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Sample records for advertising public relations

  1. 2 CFR 200.421 - Advertising and public relations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advertising and public relations. 200.421... Cost § 200.421 Advertising and public relations. (a) The term advertising costs means the costs of advertising media and corollary administrative costs. Advertising media include magazines, newspapers,...

  2. The Impact of IMC on Advertising and Public Relations Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, W. Glenn; Pasadeos, Yorgo

    1998-01-01

    Surveys advertising and public relations faculty members with regard to IMC (Integrated Marketing Communications) and its impact on current curricula. Finds (1) areas of discontent with current course curricula; (2) evidence of "separate agendas" between advertising and public relations educators on this issue; and (3) evidence of a generation gap…

  3. 48 CFR 31.205-1 - Public relations and advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... advertising costs. 31.205-1 Section 31.205-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Organizations 31.205-1 Public relations and advertising costs. (a) Public relations means all functions and... such as advertising, customer relations, etc. (b) Advertising means the use of media to promote...

  4. 48 CFR 31.205-1 - Public relations and advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... advertising costs. 31.205-1 Section 31.205-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Organizations 31.205-1 Public relations and advertising costs. (a) Public relations means all functions and... such as advertising, customer relations, etc. (b) Advertising means the use of media to promote...

  5. 48 CFR 31.205-1 - Public relations and advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... advertising costs. 31.205-1 Section 31.205-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Organizations 31.205-1 Public relations and advertising costs. (a) Public relations means all functions and... such as advertising, customer relations, etc. (b) Advertising means the use of media to promote...

  6. 48 CFR 31.205-1 - Public relations and advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... advertising costs. 31.205-1 Section 31.205-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Organizations 31.205-1 Public relations and advertising costs. (a) Public relations means all functions and... such as advertising, customer relations, etc. (b) Advertising means the use of media to promote...

  7. Integrating Public Relations with Advertising: An Exercise for Students in the College Public Relations Campaigns Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Reginald Ford

    2012-01-01

    Today's public relations (PR) campaigns courses give students the opportunity to research, analyze, plan, and, in many cases, execute a campaign for a real client. Even so, today's campaigns courses may leave students with a weak understanding of how PR can best partner with other tools in the communication mix, namely advertising. Educators may…

  8. 48 CFR 231.205-1 - Public relations and advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... advertising costs. 231.205-1 Section 231.205-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 231.205-1 Public relations and advertising costs. (e) See... public relations and advertising costs also include monies paid to the Government associated with...

  9. 48 CFR 231.205-1 - Public relations and advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... advertising costs. 231.205-1 Section 231.205-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 231.205-1 Public relations and advertising costs. (e) See... public relations and advertising costs also include monies paid to the Government associated with...

  10. 48 CFR 231.205-1 - Public relations and advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public relations and... PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 231.205-1 Public relations and advertising costs. (e) See... public relations and advertising costs also include monies paid to the Government associated with...

  11. Army Public Service Advertising.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    34 Marketing and Media Decisions, January 1982, p. 63. 6U.S., General Accounting Office, " Advertising for Military Recruiting," p. 10. 7Dean L. Yarwood...talent and necessary training, they said. 4 8 An article in Marketing and Media Decisions 4 9 offered a brief synopsis of military recruitment advertising ...support, public relations, marketing research, and analysis. The N. W. Ayer field representative’s Army counterpart is the Advertising and Sales

  12. Effectively selling astronomy to the public -- fusing lessons learned from education, entertainment, advertising and public relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallone, Arthur; Day, Jacque

    2010-03-01

    A great celestial story is only as effective as the teller of the tale. With passion and knowledge at the helm, we must search for ways to pass on enthusiasm to others while conveying sound science. Based on our experiences, we present an integrated approach -- one that borrows elements from education, entertainment, advertising, and public relations -- to choose an event, hook and keep the public's attention while making them want more, and provide some tips for increasing media presence.

  13. 48 CFR 2131.205-1 - Public relations and advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public relations and advertising costs. 2131.205-1 Section 2131.205-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... relations and advertising costs. The provisions of FAR 31.205-1 shall be modified to include the...

  14. 48 CFR 2131.205-1 - Public relations and advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Public relations and advertising costs. 2131.205-1 Section 2131.205-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... relations and advertising costs. The provisions of FAR 31.205-1 shall be modified to include the...

  15. 48 CFR 1631.205-70 - FEHBP public relations and advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true FEHBP public relations and advertising costs. 1631.205-70 Section 1631.205-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... relations and advertising costs. (a) The cost of media messages that are directed at advising current...

  16. Should You Know How to Do Marketing, Advertising, & Public Relations Writing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sides, Charles H.

    1992-01-01

    Argues that technical writers who develop broader writing skills prove to be more valuable to their employers during periods of economic downturn. Offers an overview of the basic skills needed to write marketing, advertising, and public relations documents. (PRA)

  17. Advertising in School Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Helen M-E.

    The needs of publication advisers in general and specifically those whose responsibility it is to direct the advertising staffs of school publications are the concern of this booklet. It is also designed to be a framework of reference and a guide which will enable the adviser to make the advertising experience of the staff members exciting and…

  18. 48 CFR 1631.205-70 - FEHBP public relations and advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FEHBP public relations and advertising costs. 1631.205-70 Section 1631.205-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS...

  19. 48 CFR 1631.205-70 - FEHBP public relations and advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FEHBP public relations and advertising costs. 1631.205-70 Section 1631.205-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS...

  20. Pedagogical Ethics: A Review of the Literature for Public Relations and Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Stanley L.

    Ethics is of increasing concern to United States colleges and universities, according to a survey of 183 institutions on this issue focusing on two areas--public relations and advertising. A 75% return from 134 institutions disclosed that some 25% offer an ethics course but less than half require one. Overwhelmingly (93%), most respondents…

  1. Preparing Public Relations and Advertising Students for the 21st Century: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Robert A.

    In 1993, the Task Force on Integrated Communications reported that public relations and advertising students would better be prepared to enter a changing communications industry through an "integrated" curriculum. This paper is a case study of how one university has attempted to meet that challenge. The work has resulted in the development of an…

  2. 48 CFR 31.205-1 - Public relations and advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... such as advertising, customer relations, etc. (b) Advertising means the use of media to promote the... what will appear, the media in which it will appear, and when it will appear. Advertising media include... relations and advertising costs include the costs of media time and space, purchased services performed...

  3. 48 CFR 1631.205-70 - FEHBP public relations and advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... relations and advertising costs. (a) The cost of media messages that are directed at advising current FEHBP... advertising costs. 1631.205-70 Section 1631.205-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... cost of the message. (b) Costs of media messages not provided for in paragraph (a) of this section...

  4. 43 CFR 423.27 - Advertising and public solicitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Advertising and public solicitation. 423.27 Section 423.27 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION... of Conduct § 423.27 Advertising and public solicitation. You must not engage in advertising...

  5. 43 CFR 423.27 - Advertising and public solicitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Advertising and public solicitation. 423.27 Section 423.27 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION... of Conduct § 423.27 Advertising and public solicitation. You must not engage in advertising...

  6. 43 CFR 423.27 - Advertising and public solicitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Advertising and public solicitation. 423.27 Section 423.27 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION... of Conduct § 423.27 Advertising and public solicitation. You must not engage in advertising...

  7. 43 CFR 423.27 - Advertising and public solicitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising and public solicitation. 423.27 Section 423.27 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION... of Conduct § 423.27 Advertising and public solicitation. You must not engage in advertising...

  8. 43 CFR 423.27 - Advertising and public solicitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Advertising and public solicitation. 423.27 Section 423.27 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION... of Conduct § 423.27 Advertising and public solicitation. You must not engage in advertising...

  9. Public Health Obesity-Related TV Advertising: Lessons Learned from Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Sherry L.; Szczypka, Glen; Powell, Lisa M.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the past 25 years, the percent of overweight and obese adults and children in the United States has increased dramatically. The magnitude and scope of the public health threat from obesity have resulted in calls for a national comprehensive obesity prevention strategy, akin to tobacco use prevention strategies undertaken over the past two decades. The purpose of this paper is to describe and compare population exposure to paid media campaigns for tobacco and obesity prevention, draw lessons from tobacco advertising, and compare tobacco and obesity behaviors/influences to identify priorities and pitfalls for further research on obesity adverting. Methods This is a descriptive study. Ratings data for the years 1999–2003, for the top 75 designated market areas in the U.S. were used to quantify exposure levels to anti-obesity and anti-smoking advertising in the U.S. Results Anti-tobacco campaigns preceded anti-obesity campaigns by several years, and in each year exposure levels—both total and average—for anti-tobacco media campaigns far outweighed those of anti-obesity campaigns. Conclusions It is important to compare both similarities and differences between smoking- and obesity-related behaviors, which might affect the potential impact of anti-obesity media campaigns. Given the scope of the public health risks attributable to obesity, and the amount of federal, state, and other resources devoted to anti-obesity media campaigns, there is a clear need to evaluate the potential impact of such campaigns efforts. Nonetheless, the challenges are significant in both motivating and monitoring such complex behavior change, and in attributing changes to a given media campaign. PMID:17884574

  10. From Practitioner to Professor: An Exploration of the Induction and Mentoring Processes in University Advertising and Public Relations Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Robert L.; Thomsen, Steven R.

    Induction and mentoring have been described as the processes during which new professors become integrated into the teaching profession. Both are particularly important in advertising and public relations education, where a large number of new faculty hires are former practitioners. A survey of 113 Association of Schools of Journalism and Mass…

  11. Advertising Public Television

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colihan, William J., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    "Several years ago an unpublished study reported that 85 per cent of established ETV stations (on-the-air two years or longer and replying to the questionnaire) used newspaper advertising for program promotion. The CPB commissioned the study reported here to determine the effects of such newspaper advertising on ETV audience size."…

  12. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (79th, Anaheim, CA, August 10-13, 1996). Advertising and Public Relations Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Advertising and Public Relations section of the proceedings contains the following 14 papers: "Toward an Understanding of Cultural Values Manifest in Advertising: A Content Analysis of Chinese Television Commercials from 1990 and 1995" (Hong Cheng); "The Impact of Advertising Distance on International Advertising: An Analysis of…

  13. 49 CFR 1242.84 - Marketing, sales, and public relations and advertising (accounts XX-63-88, XX-63-89 and XX-63-93).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marketing, sales, and public relations and advertising (accounts XX-63-88, XX-63-89 and XX-63-93). 1242.84 Section 1242.84 Transportation Other... advertising (accounts XX-63-88, XX-63-89 and XX-63-93). Separate each common expense account on the basis...

  14. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (77th, Atlanta, Georgia, August 10-13, 1994). Part VIII: Advertising and Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Advertising and Public Relations section of this collection of conference presentations contains the following 17 papers: "Using the FCB Grid and the 'Lost Quadrants' to Write Advertising Strategy" (Johan C. Yssel); "Antitrust and the Marketplace of Ideas: The Continuing Problem of Issue Advertising Access to Broadcast…

  15. How Source Affects Response to Public Service Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Jerry R.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Reports that public service advertising attributed to the Advertising Council elicited higher message ratings than did public service advertising attributed to a commercial source, a noncommercial source, or no source; however, it produced the lowest behavioral responses. (GT)

  16. Message Effects of Public Service Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Jerry R.

    Public service advertisements, disseminated via the mass media, have been credited with "positive attitudinal effects" in past research, but only certain kinds of such advertisements are really effective. Of the types of appeals used in television commercials--informative, emotional, "establishment" (or status quo), and…

  17. Energy efficiency public service advertising campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson-Grant, Amanda

    2015-06-12

    The Advertising Council (“the Ad Council”) and The United States Department of Energy (DOE) created and launched a national public service advertising campaign designed to promote energy efficiency. The objective of the Energy Efficiency campaign was to redefine how consumers approach energy efficiency by showing that saving energy can save homeowners money.

  18. Realism in Public Library Public Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scilken, Marvin H.

    1972-01-01

    The threat from school libraries coupled with misdirected publicity efforts has created the need for a massive nationwide public relations and advertising campaign whose main appeal should be to nonusers. (Author/NH)

  19. The Social Effects of Advertising as Perceived by Advertising Executives, Businessmen, and the General Public.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surlin, Stuart H.

    This study attempts to compare the perceptions and self-reported behavior of high, middle, and low authoritarian advertising executives, business executives, and members of the general public concerning the social effects of advertising. For the advertising sample, a total of 393 men and women were selected according to their executive positions…

  20. Questioning the Value of Realism: Young Adults' Processing of Messages in Alcohol-Related Public Service Announcements and Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andsager, Julie L.; Austin, Erica Weintraub; Pinkleton, Bruce E.

    2001-01-01

    Finds that: (1) perceived realism and themes that students could identify with are important factors in increasing the salience and persuasiveness of alcohol-related public service announcements (PSAs) among undergraduate students; (2) realistic but logic-based PSAs were not as effective as unrealistic but enjoyable ads; and (3) low production…

  1. 27 CFR 6.54 - Advertising in retailer publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Advertising in retailer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service § 6.54 Advertising in retailer publications. The purchase, by an industry member,...

  2. 27 CFR 6.54 - Advertising in retailer publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising in retailer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service § 6.54 Advertising in retailer publications. The purchase, by an industry member,...

  3. 27 CFR 6.54 - Advertising in retailer publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Advertising in retailer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service § 6.54 Advertising in retailer publications. The purchase, by an industry member,...

  4. 27 CFR 6.54 - Advertising in retailer publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Advertising in retailer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service § 6.54 Advertising in retailer publications. The purchase, by an industry member,...

  5. 27 CFR 6.54 - Advertising in retailer publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Advertising in retailer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service § 6.54 Advertising in retailer publications. The purchase, by an industry member,...

  6. Publicity and public relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  7. 48 CFR 570.402-2 - Publicizing/Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Publicizing/Advertising. 570.402-2 Section 570.402-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... for Continued Space Requirements 570.402-2 Publicizing/Advertising. The contracting officer...

  8. 48 CFR 570.402-2 - Publicizing/Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publicizing/Advertising. 570.402-2 Section 570.402-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... for Continued Space Requirements 570.402-2 Publicizing/Advertising. Publish a notice if required...

  9. 48 CFR 570.402-2 - Publicizing/Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Publicizing/Advertising. 570.402-2 Section 570.402-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... for Continued Space Requirements 570.402-2 Publicizing/Advertising. The contracting officer...

  10. 48 CFR 570.402-2 - Publicizing/Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Publicizing/Advertising. 570.402-2 Section 570.402-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... for Continued Space Requirements 570.402-2 Publicizing/Advertising. The contracting officer...

  11. 48 CFR 570.402-2 - Publicizing/Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Publicizing/Advertising. 570.402-2 Section 570.402-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... for Continued Space Requirements 570.402-2 Publicizing/Advertising. The contracting officer...

  12. Advertising public outreach--going where the people are

    SciTech Connect

    Bradford, D.; Burns, D.

    1994-12-31

    In a continuing effort to invite new and larger segments of the public to participate in Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Public Outreach Programs, examination of methods to enhance existing Public Outreach advertising programs began in 1993. Apart from the desire to promote greater public awareness and participation of the YMP, the Project itself is receiving less coverage of its scientific aspects in the local media. Since the public is already comfortable receiving messages in these media, this becomes an additional reason to explore and study advertising as a platform for invitations to the public.

  13. Public Service Advertising to Promote Cooperative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sylvia J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes an advertising campaign designed to create awareness of cooperative education in students, parents, and business people who can sponsor co-op jobs. Discusses benefits to students, employers, and society. (JM)

  14. Snack food advertising in stores around public schools in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Chacon, Violeta; Letona, Paola; Villamor, Eduardo; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2014-01-01

    Obesity in school-age children is emerging as a public heath concern. Food marketing influences preferences and increases children's requests for food. This study sought to describe the type of snack foods advertised to children in stores in and around public schools and assess if there is an association between child-oriented snack food advertising and proximity to schools. All food stores located inside and within a 200 square meter radius from two preschools and two primary schools were surveyed. We assessed store type, number and type of snack food advertisements including those child-oriented inside and outside stores. We surveyed 55 stores and found 321 snack food advertisements. Most were on sweetened beverages (37%) and soft drinks (30%). Ninety-two (29%) were child-oriented. Atoles (100.0%), cereals (94.1%), and ice cream and frozen desserts (71.4%) had the greatest proportion of child-oriented advertising. We found more child-oriented advertisements in stores that were closer (<170 m) to schools compared to those farther away. In conclusion, the food industry is flooding the market, taking advantage of the lack of strict regulation in Guatemala. Child-oriented advertisements are available in almost all stores within a short walking distance from schools, exposing children to an obesogenic environment. PMID:25821350

  15. Using mass transit public service advertising to market family planning.

    PubMed

    Blonna, R; McNally, K; Grasso, C

    1990-03-01

    To increase public awareness of family planning services in New Jersey, the Family Planning Program of the State Department of Health conducted an intermediary marketing campaign using free public service advertising on mass transit. In 1986, the year of the campaign, 237 calls were made to the advertised hotline, resulting in a like number of referrals to family planning service providers. Also, 2664 new patients examined in the state's family planning agencies in 1986 cited exposure to the media campaign as the reason for their visits. The results of the campaign and their implications for other public service agencies are discussed.

  16. Public enemy number one: the US Advertising Council's first drug abuse prevention campaign.

    PubMed

    Niesen, Molly

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the Advertising Council's first national drug abuse prevention campaign in the 1970s. Scholarship thus far has demonstrated the ways in which the issue of drug abuse represented a chief political strategy for President Nixon. Evidence from major trade press publications, congressional hearings, and an array of archival sources suggest that this campaign was also part of a public relations crusade on behalf of the advertising industry in response to public criticism of its role in abetting a culture of drug dependence. These institutional and political pressures helped shape drug abuse prevention in the 1970 s and for the decades that followed.

  17. Public Relations Bibliography: Tenth Edition, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Albert

    1982-01-01

    Includes 1800 citations relevant to the practice and professional development of public relations, in the following categories: public relations, communication, research, media relations, publicity, advertising, health and welfare, lobbying, and activism, etc. (Available from Communication Research Associates, 7100 Baltimore Blvd., Suite 500,…

  18. 48 CFR 570.106 - Publicizing/Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publicizing/Advertising. 570.106 Section 570.106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL CONTRACTING PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.106...

  19. 41 CFR 102-38.135 - What constitutes a public advertisement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF PERSONAL PROPERTY Sales Process Advertising § 102-38.135 What constitutes a public advertisement? Announcement of the sale using any media that reaches the public and is appropriate to the type and value of personal property to be sold is considered public advertising. You may also distribute mailings or...

  20. 41 CFR 102-38.135 - What constitutes a public advertisement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF PERSONAL PROPERTY Sales Process Advertising § 102-38.135 What constitutes a public advertisement? Announcement of the sale using any media that reaches the public and is appropriate to the type and value of personal property to be sold is considered public advertising. You may also distribute mailings or...

  1. 41 CFR 102-38.135 - What constitutes a public advertisement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF PERSONAL PROPERTY Sales Process Advertising § 102-38.135 What constitutes a public advertisement? Announcement of the sale using any media that reaches the public and is appropriate to the type and value of personal property to be sold is considered public advertising. You may also distribute mailings or...

  2. 41 CFR 102-38.135 - What constitutes a public advertisement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF PERSONAL PROPERTY Sales Process Advertising § 102-38.135 What constitutes a public advertisement? Announcement of the sale using any media that reaches the public and is appropriate to the type and value of personal property to be sold is considered public advertising. You may also distribute mailings or...

  3. Does pharmaceutical advertising affect journal publication about dietary supplements?

    PubMed Central

    Kemper, Kathi J; Hood, Kaylene L

    2008-01-01

    Background Advertising affects consumer and prescriber behaviors. The relationship between pharmaceutical advertising and journals' publication of articles regarding dietary supplements (DS) is unknown. Methods We reviewed one year of the issues of 11 major medical journals for advertising and content about DS. Advertising was categorized as pharmaceutical versus other. Articles about DS were included if they discussed vitamins, minerals, herbs or similar products. Articles were classified as major (e.g., clinical trials, cohort studies, editorials and reviews) or other (e.g., case reports, letters, news, and others). Articles' conclusions regarding safety and effectiveness were coded as negative (unsafe or ineffective) or other (safe, effective, unstated, unclear or mixed). Results Journals' total pages per issue ranged from 56 to 217 while advertising pages ranged from 4 to 88; pharmaceutical advertisements (pharmads) accounted for 1.5% to 76% of ad pages. Journals with the most pharmads published significantly fewer major articles about DS per issue than journals with the fewest pharmads (P < 0.01). Journals with the most pharmads published no clinical trials or cohort studies about DS. The percentage of major articles concluding that DS were unsafe was 4% in journals with fewest and 67% among those with the most pharmads (P = 0.02). The percentage of articles concluding that DS were ineffective was 50% higher among journals with more than among those with fewer pharmads (P = 0.4). Conclusion These data are consistent with the hypothesis that increased pharmaceutical advertising is associated with publishing fewer articles about DS and publishing more articles with conclusions that DS are unsafe. Additional research is needed to test alternative hypotheses for these findings in a larger sample of more diverse journals. PMID:18400092

  4. [Drug advertising to the general public: conceptual parameters of a risk producer practice].

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Alvaro César

    2010-11-01

    This article analyzes some concepts relating to marketing, advertising, medications, regulation and manipulation. It discusses ethical and health surveillance parameters of drugs advertising for the general public. The focus of this work is the analysis of contradictions from a conceptual point of view between the practice of pharmaceutical advertising as a tool for the increase of sales and the conquest of markets versus the policy of rational use of medicines. Academic studies and monitoring of drugs advertising conducted by the National Health Surveillance Agency show that the contents of the advertising pieces oriented towards the general public overestimate the - sometimes dubious - qualities of their medication, focusing almost exclusively on the benefits and put them in a central position in the therapeutic process. They also fail to mention the risks inherent in their use. Rather than focusing on regulatory proposals aimed at creating constraints to this practice, this article discusses the impossibility, considering the interests of public health, of the coexistence of marketing with the policies for the correct, rational and safe use of drugs.

  5. A total ban on alcohol advertising: presenting the public health case.

    PubMed

    Parry, Charles; Burnhams, Nadine Harker; London, Leslie

    2012-05-28

    Evidence from burden of disease and economic costing studies amply indicate that the public health burden from hazardous and harmful use of alcohol in South Africa warrants drastic action. Evidence that banning alcohol advertising is likely to be an effective intervention is reflected in WHO strategy documents on non-communicable diseases and harmful use of alcohol. Studies on young people furthermore support arguments refuting the claim that advertising only influences brand choice. Given the weakness of relying on industry self-regulation, the government is considering legislation to ban alcohol advertising, resulting in heated debate. Tobacco control and studies investigating the effect of alcohol advertising bans on consumption and alcohol-related deaths point to the effectiveness of such action - ideally supplemented by other policy interventions. Arguments against an advertising ban include possible communication sector job losses, but these are likely to have been exaggerated. Banning alcohol advertising will necessitate greater scrutiny of digital media, satellite television and merchandising to reduce the likelihood of subverting the ban.

  6. 41 CFR 301-74.16 - What must be included in any advertisement or application form relating to conference attendance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must be included in any advertisement or application form relating to conference attendance? 301-74.16 Section 301-74.16... included in any advertisement or application form relating to conference attendance? (a) Any...

  7. Getting to know the competition: a content analysis of publicly and corporate funded physical activity advertisements.

    PubMed

    Berry, Tanya R; McCarville, Ron E; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to conduct a content analysis of physical activity advertisements in an effort to determine which advertisements were more likely to include features that may attract and maintain attention levels. Fifty-seven advertisements were collected from top circulation Canadian magazines. The advertisements ranged from publicly funded health promotion pieces to corporate sponsored advertisements using physical activity to sell a product. Advertisements were examined for textual and pictorial factors thought to increase attention allocated to advertising of this nature. Only two public health advertisements were found, and the majority of advertisements (57.9%) were from commercial advertisers using physical activity images to sell products or to encourage brand recognition. The advertisements originating with the private sector tended to possess most of the characteristics thought to attract the attention of readers. Once this attention was gained, however, most of these advertisements failed to highlight the benefits of physical activity. As a result, the positive effect of these advertisements may have been compromised. Public health advertisements were so infrequent that we could not compare their characteristics with those originating with the private sector. The characteristics with those we did find were inconsistent with those thought to attract and maintain attention levels. Results are discussed in terms of potential implications for promoting physical activity.

  8. Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFazio, Frank A.; Arnold, Douglas

    1988-01-01

    Reaching students and donors through advertising is discussed in several articles including: "Proven Effective," on what makes three advertising campaigns work; "Commercial Appeal," on how advertising can help institutions meet its goals (Frank A. DeFazio); "Desperately Seeking Savvy," on finding the right advertising…

  9. 41 CFR 102-38.135 - What constitutes a public advertisement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What constitutes a public advertisement? 102-38.135 Section 102-38.135 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... OF PERSONAL PROPERTY Sales Process Advertising § 102-38.135 What constitutes a public...

  10. The Academic Preparation Recommended by Public Relations Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Gay; Cottone, Laura Perkins

    Questionnaires were mailed to 261 agencies involved in public relations and publicity services, 56 agencies involved in advertising, and public relations directors of 183 corporations and other nonagency organizations in order to determine the knowledge and skill areas important to agency and organizational public relations employers. In an effort…

  11. 48 CFR 570.106 - Advertising, publicizing, and notifications to Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Advertising, publicizing... 570.106 Advertising, publicizing, and notifications to Congress. (a) If a proposed acquisition is not... newspapers if, in the opinion of the contracting officer, doing so is necessary to promote competition....

  12. Taxation of Advertising Income of Exempt Organizations' Publications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spevack, Robert M.

    1975-01-01

    Accounting principles and tax considerations of advertising income are explained in terms of the Tax Reform Act of 1969. The discussion includes aspects of determining expenses, deductions, charge rates, definitions of advertising, subscription income, and nonprofit mailing privileges. (LBH)

  13. Internet advertisements for public sexual encounters among men who have sex with men: are safe behaviors communicated?

