identified as the Consumer of Concern Early Entry Program or a simpler title is C-CEEP.

  6. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines. Protecting consumers with food allergies: understanding food consumption, meeting regulations and identifying unmet needs.

    PubMed

    Muraro, A; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; Holzhauser, T; Poulsen, L K; Gowland, M H; Akdis, C A; Mills, E N C; Papadopoulos, N; Roberts, G; Schnadt, S; van Ree, R; Sheikh, A; Vieths, S

    2014-11-01

    Individuals suffering from IgE-mediated food allergy usually have to practise life-long food allergen avoidance. This document aims to provide an overview of recent evidence-based recommendations for allergen risk assessment and management in the food industry and discusses unmet needs and expectations of the food allergic consumer in that context. There is a general duty of care on the food industry and obligations in European Union legislation to reduce and manage the presence of allergens alongside other food hazards. Current evidence enables quantification of allergen reference doses used to set-up reliable food safety management plans for some foods. However, further work is required to include a wider variety of foods and to understand the impact of the food matrix as well as additional factors which affect the progression and severity of symptoms as a function of dose. Major concerns have been raised by patients, carers and patient groups about the use of precautionary 'may contain' labelling to address the issue of unintended presence of allergens; these therefore need to be reconsidered. New and improved allergen detection methods should be evaluated for their application in food production. There is an urgent requirement for effective communication between healthcare professionals, patient organizations, food industry representatives and regulators to develop a better approach to protecting consumers with food allergies. PMID:24888964

  7. Unregulated private wells in the Republic of Ireland: consumer awareness, source susceptibility and protective actions.

    PubMed

    Hynds, Paul D; Misstear, Bruce D; Gill, Laurence W

    2013-09-30

    While the safety of public drinking water supplies in the Republic of Ireland is governed and monitored at both local and national levels, there are currently no legislative tools in place relating to private supplies. It is therefore paramount that private well owners (and users) be aware of source specifications and potential contamination risks, to ensure adequate water quality. The objective of this study was to investigate the level of awareness among private well owners in the Republic of Ireland, relating to source characterisation and groundwater contamination issues. This was undertaken through interviews with 245 private well owners. Statistical analysis indicates that respondents' source type significantly influences owner awareness, particularly regarding well construction and design parameters. Water treatment, source maintenance and regular water quality testing are considered the three primary "protective actions" (or "stewardship activities") to consumption of contaminated groundwater and were reported as being absent in 64%, 72% and 40% of cases, respectively. Results indicate that the level of awareness exhibited by well users did not significantly affect the likelihood of their source being contaminated (source susceptibility); increased awareness on behalf of well users was associated with increased levels of protective action, particularly among borehole owners. Hence, lower levels of awareness may result in increased contraction of waterborne illnesses where contaminants have entered the well. Accordingly, focused educational strategies to increase awareness among private groundwater users are advocated in the short-term; the development and introdiction of formal legislation is recommended in the long-term, including an integrated programme of well inspections and risk assessments. PMID:23771203

  8. Do television food advertisements portray advertised foods in a 'healthy' food context?

    PubMed

    Adams, Jean; Tyrrell, Rachel; White, Martin

    2011-03-01

    Exposure to food promotion influences food preferences and diet. As food advertisements tend to promote 'less healthy' products, food advertising probably plays some role in the 'obesity epidemic'. Amid calls for increased regulation, food manufacturers are beginning to engage in a variety of health-promoting marketing initiatives. Positioning products in the context of a 'healthy', balanced diet in television advertisements is one such initiative. We explored whether the wider food context in which foods are advertised on television are 'healthier' than the advertised foods themselves. All foods shown in food advertisements broadcast during 1 week on one commercial UK channel were identified and classified as 'primary' (i.e. the focus of advertisements) or 'incidental'. The nutritional content of all foods was determined and that of primary and incidental foods were compared. Almost two-thirds of food advertisements did not include any incidental foods. When a wider food context was present, this tended to be 'healthier' than the primary foods that were the focus of food advertisements - particularly in terms of the food groups represented. It is not yet clear what effect this may have on consumers' perceptions and behaviour, and whether or not this practice should be encouraged or discouraged from a public health perspective. PMID:21078214

  9. Children's Advertising Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Better Business Bureaus, Inc., New York, NY.

    These guidelines have been developed for the use of advertisers and advertising agencies and for the self-regulatory mechanism which these groups have established, the National Advertising Division, to help ensure that advertising directed to children is truthful, accurate, and fair to children's perceptions. Preliminary sections set forth basic…

  10. Advertising on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jugenheimer, Donald W.

    1996-01-01

    States that although many advertisers have intentions of utilizing the Internet for advertising, which can provide specific audience targeting and buyer/seller interactivity, few have been successful. Explains advantages and disadvantages of using the Internet for advertising purposes. Cites special problems with Internet advertising and successes…

  11. Advertising's new medium: human experience.

    PubMed

    Rayport, Jeffrey F

    2013-03-01

    We live in a media-saturated world, where consumers are drowning in irrelevant messages delivered from the web, TV, radio, print, outdoor displays, and a proliferating array of mobile devices. Advertising strategies built on persuading through interruption, repetition, and brute ubiquity are increasingly ineffective. To win consumers' attention and trust, marketers must think less about what advertising says to its targets and more about what it does for them. Rayport outlines four domains of human experience: In the public sphere people move from one place or activity to another, both online and off. In the social sphere they interact with and relate to one another. In the tribal sphere they affiliate with groups to define or express their identity. In the psychological sphere they connect language with specific thoughts and feelings. Savvy marketers think about crafting messages that consumers will welcome in these domains. Zappos did that when it placed ads in airport security bins (the public sphere)--reaching people whose minds may be on their shoes. Nintendo identified young mothers who were willing to host Wii parties and provided them with everything they needed for these social-sphere events. Yelp's Elite Squad of reviewers have a heightened sense of tribal affiliation that makes them powerful brand ambassadors. Life is good Inc. is rooted in the psychological sphere: It advertises only through the optimism-promoting logo and slogan on its products. PMID:23451529

  12. Savvy Consumers through Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Sami

    2005-01-01

    Is Bounty the "quicker picker-upper?" Are expensive shampoos better? Are all antacids the same? The authors' fourth-grade students posed and answered these questions and many more during their recent "Consumer Product Testing" unit in which they designed experiments to assess these products' qualities and learned to question the advertising that…

  13. Smart Consumer Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey Consortium for Consumer Education, Newark.

    Lesson plans are provided for use with different populations of pre-K through senior high school students in four different areas of consumer education. Eight units in advertising are included: A First Look at Ads (pre-K-Grade 3), Don't Judge a Book by Its Cover (Grades 1-3), Fatal Distraction (Junior High), Package Labeling (Junior High), Product…

  14. 40 CFR 5.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising. 5.540 Section 5.540 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of...

  15. The Effects of Consumer Education on Consumer Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fast, Janet; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A study investigated the relationship between selected consumer and marketplace characteristics and consumers' prepurchase allocation of search time among information sources (product test reports; dealer sales representatives; advertisements; family and friends). The household production model proved useful; written educational materials appeared…

  16. Using Web-Based Foreign Advertisements in International Marketing Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The author examines the use of the Web-based foreign advertisements for enhancing the international awareness of undergraduate marketing students. An analysis compares the adaptation of advertisements for identical products to the cultural perceptions and values of consumers in different countries. In a sample of 110 international marketing…

  17. Optimal Dynamic Advertising Strategy Under Age-Specific Market Segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krastev, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    We consider the model proposed by Faggian and Grosset for determining the advertising efforts and goodwill in the long run of a company under age segmentation of consumers. Reducing this model to optimal control sub problems we find the optimal advertising strategy and goodwill.

  18. The Vindex Special: Learning about Technology through Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smulyan, Susan; Kosty, Carlita; Brennan, Sheila

    1998-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that uses content analysis of an advertisement for an early sewing machine, the Vindex, to examine issues of marketing, new technology, and consumer economics. Includes a reproduction of an early advertisement, a list of additional readings, and several sets of questions concerning target audience, information, and image…

  19. Narrative Magic and the Construction of Selfhood in Antidepressant Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepnisky, Jeffrey N.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the way in which selfhood is constructed in direct-to-consumer advertisements for antidepressant medications. The sample consists of advertisements that appeared in nine popular magazines between 1997 and 2005, television commercials that ran between 2003 and 2005, and online promotional Web sites. The analysis is divided…

  20. Advertising Can Be an Effective Integrated Marketing Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauer, Larry D.

    2007-01-01

    Advertising will not undermine the critical thinking of consumers when it is combined with other communication media, and when it is truthful. In fact, it can provide clarity about the competitive advantage of individual institutions and aid an individual's ability to choose wisely. Advertising is just one of the tools in the integrated marketing…

  1. Buy, Buy, Buy. How to Recognize Advertising Appeals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dianna, Michael A.

    A compilation of activities and instructional ideas on advertising helps intermediate or junior high school teachers incorporate simple consumer education concepts into the social studies curriculum. Material is divided into three sections. An outline defines 16 advertising techniques including eye appeal, youth appeal, snob appeal, celebrity…

  2. More Than We Bargained For: The Impact of Consumer Culture in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frith, Katherine T.

    Advertising by multinational corporations in Southeast Asia is generating a growing resistance to its perceived role in creating a "consumer culture" damaging to indigenous values systems. Critics of advertising in Southeast Asia argue that when multinational advertisers or their multinational advertising agencies move into this foreign setting,…

  3. Comparison of advertising strategies between the indoor tanning and tobacco industries.

    PubMed

    Greenman, Jennifer; Jones, David A

    2010-04-01

    The indoor tanning industry is large and continues to grow, with 2007 domestic sales in excess of $5 billion. Advertising is central to shaping the consumer's perception of indoor tanning as well as driving industry demand. This article aims to identify key drivers of consumer appeal by comparing tanning advertising strategies to those used by tobacco marketers. Tobacco advertising was selected as a reference framework because it is both well documented and designed to promote a product with known health hazards. Two thousand advertisements from 4 large tobacco advertisement databases were analyzed for type of advertisement strategy used, and 4 advertising method categories were devised to incorporate the maximum number of advertisements reviewed. Subsequently, contemporary tanning advertisements were collected from industry magazines and salon websites and evaluated relative to the identified strategy profiles. Both industries have relied on similar advertising strategies, including mitigating health concerns, appealing to a sense of social acceptance, emphasizing psychotropic effects, and targeting specific population segments. This examination is a small observational study, which was conducted without rigorous statistical analysis, and which is limited both by the number of advertisements and by advertising strategies examined. Given the strong parallels between tobacco and tanning advertising methodologies, further consumer education and investigation into the public health risks of indoor tanning is needed. PMID:20138395

  4. 16 CFR 14.9 - Requirements concerning clear and conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and sales materials. 14.9 Section 14.9 Commercial... and conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and sales materials. The Federal Trade... language-speaking consumers. As part of this special effort, advertisements, brochures and sales...

  5. 16 CFR 14.9 - Requirements concerning clear and conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and sales materials. 14.9 Section 14.9 Commercial... and conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and sales materials. The Federal Trade... language-speaking consumers. As part of this special effort, advertisements, brochures and sales...

  6. 16 CFR 14.9 - Requirements concerning clear and conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and sales materials. 14.9 Section 14.9 Commercial... and conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and sales materials. The Federal Trade... language-speaking consumers. As part of this special effort, advertisements, brochures and sales...

  7. 16 CFR 14.9 - Requirements concerning clear and conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and sales materials. 14.9 Section 14.9 Commercial... and conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and sales materials. The Federal Trade... language-speaking consumers. As part of this special effort, advertisements, brochures and sales...

  8. 16 CFR 14.9 - Requirements concerning clear and conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and sales materials. 14.9 Section 14.9 Commercial... and conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and sales materials. The Federal Trade... language-speaking consumers. As part of this special effort, advertisements, brochures and sales...

  9. Advertising: To Get The Reader to Buy, Buy, Buy, You Must Sell, Sell, Sell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Rob

    1998-01-01

    Offers an overview of advertising as it relates to student publications. Discusses what advertising is; what the consumer wants; the buyer and seller; creating a selling strategy; basic building blocks; advertising art; and text. Describes basic guidelines for designing an ad, outlines some assignments for students, and notes a few things not to…

  10. 75 FR 78632 - Consumer Leasing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... Secretary of the Treasury has determined that the designated transfer date shall be July 21, 2011. See 75 FR... than four months. An automobile lease is the most common type of consumer lease covered by the CLA and... consumer lease for a specific automobile. The total contractual obligation of the advertised lease...

  11. The Viability of Ethnographic Research for Hispanic Consumer Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asahina, Roberta R.

