Science.gov

Sample records for advocates effective government

  1. Closing the gap: building the capacity of non-government organizations as advocates for health equity.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Sally; Rotem, Arie; Ritchie, Jan

    2002-03-01

    Seeking achievement of health equity has underpinned national government and global health policies for decades. However, major difficulties and challenges faced in the practice of achieving 'Health for All' has led to a recognition of the need to broaden the focus of efforts to improve health equity. Civil society groups have been identified as key stakeholders in attempts to achieve health equity, and the importance of strengthening their capacity to influence relevant government policy and practice has been highlighted. This paper presents the results of a qualitative study which examined the role of organizations outside government in advocating for health equity, and the capacities and conditions that were related to their success. In-depth, unstructured interviews were conducted with 26 non-government organizations (NGOs) who were active in three important health policy debates in Australia. The grounded theory method was used to direct data collection and analysis, and member checking was employed to ensure soundness and build ownership of the findings. Effective advocacy was found to be a dynamic process characterized by flexibility and opportunism within a framework of longer term goals. Two key ways of working were identified--in partnership and in conflict with government, with shifts in emphasis in response to organizational strengths and a changing environment. A number of domains of capacity, which together are termed 'capacity for advocacy', were also identified. It is clear that NGOs can learn a great deal from each other, but there needs to be investment by governments, international agencies and NGOs themselves if advocacy for health equity is to be strengthened.

  2. How to Become an Effective Advocate without Selling Your Soul

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grob, George F.

    2014-01-01

    The primary focus of this article is ''advocating for the results of a specific evaluation.'' To some extent, all evaluators are advocates, however the author notes, "there is no great mystery in how to use evaluations for advocacy, especially with respect to influencing policy making within federal and state…

  3. "The Policy Dystopia Model": Implications for Health Advocates and Democratic Governance.

    PubMed

    Smith, Elizabeth A; McDaniel, Patricia A

    2016-09-01

    In this Perspective on the research article by Ulucanlar and colleagues, Elizabeth Smith and Patricia McDaniel discuss how industry opposition to regulation can undermine the public's overall confidence in government and science.

  4. Advocate: 2014 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges (AGB) strives to continuously advance the practice of governance by designing and instilling best practices and advocating nationally on issues that affect higher education. AGB shares vital information and knowledge with members and provides customized consulting services to help…

  5. Advice to Advocates: What Leads to Effective Advocacy? State Policymakers Share the inside Scoop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassi, Suzanne; DeHoff, Randy; Hopson, Elaine

    2004-01-01

    In hopes of shedding light on how public school leaders can better advocate on the state level for the needs of their schools and their students, The School Administrator turned to policymakers in different settings and with different political leanings. They invited a trio--a Republican state legislator from the Chicago suburbs, a rural…

  6. Strategies for Training Citizen Advocates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nader, Ralph

    1990-01-01

    Training of citizen advocates should include legal rights and remedies; how to get information from corporations and governments; freedom of information laws; use of media; and how to write letters to editors and public officials. Adult educators can help create networks for sharing experience in dealing with community problems. (SK)

  7. Enable, mediate, advocate.

    PubMed

    Saan, Hans; Wise, Marilyn

    2011-12-01

    The authors of the Ottawa Charter selected the words enable, mediate and advocate to describe the core activities in what was, in 1986, the new Public Health. This article considers these concepts and the values and ideas upon which they were based. We discuss their relevance in the current context within which health promotion is being conducted, and discuss the implications of changes in the health agenda, media and globalization for practice. We consider developments within health promotion since 1986: its central role in policy rhetoric, the increasing understanding of complexities and the interlinkage with many other societal processes. So the three core activities are reviewed: they still fit well with the main health promotion challenges, but should be refreshed by new ideas and values. As the role of health promotion in the political arena has grown we have become part of the policy establishment and that is a mixed blessing. Making way for community advocates is now our challenge. Enabling requires greater sensitivity to power relations involved and an understanding of the role of health literacy. Mediating keeps its central role as it bridges vital interests of parties. We conclude that these core concepts in the Ottawa Charter need no serious revision. There are, however, lessons from the last 25 years that point to ways to address present and future challenges with greater sensitivity and effectiveness. We invite the next generation to avoid canonizing this text: as is true of every heritage, the heirs must decide on its use.

  8. Networks advocate for youth services.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses the role of networks in promoting reproductive health for youth in Ghana. The Suhum-Kraboa-Coaltar Network and the New Juaben Network are situated in the eastern region of Ghana. These two programs advocate for client-centered programs and for policy change at every level. Since the 1994 ICPD Plan of Action, these networks have worked to increase and improve health services for youth and to improve cooperation between government and nongovernmental groups. These networks provide family planning, reproductive health (RH), and, most importantly, promotion of adolescent health. CEDPA realized that many organizations had the capacity to extend services to youth and to fulfill other mandates of the 1994 ICPD Program of Action. But, these organizations lacked advocacy and networking skills for effectively challenging community policies and programs. CEDPA, in collaboration with others, initiated the POLICY project in 1996 in Ghana. The aim was to create a supportive policy context for family planning and RH programs by formation of a participatory policy process. The POLICY project in Ghana helped networks develop advocacy plans targeted to local decision-makers. The aim was to increase funding for adolescent RH in district plans and budgets. The first action taken by the POLICY project was to conduct a survey, which found that 67% of adolescent females and 53% of adolescent males were sexually active. Only 10% used contraceptives. Advocacy did not increase funding but did result in a supportive network of policy-makers. There are POLICY projects in over 12 countries.

  9. Working with Advocates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doan, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Court appointed special advocates (CASAs) are volunteers who represent abused and neglected children in the court system. David Soukup, a judge in Washington State, created the first CASA program in 1977 to gather more information about the children whose cases were appearing before him. The likelihood of meeting a CASA may be equal to the…

  10. Ira P. Gunn: educator, advocate, legend.

    PubMed

    McAuliffe, Maura S; Koch, Faan Kathy J

    2011-12-01

    This column examines the contributions of nurse anesthetist Ira P. Gunn, CRNA, MLN, FAAN (1927-2011), widely recognized as a visionary and tireless advocate for the profession of nurse anesthesia. Her contributions to nurse anesthesia practice, research, education, publication, consultation, credentialing, and government relations have significantly contributed to the preservation and advancement of nursing and nurse anesthesia.

  11. CCCT - Patient Advocate Steering Committee

    Cancer.gov

    The Patient Advocate Steering Committee (PASC) works to ensure advocates involved with the Scientific Steering Committees (SSCs) are completely integrated in the development, implementation, and monitoring of clinical trials within those groups.

  12. Advocating for schools to provide effective HIV and sexuality education: a case study in how social service organizations working in coalition can (and should) affect sustained policy change.

    PubMed

    Ogusky, Jeremy; Tenner, Adam

    2010-05-01

    Advocates believed that to slow an expanding HIV/ AIDS epidemic in Washington, D.C., a local effort could ensure that HIV prevention was brought to scale. Schools were chosen as the focus and a new coalition advocated for the city government to pass new academic standards for health education. HIV and sex education policies had not been revised in more than 12 years and HIV education in D.C. public schools varied greatly in quality. Metro TeenAIDS (MTA), a traditional social service organization with no real history of advocacy work, reached only 10% of D.C. adolescents with critical HIV/AIDS prevention information. Clearly, to make a sustained impact, system change was necessary. After deciding to pursue a campaign focused on updating health education policy and creating standards, MTA convened a variety of reproductive health, adolescent medicine, and other organizations to establish the DC Healthy Youth Coalition. The Coalition used three complementary strategies to achieve campaign goals: mobilizing grassroots community support, involving parents in the discussion, and educating city leaders. By building an alliance of social service organizations and influencing critical public policy, the coalition ensured that new educational standards were passed.

  13. The Effects of Age, Mental Health, and Comorbidity on the Perceived Likelihood of Hiring a Healthcare Advocate

    PubMed Central

    McKinnon, Symone A.; Holloway, Breanna M.; Santoro, Maya S.; May, April C.; Cronan, Terry A.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose The projected increase in chronically ill older adults may overburden the healthcare system and compromise the receipt of quality and coordinated health care services. Healthcare advocates (HCAs) may help to alleviate the burden associated with seeking and receiving appropriate health care. We examined whether having dementia or depression, along with hypertension and arthritis, or having no comorbid medical conditions, and being an older adult, affected the perceived likelihood of hiring an HCA to navigate the health care system. Method Participants (N = 1,134), age 18 or older, read a vignette and imagined themselves as an older adult with either a mood or cognitive disorder, and comorbid medical conditions or as otherwise being physically healthy. They were then asked to complete a questionnaire assessing their perceived likelihood of hiring an HCA. Results Participants who imagined themselves as having dementia reported a greater likelihood of hiring an HCA than participants who imagined themselves as having depression (p < .001). Conclusion It is imperative that health care professionals attend to the growing and ongoing needs of older adults living with chronic conditions, and HCAs could play an important role in meeting those needs. PMID:28217035

  14. Group Development of Effective Governance Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar, Deborah Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the behaviors of effective governance teams as they move through stages of group development during regular school board meetings, utilizing the task and process behaviors identified in the Group Development Assessment (Jones & Bearley, 1994). Methodology. This mixed-methods…

  15. The Elements of Effective Board Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to act as a guide to good governance by exploring its various aspects and the key elements of success. It is intended to be used by anybody who is a member of a board, particularly in the nonprofit sector. This book is intended to help board members maximize their effectiveness both individually and collectively.…

  16. AdvoCATE - User Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen W.

    2015-01-01

    The basic vision of AdvoCATE is to automate the creation, manipulation, and management of large-scale assurance cases based on a formal theory of argument structures. Its main purposes are for creating and manipulating argument structures for safety assurance cases using the Goal Structuring Notation (GSN), and as a test bed and proof-of-concept for the formal theory of argument structures. AdvoCATE is available for Windows 7, Macintosh OSX, and Linux. Eventually, AdvoCATE will serve as a dashboard for safety related information and provide an infrastructure for safety decisions and management.

  17. Advocating for Grade-Based Acceleration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilbault, Keri M.

    2014-01-01

    Parents often struggle with the decision to accelerate their child and may worry about social and emotional issues, although research indicates positive effects on the social and emotional adjustment of carefully selected accelerants. As children's advocates, parents can work effectively with a school system to secure an appropriate academic…

  18. Views of a devil`s advocate -- Fundamental challenges to effective field theory treatments of nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, T.D.

    1998-04-01

    The physics goals of the effective field theory program for nuclear phenomena are outlined. It is pointed out that there are multiple schemes for implementing EFT and it is presently not clear if any of these schemes is viable. Most of the applications of effective field theory ideas have been on nucleon-nucleon scattering. It is argued that this is little more than curve fitting and that other quantities need to be calculated to test the ideas. It is shown that EFT methods work well for certain bound state properties of the deuteron electric form factor. However, it is also shown that this success depends sensitively on the fact that the majority of the probability of the deuteron`s wave function is beyond the range of the potential. This circumstance is special to the deuteron suggesting that it will be very difficult to achieve the same kinds of success for tightly bound nuclei.

  19. Disengagement beliefs in smokers: do they influence the effects of a tailored persuasive message advocating smoking cessation?

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, A

    2009-09-01

    Disengagement beliefs function to reduce cognitive dissonance and a number of predictions with regard to disengagement beliefs have been tested and verified. However, the influence of disengagement beliefs on persuasion has not been studied yet. In a field-experiment, 254 smokers were randomly assigned to a persuasive message condition or a no-information control condition. First, it was assessed to what extent disengagement beliefs influenced persuasion. In smokers with low adherence to disengagement beliefs, quitting activity (attempting to quit) in the control condition was high, but this was not further increased by persuasive information on the negative outcomes of smoking. In contrast, smokers who strongly adhered to disengagement beliefs showed low quitting activity in the control condition, but significantly more quitting activity when they received the persuasive message. Second, it was studied what smokers do when they experience negative affect caused by the persuasive message. The results show that in smokers who strongly adhered to disengagement beliefs, negative affect was associated with less quitting activity. Although these results show that quitting activity as assessed at 2 and 8 months follow-ups was influenced by disengagement beliefs, point prevalence seven-day quitting was not. This study shows that adherence to disengagement beliefs is a relevant individual difference in understanding effects of smoking cessation interventions.

  20. From the Classroom: Advocating Acceleration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargrove, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Ten years ago, in 2001, the U.S. Congress enacted the "No Child Left behind Act" (NCLB). This landmark act focused on standards-based education with the goal of raising challenges and improving student achievement. Advocates for gifted children have been concerned over the law's silence regarding talented and high-achieving children. In…

  1. Supporting Governing Bodies with Effective Clerking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassoon, David

    2008-01-01

    Responsibilities placed on a governing body are profound--starting with governors' own performance and the achievement of the pupils. In recognition of the weight of duty placed upon them, every governing body has, by law, to appoint a clerk who is not a governor. Committees of the governing body may be clerked by governors, but the main meeting…

  2. Embracing the Common Cause Advocating for Ed Tech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    This is a common response from educators confronted with the notion of advocating for educational technology funding. But, in a time when U.S. funding for Ed Tech is in danger of being cut from the budget, ISTE believes that all of its members, and in fact, all U.S. educators, must become advocates for our common cause. "Effective advocacy from…

  3. Effective Governance: The Impact of the Masters in Governance Training on School Boards in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Letitia T.

    2013-01-01

    This study applied 3 theoretical frameworks--Lee Bolman and Terrence Deal's four frames, the Lighthouse Inquiry of the Iowa Association of School Boards, and effective governance characteristics--to examine the impact of the Masters in Governance(MIG) training offered by the California School Boards Association on the ability of school board…

  4. Innovation Roles: From Souls of Fire to Devil's Advocates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Marcy

    2000-01-01

    Examines self-report data from organizational members of a federal government health information and education network piloting innovative intervention strategies to disseminate cancer information to the public. Suggests the existence of a new innovation role: the Devil's advocate. Explores the nature of resisting innovation, existing innovation…

  5. Advocating for cervical cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Sherris, J; Agurto, I; Arrossi, S; Dzuba, I; Gaffikin, L; Herdman, C; Limpaphayom, K; Luciani, S

    2005-05-01

    Cervical cancer is a significant health problem among women in developing countries. Contributing to the cervical cancer health burden in many countries is a lack of understanding and political will to address the problem. Broad-based advocacy efforts that draw on research and program findings from developing-country settings are key to gaining program and policy support, as are cost-effectiveness analyses based on these findings. The Alliance for Cervical Cancer Prevention (ACCP) has undertaken advocacy efforts at the international, regional, national, and local levels to raise awareness and understanding of the problem (and workable solutions), galvanize funders and governments to take action, and engage local stakeholders in ensuring program success. ACCP experience demonstrates the role that evidence-based advocacy efforts play in the ultimate success of cervical cancer prevention programs, particularly when new screening and treatment approaches-and, ultimately, radically new approaches such as a human papillomavirus vaccine-are available.

  6. Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, K. D.

    The author notes that two trends appear to be developing in litigation over the governance of the public schools. One trend is increasing participation of organized groups in suits against the schools. The other is a greater volume of litigation dealing with open meeting laws and freedom of information acts. Reflecting the second trend, the…

  7. Government Efficiency, Effectiveness, and Accountability Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Cuellar, Henry [D-TX-28

    2009-03-11

    05/04/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Government Management, Organization, and Procurement. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Facts for Education Advocates: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Educators act as advocates every day, and an advocate's greatest tool is credible information. The College Board and the Alliance for Excellent Education are pleased to announce a series of jointly produced fact sheets intended to arm educators and others with information they can use in advocating for their students, professions, and…

  9. Energy Development: Initial Effects on Government Revenues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Thomas F.; Voelker, Stanley W.

    Although energy development ultimately produces some additional tax revenues, these revenues are usually much lower during early development stages than after the energy-producing operation begins, thus creating an early shortrun imbalance between government revenues and expenditures. State and federal loans, impact aid for operating expenses, and…

  10. The Lay Advocates' Communication Assessment Tool (LACAT).

    PubMed

    Larkey, Linda K; Staten, Lisa K

    2007-01-01

    A tool to assess communication strategies used by lay advocates was developed and tested with 96 Latina and Caucasian study participants who were invited to promote a prevention trial to other women. Subscales showed strong initial reliability estimates and included: (a) telling personal stories, (b) describing the benefits of participation, (c) expressing caring, (d) emphasizing future generations' health, (e) repeating the message, and (e) communicating the importance of the study to one's own ethnic group. The subscales that comprise the Lay Advocacy Communication Assessment Tool may serve as a basis for developing a validated instrument and may subsequently be used to identify effective recruitment strategies.

  11. School Board Training: Its Effect on Southern California Governance Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turley, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the impact the California School Boards Association's (CSBA) Masters in Governance (MIG) training program has on effective school board governance practice. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between effective school boards and a commitment to seek and attend school board training. This…

  12. Effects of Masters in Governance Training and School Board Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Rocky

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine how the California School Board Association's (CSBA) Masters in Governance (MIG) training program leads to more effective school board leadership and governance. This study employed the framework of authors Lee Bolman and Terrence Deal, the CSBA, and the Lighthouse Inquiry of the Iowa Association of School…

  13. Tools to Advocate for Your School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald; Blackburn, Barbara R.

    2010-01-01

    School leaders are often in a position to advocate for their schools and for ways to improve the educational experience of students. By actively supporting a cause, such as increasing the rigor of the school, leaders provide information to stakeholder groups that will build support for their vision. Successful advocates incorporate several…

  14. Effective equations governing an active poroelastic medium.

    PubMed

    Collis, J; Brown, D L; Hubbard, M E; O'Dea, R D

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we consider the spatial homogenization of a coupled transport and fluid-structure interaction model, to the end of deriving a system of effective equations describing the flow, elastic deformation and transport in an active poroelastic medium. The 'active' nature of the material results from a morphoelastic response to a chemical stimulant, in which the growth time scale is strongly separated from other elastic time scales. The resulting effective model is broadly relevant to the study of biological tissue growth, geophysical flows (e.g. swelling in coals and clays) and a wide range of industrial applications (e.g. absorbant hygiene products). The key contribution of this work is the derivation of a system of homogenized partial differential equations describing macroscale growth, coupled to transport of solute, that explicitly incorporates details of the structure and dynamics of the microscopic system, and, moreover, admits finite growth and deformation at the pore scale. The resulting macroscale model comprises a Biot-type system, augmented with additional terms pertaining to growth, coupled to an advection-reaction-diffusion equation. The resultant system of effective equations is then compared with other recent models under a selection of appropriate simplifying asymptotic limits.

  15. Effective equations governing an active poroelastic medium

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we consider the spatial homogenization of a coupled transport and fluid–structure interaction model, to the end of deriving a system of effective equations describing the flow, elastic deformation and transport in an active poroelastic medium. The ‘active’ nature of the material results from a morphoelastic response to a chemical stimulant, in which the growth time scale is strongly separated from other elastic time scales. The resulting effective model is broadly relevant to the study of biological tissue growth, geophysical flows (e.g. swelling in coals and clays) and a wide range of industrial applications (e.g. absorbant hygiene products). The key contribution of this work is the derivation of a system of homogenized partial differential equations describing macroscale growth, coupled to transport of solute, that explicitly incorporates details of the structure and dynamics of the microscopic system, and, moreover, admits finite growth and deformation at the pore scale. The resulting macroscale model comprises a Biot-type system, augmented with additional terms pertaining to growth, coupled to an advection–reaction–diffusion equation. The resultant system of effective equations is then compared with other recent models under a selection of appropriate simplifying asymptotic limits. PMID:28293138

  16. Exploring Effective Academic Governance at a Canadian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lougheed, Patrick; Pidgeon, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    In Canada, only 44% of members of academic governance bodies at universities feel that their boards are effective decision-making bodies (Jones, Shanahan, & Goyan, 2004). In this study, we examined the views of senators at a British Columbia university regarding their senate's effectiveness in decision-making, including structures, processes,…

  17. Untracking Advocates Make Incredible Claims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Ralph

    1993-01-01

    According to Scott, educators have uncritically accepted tracking as harmful, although little empirical proof has been presented. Jennie Oakes retorts that research evidence on untracking abounds. Anne Wheelock insists that students learn more with untracking. Barbara N. Pavan cites research on effective schools and nongraded schools showing that…

  18. Occupational Disease, Workers' Compensation, and the Social Work Advocate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanker, Renee

    1983-01-01

    Charges that the overwhelming majority of victims of work-related illnesses are not receiving their entitlements. Describes ways in which social workers and health professionals may become advocates to broaden the effectiveness of the workers' compensation system, illustrated by case studies from the Montefiore Project. (Author/JAC)

  19. Legal Services: Judge Advocate Legal Services

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    page 22 The Commandant, The Judge Advocate General’s School , U.S. Army. • 10–2, page 22 Technical supervision • 10–3, page 23 Implementation • 10–4...Advocate General’s Funded Legal Education Program, page 37 General Duties • 14–1, page 37 Nonwaivable eligibility requirements • 14–2, page 37 Law School ...Admission Test • 14–3, page 37 Procedures • 14–4, page 37 Selection of law school • 14–5, page 38 Assignments • 14–6, page 38 Evaluation reports • 14–7

  20. Victim advocates' perceptions of legal work.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Kenneth H

    2011-12-01

    Past scholarship has weighed the risks and rewards of legal remedies for victims of domestic violence and sexual assault. Missing from this debate, however, is an analysis of the social incentives for victim advocates to offer legal options to their clients. Preliminary findings show that victim advocates perceive that outsiders respect legal work more than their care work with clients (listening, caring, and empathizing). This study offers three explanations for this phenomenon: (1) the devaluation of women's care work in general, (2) the confidentiality constraints on communicating the value of their care work, and (3) popular assumptions that care work requires professional credentials in order to be legitimate.

  1. Advocacy for active transport: advocate and city council perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Effective advocacy is an important part of efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Research about effective health advocacy is scarce, however, the health sector can learn from the experiences and knowledge of community advocates and those who are on the receiving end of this advocacy. The aim of this study is to explore advocacy for active transport from the perspectives of community advocates and representatives from City councils. Methods Cycling and walking advocates were identified from the local contact list of Cycling Advocates Network and Living Streets Aotearoa. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with cycle and walking advocates from throughout New Zealand. Advocates also nominated a suitable council officer at their local City council to be interviewed. Interviews were recorded and transcribed and categories of responses for each of the questions created. Results Several processes were used by advocates to engage with council staff, including formal council submissions, meetings, stakeholder forums and partnership in running community events promoting active transport. Several other agencies were identified as being influential for active transport, some as potential coalition partners and others as potential adversaries. Barriers to improving conditions for active transport included a lack of funding, a lack of will-power among either council staff or councillors, limited council staff capacity (time or training) and a culture of providing infrastructure for motor vehicles instead of people. Several suggestions were made about how the health sector could contribute to advocacy efforts, including encouraging political commitment, engaging the media, communicating the potential health benefits of active transport to the general public and being role models in terms of personal travel mode choice and having workplaces that support participation in active transport. Conclusions There is potential for the

  2. 39 CFR Appendix A to Part 3002 - Postal Regulatory Commission, Mission Statement of the Office of the Consumer Advocate

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Office of the Consumer Advocate A Appendix A to Part 3002 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL ORGANIZATION Pt. 3002, App. A Appendix A to Part 3002—Postal Regulatory Commission... Advocate is to be a vigorous, responsive, and effective advocate for reasonable and equitable treatment...

  3. 39 CFR Appendix A to Part 3002 - Postal Regulatory Commission, Mission Statement of the Office of the Consumer Advocate

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Office of the Consumer Advocate A Appendix A to Part 3002 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL ORGANIZATION Pt. 3002, App. A Appendix A to Part 3002—Postal Regulatory Commission... Advocate is to be a vigorous, responsive, and effective advocate for reasonable and equitable treatment...

  4. ACNJ Child Advocate. Number 9, Spring 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parello, Nancy, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The "ACNJ Child Advocate" is published by the Association for Children of New Jersey three times a year. ACNJ collects, analyzes, and distributes information on the well-being of children in New Jersey so that policymakers can pinpoint problems and work toward solutions. It reports data on key indicators of child well-being in each…

  5. ESOL Teachers as Advocates: An Important Role?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linville, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Due to the fact that English language learners (ELLs) often do not have the same educational opportunities or outcomes as non-ELL students in the United States, the professional standards for initial certification for teaching English for speakers of other languages (ESOL) call on ESOL teachers to advocate for them. Yet little research exists on…

  6. Advocating for Arts in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauerlein, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article contends that every chairman of the National Endowment for the Arts must advocate for arts education. The arts need a voice in power, say people in the field, someone in the corridors of influence to argue the benefits of teaching the nation's students about classical and jazz music, ballet, and sculpture. With No Child Left Behind…

  7. ACNJ Child Advocate. Number 14, Spring 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Children of New Jersey, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The "ACNJ Child Advocate" is published three times a year by the Association for Children of New Jersey. ACNJ collects, analyzes, and distributes information on the well-being of children in New Jersey so that policymakers can pinpoint problems and work toward solutions. It reports data on key indicators of child well-being in each…

  8. ACNJ Child Advocate. Number 11, Winter 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traini, Cecilia, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The "ACNJ Child Advocate" is published three times a year by the Association for Children of New Jersey. ACNJ collects, analyzes, and distributes information on the well-being of children in New Jersey so that policymakers can pinpoint problems and work toward solutions. It reports data on key indicators of child well-being in each…

  9. A pilot study evaluating the effects of a youth advocacy program on youth readiness to advocate for environment and policy changes for obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Millstein, Rachel A; Woodruff, Susan I; Linton, Leslie S; Edwards, Christine C; Sallis, James F

    2016-12-01

    Youth advocacy for obesity prevention is a promising but under-evaluated intervention. The aims of this study are to evaluate a youth advocacy program's outcomes related to youth perceptions and behaviors, develop an index of youth advocacy readiness, and assess potential predictors of advocacy readiness. Youth ages 9-22 in an advocacy training program (n = 92 matched pairs) completed surveys before and after training. Youth outcomes and potential predictors of advocacy readiness were assessed with evaluated scales. All 20 groups who completed the evaluation study presented their advocacy projects to a decision maker. Two of six perception subscales increased following participation in the advocacy program: self-efficacy for advocacy behaviors (p < .001) and participation in advocacy (p < .01). Four of five knowledge and skills subscales increased: assertiveness (p < .01), health advocacy history (p < .001), knowledge of resources (p < .01), and social support for health behaviors (p < .001). Youth increased days of meeting physical activity recommendations (p < .05). In a mixed regression model, four subscales were associated with the advocacy readiness index: optimism for change (B = 1.46, 95 % CI = .49-2.44), sports and physical activity enjoyment (B = .55, 95 % CI = .05-1.05), roles and participation (B = 1.81, 95 % CI = .60-3.02), and advocacy activities (B = 1.49, 95 % CI = .64-2.32). The youth advocacy readiness index is a novel way to determine the effects of multiple correlates of advocacy readiness. Childhood obesity-related advocacy training appeared to improve youths' readiness for advocacy and physical activity.

  10. 48 CFR 652.206-70 - Competition Advocate/Ombudsman.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition Advocate... Competition Advocate/Ombudsman. As prescribed in 606.570, insert the following provision: Competition Advocate/Ombudsman (AUG 1999) (a) The Department of State's Competition Advocate is responsible for...

  11. 48 CFR 652.206-70 - Competition Advocate/Ombudsman.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition Advocate... Competition Advocate/Ombudsman. As prescribed in 606.570, insert the following provision: Competition Advocate/Ombudsman (AUG 1999) (a) The Department of State's Competition Advocate is responsible for...

  12. 39 CFR 3002.14 - Office of the Consumer Advocate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Office of the Consumer Advocate. 3002.14 Section... Consumer Advocate. (a) The Office of the Consumer Advocate provides representation for the interests of the... pendency of a proceeding, personnel serving in the Office of the Consumer Advocate are prohibited...

  13. 48 CFR 652.206-70 - Competition Advocate/Ombudsman.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition Advocate... Competition Advocate/Ombudsman. As prescribed in 606.570, insert the following provision: Competition Advocate/Ombudsman (AUG 1999) (a) The Department of State's Competition Advocate is responsible for...

  14. 48 CFR 652.206-70 - Competition Advocate/Ombudsman.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition Advocate... Competition Advocate/Ombudsman. As prescribed in 606.570, insert the following provision: Competition Advocate/Ombudsman (AUG 1999) (a) The Department of State's Competition Advocate is responsible for...

  15. 48 CFR 652.206-70 - Competition Advocate/Ombudsman.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition Advocate... Competition Advocate/Ombudsman. As prescribed in 606.570, insert the following provision: Competition Advocate/Ombudsman (AUG 1999) (a) The Department of State's Competition Advocate is responsible for...

  16. 39 CFR 3002.14 - Office of the Consumer Advocate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office of the Consumer Advocate. 3002.14 Section... Consumer Advocate. (a) The Office of the Consumer Advocate provides representation for the interests of the... pendency of a proceeding, personnel serving in the Office of the Consumer Advocate are prohibited...

  17. The PRO nurse: advocate for quality care.

    PubMed

    Carroll, M; Maichele, J

    1993-01-01

    Since the inception of the Social Security Amendments of 1983, nurses have assumed expanded roles in ensuring the monitoring of the quality of care received by Medicare beneficiaries. This unique area of nursing practice offers new challenges and employment opportunities for the nurse as a patient advocate. Nurses who are interested in this role may contact state PRO directors or watch for specific recruitment advertisements in nursing magazines.

  18. Manual Of The Judge Advocate General (Jagman)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    Avenue, Southeast Suite 3000 Washington Navy Yard Washington, DC 20374-5066 TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I REGULATIONS...Litigation (Code 15), 1322 Patterson Avenue SE, Suite 3000 , Washington Navy Yard, DC 20374-5066 for storage. If the CA or GCMCA receives a request for an...Department of the Navy, 1322 Patterson Avenue SE Suite 3000 , Washington Navy Yard, DC 20374-5066, via the staff judge advocate of the GCMCA in

  19. The Role of Presidents and Trustees in Government Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Edwin M.

    1981-01-01

    Both university trustees and presidents can be effective advocates for the institutions they represent when they are integrated into a carefully conceived and staffed government relations program. The president as spokesperson, the political clout of trustees, institutional cooperation, a well-informed staff, and targeted legislative leadership…

  20. Building effective workforce management practices through shared governance and technology systems integration.

    PubMed

    Krive, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    In integrated delivery networks (IDNs) with complex management structures, shared governance in nursing is a proven model for health care delivery. After Advocate Health Care, the largest IDN in Illinois, implemented shared governance in its nursing, clinical, and non-clinical departments and restructured the organization's technology use, it benefited greatly from a new, shared decision-making process. After listening to business consultants, clinical professionals, and information technology experts, hospitals should take the blended, or comprehensive, approach to new projects. They can succeed by promoting communication supported by an integrated computer platform that helps nursing and business executives reach a consensus. Traditional modes of operation, in which individual administrative, clinical, and technology departments separately introduce innovation, do not deliver an advantage. However, models that incorporate open communication, integration, and knowledge sharing will help large IDNs and other complex health care organizations make the best possible use of their resources and investments.

  1. Duty to Advocate: Human Papillomavirus Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Kristen; Girotto, Jennifer; Steele, Amy Mitchell-Van; Stoffella, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    Despite the excellent benefit-to-risk ratio for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and recommendations for its routine use from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), significant controversy surrounding HPV vaccination continues to exist. In light of this controversy and continued low rates of vaccination among U.S. adolescents, the Pediatric Pharmacy Advocacy Group (PPAG) endorses the safety and efficacy of HPV vaccination and agrees with ACIP recommendations for protection of the U.S. population against the potentially severe consequences of HPV. The PPAG recommends that all eligible individuals undergo vaccination. We further recommend that pediatric pharmacists participate in the education of patients and their families and serve as advocates for HPV vaccination. This document serves as an update to the 2008 PPAG position statement.1.