    PubMed

    Downing, Martin J

    2011-09-01

    Public and commercial sex venues typically provide easy access to sexual encounters that are often anonymous and, therefore, may facilitate HIV/STD transmission among those men who attend. Recently, researchers have suggested that men who have sex with men may be using the Internet to search for sexual encounters to occur within sex venues. The current study explored the extent to which men who advertise for public or commercial sexual encounters initially communicate to potential partners their safe-sex intentions. Advertisements for sexual encounters (n = 99) were collected from a publicly accessible website and examined for content related to venue type, sexual behavior, and indications of sexual safety or risk. Word frequencies were calculated to provide a closer investigation of how individuals negotiate safe sex within these communications. The findings revealed that approximately half of the men who advertised for sex in a public or commercial sex venue failed to communicate to potential partners in their initial advertisement a desire to be safe during sexual encounters involving oral and anal practices. Additionally, a small percentage of men advertised specifically for risky encounters (e.g., barebacking). Together, these findings suggest that men do use the Internet to coordinate public sexual encounters, some of which may be unprotected from HIV/STD transmission. Future research should address the process of condom negotiation among men who initially meet their male sex partners on the Internet for subsequent encounters in sex venues.

  14. General public knowledge, perceptions and practice towards pharmaceutical drug advertisements in the Western region of KSA.

    PubMed

    Al-Haddad, Mahmoud S; Hamam, Fayez; Al-Shakhshir, Sami M

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to examine general public knowledge and behavior toward pharmaceutical advertisements in the Western part of KSA. A cross sectional convenience sampling technique was used in this study. A total of 1445 valid questionnaires were received and analyzed using SPSS version 16 at alpha value of 0.05. Majority of respondents were aware of different types of drugs to be advertised and drug advertisements should seek approval from the health authorities. Television and Internet showed the highest effect on consumers. Almost half of the participants preferred an advertised drug over non-advertised one. Most of the respondents indicated that the quality of frequently advertised drugs is not better than those prescribed by the doctors. Majority of participants had positive beliefs toward advertised drugs concerning their role in education and spreading of awareness among the public. Pharmaceutical advertisements harm the doctor-patient relationship as evidenced by one-third of the investigated sample. Moreover, majority of the participants mentioned that they would consult another doctor or even change the current doctor if he/she refused to prescribe an advertised medication. Results of this study could be used to develop awareness programs for the general public and try to enforce the regulations and policies to protect the general public and patients from the business oriented pharmaceutical companies and drug suppliers.

  15. General public knowledge, perceptions and practice towards pharmaceutical drug advertisements in the Western region of KSA

    PubMed Central

    Al-Haddad, Mahmoud S.; Hamam, Fayez; AL-Shakhshir, Sami M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to examine general public knowledge and behavior toward pharmaceutical advertisements in the Western part of KSA. A cross sectional convenience sampling technique was used in this study. A total of 1445 valid questionnaires were received and analyzed using SPSS version 16 at alpha value of 0.05. Majority of respondents were aware of different types of drugs to be advertised and drug advertisements should seek approval from the health authorities. Television and Internet showed the highest effect on consumers. Almost half of the participants preferred an advertised drug over non-advertised one. Most of the respondents indicated that the quality of frequently advertised drugs is not better than those prescribed by the doctors. Majority of participants had positive beliefs toward advertised drugs concerning their role in education and spreading of awareness among the public. Pharmaceutical advertisements harm the doctor–patient relationship as evidenced by one-third of the investigated sample. Moreover, majority of the participants mentioned that they would consult another doctor or even change the current doctor if he/she refused to prescribe an advertised medication. Results of this study could be used to develop awareness programs for the general public and try to enforce the regulations and policies to protect the general public and patients from the business oriented pharmaceutical companies and drug suppliers. PMID:24648823

  16. Oxytocin Increases the Influence of Public Service Advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Pei-Ying; Grewal, Naomi Sparks; Morin, Christophe; Johnson, Walter D.; Zak, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a neurophysiologic model of effective public service advertisements (PSAs) and reports two experiments that test the model. In Experiment 1, we show that after watching 16 PSAs participants who received oxytocin, compared to those given a placebo, donated to 57% more causes, donated 56% more money, and reported 17% greater concern for those in the ads. In Experiment 2, we measured adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and oxytocin levels in blood before and after participants watched a PSA. As predicted by the model, donations occurred when participants had increases in both ACTH and oxytocin. Our results indicate that PSAs with social content that cause OT release will be more effective than those that do not. Our results also explain why some individuals do not respond to PSAs. PMID:23460821

  17. Oxytocin increases the influence of public service advertisements.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pei-Ying; Grewal, Naomi Sparks; Morin, Christophe; Johnson, Walter D; Zak, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a neurophysiologic model of effective public service advertisements (PSAs) and reports two experiments that test the model. In Experiment 1, we show that after watching 16 PSAs participants who received oxytocin, compared to those given a placebo, donated to 57% more causes, donated 56% more money, and reported 17% greater concern for those in the ads. In Experiment 2, we measured adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and oxytocin levels in blood before and after participants watched a PSA. As predicted by the model, donations occurred when participants had increases in both ACTH and oxytocin. Our results indicate that PSAs with social content that cause OT release will be more effective than those that do not. Our results also explain why some individuals do not respond to PSAs.

  18. Public Relations: A Comprehensive Bibliography; Articles and Books on Public Relations, Communication Theory, Public Opinion, and Propaganda, 1964-1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Robert L., Comp.

    This bibliography lists and sometimes annotates approximately 4,000 books, articles, and speeches about or related to public relations. The book contains sections on such subjects as advertising, agriculture, automation, banking, books, business, chemical industry, computers, consumer and consumer relations, corporate image, ecology, education,…

  19. Educational Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Philip T.

    The first quarter of this textbook on public relations in the public school setting reviews the topic and informs educators about the potential public relations problems and opportunities that could face them in the foreseeable future. An introduction and four chapters cover (1) the history of public relations; (2) the elements of public…

  20. Assessing Public Relations Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slocum, Doris; Johnson, T. Earle, Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The need to establish goals and objectives for public relations activities is discussed, followed by descriptions of several evaluation techniques for public relations programs. The continuous education of faculty regarding costs and logistics of publicity, and long-term continuity in the public relations effort are stressed as essential elements…

  1. 45 CFR 2555.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Advertising. 2555.540 Section 2555.540 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  2. 45 CFR 2555.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Advertising. 2555.540 Section 2555.540 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  3. 45 CFR 618.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Advertising. 618.540 Section 618.540 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  4. 45 CFR 2555.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising. 2555.540 Section 2555.540 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  5. 45 CFR 2555.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Advertising. 2555.540 Section 2555.540 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  6. 45 CFR 618.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Advertising. 618.540 Section 618.540 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  7. 45 CFR 2555.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Advertising. 2555.540 Section 2555.540 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  8. 45 CFR 618.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Advertising. 618.540 Section 618.540 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  9. 45 CFR 618.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Advertising. 618.540 Section 618.540 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  10. 45 CFR 618.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising. 618.540 Section 618.540 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  11. Turning negative into positive: public health mass media campaigns and negative advertising.

    PubMed

    Apollonio, D E; Malone, R E

    2009-06-01

    Literature suggests that 'negative advertising' is an effective way to encourage behavioral changes, but it has enjoyed limited use in public health media campaigns. However, as public health increasingly focuses on non-communicable disease prevention, negative advertising could be more widely applied. This analysis considers an illustrative case from tobacco control. Relying on internal tobacco industry documents, surveys and experimental data and drawing from political advocacy literature, we describe tobacco industry and public health research on the American Legacy Foundation's "truth" campaign, an example of effective negative advertising in the service of public health. The tobacco industry determined that the most effective advertisements run by Legacy's "truth" campaign were negative advertisements. Although the tobacco industry's own research suggested that these negative ads identified and effectively reframed the cigarette as a harmful consumer product rather than focusing solely on tobacco companies, Philip Morris accused Legacy of 'vilifying' it. Public health researchers have demonstrated the effectiveness of the "truth" campaign in reducing smoking initiation. Research on political advocacy demonstrating the value of negative advertising has rarely been used in the development of public health media campaigns, but negative advertising can effectively communicate certain public health messages and serve to counter corporate disease promotion.

  12. Advertising for all by the year 2000: public health implications for less developed countries.

    PubMed

    Wallack, L; Montgomery, K

    1992-01-01

    This paper argues that the development of global advertising has significant implications for the public health of less developed countries. These implications can be seen in three areas. First, it is clear that advertising and marketing of lethal or health-compromising products like alcohol and tobacco not only can increase the level of death and disease, but can also produce serious indirect effects upon families, communities, and entire societies. Second, advertising promotes a consumption ethic which can have far-reaching effects that go beyond individual behavior, significantly altering social relationships, and influencing public policies and allocation of scarce resources. Third, advertising can restrict the public's knowledge about health issues by substituting distorted and manipulative sales messages for vital, accurate health information. In addition, revenues from advertising are a primary support for many mass media systems and this further limits the presentation of critical information.

  13. The effectiveness of parental communication in modifying the relation between food advertising and children's consumption behaviour.

    PubMed

    Buijzen, Moniek

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of various types of parental communication in modifying children's responses to television food advertising. In a combined diary-survey study among 234 parents of 4- to 12-year-old children, I investigated how different styles of advertising mediation (active vs. restrictive) and consumer communication (concept-oriented vs. socio-oriented) moderated the relation between children's advertising exposure and their consumption of advertised energy-dense food products. Interaction analysis in regression showed that active advertising mediation (i.e. explaining the purpose and nature of advertising), and socio-oriented consumer communication (i.e. emphasizing control and restrictions) significantly reduced the impact of advertising on children's food consumption. Parental restrictions of advertising exposure were only effective among younger children (<8). These results suggest that critical discussion about advertising and rule making about consumption are most effective in countering the impact of food advertising.

  14. Regulating firearm advertisements that promise home protection. A public health intervention.

    PubMed

    Vernick, J S; Teret, S P; Webster, D W

    1997-05-07

    Firearms are a consumer product responsible for 38500 deaths in the United States in 1994. Like other products, firearms are advertised. In the absence of rules governing the design of firearms, regulating the way guns are advertised may be a useful public health intervention. Some gun advertisements include messages suggesting that bringing a handgun into the home is generally protective for the occupants of the home. The best available scientific information contradicts this message. Given this disjunction, regulating those advertisements may be an appropriate response. Under federal law, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has authority to prohibit advertisements that are "deceptive" or "unfair." Under the FTC's deception analysis, the focus is on whether consumers are misled by an advertisement. For a finding of unfairness, the FTC looks for advertisements that may cause substantial injury to consumers. Under either analysis, a strong argument can be made that firearm advertisements promising home protection are unlawful. On February 14, 1996, several organizations sent separate petitions to the FTC asking it to consider the issues raised by firearm advertisements that promise home protection. The FTC is still reviewing the information presented. There are no First Amendment or Second Amendment impediments to FTC regulation of deceptive firearm advertising under the US Constitution.

  15. Recruiting for research studies using online public advertisements: examples from research in affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Wise, Toby; Arnone, Danilo; Marwood, Lindsey; Zahn, Roland; Lythe, Karen E; Young, Allan H

    2016-01-01

    Successful recruitment is vital for any research study. Difficulties in recruitment are not uncommon and can have important implications. This is particularly relevant to research conducted in affective disorders due to the nature of the conditions and the clinical services that serve these patients. Recently, online public advertisements have become more generally accessible and may provide an effective way to recruit patient populations. However, there is paucity of evidence on their viability as a method of recruiting patients into studies of disease mechanisms in these disorders. Public advertisement methods can be useful when researchers require specific populations, such as those not receiving pharmacological treatment. This work describes our experience in successfully recruiting participants into neuroimaging research studies in affective disorders using online public advertisements. Results suggest that these online public advertisements are an effective method for successfully recruiting participants with affective disorders into research studies, particularly for research focusing on disease mechanisms in specific populations.

  16. Turning negative into positive: public health mass media campaigns and negative advertising

    PubMed Central

    Apollonio, D. E.; Malone, R. E.

    2009-01-01

    Literature suggests that ‘negative advertising’ is an effective way to encourage behavioral changes, but it has enjoyed limited use in public health media campaigns. However, as public health increasingly focuses on non-communicable disease prevention, negative advertising could be more widely applied. This analysis considers an illustrative case from tobacco control. Relying on internal tobacco industry documents, surveys and experimental data and drawing from political advocacy literature, we describe tobacco industry and public health research on the American Legacy Foundation’s “truth” campaign, an example of effective negative advertising in the service of public health. The tobacco industry determined that the most effective advertisements run by Legacy’s “truth” campaign were negative advertisements. Although the tobacco industry’s own research suggested that these negative ads identified and effectively reframed the cigarette as a harmful consumer product rather than focusing solely on tobacco companies, Philip Morris accused Legacy of ‘vilifying’ it. Public health researchers have demonstrated the effectiveness of the “truth” campaign in reducing smoking initiation. Research on political advocacy demonstrating the value of negative advertising has rarely been used in the development of public health media campaigns, but negative advertising can effectively communicate certain public health messages and serve to counter corporate disease promotion. PMID:18948569

  17. The Image of Public Relations in Mass Comm Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Carolyn

    1982-01-01

    Compared public relations sections in 12 introductory mass communication texts and found a confusion about the relationship of advertising and public relations, a lack of historical background, and an antipublic relations stance. Journal available from Communication Research Associates, 7100 Baltimore Blvd., Suite 500, College Park, MD 20740; sc…

  18. Public Relations Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archetti, Carmen Fernandez

    This practicum report describes an attempt to develop and implement a systematic public relations program for an elementary school center, with the aim of improving public confidence in the school. The author developed a model process for instituting and sustaining a general public relations operation and then field tested the model at South Grade…

  19. The University Environment: A Comprehensive Assessment of Health-Related Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymona, Katie; Quick, Virginia; Olfert, Melissa; Shelnutt, Karla; Kattlemann, Kendra K.; Brown-Esters, Onikia; Colby, Sarah E.; Beaudoin, Christina; Lubniewski, Jocelyn; Maia, Angelina Moore; Horacek, Tanya; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about health-related advertising on university environments. Given the power of advertising and its potential effect on health behaviors, the purpose of this paper is to assess the health-related advertisement environment and policies on university campuses. Design/methodology/approach: In total, ten geographically and…

  20. Effects of Persuasive Appeals in Public Service Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Jerry R.

    1974-01-01

    Concludes that of four message types perceived on the basis of persuasive appeal--emotional, logical, source-attribute, and fear--emotional appeal is the most effective and source-attribute the least effective method of advertising. (RB)

  1. Advertising cadavers in the republic of letters: anatomical publications in the early modern Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Margócsy, Dániel

    2009-06-01

    This paper sketches how late seventeenth-century Dutch anatomists used printed publications to advertise their anatomical preparations, inventions and instructional technologies to an international clientele. It focuses on anatomists Frederik Ruysch (1638-1732) and Lodewijk de Bils (1624-69), inventors of two separate anatomical preparation methods for preserving cadavers and body parts in a lifelike state for decades or centuries. Ruysch's and de Bils's publications functioned as an 'advertisement' for their preparations. These printed volumes informed potential customers that anatomical preparations were aesthetically pleasing and scientifically important but did not divulge the trade secrets of the method of production. Thanks to this strategy of non-disclosure and advertisement, de Bils and Ruysch could create a well-working monopoly market of anatomical preparations. The 'advertising' rhetorics of anatomical publications highlight the potential dangers of equating the growth of print culture with the development of an open system of knowledge exchange.

  2. A Public Relations Footnote to the Pete Rose Affair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutlip, Scott M.

    1989-01-01

    Describes (prompted by Pete Rose's unsuccessful challenge to the authority of the Commissioner of Major League Baseball) the creation of the Commissioner's office in 1921 by Albert Lasker, an advertising and public relations genius, to deal with the public relations problem facing baseball in the wake of the 1919-20 Black Sox scandal. (SR)

  3. 75 FR 67666 - Use of Various Winemaking Terms on Wine Labels and in Advertisements; Request for Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... Wine Labels and in Advertisements; Request for Public Comment AGENCY: Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade... various winemaking terms commonly used on labels and in advertisements to provide consumers with... Regulations, the Use of Various Winemaking Terms on Labels and in Advertisements, and Request for Comments...

  4. Drama advertisements: moderating effects of self-relevance on the relations among empathy, information processing, and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Chebat, Jean-Charles; Vercollier, Sarah Drissi; Gélinas-Chebat, Claire

    2003-06-01

    The effects of drama versus lecture format in public service advertisements are studied in a 2 (format) x 2 (malaria vs AIDS) factorial design. Two structural equation models are built (one for each level of self-relevance), showing two distinct patterns. In both low and high self-relevant situations, empathy plays a key role. Under low self-relevance conditions, drama enhances information processing through empathy. Under high self-relevant conditions, the advertisement format has neither significant cognitive or empathetic effects. The information processing generated by the highly relevant topic affects viewers' empathy, which in turn affects the attitude the advertisement and the behavioral intent. As predicted by the Elaboration Likelihood Model, the advertisement format enhances the attitudes and information processing mostly under low self-relevant conditions. Under low self-relevant conditions, empathy enhances information processing while under high self-relevance, the converse relation holds.

  5. Speechmaking as a Public Relations Technique: A Descriptive Study of Speechmaking Practices and Attitudes Among Selected Public Relations Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Charles Vasile

    This study surveys speech-making practices and attitudes of practitioners in firms not primarily engaged in providing public relations services. Questionnaires designed to assess the uses of speech making as a public relations technique were sent to the 50 largest United States advertising agencies and to the 34 largest United States business and…

  6. Public Relations as Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelby, Annette N.

    Public relations as strategic communication is one possible theme for an introductory course in public relations. This perspective focuses attention on messages (their content, timing, media, and so forth) as strategic responses to the audience and the situation. It provides a defensible rationale for including certain relevant topics in the…

  7. Promote Health or Prevent Disease? The Effects of Health-Related Advertising on Eating Behavior Intention

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Yen

    2015-01-01

    The health medical costs of colorectal cancer are increasingly higher in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI) and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising. However, the number of colorectal cancer patients continues to increase annually. Our study explored the effects of health-related advertisements (ads) on healthy behavior intentions as influenced by regulatory focus theory (RFT) and construal level theory (CLT). We conducted an experiment with different public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention) × 2 (temporal distance: one month vs. one year) × 2 (graphics-text ratio: more pictures and less text vs. fewer pictures and more text) three-factor experiment was adopted. The multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that ads with higher construal levels (i.e., more text) had greater effects with a promotion-oriented regulatory focus. However, no significant differences were found in either attitude toward the ads or behavior intention when the regulatory focus was prevention. In addition, according to the young testers and those who were psychologically distant from colorectal cancer, different temporal distances and different construal levels had no statistically significantly effects on attitudes toward advertising or on behavior intentions. The results revealed that viewers found the information easier to understand when the ads triggered the regulatory focuses of the viewers and applied an appropriate graphics-text ratio, which resulted in favorable health-related advertising effectiveness. Thus, we provide two suggestions regarding the use of health-related advertising for MOHW in the future. PMID:25826394

  8. Promote health or prevent disease? The effects of health-related advertising on eating behavior intention.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Yen

    2015-03-27

    The health medical costs of colorectal cancer are increasingly higher in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI) and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising. However, the number of colorectal cancer patients continues to increase annually. Our study explored the effects of health-related advertisements (ads) on healthy behavior intentions as influenced by regulatory focus theory (RFT) and construal level theory (CLT). We conducted an experiment with different public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention) × 2 (temporal distance: one month vs. one year) × 2 (graphics-text ratio: more pictures and less text vs. fewer pictures and more text) three-factor experiment was adopted. The multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that ads with higher construal levels (i.e., more text) had greater effects with a promotion-oriented regulatory focus. However, no significant differences were found in either attitude toward the ads or behavior intention when the regulatory focus was prevention. In addition, according to the young testers and those who were psychologically distant from colorectal cancer, different temporal distances and different construal levels had no statistically significantly effects on attitudes toward advertising or on behavior intentions. The results revealed that viewers found the information easier to understand when the ads triggered the regulatory focuses of the viewers and applied an appropriate graphics-text ratio, which resulted in favorable health-related advertising effectiveness. Thus, we provide two suggestions regarding the use of health-related advertising for MOHW in the future.

  9. 45 CFR 86.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Advertising. 86.59 Section 86.59 Public Welfare... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.59 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  10. 45 CFR 86.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Advertising. 86.59 Section 86.59 Public Welfare... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.59 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  11. 36 CFR 1211.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advertising. 1211.540 Section 1211.540 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  12. 36 CFR 1211.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Advertising. 1211.540 Section 1211.540 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  13. 36 CFR 1211.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Advertising. 1211.540 Section 1211.540 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  14. 45 CFR 86.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Advertising. 86.59 Section 86.59 Public Welfare... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.59 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  15. 43 CFR 41.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Advertising. 41.540 Section 41.540 Public... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  16. 43 CFR 41.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Advertising. 41.540 Section 41.540 Public... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  17. 43 CFR 41.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Advertising. 41.540 Section 41.540 Public... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  18. 45 CFR 86.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Advertising. 86.59 Section 86.59 Public Welfare... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.59 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  19. 36 CFR 1211.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advertising. 1211.540 Section 1211.540 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  20. 43 CFR 41.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Advertising. 41.540 Section 41.540 Public... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  1. 43 CFR 41.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising. 41.540 Section 41.540 Public... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  2. 36 CFR 1211.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising. 1211.540 Section 1211.540 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  3. 45 CFR 86.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising. 86.59 Section 86.59 Public Welfare... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.59 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  4. Content analysis of children's television advertising in relation to dental health.

    PubMed

    Rodd, H D; Patel, V

    2005-12-10

    This paper provides some disturbing facts and figures about the amount of television being watched by children. In addition, it reports on the volume and type of television advertising aimed at young people, both in the United Kingdom and other developed countries. In view of recent public and professional concern as to the possible adverse effects of food advertising on children's health, this study set out to examine what proportion of television advertisements, directed at children, promoted products potentially harmful to dental health. Forty-one hours of children's television programming broadcast on ITV1, the main UK commercial channel, were recorded on to videotape for subsequent analysis. Almost 1,000 adverts were analysed; each was timed and broadly categorised as relating to a food/drink product or non food/drink product. Advertisements for food and drink were further subdivided according to their sugar and/or acid content. We found that, on average, 24 adverts were shown per broadcast hour, which accounted for 15.8% of the total schedule time. 34.8% of adverts related to food/drink products, and 95.3% of these promoted products that were deemed potentially cariogenic or erosive. The most frequently promoted food/drink products included breakfast cereals with added sugar (26.3%), confectionery (23.7%) and non-carbonated soft drinks (18.1%). It is very concerning that, despite recent specific codes of practice outlined by the Independent Television Commission for Children's Advertising, many food and drink products promoted during children's programming are potentially damaging to dental health.

  5. Public Relations Strategies for Scholastic Publication Staffs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konkle, Bruce E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the importance to scholastic publications staffs of four public relations strategies: meticulous research, systematic planning, strengthening communication efforts, and evaluation. Notes internal and external factors crucial to good public relations. Lists activities to consider. (SR)

  6. Store and Restaurant Advertising and Health of Public Housing Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, Katie M.; Li, Dongmei; Regan, Gail R.; Howard, Hugh H.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Lee, Rebecca E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine relationships between food and beverage signs and health. Methods: In 12 public housing neighborhoods, food and alcohol signs were counted for stores and restaurants. Health and demographic data were from 373 adults. Results: Multilevel modeling showed higher BMI was related to more store and restaurant alcohol signs,…

  7. Argumentation and Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stovall, Richard L.

    Issue management oriented public relations provides an excellent pedagogical device for anyone interested in the application of argumentation. This can be illustrated by a case study in which a commercial metals company was wrongly accused of improperly disposing of toxic waste at a particular site. To counter the bad publicity that followed the…

  8. An Analysis of Televised Public Service Advertising. Drug Abuse Information Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanneman, Gerhard J.; And Others

    Government regulations state that broadcasters are obligated to allot program time to matters of public interest, but neither law nor precedent have determined their commitment to present messages on social problems. To determine the amount of public service advertising (PSA) that is broadcast, particularly anti-drug appeals, a content analysis…

  9. 41 CFR 301-74.16 - What must be included in any advertisement or application form relating to conference attendance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... any advertisement or application form relating to conference attendance? 301-74.16 Section 301-74.16 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 74-CONFERENCE PLANNING Agency Responsibilities § 301-74.16 What must...

  10. 41 CFR 301-74.11 - What must be included in any advertisement or application form relating to conference attendance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... any advertisement or application form relating to conference attendance? 301-74.11 Section 301-74.11 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 74-CONFERENCE PLANNING Agency Responsibilities § 301-74.11 What must...

  11. 41 CFR 301-74.16 - What must be included in any advertisement or application form relating to conference attendance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... any advertisement or application form relating to conference attendance? 301-74.16 Section 301-74.16 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 74-CONFERENCE PLANNING Agency Responsibilities § 301-74.16 What must...

  12. 41 CFR 301-74.16 - What must be included in any advertisement or application form relating to conference attendance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... any advertisement or application form relating to conference attendance? 301-74.16 Section 301-74.16 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 74-CONFERENCE PLANNING Agency Responsibilities § 301-74.16 What must...

  13. Store and Restaurant Advertising and Health of Public Housing Residents

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Katie M.; Li, Dongmei; Regan, Gail R.; Howard, Hugh H.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Lee, Rebecca E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine relationships between food and beverage signs and health. Methods In 12 public housing neighborhoods, food and alcohol signs were counted for stores and restaurants. Health and demographic data were from 373 adults. Results Multilevel modeling showed higher BMI was related to more store and restaurant alcohol signs, higher blood pressure, nonsmokers, and females. Higher dietary fat consumption was related to more store and restaurant alcohol and fewer low-calorie healthy signs, lower fruit consumption, fewer minutes walked, and white and Hispanic/Latino ethnicity. Conclusions Signs in stores and restaurants are related to BMI and dietary fat consumption among residents. PMID:22251784

  14. Public Relations: The Cost-Effective Way to Build Your Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochman, B. L.