    A study explored whether ethnographic research is appropriate and feasible for Hispanic consumer research. Subjects, 41 Hispanic advertising executives (out of an original group of 80) in advertising agencies listed in the Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies from New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Miami, and San Antonio, answered a 23-item…

  12. When advertising turns "cheeky"!

    PubMed

    Burkitt, Jennifer A; Saucier, Deborah M; Thomas, Nicole A; Ehresman, Crystal

    2006-05-01

    Portraits typically exhibit leftward posing biases, with people showing more of their left cheek than their right. The current study investigated posing biases in print advertising to determine whether the product advertised affects the posing bias. As the posing bias may be decreasing over time, we also investigated changes in posing biases over a span of more than 100 years. The current investigation coded 2664 advertisements from two time periods; advertisements were coded for target group of advertisement (men, women, both) and posing bias (rightward, leftward, or central). Unlike other studies that typically observe a leftward posing bias, print advertisements exhibit a rightward posing bias, regardless of time-frame. Thus, print advertisements differ greatly from portraits, which may relate to the purpose of advertisements and the role of attractiveness in advertising. PMID:16644564

  13. E-Learning Quality Standards for Consumer Protection and Consumer Confidence: A Canadian Case Study in E-Learning Quality Assurance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Kathryn Chang

    2007-01-01

    Emerging concerns about quality of e-learning products and services animated a project in Canada to create quality standards that derived primarily from the needs of consumer, that could be used to guide the development and choice of e-learning at all levels of education and training, and that could be implemented in a simple manner. A set of…

  14. 12 CFR 1022.136 - Centralized source for requesting annual file disclosures from nationwide consumer reporting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... advertising or marketing for products or services, any communications or instructions that advertise or market... the file disclosure is delivered to the consumer through the Internet, and the nationwide consumer... communications, instructions, or permitted advertising or marketing shall not interfere with, detract...

  15. 12 CFR 1022.136 - Centralized source for requesting annual file disclosures from nationwide consumer reporting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... advertising or marketing for products or services, any communications or instructions that advertise or market... the file disclosure is delivered to the consumer through the Internet, and the nationwide consumer... communications, instructions, or permitted advertising or marketing shall not interfere with, detract...

  16. Consumer Financial Protection Bureau

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bureau, a U.S. government agency that makes sure banks, lenders, and other financial companies treat you fairly. ... en secreto por los empleados de Wells Fargo Bank resultan en una multa histórica de $100 millones ...

  17. Newspaper Ideabook: Creative Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasler, Wayne

    1977-01-01

    Offers suggestions to high school newspaper staffs for designing effective advertisements for local businesses and then selling them to the businesses. Notes that carefully planned advertisements can increase the appeal and value of a publication. (GW)

  18. Advertising Design. Art Education: 6693.07.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raia, Frank A.

    This introductory, secondary level course in advertising design provides a vocational orientation to art education. The concern of the course is the eventual use of commercial art--to persuade consumers to buy goods and services. Objectives of the course include competencies in the technical aspects of commercial art and an awareness of consumer…

  19. The Communicative Power of Advertising Illustrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Thomas A.; Long, Eugene, Jr.

    This experimental and exploratory study sought to measure the effectiveness of illustrations in selected magazine advertisements. Twenty ads from general interest consumer magazines were systematically selected and photographed on 35mm slides. The subjects for the study were juniors and seniors in journalism and psychology classes at the…

  20. Effectiveness of a Television Counter Advertisement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lull, James T.; Mulac, Anthony

    This paper investigates the potential effectiveness of counter advertising in influencing the buying habits of a convinced audience. One month before the actual study, 109 subjects indicated a brand preference in a consumer questionnaire. The subjects were randomly assigned to groups that viewed one of the following: (1) a pro-Bayer aspirin…

  1. Competition in Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Discusses five ways (high school newspaper and yearbook advertising, summer jobs, internships, contests, and student-run advertising agencies) students can start to prepare for a career in the competitive field of advertising while still in high school and college. (SR)

  2. The Bilingual Advertising Decision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grin, Francois

    1994-01-01

    Examines the relationship between linguistic plurality and the rationale of advertising decisions. The article presents a simple model of sales to different language groups as a function of the level of advertising in each language, language attitudes, incomes, and an advertising response function. The model is intended as a benchmark, and several…

  3. Home Study Advertising Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Michael P., Ed.; Welch, Sally R., Ed.

    This handbook contains a collections of nine articles on the subject of direct-response advertising. The handbook gives advice on how to create effective advertisements for home study courses. The nine articles are the following: "Overview of Home Study Advertising in the 1990s" (Michael P. Lambert); "Ad Features that Sell" (Nancie E. Robertson);…

  4. 16 CFR 255.2 - Consumer endorsements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... three individuals coming out of a theater, each of whom gives a positive statement about the movie. These individuals are actual consumers expressing their personal views about the movie. The advertiser... consumers will have about the movie. Because the consumers' statements would be understood to be...

  5. 16 CFR 255.2 - Consumer endorsements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... three individuals coming out of a theater, each of whom gives a positive statement about the movie. These individuals are actual consumers expressing their personal views about the movie. The advertiser... consumers will have about the movie. Because the consumers' statements would be understood to be...

  6. 16 CFR 255.2 - Consumer endorsements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... three individuals coming out of a theater, each of whom gives a positive statement about the movie. These individuals are actual consumers expressing their personal views about the movie. The advertiser... consumers will have about the movie. Because the consumers' statements would be understood to be...

  7. 16 CFR 255.2 - Consumer endorsements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... three individuals coming out of a theater, each of whom gives a positive statement about the movie. These individuals are actual consumers expressing their personal views about the movie. The advertiser... consumers will have about the movie. Because the consumers' statements would be understood to be...

  8. Analysis of medicine advertisement produced in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Wzorek, Lorilei de Fátima; Correr, Cassyano J.; Badaró Trindade, Angela C.; Pontarolo, Roberto

    Objective To analyze the compliance of drug advertisements with regulations in Brazil, subject to Resolution RDC No. 102/2000 since 2000, which abides by the WHO’s (World Health Organization) Ethical Criteria for Medicinal Drug Promotion, published in 1988. Methods Drug advertisements running within the period of October 2002 to October 2003 were collected and recorded. Media sources included various AM and FM radio stations, television channels, newspapers, and magazines, as well as printed material distributed in doctors’ offices, hospitals, drugstores, conferences, billboards, and bus doors. All sources were located in Curitiba City, Brazil, and its surrounding area. Advertisement content was analyzed according to a conformity checklist prepared based on the legal requirements of RDC No. 102/00. Results A total of 827 advertisements for 517 different products, 83.91% regularly registered as medicinal drugs and 16.09% unregistered products that should be registered according to the Brazilian regulations, were recorded and collected. Approximately 74.73% of the advertisements did not comply with regulations; on average, such advertisements had 4.6 infractions each. Conclusions The results of this research suggest that RDC No. 102/00 is not followed, which strengthens the need to adopt new forms of regulation to prohibit excesses of the pharmaceutical industry and to protect the population from abusive and misleading drug advertising. PMID:25214926

  9. Metaphors and myths in pharmaceutical advertising.

    PubMed

    Delbaere, Marjorie

    2013-04-01

    It should come as no surprise that the ancient Greek word for drug, pharmakon, meant remedy. But this same word also meant poison as well as magical charm. We speak of heart attacks and of a long road to recovery. These meanings and phrases are reflective of how society conceives of illness and medical therapies. Metaphors and myths of magic, sports and journey are prevalent in medical terminology and they permeate pharmaceutical advertising. This research investigates the conceptual metaphors that are present in advertisements for pharmaceuticals, both those directed to consumers as well as those directed to physicians, for a broad range of drugs and medical conditions. This research employed a content analysis of advertisements appearing in popular consumer magazines as well as in physician journals and an analysis of online consumer drug reviews. The research concludes with a discussion of the similarities and differences among the conceptual metaphors in consumer versus physician ads, across different medical conditions, and the impact of specific metaphors on consumers' understanding of illness and drug therapies. PMID:23453313

  10. 19 CFR 127.25 - Advertisement of sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertisement of sale. 127.25 Section 127.25 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL ORDER, UNCLAIMED, AND ABANDONED MERCHANDISE Sale of Unclaimed and Abandoned Merchandise § 127.25 Advertisement of sale. (a)...

  11. Application of Regulatory Focus Theory to Search Advertising

    PubMed Central

    Mowle, Elyse N.; Georgia, Emily J.; Doss, Brian D.; Updegraff, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to test the utility of regulatory focus theory principles in a real-world setting; specifically, Internet hosted text advertisements. Effect of compatibility of the ad text with the regulatory focus of the consumer was examined. Design/methodology/approach Advertisements were created using Google AdWords. Data were collected for the number of views and clicks each ad received. Effect of regulatory fit was measured using logistic regression. Findings Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that there was a strong main effect for keyword, such that users were almost six times as likely to click on a promotion advertisement as a prevention advertisement, as well as a main effect for compatibility, such that users were twice as likely to click on an advertisement with content that was consistent with their keyword. Finally, there was a strong interaction of these two variables, such that the effect of consistent advertisements was stronger for promotion searches than for prevention searches. Research limitations/implications The effect of ad compatibility had medium to large effect sizes, suggesting that individuals’ state may have more influence on advertising response than do individuals’ traits (e.g. personality traits). Measurement of regulatory fit was limited by the constraints of Google AdWords. Practical implications The results of this study provide a possible framework for ad creation for Internet advertisers. Originality/value This paper is the first study to demonstrate the utility of regulatory focus theory in online advertising. PMID:26430293

  12. DTC advertising's benefits far outweigh its imperfections.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Pat

    2004-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) communication about pharmaceutical products enables consumers to take a hands-on interest in their own health care. A growing body of research and expert opinion supports the view that the information presented in DTC communications informs patients' decision making and leads to more productive physician/patient encounters. Arguments that DTC advertising leads doctors to write unnecessary prescriptions and increases costs are unfounded. Criticism of the practice may also be shortsighted, because outpatient drug treatment can substitute for more costly therapies and hospitalizations. Public debate should focus on making information clear and comprehensible so that consumers can get maximum value. PMID:15452005

  13. 77 FR 37616 - Disclosure of Consumer Complaint Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Chapter X Disclosure of Consumer Complaint Data AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Notice of proposed policy statement. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection (the ``Bureau'') is requesting comment on a proposed...

  14. Are plastic surgery advertisements conforming to the ethical codes of the american society of plastic surgeons?

    PubMed

    Spilson, Sandra V; Chung, Kevin C; Greenfield, Mary Lou V H; Walters, Madonna

    2002-03-01

    Cosmetic surgeons have increasingly come under fire for using advertisements that may be deceptive or intended for the solicitation of vulnerable consumers. However, aesthetic surgery is a growing business that relies heavily on advertising to survive. To prevent the use of deceptive advertisements, the American Society of Plastic Surgeons has developed a code of ethics for its physician members. We conducted a study to determine the prevalence of cosmetic surgery advertisements considered objectionable by the lay public. These advertisements were published in the Yellow Pages of the 10 largest U.S. cities. Because all of the advertisements in this study contained the American Society of Plastic Surgeons logo, we also determined whether its members are upholding the ethical code of advertising. We asked a convenience sample of 50 participants to rate 104 advertisements using four yes/no questions derived from the code of ethics and one overall yes/no question regarding whether the advertisement was objectionable. We obtained the mean percentage of "yes" responses for each advertisement, from the total sample, for each question. We found that the study participants felt that 25 percent of the advertisements used images of persons or facsimiles that falsely and deceptively created unjustified expectations of favorable results. The participants responded that 22 percent of the advertisements appealed primarily to the layperson's fears, anxieties, or emotional vulnerabilities. In addition, 18 percent of the advertisements were considered to be objectionable. Discretion is currently left up to physicians as to the ethical nature of their advertisements. Although the majority of American Society of Plastic Surgeons members uphold the ethical code of advertising, there are still a substantial number of published advertisements that the average consumer considers to be in violation of this code. PMID:11884856

  15. Are HIV drug advertisements contributing to increases in risk behavior among men in San Francisco, 2001?

    PubMed

    Klausner, Jeffrey D; Kim, Andrea; Kent, Charlotte

    2002-11-22

    In winter 2001, we quantified exposure to HIV medication direct-to-consumer advertising and its relationship to attitudes and behaviors among sexually transmitted disease clinic attendees. We found that homosexual men frequently saw HIV medication advertisements. HIV-positive homosexual men with greater advertisement exposure believed HIV was a less serious disease. Men believed these advertisements influenced an individual's decision to have unprotected sex. HIV-positive homosexual men with greater advertisement exposure may be more likely to have unprotected anal intercourse. PMID:12441813

  16. Advertising's Role in a Service Industry: Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Lauren K.

    Although wide variations exist among service professions, several common attributes affect the role of advertising in the service industries. For example, because a service is intangible, it cannot be evaluated before purchased or consumed. Depending on the degree of intangibility, the consumer's assessment becomes that much more difficult, and…

  17. Alcohol advertising and youth: a measured approach.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, David H; Ostroff, Joshua; Ross, Craig

    2005-09-01

    Where alcohol industry self-regulation is the primary protection against youth exposure to alcohol advertising, independent, systematic monitoring of youth exposure can promote public awareness of and greater accountability in the industry's practices. Using commercially available databases, the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth has combined occurrence and audience data to calculate youth (aged 12-20 years) and adult (above the United States legal drinking age of 21 years) exposure to alcohol advertising on television and radio, in magazines and on the Internet. This research in the United States shows that alcohol companies have placed significant amounts of advertising where youth are more likely per capita to be exposed to it than adults. Further analyses by the Center have demonstrated that much of this excess exposure of youth to alcohol advertising in the United States could be eliminated if alcohol companies would adopt a threshold of 15% (roughly the proportion of 12-20-years-old in the population 12 and above) as the maximum youth audience composition for their advertising. Although adoption of such a threshold would still leave much youth exposure to alcohol marketing in such "unmeasured" activities as sponsorships, on-premise promotions and campus marketing, it would assist alcohol companies in reaching their intended audiences more efficiently while reducing overall youth exposure to their advertising. PMID:16167559

  18. [Cigarette and alcohol advertising in the Swiss free press].