  2. Duty to Advocate: Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Kristen; Girotto, Jennifer; Steele, Amy Mitchell-Van; Stoffella, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    Despite the excellent benefit-to-risk ratio for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and recommendations for its routine use from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), significant controversy surrounding HPV vaccination continues to exist. In light of this controversy and continued low rates of vaccination among U.S. adolescents, the Pediatric Pharmacy Advocacy Group (PPAG) endorses the safety and efficacy of HPV vaccination and agrees with ACIP recommendations for protection of the U.S. population against the potentially severe consequences of HPV. The PPAG recommends that all eligible individuals undergo vaccination. We further recommend that pediatric pharmacists participate in the education of patients and their families and serve as advocates for HPV vaccination. This document serves as an update to the 2008 PPAG position statement.1 PMID:28337085

  3. The President and the Governing Board. Conditions for Effective Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC.

    A policy statement on the president and governing board developed by the Committee on Policies and Purposes of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU) is presented, and the roles, responsibilities, and relationships of the governing board and the college president are outlined. The role of the U.S. college or university…

  4. "Let There Be Night" Advocates Dark Skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueter, Chuck

    2008-05-01

    Let There Be Night is an interactive planetarium program that supports a community-wide experiment to quantify local sky glow. In the planetarium, visitors will experience three aspects of light pollution--glare, sky glow, and light trespass--and decide whether and how to confront dark sky issues. Planetarians can select optional recorded stories and lessons to complement live demonstrations or star talks. As a companion experiment, students in grades 3-8 from one school district will then submit their backyard observations of Orion's limiting magnitude to the 2009 Globe at Night star hunt while small student teams concurrently quantify sky glow from each schoolyard with hand-held meters. After mapping their results and having classroom discussions, students will present their findings to the School Board. Material compiled and created for the program will be available for other dark sky advocates at www.LetThereBeNight.com, while large digital files will be distributed on disk through two planetarium associations. A 2008 Toyota TAPESTRY grant has enticed significant professional support, additional funding, and in-kind contributions.

  5. The Governance Committee: Independent Institutions. AGB Effective Committee Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, E. B.; Lanier, James L.

    2013-01-01

    This publication is part of an AGB series devoted to strengthening the role of key standing committees of governing boards. While there is no optimal committee system for institutions of higher education, certain principles, practices, and procedures prevail. The best practices outlined in this publication support the objectives of board…

  6. The Effect of Collective Bargaining on Governance in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smit, Gary

    1984-01-01

    Three aspects of the collective bargaining process are detrimental to school district governance: (1) teachers' associations gain decision-making authority over management prerogatives; (2) union demands illegally infringe on statutory duties of school districts; and (3) the conflict between laypersons and professionals for control of the schools…

  7. The Nurse Advocate in End-of-Life Care

    PubMed Central

    Hebert, Kathy; Moore, Harold; Rooney, Joan

    2011-01-01

    End-of-life nursing encompasses many aspects of care: pain and symptom management, culturally sensitive practices, assisting patients and their families through the death and dying process, and ethical decisionmaking. Advocacy has been identified as a key core competency for the professional nurse, yet the literature reveals relevant barriers to acquiring this skill. Challenges exist, such as limitations in nursing school curricula on the death and dying process, particularly in multicultural settings; differing policies and practices in healthcare systems; and various interpretations of end-of-life legal language. Patricia Benner's conceptual model of advocacy behaviors in end-of-life nursing provides the framework in which nurses can become effective patient advocates. Developing active listening and effective communication skills can enhance the nurse-patient trust relationship and create a healing environment. PMID:22190882

  8. Effect of Government Regulation on the Evolution of Sports Nutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Rick; Kalman, Douglas

    The sports nutrition segment of the dietary supplement industry enjoyed nearly a decade of unfettered growth under federal legislation passed in 1994. A series of breakthroughs in the dietary supplement field led to the development and marketing of innovative products designed to enhance performance, build muscle, or lose excess fat. As the popularity of these products soared and evolved into a multi-billion dollar industry, the sports nutrition supplement market drew the attention of federal and state regulatory bodies and sports antidoping authorities. Growing concerns over potential health risks and unfair athletic advantages have spurred government regulators and legislators to heighten the scrutiny of this market, leading to recent legislative amendments and increased government enforcement action.

  9. Creating and Sustaining Effective Partnership between Government and Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-30

    best practices. PMI’s Project Management Body of Knowledge ( PMBOK ®), as embodied in the PMBOK ® Guide, serves as the repository for both industry...developed doctrine and best practices in program management (PMI, 2008). The PMBOK ® is the industry standard for program management doctrine and best...Significant commonality exists between the PMBOK ® and government acquisition management doctrine. Like Lewis and Clark, each body of knowledge

  10. Trustee workbook 3. Effective governance after Enron and AHERF.

    PubMed

    Orlikoff, James E; Totten, Mary K

    2002-01-01

    High profile business failures such as Enron and AHERF have raised the public's consciousness about the governing board's crucial role in ensuring sound, ethical business practices. AHERF (the Allegheny Health, Education, and Research Foundation in Philadelphia) was the largest not-for-profit health care bankruptcy in history and has generated many lawsuits against the AHERF boards and individual trustees. The Enron bankruptcy will certainly result in lawsuits against its board and directors and has embarrassed board members profoundly.

  11. Measuring Government Effectiveness and Its Consequences for Social Welfare in Sub-Saharan African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Audrey; Levi, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a method for measuring effective government and modeling its consequences for social welfare at the individual level. Our focus is on the experiences of citizens living in African countries where famine remains a serious threat. If a government is effective, it will be able to deliver goods that individuals need to improve their…

  12. Methodology Development for Advocate Team Use for Input Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhard, Diane L.

    Methodology for input evaluation, as defined by Daniel L. Stufflebeam, is relatively nonexistent. Advocate teams have recently become a popular means of generating and assessing alternative strategies for a set of objectives. This study was undertaken to develop and evaluate methodology for advocate team use in input evaluation. Steps taken…

  13. The Advocates In Brief: A Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Radio and TV for Learning, Boston, MA.

    This guide is intended to help teachers use "The Advocates In Brief," a television series of 20 public affairs debates. The award-winning series, "The Advocates," previously broadcast on the Public Broadcasting Service, was condensed into a series of 20, thirty-minute debates for use in junior high, high school, junior college, and continuing…

  14. Lighting the Way: Volunteer Child Advocates Speak Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Welfare League of America, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This volume collects the personal experiences of the volunteers who serve across the nation as Court-Appointed Special Advocates (CASA). The CASA program trains ordinary people to become advocates for children, to learn all they can about an individual child and his individual troubles and struggles, and to report back to a judge about what the…

  15. Introducing Forum Theatre to Elicit and Advocate Children's Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Eliciting and advocating the voice of the child remains at the heart of international political agenda and also remains a central role for educational psychologists (EPs). Previous research indicates that EPs tend to use language-based methods for eliciting and advocating views of children. However, these approaches are often limited. Taking a…

  16. Police officers' collaboration with rape victim advocates: barriers and facilitators.

    PubMed

    Rich, Karen; Seffrin, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Secondary victimization may occur when rape victims make police reports. This can compromise the quality of official statements and jeopardize criminal cases. Rape reporters receive better treatment by police officers when advocates are involved and best practice police work includes such collaboration. Studies of advocates have described tension, role confusion, and poor communication with police officers. Many variables, including rape myth acceptance (RMA) and training on sexual assault dynamics, may affect officers' collaboration with advocates. There were 429 police officers who responded to a survey measuring their victim interviewing skill, formal training about rape, years on the job, number of victims known personally, number of recent rape cases, RMA, and collaboration with advocates. Results suggest that officers' interviewing skill, years on the job, and specific training are related to collaboration with victim advocates on rape cases. Professional, rather than personal, variables were most predictive of collaboration. Implications for officer selection and training are explored.

  17. Coaching mental health peer advocates for rural LGBTQ people.

    PubMed

    Willging, Cathleen E; Israel, Tania; Ley, David; Trott, Elise M; DeMaria, Catherine; Joplin, Aaron; Smiley, Verida

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer or questioning (LGBTQ) people are affected by mental health disparities, especially in rural communities. We trained peer advocates in rural areas in the fundamentals of mental health, outreach, education, and support for this population. The peer advocates were coached by licensed mental health professionals. We evaluated this process through iterative qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews and written logs from coaches and advocates. The six major themes comprising the results centered on (1) coaching support, (2) peer advocate skills and preparation, (3) working with help seekers, (4) negotiating diversity, (5) logistical challenges in rural contexts, and (6) systemic challenges. We concluded that peer advocacy for LGBTQ people with mental distress offers an affirmative, community-based strategy to assist the underserved. To be successful, however, peer advocates will likely require ongoing training, coaching, and infrastructural support to negotiate contextual factors that can influence provision of community resources and support to LGBTQ people within rural communities.

  18. The economics of prescription drug prices, government intervention, and the importation of drugs from Canada.

    PubMed

    Openshaw, Matthew S

    2005-01-01

    Popular attention has focused on the skyrocketing health care costs in the United States and specifically on increasing insurance and prescription drug prices. Individuals and some local governments have advocated importing price-controlled prescription drugs from Canada to help ease the financial burden. What effects would this have on consumer prices, drug companies' incentives, and the development of new medications?

  19. 76 FR 26948 - Small Business Jobs Act Tour: Selected Provisions Having an Effect on Government Contracting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121, 124, 125, 126, and 127 Small Business Jobs Act Tour: Selected Provisions Having... Provisions Having an Effect on Government that announced a series of public meetings on the implementation...

  20. Measuring Institutional Effectiveness of California Community Colleges through Existing Governance Structures and External Funding Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jameson-Meledy, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare the differing structures of governance within the California Community College (CCC) system in relation to resource development and grant management. This is to explain how governance may impact the effectiveness of institutions to strengthen services to students with funding resources secured through…

  1. Institutional ethics committees as social justice advocates.

    PubMed

    Farley, M A

    1984-10-01

    The idea of involvement in social justice issues transcends the traditional responsibilities of most institutional ethics committees (IECs). Yet precedents for such an advocacy role exist in several areas: the development of regulations that protect handicapped newborns from discriminatory decisions of nontreatment and the institutional committees that review research protocols or formulate "do not resuscitate" policies. The need for IECs to take up social justice issues is based in the concepts of autonomy--the capacity for freedom of choice--and relationality--the capacity to known and to love. All the human ethical questions of freedom, well-being, and justice emerge in the health care setting, where the concepts of autonomy and relationality are intently focused on and sometimes threatened. If a health care institution is to address such questions as affirmative action policies in financing and purchasing, the just pricing of medical care, the ethics of treatment decisions, and the right to medical care, it needs a forum in which to deliberate, collaborate, and discern responsible corporate moral action. For example, an ethics committee can: Call for correction of problems of sexism, racism, and classism in health care institutions; Address government regulations in a way that enables a better understanding of professional commitments; and Lead facilities to discover ways to network with others to meet the needs of the populations they serve. Above all, IECs can help health care professionals find a new "hermeneutic" for interpreting the health care mission to allow them greater power to respond to the dignity and the needs of human persons.

  2. Information Literacy Advocates: developing student skills through a peer support approach.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Ruth

    2016-12-01

    Since 2013/2014, an Information Literacy Advocates (ILA) scheme has been running at the University of Nottingham as an extracurricular module on the Nottingham Advantage Award programme. The Information Literacy Advocates scheme, which recruits medicine and health sciences students in their second year or above, aims to facilitate development of information literacy skills and confidence, as well as communication, organisation and teamwork, through the provision of peer support. Previous research indicates peer assistance effectively enhances such skills and is valued by fellow students who welcome the opportunity to approach more experienced students for help. This article, written by guest writer Ruth Curtis from the University of Nottingham, provides an overview of administering the ILA scheme and explores its impact on the Information Literacy Advocates, peers and librarians, and discusses future developments for taking the scheme forward. H. S.

  3. Government - contractor interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, D. M.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the Administrative Contracting Officer represents an advance in the Government system of contract management because it provides an individual with knowledge, time, and a specialized function to insure performance of Government contracts. However, the development has created a dichotomy between the award and the post-award function which increases the adversary relationship with Government contractors. This paper advocates that this adversary relationship can be decreased if PCOs and ACOs are provided with opportunities to serve in the assignments of the other.

  4. Improving School Board Effectiveness: A Balanced Governance Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsbury, Thomas L., Ed.; Gore, Phil, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    "Improving School Board Effectiveness" offers a clarifying and essential look at the evolving role of school boards and how they contribute to efforts to improve student learning. It examines how board members can establish effective district priorities, and it explores those board policies and actions that result in shared, districtwide…

  5. Towards Principles-Based Approaches to Governance of Health-related Research using Personal Data.

    PubMed

    Laurie, Graeme; Sethi, Nayha

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances in the quality, availability and linkage potential of health data for research make the need to develop robust and effective information governance mechanisms more pressing than ever before; they also lead us to question the utility of governance devices used hitherto such as consent and anonymisation. This article assesses and advocates a principles-based approach, contrasting this with traditional rule-based approaches, and proposes a model of principled proportionate governance. It is suggested that the approach not only serves as the basis for good governance in contemporary data linkage but also that it provides a platform to assess legal reforms such as the draft Data Protection Regulation.

  6. A proactive approach to power advocated.

    PubMed

    Durie, Billy

    2012-04-01

    A 'bury your head in the sand' approach to resilience planning is simply not an option for today's healthcare estates managers, according to Billy Durie, contingency planning sector manager at Aggreko, a global specialist in temporary power and temperature control solutions. Here he explains why hospital estates teams need to be prepared for the worst, and prescribes a solution for facilities managers to cope effectively with power outages and temperature control failures.

  7. Self-Determination for People with Developmental Disabilities and Autism: Two Self-Advocates' Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Michael J.; Meyer, Roger N.

    1999-01-01

    Traces the history of civil rights, disability rights, and self advocacy of people with developmental disabilities and autism. The need for future self-determination efforts to develop effective leadership from the ranks of self-advocates and for the accentuation of the positives of having a disability is discussed. (Author/CR)

  8. The Effectiveness of Academic Boards in University Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowlands, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Despite considerable international literature acknowledging issues associated with the effectiveness of university academic boards (also known as academic senates or faculty senates), there is little current empirical research exploring why difficulties might exist and what (if anything) might be done about them. This article reports the findings…

  9. Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Processes, and Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-25

    call CRS at 7-5700; or • see the “Key Policy Staff” table at the end of this report. For analysis of potential effects of a shutdown on the...21 Key Policy Staff...appropriations acts (e.g., entitlements like Social Security and other mandatory spending) also may be affected by a funding gap, if program execution

  10. Civil society: a critical new advocate for vaccination in Europe.

    PubMed

    Laurent-Ledru, Vanina; Thomson, Angus; Monsonego, Joseph

    2011-01-17

    The vaccinology landscape has changed, with national authorities now being increasingly accountable to new stakeholders such as health insurers, regional regulatory bodies, the media, and civil society. Here, we discuss how civil society organisations (CSOs), such as patient and women's groups, have become important drivers in the introduction and sustainability of new vaccination programs. This shift in public implication in vaccine policy has been well illustrated in the recent introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in Europe. Patient and women's groups which were traditionally focused on advocacy of treatments have also become advocates for prevention with the advent of HPV vaccination. Civil society advocacy at the European level supported key resolutions and white papers which in turn informed national recommendations on cervical cancer vaccination. CSOs were also active at the national level, supporting national policy makers. These organisations may bring innovative and effective new approaches to communication on vaccination benefits, using public events, celebrities and various social media. Working with experts, CSOs can also be an important bridge from the science to the lay public. This may provide a vital counterbalance to media hype and antivaccination groups, although CSOs may also be active and vocal opponents of immunization. The successful implementation and sustainability of future vaccination programs against infections such as HIV will be dependent upon the active participation of civil society to inform, to reassure and to maintain public trust.

  11. Coaching mental health peer advocates for rural LGBTQ people

    PubMed Central

    Willging, Cathleen E.; Israel, Tania; Ley, David; Trott, Elise M.; DeMaria, Catherine; Joplin, Aaron; Smiley, Verida

    2016-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer or questioning (LGBTQ) people are affected by mental health disparities, especially in rural communities. We trained peer advocates in rural areas in the fundamentals of mental health, outreach, education, and support for this population. The peer advocates were coached by licensed mental health professionals. We evaluated this process through iterative qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews and written logs from coaches and advocates. The six major themes comprising the results centered on (1) coaching support, (2) peer advocate skills and preparation, (3) working with help seekers, (4) negotiating diversity, (5) logistical challenges in rural contexts, and (6) systemic challenges. We concluded that peer advocacy for LGBTQ people with mental distress offers an affirmative, community-based strategy to assist the underserved. To be successful, however, peer advocates will likely require ongoing training, coaching, and infrastructural support to negotiate contextual factors that can influence provision of community resources and support to LGBTQ people within rural communities. PMID:27458498

  12. Government patent policy: An analysis of the effects of three alternative patent policies on technology of goverment inventions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matousek, M.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of present and proposed Government patent policies on the process of technology transfer and the commercialization of inventions resulting from Government sponsored research are addressed. The function of the patent system in Government research and the value of patents resulting from government sponsored research are examined. Three alternative patent policies, title in the contractor, title in the Government, and the waiver policy, are examined in terms of their effect on the commercialization of inventions, industrial competitions, disclosure of inventions, participation of research contractors and administrative costs. Efforts to reform the present Government patent policy are also described.

  13. Assessing the Effects of Service Quality of Government and Student Satisfaction in Education’s Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwaningsih, D.

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the research is to analyze how the service quality of Indonesian government affect student’s satisfaction in the education field. Data collection was conducted in September 2016 through distributing questionnaires to 132 students at private universities in south Tangerang city. Sampling used incidental sampling method, while data analysis is descriptive, qualitative and quantitative, which were analyzed with the Importance Performance Analysis. The survey results revealed that the satisfaction level of the students of South Tangerang good enough to service of the Government in higher education sector with a value of 83.61 using Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI). Nevertheless, there are several factors that should be prioritized for immediate enhanced, namely: government’s ability to respond effectively to solve the problems in the academic world, fairness of the government in providing assistance to both state and private universities and attention of the government to higher education.

  14. Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility and Governance on Its Credit Ratings

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-young

    2014-01-01

    This study reviews the impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate governance on its credit rating. The result of regression analysis to credit ratings with relevant primary independent variables shows that both factors have significant effects on it. As we have predicted, the signs of both regression coefficients have a positive sign (+) proving that corporates with excellent CSR and governance index (CGI) scores have higher credit ratings and vice versa. The results show nonfinancial information also may have effects on corporate credit rating. The investment on personal data protection could be an example of CSR/CGI activities which have positive effects on corporate credit ratings. PMID:25401134

  15. Effects of corporate social responsibility and governance on its credit ratings.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-young; Kim, JeongYeon

    2014-01-01

    This study reviews the impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate governance on its credit rating. The result of regression analysis to credit ratings with relevant primary independent variables shows that both factors have significant effects on it. As we have predicted, the signs of both regression coefficients have a positive sign (+) proving that corporates with excellent CSR and governance index (CGI) scores have higher credit ratings and vice versa. The results show nonfinancial information also may have effects on corporate credit rating. The investment on personal data protection could be an example of CSR/CGI activities which have positive effects on corporate credit ratings.

  16. Remembering Albert deutsch, an advocate for mental health.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Kenneth J

    2011-12-01

    Albert Deutsch, journalist, advocate for the mentally ill, and honorary APA Fellow died 50 years ago. Author of The Mentally Ill in America and The Shame of the States, he believed in the obligation of individuals and institutions to advocate for patients. In 1961, he was in the midst of a vast project to assess the state of the art in psychiatric research. This article recalls aspects of Deutsch's life and work and places him in the historical context of individuals who have shown great compassion for disabled persons.

  17. Government Efficiency and Effectiveness: Opportunities to Reduce Fragmentation, Overlap, and Duplication and Achieve Other Financial Benefits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-14

    Other Financial Benefits Statement of Gene L. Dodaro Comptroller General of the United States Testimony Before the Committee on Oversight and...Efficiency and Effectiveness: Opportunities to Reduce Fragmentation, Overlap, and Duplication and Achieve Other Financial Benefits 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...GOVERNMENT EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS Opportunities to Reduce Fragmentation, Overlap, and Duplication and Achieve Other Financial Benefits Why

  18. 43 CFR 1810.3 - Effect of laches; authority to bind government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Effect of laches; authority to bind... GUIDANCE General Rules § 1810.3 Effect of laches; authority to bind government. (a) The authority of the... agents when they enter into an arrangement or agreement to do or cause to be done what the law does...

  19. The role of U.S. states in facilitating effective water governance under stress and change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhoff, Christine J.; Dilling, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    Worldwide water governance failures undermine effective water management under uncertainty and change. Overcoming these failures requires employing more adaptive, resilient water management approaches; yet, while scholars have advance theory of what adaptive, resilient approaches should be, there is little empirical evidence to support those normative propositions. To fill this gap, we reviewed the literature to derive theorized characteristics of adaptive, resilient water governance including knowledge generation and use, participation, clear rules for water use, and incorporating nonstationarity. Then, using interviews and documentary analysis focused on five U.S. states' allocation and planning approaches, we examined empirically if embodying these characteristics made states more (or less) adaptive and resilient in practice. We found that adaptive, resilient water governance requires not just possessing these characteristics but combining and building on them. That is, adaptive, resilient water governance requires well-funded, transparent knowledge systems combined with broad, multilevel participatory processes that support learning, strong institutional arrangements that establish authorities and rules and that allow flexibility as conditions change, and resources for integrated planning and allocation. We also found that difficulty incorporating climate change or altering existing water governance paradigms and inadequate funding of water programs undermine adaptive, resilient governance.

  20. Educational Rights of Children with Disabilities: A Primer for Advocates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordover, Eileen L.; Boundy, Kathleen B.

    Intended for child advocates, this book analyzes children's educational rights under two federal statutes, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. The nine chapters address the following topics: (1) the statutory framework of the two laws (including eligibility, age ranges,…

  1. Training Tribal Lay Advocates at Sitting Bull College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley, W. L.

    2015-01-01

    Students in Sitting Bull College's lay advocate program develop a well-rounded understanding of the law, enabling them to represent defendants in tribal courts. The program offers legal training for its students--and illustrates how American Indian nations can broaden legal representation for Native defendants in tribal courts. It is one of only…

  2. Gender-Equity Advocates Face Looming Challenges in Women's Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipka, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Gender-equity advocates gathered at a conference in Cleveland last month to discuss looming challenges in women's sports. Next month the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights is scheduled to hold a hearing on Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. The meeting will focus on the most controversial means of compliance with the law. Institutions can…

  3. Rate Surveys and Policies: Key Issues for Advocates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoney, Louise

    This paper discusses the role of child care providers, child care resource and referral (CCRR) agencies, community-based organizations, and other advocates in responding to market rate surveys of the cost of child care in their community. It focuses on how these groups can increase reimbursement rates and rate ceilings that are set by state and…

  4. The Nurse as Patient Advocate: Implications for Nurse Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banja, John D.

    This essay examines ethical considerations in the nurse patient relationship, in particular the relationship between "professional morality" and the nurse's professional identity in the role of advocate for doctors, patients, and hospitals. A discussion of ethics and professionals explores professional ethics, the need for such ethics,…

  5. Advocates Worry Rewrite of ESEA May Weaken Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2011-01-01

    Civil rights, business, and education advocates are warning that Congress and the Obama administration may be willing to defang a key portion of the No Child Left Behind Act in their quest to make the law more flexible, shortchanging racial minorities and other historically overlooked student subgroups in the process. Their concern comes amid…

  6. Potsdam College Advocate Program: An Alternative to Speech Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Anna

    The Potsdam Advocate program is a program designed to aid students who feel they are victims of discrimination or sexual offenses. An analysis of this program and its literature is instructive to students and scholars in the field of organizational communication. Developed in 1991, this program provides a structure and options that students may…

  7. Advocating for Peace and Social Justice through Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokota, Junko; Kolar, Jacqui

    2008-01-01

    Preparing students to be global citizens is foremost among teachers' educational goals and is central to the teaching of social studies. High quality trade books with multicultural and international themes can promote cultural and global awareness, which in turn advocates for peace and social justice. Such literature allows teachers to select…

  8. Advocating for Young Children: A Preservice Teacher Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dever, Martha Taylor

    2006-01-01

    As experts on the nature and needs of young children, early childhood educators are in prime positions to advocate for the health and well-being of young children. Advocacy can take the form of personal, public, or private-sector endeavors. Personal advocacy is usually informal and involves educating others on an issue about early childhood…

  9. Tolerance to Alliance: Deconstructing Dichotomies to Advocate for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that teachers in the twenty-first century need to incorporate queer theory into their teaching practice and their discussions about individual differences in order to advocate for those students most likely to be bullied in schools. It provides a brief background on queer theory, gives an introduction to central ideas of the…

  10. Ready for College. Advocates Series. Action Brief No.1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forum for Youth Investment, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Much has been written lately that asks the question--are young people across this country ready for college? The Forum for Youth Investment, Connect for Kids, Voices for America's Children and many state Kids Count organizations have developed this series for state advocates to share the vision, messages and state policies being proposed to…

  11. A Rhythm Recognition Computer Program to Advocate Interactivist Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buisson, Jean-Christophe

    2004-01-01

    This paper advocates the main ideas of the interactive model of representation of Mark Bickhard and the assimilation/accommodation framework of Jean Piaget, through a rhythm recognition demonstration program. Although completely unsupervised, the program progressively learns to recognize more and more complex rhythms struck on the user's keyboard.…

  12. The Modern President: Fund Raiser, Cheerleader, Advocate, CEO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    June, Audrey Williams

    2006-01-01

    In an interview, Gerald L. Baliles, a former Democratic governor of Virginia, talked about how the job of college president has changed over the years. Baliles said that a president must be many things to many people: leader of the academic community, chief executive of the business enterprise, the spokesperson, the fundraiser, the advocate for…

  13. How Student Affairs Professionals Learn to Advocate: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined how student affairs professionals learn advocacy skills and what they learn in their education on this topic. Findings based on 22 interviews show participants felt underprepared by their graduate programs for the myriad challenges involved with advocating for students. Findings indicate participants found…

  14. Be a Court Appointed Special Advocate for a Baby. Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Mary G.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the role of a Court Appointed Special Advocate (CASA). CASA volunteers are appointed by judges to represent the best interests of children who have been removed from their homes because of abuse or neglect. CASA volunteers are everyday citizens who have undergone screening and training with their local CASA program (National…

  15. Effects of government spending on research workforce development: evidence from biomedical postdoctoral researchers.

    PubMed

    Hur, Hyungjo; Ghaffarzadegan, Navid; Hawley, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    We examine effects of government spending on postdoctoral researchers' (postdocs) productivity in biomedical sciences, the largest population of postdocs in the US. We analyze changes in the productivity of postdocs before and after the US government's 1997 decision to increase NIH funding. In the first round of analysis, we find that more government spending has resulted in longer postdoc careers. We see no significant changes in researchers' productivity in terms of publication and conference presentations. However, when the population is segmented by citizenship, we find that the effects are heterogeneous; US citizens stay longer in postdoc positions with no change in publications and, in contrast, international permanent residents (green card holders) produce more conference papers and publications without significant changes in postdoc duration. Possible explanations and policy implications of the analysis are discussed.

  16. Quality of governance and effectiveness of protected areas: crucial concepts for conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Johanna; Cabeza, Mar

    2016-12-05

    Protected areas (PAs) are a key tool for biodiversity conservation and play a central role in the Convention on Biological Diversity. Recently, the effectiveness of PAs has been questioned, and assessing how effective they are in enabling the future persistence of biodiversity is not trivial. Here, we focus on terrestrial PAs and clarify the terminology related to PA effectiveness, distinguishing between management and ecological aspects. We suggest that the quality of governance affects both aspects of effectiveness but recognize a lack of synthetic understanding of the topic. We present a conceptual framework linking the underlying mechanisms by which the quality of governance affects conservation outcomes in PAs and how this relates to conservation planning. We show that it is crucial to separate pressure and response and how these together will lead to the observed conservation outcomes. We urge for more focused attention on governance factors and in particular more empirical research on how to address causality and how to account for the quality of governance when prioritizing actions. Our framework is linked to the classic concepts of systematic conservation planning and clarifies the strategies available to achieve a comprehensive and effective network of PAs.

  17. Advocates, interest groups and Australian news coverage of alcohol advertising restrictions: content and framing analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Legislating restrictions on alcohol advertising is a cost-effective measure to reduce consumption of alcohol. Yet Australia relies upon industry self-regulation through voluntary codes of practice regarding the content, timing and placement of alcohol advertising. Ending industry self-regulation was recommended by the National Preventative Health Taskforce; a suggestion contested by the drinks industry. Debates about emerging alcohol-control policies regularly play out in the news media, with various groups seeking to influence the discussion. This paper examines news coverage of recommendations to restrict alcohol advertising to see how supporters and opponents frame the debate, with a view to providing some suggestions for policy advocates to advance the discussion. Methods We used content and framing analyses to examine 329 Australian newspaper items mentioning alcohol advertising restrictions over 24 months. All items were coded for mentions of specific types of advertising and types of advertising restrictions, the presence of news frames that opposed or endorsed advertising restrictions, statements made within each frame and the news-actors who appeared. Results Restrictions were the main focus in only 36% of 329 items. Alcohol advertising was conceived of as television (47%) and sport-related (56%). Restrictions were mentioned in non-specific terms (45%), or specified as restrictions on timing and placement (49%), or content (22%). Public health professionals (47%) appeared more frequently than drinks industry representatives (18%). Five supportive news frames suggested the policy is a sensible public health response, essential to protect children, needed to combat the drinks industry, required to stop pervasive branding, or as only an issue in sport. Four unsupportive frames positioned restrictions as unnecessary for a responsible industry, an attack on legitimate commercial activities, ineffective and ‘nannyist’, or inessential to government

  18. Rationale for Students' Participation in University Governance and Organizational Effectiveness in Ekiti and Ondo States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akomolafe, C. O.; Ibijola, E. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the rationale for students' participation in university governance and organizational effectiveness. A descriptive research of survey design was adopted. The population consisted of all staff and students of Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State and Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State. 700 subjects…

  19. Generic Behavioural Criteria of Managerial Effectiveness: An Empirical and Comparative Case Study of UK Local Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlin, Robert G.; Serventi, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of a "partnership-research" study of effective and ineffective managerial behaviour within the "local government" setting of the Wolverhampton City Council Social Care Department, and to describe how the research supports and challenges the organisation's existing…

  20. Finding and Tracing the Effects of Governance Processes in the New Opportunities Initiative: An Outline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Based on a Globally Structured Agenda for Education, this article presents the construction of the New Opportunities Initiative in Portugal. Thus, it analyses the relationship between the European Union and the Portuguese State with regard to the construction of this programme, identifying for this purpose the effects of governance processes.…

  1. The Chinese Government Scholarship Program: An Effective Form of Foreign Assistance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Lili; Chapman, David W.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of Chinese international education assistance through an examination of student experience in the Chinese Government Scholarship Program, an important mechanism of Chinese foreign aid. Grounded in Pascarella's (1985) model of the impact of college on students, the study investigates participants' level of…

  2. Select Government Matching Fund Programs: An Examination of Characteristics and Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Advancement and Support of Education (NJ1), 2004

    2004-01-01

    Government matching fund programs, at their most fundamental level, are state-based initiatives that match private donations to colleges and universities with public funds. These programs have proven to be effective methods of improving public colleges and universities and successful examples of public-private partnerships, which are key…

  3. Who Are the Advocates in Your School? Professional Learning Cries out for Leaders to Shape It as a Relevant and Energizing Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizell, Hayes

    2012-01-01

    An advocate for professional learning believes deeply that it is essential for educators to not only learn throughout their careers but to use their learning to become increasingly proficient over time. The advocate buttresses this belief with knowledge of specific processes and practices that constitute effective professional learning. Some…

  4. Phenomenological Study of the Experience of Parent Advocates of Students Diagnosed with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson-Malen, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Advocates of students with ADHD in the school system are usually parents who must become advocates in response to the child's need for support and a call for parental involvement from the school. Parent advocates are confronted with many challenges, the primary being the daunting, often solitary task of advocating for a child who is often viewed…

  5. Advocating globally to shape policy and strengthen nursing's influence.

    PubMed

    Benton, David

    2012-01-31

    The International Council of Nurses is a federation of national nursing associations that works to enable nurses to speak with one voice so as to influence health policy and advance the profession of nursing. In this article the author highlights how nurses can advocate for the nursing profession by coordinating nursing actions to develop both public and healthcare-service policies. He addresses issues that are common in many parts of the world and provides examples drawn from real-life experiences that illustrate how nurses in El Salvador, Rwanda, Paraguay, Papua New Guinea, and Iran have worked in their countries to coordinate their actions and advocate for public and/or healthcare service policies within their countries. He concludes by noting that all nurses must do their part and use a wide range of opportunities creatively, and with clarity of intent, to improve the profession and the lives of the millions of people who depend upon us.