    1989-01-01

    Differences between advertising and public relations are described, and basic elements of public relations are outlined: community relations, special events, and publicity. Examples of successful community relations and special events conducted by corporations are noted. Techniques for acquiring publicity are described using the acronym NEWS (new,…

  15. Teaching Mediated Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Michael L.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses approaches to teaching a mediated public relations course, emphasizing the World Wide Web. Outlines five course objectives, assignments and activities, evaluation, texts, and lecture topics. Argues that students mastering these course objectives will understand ethical issues relating to media use, using mediated technology in public…

  16. Got yoga?: A longitudinal analysis of thematic content and models' appearance-related attributes in advertisements spanning four decades of Yoga Journal.

    PubMed

    Vinoski, Erin; Webb, Jennifer B; Warren-Findlow, Jan; Brewer, Kirstyn A; Kiffmeyer, Katheryn A

    2017-02-16

    Yoga has become an increasingly common health practice among U.S. adults over the past decade. With this growth in popularity, yoga-related print media have been criticized for shifting away from yoga's traditional philosophies and promoting a thin, lean ideal physique representing the "yoga body." The purpose of this study was to (a) analyze the presence and content of advertisements over the 40-year publication history of Yoga Journal magazine and (b) explore female advertisement models' socio-demographic and appearance-related attributes over time. Results suggested that Yoga Journal now contains significantly more advertisements for food, nutritional supplements, and apparel and fewer advertisements for meditation and nutritional practices than in its early years of publication. Models were more frequently rated as White and in their 20s and 30s in recent years of publication. Trends in model body size matched shifts in culturally dominant body ideals over time. Implications and future research directions are considered.

  17. [When health "sells": presence and characteristics of health-related advertising in the Italian press].

    PubMed

    Bressanelli, Maura; Marcantoni, Claudio; Orizio, Grazia; Gelatti, Umberto

    2011-01-01

    The authors evaluated the amount of health-related advertising that appeared in major Italian newspapers and magazines during the months of July 2009 and November 2009. Advertisements related to health (as defined by the World Health Organization) were found to be widely present in the Italian press. Health promotion messages given by health institutions must therefore compete with the above advertisements that deal with health issues usually for purely commercial purposes.

  18. Advertising HIV.

    PubMed

    Mougenez, Stephane; Chad, N'Djamena; Howe, John

    1995-04-05

    Think of advertising and what comes to mind, soap powders, motor cars, baked beans? All of these, of course, are heavily advertised, but what about HIV? Among the most durable of the government's advertisement campaigns have been the ones concerning HIV. Tens of millions of pounds have been spent telling the public of the presence and dangers of the virus.

  19. Commercial Speech and Captive Minds: Regulating Advertising in Public High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Barbara; Wulfemeyer, K. Tim

    The youth market is a lucrative one, influencing the spending of over $125 billion annually. Increasingly, advertisers are turning to new in-school vehicles, including "wall media" (such as wallboards), tie-in programs, product sample packages and sponsored television programming, to reach students in public high schools. School systems,…

  20. Evaluation of the "Lose Your Excuse" Public Service Advertising Campaign for Tweens to Save Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrand, Jane T.; Goldman, Patty; Zhivan, Natalia; Agyeman, Yaw; Barber, Erin

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the 2008-2009 "Lose your Excuse" public service advertising (PSA) campaign on energy efficiency targeting 8- to 12-year-olds, intended to increase knowledge, foster proactive attitudes, and change energy usage behaviors. Baseline and two follow-up surveys were conducted with online samples representative of the national…

  1. Food-related advertisements and food intake among adult men and women.

    PubMed

    Wonderlich-Tierney, Anna L; Wenzel, Kevin R; Vander Wal, Jillon S; Wang-Hall, Jennifer

    2013-12-01

    Television viewing may contribute to obesity via promotion of sedentary behavior and exposure to food-related commercials. However, the mechanisms by which food-related commercials promote food intake are not well understood. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of television advertisements on food intake according to sex and transportability, or the tendency to become engrossed in what one is viewing. Eighty-three undergraduate students, free of disordered eating symptoms, were stratified by sex and randomly assigned to one of three conditions (food-related advertisements, neutral advertisements, or no advertisements). They were then identified as high or low in transportability according to a median split. A significant interaction was found between advertisement condition and transportability such that those high in transportability ate more in the food than other advertisement conditions. A second interaction was found between sex and transportability with women high in transportability eating more food than women low in transportability irrespective of advertisement condition. No significant main effects of advertisement condition, sex, or transportability were found. Results suggest the importance of studying the impact of individual difference variables on the relationship between food-related advertising and food intake.

  2. Public commitment, resistance to advertising, and leisure promotion in a school-based drug abuse prevention program: a component dismantling study.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Serrano, Olga; Griffin, Kenneth W; García-Fernández, José Manuel; Orgilés, Mireia; Espada, José P

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the contribution of three intervention components (public commitment, resistance to advertising, and leisure promotion) on alcohol and protective variables in a school-based substance use prevention program. Participants included 480 Spanish students aged from 14 to 16 who received the Saluda prevention program in one of the following five experimental conditions: complete program, program minus public commitment, program minus resistance to advertising, program minus leisure promotion, and a waiting-list control. The students completed self-report surveys at pretest, posttest, and 6-month follow-up assessments. When excluding the healthy leisure promotion component, the Saluda program showed no loss of efficacy neither on alcohol use nor on other substance-related variables, while public commitment and resistance to advertising improved the aforementioned program's efficacy.

  3. 41 CFR 101-4.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Advertising. 101-4.540... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 101-4.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  4. 41 CFR 101-4.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Advertising. 101-4.540... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 101-4.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  5. 41 CFR 101-4.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Advertising. 101-4.540... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 101-4.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  6. 41 CFR 101-4.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Advertising. 101-4.540... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 101-4.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  7. 41 CFR 101-4.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Advertising. 101-4.540... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 101-4.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  8. A content analysis of health-related advertisements in Islamic Republic of Iran broadcasting (IRIB)

    PubMed Central

    Etemad, Koorosh; Ebrahimi, Parvin; Azimi, Hassan; Lotfi, Mansoureh; Nojomi, Marzieh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Media advertisements especially radio and TV are one of the most important and effective ways for health promotion and consumption of healthy productions worldwide. Ministry of Health and some other ministries in Iran agreed to control and restrict the advertising of unhealthy products and services. Therefore, adequate supervision and monitoring should be done in this field. A content analysis of Health-related Advertisements was done in Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) Methods: This study was a cross-sectional research and collecting of data was carried out in 2012. Ten selected TV and radio channels were recorded from 6 a.m. to 12 p.m. for two successive months in the special weekdays. Broadcasted advertisements data were extracted by the trained observers according to a checklist and analyzed using SPSS 18 software and described with descriptive statistics. Results: The percentage of different types of advertising were including 73.9% unrelated to health, 21.9% harmless health related, 2.9% less healthy, 1.3% harmful or harmful with a probability of abuse. Non-harmful to health advertisements included 95.86% of total advertisements out of ten TV and radio channels; and the remained advertisements (4.14%) were related to the harmful, less healthy foodstuff and detrimental services and products. Also, 0.8% of the advertisements were shown during children programs. Conclusion: The main findings of the current study revealed that majority of the advertisements of Islamic Republic Broadcasting were unrelated to health. It seems advertising of harmful for health in IRIB was less than 5%, and the levels of these type ads were less than the other countries. Even so, the policymakers need to pass and enforce some executive and governing law for the prevention of broadcasting unhealthy advertisements to increase the society health level and prevent the diseases resulted from unhealthy products causing the considerable damages in a long time. PMID

  9. Bipartisan politics and practical knowledge: advertising of public science in two London newspapers, 1695-1720.

    PubMed

    Wigelsworth, Jeffrey R

    2008-12-01

    This article explores the enticement of consumers for natural philosophy (buyers of books, audiences at public lectures and purchasers of instruments) in London between 1695 and 1720 through advertisements placed in two political newspapers. This twenty-five-year period witnessed both the birth of public science and the rage of party politics. A consideration of public science adverts within the Whig-leaning Post Man and the Tory-leaning Post Boy reveals that members of both the Whig and Tory parties were equally targeted and that natural philosophy was sold to London's reading population in bipartisan fashion. In the process of integrating natural philosophy into the wider culture through commercial sales, political allegiances were not imprinted on the advertising process. This conclusion raises questions regarding the historiographical assertion of Whig-supported public science and Tory opposition to it at the level of consumers.

  10. Patterns of cortical activity during the observation of Public Service Announcements and commercial advertisings

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the present research we were interested to study the cerebral activity of a group of healthy subjects during the observation a documentary intermingled by a series of TV advertisements. In particular, we desired to examine whether Public Service Announcements (PSAs) are able to elicit a different pattern of activity, when compared with a different class of commercials, and correlate it with the memorization of the showed stimuli, as resulted from a following subject’s verbal interview. Methods We recorded the EEG signals from a group of 15 healthy subjects and applied the High Resolution EEG techniques in order to estimate and map their Power Spectral Density (PSD) on a realistic cortical model. The single subjects’ activities have been z-score transformed and then grouped to define four different datasets, related to subjects who remembered and forgotten the PSAs and to subjects who remembered and forgotten cars commercials (CAR) respectively, which we contrasted to investigate cortical areas involved in this encoding process. Results The results we here present show that the cortical activity elicited during the observation of the TV commercials that were remembered (RMB) is higher and localized in the left frontal brain areas when compared to the activity elicited during the vision of the TV commercials that were forgotten (FRG) in theta and gamma bands for both categories of advertisements (PSAs and CAR). Moreover, the cortical maps associated with the PSAs also show an increase of activity in the alpha and beta band. Conclusions In conclusion, the TV advertisements that will be remembered by the experimental population have increased their cerebral activity, mainly in the left hemisphere. These results seem to be congruent with and well inserted in the already existing literature, on this topic, related to the HERA model. The different pattern of activity in different frequency bands elicited by the observation of PSAs may be justified by the

  11. Assessment of Public Attitude Changes toward Exceptional Children as a Result of Public Newspaper Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sterling; Ogley, Peter

    1981-01-01

    To assess whether newspaper advertising would affect attitudes toward handicapped children, a series of newspaper advertisements were run over a five-month period. It was concluded that the ads produced significant difference in attitudes of persons manifest by their response to the questionnaire. (SB)

  12. Television food advertisement exposure and FTO rs9939609 genotype in relation to excess consumption in children

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Emond, Jennifer A.; Lansigan, Reina K.; Rapuano, Kristina M.; Kelley, William M.; Heatherton, Todd F.; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE Exposure to food advertisements may cue overeating among children, especially among those genetically predisposed to respond to food cues. We aimed to assess how television food advertisements affect eating in the absence of hunger among children in a randomized trial. We hypothesized that the Fat Mass and Obesity Associated Gene (FTO) rs9939609 single nucleotide polymorphism would modify the effect of food advertisements. SUBJECTS/METHODS In this randomized experiment, 200 children aged 9–10 years old were served a standardized lunch and then shown a 34-minute television show embedded with either food or toy advertisements. Children were provided with snack food to consume ad libitum while watching the show and we measured caloric intake. Children were genotyped for rs9939609 and analyses were conducted in the overall sample and stratified by genotype. A formal test for interaction of the food ad effect on consumption by rs9939609 was conducted. RESULTS 172 unrelated participants were included in this analysis. Children consumed on average 453 (SD=185) kCals during lunch and 482 (SD=274) kCals during the experimental exposure. Children who viewed food advertisements consumed an average of 48 kCals (95% CI: 10, 85; P=0.01) more of a recently advertised food than those who viewed toy advertisements. There was a statistically significant interaction between genotype and food advertisement condition (P for interaction = 0.02), where the difference in consumption of a recently advertised food related to food advertisement exposure increased linearly with each additional FTO risk allele, even after controlling for BMI percentile. CONCLUSIONS Food advertisement exposure was associated with greater caloric consumption of a recently advertised food, and this effect was modified by an FTO genotype. Future research is needed to understand the neurological mechanism underlying these associations. PMID:27654143

  13. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    PubMed

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored.

  14. Advertising media and cigarette demand.

    PubMed

    Goel, Rajeev K

    2011-01-01

    Using state-level panel data for the USA spanning three decades, this research estimates the demand for cigarettes. The main contribution lies in studying the effects of cigarette advertising disaggregated across five qualitatively different groups. Results show cigarette demand to be near unit elastic, the income effects to be generally insignificant and border price effects and habit effects to be significant. Regarding advertising effects, aggregate cigarette advertising has a negative effect on smoking. Important differences across advertising media emerge when cigarette advertising is disaggregated. The effects of public entertainment and Internet cigarette advertising are stronger than those of other media. Anti-smoking messages accompanying print cigarette advertising seem relatively more effective. Implications for smoking control policy are discussed.

  15. The male heart and the female mind: a study in the gendering of antidepressants and cardiovascular drugs in advertisements in Irish medical publication.

    PubMed

    Curry, Phillip; O'Brien, Marita

    2006-04-01

    Stereotypes which suggest that cardiovascular disease and depression are related to gender can have consequences for the mental and physical health outcomes of both men and women. This study examines how these stereotypes may be reinforced by medical publications advertising for cardiovascular and antidepressant medication. A random sample of 61 (with no repeats) advertisements which appeared in Irish medical publications between July 2001 and December 2002 were analysed using both content and semiotic analysis. Results indicate that the meanings created by advertisers for cardiovascular drugs and antidepressants did in fact gender these products. Women were depicted as the predominant users of antidepressants and men as the main users of cardiovascular drugs. The images used identified two stereotyped patients: the 'male' heart patient and the depressed 'female' patient. Furthermore, the imagery and language used to promote the two categories of medication tended to strengthen gendered associations.

  16. "Racism still exists": a public health intervention using racism "countermarketing" outdoor advertising in a Black neighborhood.

    PubMed

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A

    2014-10-01

    The negative health effects of racism have been well documented, but how to intervene to redress these effects has been little studied. This study reports on RISE (Racism Still Exists), a high-risk, high-reward public health intervention that used outdoor advertising to disseminate a "countermarketing" campaign in New York City (NYC). Over 6 months, the campaign advertised stark facts about the persistence of racism in the USA. A probability sample of N = 144 participants from two predominantly Black NYC neighborhoods completed measures of health status, health behaviors, and social attitudes. Three months postintervention, statistically significant declines in psychological distress were seen among study participants who were exposed to the campaign compared to those who were not. There were no changes in other hypothesized outcomes. The campaign also generated significant public discourse, particularly in social media. The results suggest that racism countermarketing campaigns may have promise as a community-based intervention to address health inequalities.

  17. An empirical analysis of the public's attitudes toward advertising hospital services: a comparative cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Moser, H Ronald; Freeman, Gordon L

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates current opinions about hospital advertising and compares them to the attitudes expressed 25 years ago. It replicates a survey done in 1985, using the same questionnaire and population to compare responses longitudinally. The study indicates some changes in the public's opinions of hospital advertising. Although the image of hospitals remains positive, most of the 2010 respondents' opinions were rather mixed regarding whether it is proper for hospitals to advertise. The study also confirmed that the quality of service and reputation of hospitals remain more important to the public than price.

  18. Imprecise Frequency Descriptors and the Miscomprehension of Prescription Drug Advertising: Public Policy and Regulatory Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Joel J.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the communicative effectiveness of imprecise frequency descriptors within the context of consumer prescription drug advertising. Conducts two separate studies using a total sample of 147 adults. Finds that consumers are unable to accurately estimate the relative likelihood of side effect occurrence when a list of side effects are preceded…

  19. Merging Advertising and PR: Integrated Marketing Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Patricia B.; Miller, Debra A.

    1994-01-01

    Identifies and compares the perceived educational needs of advertising and public relations practitioners. Explores differences between practitioners in small versus large markets, and assesses practitioners' beliefs about integrated marketing communications (the merger of advertising and public relations under a single organizational unit). (SR)

  20. Role of Narrative Perspective and Modality in the Persuasiveness of Public Service Advertisements Promoting HPV Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Nan, Xiaoli; Futerfas, Michelle; Ma, Zexin

    2017-03-01

    In the context of public service advertisements promoting human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, the current research examines 1) the relative persuasiveness of narrative vs. non-narrative messages and 2) the influence of narrative perspective (first- vs. third-person) and modality (text-based vs. audio-based) on message effectiveness. Results of a controlled experiment (N = 121) suggested that both a non-narrative message and a first-person narrative message led to greater perceived risk of getting HPV than a third-person narrative message. There was no difference in risk perception between the non-narrative and first-person narrative conditions. These findings were confined to the text-based condition, however. When the messages were audio-based, no differential message effects were detected. The analysis also provided partial evidence for an indirect effect of narrative perspective on intentions to vaccinate against HPV through HPV risk perception. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  1. Facebook Advertising Across an Engagement Spectrum: A Case Example for Public Health Communication

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Jodyn; Thiel, Daniel B; Kardia, Sharon L. R

    2016-01-01

    Background The interpersonal, dialogic features of social networking sites have untapped potential for public health communication. We ran a Facebook advertising campaign to raise statewide awareness of Michigan’s newborn screening and biobanking programs. Objective We ran a Facebook advertising campaign to stimulate public engagement on the complex and sensitive issue of Michigan’s newborn screening and biobank programs. Methods We ran an 11-week, US $15,000 Facebook advertising campaign engaging Michigan Facebook users aged 18-64 years about the state’s newborn screening and population biobank programs, and we used a novel “engagement spectrum” framework to contextualize and evaluate engagement outcomes ranging from observation to multi-way conversation. Results The campaign reached 1.88 million Facebook users, yielding a range of engagement outcomes across ad sets that varied by objective, content, budget, duration, and bid type. Ad sets yielded 9009 page likes (US $4125), 15,958 website clicks (US $5578), and 12,909 complete video views to 100% (US $3750). “Boosted posts” yielded 528 comments and 35,966 page post engagements (US $1500). Overall, the campaign led to 452 shares and 642 comments, including 176 discussing newborn screening and biobanking. Conclusions Facebook advertising campaigns can efficiently reach large populations and achieve a range of engagement outcomes by diversifying ad types, bid types, and content. This campaign provided a population-based approach to communication that also increased transparency on a sensitive and complex topic by creating a forum for multi-way interaction. PMID:27244774

  2. You Did What? Using the AIDS/Condoms Advertising Controversy in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace-Whitaker, Virginia

    Convinced that students in a college advertising class could profit from a discussion about AIDS and condom advertising and hoping to design a related creative problem that would incorporate effective advertising principles, an instructor planned a class project that revolved around public service advertising and the AIDS issue. The students…

  3. The Effect of Public Service Advertising on Cardiovascular Disease in Korea

    PubMed Central

    JANG, Juhyun; NA, Baeg Ju; LEE, Moo-Sik; SEO, Soonryu; SUNG, Changhyun; KIM, Hyun Joo; LEE, Jin Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Public Service Advertising (PSA) is a public interest message disseminated in the form of an advertisement communication and its main purpose is to promote public behavioral changes regarding a social issue. Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) has been delivering PSA by various media. However, the effect of PSAs has never been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of broadcasted PSA produced by KCDC on cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: One thousand adult participants throughout 15 provinces in Korea were chosen through the quota sampling method in 2012. A face-to-face research survey with 13 questions was conducted using a Computer Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) system. Previous exposure to the PSA message, understanding, and behavioral intention to change was assessed. Results: After watching the PSA, about 75% of participants answered that they could understand the contents well and 70% had willingness to change their behaviors associated with CVD. However, only 24% of participants answered they watched the PSA during the past year. Conclusion: The PSA had positive effects on increasing the level of understanding and intention to change behaviors regarding CVD. However, the level of exposure was low. KCDC should make an effort to increase the public exposure level, which could be an important success factor regarding the PSA. In addition, KCDC should consider customized PSA for vulnerable people such as multi-cultural families, the disabled, and the elderly. PMID:27928529

  4. Is Content of Medical Journals Related to Advertisements? Case-control Study

    PubMed Central

    Vlassov, Vasiliy V.

    2007-01-01

    Aim To assess the relatedness of journal content to paid advertisements published in the journal. Methods The case-control study was performed on a convenience sample of 7 journals subscribed by Central Medical Library in Moscow – 4 international (American Journal of Hypertension, British Journal of General Practice, The Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine) and 3 Russian peer reviewed journals (Terapevticheskii Arkhiv, Khirurgiia, and Voeno-Meditsinskii Zhurnal). In each issue containing a paid advertisement, classifieds excluded, we searched for articles related to the advertised product and compared this issue with a control issue – the next or a later issue without this advertisement. Results In American Journal of Hypertension (33 issues from 2002-2004) 94 placements of advertisements were found, 7 of which were closely related to the article topic in the same issue (7/94) vs 2/66 in the control issue. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for advertisements to be accompanied by related articles was OR, 2.6; 95%CI, 0.5-13). In British Journal of General Practice (27 issues from 2003-2005) there were 7/63 advertisements related to the article topic vs 0/28 in the control issue (OR, 7.2; 95% CI, 1.3 to 44). In The Lancet (49 issues from 2004) there were 8/162 advertisements related to the article topic vs 8/104 in the control issue (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.3-1.5). In New England Journal of Medicine (37 issues from 2004) there were 12/81 advertisements related to the article topic vs 8/75 in the control issue (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 0.56-3.79). In Terapevticheskii Arkhiv (10 issues from 2004) there were 38/93 advertisements related to the article topic vs 1/83 in the control issue (OR, 56.66; 95% CI, 4.4-253). In Khirurgiia (25 issues from 2003-2005) there were 3/83 advertisements related to the article topic vs 0/70 in the control issue (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 0.3-26). In Voeno-Meditsinskii Zhurnal (33 issues from 2003-2005) there were 17

  5. What Are the Public Health Effects of Direct-to-Consumer Drug Advertising?

    PubMed Central

    Almasi, Elizabeth A; Stafford, Randall S; Kravitz, Richard L; Mansfield, Peter R

    2006-01-01

    Background to the debate: Only two industrialized countries, the United States and New Zealand, allow direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription medicines, although New Zealand is planning a ban [ 1]. The challenge for these governments is ensuring that DTCA is more beneficial than harmful. Proponents of DTCA argue that it helps to inform the public about available treatments and stimulates appropriate use of drugs for high-priority illnesses (such as statin use in people with ischemic heart disease). Critics argue that the information in the adverts is often biased and misleading, and that DTCA raises prescribing costs without net evidence of health benefits. PMID:16563041

  6. 41 CFR 60-20.2 - Recruitment and advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... advertisement. 60-20.2 Section 60-20.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... OF LABOR 20-SEX DISCRIMINATION GUIDELINES § 60-20.2 Recruitment and advertisement. (a) Employers... occupation qualification. (b) Advertisement in newspapers and other media for employment must not express...

  7. Branding your medical practice with effective public relations.

    PubMed

    Trent, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Whether you think of it as your image, your standing in the community, or your reputation, your medical practice is also a brand. While many organizations, companies, products, and services are known for specific attributes that make them stand out from competitors, most use a combination of marketing disciplines to communicate who and what they are to their customers, consumers, and patients. Public relations is often considered the most powerful, cost-effective, and efficacious of the marketing disciplines, surpassing advertising, promotion, and direct mail in molding and developing brands. Your practice can benefit from a well-crafted branding public relations program.

  8. Internationalizing the Public Relations Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Maureen

    2001-01-01

    Discusses broadening public relations to an international level by incorporating the topics of culture, international practices, and culturally sensitive theory development. Discusses rationale, design, and execution of an undergraduate course in international public relations. Suggests ways to incorporate assignments addressing international…

  9. Public Relations for Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinke, Gary L.; Steinke, Roberta J.

    This paper offers suggestions to help special educators and administrators effectively and thoroughly tell people about their school's programs and events dealing with special education. General suggestions include appointing a public relations coordinator, having school personnel complete a Public Relations Help Request Form when publicizing…

  10. Two Courses in Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phifer, Gregg; Gee, Gerry

    At Florida State University in Tallahassee, 30 students a year are enrolled in the public relations major, beginning with the junior year, so that at any one time there are approximately 60 majors, all of whom have at least a B average. The basic course--PUR 3000, Introduction to Public Relations--enrolls over 150 students a semester in two…

  11. Building a Public Relations Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swedmark, Donald C.

    1980-01-01

    The concept of public relations and its importance in a vocational education program are described in this article. Such program elements as research, planning, finance, administration, and evaluation are discussed. Public relations efforts concerning staff members, administration, students and alumni, parents, organizations and agencies,…

  12. Public opinion on nutrition-related policies to combat child obesity, Los Angeles County, 2011.

    PubMed

    Simon, Paul A; Chiang, Choiyuk; Lightstone, Amy S; Shih, Margaret

    2014-06-05

    We assessed public opinion on nutrition-related policies to address child obesity: a soda tax, restrictions on advertising unhealthy foods and beverages to children, and restrictions on siting fast food restaurants and convenience stores near schools. We analyzed data from 998 adults (aged ≥18 years) in the 2011 Los Angeles County Health Survey. Support was highest for advertising restrictions (74%), intermediate for a soda tax (60%), and lowest for siting restrictions on fast food restaurants and convenience stores (44% and 37%, respectively). Support for food and beverage advertising restrictions and soda taxation is promising for future policy efforts to address child obesity.

  13. Evaluation of the "Lose Your Excuse" public service advertising campaign for tweens to save energy.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Jane T; Goldman, Patty; Zhivan, Natalia; Agyeman, Yaw; Barber, Erin

    2011-10-01

    This study evaluates the 2008-2009 "Lose your Excuse" public service advertising (PSA) campaign on energy efficiency targeting 8- to 12-year-olds, intended to increase knowledge, foster proactive attitudes, and change energy usage behaviors. Baseline and two follow-up surveys were conducted with online samples representative of the national population of households with kids with online access. Almost half (47%) of the tweens recognized at least one ad from the campaign. Ad recognition was positively associated with knowledge, proactive attitudes, and energy-saving behavior. Propensity score analysis confirmed a small but measurable and statistically significant effect on energy-saving behavior. The discussion section compares these results to public health campaigns in terms of ghost awareness, reach, and effect size.

  14. Some Influences on the Autonomy of Corporate Public Relations Professionals: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serini, Shirley A.