    PubMed

    Olivier, Jacques

    2014-11-26

    Tobacco and alcohol are ordinary consumer goods that are still two overriding preventable causes of death in Switzerland. Massive advertising supports their selling and contributes to maintain a major public health problem up to date. The widely read free press represents an interesting advertising mean. The study of tobacco and alcohol advertisements published in the free newspaper 20 minutes through the year 2012 gives us a good idea of these products' advertising strategies. Compared to those for alcohol, the cigarette advertisements are more numerous, more suggestive and dealing with emotions. The themes proposed respond to young people's expectations in order to incline them to smoke, whereas positive images encourage to keep on smoking. PMID:25562979

  19. The Pastoral Care of International Students in New Zealand: Is It More Than a Consumer Protection Regime?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawir, Erlenawati; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Rawlings-Sanaei, Felicity

    2009-01-01

    Student security is a composite social practice that includes the domains of consumer rights, entitlement to a range of welfare supports and pastoral care, and freedom from exploitation and discrimination. Three traditions shape the systems used for managing and regulating international student security in the nations that export education:…

  20. Advertising Via Mobile Terminals - Delivering Context Sensitive and Personalized Advertising While Guaranteeing Privacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulander, Rebecca; Decker, Michael; Schiefer, Gunther; Kölmel, Bernhard

    Mobile terminals like cellular phones and PDAs are a promising target platform for mobile advertising: The devices are widely spread, are able to present interactive multimedia content and offer as almost permanently carried along personal communication devices a high degree of reachability. But particular because of the latter feature it is important to pay great attention to privacy aspects and avoidance of spam-messages when designing an application for mobile advertising. Furthermore the limited user interface of mobile devices is a special challenge. The following article describes the solution approach for mobile advertising developed within the project MoMa, which was funded by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour of Germany (BMWA). MoMa enables highly personalized and context sensitive mobile advertising while guaranteeing data protection. To achieve this we have to distinguish public and private context information.

  1. 36 CFR 331.20 - Advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertisement. 331.20 Section 331.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION AREA, KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.20...

  2. 36 CFR 327.17 - Advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., impairment of a protected area's atmosphere of peace and tranquility, interference with program activities... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advertisement. 327.17 Section 327.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY RULES...

  3. 36 CFR 327.17 - Advertisment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., impairment of a protected area's atmosphere of peace and tranquility, interference with program activities... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advertisment. 327.17 Section 327.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY RULES...

  4. 36 CFR 331.20 - Advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advertisement. 331.20 Section 331.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION...

  5. 36 CFR 331.20 - Advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Advertisement. 331.20 Section 331.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION...

  6. 36 CFR 331.20 - Advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Advertisement. 331.20 Section 331.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION...

  7. 36 CFR 331.20 - Advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advertisement. 331.20 Section 331.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION...

  8. Print Advertisements in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashim, Azirah

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines print advertisements in Malaysia to determine how advertisers seek to achieve their primary goal of persuading or influencing an audience by the use of both language and visuals. It describes the main component moves and rhetorical strategies used by writers to articulate the communicative purpose of the genre and the language…

  9. Advertising Public Television

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colihan, William J., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    "Several years ago an unpublished study reported that 85 per cent of established ETV stations (on-the-air two years or longer and replying to the questionnaire) used newspaper advertising for program promotion. The CPB commissioned the study reported here to determine the effects of such newspaper advertising on ETV audience size." (Editor)

  10. Advertising Pressures on Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammitt, Harry

    The majority of the media in the United States is funded through revenues derived from the sale of advertising space. The problem that arises from this situation is fundamentally an economic one: if advertisers are paying the bills for the media, how much control over content should they have? This report offers a review of instances in which…

  11. Advertising in School Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Helen M-E.

    The needs of publication advisers in general and specifically those whose responsibility it is to direct the advertising staffs of school publications are the concern of this booklet. It is also designed to be a framework of reference and a guide which will enable the adviser to make the advertising experience of the staff members exciting and…

  12. Prescription drug advertising: is it a driving force on drug pricing?

    PubMed

    Millstein, Lloyd G

    2003-01-01

    It has been shown that drug companies will sell more drugs when they use DTC advertising, but it is also true that many consumers who are suffering--unaware there is help for their symptoms--will learn from these ads that help is available. Advertising to consumers, like advertising to professionals, will continue to be one of the best methods of providing information. Of course, healthcare professionals also have the sales representatives, their colleagues, medical journals, and medical conventions as additional options for needed information. The consumer may or may not use other methods, such as the Internet, the library or friends or family, but the advertising is a starting point for a dialogue. If the DTC ad provides consumers with "information," which is different from "advertising," the drug company will be providing a worthwhile service to consumers and potential patients. No doubt consumers will begin demanding higher quality information from DTC ads and will frown upon the ads that are blatantly trying just to sell a drug. It will also reap the benefits of improved consumer awareness and patient compliance. A DTC ad that is consumer-friendly, does not use fear appeal, is educational in tone, and downplays the "hard sell" and hype will go a long way in offering important information to the casual observer. Oversight by the FDA will ensure the information meets the requirements they have set down for prescription drug advertising. That is, advertising will be truthful and fairly balanced and will meet what the government, consumers and, no doubt, the medical community wants. Attempting to control drug costs, by controlling advertising, will not be an easy task. This has an implication across all product areas, not just drugs. DTC advertising has become a lightening rod for cost containment issues, but is it alone driving demand for prescription products? I don't think so. PMID:14983621

  13. Advertising in This Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-09-01

    If you would like additional information about the products of the advertisers in this issue, the quickest and easiest way is via JCE Online's new service: Ad Index This will take you to the list of advertisers, each conveniently linked to their home page. To get advertising information via mail, fax, or email, refer to the top portion of the Readers Service Card inserted in the print issue. Whatever method of communication you use, be sure to mention to advertisers that you saw their ad in the Journal of Chemical Education. Advertising Representative McNeill Group, Inc. · 301 Oxford Valley Road, Suite 804 Yardley, PA 19067 · phone: 215/321-9662 or 800/275-5084 fax: 215/321-9636; email: jchemed@mcneill-group.com

  14. Advertising in This Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    If you would like additional information about the products of the advertisers in this issue, the quickest and easiest way is via JCE Online's new service: Ad Index This will take you to the list of advertisers, each conveniently linked to their home page. To get advertising information via mail, fax, or email, refer to the top portion of the Readers Service Card inserted in the print issue. Whatever method of communication you use, be sure to mention to advertisers that you saw their ad in the Journal of Chemical Education. Advertising Representative McNeill Group, Inc. · 301 Oxford Valley Road, Suite 804 Yardley, PA 19067 · phone: 215/321-9662 or 800/275-5084 fax: 215/321-9636; email: jchemed@mcneill-group.com

  15. Advertising in This Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-10-01

    If you would like additional information about the products of the advertisers in this issue, the quickest and easiest way is via JCE Online's new service: Ad Index This will take you to the list of advertisers, each conveniently linked to their home page. To get advertising information via mail, fax, or email, refer to the top portion of the Readers Service Card inserted in the print issue. Whatever method of communication you use, be sure to mention to advertisers that you saw their ad in the Journal of Chemical Education. Advertising Representative McNeill Group, Inc. · 301 Oxford Valley Road, Suite 804 Yardley, PA 19067 · phone: 215/321-9662 or 800/275-5084 fax: 215/321-9636; email: jchemed@mcneill-group.com

  16. Advertising in This Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-12-01

    If you would like additional information about the products of the advertisers in this issue, the quickest and easiest way is via JCE Online's new service: Ad Index This will take you to the list of advertisers, each conveniently linked to their home page. To get advertising information via mail, fax, or email, refer to the top portion of the Readers Service Card inserted in the print issue. Whatever method of communication you use, be sure to mention to advertisers that you saw their ad in the Journal of Chemical Education. Advertising Representative McNeill Group, Inc. · 301 Oxford Valley Road, Suite 804 Yardley, PA 19067 · phone: 215/321-9662 or 800/275-5084 fax: 215/321-9636; email: jchemed@mcneill-group.com

  17. Ethical advertising in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Graskemper, Joseph P

    2009-01-01

    Advertising in dentistry has steadily increased since the 1970s to become a leading choice of many dentists to promote their practices. The manner in which advertising progresses within the profession affects all dentists and how patients perceive dentistry as a profession. This paper presents ethical concepts that should be followed when dentists are pursuing practice promotion through advertising. It also raises questions that, hopefully, will increase attention and discussion on dental advertising. The paper concludes that ethical advertising is easily achieved by promoting patient education while not placing the dentist's self-interests ahead of the patient's. With this approach, dentistry may continue to be one of the most trusted professions. PMID:19537484

  18. Hazard of deceptive advertising of athletic footwear.

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, S; Waked, E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Athletic footwear are associated with frequent injury that are thought to result from repetitive impact. No scientific data suggest they protect well. Expensive athletic shoes are deceptively advertised to safeguard well through "cushioning impact", yet account for 123% greater injury frequency than the cheapest ones. This study tested the hypothesis that deceptive advertising creates a false sense of security with users of expensive athletic shoes, inducing attenuation of impact moderating behaviour, increased impact, and injury. METHODS: Fifteen young healthy male volunteers confronted four surfaces: a bare force moment platform, and three with this platform covered by identical shoe sole material made to appear different and advertised divergently. Advertising messages suggested superior impact absorption and protection (deceptive message), poor impact absorption and high injury risk (warning message), and unknown impact absorption and safety (neutral message). Ground reaction forces were recorded for 10 barefoot footfalls, according to a protocol requiring stepping forward from perch to a surface 4.5 cm below. RESULTS: Impact varied as a function of advertising message (p < 0.001). Deceptive message equalled neutral message in eliciting higher impact than the warning message and the bare platform. Differences grew with repetitions (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These data provide a plausible mechanism explaining higher injury frequency in users of expensive athletic shoes. This is the first report to suggest: (1) deceptive advertising of protective devices may represent a public health hazard and may have to be eliminated presumably through regulation; (2) a tendency in humans to be less cautious when using new devices of unknown benefit because of overly positive attitudes associated with new technology and novel devices. PMID:9429006

  19. State and Local Consumer Publications. A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Consumer Affairs, Washington, DC.

    This bibliography, designed primarily for state and local consumer offices, includes 650 publications on a wide range of consumer affairs subjects. Topics include advertising, appliance purchase and repair, automobiles, how and where to complain, contracts, credit and banking, fraud, door-to-door sales, energy and utilities, financial planning and…

  20. Teaching about Starbucks and Consumer Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malczewski, Joan; Plafker-Gutt, Debra; Cohen, Robert

    2011-01-01

    One of the great challenges social studies teachers face is promoting economic and consumer literacy among their students. Fostering such literacy helps students to think critically and independently about their own roles as consumers as well as about the claims and promises the corporate world makes through mass advertising and the branding of…

  1. Consumer Marketing and the Airline Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    The fundamentals of consumer marketing as applied to the airline industry are considered. An attempt is made to boil down the mystique and jargon which frequently surround the subject of marketing. Topics covered include: (1) The marketing concept; (2) consumer expectations from airlines; (3) planning of marketing strategy; and (4) the roles of advertising, sales, and middlemen.

  2. Regulating Direct-to-Consumer Drug Information: A Case Study of Eli Lilly's Canadian 40over40 Erectile Dysfunction Campaign.