  6. Tidal Waves of School Reform: Types of Reforms, Government Controls, and Community Advocates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Samuel

    The more revolutionary, drastic education reform efforts are usually supported by new governmental legislation. This book offers three case studies of drastic reform carried out in Kentucky, Alberta, and Chicago. The reforms can be visualized in terms of how close they are to the alternative aims of expert guidance, social activism, and an…

  7. President's budget concerns advocates. Prevention money cuts are dark omen.

    PubMed

    2005-04-01

    President George W. Bush expressed support for the reauthorization of the Ryan White Care Act in his State of the Union address, but his budget for the 2006 fiscal year provided mostly flat funding with cuts in prevention activities, a sign that trouble is ahead for state budgets and AIDS service organizations struggling to provide prevention, care, and other services to growing HIV populations, AIDS advocates say.

  8. Veterinary education: a basis for good governance leading to effective veterinary services.

    PubMed

    Sabin, E A; DeHaven, W R

    2012-08-01

    Veterinary education serves as the foundation on which a country can build effective Veterinary Services (VS). In addition, an appropriately well-educated animal health workforce will be better poised to actively participate in and advance good governance practices. Good governance, in turn, will lead to improved animal and veterinary public heath infrastructures and help advance economic development across the globe. A crucial first step in establishing a strong educational foundation is to define minimum competencies for both public- and private-practice veterinarians to perform veterinary service tasks. Defining minimum competencies will also assist veterinary education establishments (VEEs) in developing and implementing curricula to allow graduates to achieve those competencies. Incorporating veterinary educational prerequisites and requirements into governance documents that regulate VS will help to ensure that those who deliver VS have an adequate knowledge and skills base to do so. Public-private partnerships may be particularly effective in designing and implementing curricula that address defined minimum competencies and assure the quality of VEEs. Through these partnerships, a system of continuous quality improvement is established that embodies the qualities essential to good governance practices. Such practices will ultimately strengthen national VS, better protect animal and public health, and ensure food security.

  9. Towards comprehensive malaria planning: the effect of government capacity, health policy, and land use variables on malaria incidence in India.

    PubMed

    Boussalis, Constantine; Nelson, Hal T; Swaminathan, Siddharth

    2012-10-01

    We present what we believe is the first empirical research that accounts for subnational government capacity in estimating malaria incidence. After controlling for relevant extrinsic factors, we find evidence of a negative effect of state government capacity on reported malaria cases in Indian states over the period 1993-2002. Government capacity is more successful in predicting malaria incidence than potentially more direct indicators such as state public health expenditures and economic development levels. We find that high government capacity can moderate the deleterious health effects of malaria in rice producing regions. Our research also suggests that government capacity may have exacerbated the effectiveness of the World Bank Malaria Control Project in India over the period studied. We conclude by proposing the integration of government capacity measures into existing planning efforts, including vulnerability mapping tools and disease surveillance efforts.

  10. Implementing an effective organization and governance structure for a radiology practice.

    PubMed

    Muroff, Lawrence R

    2004-01-01

    Radiology practices that are well organized and effectively governed have a competitive advantage. Decisions are made rapidly, actions are taken decisively and in accordance with established policy, and each group member has a responsibility for practice building. Such groups are perceived by their peers, hospital administration, and community business leaders to be both formidable and effective. This paper details the mechanisms that facilitate planning for and implementing an efficient practice organization and governance structure. The tasks of group leaders are defined, as are the committees necessary for appropriate action. The integral roles of a mission statement and a business plan are discussed. Practices adopting the suggested organizational structure will be best positioned to survive in both good times and bad.

  11. Effects of Government Spending on Research Workforce Development: Evidence from Biomedical Postdoctoral Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Hyungjo; Ghaffarzadegan, Navid; Hawley, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    We examine effects of government spending on postdoctoral researchers’ (postdocs) productivity in biomedical sciences, the largest population of postdocs in the US. We analyze changes in the productivity of postdocs before and after the US government’s 1997 decision to increase NIH funding. In the first round of analysis, we find that more government spending has resulted in longer postdoc careers. We see no significant changes in researchers’ productivity in terms of publication and conference presentations. However, when the population is segmented by citizenship, we find that the effects are heterogeneous; US citizens stay longer in postdoc positions with no change in publications and, in contrast, international permanent residents (green card holders) produce more conference papers and publications without significant changes in postdoc duration. Possible explanations and policy implications of the analysis are discussed. PMID:25932942

  12. Comparison of Research Framing Preferences and Information Use of State Legislators and Advocates Involved in Cancer Control, United States, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Elizabeth A.; Tabak, Rachel G.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Evidence-based policy plays an important role in prevention of cancer and other chronic diseases. The needs of actors involved in policy decision-making should inform knowledge translation strategies. This study examines the differences between state legislators and advocates in how they seek and use information and what their preferences are for how research information is framed. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional comparison of survey responses by US advocates (n = 77) and state legislators (n = 265) working on issues related to cancer control. Results Advocates differed significantly from legislators on all demographic characteristics. Advocates reported seeking and using information more frequently than legislators, though legislators used legislative research bureaus more often (0.45 point difference, P = .004). Both legislators and advocates prioritized the presentation and timeliness of research information similarly but reported different preferences for source (information bias, information relevance, delivery of information by trusted person) of research information. Several differences between advocates and legislators were modified by participant age. Conclusion Our study provides insights for development of knowledge translation strategies to enhance evidence-based policy making for cancer control that are tailored to state-level legislators and advocates. Additional research efforts should evaluate the effectiveness of such knowledge translation strategies, particularly among advocates. PMID:28152363

  13. Characteristics and Effectiveness of the U.S. State E-Government-to-Business Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Jensen J.; Truell, Allen; Alexander, Melody W.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the user-interface characteristics and effectiveness of the e-government-to-business (G2B) sites of the 50 U.S. states and Washington, D.C. A group of 306 online users were trained to assess the sites. The findings indicate that the majority of the state G2B sites included the user-interface characteristics that provided online…

  14. Policy makers' perspectives on tobacco control advocates' roles in regulation development

    PubMed Central

    Montini, T.; Bero, L.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To identify, from policy makers' perspectives, strategies that enhance tobacco control advocates' effectiveness in the regulatory arena.
DESIGN—Key informant interview component of a comparative case study of regulatory agencies in the USA.
SUBJECTS—Policy makers involved in the development of four regulatory tobacco control policies (three state and one federal).
METHODS—Interviews of policy makers, field notes, and deliberation minutes were coded inductively.
RESULTS—Policy makers considered both written commentary and public testimony when developing tobacco control regulations. They triaged written commentary based upon whether the document was from a peer reviewed journal, a summary of research evidence, or from a source considered credible. They coped with in-person testimony by avoiding being diverted from the scientific evidence, and by assessing the presenters' credibility. Policy makers suggested that tobacco control advocates should: present science in a format that is well organised and easily absorbed; engage scientific experts to participate in the regulatory process; and lobby to support the tobacco control efforts of the regulatory agency.
CONCLUSIONS—There is an important role for tobacco control advocates in the policy development process in regulatory agencies.


Keywords: health policy; regulations; policy makers PMID:11544384

  15. Beyond "safe and effective": the role of the federal government in supporting and disseminating comparative-effectiveness research.

    PubMed

    Francis, Maggie H

    2012-01-01

    Over the past century, medical advancements have resulted in tremendous health gains for Americans. Although the federal government has played a prominent role in ensuring that new treatments are safe and effective, questions about which medical treatments work best under which circumstances have largely remained unanswered. Thus, the federal government's recent major investments in comparative-effectiveness research have potential to play a significant role in helping both patients and health care providers navigate the vast array of available treatment options, as well as in improving the quality, efficiency, and delivery of health care system-wide. Yet, the controversial nature of the government's foray into comparative-effectiveness research also suggests that the path toward realizing these goals may be treacherous. This Article describes the rationales for federal support of comparative-effectiveness research and potential models for that involvement, analyzes the federal government's recent investments in the research, and concludes with predictions about the probable outcomes of these investments. While increased federal support for comparative-effectiveness research is unlikely to achieve all of the benefits anticipated by its supporters, it is a crucial step toward ensuring that Americans are able to take full advantage of the benefits of medical innovation

  16. Lessons from tobacco control for advocates of healthy transport.

    PubMed

    Mindell, J

    2001-06-01

    Many parallels can be drawn between cigarettes and motor vehicles, smoking and car driving, and the tobacco and the auto/oil industries. Those promoting healthy and sustainable transport policies can learn lessons from tobacco control activities over the past 50 years. Evidence-based legislation is more effective than negotiated voluntary agreements between industry and government. Media advocacy is crucial to reframe the issues to allow changes in national policies that facilitate healthier choices. Worthwhile public health policies seen as a threat by multinational companies will be opposed by them but active national and international networks of healthcare professionals, voluntary organizations, charities and their supporters can match the political power of these industries.

  17. Resident health advocates in public housing family developments.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Deborah J; Bhosrekar, Sarah Gees; Rorie, Jo-Anna; Goodman, Rachel; Thomas, Gerry; Maxwell, Nancy Irwin; Smith, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Translation of research to practice often needs intermediaries to help the process occur. Our Prevention Research Center has identified a total of 89 residents of public housing in the last 11 years who have been working in the Resident Health Advocate (RHA) program to engage residents in improving their own and other residents' health status by becoming trained in skills needed by community health workers. Future directions include training for teens to become Teen RHAs and further integration of our RHA program with changes in the health care system and in the roles of community health workers in general.

  18. WELFARE AND CITIZENSHIP: THE EFFECTS OF GOVERNMENT ASSISTANCE ON YOUNG ADULTS’ CIVIC PARTICIPATION

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Teresa Toguchi; Blackstone, Amy; Uggen, Christopher; McLaughlin, Heather

    2009-01-01

    Recent scholarship and public discourse highlight an apparent waning of civic engagement in the United States. Although the welfare state is generally thought to support democracy by reducing economic inequality, it may paradoxically contribute to political disempowerment of some groups. We examine the effects of state interventions on civic participation among young adults, hypothesizing that involvement with stigmatizing social programs, such as welfare, reduces political engagement while receipt of non-stigmatizing government assistance does not dampen civic involvement. Using official voting records and survey data from the Youth Development Study (YDS), a longitudinal community sample of young adults, a series of regression models suggests that welfare recipients are less likely to vote than non-recipients, whereas recipients of non-means tested government assistance participate similarly to young adults who do not receive government help. These effects hold even when background factors, self-efficacy, and prior voting behavior are controlled. Welfare receipt is not associated, however, with suppressed participation in non-state arenas such as volunteer work. Intensive interviews with YDS welfare recipients are used to illustrate and develop the analysis. PMID:19888350

  19. Does School Board Training Encourage and Equip School Board Members to Exhibit the Behaviors of Effective Governance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Issaic

    2013-01-01

    This study applied 3 theoretical frameworks--Lee Bolman and Terrence Deal's four frames, the Lighthouse Inquiry of the Iowa Association of School Boards, and effective governance characteristics--to examine the impact of the Masters in Governance (MIG) training offered by the California School Boards Association on the ability of school board…

  20. One National Response: Synergy Networks for Effective HIV Education among Government Agencies, Nongovernmental Organizations, and Development Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osewe, Patrick L.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004 UNAIDS and its development partners first introduced the Three-Ones Principles. Since then, many governments have developed national strategic frameworks and guiding policy documents to help coordinate more effective national responses in the battle to overcome AIDS. In this article, I outline how essential it is for government agencies,…

  1. The Effects of Governing Board Configuration on Profound Organizational Change in Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jeffrey A.; Ye, Yining; Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Weiner, Bryan J.

    2006-01-01

    This study extends the literature on governing boards and organizational change by examining how governing board configurations have influenced profound organizational change in U.S. hospitals, and the conditions under which such change occurs. Hospitals governed by boards that more closely resembled a corporate governance model were more likely…

  2. Multiple Facets of Candidate Image Structure: Effects of the McGovern Television Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwood, L. Erwin; And Others

    In this comparison of the political "images" of Richard Nixon and George McGovern, public opinion data were collected on President Nixon in 1968 and 1972 and on Senator McGovern in 1972 just before and just after the television broadcast of the biography of McGovern. Changes in political attitudes toward Nixon and McGovern as a result of…

  3. Reconstituting Local Government for Well-Being and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Luvern L.

    This speech advocates substantial change in the structure and management of local governments and school districts. The discussion focuses on a reconstitution of mission, philosophy, broad goals, and features of local school governance and management. The speaker asserts that the focus of local government around the nation should individually and…

  4. The Education of Homeless Children: Rules, Rights and Practical Solutions. A Training Manual for Shelter Providers, Staff, Advocates and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heybach, Laurene M.; Nix-Hodes, Patricia; Price, Sarah

    These training materials provide advocates with the tools needed to help families obtain a stable and effective education for their children despite the condition of homelessness and the trauma that accompanies it. Nine sections include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "How Mobility Hurts Homeless Children and Schools"; (3) "Laws…

  5. Oregon's Senate Bill 560: practical policy lessons for nurse advocates.

    PubMed

    Gilson Sistrom, Maria

    2010-02-01

    In response to striking rates of childhood obesity in Oregon, advocates led by a nurse lobbyist proposed legislation in 2005 to regulate junk foods in public schools. Several theories propose to explain the policy-making process, yet Senate Bill 560 (SB 560) followed a twisted course through rule making, legislative and political processes that are not well articulated in policy theory. Three overlapping mechanisms were identified in content analysis of documents and interviews with participants in the SB 560 policy process. Strategically placed legislative "banana peels," proponents' amateur advocacy, and legislative outflanking by professional lobbyists more fully characterize this policy process and better account for the failure of SB 560. Subsequent passage of the Oregon Healthy School Foods bill in the more politically conducive 2007 legislature suggest that advocacy and incremental change frameworks are less predictive of successful passage than is the ability to take advantage of political opportunities to change public health policy.

  6. The challenge of gun control for mental health advocates.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Anand

    2013-09-01

    Mass shootings, such as the 2012 Newtown massacre, have repeatedly led to political discourse about limiting access to guns for individuals with serious mental illness. Although the political climate after such tragic events poses a considerable challenge to mental health advocates who wish to minimize unsympathetic portrayals of those with mental illness, such media attention may be a rare opportunity to focus attention on risks of victimization of those with serious mental illness and barriers to obtaining psychiatric care. Current federal gun control laws may discourage individuals from seeking psychiatric treatment and describe individuals with mental illness using anachronistic, imprecise, and gratuitously stigmatizing language. This article lays out potential talking points that may be useful after future gun violence.

  7. Role of professional organizations in advocating for the nursing profession.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Jennifer H

    2012-01-31

    Professional organizations and associations in nursing are critical for generating the energy, flow of ideas, and proactive work needed to maintain a healthy profession that advocates for the needs of its clients and nurses, and the trust of society. In this article the author discusses the characteristics of a profession, reviews the history of professional nursing organizations, and describes the advocacy activities of professional nursing organizations. Throughout, she explains how the three foundational documents of the nursing profession emphasize nursing advocacy by the professional organizations as outlined in the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses With Interpretive Statements. The author concludes by encouraging all nurses to engage in their professional organizations and associations, noting how these organizations contribute to the accountability and voice of the profession to society.

  8. Spousal labor market effects from government health insurance: Evidence from a veterans affairs expansion.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Melissa A; Lahey, Joanna N

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the total impact of health insurance receipt on household labor supply is important in an era of increased access to publicly provided and subsidized insurance. Although government expansion of health insurance to older workers leads to direct labor supply reductions for recipients, there may be spillover effects on the labor supply of uncovered spouses. While the most basic model predicts a decrease in overall household work hours, financial incentives such as credit constraints, target income levels, and the need for own health insurance suggest that spousal labor supply might increase. In contrast, complementarities of spousal leisure would predict a decrease in labor supply for both spouses. Utilizing a mid-1990s expansion of health insurance for U.S. veterans, we provide evidence on the effects of public insurance availability on the labor supply of spouses. Using data from the Current Population Survey and Health and Retirement Study, we employ a difference-in-differences strategy to compare the labor market behavior of the wives of older male veterans and non-veterans before and after the VA health benefits expansion. Although husbands' labor supply decreases, wives' labor supply increases, suggesting that financial incentives dominate complementarities of spousal leisure. This effect is strongest for wives with lower education levels and lower levels of household wealth and those who were not previously employed full-time. These findings have implications for government programs such as Medicare and Social Security and the Affordable Care Act.

  9. Spousal Labor Market Effects from Government Health Insurance: Evidence from a Veterans Affairs Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Melissa A.; Lahey, Joanna N.

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the total impact of health insurance receipt on household labor supply is important in an era of increased access to publicly-provided and subsidized insurance. Although government expansion of health insurance to older workers leads to direct labor supply reductions for recipients, there may be spillover effects on the labor supply of uncovered spouses. While the most basic model predicts a decrease in overall household work hours, financial incentives such as credit constraints, target income levels, and the need for own health insurance suggest that spousal labor supply might increase. In contrast, complementarities of spousal leisure would predict a decrease in labor supply for both spouses. Utilizing a mid-1990s expansion of health insurance for U.S. veterans, we provide evidence on the effects of public insurance availability on the labor supply of spouses. Using data from the Current Population Survey and Health and Retirement Study, we employ a difference-in-differences strategy to compare the labor market behavior of the wives of older male veterans and non-veterans before and after the VA health benefits expansion. Although husbands’ labor supply decreases, wives’ labor supply increases, suggesting that financial incentives dominate complementarities of spousal leisure. This effect is strongest for wives with lower education levels and lower levels of household wealth and those who were not previously employed full-time. These findings have implications for government programs such as Medicare and Social Security and the Affordable Care Act. JEL codes: H4, I1, J2 PMID:26734757

  10. Evidence-based practices reduce juvenile recidivism: can state government effectively promote implementation among probation departments?

    PubMed

    Seave, Paul L

    2011-09-01

    California places tens of thousands of juveniles into its 58 county-based justice systems every year. The offenders do not generally experience reduced rates of recidivism. Evidence-based practices can reliably and significantly reduce these rates. Probation departments have infrequently chosen to implement these practices, in large part because of the training, data collection, and organizational change required. Current state law does not effectively mandate these practices and more importantly fails to recognize and fund the substantial and ongoing training and technical assistance that would be required to implement these practices. State government could best promote evidence-based practices by working collegially with probation departments to obtain and distribute private and public funding to support effective implementation.

  11. Shared Governance Manual: Active Cooperation for a More Effective Education. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salt Lake City School District, UT.

    The Salt Lake City Board of Education appointed a committee in May 1988 to review shared governance concepts and as a part of the deliberations this handbook was revised. The handbook has seven sections: (1) basic history and philosophy; (2) policies and agreements regarding shared governance; (3) the principles of shared governance; (4) the…

  12. Government Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlatch, Jo Bell

    1979-01-01

    Reviews recent federal publications on government information, particularly in the area of general informational services, public access to government information and privacy issues, coordination of government information systems, and congressional information needs. (Author)

  13. Esther McCready, RN: Nursing Advocate for Civil Rights

    PubMed

    Pollitt, Phoebe A

    2016-02-15

    More than a decade before the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as an African American teenager from Baltimore, Maryland, Esther McCready challenged the discriminatory admissions policies of the University of Maryland School of Nursing (UMSON). The article explores nurse advocacy and how Esther McCready advocated for herself and greater racial equity in nursing education during a time of civil rights turmoil. Her actions eventually resulted in the formation of numerous schools of nursing for African Americans across the south. This article recounts McCready’s early life experiences and the powerful impact her actions had on creating educational options for nurses during a time when they were severely limited for African American women, including discussion of her student days at UMSON and her journey after nursing school. A review of pertinent legal cases and policies related to segregation and integration of higher education in the mid-twentieth century is presented, along with details of McCready’s continued education and advocacy.

  14. Effects of government incentives on wind innovation in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horner, Nathaniel; Azevedo, Inês; Hounshell, David

    2013-12-01

    In the United States, as elsewhere, state and federal governments have considered or implemented a range of policies to create more sustainable energy generation systems in response to concerns over climate change, security of fuel supply, and environmental impacts. These policies include both regulatory instruments such as renewable portfolio standards (RPSs) and market incentives such as tax credits. While these policies are primarily geared towards increasing renewable generation capacity, they can indirectly affect innovation in associated technologies through a ‘demand-pull’ dynamic. Other policies, such as public research and development (R&D) funding, directly incentivize innovation through ‘technology-push’ means. In this letter, we examine these effects on innovation in the United States wind energy industry. We estimate a set of econometric models relating a set of US federal and state policies to patenting activity in wind technologies over the period 1974-2009. We find that RPS policies have had significant positive effects on wind innovation, whereas tax-based incentives have not been particularly effective. We also find evidence that the effects of RPS incentives differ between states. Finally, we find that public R&D funding can be a significant driver of wind innovation, though its effect in the US has been modest.

  15. Constitutional Principles and E-Government: An Opinion about Possible Effects of Federalism and the Separation of Powers on E-Government Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Paul T.

    2002-01-01

    Examines how Constitutional principles, specifically the doctrines of Federalism and the separation of powers, relate to e-government policies and practices. Suggests that the move toward e-government, with emphasis on the simplification of access to government information and services, must be considered with regard to Federalism and separation…

  16. 42 CFR 51.22 - Governing authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or are receiving mental health services, and family members, guardians, advocates, or authorized... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Governing authority. 51.22 Section 51.22 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE...

  17. Changing Patterns of Governance for Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Kay; Treadgold, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with the "corporate" model for university governance, a model advocated by both sides of the Australian parliament and adopted by Australian universities over the past two decades, prompted the Australian Vice-Chancellors' Committee (AVCC) in 2003 to suggest an alternative "trusteeship" model. The paper…

  18. Why health advocates must get involved in development economics: the case of the International Monetary Fund.

    PubMed

    Rowden, Rick

    2010-01-01

    International health advocates have traditionally focused on calling for external strategies for achieving health goals in developing countries, such as more foreign aid, foreign direct investment, loans, and debt cancellation, as opposed to internal approaches, such as building domestic productive capacity and accumulating capital. They have largely neglected questions of development economics, particularly the effectiveness, or lack thereof, of the currently dominant neoliberal development model promoted by the rich countries and aid agencies for poor countries. While critics have been correct to blame the International Monetary Fund for its policies curtailing public health spending in developing countries, their analysis generally neglects the underlying issue of why developing countries are seemingly unable to build their domestic tax base on which health budgets depend. International health advocates should engage with such macroeconomic questions and challenge the failures of the dominant neoliberal economic model that blocks countries from industrializing and building their own productive capacities with which to generate their own resources for financing their health budgets over time.

  19. Health Systems Governance for health equity: critical reflections.

    PubMed

    Labonté, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses several issues pertinent to health systems governance for health equity. It argues the importance of health systems using measures of positive health (well-being), discriminating in favour of historically less advantaged groups and weighing the costs of health care against investments in the social determinants of health. It cautions that the concept of governance could weaken the role of government, with disequalizing effects, while emphasizing the importance of two elements of good governance (transparency and participation) in health systems decision-making. It distinguishes between participation as volunteer labour and participation as exercising political rights, and questions the assumption that decentralization in health systems is necessarily empowering. It then identifies five health system roles to address issues of equity (educator/watchdog, resource broker, community developer, partnership developer and advocate/catalyst) and the implications of these roles for practice. Drawing on preliminary findings of a global research project on comprehensive primary health care, it discusses political aspects of progressive health system reform and the implications of equity-focused health system governance on health workers' roles, noting the importance of health workers claiming their identity as citizens. The article concludes with a commentary on the inherently political nature of health reforms based on equity; the necessary confrontation with power relations politics involves; and the health systems governance challenge of managing competing health discourses of efficiency and results-based financing, on the one hand, and equity and citizen empowerment, on the other.

  20. 41 CFR 301-70.802 - Must we ensure that travel on Government aircraft is the most cost-effective alternative?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... travel on Government aircraft is the most cost-effective alternative? 301-70.802 Section 301-70.802... Agencies That Authorize Travel on Government Aircraft § 301-70.802 Must we ensure that travel on Government aircraft is the most cost-effective alternative? (a) Yes, you must ensure that travel on a...

  1. 41 CFR 301-70.903 - What are our responsibilities for ensuring that Government aircraft are the most cost-effective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... responsibilities for ensuring that Government aircraft are the most cost-effective alternative for travel? 301-70... Policies and Procedures for Agencies That Own or Hire Government Aircraft for Travel § 301-70.903 What are our responsibilities for ensuring that Government aircraft are the most cost-effective alternative...

  2. 41 CFR 301-70.802 - Must we ensure that travel on Government aircraft is the most cost-effective alternative?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... travel on Government aircraft is the most cost-effective alternative? 301-70.802 Section 301-70.802... Agencies That Authorize Travel on Government Aircraft § 301-70.802 Must we ensure that travel on Government aircraft is the most cost-effective alternative? (a) Yes, you must ensure that travel on a...

  3. 41 CFR 301-70.903 - What are our responsibilities for ensuring that Government aircraft are the most cost-effective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... responsibilities for ensuring that Government aircraft are the most cost-effective alternative for travel? 301-70... Policies and Procedures for Agencies That Own or Hire Government Aircraft for Travel § 301-70.903 What are our responsibilities for ensuring that Government aircraft are the most cost-effective alternative...

  4. 41 CFR 301-70.903 - What are our responsibilities for ensuring that Government aircraft are the most cost-effective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... responsibilities for ensuring that Government aircraft are the most cost-effective alternative for travel? 301-70... Policies and Procedures for Agencies That Own or Hire Government Aircraft for Travel § 301-70.903 What are our responsibilities for ensuring that Government aircraft are the most cost-effective alternative...

  5. 41 CFR 301-70.802 - Must we ensure that travel on Government aircraft is the most cost-effective alternative?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... travel on Government aircraft is the most cost-effective alternative? 301-70.802 Section 301-70.802... Agencies That Authorize Travel on Government Aircraft § 301-70.802 Must we ensure that travel on Government aircraft is the most cost-effective alternative? (a) Yes, you must ensure that travel on a...

  6. 41 CFR 301-70.802 - Must we ensure that travel on Government aircraft is the most cost-effective alternative?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... travel on Government aircraft is the most cost-effective alternative? 301-70.802 Section 301-70.802... Agencies That Authorize Travel on Government Aircraft § 301-70.802 Must we ensure that travel on Government aircraft is the most cost-effective alternative? (a) Yes, you must ensure that travel on a...

  7. 41 CFR 301-70.802 - Must we ensure that travel on Government aircraft is the most cost-effective alternative?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... travel on Government aircraft is the most cost-effective alternative? 301-70.802 Section 301-70.802... Agencies That Authorize Travel on Government Aircraft § 301-70.802 Must we ensure that travel on Government aircraft is the most cost-effective alternative? (a) Yes, you must ensure that travel on a...

  8. 41 CFR 301-70.903 - What are our responsibilities for ensuring that Government aircraft are the most cost-effective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... responsibilities for ensuring that Government aircraft are the most cost-effective alternative for travel? 301-70... Policies and Procedures for Agencies That Own or Hire Government Aircraft for Travel § 301-70.903 What are our responsibilities for ensuring that Government aircraft are the most cost-effective alternative...

  9. 41 CFR 301-70.903 - What are our responsibilities for ensuring that Government aircraft are the most cost-effective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... responsibilities for ensuring that Government aircraft are the most cost-effective alternative for travel? 301-70... Policies and Procedures for Agencies That Own or Hire Government Aircraft for Travel § 301-70.903 What are our responsibilities for ensuring that Government aircraft are the most cost-effective alternative...

  10. The Independent Living Donor Advocate: An Essential Role for Living Kidney Donation.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Karen C

    2014-01-01

    Prior to 2007, living kidney donors who donated a kidney to a person with chronic kidney disease were screened, educated, and cared for by the same healthcare team caring for the recipient of the transplant. The independent living donor advocate or advocate team was created out of the need to ensure that the rights of the person donating a kidney are protected, respected, and maintained. Transplant programs must now have an advocate or advocate team who is separate from the recipient healthcare team to provide objective support for the donor, without regard for the recipient, and avoid any perception of a conflict of interest between the donor and recipient.

  11. Making Democracy Matter: Responsibility and Effective Environmental Governance in Regional Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallington, Tabatha J.; Lawrence, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    This paper will critically examine the changing social relations of responsibility associated with Australia's current regional "experiment" in environmental governance. This experiment centrally involves the transfer of responsibility for natural resource management (NRM) from Federal and State governments to community-based regional…

  12. Governing Urban School Districts: Efforts in Los Angeles to Effect Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustine, Catherine H.; Epstein, Diana; Vuollo, Mirka

    2006-01-01

    Many urban school district students are dropping out and few of the remaining ones reach state or district achievement goals. These problems make governing urban schools both difficult and important. In 2005-06, the governance structure of the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) was examined, debated, criticized, and praised by several…

  13. A Preliminary Evaluation of Instructional Effectiveness of Online Training Implemented at a Government Agency in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supanakorn-Davila, Supawan; Bolliger, Doris U.

    2012-01-01

    Online training has become popular in the professional development of government employees in Thailand. One large government agency developed an online program to provide training to its employees across the country using two systems: an Internet and Intranet-based system. With the new program implemented, the evaluation of the instructional…

  14. High Impact District Governance: Effective School Board Member Actions and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rindo, Roger J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine school board member behaviors to determine how those board members operationalized the broad constructs of high impact governance found in the literature. Behaviors of high impact governance were defined in this study as: Focusing on the district's strategic, long-term directions; addressing the…

  15. A Measure of Systems Engineering Effectiveness in Government Acquisition of Complex Information Systems: A Bayesian Belief Network-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doskey, Steven Craig

    2014-01-01

    This research presents an innovative means of gauging Systems Engineering effectiveness through a Systems Engineering Relative Effectiveness Index (SE REI) model. The SE REI model uses a Bayesian Belief Network to map causal relationships in government acquisitions of Complex Information Systems (CIS), enabling practitioners to identify and…

  16. Determinants of efficiency in reducing child mortality in developing countries. The role of inequality and government effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Bienvenido; Sanjuán, Jesús; Casquero, Antonio

    2016-05-03

    The main aim of this article was to analyze the relationship of income inequality and government effectiveness with differences in efficiency in the use of health inputs to improve the under-five survival rate (U5SR) in developing countries. Robust Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and regression analysis were conducted using data for 47 developing countries for the periods 2000-2004, 2005-2009, and 2010-2012. The estimations show that countries with a more equal income distribution and better government effectiveness (i.e. a more competent bureaucracy and good quality public service delivery) may need fewer health inputs to achieve a specific level of the U5SR than other countries with higher inequality and worse government effectiveness.