    A case study examined the process of preparing information for publication in an in-house newsletter for a large organization, focusing on the factors determining the amount of autonomy of public relations practitioners as professionals in organizations. The subject of the case study was a communication and advertising department of a "mixed…

  15. Public Relations in Special Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkowski, Hollace Ann; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This theme issue includes 11 articles on public relations (PR) in special libraries. Highlights include PR at the Special Libraries Association (SLA); sources for marketing research for libraries; developing a library image; sample PR releases; brand strategies for libraries; case studies; publicizing a consortium; and a bibliography of pertinent…

  16. Reconsidering the legality of cigarette smoking advertisements on television public health and the law.

    PubMed

    Hodge, James G; Collmer, Veda; Orenstein, Daniel G; Millea, Chase; Van Buren, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Television advertisements depicting the use of electronic cigarettes have recently exposed minors to images of smoking behaviors. While these advertisements are currently legal, existing laws should be interpreted or expanded to ban the commercial depiction of smoking behaviors with any product that resembles a cigarette to shield minors from potentially influential advertising.

  17. Gone viral? Heard the buzz? A guide for public health practitioners and researchers on how Web 2.0 can subvert advertising restrictions and spread health information.

    PubMed

    Freeman, B; Chapman, S

    2008-09-01

    Many nations have banned or curtailed advertising of potentially harmful products to protect public health, particularly in the area of chronic disease control. The growth in Internet-based marketing techniques is subverting these advertising regulations. Explosive rises in use of social networking and user-generated content websites is further fuelling product promotion through electronic media. In contrast, there is a very limited body of public health research on these "new media" advertising methods. This paper provides an overview of these advertising methods and details examples relevant to chronic disease control. There is a vast untapped potential for health practitioners and researchers to exploit these same media for health promotion.

  18. Public Relations for Performance Technologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelon, Lisa; Yelon, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    Explains public relations and describes how it can be used effectively by performance technologists. Topics include choosing a suitable project; determining the target audience; press releases; press kits; and contacting journalists. (LRW)

  19. Evaluation of Public Service Advertising Messages with Local and Non-Local Source Attribution: A Controlled Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Jerry R.; Gagnard, Alice

    A study was conducted to examine message evaluations of selected public service advertisements (PSAs) by a young adult population and to test whether local and nonlocal source attribution would influence those evaluations. In addition, the study investigated the extent to which audience characteristics such as fatalism (the degree to which a…

  20. Digital Distribution of Advertising for Publications (DDAP): a graphic arts prototype of electronic intermedia publishing (EIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Patrice M.

    1998-01-01

    The Digital Distribution of Advertising for Publications (DDAP) is a graphic arts industry prototype of Electronic Intermedia Publishing (EIP). EIP is a strategic, multi- industrial concept that seeks to enable the capture and input of volumes of data (i.e., both raster and object oriented data -- as well as the latter's antecedent which is vector data -- color data and black-and-white data) from a multiplicity of devices; then flowing, controlling, manipulating, modifying, storing, retrieving, transmitting, and shipping, that data through an industrial process for output to a multiplicity of output devices (e.g., ink on paper, toner on paper, bits and bytes on CD ROM, Internet, Multimedia, HDTV, etc.). As the technical requirements of the print medium are among the most rigorous in the Intermedia milieu the DDAP prototype addresses some of the most challenging issues faced in Electronic Intermedia Publishing (EIP).

  1. Potentially Deceptive Health Nutrition-Related Advertising Claims: The Role of Inoculation in Conferring Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Alicia M.; Miller, Claude H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to examine the efficacy of inoculation message treatments to facilitate resistance to health nutrition-related (HNR) commercial food advertising claims. Design: Data were collected across three phases extending across a 5-week period conducted over two semesters at a Midwest US university. A 2 × 3 between-subjects…

  2. Newspaper Ideabook: Creative Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasler, Wayne

    1977-01-01

    Offers suggestions to high school newspaper staffs for designing effective advertisements for local businesses and then selling them to the businesses. Notes that carefully planned advertisements can increase the appeal and value of a publication. (GW)

  3. What Are Cancer Centers Advertising to the Public? A Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vater, Laura B.; Donohue, Julie M.; Arnold, Robert; White, Douglas B; Chu, Edward; Schenker, Yael

    2015-01-01

    Background Although critics have expressed concerns about cancer center advertising, the content of these advertisements has not been analyzed. Objective To characterize the informational and emotional content of cancer center advertisements. Design Systematic analysis of all cancer center advertisements in top U.S. consumer magazines (N=269) and television networks (N=44) in 2012. Measurements Using a standardized codebook, we assessed (1) types of clinical services promoted; (2) information provided about clinical services, including risks, benefits, and costs; (3) use of emotional advertising appeals; and (4) use of patient testimonials. Two investigators independently coded advertisements using ATLAS.ti. Kappa values ranged from 0.77 to 1.0. Results A total of 102 cancer centers placed 409 unique clinical advertisements in top media markets in 2012. Advertisements promoted treatments (88%) more often than screening (18%) or supportive services (13%; p<0.001). Benefits of advertised therapies were described more often than risks (27% vs. 2%; p<0.001) but rarely quantified (2%). Few advertisements mentioned insurance coverage or costs (5%). Emotional appeals were frequent (85%), most often evoking hope for survival (61%), describing cancer treatment as a fight or battle (41%), and evoking fear (30%). Nearly half of advertisements included patient testimonials, usually focused on survival or cure. Testimonials rarely included disclaimers (15%) and never described the results a typical patient might expect. Limitations Internet advertisements were not included. Conclusions Clinical advertisements by cancer centers frequently promote cancer therapy using emotional appeals that evoke hope and fear while rarely providing information about risks, benefits, or costs. Further work is needed to understand how these advertisements influence patient understanding and expectations of benefit from cancer treatments. PMID:24863081

  4. Advertising content in physical activity print materials.

    PubMed

    Cardinal, Bradley J

    2002-01-01

    Copies of 80 sets of print materials available free of charge to the general public were analyzed to determine the relationship between the developer and advertising-related material. Almost all of the materials had some form of advertising content. Materials from commercial product vendors were most likely to have product logos, references to specific brands, and had the greatest number of logos, and the greatest number of references to specific brands. They were the second most likely to have advertising slogans, and had the second greatest number of advertising slogans.

  5. Internship Practices in Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Robert

    1980-01-01

    Surveys the range of job experiences available to journalism students and suggests how these internship programs could be standardized. Available from Public Relations Review, Communication Research Associates, Inc., 7338 Baltimore Blvd., Suite 101A, College Park, MD 20740; one year, $15.00; two years $27.00; three years $39.00. (JMF)

  6. Alcohol advertising in the New Zealand university student press.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Kim; Kypri, Kypros

    2008-09-01

    University students drink more heavily than their non-student peers in New Zealand. The promotion of alcohol via advertising is a known contributor to heavy drinking. The aim of this paper was to determine the nature and extent of alcohol-related advertising and related policies at New Zealand universities. We sought to obtain all issues for 2005, of student newspapers at five New Zealand universities that had participated in an ongoing research project examining alcohol-related harm. The number of alcohol-related advertisements was determined and counts were weighted by the proportion of the page they took up. We surveyed senior university administrators to determine whether policies existed to regulate alcohol advertising on campus. The number of alcohol-related advertisements in student publications ranged from 1 to 129 across the academic year (median: 74 advertisements, 34 full-page equivalents). At three universities, most advertisements promoted bars, pubs and restaurants, while at the other two universities, most alcohol-related advertising was for events sponsored by a brewery, alcohol company or local pub. At one university with almost no advertising, a brewery sponsorship agreement with the student association forbade other parties from advertising alcohol and related events. Alcohol-related advertising is pervasive in the New Zealand university student press. Student associations should consider the ethics of alcohol industry sponsorship in light of the high prevalence of heavy drinking in this population group.

  7. Marketing Communications in the Post-Advertising Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilenschneider, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    Challenges four commonly held myths about advertising and marketing effectiveness. Establishes the framework for a more comprehensive program of marketing communication involving traditional public relations, advertising, sales promotion, special events, along with new uses for public affairs work in marketing. (MG)

  8. Contraceptive advertising in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lebow, M A

    1994-01-01

    Despite the fact that most Americans support the advertising of family planning methods, the minority opposition has influenced the formulation of contraceptive advertising policies. This article attempts to clarify the current status of contraceptive advertising and to suggest a sensible public policy for the future. Opening with a review of opinion polls taken since 1985, the article points out that 70% of station managers reported their belief that contraceptive advertising would offend many people despite the fact that 87% of respondents in a public survey indicated no objection to such advertising. The policies that network television stations have adopted are traced from those instituted in the 1960s by the National Association of Broadcaster's Code Authority. These policies govern the airing of Public Service Announcements (PSAs) as well as advertisements. Magazines and newspapers also resist accepting contraceptive advertising, although they do not face the same regulations as the broadcast media. US Food and Drug Administration policies also act as a barrier to product-specific advertisements on network television despite the fact that the American Medical Association no longer opposes such advertising and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists offered to provide valid information about advertising claims to the media. A review of attempts to advertise contraceptives shows that opposition has dropped significantly in the past 10 years for advertisements in newspapers, on cable television, in magazines, on some commercial television stations, and on many radio stations. However, the major television networks still fail to accept such advertisements. Part of the change that is occurring can be attributable to the emergence of AIDS and the need to promote methods to prevent the disease. However, much AIDS-related advertising has been in the form of PSAs, which are less and less available. The major obstacles to contraceptive advertising today

  9. Persuasion in Advertising: Analyzing One of the Public Faces of Corporations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemesianou, Christine A.

    2007-01-01

    Today's communication and information environments create an immense amount of clutter for consumers, but a well crafted advertising campaign can differentiate an organization from its competitors. Persuasion in Advertising is a critical assignment where students apply Aristotle's and Cicero's persuasive techniques to a specific advertising…

  10. Advertising and the Public Interest. A Staff Report to the Federal Trade Commission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, John A.; Hulbert, James

    The advertising industry in the United States is thoroughly analyzed in this comprehensive report. The report was prepared mostly from the transcripts of the Federal Trade Commission's (FTC) hearings on Modern Advertising Practices. The basic structure of the industry as well as its role in marketing strategy is reviewed and some interesting…

  11. Advertising and Student Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, William B.

    Rhetoric, the persuasive use of language to influence public thought and action, is experienced in advertising, and advertising can be used as a medium for teaching rhetoric. Advertising demonstrates both admirable and creative use of English and despicable corruption of both language and thought. Both aspects can be employed in teaching…

  12. Educational Communications Public Relations: One Person's Thoughts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Warren A.

    Three types of materials are included in this presentation on educational communications public relations. An outline listing ideas and considerations designed as a discussion guide covers four major topics: (1) public relations; (2) general publicity and press releases; (3) specific publicity; and (4) additional aspects of public relations. The…

  13. Advertising: To Get The Reader to Buy, Buy, Buy, You Must Sell, Sell, Sell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Rob

    1998-01-01

    Offers an overview of advertising as it relates to student publications. Discusses what advertising is; what the consumer wants; the buyer and seller; creating a selling strategy; basic building blocks; advertising art; and text. Describes basic guidelines for designing an ad, outlines some assignments for students, and notes a few things not to…

  14. Gender and Age Related Effects While Watching TV Advertisements: An EEG Study.

    PubMed

    Cartocci, Giulia; Cherubino, Patrizia; Rossi, Dario; Modica, Enrica; Maglione, Anton Giulio; di Flumeri, Gianluca; Babiloni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to show how the variation of the EEG frontal cortical asymmetry is related to the general appreciation perceived during the observation of TV advertisements, in particular considering the influence of the gender and age on it. In particular, we investigated the influence of the gender on the perception of a car advertisement (Experiment 1) and the influence of the factor age on a chewing gum commercial (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 results showed statistically significant higher approach values for the men group throughout the commercial. Results from Experiment 2 showed significant lower values by older adults for the spot, containing scenes not very enjoyed by them. In both studies, there was no statistical significant difference in the scene relative to the product offering between the experimental populations, suggesting the absence in our study of a bias towards the specific product in the evaluated populations. These evidences state the importance of the creativity in advertising, in order to attract the target population.

  15. Gender and Age Related Effects While Watching TV Advertisements: An EEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Cartocci, Giulia; Cherubino, Patrizia; Rossi, Dario; Modica, Enrica; Maglione, Anton Giulio; di Flumeri, Gianluca; Babiloni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to show how the variation of the EEG frontal cortical asymmetry is related to the general appreciation perceived during the observation of TV advertisements, in particular considering the influence of the gender and age on it. In particular, we investigated the influence of the gender on the perception of a car advertisement (Experiment 1) and the influence of the factor age on a chewing gum commercial (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 results showed statistically significant higher approach values for the men group throughout the commercial. Results from Experiment 2 showed significant lower values by older adults for the spot, containing scenes not very enjoyed by them. In both studies, there was no statistical significant difference in the scene relative to the product offering between the experimental populations, suggesting the absence in our study of a bias towards the specific product in the evaluated populations. These evidences state the importance of the creativity in advertising, in order to attract the target population. PMID:27313602

  16. Using Crisis Simulations in Public Relations Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veil, Shari R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Students will demonstrate research, decision making, team building, and public speaking skills, while applying issues management and crisis communication concepts in a realistic setting. Courses: Introduction to Public Relations, Public Relations Cases, Crisis Communication.

  17. Educating the Consumer about Advertising: Some Issues. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    Providing a basic overview of issues related to advertising and the consumer, this digest discusses the omnipresence of advertisements, suggesting ways for consumers to recognize advertising appeals. Deceptive advertising is discussed, with particular attention paid to financial advertising. (RS)

  18. Do Emotional Appeals in Public Service Advertisements Influence Adolescents' Intention to Reduce Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages?

    PubMed

    Bleakley, Amy; Jordan, Amy B; Hennessy, Michael; Glanz, Karen; Strasser, Andrew; Vaala, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    Mass media campaigns are a commonly used approach to reduce sugary drink consumption, which is linked to obesity in children and adolescents. The present study investigated the direct and mediated effects of emotional appeals in public service advertisements (PSAs) that aired between 2010 and 2012 on adolescents' intention to reduce their sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. An online randomized experiment was conducted with a national sample of adolescent respondents ages 13 to 17 years old (N = 805). Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions. Three experimental conditions represented PSAs with different emotional appeals: humor, fear, and nurturance, plus a fourth control condition. The outcome was adolescents' intention to cut back on SSBs. The direct effect of fear appeals on intention was mediated through adolescents' perception of the PSAs' argument strength; perceived argument strength was also the key mediator for the indirect effects of humor and nurturance on intention. Several hypothesized mediators influenced by the appeals were not associated with intention. This is the first study to test the effect of persuasive emotional appeals used in SSB-related PSAs. The perceived strength of the PSAs' arguments is important to consider in the communication of messages designed to reduce SSB consumption.

  19. Effect of numbers vs pictures on perceived effectiveness of a public safety awareness advertisement.

    PubMed

    Bochniak, S; Lammers, H B

    1991-08-01

    In a 2 x 2 completely randomized factorial experiment, 24 women and 16 men rated the perceived effectiveness of an earthquake preparedness advertisement which contained either a picture or no picture of prior earthquake damage and contained either statistics or no statistics on likelihood of an earthquake. A main effect for superiority of the picture was found. The presence of statistics had no main or interactive effects on the perceived effectiveness of the advertisement.

  20. When advertising turns "cheeky"!

    PubMed

    Burkitt, Jennifer A; Saucier, Deborah M; Thomas, Nicole A; Ehresman, Crystal

    2006-05-01

    Portraits typically exhibit leftward posing biases, with people showing more of their left cheek than their right. The current study investigated posing biases in print advertising to determine whether the product advertised affects the posing bias. As the posing bias may be decreasing over time, we also investigated changes in posing biases over a span of more than 100 years. The current investigation coded 2664 advertisements from two time periods; advertisements were coded for target group of advertisement (men, women, both) and posing bias (rightward, leftward, or central). Unlike other studies that typically observe a leftward posing bias, print advertisements exhibit a rightward posing bias, regardless of time-frame. Thus, print advertisements differ greatly from portraits, which may relate to the purpose of advertisements and the role of attractiveness in advertising.

  1. 41 CFR 102-38.345 - Do we have to withdraw personal property advertised for public sale if a State Agency for Surplus...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Do we have to withdraw personal property advertised for public sale if a State Agency for Surplus Property wants to buy it? 102-38... for public sale if a State Agency for Surplus Property wants to buy it? No, you are not required...

  2. A content analysis of food advertising on Turkish television.

    PubMed

    Akçil Ok, Mehtap; Ercan, Aydan; Kaya, Fatih Suleyman

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive content analysis of Television (TV) food advertising and compare various food advertisements on free-to-air Turkish national TV channels by broadcast time (duration) and frequency over the period of a week (19-25 April 2012). TV food advertisements were the unit of content analysis in this study. Each advertisement identified as promoting a food product was analysed for content; non-food advertisements were not analysed, although they were counted as a proportion of the advertisements aired. We recorded all programmes for 4 h each per day (7 p.m.-11 p.m.), totalling 84 h. Five types of food-related advertisements were identified (basic foods, junk foods, meat products, beverages and fast food), and six types of non-food advertisements. The Student t-test and ANOVA were used to compare the mean broadcast time of all prime time advertising for the two groups. The mean broadcast times for prime time, non-food advertisements showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05). This difference is related to the prime time period 7 p.m.-8 p.m. being considered dinner time for most Turkish families. Additionally, the number and broadcast times of beverage advertisements increased during this time period, while the broadcast time per beverage advertisement decreased (ratio = 20.8 s per ads). As a result, TV food advertising increased not only during dinner time but also in overall broadcast time (per advertisement). These findings may be useful for explaining how advertising can negatively influence food choices, thereby increasing public awareness of the need for health messages targeting obesity.

  3. Advertising, price, income and publicity effects on weekly cigarette sales in New Zealand supermarkets.

    PubMed

    Laugesen, M; Meads, C

    1991-01-01

    Total cigarettes (all brands) sold weekly by a panel of 60 New Zealand supermarkets were monitored electronically for 42 weeks, a period when cigarette advertisements were in plain format with strong, varied disease warnings. Real cigarette price, newspaper advertising of old, regular and upmarket brands, and the number of newspaper news items on smoking issues were inversely associated with cigarette sales. Tending to increase total sales (all brands) were: more non-shopping days in the current week, and in the week following; volume of grocery items purchased, to indicate income and store traffic; and real advertising expenditure in newspapers for new downmarket cigarette brands, particularly one heavily-advertised brand (Peter Jackson) which was in late 1989 smoked by 4% of teenage smokers. All factors when interacting, explained 93% of changes in weekly cigarette sales. Most of the change occurred in the same week, and was 90% in place after a further 3 weeks. Newspapers, by doubling news coverage of smoking issues or by banning cigarette advertisements, can lower cigarette consumption as much as can a 10% price increase.

  4. 32 CFR 705.13 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... encourages cooperation with advertisers. However, the layout, artwork and text of the proposed advertisement... exclusively for the use of an advertiser. (d) Navy cooperation in commercial advertising, publicity and other... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial advertising. 705.13 Section...

  5. Public Relations and Publicity: Tools and Techniques for Student Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFeo, Carol Jean

    Based on the idea that to be successful, a student organization must have a sound public relations and publicity program, this handbook considers techniques of internal communication that establish good public relations with various special groups: the student body, the administration, the faculty, and the staff. The handbook states that…

  6. Impact of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) on patient health-related behaviors and issues.

    PubMed

    Polen, Hyla H; Khanfar, Nile M; Clauson, Kevin A

    2009-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry spends billions of dollars annually on direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA). Patient perspectives on the impact of televised DTCA on health-related behaviors and issues were assessed by means of a 68-question survey. 58.6% of respondents believed that DTCA allowed consumers to have a more active role in managing their health. However, 27.6% felt DTCA caused confusion, and an alarming 17.8% of respondents stopped taking their medication because of concerns about serious side effects mentioned in DTCA. Overall, participants believed DTCA plays a useful role in health self-management; however, a considerable percentage thought that the cost outweighs the benefits.

  7. What's the appeal? Testing public service advertisements to raise awareness about gynecologic cancer.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Chu, Jennifer

    2014-06-01

    In 2013, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Inside Knowledge: Get the Facts About Gynecologic Cancer campaign tested creative concepts for English- and Spanish-language video advertisements (for use on television and the Internet) with women aged 35-64 years. Sixteen English and nine Spanish focus groups were conducted in four U.S. cities. CDC used animatics (a series of photographs edited together with a sound track) to simulate produced advertisements, without having to incur the high cost of filming and production. Advertisement concepts consistently resonating with participants featured cancer survivors, were straightforward, included information about cancer symptoms, displayed Inside Knowledge educational materials, and featured diverse women. In the general population focus groups, a primacy testing order effect was observed in which the concept tested first tended to be the most favorably received. Varying the order in which concepts were tested and considering testing order when interpreting results was critical.

  8. Using Vignettes to Tap Into Moral Reasoning in Public Health Policy: Practical Advice and Design Principles From a Study on Food Advertising to Children

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Emily; Hoang, Sylvia; Cook, Brian

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we describe a process for designing and applying vignettes in public health policy research and practice. We developed this methodology for a study on moral reasoning underpinning policy debate on food advertising to children. Using vignettes prompted policy actors who were relatively entrenched in particular ways of speaking professionally about a controversial and ethically challenging issue to converse in a more authentic and reflective way. Vignettes hold benefits and complexities. They can focus attention on moral conflicts, draw out different types of evidence to support moral reasoning, and enable simultaneous consideration of real and ideal worlds. We suggest a process and recommendations on design features for crafting vignettes for public health policy. PMID:25121818

  9. Using vignettes to tap into moral reasoning in public health policy: practical advice and design principles from a study on food advertising to children.

    PubMed

    Mah, Catherine L; Taylor, Emily; Hoang, Sylvia; Cook, Brian

    2014-10-01

    In this article, we describe a process for designing and applying vignettes in public health policy research and practice. We developed this methodology for a study on moral reasoning underpinning policy debate on food advertising to children. Using vignettes prompted policy actors who were relatively entrenched in particular ways of speaking professionally about a controversial and ethically challenging issue to converse in a more authentic and reflective way. Vignettes hold benefits and complexities. They can focus attention on moral conflicts, draw out different types of evidence to support moral reasoning, and enable simultaneous consideration of real and ideal worlds. We suggest a process and recommendations on design features for crafting vignettes for public health policy.

  10. Educators and Practitioners Look at the Advertising Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Alan D.

    A 1989 comprehensive report addressed the then-current status of curricula in all of the mainstream components of most mass communication programs: journalism, advertising, broadcasting, magazines, public relations, and visual communication. Recently, a study replicated the advertising portion of the original report, using a questionnaire based…

  11. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Marketing. Course: Advertising and Promotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, B.

    One of thirteen individualized courses included in a marketing curriculum, this course covers the planning and writing of advertisements and organizing sales promotion and public relation activities in wholesale and retail businesses. The course is comprised of two units: (1) Advertising Fundamentals and (2) Promotion. Each unit begins with a Unit…

  12. Public Relations for Community/Junior Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodress, Fred A.

    This monograph is a practical manual on public relations (PR) for community and junior colleges, containing numerous suggestions and recommendations for establishing and operating an effective public relations effort while avoiding PR pitfalls. An overview of the history of public relations in academe, the rationale underlying today's PR programs…

  13. Factors Associated with Evaluating Public Relations Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElreath, Mark P.

    More than 150 public relations practitioners responded to a survey designed to identify and clarify factors associated with evaluative research in public relations. Responses indicated that (1) no more than half the practitioners formally evaluate their public relations activities on a regular basis; (2) the majority of evaluation is done…

  14. Teaching Ethics across the Public Relations Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Liese L.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests ways of incorporating ethics across the undergraduate public relations curriculum. Reviews current coverage of ethics in public relations principles, writing, cases, and textbooks. Suggests other methods that teachers can use to incorporate ethical pedagogical tools in all public relations courses in an effort to develop students' ethical…

  15. Private governance, public purpose? Assessing transparency and accountability in self-regulation of food advertising to children.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Belinda

    2013-06-01

    Reducing non-core food advertising to children is an important priority in strategies to address childhood obesity. Public health researchers argue for government intervention on the basis that food industry self-regulation is ineffective; however, the industry contends that the existing voluntary scheme adequately addresses community concerns. This paper examines the operation of two self-regulatory initiatives governing food advertising to children in Australia, in order to determine whether these regulatory processes foster transparent and accountable self-regulation. The paper concludes that while both codes appear to establish transparency and accountability mechanisms, they do not provide for meaningful stakeholder participation in the self-regulatory scheme. Accordingly, food industry self-regulation is unlikely to reflect public health concerns or to be perceived as a legitimate form of governance by external stakeholders. If industry regulation is to remain a feasible alternative to statutory regulation, there is a strong argument for strengthening government oversight and implementing a co-regulatory scheme.

  16. Public Relations Gold Mine, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preusch, Dee, Ed.

    Seventeen articles present an overview of ideas dealing with many facets of school public relations. Topics singled out for coverage include (1) the importance of school public relations programs now and in the future: (2) potential contributions of citizens advisory committees; (3) formation and use of small-scale public opinion polls; (4) key…

  17. Review of Research on Environmental Public Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunig, James E.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews existing knowledge on the behavior of public relations practitioners in environmental problems, public concern and media coverage of pollution and deterioation of the natural environment. Available from: Public Relations Review, Ray Hiebert, Dean, College of Journalism, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. (MH)

  18. Toward a Comprehensive History of Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byerly, Carolyn M.

    Standard histories of public relations privilege the field's association with business enterprise, and traditionally place the origins of the field in the press agentry of the 19th century and in the rise of corporate concern with public opinion in the first decade of the 20th century. However, the roots of public relations reach both farther and…

  19. Automatically-Activated Attitudes as Mechanisms for Message Effects: The Case of Alcohol Advertisements.

    PubMed

    Goodall, Catherine E; Slater, Michael D

    2010-10-01

    Alcohol advertisements may influence impulsive, risky behaviors indirectly, via automatically-activated attitudes toward alcohol. Results from an experiment in which participants were exposed to either four alcohol advertisements, four control advertisements, or four drunk driving public service advertisements, suggested that alcohol advertisements had more measurable effects on implicit, than on explicit attitude measures. Moreover, there were significant indirect paths from alcohol advertisement exposure through automatically-activated alcohol attitudes on willingness to engage in risky alcohol-related behaviors, notably drinking and driving. A mechanism that may explain how these advertisements activate automatic, non-deliberative alcohol attitudes was investigated. Associative evidence was found supportive of an evaluative conditioning mechanism, in which positive responses to an alcohol advertisement may lead to more positive automatically-activated attitudes toward alcohol itself.