    PubMed

    Pipon, Jean-Christophe Bélisle; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2015-05-01

    Like most jurisdictions, Canada prohibits direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescribed drugs. However, direct-to-consumer information (DTCI) is permitted, allowing companies to inform the public about medical conditions. An analysis of Eli Lilly's 40over40 promotion campaign for erectile dysfunction (ED), which included a quiz on ED, shows that DTCI, like DTCA, can be an effective means of drug familiarization. The pharmaceutical industry is "playing by the rules" currently in effect in Canada. Regulators should thus seriously consider whether existing rules permitting DTCI actually meet stated objectives of protecting the public from marketing campaigns (i.e., DTCA) that may deliver misleading information. PMID:26142356

  3. Regulating Direct-to-Consumer Drug Information: A Case Study of Eli Lilly's Canadian 40over40 Erectile Dysfunction Campaign

    PubMed Central

    Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2015-01-01

    Like most jurisdictions, Canada prohibits direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescribed drugs. However, direct-to-consumer information (DTCI) is permitted, allowing companies to inform the public about medical conditions. An analysis of Eli Lilly's 40over40 promotion campaign for erectile dysfunction (ED), which included a quiz on ED, shows that DTCI, like DTCA, can be an effective means of drug familiarization. The pharmaceutical industry is “playing by the rules” currently in effect in Canada. Regulators should thus seriously consider whether existing rules permitting DTCI actually meet stated objectives of protecting the public from marketing campaigns (i.e., DTCA) that may deliver misleading information. PMID:26142356

  4. The influence of media type on attitude toward mobile advertisements over time.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jungyeon; Cho, Kwangsu

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the relationships between consumers and mobile advertisements on attitude change over time. Two experiments were used to investigate both immediate and delayed effects of different media types on attitudes toward mobile advertisements. Experiment 1 formulated three types of advertisements corresponding to three media types: text, still pictures, and motion pictures. The results indicate that motion pictures on mobile phones significantly influence consumers' initial attitudes toward advertisements. Experiment 2, focusing on delayed effects, was conducted 4 weeks after Experiment 1. Ninety-five of the 117 participants in Experiment 1 were contacted via cellular phone. The results of Experiment 2 showed a decrease in attitude in relation to motion pictures, whereas an increase in attitude in relation to text and still pictures was observed. The findings were interpreted from the perspectives of media characteristics, consumer behavior, and advertising research. PMID:21988732

  5. The Influence of Media Type on Attitude Toward Mobile Advertisements Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jungyeon

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study explores the relationships between consumers and mobile advertisements on attitude change over time. Two experiments were used to investigate both immediate and delayed effects of different media types on attitudes toward mobile advertisements. Experiment 1 formulated three types of advertisements corresponding to three media types: text, still pictures, and motion pictures. The results indicate that motion pictures on mobile phones significantly influence consumers' initial attitudes toward advertisements. Experiment 2, focusing on delayed effects, was conducted 4 weeks after Experiment 1. Ninety-five of the 117 participants in Experiment 1 were contacted via cellular phone. The results of Experiment 2 showed a decrease in attitude in relation to motion pictures, whereas an increase in attitude in relation to text and still pictures was observed. The findings were interpreted from the perspectives of media characteristics, consumer behavior, and advertising research. PMID:21988732

  6. Dietary supplement labeling and advertising claims: are clinical studies on the full product required?

    PubMed

    Villafranco, John E; Bond, Katie

    2009-01-01

    Whether labeling and advertising claims for multi-ingredient dietary supplements may be based on the testing of individual, key ingredients--rather than the actual product--has caused a good deal of confusion. This confusion stems from the dearth of case law and the open-endedness of Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance on this issue. Nevertheless, the relevant regulatory guidance, case law and self-regulatory case law--when assessed together--indicate that the law allows and even protects "key ingredient claims" (i.e., claims based on efficacy testing of key ingredients in the absence of full product testing). This article provides an overview of the relevant substantiation requirements for dietary supplement claims and then reviews FTC's and FDA's guidance on key ingredient claims; relevant case law; use of key ingredient claims in the advertising of other consumer products; and the National Advertising Division of the Better Business Bureau, Inc.'s (NAD's) approach to evaluating key ingredient claims for dietary supplements. This article concludes that key ingredient claims--provided they are presented in a truthful and non-deceptive manner--are permissible, and should be upheld in litigation and cases subject to industry self-regulation. This article further concludes that the NAD's approach to key ingredient claims provides practical guidance for crafting and substantiating dietary supplement key ingredient claims. PMID:19998572

  7. Analysis of U.S. Food and Drug Administration food allergen recalls after implementation of the food allergen labeling and consumer protection act.

    PubMed

    Gendel, Steven M; Zhu, Jianmei

    2013-11-01

    To avoid potentially life-threatening reactions, food allergic consumers rely on information on food labels to help them avoid exposure to a food or ingredient that could trigger a reaction. To help consumers in the United States obtain the information that they need, the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 defined a major food allergen as being one of eight foods or food groups and any ingredient that contains protein from one of these foods or food groups. A food that contains an undeclared major food allergen is misbranded under the U.S. Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and is subject to recall. Food allergen labeling problems are the most common cause of recalls for U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-regulated food products. To help understand why food allergen recalls continue to occur at a high rate, information on each food allergen recall that occurred in fiscal years 2007 through 2012 was obtained from the FDA recall database. This information was analyzed to identify the food, allergen, root cause, and mode of discovery for each food allergen recall. Bakery products were the most frequently recalled food type, and milk was the most frequently undeclared major food allergen. Use of the wrong package or label was the most frequent problem leading to food allergen recalls. These data are the first reported that indicate the importance of label and package controls as public health measures. PMID:24215698

  8. Limited Use of Price and Quality Advertising Among American Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Wilks, Chrisanne E A; Richter, Jason P

    2013-01-01

    Background Consumer-directed policies, including health savings accounts, have been proposed and implemented to involve individuals more directly with the cost of their health care. The hope is this will ultimately encourage providers to compete for patients based on price or quality, resulting in lower health care costs and better health outcomes. Objective To evaluate American hospital websites to learn whether hospitals advertise directly to consumers using price or quality data. Methods Structured review of websites of 10% of American hospitals (N=474) to evaluate whether price or quality information is available to consumers and identify what hospitals advertise about to attract consumers. Results On their websites, 1.3% (6/474) of hospitals advertised about price and 19.0% (90/474) had some price information available; 5.7% (27/474) of hospitals advertised about quality outcomes information and 40.9% (194/474) had some quality outcome data available. Price and quality information that was available was limited and of minimal use to compare hospitals. Hospitals were more likely to advertise about service lines (56.5%, 268/474), access (49.6%, 235/474), awards (34.0%, 161/474), and amenities (30.8%, 146/474). Conclusions Insufficient information currently exists for consumers to choose hospitals on the basis of price or quality, making current consumer-directed policies unlikely to realize improved quality or lower costs. Consumers may be more interested in information not related to cost or clinical factors when choosing a hospital, so consumer-directed strategies may be better served before choosing a provider, such as when choosing a health plan. PMID:23988296

  9. Advertisers and Advertising Agencies: A National Survey of Current Attitudes toward Advertising Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinzon, Charles M.

    To measure attitudes toward advertising program graduates versus non-advertising graduates, a study was conducted of advertising managers nationwide and advertising agency middle managers in New York, California, Illinois and Texas. Two hundred and eighty-three self-administered questionnaires were completed. Results included the following…

  10. How Older People Think about Images of Aging in Advertising and the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Don E.; Longino, Charles F., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    A literature review documents distorted images of aging in mass media and advertising, including underrepresentation and stereotyping. Older consumers are dissatisfied with these images, and their growing purchasing power is forcing advertisers to make more effective appeals. (Contains 20 references.) (SK)

  11. Appraising the Economic And Social Effects of Advertising. A Review of Issues and Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Michael; And Others

    Three major aspects of advertising/marketing communications are reviewed comprehensively in this report. Consumer behavior with its associated attitudes and purchasing behavior are discussed in regard to the choices of specific brands within major product categories. The relationship between advertising and the structure of markets is considered…

  12. Formula Manufacturers' Web Sites: Are They Really Non-Compliant Advertisements?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Barrie; Dickinson, Roger; Matthews, Julian; Cole, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In the UK, advertising of infant formula products direct to consumers is not permitted. These products must be used on the recommendation of suitably qualified health or medical professionals. The aim of this study is to examine formula manufacturers' web sites to ascertain whether these are used as alternative forms of advertising that…

  13. Persuasion in Advertising: Analyzing One of the Public Faces of Corporations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemesianou, Christine A.

    2007-01-01

    Today's communication and information environments create an immense amount of clutter for consumers, but a well crafted advertising campaign can differentiate an organization from its competitors. Persuasion in Advertising is a critical assignment where students apply Aristotle's and Cicero's persuasive techniques to a specific advertising…

  14. Minnesota Consumer Education Program. "Consumers of the 90s."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Council on Economic Education, Minneapolis.

    This teacher's guide on consumer literacy for grades 9-12 is designed for use in the following subject areas: business education, consumer law, economics, home economics, and social studies. Four units are included: (1) consumer decision making--consumer law and protection; (2) major shopping areas--transportation dilemma; (3) housing; and (4)…

  15. "Ruralizing" Presidential Job Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leist, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Rural community college presidential job advertisements that focus on geography, politics, and culture can improve the likelihood of a good fit between the senior leader and the institution. (Contains 2 figures.)

  16. Creative Designs Sell Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culpepper, Alyce

    1991-01-01

    Discusses six essential elements in the design of an advertisement: sales pitch, major headline, minor headline, company statistics, artwork or photograph, and white space. Offers five exercises for the classroom or staff. (SR)

  17. [Advertising and health education].

    PubMed

    López González, M L; Cueto Espinar, A; Martínez Cuervo, F; Redondo Cornejo, M L; Suárez González, J R; Secall Mellén, L

    1990-01-01

    Health education and advertising have a common aim: to modify human behaviour. Health education tries to induce healthy behaviours. In some occasions Publicity proposes risky behaviours. Ads appearing during a two-month period in magazines of the largest circulation in Spain are analyzed here. A total of 1,726 ads which could have a negative influence on health either because of the product or service offered or for the use of health as a persuasive argument in their text, are considered. The magazines Hola and Lecturas had the highest ratio ads/magazine. Spirits, food and drugs were the most frequently advertised products. And more than 50% of the ads used health and welfare as argument for better selling. Health educators should know and teach the critical analysis of publicity, and use advertisements as a teaching tool to enable people to see through misleading advertising. PMID:2086532

  18. Advertising for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuFresne, Robert A.; Nasstrom, Roy R.

    1978-01-01

    A six-month publicity and advertising campaign by Winona State University in Minnesota is considered a major factor in the enrollment increase despite a general decline in the state system as a whole. (Author/MLF)

  19. Australian children's views about food advertising on television.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Kaye; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul; Magarey, Anthea; Spurrier, Nicola; Udell, Tuesday

    2010-08-01

    This study explored children's views about food advertising on television in the light of recent public interest in childhood obesity and obesogenic environments. Thirty-seven children aged between 8 and 11 years, discussed their perceptions of food advertising, in focus groups. The children engaged as consumers of advertising, noticing technical aspects, and expressing their likes and dislikes of particular techniques. While they understood the persuasive intent of advertising, they nevertheless desired products and made purchase requests. They particularly desired energy-dense nutrient-poor foods. The children demonstrated sophisticated levels of advertising literacy through their articulation of problems such as deception, impacts on children's health and wellbeing, and family conflict. They revealed themselves as sentient beings, with the capacity to react, respond and reflect on their experience of advertising. This study makes a contribution to research on consumer socialisation by introducing the perspective of Australian children. As stakeholders in the childhood obesity problem, the views of children should also be of interest to health policymakers. PMID:20346383

  20. Eight worst advertising mistakes.

    PubMed

    Maley, Catherine

    2010-11-01

    This article presents strategies for advertising the medical practice. The emphasis is on breaking out of the old rules of how one should advertise and delves into asking questions that lead to a true strategy unique to one's medical practice and offerings. The article discusses the myriad ways to think about and create a patient-centered approach, turning from "here is what we offer" to instead "what you want we offer." PMID:20974390

  1. Measuring the efficacy of advertising communication with neuroscience methods: an experiment performed by Telecom Italia.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Loredana

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there has been a concentrated effort by companies to better understand the needs and desires of their consumers. Such efforts usually employ different and sophisticated analysis techniques for monitoring the consumers preferences and how such consumers perceive the advertising communication campaign from a specific company. PMID:22678841

  2. The Impact of Family Group Interaction on Children's Understanding of Television Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Leonard N.