  17. Aid effectiveness and women's empowerment: practices of governance in the funding of international development.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Marie L; Teghtsoonian, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Although the empowerment of women is a prominent goal in international development, feminist development professionals, activists, and scholars remain deeply dissatisfied with the limited extent to which women's empowerment is actually achieved. Their experiences and analyses raise questions about the connections and disjunctions between discourse, institutional practices, and everyday life. A major effort to reform development aid guided by the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness raises new questions about the place of gender in development practice. Drawing on recently conducted research on women and development in Kyrgyzstan and using a range of institutional texts, we interrogate how development professionals and activists engage with the aid effectiveness discourse. Our analytic approach, institutional ethnography, shares with work on governmentality an empirical focus on practices undertaken by diversely situated people and how these practices constitute a particular field of action. Institutional ethnography directs analytic attention to the operation of texts as local and translocal coordinators of people's everyday activities. The product of this coordinated work is what we call, in this case, the development institution. For those concerned about women and development, we see the usefulness of making visible how global governance is accomplished in both enactments of and resistance to institutional practices, but in ways that do not necessarily benefit women.

  18. Dog fight: Darwin as animal advocate in the antivivisection controversy of 1875.

    PubMed

    Feller, David Allan

    2009-12-01

    The traditional characterization of Charles Darwin as a strong advocate of physiological experimentation on animals was posited in Richard French's Antivivisection and medical science in Victorian England (1975), where French portrayed him as a soldier in Thomas Huxley's efforts to preserve anatomical experimentation on animals unfettered by government regulation. That interpretation relied too much on, inter alia, Huxley's own description of the legislative battles of 1875, and shared many historians' propensity to foster a legacy of Darwin as a leader among a new wave of scientists, even where personal interests might indicate a conflicting story. Animal rights issues concerned more than mere science for Darwin, however, and where debates over other scientific issues failed to inspire Darwin to become publicly active, he readily joined the battle over vivisection, helping to draft legislation which, in many ways, was more protective of animal rights than even the bills proposed by his friend and anti-vivisectionist, Frances Power Cobbe. Darwin may not have officially joined Cobbe's side in the fight, but personal correspondence of the period between 1870 and 1875 reveals a man whose first interest was to protect animals from inhumane treatment, and second to protect the reputations of those men and physiologists who were his friends, and who he believed incapable of inhumane acts. On this latter point he and Cobbe never did reach agreement, but they certainly agreed on the humane treatment of animals, and the need to proscribe various forms of animal experimentation.

  19. Condom Nation. Government Sex Education Promotes Teen Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasun, Jacqueline R.

    1994-01-01

    Argues that sexual activity and pregnancy has increased among adolescents in part because of government's role in subsidizing illegitimacy and abortion. The author offers solutions to the pregnancy problem by advocating parental notification laws when minors seek abortions, less government funding for birth control measures and abortion, and more…

  20. Lessons Learned from an Industry, Government and University Collaboration to Restore Stream Habitats and Mitigate Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Nicholas E.; Scrimgeour, Garry J.; Tonn, William M.

    2017-01-01

    Restoration ecologists conduct both basic and applied research using a diversity of funding and collaborative models. Over the last 17 years we have assessed the effectiveness of a stream compensation project in Canada's north, where an independent university-based research program was a condition of the regulatory approval process. This resulted in a non-traditional university-government-industry partnership. Here we share seven lessons that we learned from our collective experiences with the research partnership and use the Ekati diamond mine as a case study to illustrate and support lessons learned. Our advice includes opinions on the importance of: engaging collaborators early, defining roles and responsibilities, data sharing and standardization, the use of natural streams to set restoration targets, expect setbacks and surprises, treating restoration as an opportunity to experiment, and how to define success. Many of the lessons learned are broadly applicable to those whom embark on research collaborations among industry, universities, and consulting companies within a regulatory framework and may be of particular value to collaborators in early stages of their career.

  1. Effects of Governance on Availability of Land for Agriculture and Conservation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sparovek, Gerd; Barretto, Alberto Giaroli de Oliveira Pereira; Matsumoto, Marcelo; Berndes, Göran

    2015-09-01

    The 2012 revision of the Brazilian Forest Act changed the relative importance of private and public governance for nature conservation and agricultural production. We present a spatially explicit land-use model for Brazilian agricultural production and nature conservation that considers the spatial distribution of agricultural land suitability, technological and management options, legal command, and control frameworks including the Atlantic Forest Law, the revised Forest Act, and the Amazonian land-titling, "Terra Legal," and also market-driven land use regulations. The model is used to analyze land use allocation under three scenarios with varying priorities among agricultural production and environmental protection objectives. In all scenarios, the legal command and control frameworks were the most important determinants of conservation outcomes, protecting at least 80% of the existing natural vegetation. Situations where such frameworks are not expected to be effective can be identified and targeted for additional conservation (beyond legal requirements) through voluntary actions or self-regulation in response to markets. All scenarios allow for a substantial increase in crop production, using an area 1.5-2.7 times the current cropland area, with much of new cropland occurring on current pastureland. Current public arrangements that promote conservation can, in conjunction with voluntary schemes on private lands where conversion to agriculture is favored, provide important additional nature conservation without conflicting with national agricultural production objectives.

  2. Selling without $$: Grassroots Advocates of Gifted and Talented Education Meet the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Mary Eileen

    This monograph describes media strategies that advocates for gifted children can use to promote gifted and talented education. It begins by discussing different types of media outlets that advocates can use to get their message across, including television, radio, newspapers, and the Internet. The tools of media work are then described. Ways to…

  3. An Overview of the ACE Project—Advocating for Clinical Excellence: Transdisciplinary Palliative Care Education

    PubMed Central

    Otis-Green, Shirley; Ferrell, Betty; Spolum, Maren; Uman, Gwen; Mullan, Patricia; Baird, Reverend Pamela; Grant, Marcia

    2009-01-01

    Background Excellence in palliative care demands attention to the multidimensional aspects of patient and family suffering, yet too few psycho-oncology professionals report adequate preparation in this vital area. Methods A total of 148 competitively selected psychologists, social workers, and spiritual care professionals participated in intensive educational courses to enhance their palliative care delivery, leadership, and advocacy skills. Extensive process and outcome evaluations measured the effectiveness of this educational program. Results To date, 2 national courses have been completed. The courses received strong overall evaluations, with participants rating increased confidence in defined palliative care skills. Conclusions The initial results of this innovative National Cancer Institute-funded transdisciplinary training for psycho-oncology professionals affirm the need and feasibility of the program. See the Advocating for Clinical Excellence Project Web site (www.cityofhope.org/ACEproject) for additional course information. PMID:19431028

  4. Government Agencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    manufacturers. The Navy has a major in- house design capability for ships; the government does not possess such a capability for aircraft or other weapon systems...the Coast Guard, government agencies acquire a wide variety of ships, ranging from sophisticated submarines and nuclear aircraft carriers to much...the initial phase a review was made of written material relating to government procedures in U.S. Government agencies for acquiring vessels, aircraft

  5. Military Government

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1949-07-01

    CGSC MG MILITARY GOVERNMENT LIBHARY ARI\\’IY WAR COLLEGE CJ\\RLISLE BARRACKS, PAa This text is approved for resident and extension-course...and functions · of ’ military government . It conforms ·substantially to the subject matter , of Field Manual 27-5, Civil Affairs/ Military Government ...Teaching experience at the Command and General Staff College has ···--·demonstrated the need for a military government text which brings to- gether

  6. Tobacco control advocates must demand high-quality media campaigns: the California experience

    PubMed Central

    Balbach, E.; Glantz, S.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To document efforts on the part of public officials in California to soften the media campaign's attack on the tobacco industry and to analyse strategies to counter those efforts on the part of tobacco control advocates.
METHODS—Data were gathered from interviews with programme participants, direct observation, written materials, and media stories. In addition, internal documents were released by the state's Department of Health Services in response to requests made under the California Public Records Act by Americans for Nonsmokers' Rights. Finally, a draft of the paper was circulated to 11 key players for their comments.
RESULTS—In 1988 California voters enacted Proposition 99, an initiative that raised the tobacco tax by $0.25 and allocated 20% of the revenues to anti-tobacco education. A media campaign, which was part of the education programme, directly attacked the tobacco industry, exposing the media campaign to politically based efforts to shut it down or soften it. Through use of outsider strategies such as advertising, press conferences, and public meetings, programme advocates were able to counter the efforts to soften the campaign.
CONCLUSION—Anti-tobacco media campaigns that expose industry manipulation are a key component of an effective tobacco control programme. The effectiveness of these campaigns, however, makes them a target for elimination by the tobacco industry. The experience from California demonstrates the need for continuing, aggressive intervention by non-governmental organisations in order to maintain the quality of anti-tobacco media campaigns.


Keywords: media campaigns; anti-tobacco advocacy; California PMID:10093175

  7. Women's rights advocates achieve victories as UN conference concludes.

    PubMed

    1995-09-29

    On September 15, 1995, government delegations finished the Platform for Action of the United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, China. In this historic document, individual governments and the international community committed themselves to the advancement of women worldwide. Human rights issues (violence against women and female children, and reproductive freedom and health) were discussed and affirmed. Paragraph 2 of the human rights section states that "the human rights of women and the girl child are an inalienable, integral and indivisible part of universal human rights." Paragraph 9 adds "full realization of all human rights and fundamental freedoms of all women is essential for the empowerment of women." Acknowledging "the significance of national and regional particularities and various historical, cultural and religious backgrounds," the document still calls for "states, regardless of their political, economic and cultural systems, to promote and protect all human rights and fundamental freedoms." The human rights section "reaffirms that [reproductive rights] rest on the recognition of the basic right of all couples and individuals to decide freely and responsibly the number, spacing, and timing of their children and to have the information and means to do so, and the right to attain the highest standard of sexual and reproductive health. It also includes their right to make decisions concerning reproduction free of discrimination, coercion and violence, as expressed in human rights documents." The platform recognizes violence against women and girls in all societies (physical, psychological, and sexual abuse that includes murder; systematic rape; forced pregnancy, sterilization, contraception, and abortion; female infanticide; battering; and trafficking in women that is perpetrated by state and nonstate actors). The section on women and armed conflict declares that "rape in the conduct of armed conflict constitutes a war crime and under

  8. Effects of a Municipal Government's Worksite Exercise Program on Employee Absenteeism, Health Care Costs, and Variables Associated with Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruett, Angela W.; Howze, Elizabeth H.

    The Blacksburg (Virginia) municipal government's worksite exercise program, developed in response to rising health insurance premiums, was evaluated to determine its effect on health care costs and employee absenteeism. Thirty-two employees who participated in the program for 4.5 years were compared to 32 nonparticipating employees. The program…

  9. Planning for the next generation of public health advocates: evaluation of an online advocacy mentoring program.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Emily; Stoneham, Melissa; Saunders, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Despite being viewed as a core competency for public health professionals, public health advocacy lacks a prominent place in the public health literature and receives minimal coverage in university curricula. The Public Health Advocacy Institute of Western Australia (PHAIWA) sought to fill this gap by establishing an online e-mentoring program for public health professionals to gain knowledge through skill-based activities and engaging in a mentoring relationship with an experienced public health advocate. This study is a qualitative evaluation of the online e-mentoring program. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with program participants at the conclusion of the 12-month program to examine program benefits and determine the perceived contribution of individual program components to overall advocacy outcomes. Results Increased mentee knowledge, skills, level of confidence and experience, and expanded public health networks were reported. Outcomes were dependent on participants' level of commitment, time and location barriers, mentoring relationship quality, adaptability to the online format and the relevance of activities for application to participants' workplace context. Program facilitators had an important role through the provision of timely feedback and maintaining contact with participants. Conclusion An online program that combines public health advocacy content via skill-based activities with mentoring from an experienced public health advocate is a potential strategy to build advocacy capacity in the public health workforce. So what? Integrating advocacy as a core component of professional development programs will help counteract current issues surrounding hesitancy by public health professionals to proactively engage in advocacy, and ensure that high quality, innovative and effective advocacy leadership continues in the Australian public health workforce.

  10. Bridging Organizations Drive Effective Governance Outcomes for Conservation of Indonesia's Marine Systems.

    PubMed

    Berdej, Samantha M; Armitage, Derek R

    2016-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the influence of bridging organizations on governance outcomes for marine conservation in Indonesia. Conservation challenges require ways of governing that are collaborative and adaptive across boundaries, and where conservation actions are better coordinated, information flows improved, and knowledge better integrated and mobilized. We combine quantitative social network analysis and qualitative data to analyze bridging organizations and their networks, and to understand their contributions and constraints in two case studies in Bali, Indonesia. The analysis shows 1) bridging organizations help to navigate the 'messiness' inherent in conservation settings by compensating for sparse linkages, 2) the particular structure and function of bridging organizations influence governing processes (i.e., collaboration, knowledge sharing) and subsequent conservation outcomes, 3) 'bridging' is accomplished using different strategies and platforms for collaboration and social learning, and 4) bridging organizations enhance flexibility to adjust to changing marine conservation contexts and needs. Understanding the organizations that occupy bridging positions, and how they utilize their positionality in a governance network is emerging as an important determinant of successful conservation outcomes. Our findings contribute to a relatively new body of literature on bridging organizations in marine conservation contexts, and add needed empirical investigation into their value to governance and conservation in Coral Triangle nations and beyond.

  11. Bridging Organizations Drive Effective Governance Outcomes for Conservation of Indonesia’s Marine Systems

    PubMed Central

    Berdej, Samantha M.; Armitage, Derek R.

    2016-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the influence of bridging organizations on governance outcomes for marine conservation in Indonesia. Conservation challenges require ways of governing that are collaborative and adaptive across boundaries, and where conservation actions are better coordinated, information flows improved, and knowledge better integrated and mobilized. We combine quantitative social network analysis and qualitative data to analyze bridging organizations and their networks, and to understand their contributions and constraints in two case studies in Bali, Indonesia. The analysis shows 1) bridging organizations help to navigate the ‘messiness’ inherent in conservation settings by compensating for sparse linkages, 2) the particular structure and function of bridging organizations influence governing processes (i.e., collaboration, knowledge sharing) and subsequent conservation outcomes, 3) ‘bridging’ is accomplished using different strategies and platforms for collaboration and social learning, and 4) bridging organizations enhance flexibility to adjust to changing marine conservation contexts and needs. Understanding the organizations that occupy bridging positions, and how they utilize their positionality in a governance network is emerging as an important determinant of successful conservation outcomes. Our findings contribute to a relatively new body of literature on bridging organizations in marine conservation contexts, and add needed empirical investigation into their value to governance and conservation in Coral Triangle nations and beyond. PMID:26794003

  12. Detecting true and false opinions: The Devil's Advocate approach as a lie detection aid.

    PubMed

    Leal, Sharon; Vrij, Aldert; Mann, Samantha; Fisher, Ronald P

    2010-07-01

    We examined the efficacy of a new approach to detect truths and lies in expressing opinions: the Devil's Advocate approach. Interviewees are first asked an opinion eliciting question that asks participants to argue in favour of their personal view. This is followed by a Devil's Advocate question that asks participants to argue against their personal view. People normally think more about reasons that support rather than oppose their opinion. Therefore we expected truth tellers to provide more information and shorter latency times in their responses to the opinion eliciting question than to the Devil's Advocate question. Liars are expected to reveal the opposite pattern as the Devil's Advocate question is more compatible with their beliefs than is the opinion eliciting question. In Experiment 1, we interviewed seventeen truth tellers and liars via the Devil's Advocate approach and measured the difference in number of words and latency times to the two questions. Our hypotheses were supported. In Experiment 2, 25 observers were shown these interviews, and made qualitative judgements about the statements. Truth tellers' opinion eliciting answers were seen as more immediate and plausible and revealed more emotional involvement than their Devil's Advocate answers. No clear differences emerged in liars' answers to the two types of question. We conclude that the Devil's Advocate approach is a promising lie detection approach that deserves attention in future research.

  13. Position paper: improving governance for effective veterinary services in developing countries--a priority for donor funding.

    PubMed

    Forman, S; Plante, C; Murray, G; Rey, B; Belton, D; Evans, B; Steinmetz, P

    2012-08-01

    Livestock contributes significantly to the world economy. However, animal diseases and food safety are still major constraints on livestock-sector productivity, economic growth, the reduction of poverty and food security. Efficient and effective governance of Veterinary Services throughout the world is a fundamental requirement for addressing the global animal health and related public health threats. Recent work by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) through the application of the Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS Tool) and related Gap Analysis (both of which form part of the PVS Pathway) has indicated that a significant proportion of the national Veterinary Services worldwide do not meet the essential requirements for good governance. This shortcoming poses a significant risk for many developing countries and their trading partners when considered in the context of the growing trade in animal-source foods, and the burgeoning global livestock population. Well-managed, transparent and credible Veterinary Services, in both the public and private sector, are essential for mitigating animal disease risks and ensuring sustainable incomes for vulnerable producers. They are also vital for limiting the public health risks posed by zoonotic diseases. This paper is intended to highlight the impact of governance on the delivery of veterinary services in a development context and the benefits generated by improving veterinary governance. It recognises 'global public good' elements embedded in the good governance of Veterinary Services, and it could also provide an operational development investment roadmap that builds on the OIE PVS Pathway, and innovative financing options based on government commitments supported by donor programmes.

  14. Advocating change in Palestine. Advocacy for reproductive health: Palestine.

    PubMed

    Wolmuth, P

    1996-01-01

    The Palestinian Family Planning and Protection Association (PFPPA) recently implemented a new strategic plan based on the Strategic Plan of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) aimed at the empowerment of women. Advocacy is the central part of the program with preparing the services and dealing with the issue of population. In early 1995 a round of meetings in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip launched the plan with new programs for women, youth, men, information, education, and communication, and service provision to start in January 1996. In Gaza the Youth Program is well under way. Five members were selected from each of 50 groups for a 1-week training course in Gaza City in November 1995. The topics included: mutual respect between husband and wife, discussion of the role of family planning in the context of Islam, the rights and wrongs of polygamy, and the hotly debated issue of sex segregation in education. The PFPPA staff was initially apprehensive about the new youth and women's program plans to broaden family planning to women's empowerment and sexual and reproductive health. An IPPF-sponsored video was also shown in Hebron, West Bank, on the problem of early marriage. It featured Palestinian women: one with 12 children who was married at age 13; a mother whose husband wanted to marry off their 12-year-old daughter; and portrayed pressure from husbands and other family members to produce many children. The new strategy engendered debate in the West Bank and Gaza among village women and young people, while in the meantime the training of government health workers started in sexual and reproductive health counseling. In the village of Tkooi, near Bethlehem, a counselor held sessions on the oppression of women and psycho-physiological problems and stress. A lawyer also summarized women's economic and property rights, which most of them were unaware of.

  15. Sticks and Carrots: The Effectiveness of Government Policy on Higher Education in England Since 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, John

    2003-01-01

    Describes key objectives of government policy in higher education in the United Kingdom over the last 20 years, including efficiency and accountability, expansion of student numbers, selectivity in research funding, regionalization, widening participation, wealth creation, and measures used to implement these policies. (SLD)

  16. How Effective Is the British Government's Attempt To Reduce Child Poverty? CASEpaper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piachaud, David; Sutherland, Holly

    The new Labour Government in Britain has made the reduction of child poverty one of its central objectives. This paper describes the specific initiatives involved in Labour's approach and weighs them in terms of their potential impact. After setting out the extent of the problem of child poverty, the causes are discussed, and Britain's problem is…

  17. Effective Governance in a State Academic Network: The Experience of the Network of Alabama Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Sue O.; Highfill, William C.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the development of the Network of Alabama Academic Libraries (NAAL). Membership parameters are described; voting representation and governance is discussed; the organizational structure is explained; funding is examined; and factors contributing to the success of NAAL are considered, including a mix of short- and long-term goals and…

  18. The effects of Global Fund financing on health governance in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The impact of donors, such as national government (bi-lateral), private sector, and individual financial (philanthropic) contributions, on domestic health policies of developing nations has been the subject of scholarly discourse. Little is known, however, about the impact of global financial initiatives, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria, on policies and health governance of countries receiving funding from such initiatives. Methods This study employs a qualitative methodological design based on a single case study: Brazil. Analysis at national, inter-governmental and community levels is based on in-depth interviews with the Global Fund and the Brazilian Ministry of Health and civil societal activists. Primary research is complemented with information from printed media, reports, journal articles, and books, which were used to deepen our analysis while providing supporting evidence. Results Our analysis suggests that in Brazil, Global Fund financing has helped to positively transform health governance at three tiers of analysis: the national-level, inter-governmental-level, and community-level. At the national-level, Global Fund financing has helped to increased political attention and commitment to relatively neglected diseases, such as tuberculosis, while harmonizing intra-bureaucratic relationships; at the inter-governmental-level, Global Fund financing has motivated the National Tuberculosis Programme to strengthen its ties with state and municipal health departments, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs); while at the community-level, the Global Fund’s financing of civil societal institutions has encouraged the emergence of new civic movements, participation, and the creation of new municipal participatory institutions designed to monitor the disbursement of funds for Global Fund grants. Conclusions Global Fund financing can help deepen health governance at multiple levels. Future work will need to explore how

  19. Perspectives--A Tribute to Katie Beckett: Advocate for Youth with Disabilities and Founder of "Kids As Self-Advocates" Network (March 9, 1978-May 18, 2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oser, Cindy; Whiteman, Jodi

    2012-01-01

    The authors remember the life of Katie Beckett, who was an outspoken advocate for disability rights and inspired the Katie Beckett Waiver Program, which allowed children to continue to be eligible for Medicaid and to have their health care needs provided in the home rather than being forced to be in a hospital or institution. Together, Katie and…

  20. Earthquake Drill for Effective Emergency Response and Quick Collection of Damage Information by Collaboration between Local Government and Residents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisada, Yoshiaki; Murakami, Masahiro; Zama, Shinsaku; Endo, Makoto; Shibayama, Akihiro; Ichii, Tsuguyuki; Sekizawa, Ai; Suematsu, Takashi; Yamada, Takeshi; Noda, Itsuki; Matsui, Hiroki; Kubo, Tomohiro; Ohgai, Akira

    An earthquake drill for collecting quickly earthquake damage information and conducting effective emergency response was developed and carried out by collaboration between a local government and residents. The methodology for the drill consists of two stages; at the first stage, workshops by local communities' associations and government officers are held to make disaster prevention maps, which indicate strong and weak points of the local area, such as the locations of fire distinguishers, fire hydrants, storages of rescue equipments, weak walls and buildings, open spaces, and so on. During the workshop, the participants also discuss about what happens during a large earthquake, and how to cope with the disaster. At second stage, an emergency drill is carried out by collaboration between the local government and the community residents, as follows. First, the panels are suspended at electric poles just before the drill, which show the information about earthquake damage, such as a fire breaking, a collapsed building, and a blocked road, starts. Second, when the drill starts under the assumption of the occurrence of a large earthquake, the local residents check the area to collect the damage information, and to conduct emergency response. For example, when a resident finds a panel of fire breaking, he/she is expected to gather people, fire distinguishers, and buckets with water as many as possible within 10 minutes. Third, the residents get together at the local evacuation center, and make a map indicating the locations of the damage and their information. Local government officials at the evacuation center collect those damage maps, and immediately sent them to the emergency operation center of the government. Fourth, the operation center gathers and analyzes all the data, and informs the residents about important information, such as the evacuation order from the local center to other safe areas due to a possible massive fire. The proposed methodology was applied

  1. The Perfect Tens: The Top Twenty Books Reviewed in "Voice of Youth Advocates" 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voice of Youth Advocates, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Explains the review procedures and rating system for teen books in "Voice of Youth Advocates" and provides annotated bibliographies for the twenty best books in 2001-2202, including fiction, nonfiction, and science fiction and fantasy. (LRW)

  2. The effects of hospitals' governance on optimal contracts: bargaining vs. contracting.

    PubMed

    Galizzi, Matteo M; Miraldo, Marisa

    2011-03-01

    We propose a two-stage model to study the impact of different hospitals' governance frameworks on the optimal contracts designed by third-party payers when patients' disease severity is the private information of the hospital. In the second stage, doctors and managers interact within either a bargaining or a contracting scenario. In the contracting scenario, managers offer a contract that determines the payment to doctors, and doctors decide how many patients to treat. In the bargaining scenario, doctors and managers strategically negotiate on both the payment to doctors and the number of patients to treat. We derive the equilibrium doctors' payments and number of treated patients under both scenarios. We then derive the optimal contract offered by the government to the hospital in the first stage. Results show that when the cost of capital is sufficiently low, the informational rent is lower, and the social welfare is higher, in the contracting scenario.

  3. Hospital board effectiveness: relationships between governing board composition and hospital financial viability.

    PubMed Central

    Molinari, C; Morlock, L; Alexander, J; Lyles, C A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Two theories--agency and managerialism--are compared with respect to their usefulness in explaining the role of insiders on the hospital board: whether their participation enhances or impairs board financial decision making. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING. The study used 1985 hospital financial and governing board data for a representative sample of acute care California hospitals. STUDY DESIGN. Relationships were examined cross-sectionally between the presence or absence of insiders on the board and measures of hospital financial viability while controlling for the organizational factors of system affiliation, ownership, size, region, and corporate restructuring. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Multiple regression analysis found significant relationships between insider (CEO, medical staff) participation and hospital viability. CONCLUSIONS. These results support the managerial theory of governance by suggesting that the CEO and medical staff provide informational advantages to the hospital governing board. However, the cross-sectional design points to the need for future longitudinal studies in order to sequence these relationships between insider participation and improved hospital viability. PMID:8344824

  4. Governing in the Sunshine: Open Meetings, Open Records, and Effective Governance in Public Higher Education. Public Policy Paper Series No. 04-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, James C.; McLendon, Michael K.; Gilchrist, Leigh Z.

    2004-01-01

    Sunshine laws are designed to make meetings and records of public entities visible so that a state can help ensure accountability of decision making affecting public resources. The laws often pit the news media's desire for greater public disclosure of information on public college and university governance against institutional leaders' desire to…

  5. Governance in non-for-profit hospitals: effects of board members' remuneration and expertise on CEO compensation.

    PubMed

    Cardinaels, Eddy

    2009-11-01

    Although hospitals vary in terms of their governance structures, little research has focused on the effectiveness of these governance mechanisms through the study of executive contracting. Using a sample of 80 non-for-profit private hospitals in the Netherlands, I investigate whether differences in governance structures of hospitals are informative for explaining the variations in chief executive pay. After controlling for important economic determinants of CEO compensation in hospitals (i.e., type and size of the hospital, CEO type and job complexity, market conditions and performance attributes), the results suggest that CEOs on average earn more (1) when the hospital's supervisory board members receive more remuneration (a higher absolute as well as an excessive remuneration) and (2) when supervisory board members have a lower level of expertise. The findings suggest that supervisory boards are more effective in controlling agency problems (i.e., aligning CEO pay to economic conditions) when their members have more expertise, but at the same time that the monitoring function is hampered when supervisory board members receive a large (excessive) remuneration.

  6. Maternal microbiota and antibodies as advocates of neonatal health.

    PubMed

    Ganal-Vonarburg, Stephanie C; Fuhrer, Tobias; Gomez de Agüero, Mercedes

    2017-03-01

    Mammalian body surfaces are inhabited by vast numbers of microbes, the commensal microbiota, which help the host to digest food, provide nutrients, and mature its immune system. For a long time, postnatal colonization was believed to be the main stimulus for microbial-induced immune development. Using a model of reversible colonization of germ-free mice during gestation, we recently showed that the microbial shaping of the neonatal immune system begins even before birth through molecular signals derived from the microbiota of the mother. Maternal microbiota was important to mature intestinal innate immune cells and to alter intestinal gene expression profiles in the offspring. These changes prepare the newborn for postnatal colonization. The majority of the gestational colonization-dependent effects required maternal antibodies. Here, we discuss and provide further evidence how maternal antibodies are important players in transferring a signal originating from the maternal intestinal microbiota to the offspring.

  7. Supporting children with disabilities at school: implications for the advocate role in professional practice and education

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Stella L.; Lingard, Lorelei; Hibbert, Kathryn; Regan, Sandra; Phelan, Shanon; Stooke, Rosamund; Meston, Christine; Schryer, Catherine; Manamperi, Madhushani; Friesen, Farah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: School settings are a common practice context for rehabilitation professionals; health advocacy is a common and challenging practice role for professionals in this context. This study explored how pediatric practitioners advocate for children with disabilities at school. Specifically, we examined everyday advocacy in the context of school-based support for children with disabilities. Method: Our theoretical framework and methodological approach were informed by institutional ethnography, which maps and makes visible hidden social coordinators of work processes with a view to improving processes and outcomes. We included families, educators, and health/rehabilitation practitioners from Ontario. Of the 37 consented informants, 27 were interviewed and 15 observed. Documents and texts were collected from the micro-level (e.g. clinician reports) and the macro-level (e.g. policies). Results: Pediatric practitioners' advocacy work included two main work processes: spotlighting invisible disabilities and orienteering the special education terrain. Practitioners advocated indirectly, by proxy, with common proxies being documents and parents. Unintended consequences of advocacy by proxy included conflict and inefficiency, which were often unknown to the practitioner. Conclusions: The findings of this study provide practice-based knowledge about advocacy for children with disabilities, which may be used to inform further development of competency frameworks and continuing education for pediatric practitioners. The findings also show how everyday practices are influenced by policies and social discourses and how rehabilitation professionals may enact change.Implications for RehabilitationRehabilitation professionals frequently perform advocacy work. They may find it beneficial to perform advocacy work that is informed by overarching professional and ethical guidelines, and a nuanced understanding of local processes and structures.Competency frameworks and

  8. Evaluation of Publicly Available Documents to Trace Chiropractic Technique Systems That Advocate Radiography for Subluxation Analysis: A Proposed Genealogy

    PubMed Central

    Young, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate publicly available information of chiropractic technique systems that advocate radiography for subluxation detection to identify links between chiropractic technique systems and to describe claims made of the health effects of the osseous misalignment component of the chiropractic subluxation and radiographic paradigms. Methods The Internet and publicly available documents were searched for information representing chiropractic technique systems that advocate radiography for subluxation detection. Key phrases including chiropractic, x-ray, radiography, and technique were identified from a Google search between April 2013 and March 2014. Phrases in Web sites and public documents were examined for any information about origins and potential links between these techniques, including the type of connection to BJ Palmer, who was the first chiropractor to advocate radiography for subluxation detection. Quotes were gathered to identify claims of health effects from osseous misalignment (subluxation) and paradigms of radiography. Techniques were grouped by region of the spine and how they could be traced back to B.J Palmer. A genealogy model and summary table of information on each technique were created. Patterns in year of origination and radiographic paradigms were noted, and percentages were calculated on elements of the techniques’ characteristics in comparison to the entire group. Results Twenty-three techniques were identified on the Internet: 6 full spine, 17 upper cervical, and 2 techniques generating other lineage. Most of the upper cervical techniques (14/16) traced their origins to a time when the Palmer School was teaching upper cervical technique, and all the full spine techniques (6/6) originated before or after this phase. All the technique systems’ documents attributed broad health effects to their methods. Many (21/23) of the techniques used spinal realignment on radiographs as one of their outcome

  9. A taxonomic framework for assessing governance challenges and environmental effects of integrated food-energy systems.