  20. Automatically-Activated Attitudes as Mechanisms for Message Effects: The Case of Alcohol Advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Goodall, Catherine E.; Slater, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol advertisements may influence impulsive, risky behaviors indirectly, via automatically-activated attitudes toward alcohol. Results from an experiment in which participants were exposed to either four alcohol advertisements, four control advertisements, or four drunk driving public service advertisements, suggested that alcohol advertisements had more measurable effects on implicit, than on explicit attitude measures. Moreover, there were significant indirect paths from alcohol advertisement exposure through automatically-activated alcohol attitudes on willingness to engage in risky alcohol-related behaviors, notably drinking and driving. A mechanism that may explain how these advertisements activate automatic, non-deliberative alcohol attitudes was investigated. Associative evidence was found supportive of an evaluative conditioning mechanism, in which positive responses to an alcohol advertisement may lead to more positive automatically-activated attitudes toward alcohol itself. PMID:21258609

  1. Illinois Library Public Relations at Its Best.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Jim

    2000-01-01

    Describes successful public relations efforts in 23 Illinois public libraries. Highlights include fundraising efforts; innovative program design; community involvement; media coverage; referendum promotions; student reading initiatives; and local business involvement. (LRW)

  2. Comparison of advertising strategies between the indoor tanning and tobacco industries.

    PubMed

    Greenman, Jennifer; Jones, David A

    2010-04-01

    The indoor tanning industry is large and continues to grow, with 2007 domestic sales in excess of $5 billion. Advertising is central to shaping the consumer's perception of indoor tanning as well as driving industry demand. This article aims to identify key drivers of consumer appeal by comparing tanning advertising strategies to those used by tobacco marketers. Tobacco advertising was selected as a reference framework because it is both well documented and designed to promote a product with known health hazards. Two thousand advertisements from 4 large tobacco advertisement databases were analyzed for type of advertisement strategy used, and 4 advertising method categories were devised to incorporate the maximum number of advertisements reviewed. Subsequently, contemporary tanning advertisements were collected from industry magazines and salon websites and evaluated relative to the identified strategy profiles. Both industries have relied on similar advertising strategies, including mitigating health concerns, appealing to a sense of social acceptance, emphasizing psychotropic effects, and targeting specific population segments. This examination is a small observational study, which was conducted without rigorous statistical analysis, and which is limited both by the number of advertisements and by advertising strategies examined. Given the strong parallels between tobacco and tanning advertising methodologies, further consumer education and investigation into the public health risks of indoor tanning is needed.

  3. Cancer-related direct-to-consumer advertising: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Kontos, Emily Z; Viswanath, K

    2011-02-01

    The direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) phenomenon has received attention because of its attempt to reach out to consumers by bypassing important gatekeepers such as physicians. The emergence of new information platforms and the introduction of genetic tests directly to the consumer have heightened the concern with DTCA and its potential consequences. These effects of DTCA are particularly important given the communication inequalities among social groups, with class, race and ethnicity influencing how people access, seek, process and act on information. This Science and Society article reviews the major issues regarding general and cancer-related DTCA and also offers data from a national survey in the United States as an example of the communication inequalities in genetic testing awareness.

  4. The Prevalence of Harmful Content on Outdoor Advertising in Los Angeles: Land Use, Community Characteristics, and the Spatial Inequality of a Public Health Nuisance

    PubMed Central

    Sloane, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Our study sought to examine associations between the content of outdoor advertising and neighborhood ethnic/racial and socioeconomic composition to see whether particular communities disproportionately host harmful content. Methods. We constructed a spatial database of photographs taken from June 2012 until December 2012 in 7 identically zoned communities in Los Angeles, California, to compare outdoor advertising area and content. We selected communities to contrast by ethnicity/race, income, education, and youth population. Results. At-risk communities and communities of color hosted more outdoor advertising depicting harmful content than other communities. Among included neighborhoods, harmful content and the proportion of outdoor advertising overall were most prevalent in communities of Asian Americans and Latino Americans. In all communities, harmful content represented at least 24% of outdoor advertising space. Conclusions. This study provides evidence of the potential for land-use decisions to result in spatially inequitable health impacts. Although dictating the placement of outdoor advertising through zoning may seem sensible, such a decision might have the unintended consequence of disadvantaging the well-being of local communities. Neighborhood factors require more contextually nuanced public health and land-use policy. PMID:24524512

  5. The Effectiveness of Parental Communication in Modifying the Relation between Food Advertising and Children's Consumption Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buijzen, Moniek

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of various types of parental communication in modifying children's responses to television food advertising. In a combined diary-survey study among 234 parents of 4- to 12-year-old children, I investigated how different styles of advertising mediation (active vs. restrictive) and consumer…

  6. Some Advertising Sales Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schick, C. Dennis

    1980-01-01

    Enumerates information that advertising sales people for school newspapers should have before they call on potential customers. Includes ideas on what to know about a number of items, including the publication, readers and nonreaders, advertising, sales opportunities, prospects, prospects' problems, shopping factors, and stores' images. (TJ)

  7. Public Commitment, Resistance to Advertising, and Leisure Promotion in a School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Program: A Component Dismantling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández-Serrano, Olga; Griffin, Kenneth W.; García-Fernández, José Manuel; Espada, Mireia; Orgilés José P.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the contribution of three intervention components (public commitment, resistance to advertising, and leisure promotion) on alcohol and protective variables in a school-based substance use prevention program. Participants included 480 Spanish students aged from 14 to 16 who received the…

  8. Hot Topics in School Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Lois, Ed.; Young, Jay, Ed.

    This document examines the public relations activities occurring in K-12 and intermediate school districts, needs for other activities, and how Michigan School Public Relations Association (MSPRA) can assist. Written surveys were mailed to 394 K-12 and Intermediate School District (ISD) superintendents. Analysis showed that very few school…

  9. Effective Public Relations. Leadership Pamphlet #13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Education Association of U.S.A., Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet on effective public relations (p.r.) is the thirteenth of 16 in a series to provide leaders in adult activities with sound introductory material to give pratical help in using a method of adult education or working in a particular area. Its objective is to help leaders achieve better relations with all their publics. Twelve articles…

  10. Selecting Channels for Institutional Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Donald F.; Glynn, Carroll J.

    1989-01-01

    Examines communication decision-making in organizations by looking at the extent to which public relations executives have control over channel selection for the media mix in an overall public relations program. Shows a variety of structures and procedures for channel selection decisions in United States organizations. (SR)

  11. Transformative Learning Approaches for Public Relations Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motion, Judy; Burgess, Lois

    2014-01-01

    Public relations educators are frequently challenged by students' flawed perceptions of public relations. Two contrasting case studies are presented in this paper to illustrate how socially-oriented paradigms may be applied to a real-client project to deliver a transformative learning experience. A discourse-analytic approach is applied within the…

  12. Advertising and alcohol sales: a legal impact study.

    PubMed

    Makowsky, C R; Whitehead, P C

    1991-11-01

    According to the single distribution theory increases in the availability of alcoholic beverages in the general population are associated with increases in average consumption and increases in alcohol-related damage. If it can be demonstrated that advertising contributes to availability, perhaps in the form of what has been called social or subjective availability, then advertising could be considered an appropriate target of prevention. A 58-year ban on advertising of alcoholic beverages was lifted in Saskatchewan in 1983. Data on monthly sales of beer, wine and distilled spirits were examined for the years 1981 to 1987. Box-Jenkins time series techniques were used to estimate the statistical relationship between the policy change and volume of sales of alcoholic beverages. The results revealed that sales of beer increased and sales of spirits decreased following the change in legislation that permitted alcohol advertising in Saskatchewan. The main finding is that there was no impact on wine and total alcohol sales from the introduction of alcohol advertising. Alcohol advertising may have produced a substitution effect with respect to beer and spirits, but this was not predicted. This evaluation suggests that alcohol advertising is not a contributory force that influences the overall level of alcohol consumption. The place of advertising in the single distribution theory remains not proven, and the place of advertising as an instrument of public policy with respect to the prevention of alcohol-related damage remains in question.

  13. 36 CFR 223.63 - Advertised rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Advertised rates. 223.63... Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.63 Advertised rates. Timber shall be advertised for sale at... construction is to be accomplished by the timber purchaser. The advertised rates shall be not less than...

  14. 36 CFR 223.63 - Advertised rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advertised rates. 223.63... Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.63 Advertised rates. Timber shall be advertised for sale at... construction is to be accomplished by the timber purchaser. The advertised rates shall be not less than...

  15. 25 CFR 215.12 - Advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Advertising costs. 215.12 Section 215.12 Indians BUREAU OF..., QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.12 Advertising costs. All advertising costs, publication fees, expenses incurred for abstracts of lease title, and other expenses incurred in connection with the advertising and sale of...

  16. 36 CFR 223.63 - Advertised rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advertised rates. 223.63... Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.63 Advertised rates. Timber shall be advertised for sale at... construction is to be accomplished by the timber purchaser. The advertised rates shall be not less than...

  17. 25 CFR 215.12 - Advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Advertising costs. 215.12 Section 215.12 Indians BUREAU... LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.12 Advertising costs. All advertising costs, publication fees, expenses incurred for abstracts of lease title, and other expenses incurred in connection with the advertising...

  18. 25 CFR 215.12 - Advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising costs. 215.12 Section 215.12 Indians BUREAU... LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.12 Advertising costs. All advertising costs, publication fees, expenses incurred for abstracts of lease title, and other expenses incurred in connection with the advertising...

  19. 36 CFR 223.63 - Advertised rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Advertised rates. 223.63... Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.63 Advertised rates. Timber shall be advertised for sale at... construction is to be accomplished by the timber purchaser. The advertised rates shall be not less than...

  20. 36 CFR 327.17 - Advertisment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 327.17 Advertisment. (a) Advertising and the distribution of printed matter is allowed within project... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertisment. 327.17 Section... that this activity is not solely commercial advertising. (b) An application for such a permit shall...

  1. 36 CFR 5.1 - Advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertisements. 5.1 Section 5... AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.1 Advertisements. Commercial notices or advertisements shall not be... or advertisement is of goods, services, or facilities available within the park area and such...

  2. 36 CFR 1005.1 - Advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertisements. 1005.1....1 Advertisements. Commercial notices or advertisements shall not be displayed, posted, or... by the Executive Director. Such permission may be granted only if the notice or advertisement is...

  3. 36 CFR 223.227 - Sale advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale advertisement. 223.227... DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products Advertisement and Bids § 223.227 Sale advertisement. (a) The Forest Service shall advertise any special forest products sales with an appraised...

  4. Variations in food and drink advertising in UK monthly women's magazines according to season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers: a descriptive study of publications over 12 months

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are recognised nationally and internationally as key public health challenges. Food and drink advertising is one of the array of factors that influence both diet and physical activity choices and, hence, body weight and obesity. Little previous work has focused on food and drink advertising in magazines. We studied food and drink advertising in a wide range of popular UK monthly women's magazines published over a full year. We explored differences in the prevalence of food and drink advertising and the type of food and drinks advertised according to season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers. Methods All advertisements in all issues of 18 popular UK monthly women's magazines published over 12 months were identified. For each food or drink advertisement, branded food and drinks were noted and categorised into one of seven food groups. All analyses were at the level of the individual advertisement. Results A total of 35 053 advertisements were identified; 1380 (3.9%) of these were for food or drink. The most common food group represented was 'food and drinks high in fat and/or sugar' (28.0% of food advertisements), the least common group was 'fruits & vegetables' (2.0% of food advertisements). Advertisements for alcohol accounted for 10.1% of all food advertisements. Food and drink advertisements were most common in summer, general interest magazines, and those with the most affluent readerships. There were some differences in the type of food and drink advertised across season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers. Conclusions Food and drink advertisements represented only a small proportion of advertisements in UK women's monthly magazines. Food and drink advertisements in these magazines feature a high proportion of 'less healthy' foods. There were a number of differences across season, magazine type and according to the socio-economic profile of readers in the prevalence of food and drink

  5. Advertising for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuFresne, Robert A.; Nasstrom, Roy R.

    1978-01-01

    A six-month publicity and advertising campaign by Winona State University in Minnesota is considered a major factor in the enrollment increase despite a general decline in the state system as a whole. (Author/MLF)

  6. Hiring Criteria of Public Relations Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Dennis L.

    A poll of 90 top-level public relations executives in the San Francisco Bay area generated 65 usable responses to a questionnaire about their hiring practices and about the skills, educational background, and practical experiences that they seek in job applicants. The data from the questionnaire show that the ideal applicant for a public relations…

  7. Issues in the Ethics of Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Peter K.

    There is little doubt that the field of public relations needs to be concerned with both the ethical standards and behaviors of practitioners and the perceptions of these standards and actions held by clients, other communications professionals, and the public. What constitutes ethical standards and practices, however, continues to be debated…

  8. Alcohol counter-advertising and the media. A review of recent research.

    PubMed

    Agostinelli, Gina; Grube, Joel W

    2002-01-01

    Counter-advertising commonly is used to balance the effects that alcohol advertising may have on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Such measures can take the form of print or broadcast advertisements (e.g., public service announcements [PSAs]) as well as product warning labels. The effectiveness of both types of counter-advertising is reviewed using the Elaboration Likelihood Model as a theoretical framework. For print and broadcast counter-advertisements, such factors as their emotional appeal and the credibility of the source, as well as audience factors, can influence their effectiveness. Further, brewer-sponsored counter-advertisements are evaluated and received differently than are the more conventional PSA counter-advertisements. For warning labels, both the content and design of the label influence their effectiveness, as do audience factors. The effectiveness of those labels is evaluated in terms of the extent to which they impact cognitive and affective processes as well as drinking behavior.

  9. Public Relations in Accounting: A Benchmark Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pincus, J. David; Pincus, Karen V.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a national study of one segment of the professional services market: the accounting profession. Benchmark data on CPA firms' attitudes toward and uses of public relations are presented and practical and theoretical/research issues are discussed. (JC)

  10. Political Advertising: A Roadblock in Teaching Social Studies Students the Importance of Truthful Political Communication to a Democratic Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinson, David L.

    2009-01-01

    The author contends that too much political advertising is a form of public relations "spin" in which the truth is sacrificed and the political process damaged as a result. The goal of much of this advertising too frequently focuses on transmitting "disinformation" that, while perhaps not technically a lie, is intended not to inform the public but…

  11. Alcohol and tobacco advertising in black and general audience newspapers: targeting with message cues?

    PubMed

    Cohen, Elisia L; Caburnay, Charlene A; Rodgers, Shelly

    2011-07-01

    This study content analyzed 928 tobacco- and alcohol-related advertisements from a 3-year national sample of Black (n = 24) and general audience (n = 11) newspapers from 24 U.S. cities. The authors compared the frequency of tobacco and alcohol product and control advertising in Black versus general audience newspapers, as well as the presence of 5 message cues: model ethnicity, presence of health official, referral to resources, personal behavior mobilization, and localization. Results within health issues show that Black newspapers had more alcohol product advertising than did general audience newspapers. In contrast, Black newspapers had less alcohol and tobacco control advertising than general audience newspapers. Black newspapers' tobacco/alcohol product advertisements had more African American models than did general audience newspapers' tobacco/alcohol advertising, whereas general audience newspapers' tobacco control advertisements were significantly more likely to feature public health officials than ads in Black newspapers. Fewer message cues such as personal behavior mobilization, referral to resources, and localization were present in Black versus general audience newspapers. Results suggest that Black newspapers may have greater dependency than do general audience newspapers on these risk-related advertisements that target African American consumers. Given the current advertising environment, public health initiatives are needed to counter unhealthy alcohol product advertising messages that target vulnerable populations.

  12. Systematic literature review of the effects of food and drink advertising on food and drink-related behaviour, attitudes and beliefs in adult populations.

    PubMed

    Mills, S D H; Tanner, L M; Adams, J

    2013-04-01

    A large body of research confirms that food advertising affects the food preferences and behaviour of children. The impact of food advertising on adults is less clear. We conducted a systematic review exploring the effects of advertising of food and non-alcoholic drinks (referred to as 'food' throughout) on food-related behaviour, attitudes and beliefs in adult populations. We searched seven electronic databases, grey literature sources, and references and citations of included material for experimental studies written in English investigating the effects of commercial food advertising on the food-related behaviours, attitudes and beliefs of adults aged 16 years and over. Nine studies, rated moderate to poor quality, were included in the review; all were from developed countries and explored the impact of televised food advertising. Overall, the results did not show conclusively whether or not food advertising affects food-related behaviour, attitudes or beliefs in adults, but suggest that the impact varies inconsistently within subgroups, including gender, weight and existing food psychology. The identification of a small number of relevant studies, none of which were high quality, and with substantial heterogeneity, highlights the need for further research. Future studies investigating longer term outcomes, diverse advertising formats, and in countries with different levels of economic development will be of particular value.

  13. Solar industry advertising guidelines. Task III

    SciTech Connect

    Hostetler, J.S.

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of these guidelines is to acquaint SEIA members with basic principles of Federal Trade Commission (FTC) law related to advertising and sales representations in order to assist SEIA members in insuring that their advertising is fair and accurate when assessed against FTC standards, thereby avoiding potentially costly FTC action. The following are discussed: the nature of advertising, when is an advertisement deceptive, advertising of product certification and testing results, substantiation for advertising claims, advertising of tax credits, warranty advertising, potential liabilities under the FTC Act, and recommendations for avoiding FTC action. (MHR)

  14. Raising America's Awareness of Cooperative Education: A Historical Overview of the National Commission for Cooperative Education Public Service Advertising Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosser, John W.; Muller, Brita

    This article provides an overview of a major national advertising campaign in support of cooperative education designed to expand postsecondary cooperative education in the United States. Conducted by the Advertising Council at the request of the National Commission for Cooperative Education and endorsed by 700 colleges and universities, the U.S.…

  15. A General Paradigm for Public Relations Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcomb, Debra

    Grunig's decision-situation model is proposed as a comprehensive framework under which various public-relations-related theories may be subsumed. The decision-situation model postulates three dimensions which, taken together, may predict the course of communication behavior: level of involvement, problem recognition, and structural constraints.…

  16. Reaching out for patients: public relations and events with real results.

    PubMed

    Kuechel, Marie Czenko

    2010-02-01

    In today's market, the aesthetic physician needs to connect with patients using methods that are personal, educational, and that will glean the interest of prospective patients whose attention and dollars are sought by countless facial plastic surgery competitors near and far. Public relations, or reaching your prospective patient without a direct solicitation (advertising) for services, are traditional means that include media relations and charitable and social events. With the added component of social media, today the opportunities to reach out for new patients and garner real results are more varied and more affordable than ever before.

  17. Limitations of direct-to-consumer advertising for clinical genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Gollust, Sarah E; Hull, Sara Chandros; Wilfond, Benjamin S

    2002-10-09

    Although direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertisements for pharmaceuticals have been appearing in the mass media for 20 years, DTC advertisements for genetic testing have only recently appeared. Advertisements for genetic testing can provide both consumers and physicians with information about test availability in an expanding market. However, 3 factors limit the value and appropriateness of advertisements: complex information, a complicated social context surrounding genetics, and a lack of consensus about the clinical utility of some tests. Consideration of several advertisements suggests that they overstate the value of genetic testing for consumers' clinical care. Furthermore, advertisements may provide misinformation about genetics, exaggerate consumers' risks, endorse a deterministic relationship between genes and disease, and reinforce associations between diseases and ethnic groups. Advertising motivated by factors other than evidence of the clinical value of genetic tests can manipulate consumers' behavior by exploiting their fears and worries. At this time, DTC advertisements are inappropriate, given the public's limited sophistication regarding genetics and the lack of comprehensive premarket review of tests or oversight of advertisement content. Existing Federal Trade Commission and Food and Drug Administration regulations for other types of health-related advertising should be applied to advertisements for genetic tests.

  18. Food-Related Advertising on Preschool Television: Building Brand Recognition in Young Viewers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: This study used content analysis to explore how much and what type of advertising is present in television programming aimed at toddlers and preschool-aged children and what methods of persuasion are being used to sell products and to promote brands to the youngest viewers. Methods: Four randomly selected, 4-hour blocks (9 AM to 1 PM)…

  19. Food advertisements on UK television popular with children: a content analysis in relation to dental health.

    PubMed

    Al-Mazyad, M; Flannigan, N; Burnside, G; Higham, S; Boyland, E

    2017-02-10

    Objective To quantify the prevalence of advertising for foods and beverages potentially detrimental to dental health on UK television watched by children.Design Content analysis of pre-recorded television advertisements (adverts).Materials and methods Three hundred and fifty-two hours of television were recorded (one weekday and one weekend day, 6 am - 10 pm) from the main commercial channel (ITV1). All adverts were coded using pre-defined criteria.Setting UK television recorded between January and December 2012.Results Of 9,151 adverts, foods and beverages were the second most commonly advertised products (16.7%; n = 1,532). Nearly two-thirds of food adverts were for items that are potentially harmful to dental health (61%; n = 934). Of these, 96.6% were cariogenic and 11% were acidogenic foods. During peak children's viewing hours, the proportion of foods that are potentially harmful to dental health was significantly higher than for non-harmful foods (65.9% vs. 34.1%; p = 0.011). Adverts for foods potentially harmful to dental health were rare around children's programmes, but significantly more frequent during other programmes watched by children (p <0.001).Conclusion UK children are exposed to a particularly high proportion of advertisements for foods that are potentially detrimental to their dental health during their peak viewing hours and around the programmes they watch the most.

  20. Cigarette advertising and adolescent experimentation with smoking.

    PubMed

    Klitzner, M; Gruenewald, P J; Bamberger, E

    1991-03-01

    The extent to which cigarette advertising contributes to increases in smoking has been debated by public health professionals and the tobacco industry. One aspect of this debate has been the degree to which advertising influences smoking among adolescents. Previous research suggests that there are significant relationships between measures of advertising and smoking. However, potential simultaneous relationships between these measures have not been addressed. Observed correlations may arise from the effects of advertising on smoking or from smokers' selective exposure to advertisements. This study examined relationships between cigarette advertising and smoking experimentation. Using environmental and psychological measures of advertising exposure, it was demonstrated that adolescents who experimented with cigarettes were better able to recognize advertised products than those who had not, a selective exposure effect. Conversely, subjects who were better at recognizing advertised brands were more likely to have experimented with cigarettes, an effect due to their exposure to cigarette advertising.

  1. Functional Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Guy

    With minor modifications, an advertising fundamentals course can stimulate creative development and provide career direction while it presents the basic elements of advertising. A group presentation introduces students to research and familiarizes them with the conflict resolution process useful in preparing advertising. A group project arranges…

  2. Web-Based Antismoking Advertising to Promote Smoking Cessation: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Muennig, Peter; El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M

    2016-01-01

    Background Although hundreds of millions of dollars are spent each year on public health advertising, the advertisement content, design, and placement are usually developed by intuition rather than research. Objective The objective of our study was to develop a methodology for testing Web-based advertisements to promote smoking cessation. Methods We developed 10 advertisements that varied by their content (those that empower viewers to quit, help viewers to quit, or discuss the effects of smoking). We then conducted a series of Web-based randomized controlled trials that explored the effects of exposing users of Microsoft’s Bing search engine to antismoking advertisements that differed by content, placement, or other characteristics. Finally, we followed users to explore whether they conducted subsequent searches for smoking cessation products or services. Results The advertisements were shown 710,106 times and clicked on 1167 times. In general, empowering advertisements had the greatest impact (hazard ratio [HR] 2.6, standard error [SE] 0.09 relative to nonempowering advertisements), but we observed significant variations by gender. For instance, we found that men exposed to smoking cessation advertisements were less likely than women to subsequently conduct smoking cessation searches (HR 0.2, SE 0.07), but that this likelihood increased 3.5 times in men exposed to advertisements containing empowering content. Women were more influenced by advertisements that emphasized the health effects of smoking. We also found that appearing at the top right of the page (HR 2.1, SE 0.07) or at the bottom rather than the top of a list (HR 1.1, SE 0.02) can improve smoking cessation advertisements’ effectiveness in prompting future searches related to smoking cessation. Conclusions Advertising should be targeted to different demographic groups in ways that are not always intuitive. Our study provides a method for testing the effectiveness of Web-based antismoking

  3. A Quantitative Description of FBI Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Dirk C.

    1997-01-01

    States that the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) had the most successful media relations program of all government agencies from the 1930s to the 1980s. Uses quantitative analysis to show why those media efforts were successful. Identifies themes that typified the verbal component of FBI publicity and the broad spectrum of mass communication…

  4. The Library Public Relations Recipe Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Irene E., Ed.

    The 17 short pieces in this guide advise librarians how to enhance the profile of their organizations through increased interest in the media and more visible involvement in the community, and how to address budgeting, planning, and evaluating a public relations program. Fourteen rules of thumb for preparing and using news releases are described…

  5. Principals' Perceptions of School Public Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Robert C.; Chan, Tak Cheung; Patterson, Judith

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate school principals' perceptions on school public relations in five areas: community demographics, parental involvement, internal and external communications, school council issues, and community resources. Findings indicated that principals' concerns were as follows: rapid population growth, change of…

  6. School Public Relations: Personnel Roles and Responsibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, M. Scott

    2008-01-01

    This article emphasizes the paramount importance of the human resources function in the school system--specifically, in the implementation of an effective school public relations program and in the quality of leadership given by the administrators and the professional and classified staffs. The article submits that school administrators at every…

  7. Resources for Public Relations Teaching: Facilitating the Growth of Public Relations Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, Timothy

    2001-01-01

    Discusses briefly events (including a 1998 summer conference, a report, and a 1999 Pre-Conference) leading up to this themed issue on public relations teaching. Introduces the seven remaining articles in the issue which represent six different content areas to be covered in a public relations curriculum, and which reflects recommendations for…

  8. Megatrends in Public Relations: Some Proposed Responses for Public Relations Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronoff, Craig E.; Baskin, Otis W.