    1979-01-01

    Suggests that a child's level of understanding of advertising is a product of family group interaction concerning consumer-related skills and other social experiences that the child brings to viewing situations. (Author/RL)

  3. Subjects and accomplices: regulation and the ethics of cigarette advertising.

    PubMed

    Cutler, T; Nye, D

    1997-01-01

    In debates on the regulation of cigarette advertising, opposition to regulation is based on a perceived threat to individual autonomy and choice. Advocates of regulation have sought to combat such arguments by focusing on the unique characteristics of tobacco: the absence of a "safe" level of consumption; that the habit is often acquired by children or young persons; that smokers are unaware of the extent of the risks involved; and that smoking is "addictive." The authors discuss the implications of these characteristics for regulation and the difficulties with such arguments. The focus on characteristics of the product means that little attention is given to the implications of the content and techniques of advertising. The dominant forms of cigarette advertising involve the communication of little product information and the use of persuasive mechanisms of which the consumer is either unaware or not fully aware. The authors explore the implications of such advertising strategies for regulation and public policy. PMID:9142605

  4. Cost-effective advertising through TV and newspaper "banner" ads.

    PubMed

    Gombeski, William R; Taylor, Jan; Krauss, Katie; Medeiros, Clayton

    2003-01-01

    Banner ads, small strip ads in newspapers used to specifically promote an information piece, were introduced into one newspaper in the Connecticut market in 1999 by Yale-New Haven Hospital (YNHH). Based on their success, the concept was expanded to six additional newspapers in late 2000 and to TV in the summer of 2001. Between 2000-2002, even as the overall marketing/advertising budget declined 30%, switching advertising dollars from image/display ads to banner ads resulted in consumer awareness of YNHH increasing from 29% to 42%. Perception of YNHH as "the advanced medicine" hospital grew from 22% to 40% during the same period. The specific strategic and operational actions generated since the implementation of the program are detailed and the advantages and disadvantages of this banner advertising approach are discussed. Banner ads may offer an alternative approach for organizations to advertise their products and programs. PMID:15018001

  5. 12 CFR 213.7 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... advertisement , or an electronic advertisement (such as an advertisement appearing on an Internet Web site... written advertisement in a publication of general circulation in the community served by the media...

  6. 12 CFR 213.7 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... advertisement , or an electronic advertisement (such as an advertisement appearing on an Internet Web site... written advertisement in a publication of general circulation in the community served by the media...

  7. Consumer Skills for Low Vision Middle School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Joyce C.

    1990-01-01

    The article describes a consumer skills unit taught to visually impaired seventh graders. The unit covered advertising language and psychology, comparison shopping and label language, and budgeting and future planning. (DB)

  8. An empirical analysis of ethical and professional issues in physicians' advertising: A comparative cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Moser, H Ronald; Stevens, Robert; Loudon, David

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate current attitudes and opinions of physicians' advertising and to compare them to the attitudes expressed 10 years previously. This study was designed to determine (a) consumers' attitudes toward advertising by physicians, and (b) whether age, occupation, income, education, or sex of consumer accounted for any significant difference in attitudes toward physicians who advertise. The study seems to confirm the belief of many marketing professionals that advertising and marketing do not have a place in the management and operation of professional services. PMID:27559629

  9. [Attitude of a group of South Africans toward advertising by dentists in private practice].

    PubMed

    du Preez, I C; de Wet, F A; van der Merwe, C A; Wolmarans, L

    1991-10-01

    The advertising of dental services in South Africa is controlled by rules and regulations of the South African Medical and Dental Council. According to these, advertising is not permissible with the exception of specified professional information which may be made known only by means of a nameplate and an entry in a telephone directory. Questionnaires were sent to a randomised sample of 2,100 persons in order to determine the attitude of South Africans towards advertising by private practitioners. According to information obtained from this study there is a strong indication that consumers of dental services prefer a freer form of advertising by dentists in the private practice. PMID:1820668

  10. Neuromarketing techniques in pharmaceutical drugs advertising. A discussion and agenda for future research.

    PubMed

    Orzan, G; Zara, I A; Purcarea, V L

    2012-12-15

    Recent years have seen an "explosion" in the abilities of scientists to use neuroscience in new domains. Unfortunately, it is little known and reported on how advertising companies make more effective pharmaceutical drugs commercials. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how neuromarketing techniques may impact the consumer response to pharmaceutical advertising campaigns. The result shows that using neuromarketing methods a pharmaceutical company can better understand the conscious and unconscious consumer's thoughts and tailor specific marketing messages. PMID:23346245

  11. A Target Advertisement System Based on TV Viewer's Profile Reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jeongyeon; Kim, Munjo; Lee, Bumshik; Kim, Munchurl; Lee, Heekyung; Lee, Han-Kyu

    With the rapidly growing Internet, the Internet broadcasting and web casting service have been one of the well-known services. Specially, it is expected that the IPTV service will be one of the principal services in the broadband network [2]. However, the current broadcasting environment is served for the general public and requires the passive attitude to consume the TV programs. For the advanced broadcasting environments, various research of the personalized broadcasting is needed. For example, the current unidirectional advertisement provides to the TV viewers the advertisement contents, depending on the popularity of TV programs, the viewing rates, the age groups of TV viewers, and the time bands of the TV programs being broadcast. It is not an efficient way to provide the useful information to the TV viewers from customization perspective. If a TV viewer does not need particular advertisement contents, then information may be wasteful to the TV viewer. Therefore, it is expected that the target advertisement service will be one of the important services in the personalized broadcasting environments. The current research in the area of the target advertisement classifies the TV viewers into clustered groups who have similar preference. The digital TV collaborative filtering estimates the user's favourite advertisement contents by using the usage history [1, 4, 5]. In these studies, the TV viewers are required to provide their profile information such as the gender, job, and ages to the service providers via a PC or Set-Top Box (STB) which is connected to digital TV. Based on explicit information, the advertisement contents are provided to the TV viewers in a customized way with tailored advertisement contents. However, the TV viewers may dislike exposing to the service providers their private information because of the misuse of it. In this case, it is difficult to provide appropriate target advertisement service.

  12. What Are Cancer Centers Advertising to the Public? A Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vater, Laura B.; Donohue, Julie M.; Arnold, Robert; White, Douglas B; Chu, Edward; Schenker, Yael

    2015-01-01

    Background Although critics have expressed concerns about cancer center advertising, the content of these advertisements has not been analyzed. Objective To characterize the informational and emotional content of cancer center advertisements. Design Systematic analysis of all cancer center advertisements in top U.S. consumer magazines (N=269) and television networks (N=44) in 2012. Measurements Using a standardized codebook, we assessed (1) types of clinical services promoted; (2) information provided about clinical services, including risks, benefits, and costs; (3) use of emotional advertising appeals; and (4) use of patient testimonials. Two investigators independently coded advertisements using ATLAS.ti. Kappa values ranged from 0.77 to 1.0. Results A total of 102 cancer centers placed 409 unique clinical advertisements in top media markets in 2012. Advertisements promoted treatments (88%) more often than screening (18%) or supportive services (13%; p<0.001). Benefits of advertised therapies were described more often than risks (27% vs. 2%; p<0.001) but rarely quantified (2%). Few advertisements mentioned insurance coverage or costs (5%). Emotional appeals were frequent (85%), most often evoking hope for survival (61%), describing cancer treatment as a fight or battle (41%), and evoking fear (30%). Nearly half of advertisements included patient testimonials, usually focused on survival or cure. Testimonials rarely included disclaimers (15%) and never described the results a typical patient might expect. Limitations Internet advertisements were not included. Conclusions Clinical advertisements by cancer centers frequently promote cancer therapy using emotional appeals that evoke hope and fear while rarely providing information about risks, benefits, or costs. Further work is needed to understand how these advertisements influence patient understanding and expectations of benefit from cancer treatments. PMID:24863081

  13. Consumer friendly or reader hostile? An evaluation of the readability of DTC print ads.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Kim

    2008-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration requires advertisements promoting prescription drugs to be written in "consumer friendly" language. The purpose of this study is to examine the language of Direct-to-Consumer prescription drug advertisements to determine if such language is easy for consumers to read and understand. A series of advertisements for a variety of products, appearing in popular consumer magazines, were analyzed using the Flesch and Gunning-Fogg formulas to determine if DTC advertisements are more or less complex than other advertisements that consumers read today. Results indicate that DTC ads are among the most difficult print ads to read. Additionally, certain types of information contained in these print ads (such as information discussing a drug's risks and contraindications) are significantly more difficult to read than information in any other type of ad copy in magazines today. Implications for DTC marketers and the FDA are included. PMID:19042509

  14. Competition in the pharmaceutical industry: how do quality differences shape advertising strategies?

    PubMed

    de Frutos, Maria-Angeles; Ornaghi, Carmine; Siotis, Georges

    2013-01-01

    We present a Hotelling model of price and advertising competition between prescription drugs that differ in quality/side effects. Promotional effort results in the endogenous formation of two consumer groups: brand loyal and non-brand loyal ones. We show that advertising intensities are strategic substitutes, with the better quality drugs being the ones that are most advertised. This positive association stems from the higher rents that firms can extract from consumers whose brand loyalty is endogenously determined by promotional effort. The model's main results on advertising and pricing strategies are taken to the data. The latter consists of product level data on prices and quantities, product level advertising data, as well as the qualitative information on drug quality contained in the Orange Book compiled by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The empirical results provide strong support to the model's predictions. PMID:23237791

  15. Building an Ethical Advertising Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plopper, Bruce

    1989-01-01

    Discusses three of the more significant ethical problems related to the advertising operation of student and commercial publications: (1) explaining circulation to potential advertisers; (2) negotiating special deals; and (3) following through with quality and distribution. (MS)

  16. Online Advertising in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagherjeiran, Abraham; Bhatt, Rushi P.; Parekh, Rajesh; Chaoji, Vineet

    Online social networks offer opportunities to analyze user behavior and social connectivity and leverage resulting insights for effective online advertising. This chapter focuses on the role of social network information in online display advertising.

  17. [Images of the elderly in printed advertisements in a time change perspective].

    PubMed

    Röhr-Sendlmeier, U M; Ueing, S

    2004-02-01

    This content analytical study investigates the changes of image of the elderly in printed advertisements. A total of 364 advertisements published in 1999 and 2000 involving elderly models were analyzed. A positive image of older age is generally transported in advertisements addressing all consumers, whereas physical and cognitive deficits occurring with age are expressed in some verbal elements of advertisements addressing primarily the elderly themselves. However, such deficits are not visually depicted, since health, full energy and activity provide positive orientation. Compared with advertisements in the 1970s and 1980s, the elderly are shown as more attractive, active and socially appreciated today. In spite of their improved image, the elderly, especially older women, are still not represented in printed advertisement in proportion to their number in the population. PMID:14991298

  18. Demand for Smokeless Tobacco: Role of Advertising

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Dhaval; Saffer, Henry

    2013-01-01

    While the prevalence of smokeless tobacco (ST) is low relative to smoking, the distribution of ST use is highly skewed with consumption concentrated among certain segments of the population (rural residents, males, whites, low-educated individuals). Furthermore, there is suggestive evidence that use has trended upwards recently for groups that have traditionally been at low risk of using ST, and thus started to diffuse across demographics. This study provides the first estimates, at the national level, of the effects of magazine advertising on ST use. The focus on magazine advertising is significant given that ST manufacturers have been banned from using other conventional media since the 1986 Comprehensive ST Act and the 1998 ST Master Settlement Agreement. This study is based on the 2003–2009 waves of the National Consumer Survey (NCS), a unique data source that contains extensive information on the reading habits of individuals, matched with magazine-specific advertising information over the sample period. This allows detailed and salient measures of advertising exposure at the individual level and addresses potential bias due to endogeneity and selective targeting. We find consistent and robust evidence that exposure to ST ads in magazines raises ST use, especially among males, with an estimated elasticity of 0.06. There is suggestive evidence that both ST taxes and cigarette taxes reduce ST use, indicating contemporaneous complementarity between these tobacco products. Sub-analyses point to some differences in the advertising and tax response across segments of the population. The effects from this study inform the debate on the cost and benefits of ST use and its potential to be a tool in overall tobacco harm reduction. PMID:23660106

  19. Demand for smokeless tobacco: role of advertising.

    PubMed

    Dave, Dhaval; Saffer, Henry

    2013-07-01

    While the prevalence of smokeless tobacco (ST) is low relative to smoking, the distribution of ST use is highly skewed with consumption concentrated among certain segments of the population (rural residents, males, whites, low-educated individuals). Furthermore, there is suggestive evidence that use has trended upwards recently for groups that have traditionally been at low risk of using ST, and thus started to diffuse across demographics. This study provides the first estimates, at the national level, of the effects of magazine advertising on ST use. The focus on magazine advertising is significant given that ST manufacturers have been banned from using other conventional media since the 1986 Comprehensive ST Act and the 1998 ST Master Settlement Agreement. This study is based on the 2003-2009 waves of the National Consumer Survey (NCS), a unique data source that contains extensive information on the reading habits of individuals, matched with magazine-specific advertising information over the sample period. This allows detailed and salient measures of advertising exposure at the individual level and addresses potential bias due to endogeneity and selective targeting. We find consistent and robust evidence that exposure to ST ads in magazines raises ST use, especially among males, with an estimated elasticity of 0.06. There is suggestive evidence that both ST taxes and cigarette taxes reduce ST use, indicating contemporaneous complementarity between these tobacco products. Sub-analyses point to some differences in the advertising and tax response across segments of the population. The effects from this study inform the debate on the cost and benefits of ST use and its potential to be a tool in overall tobacco harm reduction. PMID:23660106

  20. Toward a Theory of Psychological Type Congruence for Advertisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Michael H.; And Others

    Focusing on the impact of advertisers' persuasive selling messages on consumers, this paper discusses topics relating to the theory of psychological type congruence. Based on an examination of persuasion theory and relevant psychological concepts, including recent cognitive stability and personality and needs theory and the older concept of…

  1. Developing Advertising and Promotion Strategies for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Karen A.; Wallingford, Harlan P.