    PubMed

    Gerst, Michael D; Cox, Michael E; Locke, Kim A; Laser, Mark; Kapuscinski, Anne R

    2015-01-20

    Predominant forms of food and energy systems pose multiple challenges to the environment as current configurations tend to be structured around centralized one-way through-put of materials and energy. In addition, these configurations can introduce vulnerability to input material price and supply shocks as well as contribute to localized food insecurity and lost opportunities for less environmentally harmful forms of local economic development. One proposed form of system transformation involves locally integrating “unclosed” material and energy loops from food and energy systems. Such systems, which have been termed integrated food-energy systems (IFES), have existed in diverse niche forms but have not been systematically studied with respect to technological, governance, and environmental differences. As a first step in this process, we have constructed a taxonomy of IFES archetypes by using exploratory data analysis on a collection of IFES cases. We find that IFES may be classified hierarchically first by their primary purpose—food or energy production—and subsequently by degree and direction of vertical supply chain coordination. We then use this taxonomy to delineate potential governance challenges and pose a research agenda aimed at understanding what role IFES may play in food and energy system transformation and ultimately what policies may encourage IFES adoption.

  10. Lessons From Rocket Science: Reframing the Concept of the Physician Health Advocate.

    PubMed

    Hubinette, Maria M; Regehr, Glenn; Cristancho, Sayra

    2016-10-01

    Health advocacy is a prominent component of health professionals' training internationally and is frequently discussed in the medical education literature. Despite this, it continues to be a problematic and challenging topic for medical educators, health professionals, and trainees alike. Borrowing from the field of systems engineering, the authors suggest a need to reconceptualize health advocacy using a systems mind-set rather than a physician-centric perspective. Conceptualizing health advocacy as a systemic, collective effort requires educators, practitioners, and trainees to challenge the assumption that the role of a competent physician health advocate can be fully defined without regard to the larger system or collective within which physicians function. Further, this implies a substantially more dynamic understanding of physicians' and other participants' parts in the collective activity.Of course, this new way of conceptualizing physicians' practices is not limited to health advocacy. The current education paradigm trains physicians for individual competency but expects them to practice collectively. Defining physician competen cies, or the competencies of any health care provider, in isolation from the particular system of which that individual is an integral part implicitly places that health care provider as the central focus of that system. Thus, academic medicine needs to move its educational and research efforts forward in a manner that recognizes that a systems engineering approach to health improvement will allow the various players to maximize their individual efforts to more effectively support the collective activity.

  11. Effects of Transactional and Transformational Governance on Academic Teaching: Empirical Evidence from Two Types of Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkesmann, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    The leadership literature distinguishes two modes of governance, which can also be applied to the governance of universities: transactional and transformational. Transactional governance encompasses all forms of managerial governance, including selective incentives and monitoring capacity. The theoretical underpinning of this mode can be found in…

  12. Zealous Advocates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2011-01-01

    Recent law school graduates face the tightest job market in years. Amid lingering industrywide uncertainties, officials at some law schools are scrambling to ensure that underrepresented minorities get jobs, especially law schools not customarily tapped by the country's largest law firms. In some of the more striking measures, a dean will troop…

  13. Special Advocate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Weele, Maribeth

    1992-01-01

    Thomas Hehir, special education chief of Chicago Public Schools, is evangelist of integrating children with disabilities into regular classrooms. By completely reorganizing department viewed as political patronage dumping ground, Hehir has made remarkable progress in handling large number of children awaiting evaluation and placement in special…

  14. The Advocates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerner, Heather

    2013-01-01

    November 2012 was an anxious time for California community colleges. Proposition 30 promised to stop the bleeding of funds from the state's 112 two-year career and technical institutions--if voters would pass it. That was a big if, especially in California, where voters are notoriously tax averse. When the measure passed with 54 percent of the…

  15. Research on the Effectiveness of Information Technology in Reducing the Rural-Urban Knowledge Divide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ruey-Shin; Liu, I-Fan

    2013-01-01

    To strengthen the information technology skills of students living in remote areas, the Ministry of Education of Taiwan advocated the 2008 Country Development Plan to diminish the gap between urban and rural education development. This study proposes a hypothetical model to evaluate the effectiveness of the government policy in decreasing the…

  16. Modeling for Policy Change: A Feedback Perspective on Improving the Effectiveness of Coastal and Marine Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robadue, Donald D., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Those advocating for effective management of the use of coastal areas and ecosystems have long aspired for an approach to governance that includes information systems with the capability to predict the end results of various courses of action, monitor the impacts of decisions and compare results with those predicted by computer models in order to…

  17. A Qualitative Study of the Experiences and Factors That Led Physicians to Be Lifelong Health Advocates

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Pearl; Veinot, Paula; Miller, Daniel; Mylopoulos, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Given the public’s trust and the opportunities to observe and address social determinants of health, physicians are well suited to be health advocates, a key role in the CanMEDS physician competency framework. As some physicians find it difficult to fulfill this role, the authors explored the experiences and influences that led established physicians to be health advocates. Method The authors used a phenomenological approach to explore this topic. From March to August 2014, they interviewed 15 established physician health advocates, using a broad definition of health advocacy—that it extends beyond individual patient advocacy to address the root causes of systemic differences in health. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were coded and the data categorized into clusters of meaning, then into themes. Data analysis was conducted iteratively, with data collection continuing until no new information was gathered. Results Participants described the factors that contributed to the development of their health advocate identity (i.e., exposure to social injustice, upbringing, schooling, specific formative experiences) and those that facilitated their engagement in health advocacy work (i.e., mentors, training, systemic and organizational supports). They also highlighted how they continue in their role as lifelong advocates (i.e., continuous learning and improvement, self-reflection and self-reflexivity, collaboration, intrinsic satisfaction in the work). Conclusions Many factors allow physician health advocates to establish and sustain a commitment to improve the health of their patients and the broader population. Medical schools could use these findings to guide curriculum development related to teaching this physician competency. PMID:27438157

  18. Secondary traumatic stress among domestic violence advocates: workplace risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Suzanne M; Goodman, Lisa A

    2009-11-01

    This study identified workplace factors associated with secondary traumatic stress (STS) in a sample of 148 domestic violence advocates working in diverse settings. Findings indicate that coworker support and quality clinical supervision are critical to emotional well-being and that an environment in which there is shared power-that is, respect for diversity, mutuality, and consensual decision making-provides better protection for advocates than more traditional, hierarchical organizational models. Furthermore, shared power emerged as the only workplace variable to significantly predict STS above and beyond individual factors. The discussion includes implications for practice and policy as well as directions for future research.

  19. Building confidence into communication of bad news: The role of the patient advocate.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Ruth P; Waldemayer, Carol R; Bunting, Robert F

    2010-01-01

    The need for a patient advocate is greater than ever as medical errors continue to occur. News media quickly capture the egregious errors, but more errors are experienced by patients who suffer quietly. These patients know something wrong occurred during their hospitalization, but they choose to refrain from pursuing litigation against the providers. There also are thousands of individuals who never realize that a medical error occurred. In a patient- and family-centered care environment, patient advocates can bridge these issues by participating on the healthcare team that is involved with the initial disclosure of the event and by providing a caring relationship to assure the patient's voice is heard and understood.

  20. Inequities in Enforcement? Environmental Justice and Government Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konisky, David M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines whether state governments perform systematically less environmental enforcement of facilities in communities with higher minority and low-income populations. Although this is an important claim made by environmental justice advocates, it has received little attention in the scholarly literature. Specifically, I analyze state…

  1. Mechanisms for perception of numerosity or texture-density are governed by crowding-like effects

    PubMed Central

    Cicchini, Guido Marco; Burr, David C.

    2016-01-01

    We have recently provided evidence that the perception of number and texture density is mediated by two independent mechanisms: numerosity mechanisms at relatively low numbers, obeying Weber's law, and texture-density mechanisms at higher numerosities, following a square root law. In this study we investigated whether the switch between the two mechanisms depends on the capacity to segregate individual dots, and therefore follows similar laws to those governing visual crowding. We measured numerosity discrimination for a wide range of numerosities at three eccentricities. We found that the point where the numerosity regime (Weber's law) gave way to the density regime (square root law) depended on eccentricity. In central vision, the regime changed at 2.3 dots/°2, while at 15° eccentricity, it changed at 0.5 dots/°2, three times less dense. As a consequence, thresholds for low numerosities increased with eccentricity, while at higher numerosities thresholds remained constant. We further showed that like crowding, the regime change was independent of dot size, depending on distance between dot centers, not distance between dot edges or ink coverage. Performance was not affected by stimulus contrast or blur, indicating that the transition does not depend on low-level stimulus properties. Our results reinforce the notion that numerosity and texture are mediated by two distinct processes, depending on whether the individual elements are perceptually segregable. Which mechanism is engaged follows laws that determine crowding. PMID:26067522

  2. Enduring Effects of Prenatal and Infancy Home Visiting by Nurses on Maternal Life Course and Government Spending

    PubMed Central

    Olds, David L.; Kitzman, Harriet J.; Cole, Robert E.; Hanks, Carole A.; Arcoleo, Kimberly J.; Anson, Elizabeth A.; Luckey, Dennis W.; Knudtson, Michael D.; Henderson, Charles R.; Bondy, Jessica; Stevenson, Amanda J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To test, among an urban primarily African American sample, the effects of prenatal and infancy home visiting by nurses on mothers’ fertility, partner relationships, and economic self-sufficiency and on government spending through age 12 years of their firstborn child. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting Public system of obstetric and pediatric care in Memphis, Tennessee. Participants A total of 594 urban primarily African American economically disadvantaged mothers (among 743 who registered during pregnancy). Intervention Prenatal and infancy home visiting by nurses. Main Outcome Measures Mothers’ cohabitation with and marriage to the child’s biological father, intimate partner violence, duration (stability) of partner relationships, role impairment due to alcohol and other drug use, use and cost of welfare benefits, arrests, mastery, child foster care placements, and cumulative subsequent births. Results By the time the firstborn child was 12 years old, nurse-visited mothers compared with control subjects reported less role impairment owing to alcohol and other drug use (0.0% vs 2.5%, P = .04), longer partner relationships (59.58 vs 52.67 months, P = .02), and greater sense of mastery (101.04 vs 99.60, P = .005). During this 12-year period, government spent less per year on food stamps, Medicaid, and Aid to Families with Dependent Children and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families for nurse-visited than control families ($8772 vs $9797, P = .02); this represents $12 300 in discounted savings compared with a program cost of $11 511, both expressed in 2006 US dollars. No statistically significant program effects were noted on mothers’ marriage, partnership with the child’s biological father, intimate partner violence, alcohol and other drug use, arrests, incarceration, psychological distress, or reports of child foster care placements. Conclusion The program improved maternal life course and reduced government spending among children

  3. Crop modeling: Studying the effect of water stress on the driving forces governing plant water potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Emmerik, T. H. M.; Mirfenderesgi, G.; Bohrer, G.; Steele-Dunne, S. C.; Van De Giesen, N.

    2015-12-01

    Water stress is one of the most important environmental factors that influence plant water dynamics. To prevent excessive water loss and physiological damage, plants can regulate transpiration by adjusting the stomatal aperture. This enhances survival, but also reduced photosynthesis and productivity. During periods of low water availability, stomatal regulation is a trade-off between optimization of either survival or production. Water stress defence mechanisms lead to significant changes in plant dynamics, e.g. leaf and stem water content. Recent research has shown that water content in a corn canopy can change up to 30% diurnally as a result of water stress, which has a considerable influence on radar backscatter from a corn canopy [1]. This highlighted the potential of water stress detection using radar. To fully explore the potential of water stress monitoring using radar, we need to understand the driving forces governing plant water potential. For this study, the recently developed the Finite-Element Tree-Crown Hydrodynamic model version 2 (FETCH2) model is applied to a corn canopy. FETCH2 is developed to resolve the hydrodynamic processes within a plant using the porous media analogy, allowing investigation of the influence of environmental stress factors on plant dynamics such as transpiration, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and leaf and stem water content. The model is parameterized and evaluated using a detailed dataset obtained during a three-month field experiment in Flevoland, the Netherlands, on a corn canopy. [1] van Emmerik, T., S. Steele-Dunne, J. Judge and N. van de Giesen: "Impact of Diurnal Variation in Vegetation Water Content on Radar Backscatter of Maize During Water Stress", Geosciences and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 52, issue 7, doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2014.2386142, 2015.

  4. Thermal Interaction Between Molten Metal Jet and Sodium Pool: Effect of Principal Factors Governing Fragmentation of the Jet

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Izumi; Sugiyama, Ken-Ichiro; Ueda, Nobuyuki

    2005-02-15

    To clarify the effects of the principal factors that govern the thermal fragmentation of a molten metallic fuel jet in the course of fuel-coolant interaction, which is important in evaluating the sequence of core disruptive accidents (CDAs) for metallic fuel fast reactors, basic experiments were carried out using molten metallic fuel simulants (copper and silver) and a sodium pool.Fragmentation of a molten metal jet with a solid crust was caused by internal pressure produced by the boiling of sodium, which is locally entrapped inside the jet due to hydrodynamic motion between the jet and the coolant. The superheating and the latent heat of fusion of the jet are the principal factors governing this type of thermal fragmentation. On the other hand, the effect of the initial sodium temperature is regarded as negligible in the case of thermal conditions expected to result in CDAs for practical metallic fuel cores. Based on the fragmentation data for several kinds of jets (Cu, Ag, SUS, U, and U-5 wt% Zr alloy), an empirical correlation is proposed that is applicable to the calculation of a mass median diameter of fragments produced by the thermal fragmentation of the jet with a solid crust under low ambient Weber number conditions.

  5. Peer Assessment and Compliance Review (PACR) Innovative Strategies Report. California Court Appointed Special Advocates (CASA) Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macro, Bronwen; Huang, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    This report focuses on the innovative strategies study component of the Peer Assessment and Compliance Review (PACR) project. California (Court Appointed Special Advocates) CASA programs have developed many innovative strategies to serve children in their communities. At each of the programs visited during the PACR project, the team identified at…

  6. Advocating for Language Rights: Critical Latina Bilingual Teachers Creating Bilingual Space in Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramírez, Pablo Cortés; Vickery, Amanda E.; Salinas, Cinthia S.; Ross, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative research study documented the way in which two Latina bilingual teachers advocated for the language rights of emergent bilinguals who attended and resided in two particular school districts in Arizona. Drawing from qualitative and ethnographic approaches, we collected data from teacher interviews, classroom/school observations,…

  7. The Development and Evaluation of a Parent Empowerment Program for Family Peer Advocates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, James; Olin, S. S.; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Shen, Sa; Burton, Geraldine; Radigan, Marleen; Jensen, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    Family-to-family services are emerging as an important adjunctive service to traditional mental health care and a vehicle for improving parent engagement and service use in children's mental health services. In New York State, a growing workforce of Family Peer Advocates (FPA) is delivering family-to-family services. We describe the development…

  8. Perspectives of Social Justice Activists: Advocating against Native-Themed Mascots, Nicknames, and Logos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Foltz, Brad D.; LaFollette, Julie R.; White, Mattie R.; Wong, Y. Joel; Steinfeldt, Matthew Clint

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated perspectives of social justice activists who directly advocate for eliminating Native-themed mascots, nicknames, and logos. Using consensual qualitative research methodology, the research team analyzed transcripts of interviews conducted with 11 social justice activists to generate themes, categories, and domains within the…

  9. National Association of Child Advocates 2001/2002 Annual Report from the President.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Tamara Lucas

    This annual report details the activities of the National Association of Child Advocates (NACA) from June 2001 to June 2002. The report discusses the efforts of NACA to help members protect funding levels for programs supporting children and their families during the nation's economic downturn, including conducting focus groups to test specific…

  10. The Adjunct Advocate @ FIT: Bringing Part Time Faculty into the Mainstream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado, Elaine; Riman, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The Adjunct Advocate @ FIT is an online, faculty development program at FIT, part of the State University of New York. This convenient new resource, developed by the Center for Excellence in Teaching, reaches out to adjunct and off-campus faculty with professional development that includes printable materials, video, discussion boards, and…

  11. Section 504 Student Eligibility for Students with Reading Disabilities: A Primer for Advocates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    With the current legal reauthorization of the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) well under way, advocates for students with reading and literacy difficulties impacted by disorders, including dyslexia and attention deficit disorders (ADD=ADHD), are encouraging Congress to recognize these disabilities under the IDEA.…

  12. Section 504 Student Eligibility for Students with Reading Disabilities: A Primer for Advocates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Kevin P.

    2004-01-01

    With the current legal reauthorization of the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) well under way, advocates for students with reading and literacy difficulties impacted by disorders, including dyslexia and attention deficit disorders (ADD/ADHD), are encouraging Congress to recognize these disabilities under the IDEA. Despite…

  13. Social values and solar energy policy: the policy maker and the advocate

    SciTech Connect

    Shama, A.; Jacobs, K.

    1980-07-01

    Solar energy policy makers and advocates have significantly different hierarchies (clusters) of values upon which they evaluate the adoption of solar technologies. Content analysis, which examines the frequency with which policy makers identify different types of values, indicates that they hold economic values to be of primary importance. Environmental, social, and national security values are also substantial elements of the policy makers' value clusters associated with solar energy. This finding is confirmed by a qualitative analysis of policy makers' values. Advocates, on the other hand, assign almost equal weights (33%) to economic values and social values, slightly less weight to environmental values, and significant attention to ethical and security values as well. These results of frequency analysis are made somewhat more complicated by a qualitative interpretation of the advocates' positions. As part of their more holistic approach, several of the advocates indicated that all values discussed by them are instrumental toward achieving higher-order, ethical and environmental values. In addition, our preliminary investigation indicates that neither group is entirely homogeneous. Testing this and other propositions, as well as obtaining a similar picture of the values which the public associates with solar energy, are topics of future research.

  14. Women in History--Sarah Winnemucca: Native Educator and Human Rights Advocate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumm, Bernita L.

    2006-01-01

    This article profiles Sarah Winnemucca, a Native educator and dedicated human rights advocate who devoted her life to building communication and creating understanding between the Native and white cultures. On March 1, 2005, Congressman Jon Porter of Nevada addressed Congress on a bill to allow for the placement of a statue of Sarah Winnemucca…

  15. Beyond the Playing Field: Jackie Robinson, Civil Rights Advocate. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

    This packet provides primary source documents and lesson plans relating to the study of Jackie Robinson as a civil rights advocate. The legendary baseball player, Jack Roosevelt Robinson, was the first black man to "officially" play in the big leagues in the 20th century. Jackie Robinson was not only a stellar baseball player, but he…

  16. How Can Preservice Teachers Be Measured against Advocated Professional Teaching Standards?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Australia has had many inquiries into teaching and teacher education over the last decade. Standards for teaching have been produced by national education systems with many state systems following suit. The Queensland College of Teachers (QCT) advocates ten professional teaching standards for teachers and preservice teachers. How can preservice…

  17. Collaborating and Advocating with Administrators: The Arkansas Gifted Education Administrators' Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Empirical research on the philosophies, beliefs, and actions of school administrators such as principals or superintendents toward talented students is largely nonexistent in the published literature. What little is known suggests that administrators are crucial, but that advocates of services for high-ability learners need to carry the message…

  18. "Listen to the Voice of Reason": The "New Orleans Tribune" as Advocate for Public, Integrated Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melancon, Kristi Richard; Hendry, Petra Munro

    2015-01-01

    The "New Orleans Tribune" (1864-1870), the first black daily newspaper in the United States, was the singular text in the public South at its time to staunchly advocate for public, integrated education, anticipating the ruling of "Brown v. Board of Education," and arguing that separate education would always be synonymous with…

  19. Connecting Children to the Future: A Telecommunications Policy Guide for Child Advocates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Media Education, Washington, DC.

    New digital technologies and the rapid growth of the Internet are restructuring communications systems and transforming education and the economy. Noting that many of the resulting telecommunications policies will be made at the state level, this publication provides guidelines for child advocates to influence state policy regarding children's use…

  20. Standardizing the Pre-Licensure Supervision Process: A Commentary on Advocating for Direct Observation of Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Neal D.; Erickson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The present paper advocates for standardized regulations and laws for supervision of pre-licensed counselors in the United States, particularly for direct observation of clinical skills. A review of regulations by the American Counseling Association (ACA) Office of Professional Affairs (2012) reveals that only two states (Arizona and North…

  1. 32 CFR 720.5 - Authority of the Judge Advocate General and the General Counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Advocate General for environmental law cases. 1 Copies may be obtained if needed, from the Commanding... responsibility of the Office of the General Counsel (OGC) are commerical law, including maritime contract matters; civilian employee law; real property law; and Freedom of Information Act and Privacy Act matters...

  2. 32 CFR 720.5 - Authority of the Judge Advocate General and the General Counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Advocate General for environmental law cases. 1 Copies may be obtained if needed, from the Commanding... responsibility of the Office of the General Counsel (OGC) are commerical law, including maritime contract matters; civilian employee law; real property law; and Freedom of Information Act and Privacy Act matters...

  3. 32 CFR 720.5 - Authority of the Judge Advocate General and the General Counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Advocate General for environmental law cases. 1 Copies may be obtained if needed, from the Commanding... responsibility of the Office of the General Counsel (OGC) are commerical law, including maritime contract matters; civilian employee law; real property law; and Freedom of Information Act and Privacy Act matters...

  4. 32 CFR 720.5 - Authority of the Judge Advocate General and the General Counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Advocate General for environmental law cases. 1 Copies may be obtained if needed, from the Commanding... responsibility of the Office of the General Counsel (OGC) are commerical law, including maritime contract matters; civilian employee law; real property law; and Freedom of Information Act and Privacy Act matters...

  5. 32 CFR 720.5 - Authority of the Judge Advocate General and the General Counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Advocate General for environmental law cases. 1 Copies may be obtained if needed, from the Commanding... responsibility of the Office of the General Counsel (OGC) are commerical law, including maritime contract matters; civilian employee law; real property law; and Freedom of Information Act and Privacy Act matters...

  6. Be Your Own Best Advocate. PACER Center ACTion Information Sheets. PHP-c116

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PACER Center, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Being a self-advocate means asking for what one needs while respecting the needs of others. Self-advocacy is asking for what is needed in a direct, respectful manner. It is an important skill to acquire because self-advocacy helps: (1) Obtain what is needed; (2) People make personal choices; (3) Learn to say no without feeling guilty; and (4)…

  7. Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners' Perceptions of Their Relationship with Doctors, Rape Victim Advocates, Police, and Prosecutors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Shana L.

    2012-01-01

    In response to the negative and inefficient treatment of rape victims by emergency room personnel, the first Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs began in the late 1970s. While SANEs, doctors, rape victim advocates, police officers and prosecutors work together to ensure the most comprehensive and sensitive care of rape victims, they all…

  8. Family Peer Advocates: A Pilot Study of the Content and Process of Service Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Olin, Serene; Shorter, Priscilla; Burton, Geraldine; Hoagwood, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Professional family peer advocates are increasingly employed by public mental health systems to deliver family-to-family support that reduces barriers families face in accessing children's mental health care. These services, however, are neither uniformly available nor standardized. This pilot study describes the process, content and context of…

  9. Advocating for Safe Schools, Positive School Climate, and Comprehensive Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Katherine C.; Vaillancourt, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    The tragedy at Sandy Hook Elementary School, Newtown, CT (USA) has brought the conversation about how to reduce violence, make schools safer, improve school climate, and increase access to mental health services to the forefront of the national conversation. Advocating for comprehensive initiatives to address school safety, school climate, and…

  10. Women in History--Pearl Buck: An Advocate for Women and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Lynette

    2008-01-01

    This article profiles Pearl Buck, an advocate for women's rights and minority children, an author of Chinese history, and a pioneer in many ways. Buck established the Welcome House in 1949 in order to help unadoptable children find families (Conn, 1996). In 1964, Buck founded the Pearl S. Buck Foundation, now Pearl S. Buck International, which…

  11. Dare We Not Teach 9/11 yet Advocate Citizenship Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterson, Robert A.; Haas, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    The authors advocate for systematic teaching of 9/11 within the social studies curriculum (K-16). The examination of the issues and impact of 9/11 illustrate the power of civic education in a democracy. Illustrated are the key concepts and associated issues and values of 9/11 with the National Council for the Social Studies curriculum standards.…

  12. The Development and Evaluation of a Parent Empowerment Program for Family Peer Advocates.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, James; Olin, S S; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Shen, Sa; Burton, Geraldine; Radigan, Marleen; Jensen, Peter S

    2011-08-01

    Family-to-family services are emerging as an important adjunctive service to traditional mental health care and a vehicle for improving parent engagement and service use in children's mental health services. In New York State, a growing workforce of Family Peer Advocates (FPA) is delivering family-to-family services. We describe the development and evaluation of a professional program to enhance Family Peer Advocate professional skills, called the Parent Engagement and Empowerment Program (PEP). We detail the history and content of PEP and provide data from a pre/post and 6-month follow up evaluation of 58 FPA who participated in the first Statewide regional training effort. Self-efficacy, empowerment, and skills development were assessed at 3 time points: baseline, post-training, and 6-month follow-up. The largest changes were in self-efficacy and empowerment. Regional differences suggest differences in Family Peer Advocate workforce across areas of the state. This evaluation also provides the first systematic documentation of Family Peer Advocate activities over a six-month period. Consistent with peer specialists within the adult health care field, FPA in the children's mental health field primarily focused on providing emotional support and service access issues. Implications for expanding family-to-family services and integrating it more broadly into provider organizations are described.

  13. Wizards and Witches: Parent Advocates and Contention in Special Education in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nespor, Jan; Hicks, David

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on interviews with parents of children with significant disabilities, as well as administrators and special education consultants, between the early 1990s and 2008 in a mid-Atlantic US state, this paper examines the work of parental advocates as they translate special education policies to negotiate concessions for parents, bring issues…

  14. Advancement Staff and Alumni Advocates: Cultivating LGBTQ Alumni by Promoting Individual and Community Uplift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvey, Jason C.; Drezner, Noah D.

    2013-01-01

    Using a constructivist case-study analysis, we explore philanthropy toward higher education among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) alumni, examining the role of advancement staff and alumni advocates in engaging LGBTQ alumni to promote individual and community uplift. Data come from focus groups with 37 advancement staff and…

  15. Publishers' PR Tactic Angers University Presses and Open-Access Advocates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on reactions to the Association of American Publishers' new public-relations campaign, which has upset many university presses and research librarians, as well as open-access advocates. The effort, known as the "Partnership for Research Integrity in Science & Medicine," or Prism, is the latest tactic in a continuing…

  16. A Qualitative Study on the Perceptions of High School Counselors as Student Advocates in Online Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisenburg, Terry James

    2013-01-01

    Advocacy for all students is an important tenet in current school counselor literature and has been recognized as a vital component in student success. With the increase of students who attend high school online learning programs that do not require regular attendance at a school site, the role of the high school counselor to advocate for these…

  17. Professional School Counseling Evaluation Rubric: Advocating for the Profession through Awareness and Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Carrie A. Wachter; Slaten, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    Professional school counselors have been advocating for their role as counselors in the schools for decades (Galassi & Akos, 2007; Gysbers, 2002; Slaten & Baskin, 2013). Although researchers have addressed this concern through advocacy in service and writing, school counselors continue to perform a significant amount of non-counseling…

  18. From Advocate to Activist? Mapping the Experiences of Mothers of Children on the Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Sara; Cole, Katherine Runswick

    2009-01-01

    Background: For parents of disabled children, the role of advocate often develops to a level of frequency and complexity that other parents do not usually face. This paper considers whether this high level of advocacy translates into a form of activism on the part of mothers and if so, why this shift might occur. Materials and Methods: The broader…

  19. The Principal as Student Advocate: A Guide for Doing What's Best for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, M. Scott; Kelly, Larry K.; Battle, Anna R.

    2012-01-01

    Help all students reach their full potential. Make the right decisions! This unique book offers practical tools and strategies to help you become a strong advocate for every student in your school. With real world examples and situations, this book will help you: (1) Acquire skills to change your students' lives for the better--and also reach…

  20. Using Action Research to Assess and Advocate for Innovative School Library Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Meghan; Deskins,Liz

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a collaborative project designed to use action research to assess and advocate for innovative design changes in a school library. The high school library was in its fifth year of service, and yet the layout of the library was not meeting the learning and technological needs of 21st-century high school students. The purpose…

  1. FEAST: Empowering Community Residents to Use Technology to Assess and Advocate for Healthy Food Environments.

    PubMed

    Sheats, Jylana L; Winter, Sandra J; Romero, Priscilla Padilla; King, Abby C

    2017-04-01

    Creating environments that support healthy eating is important for successful aging, particularly in light of the growing population of older adults in the United States. There is an urgent need to identify innovative upstream solutions to barriers experienced by older adults in accessing and buying healthy food. FEAST (Food Environment Assessment STudy) is an effort that is part of the global Our Voice initiative, which utilizes a combination of technology and community-engaged methods to empower citizen scientists (i.e., community residents) to: (1) use the Healthy Neighborhood Discovery Tool (Discovery Tool) mobile application to collect data (geocoded photos, audio narratives) about aspects of their environment that facilitate or hinder healthy living; and (2) use findings to advocate for change in partnership with local decision and policy makers. In FEAST, 23 racially/ethnically diverse, low-income, and food-insecure older adults residing in urban, North San Mateo County, CA, were recruited to use the Discovery Tool to examine factors that facilitated or hindered their access to food as well as their food-related behaviors. Participants collectively reviewed data retrieved from the Discovery Tool and identified and prioritized important, yet feasible, issues to address. Access to affordable healthy food and transportation were identified as the major barriers to eating healthfully and navigating their neighborhood food environments. Subsequently, participants were trained in advocacy skills and shared their findings with relevant decision and policymakers, who in turn dispelled myths and discussed and shared resources to address relevant community needs. Proximal and distal effects of the community-engaged process at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months were documented and revealed individual-, community-, and policy-level impacts. Finally, FEAST contributes to the evidence on multi-level challenges that low-income, racially/ethnically diverse older adults experience

  2. School Governing Bodies in England under Pressure: The Effects of Socio-Economic Context and School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Chris; Brammer, Steve; Connolly, Michael; Fertig, Mike; James, Jane; Jones, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    This article reports research into the nature and functioning of school governing bodies in different socio-economic and performance contexts. The research analysed 5000 responses from a national questionnaire-based survey and undertook 30 case studies of school governing. The research confirmed that school governing in England is a complex and…

  3. Cost effectiveness of a government supported policy strategy to decrease sodium intake: global analysis across 183 nations

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Michael; Fahimi, Saman; Singh, Gitanjali M; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Micha, Renata; Powles, John

    2017-01-01

    Objective To quantify the cost effectiveness of a government policy combining targeted industry agreements and public education to reduce sodium intake in 183 countries worldwide. Design Global modeling study. Setting 183 countries. Population Full adult population in each country. Intervention A “soft regulation” national policy that combines targeted industry agreements, government monitoring, and public education to reduce population sodium intake, modeled on the recent successful UK program. To account for heterogeneity in efficacy across countries, a range of scenarios were evaluated, including 10%, 30%, 0.5 g/day, and 1.5 g/day sodium reductions achieved over 10 years. We characterized global sodium intakes, blood pressure levels, effects of sodium on blood pressure and of blood pressure on cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular disease rates in 2010, each by age and sex, in 183 countries. Country specific costs of a sodium reduction policy were estimated using the World Health Organization Noncommunicable Disease Costing Tool. Country specific impacts on mortality and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) were modeled using comparative risk assessment. We only evaluated program costs, without incorporating potential healthcare savings from prevented events, to provide conservative estimates of cost effectiveness Main outcome measure Cost effectiveness ratio, evaluated as purchasing power parity adjusted international dollars (equivalent to the country specific purchasing power of US$) per DALY saved over 10 years. Results Worldwide, a 10% reduction in sodium consumption over 10 years within each country was projected to avert approximately 5.8 million DALYs/year related to cardiovascular diseases, at a population weighted mean cost of I$1.13 per capita over the 10 year intervention. The population weighted mean cost effectiveness ratio was approximately I$204/DALY. Across nine world regions, estimated cost effectiveness of sodium reduction

  4. Government Aid to Private Schools: Is It a Trojan Horse? A CIE Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Richard E., Ed.