    Ten areas of change, or megatrends, are transforming the practice of public relations. First is the change from manipulation to effective adaptation to environmental demands, constraints, and opportunities. Second, the role of the public relations practitioner is changing from external counselor to internal team member and leader. Third is the…

  9. 48 CFR 5.504 - Use of advertising agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION PLANNING PUBLICIZING CONTRACT ACTIONS Paid Advertisements 5.504 Use of advertising agencies. (a... placing advertisements when a significant number will be placed in several publications and in national... the media for placement of the advertisement, contacting the media in the interest of the...

  10. Standards for Educational Public Relations and Communications Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappelow, Marsha A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes National School Public Relations Association standards for school public relations and communications professionals and program. Includes reactions and comments about new Association standards from seven superintendents and four school public-relations professionals. (PKP)

  11. Advertising's new medium: human experience.

    PubMed

    Rayport, Jeffrey F

    2013-03-01

    We live in a media-saturated world, where consumers are drowning in irrelevant messages delivered from the web, TV, radio, print, outdoor displays, and a proliferating array of mobile devices. Advertising strategies built on persuading through interruption, repetition, and brute ubiquity are increasingly ineffective. To win consumers' attention and trust, marketers must think less about what advertising says to its targets and more about what it does for them. Rayport outlines four domains of human experience: In the public sphere people move from one place or activity to another, both online and off. In the social sphere they interact with and relate to one another. In the tribal sphere they affiliate with groups to define or express their identity. In the psychological sphere they connect language with specific thoughts and feelings. Savvy marketers think about crafting messages that consumers will welcome in these domains. Zappos did that when it placed ads in airport security bins (the public sphere)--reaching people whose minds may be on their shoes. Nintendo identified young mothers who were willing to host Wii parties and provided them with everything they needed for these social-sphere events. Yelp's Elite Squad of reviewers have a heightened sense of tribal affiliation that makes them powerful brand ambassadors. Life is good Inc. is rooted in the psychological sphere: It advertises only through the optimism-promoting logo and slogan on its products.

  12. Leftward lighting in advertisements increases advertisement ratings and purchase intention.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Jennifer; Thomas, Nicole A; Elias, Lorin

    2011-07-01

    It has been reliably shown that light is assumed to come from above. There is also some suggestion that light from the left might be preferred. Leftward lighting biases have been observed across various mediums such as paintings, portraits, photographs, and advertisements. As advertisements are used to persuade the public to purchase products, it was of interest to better understand whether leftward lighting would influence future intention to purchase. Participants gave preference ratings for pairs of advertisements with opposing lighting directions. Attitude towards the advertisement and the brand as well as future purchase intention was then rated. Overall, participants indicated that they preferred advertisements with leftward lighting and were more likely to purchase these products in the future than when the same products were lit from the right. Findings are consistent with previously observed leftward lighting biases and suggest that advertisements with a leftward lighting bias might be more effective.

  13. Drug Advertising and the FDA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levesque, Cynthia

    With increases in consumer focused advertising for prescription drugs, the Federal Drug Administration has renewed efforts to protect the public from false advertising. In 1982, it charged that the press kits Eli Lilly and Company distributed to reporters on its new antiarthritis drug, Oraflex, misrepresented the product. It recommended that Lilly…

  14. 25 CFR 215.12 - Advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Advertising costs. 215.12 Section 215.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.12 Advertising costs. All advertising costs, publication fees,...

  15. 25 CFR 215.12 - Advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Advertising costs. 215.12 Section 215.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.12 Advertising costs. All advertising costs, publication fees,...

  16. 37 CFR 10.32 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Advertising. 10.32 Section 10... of Professional Responsibility § 10.32 Advertising. (a) Subject to § 10.31, a practitioner may advertise services through public media, including a telephone directory, legal directory, newspaper,...

  17. 32 CFR 705.13 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commercial advertising. 705.13 Section 705.13... AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.13 Commercial advertising. (a) The Navy... personnel, facilities, equipment or supplies for advertising purposes must be referred to the Chief...

  18. 32 CFR 705.13 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commercial advertising. 705.13 Section 705.13... AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.13 Commercial advertising. (a) The Navy... personnel, facilities, equipment or supplies for advertising purposes must be referred to the Chief...

  19. 37 CFR 10.32 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advertising. 10.32 Section 10... of Professional Responsibility § 10.32 Advertising. (a) Subject to § 10.31, a practitioner may advertise services through public media, including a telephone directory, legal directory, newspaper,...

  20. 32 CFR 705.13 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commercial advertising. 705.13 Section 705.13... AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.13 Commercial advertising. (a) The Navy... personnel, facilities, equipment or supplies for advertising purposes must be referred to the Chief...

  1. 32 CFR 705.13 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial advertising. 705.13 Section 705.13... AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.13 Commercial advertising. (a) The Navy... personnel, facilities, equipment or supplies for advertising purposes must be referred to the Chief...

  2. Re-Designing Business Card Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaub, Laura

    2001-01-01

    Discusses ways to turn information from a business card into an advertisement to be placed in a student publication. Addresses visual interest, typography, and other design issues. Includes several sample advertisements and a classroom activity involving redesigning a business card into an advertisement. (RS)

  3. 37 CFR 10.32 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising. 10.32 Section 10... of Professional Responsibility § 10.32 Advertising. (a) Subject to § 10.31, a practitioner may advertise services through public media, including a telephone directory, legal directory, newspaper,...

  4. 36 CFR 223.63 - Advertised rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertised rates. 223.63... DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.63 Advertised rates. Timber shall be advertised for sale at its appraised value. The road construction cost used...

  5. Identification of User Facility Related Publications

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Robert M; Stahl, Christopher G; Wells, Jack C; Potok, Thomas E

    2012-01-01

    Scientific user facilities provide physical resources and technical support that enable scientists to conduct experiments or simulations pertinent to their respective research. One metric for evaluating the scientific value or impact of a facility is the number of publications by users as a direct result of using that facility. Unfortunately, for a variety of reasons, capturing accurate values for this metric proves time consuming and error-prone. This work describes a new approach that leverages automated browser technology combined with text analytics to reduce the time and error involved in identifying publications related to user facilities. With this approach, scientific user facilities gain more accurate measures of their impact as well as insight into policy revisions for user access.

  6. The Necessity of Public Relations for Sustainable Mining Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunbock; Ji, Sangwoo

    2015-04-01

    other hand, in the survey to determine what the greatest difficulties of the current mining activities, 54% of mining companies chose environmental regulations, 26% of mining companies chose conflicts between mine area residents and mining companies. Environmental regulations are may defined as the greatest difficulty of current mining activities. But most of environmental regulation's problems are caused by frictions with residents, because all of South Korean mines are very close to villages. So, the biggest difficulty of mining activities can be defined conflicts between residents and mining companies. Moreover, general people in South Korea including some mining engineers recognize the mining industry as a declined and pollution industry. Without clear understanding of mining activities, any mine developments and policies related to mining activities cannot be made by rational discussions. And, if their recognition is not formed in a rational way, it will be turned to extreme fear or blind hatred. Therefore, to understand mining activities correctly, the effective public relations strategy is necessary such as corporate advertisements or public advertisements.

  7. The Definition, Dimensions, and Domain of Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutton, James G.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how the field of public relations has left itself vulnerable to other fields that are making inroads into public relations' traditional domain, and to critics who are filling in their own definitions of public relations. Proposes a definition and a three-dimensional framework to compare competing philosophies of public relations and to…

  8. What Cultural Values Influence American Public Relations Practitioners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, Gabriel M.; Taylor, Maureen

    1999-01-01

    Examines the role of culture as a key variable in public relations research and practice. Finds (1) American practitioners continue to practice one-way models of public relations; and (2) public relations practitioners who have collectivistic values tend to practice two-way models of public relations. Discusses implications for theory and…

  9. 17 CFR 256.930.1 - General advertising expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... in newspapers, periodicals, billboards, radio, etc. 2. Advertising matter such as posters, bulletins, booklets and related items. 3. Fees and expenses of advertising agencies and commercial artists. 4....

  10. From Sevilla to Barcelona: Public Relations Research and Education in Spain. The Structure of Spanish Public Relations: 1980-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noguero i Grau, Antoni

    A study examined the situation of the public relations profession in Spain from the point of view of public relations agencies or consultancies, and of individuals in public relations. Forty-four individuals (of a target population of 100) and 26 public relations agencies or firms (of a target population of 40) responded to questionnaires and…

  11. Advertising Appeal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Sandra K.

    The individualized learning package for secondary consumer education deals with consumer buying as influenced by advertising. The teacher's section of the package contains a statement of purpose and instructional objectives. Equipment and materials (specific textbooks, audiovisual aids, and sources for sample post-test advertisements) needed for…

  12. Effective Application of Psychological Motivators for Social Advertisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severn, Jessica

    Social advertisers--those responsible for public and nonprofit advertising and marketing--must employ many of the major psychological motivations used by commercial advertisers to stimulate desire and action on the part of target audiences. For example, commercial advertisers create psychological stimuli to facilitate motivation of the fulfillment…

  13. 36 CFR 223.81 - Shorter advertising periods in emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shorter advertising periods... FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Advertisement and Bids § 223.81 Shorter advertising... officer may authorize shortening the formal advertising period to not less than 7 days. In other...

  14. 48 CFR 5.504 - Use of advertising agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of advertising... ACQUISITION PLANNING PUBLICIZING CONTRACT ACTIONS Paid Advertisements 5.504 Use of advertising agencies. (a) General. Basic ordering agreements may be placed with advertising agencies for assistance in producing...

  15. 16 CFR 238.0 - Bait advertising defined. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bait advertising defined. 1 238.0 Section... BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.0 Bait advertising defined. 1 1 For the purpose of this part “advertising” includes any form of public notice however disseminated or utilized. Bait advertising is an alluring...

  16. 48 CFR 5.504 - Use of advertising agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of advertising... ACQUISITION PLANNING PUBLICIZING CONTRACT ACTIONS Paid Advertisements 5.504 Use of advertising agencies. (a) General. Basic ordering agreements may be placed with advertising agencies for assistance in producing...

  17. 16 CFR 238.0 - Bait advertising defined. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bait advertising defined. 1 238.0 Section... BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.0 Bait advertising defined. 1 1 For the purpose of this part “advertising” includes any form of public notice however disseminated or utilized. Bait advertising is an alluring...

  18. 16 CFR 238.0 - Bait advertising defined. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bait advertising defined. 1 238.0 Section... BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.0 Bait advertising defined. 1 1 For the purpose of this part “advertising” includes any form of public notice however disseminated or utilized. Bait advertising is an alluring...

  19. 16 CFR 238.0 - Bait advertising defined. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bait advertising defined. 1 238.0 Section... BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.0 Bait advertising defined. 1 1 For the purpose of this part “advertising” includes any form of public notice however disseminated or utilized. Bait advertising is an alluring...

  20. 32 CFR 552.62 - Advertising rules and educational programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Advertising rules and educational programs. 552... Reservations § 552.62 Advertising rules and educational programs. (a) The Department of the Army expects that... military publication will request the advertiser to observe them. The advertising of credit will conform...

  1. 16 CFR 238.0 - Bait advertising defined. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bait advertising defined. 1 238.0 Section... BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.0 Bait advertising defined. 1 1 For the purpose of this part “advertising” includes any form of public notice however disseminated or utilized. Bait advertising is an alluring...

  2. 48 CFR 5.504 - Use of advertising agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of advertising... ACQUISITION PLANNING PUBLICIZING CONTRACT ACTIONS Paid Advertisements 5.504 Use of advertising agencies. (a) General. Basic ordering agreements may be placed with advertising agencies for assistance in producing...

  3. 36 CFR 223.82 - Contents of advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contents of advertisement... SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Advertisement and Bids § 223.82 Contents of advertisement. (a) A timber sale advertisement shall include the following...

  4. 32 CFR 552.62 - Advertising rules and educational programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advertising rules and educational programs. 552... Reservations § 552.62 Advertising rules and educational programs. (a) The Department of the Army expects that... military publication will request the advertiser to observe them. The advertising of credit will conform...

  5. Public Relations Handbook for Vocational Education in Large Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koble, Daniel E., Jr.; And Others

    Intended for use by urban vocational staff members who face public relations problems and need to facilitate the outreach process in their cities, this handbook contains guidelines for organizing the public. First, Sanford's definition of public relations is outlined, followed by an explanation of why vocational education needs public relations.…

  6. Student-Created Public Relations for Gifted Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisland, Amy

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the benefits of student participation in a gifted public relations campaign, including creating public support for gifted programming and developing leadership skills. Steps for developing a formal unit of instruction on public relations are described, along with ideas for public relations activities. (Contains references.)…

  7. Physician Advertising: The Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruhn, Diane; Alley, Susan

    In the area of commercial speech, the courts face two competing rights: the public's right to know and the state's right to discipline members of the medical profession. The Federal Trade Commission has taken strong action against medical advertising prohibitions, and legal precedents have been set in Virginia Board of Pharmacy v. Virginia…

  8. What You Can Do about Public Relations in Your Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, John C.

    1981-01-01

    Proposes that English teachers hone their skills and devote time and effort to building public relations. Considers ways of telling the English teacher's story regionally, through letter writing campaigns, public service announcements, and public affairs programing. (RL)

  9. Recruiting Effects of Army Advertising

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    large amount of newspaper advertising was bought through "groups," or aggregates of related newspapers whose space is marketed together. For example, ads ...im rm’ r .. . 2 advertising on private sector markets when firms attempt to influence consumers’ purchasing decisions. When it comes to research on... adding unique data describing the patterns and distribu- tion of Army advertising expenditures between 1981 and 1984. 3 The specific aims of the

  10. Extraversion and evaluation of humorous advertisements.

    PubMed

    Styśko-Kunkowska, Małgorzata A; Borecka, Dorota

    2010-02-01

    Evaluation of humorous advertisements is supposed to be influenced by the perceivers' traits. The present study assessed the relation of extraversion with ratings of eight characteristics of humorous and informative advertisements. 75 high school students viewed the advertisements; a small positive correlation was found between scores on Extraversion and overall positive ratings of the humorous advertisement, but the correlation of scores on Extraversion with overall ratings of the informative advertisement was not statistically significant. Higher scores for Extraversion were positively correlated with more favorable reactions toward the humorous advertisement. Overall ratings of the humorous advertisement were also positively correlated with the humorousness and informativeness ratings, indicating that the more the advertisement was perceived as humorous and informative, the more positive was the overall rating. The latter ratings were significantly intercorrelated at r(s) = .50. The role of extraversion was small but significant in the evaluation of humorous advertisements.

  11. Public policy for the control of tobacco-related disease.

    PubMed

    Bierer, M F; Rigotti, N A

    1992-03-01

    Public policies concerning tobacco shape the environment of the smoker and nonsmoker alike. These policies use diverse means to achieve the common goal of reducing tobacco use and its attendant health consequences. Educational interventions such as warning labels, school curricula, and public service announcements serve to inform the public about the hazards of tobacco smoke. These are countered by the pervasive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry, despite a ban on tobacco advertising on radio and television. Further restrictions on tobacco advertising and promotion have been proposed and await action. Cigarette excise taxes and smoker-nonsmoker insurance premium differentials discourage smoking by making it more costly to purchase cigarettes. Conversely, health insurance reimbursement for smoking cessation programs could reduce the cost of giving up the habit and might encourage cessation. Restricting or banning smoking in public places and workplaces decreases a smoker's opportunities to smoke, further inhibiting this behavior. Reducing the availability of cigarettes to children and adolescents may help to prevent them from starting to smoke. The environment of the smoker is conditioned by this pastiche of influences. Physicians who become involved in tobacco-control issues have the opportunity to alter the environmental influences on their patients. This is likely to be synergistic with physicians' efforts inside the office to encourage individual smokers to quit. As a first step toward advocacy outside the office, physicians can help to create a smoke-free health-care facility in their own institution. Beyond that, advocacy groups or the voluntary health organizations (e.g., American Lung Association) provide avenues for physicians to take a stand on community issues relevant to tobacco control. Physicians who take these steps to alter the environment of smokers beyond the office are likely to magnify the effect of their work with individual

  12. A Disciplinary Perspective: The Internationalization of Australian Public Relations Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitch, Kate

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the internationalization of public relations education, by examining public relations education in Australia, its relation with the public relations industry, and its growth in response to international student- and market-led demand. The discussion highlights the tensions within what is essentially an education project…

  13. 22 CFR 229.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Advertising. 229.540 Section 229.540 Foreign... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification, or discrimination based...

  14. 22 CFR 229.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Advertising. 229.540 Section 229.540 Foreign... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification, or discrimination based...

  15. 22 CFR 229.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Advertising. 229.540 Section 229.540 Foreign... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification, or discrimination based...

  16. 22 CFR 229.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Advertising. 229.540 Section 229.540 Foreign... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification, or discrimination based...

  17. [Legal framework and strategy of the tobacco industry in relation to tobacco advertising in Spain].

    PubMed

    Elder, J; Cortés Blanco, M; Sarriá Santamera, A

    2000-01-01

    Publicity is legally regulated in Spain, in order to avoid its misuse. Tobacco publicity is also under those regulation, having had the companies operating in this sector to adapt themselves through new strategies. In this work, the legal restrictions existing in Spain regarding publicity are analyzed, together with some of the strategies developed by tobacco companies in order to elude them. In this sense, and despite of the existing legal framework, it should be noticed that tobacco companies are cleverly taking advantage of the existence of legal loopholes in tobacco publicity to promote their products.

  18. Advertising and generic market entry.

    PubMed

    Königbauer, Ingrid

    2007-03-01

    The effect of purely persuasive advertising on generic market entry and social welfare is analysed. An incumbent has the possibility to invest in advertising which affects the prescribing physician's perceived relative qualities of the brand-name and the generic version of the drug. Advertising creates product differentiation and can induce generic market entry which is deterred without differentiation due to strong Bertrand competition. However, over-investment in advertising can deter generic market entry under certain conditions and reduces welfare as compared to accommodated market entry.

  19. Sponsorship of physical activity programs by the sweetened beverages industry: public health or public relations?

    PubMed

    Gómez, Luis; Jacoby, Enrique; Ibarra, Lorena; Lucumí, Diego; Hernandez, Alexandra; Parra, Diana; Florindo, Alex; Hallal, Pedro

    2011-04-01

    The growing evidence on the association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, obesity and other chronic diseases has highlighted the need to implement policy actions that go beyond programs exclusively focused on individual responsibility. In order to protect their commercial goals in Latin America, the sugar-sweetened beverage industry practices intense lobbying at high government levels in several countries across the region. This strategy is accompanied by corporate social responsibility programs that fund initiatives promoting physical activity. These efforts, although appearing altruistic, are intended to improve the industry's public image and increase political influence in order to block regulations counter to their interests. If this industry wants to contribute to human well being, as it has publicly stated, it should avoid blocking legislative actions intended to regulate the marketing, advertising and sale of their products.

  20. 41 CFR 60-1.41 - Solicitations or advertisements for employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... advertisements for employees. 60-1.41 Section 60-1.41 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions... or advertisements for employees. In solicitations or advertisements for employees placed by or on... U.S.C. 701; (c) Uses a single advertisement, and the advertisement is grouped with...

  1. Product News versus Advertising: An Exploration within a Student Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallahan, Kirk

    An exploratory survey (part of a larger study) examined the relative effectiveness of news versus advertising as sources of product information. Subjects, 140 undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory public speaking course or a course in visual communication, completed a 5-page media interest survey. Results indicated that news rates…

  2. 40 CFR 300.155 - Public information and community relations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... community relations. (a) When an incident occurs, it is imperative to give the public prompt, accurate... community relations personnel should ensure that all appropriate public and private interests are kept... available public affairs/community relations resources to carry out this responsibility by establishing,...

  3. Intro Public Relations Texts: A Round-Up Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Judy VanSlyke; Snedeker, Debra L.

    1986-01-01

    Engages in a side-by-side comparison of the bestsellers among introductory public relations texts. Considers content, organizational method, use of supplementary materials, and authors' philosophy of public relations. Notes that the expanding choice of readings in the field mirrors the increasing interest in the study of public relations. (JD)

  4. An Exploratory Look at Graduate Public Relations Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldoory, Linda; Toth, Elizabeth L.

    2000-01-01

    Conducts a content analysis of web pages to examine 26 United States Masters degree programs in public relations for their degree requirements, core courses, public relations courses, and optional courses. Finds a lack of adherence to the recommendations of the Foundation for Public Relations Research and Education. (NH)

  5. Reactions to the New Standards for School Public Relations Specialists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Theodore J.

    2002-01-01

    Reactions by 10 individuals associated with the "Journal of School Public Relations" to new National School Public Relations Association standards for school public relations and communications professionals and programs. Includes general reactions, impact of the standards, possible ambiguity, adding or eliminating standards, and…

  6. Intercultural Interpretations: Making Public Relations Education Culturally Relevant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chia, Joy

    2009-01-01

    Public relations educators delivering courses to international students find that each cohort of students interprets and understands public relations theory and its application to practice according to their respective cultures. The premise of this paper is to reflect on some of the interpretations and expectations of public relations students…

  7. Public Relations as Art: A Prolog to Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Robert

    Much has been written about public relations as either a science or an art. Public relations is a phenomenon within society and has existed long before the name was first applied to the work of building relationships between social groups. Public relations deals with the very core of human experience: relationships. If art may be understood as an…

  8. Ghettoizing outdoor advertising: disadvantage and ad panel density in black neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Lee, Tammy H

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated correlates of outdoor advertising panel density in predominantly African American neighborhoods in New York City. Research shows that black neighborhoods have more outdoor advertising space than white neighborhoods, and these spaces disproportionately market alcohol and tobacco advertisements. Thus, understanding the factors associated with outdoor advertising panel density has important implications for public health. We linked 2000 census data with property data at the census block group level to investigate two neighborhood-level determinants of ad density: income level and physical decay. Results showed that block groups were exposed to an average of four ad spaces per 1,000 residents and that vacant lot square footage was a significant positive predictor of ad density. An inverse relationship between median household income and ad density did not reach significance, suggesting that relative affluence did not protect black neighborhoods from being targeted for outdoor advertisements.

  9. Vaccinations: A public health triumph and a public relations tragedy.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Robert M

    2012-08-01

    Routine vaccination has been hailed as one of the top public health achievements of the last century. However, despite the reduced number of cases of and deaths from vaccine-preventable diseases such as pertussis and measles, outbreaks continue to occur as more parents fail to adequately vaccinate their children because of misinformation about immunizations. This article describes the challenges of making sure all children in the United States are fully immunized and what physicians need to know to effectively work with parents who may be hesitant to vaccinate their children.

  10. Using public relations to promote health: a framing analysis of public relations strategies among health associations.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyojung; Reber, Bryan H

    2010-01-01

    This study explored health organizations' public relations efforts to frame health issues through their press releases. Content analysis of 316 press releases from three health organizations-the American Heart Association, the American Cancer Society, and the American Diabetes Association-revealed that they used the medical research frame most frequently and emphasized societal responsibility for health issues. There were differences, however, among the organizations regarding the main frames and health issues: the American Diabetes Association was more likely to focus on the issues related to social support and education, while the American Heart Association and the American Cancer Society were more likely to address medical research and scientific news. To demonstrate their initiatives for public health, all the organizations employed the social support/educational frame most frequently. Researchers and medical doctors frequently were quoted as trusted sources in the releases.

  11. 38 CFR 23.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advertising. 23.540 Section 23.540 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  12. 6 CFR 17.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advertising. 17.540 Section 17.540 Domestic... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 17.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  13. 13 CFR 113.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising. 113.540 Section 113.540 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FINANCIAL... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  14. 24 CFR 3.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Advertising. 3.540 Section 3.540 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  15. 28 CFR 54.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Advertising. 54.540 Section 54.540... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  16. 29 CFR 36.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Advertising. 36.540 Section 36.540 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING... Activities Prohibited § 36.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to...

  17. 40 CFR 5.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advertising. 5.540 Section 5.540... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  18. 15 CFR 8a.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advertising. 8a.540 Section 8a.540... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 8a.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  19. 10 CFR 5.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 5.540 Section 5.540 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL... Prohibited § 5.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment...

  20. 38 CFR 23.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Advertising. 23.540 Section 23.540 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  1. 47 CFR 32.6613 - Product advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Product advertising. 32.6613 Section 32.6613... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6613 Product advertising. This... the purchase of products and services. This excludes nonproduct-related advertising, such as...

  2. 28 CFR 54.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Advertising. 54.540 Section 54.540... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  3. 15 CFR 8a.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advertising. 8a.540 Section 8a.540... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 8a.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  4. 44 CFR 19.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Advertising. 19.540 Section 19.540 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 19.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related...

  5. 10 CFR 5.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising. 5.540 Section 5.540 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL... Prohibited § 5.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment...

  6. 6 CFR 17.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advertising. 17.540 Section 17.540 Domestic... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 17.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  7. 18 CFR 1317.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Advertising. 1317.540 Section 1317.540 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  8. 40 CFR 5.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advertising. 5.540 Section 5.540... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  9. 7 CFR 15a.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advertising. 15a.59 Section 15a.59 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM... Activities Prohibited § 15a.59 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to...

  10. 29 CFR 36.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Advertising. 36.540 Section 36.540 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING... Activities Prohibited § 36.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to...

  11. 6 CFR 17.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising. 17.540 Section 17.540 Domestic... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 17.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  12. 14 CFR 1253.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Advertising. 1253.540 Section 1253.540... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1253.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  13. 31 CFR 28.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Advertising. 28.540 Section 28.540... Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 28.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation,...

  14. 7 CFR 15a.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advertising. 15a.59 Section 15a.59 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM... Activities Prohibited § 15a.59 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to...

  15. 28 CFR 54.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advertising. 54.540 Section 54.540... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  16. 44 CFR 19.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Advertising. 19.540 Section 19.540 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Activities Prohibited § 19.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to...

  17. 13 CFR 113.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advertising. 113.540 Section 113.540 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FINANCIAL... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  18. 14 CFR 399.84 - Price advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Price advertising. 399.84 Section 399.84... STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Enforcement § 399.84 Price advertising. The Board considers any advertising or solicitation by a direct air carrier, indirect air carrier, or...