    1996-01-01

    Outlines an approach to college and university marketing that focuses on identification of buyer readiness state and selection of appropriate communication goals. This approach uses a hierarchy of communication goals (awareness, knowledge, liking, preference, conviction, purchase) widely used in consumer advertising. Argues that little has been…

  2. El lenguaje de la publicidad (The Language of Advertising).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco Lazaro, Enrique T.

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes the language of advertising and the expressive devices it uses to capture the attention of the consumer and arouse his/her interest. Condemns the artificiality of this language and the social values it reflects, quoting profusely from the works of Herman Glaser and other contemporary authors. (MES)

  3. Portraying Physical Activity in Food Advertising Targeting Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castonguay, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Childhood obesity is a serious health concern (World Health Organization (WHO), 2013) and advertising exposure is known to be a contributing factor (Institute of Medicine (IOM), 2006). In recent years consumers have expressed an increased interest in products appearing healthy and food companies have committed to changing their…

  4. Television Watching as an Information Processing Task: Programming and Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wartella, Ellen

    A two-week consumer training program was designed to teach kindergarten children about advertising claims on commercial television programs. One objective of the program was to teach kindergarteners that commercials are designed to persuade people to buy products. Kindergarteners were taught to recognize the difference between commercials and…

  5. The influence of advertising on compulsive buying – The role of persuasion knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Mikołajczak-Degrauwe, Kalina; Brengman, Malaika

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: The growing concern over compulsive buying (CB) among consumers has led to vast amount of research examining the antecedents of this maladaptive behaviour. The focus of previous research was, however, mainly on examining the internal, psychological factors contributing to CB. The current research, on the other hand, sheds light on one of the external triggers which can possibly stimulate CB, namely advertising. Methods: An online survey has been conducted to identify the attitudes and scepticism towards advertising as well as ad avoidance and persuasion knowledge among a sample of 582 Belgian consumers. Furthermore, all participants were screened with regard to compulsive buying tendencies. Results: This research provides evidence that positive attitudes towards advertising can lead to CB. An important factor in this relation is persuasion knowledge. Conclusions: The study results lead to the conclusion that people higher in persuasion knowledge dispose less positive attitudes towards advertising which can subsequently prevent them from engaging in CB. Moreover high scores on scepticism towards advertising and ad avoidance among Belgian consumers in our sample point to a need for advertisers to modify their practices in order to gain more trust from consumers. This study also shows that advertising in particular attracts and seems to affect an already disadvantaged group of people – namely compulsive buyers. PMID:25215215

  6. Self-regulation of motor vehicle advertising: is it working in Australia?

    PubMed

    Donovan, Robert J; Fielder, Lynda J; Ouschan, Robyn; Ewing, Michael

    2011-05-01

    There is growing concern that certain content within motor vehicle advertising may have a negative influence on driving attitudes and behaviours of viewers, particularly young people, and hence a negative impact on road safety. In response, many developed countries have adopted a self-regulatory approach to motor vehicle advertising. However, it appears that many motor vehicle advertisements in Australia and elsewhere are not compliant with self-regulatory codes. Using standard commercial advertising methods, we exposed three motor vehicle ads that had been the subject of complaints to the Australian Advertising Standards Board (ASB) to, N = 463, 14-55 year olds to assess the extent to which their perceptions of the content of the ads communicated themes that were contrary to the Australian self-regulatory code. All three ads were found to communicate messages contrary to the code (such as the vehicle's speed and acceleration capabilities). However, the ASB had upheld complaints about only one of the ads. Where motor vehicle advertising regulatory frameworks exist to guide motor vehicle advertisers as to what is and what is not acceptable in their advertising, greater efforts are needed to ensure compliance with these codes. One way may be to make it mandatory for advertisers to report consumer pre-testing of their advertising to ensure that undesirable messages are not being communicated to viewers. PMID:21376848

  7. Bilingual Advertising in Melbourne Chinatown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Sherry Yong

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the function of bilingual advertising by analyzing a case study of bilingual advertising in the Chinatown of Melbourne, Australia. The use of bilingual advertising in an immigrant setting differentiates itself from those in Asian settings where English is not used by dominant proportion of speakers in the society, and this…

  8. Evaluation of rumen-protected lysine supplementation to lactating dairy cows consuming increasing amounts of distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Paz, H A; de Veth, M J; Ordway, R S; Kononoff, P J

    2013-01-01

    Twenty multiparous Holstein cows were used in four 5 × 5 Latin squares to determine the effects of feeding increasing amounts of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets with or without the supplementation (60 g/d) of a rumen-protected Lys (RPL) product (AminoShure-L, 38% l-Lys; Balchem Encapsulates, New Hampton, NY) on milk yield and composition and plasma concentration of AA. Dietary treatments were (1) control (CON; no DDGS), (2) 10% DDGS (10DG), (3) 20% DDGS (20DG), (4) 10% DDGS plus RPL (10DGRPL), and (5) 20% DDGS plus RPL (20DGRPL). Diets were formulated using the Cornell-Penn-Miner Dairy model (CPM v3.0; http://cahpwww.vet.upenn.edu/node/77) to provide a predicted decreasing supply of Lys (117, 99, and 91% of requirements) for the CON, 10DG, and 20DG diets, respectively. Addition of RPL to the 10DG and 20DG diets (unsupplemented diets) resulted in 2 additional treatments, 10DGRPL and 20DGRPL diets, respectively. The 10DGRPL and 20DGRPL diets met 110 and 100% of the Lys requirements, respectively. Periods lasted 21d, with the last 3d for data collection. Compared with cows fed the CON diet, cows fed diets with DDGS had a similar dry matter intake (DMI; 25.4 ± 0.88 kg/d), milk yield (30.7 ± 1.67 kg/d), and composition, except for protein percentage, which was higher (3.15 vs. 3.21 ± 0.05%) and resulted in higher (0.94 vs. 1.00 ± 0.05 kg/d) protein yield by cows fed diets containing 20% DDGS. Unexpectedly, despite diets being formulated based on predicted DMI of 23.3 kg/d and milk yield of 38.5 kg/d, cows had a greater DMI and lower milk yield across all treatments, which resulted in diets that were predicted by CPM Dairy to supply sufficient amounts of Lys (140, 118, and 104% of requirement for the CON, 10 DG, and 20 DG diet, respectively) and consequently, supplementation with RPL did not have an effect on milk production or composition. Plasma concentration of Lys decreased (11.8%) as DDGS inclusion increased. For other essential AA, plasma

  9. Ethical issues in professional advertising.

    PubMed

    Peters, C R

    1989-07-01

    Physician advertising has received considerable attention since the courts decided in favor of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) in its initial complaint against the American Medical Association in the 1970s. Continued investigations by the FTC into AMA opinions on advertising and publicity have promulgated a new freedom in advertising by physicians. False and deceptive advertising though is the grounds for court action as well as license revocation. This is an attempt to analyze where physician advertising is most prevalent, which physicians are doing it and why. PMID:2600578

  10. Food advertising towards children and young people in Norway.

    PubMed

    Bugge, Annechen Bahr

    2016-03-01

    Despite the fact that no studies have been carried out to map the amount of unhealthy food advertising aimed at Norwegian children and adolescents, it is still widely held belief that this type of advertising is disproportionately common. As a consequence, one of the issues high on the agenda in Norway in the 2000s was the possibility of imposing restrictions on advertising for unhealthy foods to children. The purpose of this study is to contribute with a research-based foundation for implementing this health initiative by mapping food marketing in media channels widely used by children and adolescents. In sum, the study shows that the food industry spends a lot of resources to influence young consumers' eating and drinking habits. Compared with studies from USA, UK and Australia, however, there are, strong indications that there is significantly less unhealthy food advertising in Scandinavian countries. Similar to a previous Swedish study, this study shows that Norwegian children and young people were exposed to little advertising for unhealthy food products through media channels such as TV, the Internet, magazines, comics and cinemas. The study also supports critical remarks from some researchers that the extensive use of the international discourse as a political argument and recommendation for Norwegian conditions is not accurate. For the future it may be beneficial to look more closely at the relationship between advertising and health policy, and how this relationship can be further developed to improve children and young people's diet. PMID:26689892

  11. How much food advertising is there on Australian television?

    PubMed

    Chapman, Kathy; Nicholas, Penny; Supramaniam, Rajah

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive content analysis of television food advertising and provide data on current levels of food advertising in Australia. All three commercial stations available on free-to-air Australian television were concurrently videotaped between 7 a.m. and 9 p.m. on two weekdays and both weekend days in four locations across Australia to provide a total of 645 h for analysis. Each advertisement was categorized as 'non-food ad', 'healthy/core food ad' or 'unhealthy/non-core food ad' according to set criteria. Thirty-one percent of the advertisements analyzed were for food. Eighty-one percent of the food advertisements identified were for unhealthy/non-core foods. When comparing the results of this study with previous research, it was found that the number of unhealthy advertisements screened per hour had not changed over the past few years. On weekdays, the number of advertisements increased throughout the day to peak at more than five advertisements per hour in the 6 p.m. to 9 p.m. time slot. The early morning time slot on Saturday was the most concentrated period for advertising unhealthy/non-core food with more than six advertisements screened per hour. The regional areas screened a significantly lower level of unhealthy/non-core food advertisements (19.5%) compared with the metropolitan areas (29.5%). Fast food and takeaway was the most advertised food category, followed by chocolate and confectionery. A total 194 breaches of the Children's Television Standards were identified according to our interpretation of the standard. It is well recognized that childhood obesity is a worldwide problem. The heavy marketing of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods influences food choices and contributes to the incidence of overweight and obesity in children. Despite the recognition of this growing problem, little has been done to ensure children are protected against the use of large volumes of unhealthy/non-core food advertising. PMID

  12. Advertising media and cigarette demand.

    PubMed

    Goel, Rajeev K

    2011-01-01

    Using state-level panel data for the USA spanning three decades, this research estimates the demand for cigarettes. The main contribution lies in studying the effects of cigarette advertising disaggregated across five qualitatively different groups. Results show cigarette demand to be near unit elastic, the income effects to be generally insignificant and border price effects and habit effects to be significant. Regarding advertising effects, aggregate cigarette advertising has a negative effect on smoking. Important differences across advertising media emerge when cigarette advertising is disaggregated. The effects of public entertainment and Internet cigarette advertising are stronger than those of other media. Anti-smoking messages accompanying print cigarette advertising seem relatively more effective. Implications for smoking control policy are discussed. PMID:22167909

  13. Children's Advertisement Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Andrew; Beard, Roger

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores primary school children's ability to engage with "the power of the text" by tackling persuasive writing in the form of an advertisement. It is eclectically framed within genre theory and rhetorical studies and makes use of linguistic tools and concepts. The paper argues that writing research has not built upon earlier…

  14. Teaching Burke Using Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Charles U.

    Kenneth Burke's concepts of identification, the five terms of dramatism, and strategic uses of ambiguity can be successfully taught to undergraduates if appropriate and familiar examples are used. Print and electronic advertising offer the instructor an up-to-date, familiar, and abundant source of classroom examples. Market segmentation models…

  15. Subliminal Advertising and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanot, Eric J.; Maddox, Lynda M.

    Claims that the academic community ignores the subject of subliminal advertising led to a study designed to ascertain the degree to which the topic is introduced in the classroom, what opinions professors offer concerning it, and the source with which they acquaint their students. A questionnaire containing a series of open- and close-ended…

  16. Language in Food Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plata, Maximino

    1992-01-01

    Analyses 476 food advertisements in newspapers from 3 different sized cities. Finds that brand names, food names, and descriptive vocabulary comprise the majority of language in food ads across newspaper groups. Offers suggestions for using newspaper ads in the classroom. (RS)

  17. Physician Advertising: The Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruhn, Diane; Alley, Susan

    In the area of commercial speech, the courts face two competing rights: the public's right to know and the state's right to discipline members of the medical profession. The Federal Trade Commission has taken strong action against medical advertising prohibitions, and legal precedents have been set in Virginia Board of Pharmacy v. Virginia…

  18. Employer and consumer perspectives.

    PubMed

    McGhan, W F

    1998-11-01

    This paper reviews various published reports from surveys on employer opinion, perception of needs, and trends with regard to healthcare benefits; the consumer perspective regarding healthcare is also discussed. Surveys indicate that businesses want continuous evidence that high-quality healthcare can positively impact company profits. Employers and labor unions are demanding more cost-effective healthcare. At both employer and consumer levels, greater patient education is needed, as well as traditional educational media. Direct-to-consumer advertising and use of the World Wide Web are increasingly important in enabling consumers to participate more fully in their own lipid-related decision-making. Finally, the transition of lipid-lowering drugs to over-the-counter accessibility has great implications with respect to issues of patient preferences and willingness to pay in the evolving healthcare environment. Groups in the United States, such as the National Committee on Quality Assurance and the Foundation for Accountability, are setting standards and beginning to assess both process and outcomes in patient care. Further collaborative efforts are needed that raise standards of care and stimulate more cost-effective healthcare. The pharmacoeconomics and outcomes data gathered will, one hopes, also demonstrate to global businesses the positive financial impact of high-quality healthcare and appropriate lipid therapy. PMID:16674548

  19. 76 FR 78500 - Consumer Leasing (Regulation M)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ...Title X of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act) transferred rulemaking authority for a number of consumer financial protection laws from seven Federal agencies to the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection (Bureau) as of July 21, 2011. The Bureau is in the process of republishing the regulations implementing those laws with technical and conforming......