    In this publication, six scholars interested in private education and knowledgeable in economic policy and politics present several different views of government aid to private schools. In the lead essay, William Cage argues that supporters of private schooling are shortsighted in advocating public aid for private education. Government aid, says…

  5. Leadership, governance and management in dental education - new societal challenges.

    PubMed

    Townsend, G; Thomas, R; Skinner, V; Bissell, V; Cohen, L; Cowpe, J; Giuliani, M; Gomez-Roman, G; Hovland, E; Imtiaz, A; Kalkwarf, K; Kim, K-K; Lamster, I; Marley, J; Mattsson, L; Paganelli, C; Quintao, C; Swift, J; Thirawat, J; Williams, J; Soekanto, S; Jones, M

    2008-02-01

    Dental schools around the world face new challenges that raise issues with regard to how they are governed, led and managed. With rapid societal changes, including globalization and consumerism, the roles of universities and their funding have become intensely debated topics. When financial burdens on universities increase, so does the pressure on dental schools. This is exacerbated by the relative expense of running dental schools and also by the limited understanding of both university managers and the public of the nature and scope of dentistry as a profession. In these circumstances, it is essential for dental schools to have good systems of leadership and management in place so that they can not only survive in difficult times, but flourish in the longer term. This paper discusses the concept of governance and how it relates to leadership, management and administration in dental schools and hospitals. Various approaches to governance and management in dental schools on different continents and regions are summarized and contrasted. A number of general governance and leadership issues are addressed. For example, a basic principle supported by the Working Group is that an effective governance structure must link authority and responsibility to performance and review, i.e. accountability, and that the mechanism for achieving this should be transparent. The paper also addresses issues specific to governing, leading and managing dental schools. Being a dean of a modern dental school is a very demanding role and some issues relating to this role are raised, including: dilemmas facing deans, preparing to be dean and succession planning. The importance of establishing a shared vision and mission, and creating the right culture and climate within a dental school, are emphasized. The Working Group advocates establishing a culture of scholarship in dental schools for both teaching and research. The paper addresses the need for effective staff management, motivation and

  6. Who Gets What from Social Security: Analyzing the Redistributive Effects of Government Transfer Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warlick, Jennifer L.; Burkhauser, Richard V.

    1986-01-01

    Examines the redistributional effect of social security (OASI) by tracing payments and benefits over a person's lifetime. Concludes that OASI benefits, which traditionally exceeded the amount contributed for all income categories, will fail to do the same for future generations. (Author/JDH)

  7. Government Limitations on Training Innovations. A Construction Industry Cost Effectiveness Project Report. Report D-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Roundtable, New York, NY.

    A study team researched impediments to the use of modern skill training methods in construction that have been caused by the U.S. Department of Labor. The problem that the study sought to define was whether the Labor Department impedes use of training innovations through the combined effect of the regulations promulgated by its Bureau of…

  8. Stakeholder Perceptions of Governance: Factors Influencing Presidential Perceptions of Board Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proper, Eve; Willmer, Wesley K.; Hartley, Harold V., III; Caboni, Timothy C.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the factors that influence presidents' perceptions of board effectiveness in relation to their boards' fundraising role. Data from a survey of small college presidents are used to see what factors influence each of four areas of satisfaction: deciding policy, making financial contributions, referring donor prospects and…

  9. The Effectiveness of Institutional Committees as Governance Devices: Perceptions of Personnel at a Public Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanaugh, Larry; Stokle, J. Gerald

    This practicum evaluates the institutional committee structure at Fresno City College (FCC), compares it to other or alternative structures at community colleges in California and New Jersey, and reports the attitudes and perceptions of faculty, administration, staff, and students about the effectiveness of the institutional committee structure as…

  10. The Role of School Board Social Capital in District Governance: Effects on Financial and Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saatcioglu, Argun; Moore, Suzanne; Sargut, Gokce; Bajaj, Aarti

    2011-01-01

    Social capital refers to the nature of ties within a social unit, as well as the unit's external relationships. We draw from organizational sociology and political science, and also build upon existing insights in school board research, to offer an approach that address the effects of "bonding" (internal ties) and "bridging"…

  11. Species traits and environmental conditions govern the relationship between biodiversity effects across trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Spooner, Daniel E; Vaughn, Caryn C; Galbraith, Heather S

    2012-02-01

    Changing environments can have divergent effects on biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships at alternating trophic levels. Freshwater mussels fertilize stream foodwebs through nutrient excretion, and mussel species-specific excretion rates depend on environmental conditions. We asked how differences in mussel diversity in varying environments influence the dynamics between primary producers and consumers. We conducted field experiments manipulating mussel richness under summer (low flow, high temperature) and fall (moderate flow and temperature) conditions, measured nutrient limitation, algal biomass and grazing chironomid abundance, and analyzed the data with non-transgressive overyielding and tripartite biodiversity partitioning analyses. Algal biomass and chironomid abundance were best explained by trait-independent complementarity among mussel species, but the relationship between biodiversity effects across trophic levels (algae and grazers) depended on seasonal differences in mussel species' trait expression (nutrient excretion and activity level). Both species identity and overall diversity effects were related to the magnitude of nutrient limitation. Our results demonstrate that biodiversity of a resource-provisioning (nutrients and habitat) group of species influences foodweb dynamics and that understanding species traits and environmental context are important for interpreting biodiversity experiments.

  12. Effects of government registration on unprotected sex among female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Sirotin, Nicole; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Lozada, Remedios; Abramovitz, Daniela; Semple, Shirley J.; Bucardo, Jesús; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Sex work is partially regulated in Tijuana, but little is known of its health effects. A recent behavioral intervention among female sex workers (FSWs) decreased incidence of HIV/STIs by 40%. We evaluated effects of sex worker regulation on condom use among FSWs randomized to this intervention. Methods FSWs aged ≥18 years who reported unprotected sex with ≥1 client in the last 2 months and whether they were registered with Tijuana’s Municipal Health Department underwent a brief, theory-based behavioral intervention to increase condom use. At baseline and 6 months, women underwent interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis, C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. Negative binomial regression was used to determine the effect of registration on numbers of unprotected sex acts and cumulative HIV/STI incidence. Results Of 187 women, 83 (44%) were registered. Lack of registration was associated with higher rates of unprotected sex (rate ratio: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2–2.3), compared to FSWs who were registered, after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusions Registration predicted increased condom use among FSWs enrolled in a behavioral intervention. Public health programs designed to improve condom use among FSWs may benefit from understanding the impact of existing regulation systems on HIV risk behaviors. PMID:20956076

  13. Species traits and environmental conditions govern the relationship between biodiversity effects across trophic levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spooner, D.E.; Vaughn, C.C.; Galbraith, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    Changing environments can have divergent effects on biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships at alternating trophic levels. Freshwater mussels fertilize stream foodwebs through nutrient excretion, and mussel species-specific excretion rates depend on environmental conditions. We asked how differences in mussel diversity in varying environments influence the dynamics between primary producers and consumers. We conducted field experiments manipulating mussel richness under summer (low flow, high temperature) and fall (moderate flow and temperature) conditions, measured nutrient limitation, algal biomass and grazing chironomid abundance, and analyzed the data with non-transgressive overyielding and tripartite biodiversity partitioning analyses. Algal biomass and chironomid abundance were best explained by trait-independent complementarity among mussel species, but the relationship between biodiversity effects across trophic levels (algae and grazers) depended on seasonal differences in mussel species' trait expression (nutrient excretion and activity level). Both species identity and overall diversity effects were related to the magnitude of nutrient limitation. Our results demonstrate that biodiversity of a resource-provisioning (nutrients and habitat) group of species influences foodweb dynamics and that understanding species traits and environmental context are important for interpreting biodiversity experiments. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Environmental assessment in The Netherlands: Effectively governing environmental protection? A discourse analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Runhaar, Hens; Laerhoven, Frank van; Driessen, Peter; Arts, Jos

    2013-02-15

    Environmental assessment (EA) aims to enhance environmental awareness and to ensure that environmental values are fully considered in decision-making. In the EA arena, different discourses exist on what EA should aim for and how it functions. We hypothesise that these discourses influence its application in practice as well as its effectiveness in terms of achieving the above goals. For instance, actors who consider EA as a hindrance to fast implementation of their projects will probably apply it as a mandatory checklist, whereas actors who believe that EA can help to develop more environmentally sound decisions will use EIA as a tool to design their initiatives. In this paper we explore discourses on EA in The Netherlands and elaborate on their implications for EA effectiveness. Based on an innovative research design comprising an online survey with 443 respondents and 20 supplementary semi-structured interviews we conclude that the dominant discourse is that EA is mainly a legal requirement; EAs are conducted because they have to be conducted, not because actors choose to do so. EA effectiveness however seems reasonably high, as a majority of respondents perceive that it enhances environmental awareness and contributes to environmental protection. However, the 'legal requirement' discourse also results in decision-makers seldom going beyond what is prescribed by EA and environmental law. Despite its mandatory character, the predominant attitude towards EA is quite positive. For most respondents, EA is instrumental in providing transparency of decision-making and in minimising the legal risks of not complying with environmental laws. Differences in discourses seldom reflect extreme opposites. The 'common ground' regarding EA provides a good basis for working with EA in terms of meeting legal requirements but at the same time does not stimulate creativity in decision-making or optimisation of environmental values. In countries characterised by less consensual

  15. Material Properties Governing Co-Current Flame Spread: The Effect of Air Entrainment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coutin, Mickael; Rangwala, Ali S.; Torero, Jose L.; Buckley, Steven G.

    2003-01-01

    A study on the effects of lateral air entrainment on an upward spreading flame has been conducted. The fuel is a flat PMMA plate of constant length and thickness but variable width. Video images and surface temperatures have allowed establishing the progression of the pyrolyis front and on the flame stand-off distance. These measurements have been incorporated into a theoretical formulation to establish characteristic mass transfer numbers ("B" numbers). The mass transfer number is deemed as a material related parameter that could be used to assess the potential of a material to sustain co-current flame spread. The experimental results show that the theoretical formulation fails to describe heat exchange between the flame and the surface. The discrepancies seem to be associated to lateral air entrainment that lifts the flame off the surface and leads to an over estimation of the local mass transfer number. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements are in the process of being acquired. These measurements are intended to provide insight on the effect of air entrainment on the flame stand-off distance. A brief description of the methodology to be followed is presented here.

  16. The Technology-Enabled Patient Advocate: A Valuable Emerging Healthcare Partner.

    PubMed

    Kent, Susan M; Yellowlees, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. healthcare system is changing and is becoming more patient-centered and technology-supported, with greater emphasis on population health outcomes and team-based care. The roles of healthcare providers are changing, and new healthcare roles are developing such as that of the patient advocate. This article reviews the history of this type of role, the changes that have taken place over time, the technological innovations in service delivery that further enable the role, and how the role could increasingly be developed in the future. Logical future extensions of the current typical patient advocate are the appearance of a virtual or avatar-driven care navigator, using telemedicine and related information technologies, as healthcare provision moves increasingly in a hybrid direction, with care being given both in-person and online.

  17. The Illusion of Governance: The Challenges of Providing Effective Governance as a Tool of Counterinsurgency in Eastern Afghanistan’s Paktika Province

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-22

    off” of the tribes to monitor and control themselves, it can be argued a more cost -effective method of security; producing instant results......care reforms. Increase of medical and dental providers. Y: Continuous presence of service providers in rural regions. Securing the Populace

  18. Practice Governance 101, v. 2013.

    PubMed

    Hayes, David F

    2013-03-01

    Consensus governance is a principal weakness leading to group malfunction and failure. Inadequate group governance produces inadequate decisions, leading to inconsistent patient care, inadequate responses to marketplace challenges, and disregard for customers and strategic partners. The effectiveness of consensus management is limited by the pervasive incomplete knowledge and personal biases of partners. Additional structural weaknesses of group behavior include information cascade, the wisdom of the crowd, groupthink, pluralistic ignorance, analysis paralysis, peer pressure, and the herding instinct. Usual corporate governance is, by necessity, the governance model of choice. Full accountability of the decider(s) is the defining requirement of all successful governance models.

  19. Together Everyone Achieves More: Leadership Networks and Interagency Relationships of the Judge Advocate Generals Corps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-22

    PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...include their legal advisors from the Judge Advocate General’s Corps. While this structure works during operations, there are those areas of...examples of nodes in a network working together to resolve servicemember issues, rather than of unilateral action by one agency. Together Everyone

  20. Advocates of College-Savings Plans Hope to Cash In on Credit Crunch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelderman, Eric

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that advocates of state-sponsored college-savings plans seek to use the current credit crunch as a wake-up call for parents and policy makers to shift away from the growing use of loans by families to cover college costs. In the long run, savings are the best way for most families to avoid the burdensome costs of private…

  1. Using human rights law to advocate for syringe exchange programs in European prisons.

    PubMed

    Lines, Rick

    2006-12-01

    The European Convention on Human Rights can be used to advocate for the provision of syringe exchange programs in prisons, says Rick Lines in this article, which is based on a presentation at an abstract-driven session at the conference. The author outlines the arguments that states might use to avoid having to implement syringe exchange programs, and counters these arguments with reference to human rights law and jurisprudence.

  2. The Educational Rights of Children in Foster Care and Other Out-of-Home Placements: A Guide for Advocates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaels, Lauren S.

    2014-01-01

    This guide is designed to help advocates--including biological and adoptive parents, resource parents, adult students in foster care, and service providers--understand and advocate for the educational rights of children in New Jersey's foster care system. The guide explains the requirements of federal and state laws that particularly affect these…

  3. Investigation of the mediating effects of IT governance-value delivery on service quality and ERP performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Wen-Hsien; Chou, Yu-Wei; Leu, Jun-Der; Chao Chen, Der; Tsaur, Tsen-Shu

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to explore the mediating effects of IT governance (ITG)-value delivery in the relationships among the quality of vendor service, the quality of consultant services, ITG-value delivery and enterprise resource planning (ERP) performance. The sampling of this research was acquired from a questionnaire survey concerning ERP implementations in Taiwan. In this survey, 4366 questionnaires were sent to manufacturing and service companies listed in the TOP 5000: The Largest Corporations in Taiwan 2009. The results showed that an ERP system will exhibit a decreased error rate and improved performance if ERP system vendors and consultants provide good service quality. The results also demonstrated that significant relationships exist among the quality of vendor service, the quality of consultant services and value delivery. The contribution of this article is twofold. First, it found that value delivery provides an effective measure of ERP performance under an ITG framework. Second, it provides evidence of the partial mediating effects of value delivery between service quality and ERP performance. In other words, if enterprises want to improve ERP performance, they need to consider factors such as value delivery and the quality of a vendor/consultant's service.

  4. The Fermi Large Area Telescope Flare Advocate Program: Rapid Sharing of Results with the Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, David John; Ciprini, Stefano; Gasparrini, Dario; Fermi Large Area Telescope Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Fermi Flare Advocate (also known as Gamma-ray Sky Watcher) program provides a quick look and review of the gamma-ray sky observed daily by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) through on-duty LAT Flare Advocates and high-level software pipelines like the LAT Automatic Science Processing and the Fermi All-sky Variability Analysis. The FA-GSW service provides rapid alerts and communicates to the external scientific community potentially new gamma-ray sources, interesting transients and flares. News items are regularly posted through the Fermi multiwavelength mailing list, Astronomer's Telegrams and Gamma-ray Coordinates Network notices. A weekly digest containing the highlights about the variable LAT gamma-ray sky at E>100 MeV is published on the web ("Fermi Sky Blog"). From July 2008 to September 2014 more than 290 ATels and 90 GCNs have been published by the Fermi LAT Collaboration. Target of opportunity observing programs with other satellites and telescopes have been triggered by Flare Advocates based on gamma-ray flares from blazars and other kinds of sources.

  5. Communicating the Urgency of Climate Change to Local Government Policy Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, A.

    2004-12-01

    What are the challenges and obstacles in conveying scientific research and uncertainties about climate change to local government policy makers? What information do scientists need from local government practitioners to guide research efforts into producing more relevant information for the local government audience? What works and what doesn't in terms of communicating climate change science to non-technical audiences? Based on over a decade of experience working with local governments around the world on greenhouse gas mitigation, ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability has developed a unique perspective and valuable insight into effective communication on climate science that motivates policy action. In the United States practical actions necessary to mitigate global climate change occur largely at the local level. As the level of government closest to individual energy consumers, local governments play a large role in determining the energy intensity of communities. How can local governments be persuaded to make greenhouse gas mitigation a policy priority over the long-term? Access to relevant information is critical to achieving that commitment. Information that will persuade local officials to pursue climate protection commitments includes specific impacts of global warming to communities, the costs of adaptation versus mitigation, and the potential benefits of implementing greenhouse gas-reducing initiatives. The manner in which information is conveyed is also critically important. The scientific community is loath to advocate for specific policies, or to make determinate statements on topics for which research is ongoing. These communication hurdles can be overcome if the needs of local policy practitioners can be understood by the scientific community, and research goals can be cooperatively defined.

  6. Corporate Sector Practice Informs Online Workforce Training for Australian Government Agencies: Towards Effective Educational-Learning Systems Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Elspeth; Vilela, Cenie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline government online training practice. We searched individual research domains of the human-dimensions of Human Computer Interaction (HCI), information and communications technologies (ICT) and instructional design for evidence of either corporate sector or government training practices. We overlapped these…

  7. Effects of Adult Education Vouchers on the Labor Market: Evidence from a Randomized Field Experiment. Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series. PEPG 11-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwerdt, Guido; Messer, Dolores; Woessmann, Ludger; Wolter, Stefan C.

    2011-01-01

    Lifelong learning is often promoted in ageing societies, but little is known about its returns or governments' ability to advance it. This paper evaluates the effects of a large-scale randomized field experiment issuing vouchers for adult education in Switzerland. We find no significant average effects of voucher-induced adult education on…

  8. Analysis of Improved Government Geological Map Information for Mineral Exploration: Incorporating Efficiency, Productivity, Effectiveness, and Risk Considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernknopf, R.L.; Wein, A.M.; St-Onge, M. R.; Lucas, S.B.

    2007-01-01

    This bulletin/professional paper focuses on the value of geoscientific information and knowledge, as provided in published government bedrock geological maps, to the mineral exploration sector. An economic model is developed that uses an attribute- ranking approach to convert geological maps into domains of mineral favourability. Information about known deposits in these (or analogous) favourability domains allow the calculation of exploration search statistics that provide input into measures of exploration efficiency, productivity, effectiveness, risk, and cost stemming from the use of the published geological maps. Two case studies, the Flin Flon Belt (Manitoba and Saskatchewan) and the south Baffin Island area (Nunavut), demonstrate that updated, finer resolution maps can be used to identify more exploration campaign options, and campaigns thats are more efficient, more effective, and less risky than old, coarser resolution maps when used as a guide for mineral exploration. The Flin Flon Belt study illustrates that an updated, coarser resolution bedrock map enables improved mineral exploration efficiency, productivity, and effectiveness by locating 60% more targets and supporting an exploration campaign that is 44% more efficient. Refining the map resolution provides an additional 17% reduction in search effort across all favourable domains and a 55% reduction in search effort in the most favourable domain. The south Baffin Island case study projects a 40% increase in expected targets and a 27% reduction in search effort when the updated, finer resolution map is used in lieu of the old, coarser resolution map. On southern Baffin Island, the economic value of the up dated map ranges from CAN$2.28 million to CAN$15.21 million, which can be compared to the CAN$1.86 million that it cost to produce the map (a multiplier effect of up to eight).

  9. Listening to the voices of patients with cancer, their advocates and their nurses: A hermeneutic-phenomenological study of quality nursing care.

    PubMed

    Charalambous, Andreas; Papadopoulos, I Rena; Beadsmoore, Alan

    2008-12-01

    This article presents the findings from a hermeneutic-phenomenological study looking at the meanings of "quality nursing care" through the experiences of patients with cancer, their advocates and their nurses. Twenty-five patients were interviewed from which fifteen also participated in two focus groups. Six patients' advocates participated in a focus group and twenty nurses were individually interviewed. The informants came from the three major hospitals in Cyprus which provide in-patient cancer care. Patients' advocates came from the two major cancer associations in Cyprus. Having analysed the data, seven major themes were identified: receiving care in easily accessible cancer care services, being cared for by nurses who effectively communicate with them and their families and provide emotional support, being empowered by nurses through information giving, being cared for by clinically competent nurses, nurses addressing their religious and spiritual needs, being cared for in a nursing environment which promotes shared decision-making, and patients being with and involving the family in the care. These findings stress the need to integrate these aspects in the care of patients with cancer. In doing so, nurses will need support and adequate training in order to acquire the relevant skills towards better caring for the patients.

  10. Participation for effective environmental governance? Evidence from Water Framework Directive implementation in Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Kochskämper, Elisa; Challies, Edward; Newig, Jens; Jager, Nicolas W

    2016-10-01

    Effectiveness of participation in environmental governance is a proliferating assertion in literature that is also reflected in European legislation, such as the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). The Directive mandates participatory river basin management planning across the EU aiming at the delivery of better policy outputs and enhanced implementation. Yet, the impact of this planning mode in WFD implementation remains unclear, though the first planning phase was completed in 2009 and the first implementation cycle by the end of 2015. Notwithstanding the expanding body of literature on WFD implementation, a rather scattered single case study approach seems to predominate. This paper reports on implementation of the WFD in three case studies from Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom, reflecting three substantially different approaches to participatory river basin management planning, on the basis of a comparative case study design. We ask if and how participation improved the environmental standard of outputs and the quality of implementation. We found an increasing quality of outputs with increasing intensity of local participation. Further, social outcomes such as learning occurred within dialogical settings, whereas empowerment and network building emerged also in the case characterized mainly by one-way information. Finally, one important finding deviant from the literature is that stakeholder acceptance seems to be more related to processes than to outputs.

  11. Spanning the Local Government Information Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durrance, Joan C.

    1985-01-01

    Discussion of implications of highly decentralized nature of local government for collection of local documents highlights meaning of access, effect of local government environment on access to local government information, library responses, and tools that can assist libraries in increasing citizen and government access to local government…

  12. Community health workers: social justice and policy advocates for community health and well-being.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Leda M; Martinez, Jacqueline

    2008-01-01

    Community health workers are resources to their communities and to the advocacy and policy world on several levels. Community health workers can connect people to health care and collect information relevant to policy. They are natural researchers who, as a result of direct interaction with the populations they serve, can recount the realities of exclusion and propose remedies for it. As natural researchers, they contribute to best practices while informing public policy with the information they can share. In this light, community health workers may also be advocates for social justice.

  13. Nursing participation in health care reform efforts of 1993 to 1994: advocating for the national community.

    PubMed

    Rubotzky, A M

    2000-12-01

    This report of a postmodern feminist oral history tells a contemporary story of the success of nursing in overcoming the impediments of tradition, organizing and acting as an identifiable group, and speaking out with clarity as advocates for the health of American society. This was an important historical, transitional, and celebratory time for nursing. Continuing advocacy for health care for all Americans requires developing expertise in both traditional and feminist leadership, understanding how political theories and history affect policy development, and active participation in American democracy. Future actions require incorporation of lessons from the recent past.

  14. Judge Advocates in Vietnam: Army Lawyers in Southeast Asia 1959-1975

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    vital materiel; and repeated destruction of enemy base camps, bunkers , and tunnel networks. That said, no matter how deeply U.S. forces ranged into...Col. Thomas C. Oldham, Deputy Staff Judge Advocate, U.S. Army, Vietnam, stand at the entrance to the staff judge advocate’s bunker at Lai Khe. Clausen...records of trial note: “The personnel of the court, counsel, and the accused recessed to nearby bunkers because of a VC rocket and mortar attack.”13 In

  15. Are pediatric nurses advocating for "Generation M2"? The impact of technology use on children.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, Karen

    2010-08-01

    In 2001, the AAP wrote guidelines for practitioners to instruct families on safe technology use (AAP, 2001). In 2010, children are living in an environment where they are exposed to a multitude of media regardless of age, ethnicity, parental income, or education level (Vandewater et al., 2007, p. e1013). Exposure to an environment saturated by multimedia is affecting the health of children. What role does the pediatric nurse assume in offering guidance to children and their families regarding safe use of multimedia? The time is now for pediatric nurses to lead the way by role modeling, educating, and advocating for safe multimedia use for all children.

  16. Modeling and Cognitive Behavior: The Effects of Modeling, Modes of Modeling and Selected Model Attributes on Rule-Governed Language Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieshop, James Ivo

    The effect of modeling on the performance of rule-governed language behaviors of 208 male and female, Anglo and Chicano, sixth grade students in Albuquerque, N.M. was experimentally investigated. Eight boys and 8 girls (4 each Chicano and Anglo) were randomly assigned to each of the 12 experimental conditions and to the control group. Three modes…

  17. Instructional Supervisory Practices and Teachers' Role Effectiveness in Public Secondary Schools in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sule, Mary Anike; Eyiene, Ameh; Egbai, Mercy E.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between instructional supervisory practices and teachers' role effectiveness in public secondary schools in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State. Two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study…

  18. School Board Member Practices in Governance, Teamwork and Board Development, and Their Sense of Effectiveness in High and Low Math Academic Achievement Districts of New York State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Kyrie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among New York State school board member attitudes toward components of school board governance and their sense of effectiveness in high and low math academic achievement districts in New York State. The study examined board members' perceptions of their actual practices in policy…

  19. Expert searcher, teacher, content manager, and patient advocate: an exploratory study of clinical librarian roles

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Maria C.; Maggio, Lauren A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The research explored the roles of practicing clinical librarians embedded in a patient care team. Methods: Six clinical librarians from Canada and one from the United States were interviewed to elicit detailed descriptions of their clinical roles and responsibilities and the context in which these were performed. Results: Participants were embedded in a wide range of clinical service areas, working with a diverse complement of health professionals. As clinical librarians, participants wore many hats, including expert searcher, teacher, content manager, and patient advocate. Unique aspects of how these roles played out included a sense of urgency surrounding searching activities, the broad dissemination of responses to clinical questions, and leverage of the roles of expert searcher, teacher, and content manager to advocate for patients. Conclusions: Detailed role descriptions of clinical librarians embedded in patient care teams suggest possible new practices for existing clinical librarians, provide direction for training new librarians working in patient care environments, and raise awareness of the clinical librarian specialty among current and budding health information professionals. PMID:23405048

  20. Development and Evaluation of Training for Rural LGBTQ Mental Health Peer Advocates

    PubMed Central

    Israel, Tania; Willging, Cathleen; Ley, David

    2016-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) people in rural areas experience negative mental health consequences of minority stress, and encounter multiple barriers to accessing mental health and substance use treatment services. As part of a larger intervention study, we developed and piloted a unique training program to prepare peer advocates for roles as paraprofessionals who assist rural LGBTQ people with mental health needs. Thirty-seven people in New Mexico took part in either the initial training or a second revised training to improve their knowledge and skills to address LGBTQ mental health needs. Evaluation of this training consisted of self-administered structured assessments, focus groups, and open-ended interviews. Results for the initial training showed no significant increases from pre- and post-test scores on knowledge about LGBTQ people and their mental health issues, whereas significant increases were detected for the revised training. There also were significant increases in self-efficacy to perform tasks associated with the peer advocate role for all but a subset of tasks for the revised training. Qualitative data reveal that participants appreciated the opportunity to increase information and skills, especially concerning bisexual and transgender persons, and the opportunity to connect with others in the community who want to support LGBTQ people. PMID:27516816

  1. Perspective of an advocate: a case and framework for research advocacy in Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In making an experience-based case for research advocacy in Africa and suggesting a framework for building it, this paper covers factors such as basic tenets of patient advocacy, key components and urgent needs in building strong research advocacy, concepts and approaches from which guidance might be taken, and the feasibility of its development and growth throughout the continent. Research advocacy is defined as the meaningful engagement of patient advocates and their representatives in the research system. As the clinical research system in Africa is developing and gaining strength, this is an opportune time for research advocacy to form and take root as an embedded component in the research structures on the continent. That is, the current state of development of the research system and the simultaneous interest in and rise of patient advocacy bode well for the likelihood of developing robust research advocacy, suggesting its feasibility. Even so, several developments are urgently needed to build, shore up, and sustain a framework receptive to maximizing the influence of an active network of patient advocates—many training in the subspecialty of research advocacy—and a research structure that supports and embeds advocate engagement. PMID:23902629

  2. Development and Evaluation of Training for Rural LGBTQ Mental Health Peer Advocates.

    PubMed

    Israel, Tania; Willging, Cathleen; Ley, David

    2016-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) people in rural areas experience negative mental health consequences of minority stress, and encounter multiple barriers to accessing mental health and substance use treatment services. As part of a larger intervention study, we developed and piloted a unique training program to prepare peer advocates for roles as paraprofessionals who assist rural LGBTQ people with mental health needs. Thirty-seven people in New Mexico took part in either the initial training or a second revised training to improve their knowledge and skills to address LGBTQ mental health needs. Evaluation of this training consisted of self-administered structured assessments, focus groups, and open-ended interviews. Results for the initial training showed no significant increases from pre- and post-test scores on knowledge about LGBTQ people and their mental health issues, whereas significant increases were detected for the revised training. There also were significant increases in self-efficacy to perform tasks associated with the peer advocate role for all but a subset of tasks for the revised training. Qualitative data reveal that participants appreciated the opportunity to increase information and skills, especially concerning bisexual and transgender persons, and the opportunity to connect with others in the community who want to support LGBTQ people.

  3. Governance Failure in Social Enterprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Chris; Chinnock, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This article aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the participative, democratic model of governance commonly found within social enterprises. This model has its origins in the broader not-for-profit sector where it is widely adopted. A core assumption of this governance form is that it ensures that the organisation will take a range of views into…

  4. Choosing to Pursue Great Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemons, Jay; March, Terry

    2006-01-01

    New ways of thinking about governance are beginning to transform the leadership strategies of many people who serve in nonprofit organizations. How specifically can the time and talents of higher education trustees be used more effectively to advance the interests of colleges and universities? How many college and university boards govern like…

  5. Arctic tipping points: governance in turbulent times.

    PubMed

    Young, Oran R

    2012-02-01

    Interacting forces of climate change and globalization are transforming the Arctic. Triggered by a non-linear shift in sea ice, this transformation has unleashed mounting interest in opportunities to exploit the region's natural resources as well as growing concern about environmental, economic, and political issues associated with such efforts. This article addresses the implications of this transformation for governance, identifies limitations of existing arrangements, and explores changes needed to meet new demands. It advocates the development of an Arctic regime complex featuring flexibility across issues and adaptability over time along with an enhanced role for the Arctic Council both in conducting policy-relevant assessments and in promoting synergy in interactions among the elements of the emerging Arctic regime complex. The emphasis throughout is on maximizing the fit between the socioecological features of the Arctic and the character of the governance arrangements needed to steer the Arctic toward a sustainable future.