  19. 47 CFR 32.6613 - Product advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Product advertising. 32.6613 Section 32.6613... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6613 Product advertising. This... the purchase of products and services. This excludes nonproduct-related advertising, such as...

  20. 18 CFR 1317.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Advertising. 1317.540 Section 1317.540 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  1. 18 CFR 1317.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising. 1317.540 Section 1317.540 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  2. 24 CFR 3.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Advertising. 3.540 Section 3.540 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  3. 10 CFR 5.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advertising. 5.540 Section 5.540 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL... Prohibited § 5.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment...

  4. 44 CFR 19.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Advertising. 19.540 Section 19.540 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 19.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related...

  5. 32 CFR 196.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advertising. 196.540 Section 196.540 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  6. 47 CFR 32.6613 - Product advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Product advertising. 32.6613 Section 32.6613... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6613 Product advertising. This... the purchase of products and services. This excludes nonproduct-related advertising, such as...

  7. 14 CFR 1253.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advertising. 1253.540 Section 1253.540... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1253.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  8. 14 CFR 1253.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advertising. 1253.540 Section 1253.540... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1253.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  9. 15 CFR 8a.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising. 8a.540 Section 8a.540... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 8a.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  10. 18 CFR 1317.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Advertising. 1317.540 Section 1317.540 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  11. 31 CFR 28.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Advertising. 28.540 Section 28.540... Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 28.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation,...

  12. 13 CFR 113.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advertising. 113.540 Section 113.540 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FINANCIAL... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  13. 7 CFR 15a.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising. 15a.59 Section 15a.59 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM... Activities Prohibited § 15a.59 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to...

  14. 40 CFR 5.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Advertising. 5.540 Section 5.540... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  15. 34 CFR 106.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Advertising. 106.59 Section 106.59 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  16. 34 CFR 106.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advertising. 106.59 Section 106.59 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  17. 38 CFR 23.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Advertising. 23.540 Section 23.540 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  18. 29 CFR 36.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Advertising. 36.540 Section 36.540 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING... Activities Prohibited § 36.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to...

  19. 38 CFR 23.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advertising. 23.540 Section 23.540 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  20. 32 CFR 196.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advertising. 196.540 Section 196.540 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  1. 47 CFR 32.6613 - Product advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Product advertising. 32.6613 Section 32.6613... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6613 Product advertising. This... the purchase of products and services. This excludes nonproduct-related advertising, such as...

  2. 24 CFR 3.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Advertising. 3.540 Section 3.540 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  3. 10 CFR 5.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advertising. 5.540 Section 5.540 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL... Prohibited § 5.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment...

  4. 14 CFR § 1253.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advertising. § 1253.540 Section § 1253... the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1253.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  5. 31 CFR 28.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advertising. 28.540 Section 28.540... Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 28.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation,...

  6. 13 CFR 113.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advertising. 113.540 Section 113.540 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FINANCIAL... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  7. 15 CFR 8a.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advertising. 8a.540 Section 8a.540... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 8a.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  8. 18 CFR 1317.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Advertising. 1317.540 Section 1317.540 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  9. 32 CFR 196.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Advertising. 196.540 Section 196.540 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  10. 28 CFR 54.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advertising. 54.540 Section 54.540... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  11. 40 CFR 5.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Advertising. 5.540 Section 5.540... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  12. 24 CFR 3.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising. 3.540 Section 3.540 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  13. 10 CFR 5.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advertising. 5.540 Section 5.540 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL... Prohibited § 5.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment...

  14. 31 CFR 28.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advertising. 28.540 Section 28.540... Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 28.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation,...

  15. 14 CFR 399.84 - Price advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Price advertising. 399.84 Section 399.84... STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Enforcement § 399.84 Price advertising. The Board considers any advertising or solicitation by a direct air carrier, indirect air carrier, or...

  16. 44 CFR 19.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Advertising. 19.540 Section 19.540 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 19.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related...

  17. 7 CFR 15a.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advertising. 15a.59 Section 15a.59 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM... Activities Prohibited § 15a.59 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to...

  18. 32 CFR 196.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Advertising. 196.540 Section 196.540 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  19. 34 CFR 106.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advertising. 106.59 Section 106.59 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  20. 34 CFR 106.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Advertising. 106.59 Section 106.59 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  1. 24 CFR 3.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Advertising. 3.540 Section 3.540 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  2. 6 CFR 17.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advertising. 17.540 Section 17.540 Domestic... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 17.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  3. 14 CFR 399.84 - Price advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Price advertising. 399.84 Section 399.84... STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Enforcement § 399.84 Price advertising. The Board considers any advertising or solicitation by a direct air carrier, indirect air carrier, or...

  4. 47 CFR 32.6613 - Product advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Product advertising. 32.6613 Section 32.6613... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6613 Product advertising. This... the purchase of products and services. This excludes nonproduct-related advertising, such as...

  5. 38 CFR 23.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising. 23.540 Section 23.540 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  6. 15 CFR 8a.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 8a.540 Section 8a.540... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 8a.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  7. 31 CFR 28.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising. 28.540 Section 28.540... Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 28.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation,...

  8. 34 CFR 106.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising. 106.59 Section 106.59 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  9. 32 CFR 196.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising. 196.540 Section 196.540 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  10. 44 CFR 19.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising. 19.540 Section 19.540 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 19.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related...

  11. 14 CFR 1253.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 1253.540 Section 1253.540... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1253.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  12. 13 CFR 113.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 113.540 Section 113.540 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FINANCIAL... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  13. On the Development of Schools' External Public Relations in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tianping, Yang

    2003-01-01

    Public relations is a basic function of a modern school's management, while external public relationship is a basic principle and component of it. To develop a school's public relationship, efforts should focus on its key publics, strengthening its coordination and communication with governments, education departments, and local communities.…

  14. Public relations and the radiation processing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, T. Donna

    The world's uneasiness and mistrust regarding anything nuclear has heightened in recent years due to events such as Chernobyl and Three Mile Island. Opinion polls and attitude surveys document the public's growing concern about issues such as the depletion of the ozone layer, the resulting greenhouse effect and exposure of our planet to cosmic radiation. Ultimately, such research reveals an underlying fear regarding the unseen impacts of modern technology on the environment and on human health. These concerns have obvious implications for the radiation processing industry, whose technology is nuclear based and not easily understood by the public. We have already seen organized nuclear opponents mobilize public anxiety, fear and misunderstanding in order to oppose the installation of radiation processing facilities and applications such as food irradiation. These opponents will no doubt try to strengthen resistance to our technology in the future. Opponents will attempt to convince the public that the risks to public and personal health and safety outweigh the benefits of our technology. We in the industry must head off any tendency for the public to see us as the "enemy". Our challenge is to counter public uneasiness and misunderstanding by effectively communicating the human benefits of our technology. Clearly it is a challenge we cannot afford to ignore.

  15. Advertising increases demand for vasectomy.

    PubMed

    Mehta, M; Mckenzie, M

    1996-01-01

    The recent evaluation of a 2-year no-scalpel vasectomy (NSV) training program providing on-site, hands-on training for physicians working in 43 publicly funded health centers in 17 states found that demand for vasectomy in low-income and minority communities in the US increased following the implementation of innovative advertising strategies. The program also provided sites with surgical instruments, training materials, a press kit, and some help with public information activities. Participating clinics used a range of formal and informal advertising strategies, including radio and printed advertisements, to inform potential clients about vasectomy services. Many interested clients presented to clinics to undergo vasectomy once they had been made aware of the service and its availability. Several providers even stated that advertising caused the demand for vasectomy to exceed their capacity to provide services. The provision of low- or no-cost procedures helped to attract new clients.

  16. PR for Pennies: Low-Cost Library Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeckler, Virginia Van Wynen

    This manual is designed to demystify a number of public relations techniques for those who wish to start producing their own materials with a minimum of time and money. Chapters focus on public relations; the library stereotype; words, ideas, and pictures; offset printing; creative print distribution; exhibits and posters; public speaking; and the…

  17. Public Relations vs. Legal Strategies in Organizational Crisis Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Kathy R.; Rubin, Maureen Shubow

    1995-01-01

    Finds that in almost two-thirds of the cases studied, in which organizations responded to public charges of sexual harassment, legal strategy--rather than public relations strategy--was used by official spokespersons. Argues that organizations need to reconcile the often contradictory counsel of public relations and legal professionals. (SR)

  18. Physical activity information seeking and advertising recall.

    PubMed

    Berry, Tanya R; Spence, John C; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-04-01

    The purposes of this research were to examine the characteristics of those who look for physical activity-related information, where they find it, and to examine what types of physical activity-related advertisements are recalled (i.e., publicly funded or commercial). These purposes were tested using secondary data analyses from two population health surveys. Results from the first survey (n=1211) showed gender, age, education, and activity-level differences in who is more likely to search for physical activity-related information. Adding the goal of being active into the model made age and activity level no longer significant but gender and education remained significant factors. The Internet was the most often cited source of physical activity information. The second survey (n=1600) showed that adults 55 years of age or older and participants with the least amount of education were more than twice as likely to name commercial advertisements than were participants aged 18-54 years or those with more education. These results help further our understanding of how publicly funded promotional campaigns fare against commercial advertising and also highlight the need to understand physical activity information-seeking behavior on the Internet and its implications for health promotion.

  19. The role of public relations activities in hospital choice.

    PubMed

    Tengilimoglu, Dilaver; Yesiltas, Mehmet; Kisa, Adnan; Dziegielewski, Sophia F

    2007-01-01

    Public relations activities for all organizations can have an important effect on consumer decision-making when buying goods or services. This study examines the effect that public relations activities can have regarding consumer decisions and choice. To explore exemplify this relationship a questionnaire was given to 971 patients within public, university and private hospitals in Ankara, Turkey. Study results show that public relations activities were a crucial factor in determining consumer hospital choice. The majority of respondents reported that the behaviors and attitude of personnel as public relations activities that support the hospital's reputation within the public were the primary variables in hospital choice. Health care managers can use these findings to further understand how patients make informed choices related to usage of a health care facility and to develop and/or improve public relations activities.

  20. National Training and Dissemination Program: LRE Public Relations Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvez, Aggie

    In order to champion law-related education, this volume argues that administrators of law-related education (LRE) programs should make public relations an integral part of program planning. An introductory section defines public relations and offers basic advice for developing goals and strategies. The guide advises program directors to train…

  1. 48 CFR 2131.205-1 - Public relations and advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... general health and fitness or encouraging healthful lifestyles; (2) The costs of the contractor's messages... which have the primary effect of, calling favorable attention to the contractor or subcontractor for...

  2. 48 CFR 2131.205-1 - Public relations and advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... general health and fitness or encouraging healthful lifestyles; (2) The costs of the contractor's messages... which have the primary effect of, calling favorable attention to the contractor or subcontractor for...

  3. 48 CFR 2131.205-1 - Public relations and advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... general health and fitness or encouraging healthful lifestyles; (2) The costs of the contractor's messages... which have the primary effect of, calling favorable attention to the contractor or subcontractor for...

  4. Framing a public health debate over alcohol advertising: the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth 2002-2008.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, David H

    2011-05-01

    The experiences of the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth from 2002 to 2008 in re-framing a major public health issue and influencing public policy offer lessons for other public health movements. The Center pioneered new ways to use commercial market research data in public health surveillance and public debate. Combining a steady stream of reports and peer-reviewed articles with state and federal organizing and media advocacy, the Center re-framed a policy debate over alcohol marketing and youth, enabling measurable progress.

  5. How Public Relations Textbooks Handle Honesty and Lying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Hugh M.

    1983-01-01

    Analyzed six recent public relations textbooks for content on honesty. Concluded from this analysis that public relations students do not obtain an in-depth view of issues relating to honesty in communication. Available from Communication Research Associates, Inc., 7100 Baltimore Blvd., Suite 500, College Park, MD 20740; sc $7.85. (PD)

  6. Public Relations Manager Involvement in Strategic Issue Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauzen, Martha M.

    1995-01-01

    Reports on an exploratory study that seeks to build theoretical understanding of how public relations practitioner involvement in one type of strategic organizational decision making--strategic issue diagnosis--is related to shared values with top management, diagnosis accuracy, strategy pursued, and the power of the public relations function. (TB)

  7. Using public relations strategies to prompt populations at risk to seek health information: the Hanford Community Health Project.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Gregory D; Smith, Stephen M; Turcotte, Joseph A

    2009-01-01

    The Hanford Community Health Project (HCHP) addressed health concerns among "downwinders" exposed to releases of radioactive iodine (I-131) from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in the 1940s and 1950s. After developing educational materials and conducting initial outreach, HCHP had to decide whether to apply its limited resources to an advertising or public relations approach. The decision to apply public relations strategies was effective in driving awareness of the risk communication message at the community level, reinvigorating the affected community, and ultimately increasing the number of people who sought information about their risk of exposure and related health issues. HCHP used a series of communication tools to reach out to local and regional media, medical and health professionals, and community organizations. The campaign was successful in increasing the number of unique visitors to HCHP Web site and educating and activating the medical community around the releases of I-131 and patient care choices.

  8. Tobacco advertising and press coverage of smoking and health in 10 years of Argentinean newspapers

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Sandra; Mejia, Raul; Barnoya, Joaquín; Gregorich, Steven E.; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the extent and content of tobacco-related images, advertising and articles published in the largest Argentinean newspapers before and after a voluntary advertising ban implemented in 2001. Methods Issues from four months of each year of the four main national newspapers were examined from 1995 to 2004. We recorded the number of tobacco images (advertisement or not), tobacco-focused articles, space used, and placement within the newspaper. Regression analyses evaluated time trends. Results We identified 1800 images and articles from 4828 different issues. Non-advertisement images were the most frequent (71.2%), followed by articles (20%) and advertisement images (8.8%). Advertisements only appeared in the two best selling newspapers with a majority (57%) in the Sunday magazine and 21% in the sports sections. Non-advertisement images were published in the sports and entertainment sections (55%) and showed a public figure in 88%. Of 336 articles, 39% focused on health topics and 55% emphasized the negative effects of tobacco on health. Regression models showed that prior to 2001 there were significant time-related decreases in ad images and articles and significant increases in non-ad images. The trend of each outcome changed direction beginning in 2001 and the magnitude of the change in trend was significant for ad images and non-ad images. The number of non-ad images dropped significantly in 2001 from a model-predicted value of 178 per year to 103 non-ad images and remained constant thereafter. Conclusions Tobacco images exceeded information about tobacco hazards in Argentinean newspapers over this period. Advertisement increased from 2001 to 2005, following the voluntary advertisements ban. Partial advertisement bans are ineffective and a total ban is imperative. PMID:24032052

  9. [Drug advertising--users want information. Report of telephone survey conducted by North-Rhine Westphalia Public Health Service on the topic of drug advertising and drug information for users].

    PubMed

    Puteanus, U

    2000-10-01

    In Germany, drug advertising of non-prescription drugs is a controversial subject. On the one hand, consumer organisations plead for placing a ban on advertising or at least to offer a detailed description of medical risks in respect of protection. On the other hand, the pharmaceutical industry is keen on liberalizing the specific advertising law for drugs. A representative telephone survey among the population of North Rhine-Westphalia was conducted in April and May 1999. It showed consumer interest in advertising, the value of information on risks, the institution with maximum credibility in drug information for consumers, the importance of the now obligatory sentence after every advertisement: Regarding risks and side effects read the leaflet in the package and ask your physician or pharmacist, and to what extend the consumer would take advice from independent experts over the telephone about drugs. It was found that, in particular women, about 30% are occasionally interested in advertising, younger people are more open-minded about advertising than older people; and that doctors and pharmacists have the most credibility and are consulted for further information. It was also found that more than 80% of the population demanded precise information on the side effects of drugs. One-third of the consumers declared that the obligatory sentence (see above) led to greater demand for information from doctors or to read attentively the instruction leaflet. Nevertheless, there is a need for more information from more than half of the consumers, who would take advantage of an independent advice centre if this should exist.

  10. Ethics of the profession of public relations--does the public relations affects on journalism in Croatia?

    PubMed

    Tanta, Ivan; Lesinger, Gordana

    2013-09-01

    The UK's leading professional body for public relations "Chartered Institute of Public Relations" (CIPR) said that the public relations is about reputation--they are the result of what you do, what you say and what others say about you. Furthermore CIPR says that public relations are discipline whose objectives are safeguarding reputation, establishing understanding and pot pores, and the impact on the thinking and behavior of the public. Although the primary goal of public relations is to preserve and build a reputation, to tell the truth to a customer who has hired experts in this area, it seems that in its own way of development, public relations practitioners have stopped worrying about their reputation and the perception of the discipline within the public they address. All relevant professional bodies for public relations, including the Croatian Association for Public Relation (HUOJ), had set up codes of ethics and high standards according which the members and practitioners should be evaluated. Among other things stays that practitioner of public relations is required to check the reliability and accuracy of the data prior to their distribution and nurture honesty and accountability to the public interest. It seems that right this instruction of code of ethics has been often violated. In a public speech in Croatia, and therefore in the media, exist manipulation, propaganda, and all the techniques of spin, which practitioners of public relations are skillfully using in the daily transfer of information to the users and target groups. The aim of this paper is to determine what is the perception of the profession to the public. As in today's journalism increasingly present plume of public relations, we wish to comment on the part where journalism ends and begins PR and vice versa. In this paper, we analyze and compare codes of ethics ethics associations for public relations, as well as codes of ethics journalists' associations, in order to answer the question

  11. Advertising Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandage, C. H.; Fryburger, Vernon

    The social and economic functions of advertising, its role in business, how it works, and how it is planned and created are the subject of this textbook. Sections include basic values and functions, background for planning advertising strategy, the advertising message, advertising media, testing advertising effectiveness, and the advertising…

  12. Approaches to organizing public relations functions in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Guy, Bonnie; Williams, David R; Aldridge, Alicia; Roggenkamp, Susan D

    2007-01-01

    This article provides health care audiences with a framework for understanding different perspectives of the role and functions of public relations in healthcare organizations and the resultant alternatives for organizing and enacting public relations functions. Using an example of a current issue receiving much attention in US healthcare (improving rates of organ donation), the article provides examples of how these different perspectives influence public relations goals and objectives, definitions of 'public', activities undertaken, who undertakes them and where they fit into the organizational hierarchy.

  13. The preventative power of "pink": Delineating the effects of social identification and protection motivation theory in breast cancer-related advertisements.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Michael B; Dillard, Sydney

    2016-01-01

    An online experiment was conducted to assess the extent gender-salient breast cancer awareness advertisements had on influencing risk perception, encouraging preventative behaviors, and gathering health information. Social identification theory and protection motivation theory postulate gender-salient pink-branded advertisements trigger defense mechanisms, countering desired outcomes. This study concludes gender-salient ads focusing on women, and displaying the Susan G. Komen logo caused aversive behaviors, whereas gender-neutral ads, showing medical providers and logos such as American Medical Association, improve health-related reporting. Results also highlight a disconnect between women who socially identify as breast cancer survivors/supporters, and those with no prior experience with breast cancer.

  14. Advocates, interest groups and Australian news coverage of alcohol advertising restrictions: content and framing analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Legislating restrictions on alcohol advertising is a cost-effective measure to reduce consumption of alcohol. Yet Australia relies upon industry self-regulation through voluntary codes of practice regarding the content, timing and placement of alcohol advertising. Ending industry self-regulation was recommended by the National Preventative Health Taskforce; a suggestion contested by the drinks industry. Debates about emerging alcohol-control policies regularly play out in the news media, with various groups seeking to influence the discussion. This paper examines news coverage of recommendations to restrict alcohol advertising to see how supporters and opponents frame the debate, with a view to providing some suggestions for policy advocates to advance the discussion. Methods We used content and framing analyses to examine 329 Australian newspaper items mentioning alcohol advertising restrictions over 24 months. All items were coded for mentions of specific types of advertising and types of advertising restrictions, the presence of news frames that opposed or endorsed advertising restrictions, statements made within each frame and the news-actors who appeared. Results Restrictions were the main focus in only 36% of 329 items. Alcohol advertising was conceived of as television (47%) and sport-related (56%). Restrictions were mentioned in non-specific terms (45%), or specified as restrictions on timing and placement (49%), or content (22%). Public health professionals (47%) appeared more frequently than drinks industry representatives (18%). Five supportive news frames suggested the policy is a sensible public health response, essential to protect children, needed to combat the drinks industry, required to stop pervasive branding, or as only an issue in sport. Four unsupportive frames positioned restrictions as unnecessary for a responsible industry, an attack on legitimate commercial activities, ineffective and ‘nannyist’, or inessential to government

  15. Mass Communication, Public Communication, and Interpersonal Communication: A Global Model for International Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Bonita Dostal

    A participatory model of public relations proposed by Dean Kruckeberg and Kenneth Starck would seek not to serve a public but to build a sense of community. In this model the advocacy focus of the publicity model is dropped and there is a movement toward relationships rather than selling products and services. Leaving behind the journalistic…

  16. Public Relations Bibliography: Thirteenth Edition 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Albert

    1985-01-01

    Includes titles from more than 180 periodicals published in 1984, with most of the literature continuing to center on communication, media relations, and writing techniques. Also includes books, theses, and dissertations. (PD)

  17. Using Case Studies in the Introductory Public Relations Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, William C.

    The case study method has received increased attention at both the graduate and undergraduate levels in a number of public relations programs. Unlike the Harvard managerial-oriented case studies, the approach useful in large, introductory public relations courses stems from a simplified team approach to classroom projects, case studies in the…

  18. A Context for Teaching Aging-Related Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David K.

    1999-01-01

    Describes two points of view regarding age-related public programs (Medicaid, Medicare, Social Security): that of devolutionists who would curtail them and safety netters who maintain the government's role is indispensable. Uses Relative Deprivation theory as a framework for teaching public policy about aging. (SK)

  19. Public Relations and the Law: A Survey of Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Kathy R.

    1996-01-01

    Surveys 1,000 practitioners' knowledge of legal issues connected with professional public relations activities. Finds that most practitioners consider themselves only somewhat familiar with the law in the areas of commercial speech, contracts, financial public relations, copyright, privacy, libel, access to information, Securities and Exchange…

  20. Educated Public Relations: School Safety 101. With Engineering Consent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbaum, Stuart; And Others

    This book is designed to enable school administrators to actively participate in planning and implementing school safety and public relations activities. It provides a conceptual framework of the public relations process and shows its practical application to the problems of school crime and student misbehavior, through discussion of school public…

  1. Developing a Behavioral Paradigm for the Performance of Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Melvin L.

    2000-01-01

    Provides and supports a definition of public relations as behavior with a mode explaining the difficulty of achieving each behavior and the cost to organizations when the behavior is not achieved. Draws from the literature on ethics, rhetorical theory, public relations management, case studies, and from observation and experience to support this…

  2. Field-Proven Programs for Better Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of School Business Officials of the United States and Canada, Park Ridge, IL. Research Corp.

    To help school administrators improve their communication and public relations programs, the National School Public Relations Association presented 23 mini-workshops in a special session at the 1979 annual meeting of the Association of School Business Officials. This handbook presents the "tip sheets" prepared by the 23 workshop presenters, along…

  3. Enforcement Dilemma: Voluntary Nature of Public Relations Codes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Donald K.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that, although valuable, ethical codes in public relations are unenforceable. Suggests that, with or without professional codes of conduct, most people who practice public relations will choose to be ethical because they believe in themselves and want others to respect them. (SR)

  4. Parents and Teachers Working Together for Advocacy through Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnes, Frances A.; Lewis, Joan D.; Stephens, Kristen R.

    1999-01-01

    Offers guidance for parents, teachers, and other advocates for gifted education on the use of public relations to increase local, state, and national support. Topics covered include the importance of using the media, state-level strategies, targeting the audience, planning a public-relations campaign, and some possible print and non-print media…

  5. Beyond Theory: Improving Public Relations Writing through Computer Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Bonita Dostal

    Computer technology (primarily word processing) enables the student of public relations writing to improve the writing process through increased flexibility in writing, enhanced creativity, increased support of management skills and team work. A new instructional model for computer use in public relations courses at Purdue University Calumet…

  6. Marketing and Public Relations in ARL Libraries. SPEC Kit 240.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smykla, Evelyn Ortiz, Comp.

    1999-01-01

    This survey was conducted to delineate the growing relationship between marketing and public relations and library funding by identifying: (1) the extent to which North American research libraries have developed organized programs in the areas of marketing and public relations; (2) who holds positions in these areas; and (3) the impact these…

  7. Use of the Internet in the Public Relations Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gower, Karla K.; Cho, Jung-Yul

    2001-01-01

    Considers for what purposes public relations agencies are using the Internet for their clients and what tools they employ. Examines how public relations educators can prepare graduates for the demands of the profession. Suggests that educators need to teach students not just current uses, but potential uses, and to think critically and…

  8. Promoting Vocational Education. A Public Relations Handbook for Vocational Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Association, Arlington, VA.