  20. The federal regulation of prescription drug advertising and promotion.

    PubMed

    Kessler, D A; Pines, W L

    1990-11-14

    Prescription drug advertising has been regulated by the Food and Drug Administration since 1962. In the past decade, pharmaceutical companies have employed new communication mechanisms to reach physicians and, with increasing frequency, consumers. Examples of physician-oriented promotional activities are medical symposia and teleconferences. Consumer-oriented efforts include press conferences, use of celebrity spokespeople, and direct-to-consumer advertising. The Food and Drug Administration has asserted its legal jurisdiction over these nontraditional promotional activities and is regulating them on a case-by-case basis. As nontraditional promotional efforts become more prevalent, the Food and Drug Administration's regulatory framework must be able to meet the challenges of a changing environment. PMID:2231998

  1. Smokers' responses to advertisements for regular and light cigarettes and potential reduced-exposure tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, William L; Norton, Giulia diStefano; Ouellette, Tammy K; Rhodes, Wiliam M; Kling, Ryan; Connolly, Gregory N

    2004-12-01

    This study examines smokers' responses to advertisements for potentially reduced exposure tobacco products (PREP), light cigarettes, and regular cigarettes. A convenience sample of 600 adult smokers reviewed one actual advertisement for each type of product. Smokers ranked the products on health risk, amount of tar, and carcinogenicity, and identified the messages they perceived the advertisements to convey. Smokers perceived PREP products as having lower health risks (mean = 5.4 on a scale of 1-10) and carcinogens (6.6) than light cigarettes (5.8 and 6.9, respectively, p < .001), and lights as having lower health risks and carcinogen levels than regular cigarettes (8.2 and 8.8, respectively, p <.001). The average PREP rating for level of tar (5.3) was not significantly less than the light mean of 5.4, but both were significantly less than the regular mean of 8.4 (p <.001). Although no advertisements explicitly said that the products were healthy or safe, advertisements for PREP products and light cigarettes were interpreted as conveying positive messages about health and safety. Most smokers believed that claims made in cigarette advertisements must be approved by a government agency. The results indicate that advertisements can and do leave consumers with perceptions of the health and safety of tobacco products that are contrary to the scientific evidence. Explicit and implicit advertising messages may be strengthened by the perceived government endorsement. This supports the Institute of Medicine's recommendation to regulate the promotion, advertising, and labeling of PREP tobacco products and light cigarettes. Effective regulation may need to focus on consumer perceptions resulting from advertisements rather than the explicit content of advertising text. PMID:15799598

  2. Broadcast Advertising of Medical Products and Services: Its Regulation by Other Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Jon T.

    1972-01-01

    Restraints imposed on medical advertising through the broadcast media reflect a worldwide concern for public protection in a sensitive area, where problems of ignorance and misrepresentation are enlarged by false hope. The author examines the broadcast codes of seventeen free-world nations, with respect to their provisions on medical advertising.…

  3. 12 CFR 230.8 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising. 230.8 Section 230.8 Banks and... SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 230.8 Advertising. (a) Misleading or inaccurate advertisements. An advertisement... obtain the advertised annual percentage yield. For tiered-rate accounts, the minimum balance required...

  4. 12 CFR 707.8 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising. 707.8 Section 707.8 Banks and... Advertising. (a) Misleading or inaccurate advertisements. An advertisement must not: (1) Be misleading or... balance required to earn the advertised annual percentage yield. For tiered-rate accounts, the...

  5. 27 CFR 4.65 - Comparative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 4..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Advertising of Wine § 4.65 Comparative advertising. (a) General. Comparative advertising shall not be disparaging of a competitor's product....

  6. 27 CFR 7.55 - Comparative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 7..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Advertising of Malt Beverages § 7.55 Comparative advertising. (a) General. Comparative advertising shall not be disparaging of...

  7. 27 CFR 5.66 - Comparative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 5..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Advertising of Distilled Spirits § 5.66 Comparative advertising. (a) General. Comparative advertising shall not be disparaging of...

  8. Job and Career Satisfaction among Advertising Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jugenheimer, Donald W.

    A questionnaire survey of 300 advertising practitioners was used to determine the degree of job and career satisfaction among advertising practitioners. The subjects were separated according to whether they worked for advertising agencies, advertisers, or advertising media; 100 subjects in each area were selected from the prestigious directories…

  9. Policy Implications of Advertising to Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Emilie

    Since its inception the Children's Advertising Review Unit has turned to research in order to better evaluate children's advertisements, to develop guidelines for children's advertisers and to resolve some perplexing questions about certain types of advertising content. Although some work has been done in advertising directed toward children, most…

  10. Intercollegiate Sports (Part 2). Hearings before the Subcommittee on Commerce, Consumer Protection, and Competitiveness of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session (June 23 and August 4, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    The House of Representatives Subcommittee on Commerce, Consumer Protection, and Competitiveness met to hear testimony on sex discrimination in secondary and college level athletic programs. The witnesses on the first panel were all current or former college students and plaintiffs in four recent and significant Title IX cases. Title IX was part of…

  11. Youths' understandings of cigarette advertisements.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Dan; Brucks, Merrie; Wallendorf, Melanie; Boland, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses two questions: (1) when youths are exposed to advertisements for cigarettes, do they primarily see advertisements for brands or products, and (2) is there a relationship between youths' understandings of cigarette advertisements and their susceptibility to smoking? A sample of 271 participants ranging in age from 7 to 12 viewed a series of print advertisements that included cigarette and non-tobacco-related ads. While viewing each ad, participants were asked to indicate what they thought the advertisement was trying to sell. Responses were coded into one of three categories reflecting important differences in participants' comprehension of each advertisement - no understanding, product category understanding, or brand understanding. Results show that youths typically understand the type of product an advertisement is promoting; however, the levels of brand understanding observed for cigarette advertisements were low in an absolute sense, and significantly lower than brand understanding of non-tobacco-related advertisements. Results also show that understanding cigarette ads as promoting specific brands of cigarettes is positively related to susceptibility to smoking. Taken together, these findings provide a glimpse of the psychological mechanisms that may underlie the well established link between exposure to cigarette advertising and youth smoking. PMID:18812253

  12. Leftward lighting in advertisements increases advertisement ratings and purchase intention.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Jennifer; Thomas, Nicole A; Elias, Lorin

    2011-07-01

    It has been reliably shown that light is assumed to come from above. There is also some suggestion that light from the left might be preferred. Leftward lighting biases have been observed across various mediums such as paintings, portraits, photographs, and advertisements. As advertisements are used to persuade the public to purchase products, it was of interest to better understand whether leftward lighting would influence future intention to purchase. Participants gave preference ratings for pairs of advertisements with opposing lighting directions. Attitude towards the advertisement and the brand as well as future purchase intention was then rated. Overall, participants indicated that they preferred advertisements with leftward lighting and were more likely to purchase these products in the future than when the same products were lit from the right. Findings are consistent with previously observed leftward lighting biases and suggest that advertisements with a leftward lighting bias might be more effective. PMID:21038169

  13. Calling Card Consumer Protection Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Engel, Eliot L. [D-NY-17

    2009-11-03

    06/24/2010 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. 40 CFR 35.938-4 - Formal advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 35.936, 35.938, and 35.939.; and (6) A copy of §§ 35.936, 35.938, and 35.939. (d) Sealed bids... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formal advertising. 35.938-4 Section 35.938-4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL...

  15. The role of the Federal Trade Commission in advertising health products and services.

    PubMed

    Daynard, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    The Federal Trade Commission plays a unique role in enforcing well-established standards ensuring that consumers can make informed purchase and use decisions about health-related products and services based on truthful, nonmisleading advertising claims. Deceptive and unfair practices are defined. The importance of the "net impression" that ads convey to consumers and the need for substantiation of objective, factual claims is explained. The FTC uses its enforcement powers and consumer and industry outreach to create a climate for preventing misleading advertising. PMID:16696500

  16. The role of the Federal Trade Commission in advertising health products and services.

    PubMed

    Daynard, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    The Federal Trade Commission plays a unique role in enforcing well-established standards ensuring that consumers can make informed purchase and use decisions about health-related products and services based on truthful, non-misleading advertising claims while encouraging competition. Deceptive and unfair practices are defined. The importance of the "net impression" that ads convey to consumers and the need for substantiation of objective, factual claims is explained. The FTC uses its enforcement powers and consumer and industry outreach to create a climate for preventing misleading advertising. PMID:15347100

  17. Internet and Advertisement.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2016-02-01

    The Internet has revolutionized the way knowledge is currently produced, stored and disseminated. A few finger clicks on a keyboard can save time and many hours of search in libraries or shopping in stores. Online trademarks with an (e-) prefix such as e-library, e-business, e-health etc., are increasingly part of our daily professional vocabularies. However, the Internet has also produced multiple negative side effects, ranging from an unhealthy dependency to a dehumanization of human relationships. Fraudulent, unethical and scam practices are also flourishing through for example misleading online advertising methods. Some social and professional networks gather users' profiles for selling and advertising purposes, sometimes by making it technically difficult to unsubscribe. Here, I discuss some of these unethical aspects and propose some potential solutions to reduce them. PMID:25842044

  18. Ban the sunset? Nonpropositional content and regulation of pharmaceutical advertising.

    PubMed

    Biegler, Paul; Vargas, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The risk that direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription pharmaceuticals (DTCA) may increase inappropriate medicine use is well recognized. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration addresses this concern by subjecting DTCA content to strict scrutiny. Its strictures are, however, heavily focused on the explicit claims made in commercials, what we term their "propositional content." Yet research in social psychology suggests advertising employs techniques to influence viewers via nonpropositional content, for example, images and music. We argue that one such technique, evaluative conditioning, is operative in DTCA. We further argue that evaluative conditioning fosters unjustified beliefs about drug safety and efficacy, antagonising the autonomy of viewers' choices about advertised medicines. We conclude that current guidelines are deficient in failing to account for evaluative conditioning, and that more research and debate are needed to determine the permissibility of this and other forms of nonpropositional persuasion. PMID:23557035

  19. Consumer Education Materials: An Annotated List. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Consumer and Corporate Affairs, Edmonton. Resource Centre.

    This annotated list is intended to help K-12 librarians and teachers identify consumer education materials. All materials listed are in the Alberta Consumer and Corporate Affairs Resource Centre, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The materials treat a wide variety of topics including advertising, purchasing, budgets, business education, conservation of…

  20. A Socialization Perspective on Selected Consumer Characteristics of the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ruth Belk; Moschis, George P.