  6. Integrated program designed for local governments.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Local Philippine governments are required under the 1991 Local Government Code to plan and manage their own health and nutrition programs. In response to their requests, the Municipal Integrated Nutrition Program (MINP) is being developed. This program will integrate the local efforts of the following national nutrition programs: the Teacher-Child-Parent Approach of the Department of Education, Culture, and Sports; the Community-Based Planning and Management of Nutrition Programs of the Department of Health; the Early Childhood Enrichment Program of the Department of Social welfare and Development; and the Bio-Intensive Gardening for Home/Community Food Security of the Department of Agriculture. The Nutrition Center of the Philippines (NCP) has assisted in the development, testing, and evaluation of the MINP. In 1993, MINP models will begin in 1 or 2 barangays in Carmen, Cebu; Hilongos, Leyte; and Dapitan City in Zamboanga del Norte. NCP will provide program materials and technical assistance. Modeling activities will include advocating to local government units; designing and installing nutrition planning capability via planning workshops; packaging of program requirements and costs; designing a strategy to mobilize resources; facilitating purchase, delivery, and payment of program requirements; facilitating and coordinating training; designing and installing a monitoring and evaluation system; and documenting and disseminating. Local government officials, technical government agencies, nongovernment organizations, and private entities will work together.

  7. Government influence on patient organizations.

    PubMed

    Van de Bovenkamp, Hester M; Trappenburg, Margo J

    2011-12-01

    Patient organizations increasingly play an important role in health care decision-making in Western countries. The Netherlands is one of the countries where this trend has gone furthest. In the literature some problems are identified, such as instrumental use of patient organizations by care providers, health insurers and the pharmaceutical industry. To strengthen the position of patient organizations government funding is often recommended as a solution. In this paper we analyze the ties between Dutch government and Dutch patient organizations to learn more about the effects of such a relationship between government and this part of civil society. Our study is based on official government documents and existing empirical research on patient organizations. We found that government influence on patient organizations has become quite substantial with government influencing the organizational structure of patient organizations, the activities these organizations perform and even their ideology. Financing patient organizations offers the government an important means to hold them accountable. Although the ties between patient organizations and the government enable the former to play a role that can be valued as positive by both parties, we argue that they raise problems as well which warrant a discussion on how much government influence on civil society is acceptable.

  8. Professionalizing School Governance: The Disciplinary Effects of School Autonomy and Inspection on the Changing Role of School Governors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1980s, state schools in England have been required to ensure transparency and accountability through the use of indicators and templates derived from the private sector and, more recently, globally circulating discourses of "good governance" (an appeal to professional standards, technical expertise, and performance evaluation…

  9. Washington School Board Standards, Benchmarks of Success and Indicators for Evaluation, with References: A Framework for Effective Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeck, Debora

    2009-01-01

    The Washington School Board Standards are intended for use by local school boards and individual directors as a common framework for school board governance. Two sets of standards were developed to encourage school boards and individual school directors to subscribe to the highest levels of professional and personal conduct and performance. The…

  10. Effectiveness of Government's Occupational Skills Development Strategies for Small- and Medium-Scale Enterprises: A Case Study of Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kye Woo

    2006-01-01

    In many developing countries, small- and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) account for a large part of national employment and income. Therefore, governments have used various strategies/policy instruments to develop human resources for SMEs and improve their productivity and national welfare. In the literature, however, there has been little effort…

  11. Governance matters: an ecological association between governance and child mortality

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ro-Ting; Chien, Lung-Chang; Chen, Ya-Mei; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Background Governance of a country may have widespread effects on the health of its population, yet little is known about the effect of governance on child mortality in a country that is undergoing urbanization, economic development, and disease control. Methods We obtained indicators of six dimensions of governance (perceptions of voice and accountability, political stability and absence of violence, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, rule of law, and control of corruption) and national under-5 mortality rates for 149 countries between 1996 and 2010. We applied a semi-parametric generalized additive mixed model to examine associations after controlling for the effects of development factors (urbanization level and economy), disease control factors (hygienic conditions and vaccination rates), health expenditures, air quality, and time. Results Governance, development, and disease control showed clear inverse relations with the under-5 mortality rate (p<0.001). Per unit increases in governance, development, and disease control factors, the child mortality rate had a 0.901-, 0.823-, and 0.922-fold decrease, respectively, at fixed levels of the other two factors. Conclusions In the effort to reduce the global under-5 mortality rate, addressing a country's need for better governance is as important as improvements in development and disease control. PMID:24711600

  12. Occupational hazards in female ballet dancers. Advocate for a forgotten population.

    PubMed

    Kelman, B B

    2000-09-01

    1. Personal, economical, psychological, and physical factors increase a ballet dancer's stress, which can result in a higher risk for injuries. 2. Ballet dancers experience injuries to the foot, ankle, knee, hip, or back. The constant fear of injuries is universal among dancers because injuries can lead to permanent disability and the end of their ballet career. 3. Although early treatment of injuries is critical, there are multiple barriers to receiving treatment. Some of the barriers include misunderstanding from the health care community, cost of treatment, time constraints, fear of unemployment, and dancers' viewing injuries and pain as a way of life. 4. Occupational health nurses are in an excellent position to start programs in this unexplored area of occupational health nursing. Nurses must advocate for this population of workers and help dancers in their battle against injury, pain, disability, and psychological distress.

  13. Patient Abuse in the Health Care Setting: The Nurse as Patient Advocate.

    PubMed

    Albina, Julie K

    2016-01-01

    Incidents of verbal and physical patient abuse in health care settings continue to occur, with some making headline news. Nurses have a professional and ethical responsibility to advocate for their patients when incidents of abuse occur. Tolerating or ignoring inappropriate behaviors occurs for multiple reasons, including ignorance, fear of retaliation, the need for peer acceptance, and concerns for personal advancement. Nurses need to reflect on their biases before they can truly respect patients' autonomy. Through the examination of reported cases of patient abuse, the need for a change in hospital culture becomes evident. The primary steps in eliminating patient abuse are opening communication, providing education, establishing competency, eliminating tolerance of unacceptable behavior, and creating a code of mutual respect. A change in culture to one of mutual respect and dignity for staff members and patients will lead to the best outcomes for all involved.

  14. HESS Opinions: Advocating process modeling and de-emphasizing parameter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahremand, Abdolreza

    2016-04-01

    Since its origins as an engineering discipline, with its widespread use of "black box" (empirical) modeling approaches, hydrology has evolved into a scientific discipline that seeks a more "white box" (physics-based) modeling approach to solving problems such as the description and simulation of the rainfall-runoff responses of a watershed. There has been much recent debate regarding the future of the hydrological sciences, and several publications have voiced opinions on this subject. This opinion paper seeks to comment and expand upon some recent publications that have advocated an increased focus on process-based modeling while de-emphasizing the focus on detailed attention to parameter estimation. In particular, it offers a perspective that emphasizes a more hydraulic (more physics-based and less empirical) approach to development and implementation of hydrological models.

  15. Biological processes for advancing lignocellulosic waste biorefinery by advocating circular economy.

    PubMed

    Liguori, Rossana; Faraco, Vincenza

    2016-09-01

    The actualization of a circular economy through the use of lignocellulosic wastes as renewable resources can lead to reduce the dependence from fossil-based resources and contribute to a sustainable waste management. The integrated biorefineries, exploiting the overall lignocellulosic waste components to generate fuels, chemicals and energy, are the pillar of the circular economy. The biological treatment is receiving great attention for the biorefinery development since it is considered an eco-friendly alternative to the physico-chemical strategies to increase the biobased product recovery from wastes and improve saccharification and fermentation yields. This paper reviews the last advances in the biological treatments aimed at upgrading lignocellulosic wastes, implementing the biorefinery concept and advocating circular economy.

  16. Coleman Advocates for Children And Youth: a pioneering child advocacy organization (1974-2008).

    PubMed

    Carnochan, Sarah; Austin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Coleman Advocates for Youth and Children is a pioneering 30-year-old child advocacy organization founded by several affluent community members and children's service professionals to stop housing abused and neglected children in juvenile hall. Today, low-income youth and parents in families of color are now assuming leadership in developing a unique hybrid approach that integrates community organizing with more traditional child advocacy strategies and focuses on increasing affordable housing and improving the city's educational system. The strategies employed by Coleman have also evolved, shifting from insider advocacy with administrative officials to public campaigns targeting the city budget process, to local initiative campaigns, and most recently to electoral politics. This organizational history features the issues mission and structure, leadership, managing issues, advocacy strategies and community relations, and funding.

  17. Personal stories: voices of Latino youth health advocates in a diabetes prevention initiative.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Danielle W; Villagrana, Maria; Mora-Torres, Hugo; de Leon, Mario; Haughey, Mary Hoshiko

    2011-01-01

    The YMCA-Silicon Valley Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) U.S. Proyecto Movimiento (PM) Action Community project is a community-based partnership that aims to reduce the prevalence of diabetes among Latinos in the Greater Gilroy, California, area by delivering a prevention campaign across generations. A critical component of PM has been the creation of a Youth Health Advocate (YHA) afterschool club at three public high schools in Gilroy. The YHAs, who are trained on health, nutrition, diabetes, basic leadership skills, and digital storytelling, are at the forefront of the campaign targeting Gilroy youth. In their own words, the YHAs describe why they decided to become a YHA, the positive health impact of YHA activities on themselves and their family, and the positive impact on burgeoning leadership skills. The voices of YHAs in this prevention campaigns have brought value to the PM evaluation, and this qualitative element bears further examination in other community-based prevention campaigns.

  18. Beyond Professionalisation: Enhancing the Governance Culture for Australian University Governing Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Jeanette

    2006-01-01

    This article examines emerging norms of good practice for Australian university governing boards and issues that university governing boards could address to develop effective governance cultures. It firstly considers the ways in which support for many Australian university governing boards has become professionalised over the past decade. At the…

  19. The Rising Influence of China in West Africa: Analysis of the Effects on Economic Development, Governance and Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-10

    in Ghana has become well situated. The institutional reforms conducted by the government of Ghana have paid huge dividends in setting up the country...Guillaume Detilleux, and Sébastien Demailly. 2007. Crise du Darfour: Indice revelateur de la politique d’acrroissement de la Chine en Afrique [Darfur...Kernen, Antoine. 2007. Les strategies Chinoises en Afrique: Du petrole au business en plastique. Politique Africaine 105. Geneve: Institut Universitaire

  20. U.S. Government Security Response to Attacks on its Diplomatic Missions, 1979-2012: How Effective?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-14

    result of the Reagan Administration’s goal to reduce spending by the federal government, one- third of the funding for the Security Enhancement...House Political Party 1980 James Earl Carter Democrat Robert C. Byrd Democrat Thomas Philip O’Neill, Jr. Democrat 1981 Ronald Wilson Reagan ...Republican Howard H. Baker, Jr. Republican Thomas Philip O’Neill, Jr. Democrat 1982 Ronald Wilson Reagan Republican Howard H. Baker, Jr

  1. Meeting the Needs of Children in the Next Decade "From the Viewpoint of Government."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Stanley B., Jr.

    Emphasizing the competition developing for HEW funds, this speech discusses the future role of federally funded programs to meet the needs of children. Reference is made to the conservative vs. liberal debate over the role of government in providing family services. For child advocates, it is proposed that the most critical part of the controversy…

  2. Efficacy of a combination of imidacloprid 10%/moxidectin 2.5% spot-on (Advocate® for dogs) in the prevention of canine spirocercosis (Spirocerca lupi).

    PubMed

    Le Sueur, Christophe; Bour, Sophie; Schaper, Roland

    2010-11-01

    The nematode Spirocerca lupi is a major canine parasite in warm regions of the world, classically causing parasitic nodules in the esophagus, aortic aneurysms, and spondylitis. This study evaluated the preventive efficacy of monthly treatment with imidacloprid 10%/moxidectin 2.5% spot-on (Advocate® for dogs) administered over a period of 9 months in young dogs naturally exposed to S. lupi on Réunion island. One hundred and twelve puppies, aged from 2.0 to 4.0 months and with a negative spirocerca fecal examination at inclusion, completed the study. They were randomly allocated to two groups. Group A puppies (n=58) received nine spot-on treatments with Advocate® at the minimum dose of 2.5 mg moxidectin/kg bw at monthly intervals. Control group B puppies (n=54) received no treatment for S. lupi. During the study, regular clinical and fecal examinations were performed, as was final upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Endoscopy showed that 19 dogs from group B had spirocerca nodules, corresponding to a prevalence of 35.2% in dogs aged 12 to 14 months. In contrast, only one dog from group A had a nodule, corresponding to a preventive efficacy of 94.7% (p<0.0001). None of the 378 fecal examinations were positive for spirocerca. This study confirms a high prevalence of canine spirocercosis on Réunion and shows that infestation occurs in very young puppies. Furthermore, it demonstrates that monthly spot-on administration of a combination of imidacloprid 10%/moxidectin 2.5% (Advocate® for dogs) in puppies starting at the age of 2 to 4 months achieves effective and safe prevention of canine spirocercosis.

  3. [Governance for health].

    PubMed

    Holčík, Jan

    2012-01-01

    New approaches to governance are driven by the changing nature of the challenges faced by 21st century societies. People, their health and capabilities are the key resources of a knowledge society. In the article the meaning of "governance for health" is explained and some methods of governance are presented. Governance for health will be implemented in the new European health policy - Health 2020.

  4. Crisis plans facilitated by patient advocates are better than those drawn up by clinicians: results from an RCT.

    PubMed

    Ruchlewska, A; Mulder, C L; Van der Waal, R; Kamperman, A; Van der Gaag, M

    2014-03-01

    This study compared quality aspects of crisis plans made with the help of a patient advocate (PACP) with those of plans made with the patient's clinician (clinician crisis plan, CCP). Patients were randomized into PACP and CCP conditions. The quality of crisis plan checklist was used to compare quality aspects of PACP and CCP crisis plans. The quality scores were significantly higher in the PACP group than in the CCP group (Cohen's d = 0.78 for the quality checklist total score). Patient advocates may be important to the successful development of crisis plans.

  5. 31 CFR 210.3 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Governing law. 210.3 Section 210.3... CLEARING HOUSE § 210.3 Governing law. (a) Federal law. The rights and obligations of the United States and..., are governed by this part, which has the force and effect of Federal law. (b) Incorporation...

  6. 31 CFR 210.3 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Governing law. 210.3 Section 210.3... CLEARING HOUSE § 210.3 Governing law. (a) Federal law. The rights and obligations of the United States and..., are governed by this part, which has the force and effect of Federal law. (b) Incorporation...

  7. 31 CFR 210.3 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Governing law. 210.3 Section 210.3... CLEARING HOUSE § 210.3 Governing law. (a) Federal law. The rights and obligations of the United States and..., are governed by this part, which has the force and effect of Federal law. (b) Incorporation...

  8. 31 CFR 210.3 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Governing law. 210.3 Section 210.3... CLEARING HOUSE § 210.3 Governing law. (a) Federal law. The rights and obligations of the United States and..., are governed by this part, which has the force and effect of Federal law. (b) Incorporation...

  9. 31 CFR 210.3 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Governing law. 210.3 Section 210.3... CLEARING HOUSE § 210.3 Governing law. (a) Federal law. The rights and obligations of the United States and..., are governed by this part, which has the force and effect of Federal law. (b) Incorporation...

  10. Advocating for pregnant women in prison: the role of the correctional nurse.

    PubMed

    Ferszt, Ginette G; Hickey, Joyce E; Seleyman, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    On any given day, approximately 6%-10% of women who are incarcerated in prisons and jails in the United States are pregnant. Although incarcerated pregnant women have been identified as a high-risk group because of compromised physical and emotional health when they enter these settings, their specific healthcare needs are frequently unmet or partially met during their imprisonment. Stressors imposed by prison life and separation from their newborn at birth often exacerbate existing mental health issues including posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, and insomnia. Nurses in correctional settings play a strategic role in improving the health care of this population by promoting teamwork, incorporating standards of care, and advocating for changes in policies. Collaboration with the warden, physician or nurse practitioner, correctional officers, and social workers can lead to positive changes in health outcomes. Given the national emphasis on gender responsive treatment in prisons and jails, a window of opportunity exists to be a voice for these women and make significant changes in health care for this largely underserved [corrected] population.

  11. Violence prevention in schools and other community settings: the pediatrician as initiator, educator, collaborator, and advocate.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Brewer, R; Spivak, H

    1994-10-01

    Attention to the problem of youth violence has resulted in a proliferation of violence prevention and intervention strategies. Examined in this paper are those strategies that can be categorized as educational, environmental/technological, and recreational. In the educational category are conflict resolution and mediation, crime prevention and law-related education, handgun violence education, life skills training, self-esteem development, public education, and media education. The environmental/technological category covers a range of strategies: metal detectors, school police, concrete barriers, dress codes, and safe corridor programs, among others. The rather broad recreational category is based upon the importance of physical activity as an outlet for stress and anger and as a component of a multicomponent program. Multi-intervention programs are described as well as some of the major gaps in current violence prevention programming. The suggested role of the pediatrician in violence prevention efforts is described as both initiator and collaborator, as counselor, and as advocate. Because of their great credibility with respect to issues related to children and youth, pediatricians can influence not only parents in their contacts with them in the health care setting, but also school administrators and community leaders. Pediatricians have access to the media, and they can speak to the issue in public forums as well. Furthermore, pediatricians can join existing community efforts to determine ways in which violence prevention and intervention strategies can be incorporated into agency activities.

  12. Leisure, Government and Governance: A Swedish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    The leisure sector has witnessed a tremendous expansion since 1960. The purpose of this article is to analyse the decisions and goals of Swedish government policy during the period 1962 to 2005. The empirical analysis covers government Propositions and governmental investigations. The fields covered are sports, culture, exercise, tourism and…

  13. Australian governments' spending on preventing and responding to drug abuse should target the main sources of drug-related harm and the most cost-effective interventions.

    PubMed

    McDonald, David

    2011-01-01

    A notable feature of Australian drug policy is the limited public and professional attention given to the financial costs of drug abuse and to the levels and patterns of government expenditures incurred in preventing and responding to this. Since 1991, Collins and Lapsley have published scholarly reports documenting the social costs of drug abuse in Australia and their reports also contain estimates of governments' drug budgets: revenue and expenditures. They show that, in 2004-2005, Australian governments expended at least $5288 million on drug abuse, with 50% of the expenditure directed to preventing and dealing with alcohol-related problems, 45% to illicit drugs and just 5% to tobacco. Some 60% of the expenditure was directed at drug crime and 37% at health interventions. This pattern of resource allocation does not adequately reflect an evidence-informed policy orientation in that it largely fails to focus on the drug types that are the sources of the most harm (tobacco and alcohol rather than illicit drugs), and the sectors for which we have the strongest evidence of the cost-effectiveness of the available interventions (treatment and harm reduction rather than legislation and law enforcement). The 2010-2014 phase of Australia's National Drug Strategy should include incremental changes to the resource allocation mix, and not simply maintain the historical resource allocation formulae.

  14. Beliefs about Language Learning in Study Abroad: Advocating for a Language Ideology Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surtees, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Study Abroad (SA) has long enjoyed the unquestioning support of the general public, governments, and its benefits for language learning in many ways have been naturalized as "common sense" (Twombly et al., 2012). Language ideology scholars would say that this naturalization itself is indication that there are strong ideological forces at…

  15. The Americans with Disabilities Act. A Guide for People with Disabilities, Their Families, and Advocates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Daniel; Goldberg, Marge

    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 outlaws discrimination against people with disabilities. It is a bold and comprehensive law affecting employment, transportation, services provided by state and local government, services and accommodations offered by private businesses, and telecommunication access for people with communication…

  16. Recent government regulations in the United States seek to ensure the effectiveness of antibiotics by limiting their agricultural use.

    PubMed

    Centner, Terence J

    2016-09-01

    The development of bacteria resistant to antibiotics is viewed as a medical health threat. Because thousands of people die every year due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria, efforts are underway to reduce antibiotic usage which in turn will reduce the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In the United States, the use of antibiotics in the production of food animals to enhance animal growth has been identified as contributing to resistance. In 2015, a veterinary feed directive was adopted by the U.S. federal government prohibiting nontherapeutic uses of antibiotics in food animals that should reduce usage. The continued usage of antibiotics by producers for preventing disease may mean the directive is insufficient to reduce nontherapeutic antibiotic administration. This may lead some consumers to seek meat products from animals raised without antibiotics. A governmentally-sponsored labeling program could encourage reduction in antibiotic usage.

  17. Caring, Advocating, and Legislating for Children: Addressing the Paradox Inherent in 'Being Born in Privacy to Live in Society'.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranck, Edna Runnels

    The purpose of this paper is to show how child care practitioners and public policymakers can function in the seemingly disparate and often overlapping roles of professional caregiver, participating advocate, and public policymaker. Described are: (1) the recent expansion of and anticipated future need for child day care programs, focusing on…

  18. YA4-H! Youth Advocates for Health: Impact of a 4-H Teens-as-Teachers Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Mary E.; Flesch, Jeffrey M.; Ashton, Carolyn; Black, Lynette; Brody, Barbara; Hosty, Maureen; Northway, Shanna

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the results of an evaluation of the YA4-H! Youth Advocates for Health--Teens as Teachers program. Consistent with previous research on the impact of teen teaching, the teens participating in the program gained confidence and skill with regard to teaching younger youths. The program also affected the teens' understanding that…

  19. "So I Went There": A Phenomenological Study on the Experiences of Rural School Counselor Social Justice Advocates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Lee Edmondson; Haskins, Natoya; Paisley, Pamela O.

    2014-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored the experiences of rural school counselors as social justice advocates. The first author interviewed seven participants in their respective communities and identified five themes, including both positive and negative elements: the stability of place, community promise, mutual reliance, professional and personal…

  20. Stickers to Facts, Imposers, Democracy Advocators, and Committed Impartialists: Preservice Science Teachers' Beliefs about Teacher's Roles in Socioscientific Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilinc, Ahmet; Kelly, Thomas; Eroglu, Baris; Demiral, Umit; Kartal, Tezcan; Sonmez, Arzu; Demirbag, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    For science teachers using the discourse of socioscientific issues (SSI), it is important to make a decision as to whether when and how to disclose their own positions. The existing limited literature shows that science teachers prefer one of four roles during SSI discourse: sticker to facts, imposer, democracy advocator, and committed…

  1. White Undergraduate Social Justice Advocates: Experiences That Influence Continued Participation in Racially and Ethnically Diverse Campus Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jesse S.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how the experiences of four white, undergraduate, self-identified social justice advocates influenced their on campus participation in racially and ethnically diverse settings. Acknowledging the existence and persistence of white privilege, ontological expansiveness, and epistemological ignorance, the research was grounded in…

  2. Increasing State Investments in Early Care and Education: Lessons Learned from Advocates and Best Practices, Spring 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voices for America's Children, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report showcases advocacy efforts of 11 member organizations in 10 states that recently passed an early care and education (ECE) legislative initiative. The aim of the report is to provide advocates with proven strategies for advancing progress in securing access to ECE and expanding the opportunity for all children to start school prepared…

  3. Raising the Bar: Meeting Healthcare Law Contemporary Challenges for Healthcare Judge Advocates in the United States Army and Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    American jurists and United States Supreme Court Justices Oliver Wendell Holmes and Benjamin Cardozo defined law in a functional sense as a forecast of the... William Tudor, a law clerk to future President John Adams, was appointed the Judge Advocate (Fact Sheet #1, 2000) and was charged with enforcing the

  4. Creating Successful Academic Programs for Chicana/o High School Migrant Students: The Role of Advocate Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Cinthia; Reyes, Reynaldo

    2004-01-01

    This qualitative case study examines the educational struggles of Texas based Chicana/o high school migrant students and the noteworthy array of actions, responses, and relationship dynamics that result from the work of advocate educators. As migrant students move across our nation and enroll in high schools, they demand unique approaches that are…

  5. How You Can Help Your Child Learn to Be a Good Self Advocate. PHP-c95

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PACER Center, 2004

    2004-01-01

    It is never too early for parents to start teaching children how they can advocate for themselves. Like many other important life skills, self-advocacy is a critical tool children need in order to achieve goals, increase self-sufficiency, and become successful young adults. It is a life long process that begins with children learning by watching…

  6. A Little Help from Their Friends: Institutions Build Armies of Alumni Advocates to Influence Legislators and Shape Public Opinion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonetti, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    Institutions build armies of alumni advocates to influence legislators and shape public opinion. This article describes two types of alumni advocacy: grasstops and grassroots. Grasstops advocacy engages smaller, targeted groups of alumni who have a stronger, more influential connection with legislators and other public officeholders. Grassroots…

  7. The Use of Drugs to Modify Behavior in Retarded Persons: A Practical Guide for Parents and Advocates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Roger D.

    The guide presents information for parents, advocates, residential counselors, or retarded persons on the use of drugs in behavior modification. Reasons for concern over the use of drugs are noted, and general principles regarding such factors as individual differences in metabolism and reaction, dosage level, and changes over time are discussed.…

  8. A multiple case study of rape victim advocates' self-care routines: the influence of organizational context.

    PubMed

    Wasco, Sharon M; Campbell, Rebecca

    2002-10-01

    This study assumes that rape victim advocates who provide community outreach services to victimized women must adjust to a heightened awareness of sexual violence to do their jobs. Using qualitative methodology, this multiple case study explored rape victim advocates' strategies for incorporating repeated exposure to sexual assault into their daily lives as well as ways that organizations can support such endeavors. Findings suggest that advocates' self-care routines draw upon various personal resources (i.e., cognitive, physical, social, spiritual, verbal), and serve 2 roles for coping with rape-related pain: (a) cathartic releasing of traumatic material, and (b) improving capacity to integrate the traumatic material into one's life. Additionally, over 20 organizational characteristics that workers perceive to be supportive (e.g., weekly meetings, flexible hours) were identified. Nonparametric and categorical statistical analyses were used to analyze the relationship between organizational support and self-care routines, finding that advocates working in organizations with higher levels of support utilize more strategies that are integrative in nature. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  9. Local government`s pollution prevention program

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, D.

    1996-12-31

    The pollution prevention program operated by the Health Department of Boulder County is called Business Partners for a Clean Environment (Business Partners). It is a cooperative effort among local businesses, the City of Boulder, Boulder County, and the Boulder Chamber of Commerce. This nonregulatory, incentive-based program provides industry with pollution prevention information and technical assistance necessary to reduce and/or eliminate environmental waste. This paper provides an overview of the program development, creation of partnerships and trust, and some of the results from implementation of the program. Following the first 18 months of the program, 35 businesses were recognized as Business Partners. The Business Partners program has also received an achievement award from the National Association of Counties for promoting {open_quotes}responsible, responsive, and effective government{close_quotes} and two governor`s awards from the State of Colorado. Participating businesses have demonstrated that a pollution prevention program can reduce environmental waste, increase employee safety, and decrease costs. 4 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Thoughts on Beijing's Long-Term Rural Infrastructure Management and Protection Issues from the Perspective of the Government to Effectively Perform Their Duties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.

    To strengthen rural infrastructure management, give full play to the role of benefit of infrastructure, it has important significance for promoting the development of rural economy and society. Protection-use and facility energy-use issues are outstanding during Beijing rural infrastructure management. The comprehensive and detailed analysis of the cause of the problems put forward the concrete feasible countermeasures from the government to fulfill the effective function to rural infrastructure: A clear property ownership; Implementation of special funds audit system of the rural infrastructure management; Implementation of rural infrastructure maintenance and management assessment methods and so on.

  11. Transformative environmental governance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaffin, Brian C.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Harm Benson, Melinda; Angeler, David G.; Arnold, Craig Anthony (Tony); Cosens, Barbara; Kundis Craig, Robin; Ruhl, J.B.; Allen, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to alternative, more desirable, or more functional regimes by altering the structures and processes that define the system. Transformative governance is rooted in ecological theories to explain cross-scale dynamics in complex systems, as well as social theories of change, innovation, and technological transformation. Similar to adaptive governance, transformative governance involves a broad set of governance components, but requires additional capacity to foster new social-ecological regimes including increased risk tolerance, significant systemic investment, and restructured economies and power relations. Transformative governance has the potential to actively respond to regime shifts triggered by climate change, and thus future research should focus on identifying system drivers and leading indicators associated with social-ecological thresholds.

  12. Taking Student Government Seriously.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolen, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the student government at La Mesa Middle School (California) that was modeled after the three-branch U.S. government as a means for increasing students' civic understanding. Describes the structure of the legislative, judicial, and executive branches, the different activities of the student government, and the reasons for the hiatus.…

  13. Teaching about Comparative Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2009-01-01

    As international relationships become increasingly important (with both friendly and not-so-friendly governments), the author believes that it is important for U.S. students to learn about how a parliamentary democracy works--how it is similar, but different from a presidential-style government. Learning about the systems of government of other…

  14. Governance is Academic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manahan, Richard A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A model for systematic development and reorganization of college governance systems consists of three processes: reviewing the existing governance structure; examining the concerns and interrelationships of individuals and groups; and pinpointing desired changes. All must be done in the context of linking governance to overall institutional…

  15. Transformative environmental governance

    EPA Science Inventory

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to ...

  16. Modelling University Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trakman, Leon

    2008-01-01

    Twentieth century governance models used in public universities are subject to increasing doubt across the English-speaking world. Governments question if public universities are being efficiently governed; if their boards of trustees are adequately fulfilling their trust obligations towards multiple stakeholders; and if collegial models of…

  17. [Privatization in healthcare management: an adverse effect of the economic crisis and a symptom of bad governance. SESPAS report 2014].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martínez, Fernando I; Abellán-Perpiñán, José María; Oliva-Moreno, Juan

    2014-06-01

    It is often asserted that public management of healthcare facilities is inefficient. On the basis of that unproven claim, it is argued that privatization schemes are needed. In this article we review the available evidence, in Spain and other countries, on the application of private management mechanisms to publicly funded systems similar to the Spanish national health system. The evidence suggests that private management of healthcare services is not necessarily better than public management, nor vice versa. Ownership-whether public or private-of health care centers does not determine their performance which, on the contrary, depends on other factors, such as the workplace culture or the practice of suitable monitoring by the public payer. Promoting competition among centers (irrespective of the specific legal form of the management arrangements), however, could indeed lead to improvements under some circumstances. Therefore, it is advisable to cease the narrow-minded debate on the superiority of one or other model in order to focus on improving healthcare services management per se. Understanding that good governance affects health policies, the management of health care organizations, and clinical practice is, undoubtedly, an essential requirement but may not necessarily lead to policies that stimulate the solvency of the system.

  18. Local cascades induced global contagion: How heterogeneous thresholds, exogenous effects, and unconcerned behaviour govern online adoption spreading.

    PubMed

    Karsai, Márton; Iñiguez, Gerardo; Kikas, Riivo; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertész, János

    2016-06-07

    Adoption of innovations, products or online services is commonly interpreted as a spreading process driven to large extent by social influence and conditioned by the needs and capacities of individuals. To model this process one usually introduces behavioural threshold mechanisms, which can give rise to the evolution of global cascades if the system satisfies a set of conditions. However, these models do not address temporal aspects of the emerging cascades, which in real systems may evolve through various pathways ranging from slow to rapid patterns. Here we fill this gap through the analysis and modelling of product adoption in the world's largest voice over internet service, the social network of Skype. We provide empirical evidence about the heterogeneous distribution of fractional behavioural thresholds, which appears to be independent of the degree of adopting egos. We show that the structure of real-world adoption clusters is radically different from previous theoretical expectations, since vulnerable adoptions-induced by a single adopting neighbour-appear to be important only locally, while spontaneous adopters arriving at a constant rate and the involvement of unconcerned individuals govern the global emergence of social spreading.