    This handbook for vocational educators was developed as a tool to help them in their public relations efforts. Following a brief introduction, the content is presented in twelve sections. The first discusses the roles of various professionals and groups in vocational education. Section 2 covers planning a total public relations program and…

  9. Public Relations and Propaganda: Restrictions on Executive Agency Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-21

    executive branch agencies’ expenditures of appropriated funds on public relations activities, some of which have been characterized as propagandistic...Congress may ask the Government Accountability Office (GAO) to examine an agency’s expenditures on public relations activities with a view to their...7 Tracking Expenditures

  10. Emotional Intelligence and Its Link to Public Relations Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Timothy Lent

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the ethics chapters in five introduction-to-public relations textbooks and the codes of ethics of four major public relations associations contained within those chapters to determine the prevalence of language that either uses the same terms Daniel Goleman employs for his 25 competencies of emotional…

  11. The Future of Public Relations: A Multi-Disciplinary Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Bonita Dostal

    Literature reviews have indicated there is a lack of data on public relations curriculum development for communication and business departments. Observations have been reported of "spectacular" growth in public relations courses in communication (Grunig, 1989). The first multi-disciplinary survey (3,201 college and university catalogs)…

  12. Applying Constructivism to Improve Public Relations for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marek, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Educators are often hesitant to use techniques of public relations and marketing communication to attempt to alter undesirable understandings of the rationale and processes of education held by external constituencies. This paper shows that contemporary practice in public relations and marketing communication can be conceptualized as an…

  13. Does Digital Video Advertising Increase Population-Level Reach of Multimedia Campaigns? Evidence From the 2013 Tips From Former Smokers Campaign

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, Paul R; Rodes, Robert; Kim, Annice; Hansen, Heather; Patel, Deesha; Coln, Caryn; Beistle, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Background Federal and state public health agencies in the United States are increasingly using digital advertising and social media to promote messages from broader multimedia campaigns. However, little evidence exists on population-level campaign awareness and relative cost efficiencies of digital advertising in the context of a comprehensive public health education campaign. Objective Our objective was to compare the impact of increased doses of digital video and television advertising from the 2013 Tips From Former Smokers (Tips) campaign on overall campaign awareness at the population level. We also compared the relative cost efficiencies across these media platforms. Methods We used data from a large national online survey of approximately 15,000 US smokers conducted in 2013 immediately after the conclusion of the 2013 Tips campaign. These data were used to compare the effects of variation in media dose of digital video and television advertising on population-level awareness of the Tips campaign. We implemented higher doses of digital video among selected media markets and randomly selected other markets to receive similar higher doses of television ads. Multivariate logistic regressions estimated the odds of overall campaign awareness via digital or television format as a function of higher-dose media in each market area. All statistical tests used the .05 threshold for statistical significance and the .10 level for marginal nonsignificance. We used adjusted advertising costs for the additional doses of digital and television advertising to compare the cost efficiencies of digital and television advertising on the basis of costs per percentage point of population awareness generated. Results Higher-dose digital video advertising was associated with 94% increased odds of awareness of any ad online relative to standard-dose markets (P<.001). Higher-dose digital advertising was associated with a marginally nonsignificant increase (46%) in overall campaign

  14. Reducing Alcohol Consumption through Television Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, James G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Assessed impact of television commercial based on controlled-drinking principles. Measures were taken 12 months prior to start of campaign and 3 weeks after campaign from regular drinkers of general public whose drinking behavior was known to be unaffected by previous antidrug advertising campaign. Found that advertisement reduced intake provided…

  15. Need for Advertising No Longer Debatable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breyer, Carol Ann

    1979-01-01

    In discussing the use of paid advertising for community college promotion, considers the resistance to advertising among administrative and legislative bodies, assesses legislative and financial restrictions, and describes some economical ways of increasing college visibility: direct mailing, public service announcements, and cooperative…

  16. Advertising in the Schools. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aidman, Amy

    This digest reviews the recent history of advertising to children, spotlights controversial marketing efforts, and examines the nature of commercial messages directed toward children in public schools. Because of the increase in children's spending power in recent decades, advertisers have closely targeted children as consumers. Advertising…

  17. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    PubMed

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-05-24

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups.

  18. Social Responsibility in Advertising: A Marketing Communications Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendrick, Alice; Fullerton, Jami A.; Kim, Yeo Jung

    2013-01-01

    Although advertising has played a key role in bringing corporate social responsibility (CSR) to the public agenda on behalf of agency clients, little effort has been made to define what social responsibility means in advertising. A national survey of 1,045 advertising and marketing communications students from 176 colleges and universities were…

  19. 36 CFR 223.81 - Shorter advertising periods in emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shorter advertising periods... OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Advertisement and Bids § 223.81 Shorter advertising periods in emergencies. In emergency situations where...

  20. 36 CFR 223.80 - When advertisement is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When advertisement is... AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Advertisement and Bids § 223.80 When advertisement is required. Except as otherwise provided in this part each sale in...

  1. 43 CFR 29.8 - Notification and advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification and advertisement. 29.8... LIABILITY FUND § 29.8 Notification and advertisement. (a) As soon as the person in charge of a vessel has... advertisement no later than 45 days from the date the Fund receives notice of the incident and shall...

  2. 36 CFR 223.228 - Contents of advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contents of advertisement... SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products Advertisement and Bids § 223.228 Contents of advertisement. The Forest Service shall include the following information in...

  3. Foundation Lecture: Public Relations and Business Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kerryn

    1982-01-01

    Predicts that communication skills will be increasingly desirable for corporate executives whose training will require education and industry to cooperate in developing communication-related business courses. Journal available from Communication Research Associates, 7338 Baltimore Blvd., Suite 101A, College Park, MD 20740; sc $7.00. (PD)

  4. Fitness on Facebook: Advertisements Generated in Response to Profile Content

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Megan A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is a challenging problem affecting almost half of college students. To solve this complex health problem, innovative approaches must be utilized. Over 94 percent of college students maintain a Facebook profile, providing them a venue to publicly disclose current fitness behaviors. Displayed advertisements on Facebook are tailored to profile content and may influence college students' fitness efforts. Facebook may be an innovative venue for improving college students' fitness behaviors. The purpose of this project was to determine (a) how and to what extent college students are discussing fitness on Facebook, and (b) how user-generated fitness information is linked to advertisements for fitness products and advice. First, public Facebook profiles of individual college students were evaluated for displayed fitness references based on 10 fitness behavior categories. Inter-rator reliability between two coders was 91.18 percent. Second, 10 fitness status updates were generated and posted by a researcher on a Facebook profile; the first 40 linked advertisements to these statements were examined. Advertisements were categorized and then examined for relevance to the college population. A total of 57 individual profiles were examined; owners had an average age of 18.3 years (SD=0.51), and 36.8 percent were women. About 71.9 percent of profiles referenced one or more fitness behavior; 97.6 percent referenced exercise, 4.9 percent dieting, and 4.9 percent unhealthy eating. Among the first 40 ads linked to generated status updates, 40.3 percent were fitness related. Most advertisements were for charity runs (30.4 percent), fitness apparel (24.2 percent), or fad diets (9.9 percent). Students referred both healthy and unhealthy fitness behaviors on their Facebook profiles, and these trigger the display of fitness-related advertisements of which few appear applicable. A community- or university-based intervention could be designed and implemented to provide

  5. Fitness on facebook: advertisements generated in response to profile content.

    PubMed

    Villiard, Hope; Moreno, Megan A

    2012-10-01

    Obesity is a challenging problem affecting almost half of college students. To solve this complex health problem, innovative approaches must be utilized. Over 94 percent of college students maintain a Facebook profile, providing them a venue to publicly disclose current fitness behaviors. Displayed advertisements on Facebook are tailored to profile content and may influence college students' fitness efforts. Facebook may be an innovative venue for improving college students' fitness behaviors. The purpose of this project was to determine (a) how and to what extent college students are discussing fitness on Facebook, and (b) how user-generated fitness information is linked to advertisements for fitness products and advice. First, public Facebook profiles of individual college students were evaluated for displayed fitness references based on 10 fitness behavior categories. Inter-rator reliability between two coders was 91.18 percent. Second, 10 fitness status updates were generated and posted by a researcher on a Facebook profile; the first 40 linked advertisements to these statements were examined. Advertisements were categorized and then examined for relevance to the college population. A total of 57 individual profiles were examined; owners had an average age of 18.3 years (SD=0.51), and 36.8 percent were women. About 71.9 percent of profiles referenced one or more fitness behavior; 97.6 percent referenced exercise, 4.9 percent dieting, and 4.9 percent unhealthy eating. Among the first 40 ads linked to generated status updates, 40.3 percent were fitness related. Most advertisements were for charity runs (30.4 percent), fitness apparel (24.2 percent), or fad diets (9.9 percent). Students referred both healthy and unhealthy fitness behaviors on their Facebook profiles, and these trigger the display of fitness-related advertisements of which few appear applicable. A community- or university-based intervention could be designed and implemented to provide relevant and

  6. Modeling Newspaper Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Joseph; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a mathematical model for simulating a newspaper financial system. Includes the effects of advertising and circulation for predicting advertising linage as a function of population, income, and advertising rate. (RL)

  7. Television station acceptance of AIDS prevention PSAs and condom advertisements.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, A M; Wicks, J L

    1998-01-01

    AIDS is a fatal, though preventable disease with more than 56,000 new cases reported in 1996 alone. Condom advertisements and AIDS public service announcements (AIDS PSAs) can help prevent the spread of AIDS, but these AIDS PSAs often contain controversial subject matter and are thus rejected for broadcast by television stations. It is for this reason why a large-scale national mail survey was conducted. The survey, which examined the impact of personal ethical considerations of television station management on AIDS acceptance decisions in the US, was based on five hypothetical questions. It used questionnaires mailed to television station managers. Responses were received from 364 stations, yielding a 40.63% response rate. Significant results were found related to the impact of personal ethical concerns of television managers on AIDS acceptance decision. Most stations were unlikely to accept condom or safe sex advertisements but were more likely to accept generic AIDS messages. These findings pose a dilemma for public health officials, which include the high cost of television advertisements and the difficulty in choosing a creative execution type. The most effective approach would be to appeal to sales managers to run the advertisements since they are important for the community and serve the public interest.

  8. A Cultural Approach to Public Relations Research: An Extension of Hofstede's Variables to Grunig's Models of Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, Gabriel M.; Taylor, Maureen

    A pilot study internationalized an existing set of four models of public relations and field tested an instrument that represents a cultural approach to public relations practice. The instrument is based on a combination and extension of G. Hofstede's views of culture as mental programs comprised of values about power, distance, uncertainty…

  9. The Research Base for a Public Relations Curriculum: A National Survey of Topics "Essential" to a Public Relations Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Robert; Anderson, James W.

    In order to rate the importance of elements involved in a public relations curriculum, a study analyzed the responses of public relations educators from all academic associations teaching the subject as well as practitioners from all specializations. Questionnaires were sent to 544 people who rated 110 elements as not essential to essential on a…

  10. Better Advertising Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schick, Dennis

    1979-01-01

    Offers suggestions for selling advertising space in student newspapers. Includes criteria for successful salespeople, a list of common time-wasters, and some principles for advertising salespeople. (TJ)

  11. Food advertisements during children's Saturday morning television programming: are they consistent with dietary recommendations?

    PubMed

    Kotz, K; Story, M

    1994-11-01

    Children in the United States spend more time watching television than they do in any other activity except sleep. Given the number of food commercials to which children are exposed, we thought it would be of interest to examine current food advertising during children's television programs and to assess whether the products advertised are consistent with dietary recommendations for good health. The 52.5 hours of children's Saturday morning television we viewed from five major networks contained 997 commercials selling a product and 68 public service announcements. Of the 564 food advertisements (56.5% of all advertisements), 43.6% advertised foods classified in the fats, oils, and sweet food group. The most frequently advertised product was high-sugar cereals. We found that commercials broadcast during children's Saturday morning programming promote foods predominantly high in fat and/or sugar, many of which have relatively low nutritional value. As such, the diet presented on Saturday morning television is the antithesis of what is recommended for healthful eating for children. We conclude that the issue of television food advertising to young children be revisited on a national level.

  12. Texas-style Fundraising and Public Relations for the International Year of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, Sandra; Barna, J. W.; Geiger, S.; Johnson, R.; Rimm, N.; Griffin, J.; Watson, K.

    2008-05-01

    McDonald Observatory can be a leader in Texas for the International Year of Astronomy (IYA09) celebration. Our strategy builds on the IYA09 program, tailoring it for the Texas audience, while also nationally promoting McDonald Observatory, UT Astronomy, the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) and our partnership in the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). We will also use this opportunity to make a concentrated outreach effort toward the Hispanic and Spanish-speaking communities in Texas and the nation, aligning with the IYA09 objective for improving relations with underrepresented and minority populations. Fundraising is a key ingredient to our success in 2009 and the future. With NASA Office of Space Science funding for education and public outreach being rethought, we will be focusing on new sources for fundraising, including private donations and corporate sponsorship, augmented by planned giving. We will take advantage of the timing to raise funds for special IYA09 programs, as well as for our large telescope projects HETDEX and GMT, along with our endowment and planned giving programs for education, outreach, and research. We will work with the UT McCombs School of Business on corporate sponsorship. During this time we will also go through a branding experience that will visually unify McDonald Observatory, UT Astronomy, and the education and public outreach programs. A consistent brand that can be used on the website and other media is our goal to build a stronger public presence that will aid us in our fundraising efforts. A Public Relations Internship Project produced a report to help launch this process. We are working with the UT College of Communications Advertising Department and with Hill Strategic Brand Solutions in Houston, Texas. We hope that our efforts will produce Texas-sized results!

  13. Ethics in medical information and advertising.

    PubMed

    Serour, G I; Dickens, B M

    2004-05-01

    This article presents findings and recommendations of an international conference held in Cairo, Egypt in 2003 concerning issues of ethical practice in how information is provided to and by medical practitioners. Professional advertising to practitioners and the public is necessary, but should exclude misrepresentation of qualifications, resources, and authorship of research papers. Medical institutions are responsible for how staff members present themselves, and their institutions. Medical associations, both governmental licensing authorities and voluntary societies, have powers and responsibilities to monitor professional advertisement to defend the public interest against deception. Medical journals bear duties to ensure authenticity of authorship and integrity in published papers, and the scientific basis of commercial advertisers' claims. A mounting concern is authors' conflict of interest. Mass newsmedia must ensure accuracy and proportionality in reporting scientific developments, and product manufacturers must observe truth in advertising, particularly in Direct-to-Consumer advertising. Consumer protection by government agencies is a continuing responsibility.

  14. Teaching the Public Relations Case Studies/Campaigns Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottone, Laura Perkins

    The public relations case studies/campaigns class entails teaching students how to die and then come back to life. As students must learn to take a critical look at complex public and social issues, teachers should create an environment in which the students feel comfortable with the process of psychological reconstruction. Students must be taught…

  15. Federal Acts Relating to Continuing Education and Public Service Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park. Center for Continuing Liberal Education.

    A listing is given, with brief descriptions, of Acts of Congress which relate to continuing education and public service activities. Forty-nine laws specifically authorize funds for continuing education and public service programs (Adult Education Act of 1966, Higher Education Act of 1965, Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, Older…

  16. Health claims and other health-related statements in the labeling and advertising of alcohol beverages (99R-199P). Final rule, Treasury decision.

    PubMed

    2003-03-03

    TTB is amending the regulations to prohibit the appearance on labels or in advertisements of any health-related statement, including a specific health claim, that is untrue in any particular or tends to create a misleading impression. A specific health claim on a label or in an advertisement is considered misleading unless the claim is truthful and adequately substantiated by scientific evidence; properly detailed and qualified with respect to the categories of individuals to whom the claim applies; adequately discloses the health risks associated with both moderate and heavier levels of alcohol consumption; and outlines the categories of individuals for whom any levels of alcohol consumption may cause health risks. In addition, TTB will consult with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), as needed, on the use of specific health claims on labels. If FDA determines that a specific health claim is a drug claim that is not in compliance with the requirements of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, TTB will not approve the use of such statement on a label. Health-related statements that are not specific health claims or health-related directional statements will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis to determine if they tend to mislead consumers. The final rule provides that health-related directional statements (statements that direct or refer consumers to a third party or other source for information regarding the effects on health of alcohol consumption) will be presumed misleading unless those statements include a brief disclaimer advising consumers that the statement should not encourage consumption of alcohol for health reasons, or some other appropriate disclaimer to avoid misleading consumers. TTB believes that the final regulations will ensure that labels and advertisements do not contain statements or claims that would tend to mislead the consumer about the significant health consequences of alcohol consumption.

  17. Survival Kit for School Publications Advisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Jackie, Comp.

    This guide offers advice and practical assistance to high school publications advisers. The first section provides general information about school publications, including planning and organizing, public relations, protecting the program and the school, available resources, and advertising. The second section concerns school newspapers and…

  18. The Spin Doctor: An Alternative Model of Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumpter, Randy; Tankard, James W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that the Spin Doctor is a new communication role, and raises questions about its relationship to the traditional public relations model. Discusses the implication of this new role for mass communication theory and for the practice of journalism. (SR)

  19. Selecting public relations personnel of hospitals by analytic network process.

    PubMed

    Liao, Sen-Kuei; Chang, Kuei-Lun

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the use of analytic network process (ANP) in the Taiwanese hospital public relations personnel selection process. Starting with interviewing 48 practitioners and executives in north Taiwan, we collected selection criteria. Then, we retained the 12 critical criteria that were mentioned above 40 times by theses respondents, including: interpersonal skill, experience, negotiation, language, ability to follow orders, cognitive ability, adaptation to environment, adaptation to company, emotion, loyalty, attitude, and Response. Finally, we discussed with the 20 executives to take these important criteria into three perspectives to structure the hierarchy for hospital public relations personnel selection. After discussing with practitioners and executives, we find that selecting criteria are interrelated. The ANP, which incorporates interdependence relationships, is a new approach for multi-criteria decision-making. Thus, we apply ANP to select the most optimal public relations personnel of hospitals. An empirical study of public relations personnel selection problems in Taiwan hospitals is conducted to illustrate how the selection procedure works.

  20. Understanding advertising in pet nutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R G

    1994-01-01

    Advertising is part of the effort to attract attention of consumers to products, in this case, pet foods. It is generally benign in its effect, but it can be misleading, although rarely deliberately so. It uses a specialized vocabulary, which must be mastered if one is to understand what is intended. For all of the expense and effort, advertising figures directly in relatively few decisions to purchase. Its main intention is to call our attention to a particular pet food and to give that product an image. If the pet food does not perform in the consumer's hands, then all of the advertising on earth will not be persuasive. On the other hand, if a product performs well, the word-of-mouth will be positive and that mode of advertising is one of the most effective. PMID:8076285

  1. Children and Advertising: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Better Business Bureaus, Inc., New York, NY. Clearinghouse for Research on Children's Advertising.

    More than 600 entries are contained in this annotated bibliography of materials concerning the effects of television advertising on children. Entries are alphabetized by author and are divided into the following categories: special interest articles; general interest articles; books and pamphlets; government publications; transcripts of oral…

  2. Leaving Public Schools for Home Schooling: Implications for School Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Suzanne E.; Osterman, Karen F.

    2003-01-01

    Addresses the sources of dissatisfaction from parents who had removed their children from public schools to begin home schooling. Implications for public schools' community relations and practice specifically focus on three areas of greatest concern: student grouping practices, peer relationships, and the extension of the school day via homework.…

  3. Advertising on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jugenheimer, Donald W.

    1996-01-01

    States that although many advertisers have intentions of utilizing the Internet for advertising, which can provide specific audience targeting and buyer/seller interactivity, few have been successful. Explains advantages and disadvantages of using the Internet for advertising purposes. Cites special problems with Internet advertising and successes…

  4. Children's Advertising Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Better Business Bureaus, Inc., New York, NY.

    These guidelines have been developed for the use of advertisers and advertising agencies and for the self-regulatory mechanism which these groups have established, the National Advertising Division, to help ensure that advertising directed to children is truthful, accurate, and fair to children's perceptions. Preliminary sections set forth basic…

  5. Experiences of caregivers and relatives in public nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Häggström, Elisabeth; Kihlgren, Annica

    2007-09-01

    The aim of the present study was, by means of discussion highlighting ethical questions and moral reasonings, to increase understanding of the situations of caregivers and relatives of older persons living in a public nursing home in Sweden. The findings show that these circumstances can be better understood by considering two different perspectives: an individual perspective, which focuses on the direct contact that occurs among older people, caregivers and relatives; and a societal perspective, which focuses on the norms, values, rules and laws that govern a society. Relatives and caregivers thought that the politicians were sending out mixed messages: they were praising caregivers and relatives for their efforts, but at the same time the public health care sector was subjected to significant cutbacks in resources. Both caregivers and relatives were dissatisfied and frustrated with the present situation regarding the care of older persons in public nursing homes.

  6. Analysis of food advertising to children on Spanish television: probing exposure to television marketing

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Daniel; Hernández-Torres, Juan José; Agil, Ahmad; Comino, Mariano; López, Juan Carlos; Macías, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to assess longitudinal changes in television (TV) food advertising during 2013 compared to 2007, measuring children's exposure to healthy and unhealthy advertisements, after the new European and Spanish Public Health laws published in 2011. Material and methods Two thematic channels for children (TC), and 2 generalist channels (GC) for all ages were recorded, between April and May 2013, on 2 week and 2 weekend days. Food advertisements were classified as core (CFA) (nutrient dense, low energy), non-core (NCFA) (unbalanced energy profile or high in energy), or others (OFA) (supermarkets and special food). Results One thousand two hundred sixty-three food advertisements were recorded (TC: 579/GC: 684) in 2013. NCFA were the most shown (54.9%) in the regular full day TV programming (p < 0.001). In 2013, children watching GC had a higher relative risk of being exposed to fast food advertisements than when watching TC (RR = 2.133, 95% CI: 1.398–3.255); CFA were broadcast most frequently in 2013 (GC: 23.7%; and TC: 47.2%) vs. 2007 (TC: 22.9%) (p < 0.001). The proportion of broadcasting between NCFA/CFA and OFA food advertisements in children's peak time slots was higher on TC (203/162) during 2013 than on GC (189/140), and significantly higher than that shown on TC in 2007 (180/36, p < 0.001). Conclusions Broadcasting of unhealthy TV food advertising on TC is lower today than six years ago; but, children's exposure to TV advertising of unhealthy food is worrying in Spain, and there is more exposure to unhealthy than healthy food by TV. Watching GC in 2013 had higher risk of being exposed to fast food advertisements than watching TC. PMID:27478462

  7. ASK: The Advertising Survival Kit; A Guide to Advertising in High School Newspapers and Yearbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lain, Laurence B.

    The primary purpose of this booklet is to offer suggestions which will help alleviate some of the burdens involved in producing a school's publications, so that journalistic endeavors will not be damaged by economic difficulties. The first section discusses newspaper advertising and examines such topics as selling advertisements, sales approaches,…

  8. Corporate Advertisements and Environmental Futures: A Working Methodology to Decode the Ideological Content of Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomashow, Mitchell

    1984-01-01

    Describes a workshop designed as an inductive/deductive conceptual process enabling users to subjectively determine controversial issues inherent in advertisements. Methodology is intended to be integrated into a variety of public education or classroom contexts. Exercises involving free association, seeing the whole advertisement, the inner…

  9. How Readers and Advertisers Benefit from Local Newspaper Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Shu-Ling Chen; Everett, Stephen E.

    1989-01-01

    Explores relations among three competitive schemes with respect to newspapers' price structures, including advertising rates and prices to consumers. Finds that readers get some benefit from greater competition, but that advertisers do not. (MM)

  10. 22 CFR 146.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Advertising. 146.540 Section 146.540 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any...

  11. 22 CFR 146.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Advertising. 146.540 Section 146.540 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any...

  12. 22 CFR 146.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Advertising. 146.540 Section 146.540 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any...

  13. 22 CFR 146.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Advertising. 146.540 Section 146.540 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any...

  14. National Accreditation of Public Relations Education: Analysis and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalupa, Frank B.; Bateman, J. Carroll

    The intention of this paper is to provide added insights into the nature and implications of national accreditation for the growing academic field of public relations, to focus attention on the subject, and to promote further discussion and research relating to the matter. Specifically, the paper presents a brief historical review of accreditation…

  15. The Diffusion of Evaluation Methods among Public Relations Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dozier, David M.

    A study explored the relationships between public relations practitioners' organizational roles and the type of evaluation methods they used on the job. Based on factor analysis of role data obtained from an earlier study, four organizational roles were defined and ranked: communication manager, media relations specialist, communication liaison,…

  16. Promotion Begins with PR. A Public Relations Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Association of Vocational Administrators.

    This manual was developed to help vocational teachers and administrators in Maine to promote vocational education using a variety of techniques and media. Practical guidelines are offered for: (1) developing a plan for promotion and public relations; (2) compiling the facts; (3) developing media relations; (4) using printed and broadcast…

  17. Teaching Culture: The Challenges and Opportunities of International Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Amiso M.

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the challenges and opportunities for international public relations practice. Looks at current United States-Arab relations issues in international crisis communication. Discusses those issues, especially the role of culture and media. Proposes strategies including a case study that teachers can use to help students become effective…

  18. New image of psychiatry, mass media impact and public relations.

    PubMed

    Jakovljević, Miro; Tomić, Zoran; Maslov, Boris; Skoko, Iko

    2010-06-01

    The mass media has a powerful impact on public attitudes about mental health and psychiatry. The question of identity of psychiatry as a medical profession as well as of the future of psychiatry has been the subject of much controversial discussion. Psychiatry today has the historical opportunity to shape the future of mental health care, medicine and society. It has gained in scientific and professional status by the tremendous increase of knowledge and treatment skills. Psychiatry should build up new transdisciplinary and integrative image of a specialized profession, promote it and make it public. Good public relations are very important for the future of psychiatry.

  19. Pharmaceutical advertising and Medicare Part D.

    PubMed

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Sood, Neeraj; Gu, Qian

    2013-12-01

    We explore how and to what extent prescription drug insurance expansions affect incentives for pharmaceutical advertising. When insurance expansions make markets more profitable, firms respond by boosting advertising. Theory suggests this effect will be magnified in the least competitive drug classes, where firms internalize a larger share of the benefits from advertising. Empirically, we find that the implementation of Part D coincides with a 14-19% increase in total advertising expenditures. This effect is indeed concentrated in the least competitive drug classes. The additional advertising raised utilization among non-elderly patients outside the Part D program by about 3.6%. This is roughly half of the direct utilization effect of Part D on elderly beneficiaries. The results suggest the presence of considerable spillover effects from publicly subsidized prescription drug insurance on the utilization and welfare of consumers outside the program.

  20. Direct-to-consumer advertising of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Gellad, Ziad F; Lyles, Kenneth W

    2007-06-01

    Since the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released new guidelines on broadcast direct-to-consumer advertising in 1997, the prevalence of direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs has increased exponentially. The impact on providers, patients, and the health care system is varied and dynamic, and the rapid changes in the last several years have markedly altered the health care landscape. To continue providing optimal medical care, physicians and other health care providers must be able to manage this influence on their practice, and a more thorough understanding of this phenomenon is an integral step toward this goal. This review will summarize the history of direct-to-consumer drug advertisements and the current regulations governing them. It will summarize the evidence concerning the impact of direct-to-consumer advertising on the public, providers, and the health care system, and conclude with observations regarding the future of direct-to-consumer advertising.