    1985-01-01

    Examines the effects of selected antecedent variables and communication processes on the consumer behavior of the elderly. Results suggest that the mass media and the family may be instrumental in reinforcing or developing traditional sex-role stereotypes among the elderly, whereas consumer education may help them filter puffery in advertisements.…

  1. Point-of-Purchase Advertising. Learning Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackelford, Ray

    1998-01-01

    In this technology education activity, students learn the importance of advertising, conduct a day-long survey of advertising strategies, and design and produce a tabletop point-of-purchase advertisement. (JOW)

  2. You as a Consumer: Finding a Place to Live, Buying a Car, Shopping, the Smart Consumer, Emergency Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindle, Joan

    Information and exercises are provided in this learning module to increase students' awareness of and effectiveness in their role as consumers. The module, which is written at an elementary level, covers eight topics related to consumer affairs: (1) finding an apartment through newspaper classified advertisements and other sources and signing a…

  3. Does pharmaceutical advertising affect journal publication about dietary supplements?

    PubMed Central

    Kemper, Kathi J; Hood, Kaylene L

    2008-01-01

    Background Advertising affects consumer and prescriber behaviors. The relationship between pharmaceutical advertising and journals' publication of articles regarding dietary supplements (DS) is unknown. Methods We reviewed one year of the issues of 11 major medical journals for advertising and content about DS. Advertising was categorized as pharmaceutical versus other. Articles about DS were included if they discussed vitamins, minerals, herbs or similar products. Articles were classified as major (e.g., clinical trials, cohort studies, editorials and reviews) or other (e.g., case reports, letters, news, and others). Articles' conclusions regarding safety and effectiveness were coded as negative (unsafe or ineffective) or other (safe, effective, unstated, unclear or mixed). Results Journals' total pages per issue ranged from 56 to 217 while advertising pages ranged from 4 to 88; pharmaceutical advertisements (pharmads) accounted for 1.5% to 76% of ad pages. Journals with the most pharmads published significantly fewer major articles about DS per issue than journals with the fewest pharmads (P < 0.01). Journals with the most pharmads published no clinical trials or cohort studies about DS. The percentage of major articles concluding that DS were unsafe was 4% in journals with fewest and 67% among those with the most pharmads (P = 0.02). The percentage of articles concluding that DS were ineffective was 50% higher among journals with more than among those with fewer pharmads (P = 0.4). Conclusion These data are consistent with the hypothesis that increased pharmaceutical advertising is associated with publishing fewer articles about DS and publishing more articles with conclusions that DS are unsafe. Additional research is needed to test alternative hypotheses for these findings in a larger sample of more diverse journals. PMID:18400092

  4. Tobacco prevention advertising: lessons from the commercial world.

    PubMed

    Rust, L

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents observations on how commercial TV advertising usually works with young people, discusses the special circumstances using advertising as a smoking prevention tool, and suggests research to guide future efforts. It is important for prevention efforts to recognize that in everyday life many young people are not systematic decision-makers; their intentions are extremely volatile and context-dependent, and they are highly spontaneous. So trying to change their smoking risk status with a TV ad that affects their conscious intentions toward smoking may not impact how they react when someone offers to share a cigarette with them behind the garage--even if it affects how they answer a "Do you think you'll ever take up smoking?" question right after seeing the ad. Advertising is good at getting consumers to focus on products--either in creating new brands, or in keeping familiar brands foremost in mind. Advertising is also good at providing models of concrete behaviors for people to imitate. Prevention efforts need to use advertising for what it is good at, and by and large this means being very concrete. Ultimately, for research to contribute to better prevention advertising, it needs to give the people who actually create that advertising a set of vivid, compelling images of who it is they are trying to reach and what it is that moves them. Some research methods which, when done properly, can serve this function are focus groups, anthropological studies, psychographic segmentations, moment-by-moment observational measurement, improved copy-testing methodology, and grounded-theory development. PMID:11072410

  5. 'Puffing' in medical advertising expands liability.

    PubMed

    Hirsh, B D

    1990-05-01

    Advertising is nothing new to the medical profession, although for many years reputable doctors did not advertise their skills. In 1975, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) successfully argued in a case that was appealed to the Supreme Court that the AMA had unlawfully restricted medical advertising. While the FTC usurped the job of policing medical advertising, it seems to regard medical adverstising as a local problem not worthy of FTC attention. It has avoided setting standards for medical advertising and has failed to initiate significant enforcement against deceptive medical advertising. This article briefly reviews the historical role of advertising in modern American medicine and discusses advertising in relation to risk management. PMID:2343421

  6. The success of the citizen suit: protecting consumers from inaccurate food labeling by amending the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

    PubMed

    Springer, James

    2013-01-01

    The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act ("FDCA"), amended in 1990 by the Nutrition Education and Labeling Act ("NLEA"), established a national framework for the administration and promulgation of uniform food labeling standards. Specifically, the NLEA created affirmative obligations for the food--requiring detailed disclosure of food content and strict adherence to regulations governing the use of health and nutritional claims on food packaging. To accomplish these goals, Congress tasked the Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") with the sole responsibility of the enforcement of these new requirements. Under the statutory framework of the FDCA, the United States Supreme Court ("Court") has held that there is no private right of action, of which extended to the enforcement of NLEA standards. This interpretation has left individuals with no federal outlet for relief in the enforcement of federal food labeling standards. Adherence to this interpretation is especially concerning when the FDA currently faces exponential growth in administrative responsibilities while simultaneously experiencing employment reduction, a $206 million "Sequester," and a recent government-wide shutdown. As a result, the American people are left to depend on an Agency that is struggling with drastic resource reduction while being accountable for ever increasing enforcement responsibilities. To ensure consumer protection, this Article argues that Congress should amend the FDCA to include a citizen suit provision in order to provide individuals with a right of private action for the enforcement of NLEA standards. Borrowing from the successes realized under similar citizen suit provisions found in environmental legislation, this Article argues that a citizen suit provision is amendable to the FDCA and would relieve fiscal pressures, strengthen the current enforcement framework of the FDCA, encourage more robust enforcement by the FDA and states, and ensure uniform interpretation of NLEA

  7. Subliminal Advertising: Is it Still Being Taught in Advertising Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applegate, Edd

    In 1974, 1976, and 1980 three best-selling books were published by Prentice Hall authored by Wilson Bryan Key. Key adopted the viewpoint that subliminal perception was a new phenomenon and that advertisers and advertising agencies were involved in manipulation of the public with the cooperation of the mass media. This study asks whether professors…

  8. An Inoculation Theory Explanation for the Effects of Corporate Issue/Advocacy Advertising Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoon, Michael; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Indicates that issue/advocacy advertising inoculates against attitude change among undergraduate students, while simultaneously protecting sponsors against slippage in ratings of source credibility, after exposure to a persuasive attack on behalf of an opposing position. (SR)

  9. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Orquin, Jacob L; Jeppesen, Heine B; Scholderer, Joachim; Haugtvedt, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to discover new possibilities for advertising in uncluttered environments marketers have recently begun using ambient advertising in, for instance, bars and pubs. However, advertising in such licensed premises have to deal with the fact that many consumers are under the influence of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and revealed increased attention to logos under alcohol intoxication consistent with the psychopharmacological prediction that alcohol intoxication narrows attention to the more salient features in the visual environment. Study 2 used a voluntary exposure manipulation in which ads were embedded in a magazine. The experiment revealed that alcohol intoxication reduces voluntary attention to ads and leads to a significant reduction in memory for the viewed ads. In popular terms consuming one or two beers reduces brand recall from 40 to 36% while being heavily intoxicated further reduces brand recall to 17%. PMID:24723899

  10. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Orquin, Jacob L.; Jeppesen, Heine B.; Scholderer, Joachim; Haugtvedt, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to discover new possibilities for advertising in uncluttered environments marketers have recently begun using ambient advertising in, for instance, bars and pubs. However, advertising in such licensed premises have to deal with the fact that many consumers are under the influence of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and revealed increased attention to logos under alcohol intoxication consistent with the psychopharmacological prediction that alcohol intoxication narrows attention to the more salient features in the visual environment. Study 2 used a voluntary exposure manipulation in which ads were embedded in a magazine. The experiment revealed that alcohol intoxication reduces voluntary attention to ads and leads to a significant reduction in memory for the viewed ads. In popular terms consuming one or two beers reduces brand recall from 40 to 36% while being heavily intoxicated further reduces brand recall to 17%. PMID:24723899

  11. Effect of the exposure to TV food advertisements on the consumption of foods by mothers and children.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Ramírez, Glenda; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Souto-Gallardo, Maria de las Cruces; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    Foods advertised were recorded in 2 television (TV) channels. The present article studies the association between products advertised and those consumed by mothers and children. A total of 365 mothers and their children were assessed. A positive correlation was observed between the food advertisements that the mothers recalled and the frequency of TV food advertisements (Rho = 0.44, P = 0.03). A positive correlation was found between the frequency of the foods advertised on TV and the consumption of these by the mothers (r = 0.73, P = 0.0001) and their children (Rho = 0.66, P = 0.0001). These results suggest that TV advertisements influence the food choices of mothers and children. PMID:22695042

  12. Competition in prescription drug markets: the roles of trademarks, advertising, and generic names.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Roger; Lobo, Félix

    2013-08-01

    We take on two subjects of controversy among economists-advertising and trademarks-in the context of the market for generic drugs. We outline a model in which trademarks for drug names reduce search costs but increase product differentiation. In this particular framework, trademarks may not benefit consumers. In contrast, the generic names of drugs or "International Nonproprietary Names" (INN) have unquestionable benefits in both economic theory and empirical studies. We offer a second model where advertising of a brand-name drug creates recognition for the generic name. The monopoly patent-holder advertises less than in the absence of a competitive spillover. PMID:22815099

  13. 23. The Stroud Building beard the 'Temme Springs' advertisement. Westfacing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. The Stroud Building beard the 'Temme Springs' advertisement. West-facing windows of the entire block are protected from the afternoon sun by awnings. The north-facing windows of the second-story restaurant were later blocked by an adjacent two-story building. Circa 1914. Credit PPL. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. Imagery Associated with Menstruation in Advertising Targeted to Adolescent Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havens, Beverly; Swenson, Ingrid

    1988-01-01

    Analyzed imagery in advertisements in "Seventeen" magazine for sanitary products and products for relief of menstrual symptoms, looking for recurrent themes in text, context, and tone. Found menstruation depicted as a "hygienic crisis" best managed by an effective "security system" affording protection and "peace of mind," with menstruating women…

  15. Institutional Advertising in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittle, Bart

    2000-01-01

    An exploratory study surveyed 59 colleges and universities concerning their advertising practices, specifically media usage, importance of communication objectives for institutional messages, and the importance of audiences targeted for advertising. All major media were used by most of the institutions. Communication objectives mentioned most…

  16. Critical Media Literacy: Commercial Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Laurie

    Studying the influence of mass media on people's lives allows students to view advertising in a new light. This lesson provides students with the opportunity to look at mass media in a critical way--students become aware of the tremendous amount of advertising that they are exposed to on a daily basis. In the lesson, by looking at advertising…

  17. 77 FR 10725 - Establishment of the Consumer Advisory Board and Solicitation of Nominations for Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL...: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Consumer Financial... consumer financial protection laws, and which will provide information to the Bureau concerning...

  18. Trends in Exposure to Televised Prescription Drug Advertising, 2003–2011

    PubMed Central

    Kornfield, Rachel; Alexander, G. Caleb; Qato, Dima M.; Kim, Yoonsang; Hirsch, Jan D.; Emery, Sherry L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction TV accounts for over half of pharmaceutical direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) spending in the U.S. The purpose of this study is to quantify average household exposure to branded and non-branded (help-seeking) televised prescription drug advertisements and describe variation over time and according to medication indication and geography. Methods In 2013, Nielsen TV ratings were compiled for prescription pharmaceutical advertising that aired between 2003 and 2011 for the top 75 U.S. media markets. All advertisements were coded as branded or help-seeking. Advertisements were further coded for one of eight prevalent indications (allergies, arthritis, asthma, erectile dysfunction, high cholesterol, smoking cessation, depression, and sleep disorder) or as “other.” Results Televised DTCA exposure increased from 2003 to 2007 and then declined 43% by 2011, to 111 monthly prescription drug advertisements per household. The examined indications were associated with varying amounts and patterns of exposure, with greatest declines among medications for allergies and sleep disorders. Help-seeking advertisements comprised 10% of total exposure, with substantial variation by indication. Conclusions Considerations of DTCA's effects on health care should take into account the shifting concentration of advertising across indications. PMID:25891057

  19. The Attitudes of Advertising Educators Concerning the Philosophies of Legendary Advertising Practitioners (and Their Implications for Advertising Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanot, Eric J.; Lamp, Joseph

    A study explored the attitudes of professors of advertising toward well-known advertising practitioners, and the effect these famous practitioners have had on the teaching of advertising. Four influential and famous advertising practitioners were selected from a preliminary list of 10. Six statements reflecting each practitioner's advertising…

  20. Generation X and Objectionable Advertising: A Q-Sort of Senior Advertising Students' Attitudes toward Objectionable Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yssel, Johan C.; And Others

    A study investigated what a group of 29 senior advertising students, part of "Generation X," at a midwestern university found "objectionable" in 35 selected contemporary magazine advertising executions. Using a Q-sort, students ranked the advertisements and completed a personal interview. The majority of the advertisements that students found…