  19. Local cascades induced global contagion: How heterogeneous thresholds, exogenous effects, and unconcerned behaviour govern online adoption spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karsai, Márton; Iñiguez, Gerardo; Kikas, Riivo; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertész, János

    2016-06-01

    Adoption of innovations, products or online services is commonly interpreted as a spreading process driven to large extent by social influence and conditioned by the needs and capacities of individuals. To model this process one usually introduces behavioural threshold mechanisms, which can give rise to the evolution of global cascades if the system satisfies a set of conditions. However, these models do not address temporal aspects of the emerging cascades, which in real systems may evolve through various pathways ranging from slow to rapid patterns. Here we fill this gap through the analysis and modelling of product adoption in the world’s largest voice over internet service, the social network of Skype. We provide empirical evidence about the heterogeneous distribution of fractional behavioural thresholds, which appears to be independent of the degree of adopting egos. We show that the structure of real-world adoption clusters is radically different from previous theoretical expectations, since vulnerable adoptions—induced by a single adopting neighbour—appear to be important only locally, while spontaneous adopters arriving at a constant rate and the involvement of unconcerned individuals govern the global emergence of social spreading.

  20. Local cascades induced global contagion: How heterogeneous thresholds, exogenous effects, and unconcerned behaviour govern online adoption spreading

    PubMed Central

    Karsai, Márton; Iñiguez, Gerardo; Kikas, Riivo; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertész, János

    2016-01-01

    Adoption of innovations, products or online services is commonly interpreted as a spreading process driven to large extent by social influence and conditioned by the needs and capacities of individuals. To model this process one usually introduces behavioural threshold mechanisms, which can give rise to the evolution of global cascades if the system satisfies a set of conditions. However, these models do not address temporal aspects of the emerging cascades, which in real systems may evolve through various pathways ranging from slow to rapid patterns. Here we fill this gap through the analysis and modelling of product adoption in the world’s largest voice over internet service, the social network of Skype. We provide empirical evidence about the heterogeneous distribution of fractional behavioural thresholds, which appears to be independent of the degree of adopting egos. We show that the structure of real-world adoption clusters is radically different from previous theoretical expectations, since vulnerable adoptions—induced by a single adopting neighbour—appear to be important only locally, while spontaneous adopters arriving at a constant rate and the involvement of unconcerned individuals govern the global emergence of social spreading. PMID:27272744

  1. Governance, Government, and the Search for New Provider Models.

    PubMed

    Saltman, Richard B; Duran, Antonio

    2015-11-03

    A central problem in designing effective models of provider governance in health systems has been to ensure an appropriate balance between the concerns of public sector and/or government decision-makers, on the one hand, and of non-governmental health services actors in civil society and private life, on the other. In tax-funded European health systems up to the 1980s, the state and other public sector decision-makers played a dominant role over health service provision, typically operating hospitals through national or regional governments on a command-and-control basis. In a number of countries, however, this state role has started to change, with governments first stepping out of direct service provision and now de facto pushed to focus more on steering provider organizations rather than on direct public management. In this new approach to provider governance, the state has pulled back into a regulatory role that introduces market-like incentives and management structures, which then apply to both public and private sector providers alike. This article examines some of the main operational complexities in implementing this new governance reality/strategy, specifically from a service provision (as opposed to mostly a financing or even regulatory) perspective. After briefly reviewing some of the key theoretical dilemmas, the paper presents two case studies where this new approach was put into practice: primary care in Sweden and hospitals in Spain. The article concludes that good governance today needs to reflect practical operational realities if it is to have the desired effect on health sector reform outcome.

  2. Governance, Government, and the Search for New Provider Models

    PubMed Central

    Saltman, Richard B.; Duran, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    A central problem in designing effective models of provider governance in health systems has been to ensure an appropriate balance between the concerns of public sector and/or government decision-makers, on the one hand, and of non-governmental health services actors in civil society and private life, on the other. In tax-funded European health systems up to the 1980s, the state and other public sector decision-makers played a dominant role over health service provision, typically operating hospitals through national or regional governments on a command-and-control basis. In a number of countries, however, this state role has started to change, with governments first stepping out of direct service provision and now de facto pushed to focus more on steering provider organizations rather than on direct public management. In this new approach to provider governance, the state has pulled back into a regulatory role that introduces market-like incentives and management structures, which then apply to both public and private sector providers alike. This article examines some of the main operational complexities in implementing this new governance reality/strategy, specifically from a service provision (as opposed to mostly a financing or even regulatory) perspective. After briefly reviewing some of the key theoretical dilemmas, the paper presents two case studies where this new approach was put into practice: primary care in Sweden and hospitals in Spain. The article concludes that good governance today needs to reflect practical operational realities if it is to have the desired effect on health sector reform outcome. PMID:26673647

  3. Awareness and predictors of female genital mutilation/cutting among young health advocates

    PubMed Central

    Abolfotouh, Sherif M; Ebrahim, Ahmed Z; Abolfotouh, Mostafa A

    2015-01-01

    The act of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is considered internationally as a violent act against girls and women and a violation of their human rights. This study sought to assess the awareness and predictors of FGM/C in young Egyptian health advocates. A cross-sectional study of 600 medical students from a total of 2,500 members of the International Federation of Medical Students’ Associations (IFMSA)-Egypt, across all Egyptian medical schools, was conducted using a previously validated online Google survey. The overall prevalence of circumcision was 14.7/100 female students, with a significantly higher prevalence in students from rural areas (25%) than in non-rural areas (10.8%, P=0.001), and in those residing in Upper (southern) Egypt (20.6%) than in Lower (northern) Egypt (8.7%, P=0.003). The students’ mean percentage score for knowledge about the negative health consequences of FGM/C was 53.50±29.07, reflecting a modest level of knowledge; only 30.5% had a good level of knowledge. The mean percentage score for the overall attitude toward discontinuation of the practice of FGM/C was 76.29±17.93, reflecting a neutral attitude; 58.7% had a favorable attitude/norms toward discontinuation of the practice. Of circumcised students, approximately one-half (46.8%) were unwilling to have their daughters circumcised, and 60% reported no harm from being circumcised. After controlling for confounders, a negative attitude toward FGM/C was significantly (P<0.001 in all cases) associated with male sex, residency in Upper Egypt, rural origin, previous circumcision, and the preclinical medical phase of education. The low level of knowledge among even future health professions in our study suggests that communication, rather than passive learning, is needed to convey the potentially negative consequences of FGM/C and to drive a change in attitude toward discontinuation of this harmful practice. PMID:25759602

  4. Awareness and predictors of female genital mutilation/cutting among young health advocates.

    PubMed

    Abolfotouh, Sherif M; Ebrahim, Ahmed Z; Abolfotouh, Mostafa A

    2015-01-01

    The act of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is considered internationally as a violent act against girls and women and a violation of their human rights. This study sought to assess the awareness and predictors of FGM/C in young Egyptian health advocates. A cross-sectional study of 600 medical students from a total of 2,500 members of the International Federation of Medical Students' Associations (IFMSA)-Egypt, across all Egyptian medical schools, was conducted using a previously validated online Google survey. The overall prevalence of circumcision was 14.7/100 female students, with a significantly higher prevalence in students from rural areas (25%) than in non-rural areas (10.8%, P=0.001), and in those residing in Upper (southern) Egypt (20.6%) than in Lower (northern) Egypt (8.7%, P=0.003). The students' mean percentage score for knowledge about the negative health consequences of FGM/C was 53.50±29.07, reflecting a modest level of knowledge; only 30.5% had a good level of knowledge. The mean percentage score for the overall attitude toward discontinuation of the practice of FGM/C was 76.29±17.93, reflecting a neutral attitude; 58.7% had a favorable attitude/norms toward discontinuation of the practice. Of circumcised students, approximately one-half (46.8%) were unwilling to have their daughters circumcised, and 60% reported no harm from being circumcised. After controlling for confounders, a negative attitude toward FGM/C was significantly (P<0.001 in all cases) associated with male sex, residency in Upper Egypt, rural origin, previous circumcision, and the preclinical medical phase of education. The low level of knowledge among even future health professions in our study suggests that communication, rather than passive learning, is needed to convey the potentially negative consequences of FGM/C and to drive a change in attitude toward discontinuation of this harmful practice.

  5. Breast Cancer Survivor Advocacy at a University Hospital: Development of a Peer Support Program with Evaluation by Patients, Advocates, and Clinicians.

    PubMed

    Mirrielees, Jennifer A; Breckheimer, Kayla R; White, Teresa A; Denure, Deb A; Schroeder, Michelle M; Gaines, Martha E; Wilke, Lee G; Tevaarwerk, Amye J

    2017-03-01

    Peer-to-peer support programs provide unique psychosocial and educational support for breast cancer patients. A Patient Survivor Advocacy (PSA) program was developed by the University of Wisconsin Breast Center (UWBC) to provide support for newly diagnosed patients from peers who had completed primary treatment. In this study, we evaluated patient, advocate, and clinician experience with the PSA program. A program matching volunteer peer advocates at least 1 year removed from primary treatment with newly diagnosed patients was developed. Peer advocates were recruited from the practices of UWBC clinicians and received in-person training on six dimensions of peer advocacy. Trained advocates were then paired based on demographic and medical history with new patients referred to the program. Survey assessment tools were distributed to assess peer advocate and patient satisfaction, as well as clinician experience. Forty patients have been matched with seven advocates, with contact largely by email (53 %) or phone (36 %). Patients and peer advocates reported satisfaction with the program. The majority of patients (92.9 %) reported that the program was "helpful" and that they would recommend the PSA program to another woman with breast cancer. All peer advocates (100 %) responded with a sense of achievement in their advocate roles. Clinicians noted challenges in referral to the program. Peer advocates can provide key emotional and psychosocial support to newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. The peer advocate, patient, and clinician feedback collected in this study will inform the future development of this program at our and peer institutions.

  6. Clinical governance: principles into practice.

    PubMed

    Wright, J; Smith, M L; Jackson, D R

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the early development of clinical governance in an acute NHS Trust. Three Trust-wide workshops and 17 individual departmental workshops were held between 1998-1999. The discussions in these workshops were used to define the key founding principles of clinical governance and the operational structure. The philosophy behind clinical governance, to improve quality of services, was recognised as being part of mainstream trust business, not an optional add-on. The authors found that teamwork and multidisciplinary collaboration are essential components of future quality improvement. Effective leadership skills need to be supported and developed, with responsibilities shared between a core group within each department rather than one individual. Contributions should be recognised and rewarded. Collaboration with primary care and involvement of patients are prerequisites. Specific objectives should be agreed by each department and used to monitor progress. More effective use of existing resources (staff, time, IT and training) can be made.

  7. Health domains for sale: the need for global health Internet governance.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Tim Ken; Liang, Bryan A; Kohler, Jillian C; Attaran, Amir

    2014-03-05

    A debate on Internet governance for health, or "eHealth governance", is emerging with the impending award of a new dot-health (.health) generic top-level domain name (gTLD) along with a host of other health-related domains. This development is critical as it will shape the future of the health Internet, allowing largely unrestricted use of .health second-level domain names by future registrants, raising concerns about the potential for privacy, use and marketing of health-related information, credibility of online health content, and potential for Internet fraud and abuse. Yet, prospective .health gTLD applicants do not provide adequate safeguards for use of .health or related domains and have few or no ties to the global health community. If approved, one of these for-profit corporate applicants would effectively control the future of the .health address on the Internet with arguably no active oversight from important international public health stakeholders. This would represent a lost opportunity for the public health, medical, and broader health community in establishing a trusted, transparent and reliable source for health on the Internet. Countries, medical associations, civil society, and consumer advocates have objected to these applications on grounds that they do not meet the public interest. We argue that there is an immediate need for action to postpone awarding of the .health gTLD and other health-related gTLDs to address these concerns and ensure the appropriate development of sound eHealth governance rules, principles, and use. This would support the crucial need of ensuring access to quality and evidence-based sources of health information online, as well as establishing a safe and reliable space on the Internet for health. We believe, if properly governed, .health and other domains could represent such a promise in the future.

  8. Ecosystem Engineering by Plants on Wave-Exposed Intertidal Flats Is Governed by Relationships between Effect and Response Traits.

    PubMed

    Heuner, Maike; Silinski, Alexandra; Schoelynck, Jonas; Bouma, Tjeerd J; Puijalon, Sara; Troch, Peter; Fuchs, Elmar; Schröder, Boris; Schröder, Uwe; Meire, Patrick; Temmerman, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    In hydrodynamically stressful environments, some species--known as ecosystem engineers--are able to modify the environment for their own benefit. Little is known however, about the interaction between functional plant traits and ecosystem engineering. We studied the responses of Scirpus tabernaemontani and Scirpus maritimus to wave impact in full-scale flume experiments. Stem density and biomass were used to predict the ecosystem engineering effect of wave attenuation. Also the drag force on plants, their bending angle after wave impact and the stem biomechanical properties were quantified as both responses of stress experienced and effects on ecosystem engineering. We analyzed lignin, cellulose, and silica contents as traits likely effecting stress resistance (avoidance, tolerance). Stem density and biomass were strong predictors for wave attenuation, S. maritimus showing a higher effect than S. tabernaemontani. The drag force and drag force per wet frontal area both differed significantly between the species at shallow water depths (20 cm). At greater depths (35 cm), drag forces and bending angles were significantly higher for S. maritimus than for S. tabernaemontani. However, they do not differ in drag force per wet frontal area due to the larger plant surface of S. maritimus. Stem resistance to breaking and stem flexibility were significantly higher in S. tabernaemontani, having a higher cellulose concentration and a larger cross-section in its basal stem parts. S. maritimus had clearly more lignin and silica contents in the basal stem parts than S. tabernaemontani. We concluded that the effect of biomass seems more relevant for the engineering effect of emergent macrophytes with leaves than species morphology: S. tabernaemontani has avoiding traits with minor effects on wave attenuation; S. maritimus has tolerating traits with larger effects. This implies that ecosystem engineering effects are directly linked with traits affecting species stress resistance and

  9. Ecosystem Engineering by Plants on Wave-Exposed Intertidal Flats Is Governed by Relationships between Effect and Response Traits

    PubMed Central

    Schoelynck, Jonas; Bouma, Tjeerd J.; Puijalon, Sara; Troch, Peter; Fuchs, Elmar; Schröder, Boris; Schröder, Uwe; Meire, Patrick; Temmerman, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    In hydrodynamically stressful environments, some species—known as ecosystem engineers—are able to modify the environment for their own benefit. Little is known however, about the interaction between functional plant traits and ecosystem engineering. We studied the responses of Scirpus tabernaemontani and Scirpus maritimus to wave impact in full-scale flume experiments. Stem density and biomass were used to predict the ecosystem engineering effect of wave attenuation. Also the drag force on plants, their bending angle after wave impact and the stem biomechanical properties were quantified as both responses of stress experienced and effects on ecosystem engineering. We analyzed lignin, cellulose, and silica contents as traits likely effecting stress resistance (avoidance, tolerance). Stem density and biomass were strong predictors for wave attenuation, S. maritimus showing a higher effect than S. tabernaemontani. The drag force and drag force per wet frontal area both differed significantly between the species at shallow water depths (20 cm). At greater depths (35 cm), drag forces and bending angles were significantly higher for S. maritimus than for S. tabernaemontani. However, they do not differ in drag force per wet frontal area due to the larger plant surface of S. maritimus. Stem resistance to breaking and stem flexibility were significantly higher in S. tabernaemontani, having a higher cellulose concentration and a larger cross-section in its basal stem parts. S. maritimus had clearly more lignin and silica contents in the basal stem parts than S. tabernaemontani. We concluded that the effect of biomass seems more relevant for the engineering effect of emergent macrophytes with leaves than species morphology: S. tabernaemontani has avoiding traits with minor effects on wave attenuation; S. maritimus has tolerating traits with larger effects. This implies that ecosystem engineering effects are directly linked with traits affecting species stress resistance

  10. Governance in Health - The Need for Exchange and Evidence Comment on "Governance, Government, and the Search for New Provider Models".

    PubMed

    Chanturidze, Tata; Obermann, Konrad

    2016-05-17

    Governance in health is cited as one of the key factors in balancing the concerns of the government and public sector with the interests of civil society/private players, but often remains poorly described and operationalized. Richard Saltman and Antonio Duran look at two aspects in the search for new provider models in a context of health markets signalling liberalisation: (i) the role of the government to balance public and private interests and responsibilities in delivering care through modernised governance arrangements, and (ii) the finding that operational complexities may hinder well-designed provider governance models, unless governance reflects country-specific realities. This commentary builds on the discussion by Saltman and Duran, and argues that the concept of governance needs to be clearly defined and operationalized in order to be helpful for policy debate as well as for the development of an applicable framework for performance improvement. It provides a working definition of governance and includes a reflection on the prevailing cultural norms in an organization or society upon which any governance needs to be build. It proposes to explore whether the "evidence-based governance" concept can be introduced to generate knowledge about innovative and effective governance models, and concludes that studies similar to the one by Saltman and Duran can inform this debate.

  11. A Victorian physician ahead of his time. The story of fluorine advocate Sir James Crichton-Browne.

    PubMed

    Ring, Malvin E

    2003-11-01

    Sir James Crichton-Browne, one of England's most renowned psychiatrists, whose career spanned two centuries, had very strong feelings about the need to secure proper dental care for all the children of his country. He translated these feelings into action when he advocated that fluorine be added to the diets of pregnant women and children. And this was almost a half-century before definitive research showed the value of fluorine as a preventive of caries.

  12. Advocating for efforts to protect African children, families, and communities from the threat of infectious diseases: report of the First International African Vaccinology Conference.

    PubMed

    Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Waggie, Zainab; Hawkridge, Anthony; Schoub, Barry; Madhi, Shabir Ahmed; Rees, Helen; Hussey, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan at the World Health Assembly. However, more than six million children remain incompletely vaccinated in Africa leading to more than one million vaccine-preventable deaths annually. In addition, there are persistent problems with leadership and planning, vaccine stock management, supply chain capacity and quality, provider-parent communication, and financial sustainability. The conference delegates agreed to move from talking to taking concrete actions around children's health, and to ensure that African governments commit to saving children's lives. They would advocate for lower costs of immunisation programmes in Africa, perhaps through bulk buying and improved administration of vaccine rollout through the New Partnership for Africa's Development.

  13. Advocating for efforts to protect African children, families, and communities from the threat of infectious diseases: report of the First International African Vaccinology Conference

    PubMed Central

    Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Waggie, Zainab; Hawkridge, Anthony; Schoub, Barry; Madhi, Shabir Ahmed; Rees, Helen; Hussey, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    countries endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan at the World Health Assembly. However, more than six million children remain incompletely vaccinated in Africa leading to more than one million vaccine-preventable deaths annually. In addition, there are persistent problems with leadership and planning, vaccine stock management, supply chain capacity and quality, provider-parent communication, and financial sustainability. The conference delegates agreed to move from talking to taking concrete actions around children's health, and to ensure that African governments commit to saving children's lives. They would advocate for lower costs of immunisation programmes in Africa, perhaps through bulk buying and improved administration of vaccine rollout through the New Partnership for Africa's Development. PMID:27217879

  14. An inter-professional 'advocacy and activism in global health': module for the training of physician-advocates.

    PubMed

    Peluso, Michael J; Seavey, Brian; Gonsalves, Gregg; Friedland, Gerald

    2013-06-01

    Medical students typically learn about the role of physicians as health advocates through a component of the health professionalism curriculum. Recently, there has been a call for increased exposure to health advocacy in undergraduate medical education so that students can develop the interest, knowledge, skills, and attitudes that they will utilize throughout their careers as physician-advocates. We developed a four-session Advocacy and Activism training module that consisted of formal didactic teaching, training in basic skills, debate and discussion, and the development and presentation of advocacy projects. There were several uniquely innovative aspects of this module, including its structure, content, and inter-professional approach that included students of medicine, nursing, and public health. However, this approach also resulted in some important and unexpected limitations. We were encouraged by the quality of student participation during the module, as well as specific feedback regarding the format and content. The module was a low-cost, easy-to-implement, and academically rigorous model that can be implemented by interested students and faculty at other schools. We plan to continue to develop this program in the future, and we believe that other medical institutions should consider a similar model for introducing students to their future role as health advocates.

  15. Putting the Pieces Together: Toward a Comprehensive Program of Social Reform (Reformulating Our Approaches to School Governance).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Luvern L.

    1991-01-01

    Basic tenets of citizen control of education at state and local levels are well established historically and remain intact after three centuries of U.S. educational experience. This paper advocates substantial change in the structure and management of local governments. Too many change proposals are cosmetic. Kentucky and Memphis-Shelby County are…

  16. 77 FR 18258 - Government-to-Government Telephonic Consultation Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Government-to-Government Telephonic Consultation Meetings AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. SUMMARY: The National Park Service announces two telephonic government-...

  17. The role of HIV/AIDS committees in effective workplace governance of HIV/AIDS in South African small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

    PubMed

    Vaas, Jocelyn R

    2008-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the role, status and scope of workplace HIV/AIDS committees as a means of effective workplace governance of the HIV/AIDS impact, and their role in extending social protective HIV/AIDS-related rights to employees. In-depth qualitative case studies were conducted in five South African small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that were actively implementing HIV/AIDS policies and programmes. Companies commonly implemented HIV/AIDS policies and programmes through a workplace committee dedicated to HIV/AIDS or a generic committee dealing with issues other than HIV/ AIDS. Management, through the human resources department and the occupational health practitioner often drove initial policy formulation, and had virtually sole control of the HIV/AIDS budget. Employee members of committees were mostly volunteers, and were often production or blue collar employees, while there was a notable lack of participation by white-collar employees, line management and trade unions. While the powers of workplace committees were largely consultative, employee committee members often managed in an indirect manner to secure and extend social protective rights on HIV/AIDS to employees, and monitor their effective implementation in practice. In the interim, workplace committees represented one of the best means to facilitate more effective workplace HIV/AIDS governance. However, the increased demands on collective bargaining as a result of an anticipated rises in AIDS-related morbidity and mortality might prove to be beyond the scope of such voluntary committees in the longer term.

  18. Chapter 32: A Global Survey of Stakeholder Views and Experiences for Systems Needed to Effectively and Efficiently Govern Sustainability of Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    Stupak, Inge; Joudrey, Jamie; Smith, C. Tattersall; Pelkmans, Luc; Chum, Helena; Cowie, Annette; Englund, Oskar; Goh, Chun Sheng; Junginger, Martin

    2016-01-02

    The increased international trade led to growing concerns over sustainability of biofuels and a variety of governance systems has emerged to regulate the bioenergy sector for maximization of the benefits and minimization of the possible negative impacts. The general concept of governance is used in different ways. But in this chapter it is used in the broad sense of governance processes undertaken by governments, market actors, voluntary organizations or networks. This concept of governance recognizes the interdependence of the public, market-based and voluntary governing processes, and the relationships that may exist between them. A survey was designed with the objective of analyzing stakeholders' views, experiences, and ideas in relation to the governance challenges. The survey revealed a broad support for existing and new co-regulation among stakeholders, but also that low share of certified land is seen as a challenge for both forestry and agriculture.

  19. Effective School Board Leadership and Governance: The Impact of Training and Continuous Education on Self-Perceptions of Board Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Michael Taylor

    2011-01-01

    School board training is promoted throughout the United States as a means whereby school board member can become more effective in the performance of their roles and responsibilities. This study examines whether correlations exist school board members participation in training or continuous education and their overall perceptions of effectiveness…

  20. Jon Stewart Comes to Class: The Learning Effects of "America (The Book)" in Introduction to American Government Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Jody C.; Morris, Jonathan S.

    2008-01-01

    This project posits that incorporating political humor into the classroom can have a positive effect on learning in higher education. Specifically, we present preliminary findings from a quasi-experiment in which a humorous, "mock" textbook titled America (The Book) (Stewart, Karlin, and Javerbaum 2004) was incorporated into Introduction to…

  1. Advocating for sexual rights at the UN: the unfinished business of global development.

    PubMed

    Ali, Saida; Kowalski, Shannon; Silva, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Twenty years ago, governments agreed that the right to have control over and decide freely and responsibly on all matters related to one's sexuality, free from coercion, discrimination and violence, is a fundamental human right. Since then, many aspects of sexual rights have been agreed by consensus at the global level, but the term "sexual rights" itself continues to be removed from negotiated outcomes and left out of international agreements, often at the last stages of negotiations. This commentary represents our point of view on the unfinished business of the UN with regards to the fight for sexual rights. Our perspective draws from lessons learned in cross-movement organizing in various regional UN spaces and outlines some of the tactics by conservative forces to push sexual rights to the periphery. The article reaffirms the position that broadening the debate and concepts surrounding sexual rights to be more inclusive, has enormous transformational potential and should inform collective advocacy efforts moving forward.

  2. Effect of Training School Teachers on Oral Hygiene Status of 8-10 Years Old Government School Children of Udaipur City, India

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Nagesh; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Mridula; Singh, Anukriti; Shinde, Kushal; Gandhi, Neha; Doshi, Astha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Provision of oral health knowledge to the children by their teachers at the school level can prove to be more fruitful because it is the time period during which the children begin to learn the basic oral hygiene practices and are most prone to dental caries. Aim This study was carried out to assess the effect of training school teachers on oral hygiene status of 8-10 years old government school children of Udaipur city, India. Materials and Methods A total of nine school teachers and 279, 8-10 year old school children from two government schools were included in the study. The questionnaire on oral health knowledge and practice contained 17 questions to evaluate the knowledge and practice of children towards oral hygiene before and after the teachers training program. Baseline and six months post training data on oral health knowledge and practice was obtained by the questionnaire method. Baseline and six months post training data on oral hygiene status was obtained by OHI-S Index. Statistical analysis was done using software SPSS 22, the test used were McNemar’s test, paired t-test. Results Pre and post training data were compared and it was found that there was a significant improvement in oral health knowledge and practices of school teachers and children. Also oral hygiene status of school children was significantly improved after the program. Conclusion Results of the present study suggest that experiential learning is an effective school based oral health education method for improvement of oral hygiene in primary school children. PMID:27656573

  3. What University Governance Can Taiwan Learn from the United States?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Land, Ming H.

    2010-01-01

    Due to changes from centralization to marketization, Taiwan's university governance must increase its effectiveness. The purpose of this paper was to introduce trends in and issues of Taiwan's university governance, describe university governance in the United States, and draw implications that Taiwan's university governance needs to learn from…

  4. Government Quality Conference Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Government Quality Conference was an attempt to bring together executive organizations and senior individuals in the Federal Government that have a desire to improve productivity. It was designed to provide an exchange of ideas based on experience, and to encourage individual management initiatives to tap the capabilities of Federal employees.

  5. Global Governance, Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundy, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In the last half decade, a rising literature has focused on the idea that processes of economic, political and social globalization require analysis in terms of governance at the global level. It is argued in this article that emerging forms of global governance have produced significant challenges to conventional conceptions of international…

  6. Restructuring for Good Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Stephen; Carey, Russell C.

    2006-01-01

    American higher education has never been more in need of good governance than it is right now. Yet much of the structure many boards have inherited or created tends to stall or impede timely, well-informed, and broadly supported decision making. At many institutions (ours included), layers of governance have been added with each passing year,…

  7. Using IT Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brobst, Jan; Council, Chip

    2005-01-01

    The discussion in this article is intended to provide an examination of why top management, IT management, and internal auditors should be interested in IT governance. Some aspects of IT management will be described including implementation, auditing, availability, security, and alignment. One governance framework, COBIT, will be utilized as a…

  8. State and local governments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    The Virginia Space Grant Consortium approach to a close working relation to state and local governments is presented as a model for consideration. State government relations are especially important in that this is a primary resource in securing matching funds. Avenues for establishing these relationships are listed and discussed.

  9. Educational Governance in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Lejf

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has entered global competition by expanding collaboration with European countries, which is profoundly impacting the public sector and school governance. Relations between the state and institutions are transforming from traditional democratic, public-sector models of governance into new forms characterized as corporate and market-driven…

  10. Policy Governance Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, William J.

    2001-01-01

    An administrator trainer/former superintendent's experience suggests that corporate governance models don't fit the reality of school governance in many districts. Elected board members define their roles differently than their business counterparts and derive little or no monetary benefit from public service. The "new breed" resemble…

  11. Molecular-Scale Features that Govern the Effects of O-Glycosylation on a Carbohydrate-Binding Module

    DOE PAGES

    Guan, Xiaoyang; Chaffey, Patrick K.; Zeng, Chen; ...

    2015-09-21

    The protein glycosylation is a ubiquitous post-translational modification in all kingdoms of life. Despite its importance in molecular and cellular biology, the molecular-level ramifications of O-glycosylation on biomolecular structure and function remain elusive. Here, we took a small model glycoprotein and changed the glycan structure and size, amino acid residues near the glycosylation site, and glycosidic linkage while monitoring any corresponding changes to physical stability and cellulose binding affinity. The results of this study reveal the collective importance of all the studied features in controlling the most pronounced effects of O-glycosylation in this system. This study suggests the possibility ofmore » designing proteins with multiple improved properties by simultaneously varying the structures of O-glycans and amino acids local to the glycosylation site.« less

  12. Molecular-Scale Features that Govern the Effects of O-Glycosylation on a Carbohydrate-Binding Module

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Xiaoyang; Chaffey, Patrick K.; Zeng, Chen; Greene, Eric R.; Chen, Liqun; Drake, Matthew R.; Chen, Claire; Groobman, Ari; Resch, Michael G.; Himmel, Michael E.; Beckham, Gregg T.; Tan, Zhongping

    2015-09-21

    The protein glycosylation is a ubiquitous post-translational modification in all kingdoms of life. Despite its importance in molecular and cellular biology, the molecular-level ramifications of O-glycosylation on biomolecular structure and function remain elusive. Here, we took a small model glycoprotein and changed the glycan structure and size, amino acid residues near the glycosylation site, and glycosidic linkage while monitoring any corresponding changes to physical stability and cellulose binding affinity. The results of this study reveal the collective importance of all the studied features in controlling the most pronounced effects of O-glycosylation in this system. This study suggests the possibility of designing proteins with multiple improved properties by simultaneously varying the structures of O-glycans and amino acids local to the glycosylation site.

  13. The essence of governance in health development

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Governance and leadership in health development are critically important for the achievement of the health Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other national health goals. Those two factors might explain why many countries in Africa are not on track to attain the health MDGs by 2015. This paper debates the meaning of 'governance in health development', reviews briefly existing governance frameworks, proposes a modified framework on health development governance (HDG), and develops a HDG index. Discussion We argue that unlike 'leadership in health development', 'governance in health development' is the sole prerogative of the Government through the Ministry of Health, which can choose to delegate (but not abrogate) some of the governance tasks. The general governance domains of the UNDP and the World Bank are very pertinent but not sufficient for assessment of health development governance. The WHO six domains of governance do not include effective external partnerships for health, equity in health development, efficiency in resource allocation and use, ethical practises in health research and service provision, and macroeconomic and political stability. The framework for assessing health systems governance developed by Siddiqi et al also does not include macroeconomic and political stability as a separate principle. The Siddiqi et al framework does not propose a way of scoring the various governance domains to facilitate aggregation, inter-country comparisons and health development governance tracking over time. This paper argues for a broader health development governance framework because other sectors that assure human rights to education, employment, food, housing, political participation, and security combined have greater impact on health development than the health systems. It also suggests some amendments to Siddigi et al's framework to make it more relevant to the broader concept of 'governance in health development' and to the WHO African

  14. Physics and Government

    SciTech Connect

    Hendry, Nancy H.

    1999-08-24

    In defining the powers and duties of the three branches of government, the U.S. Constitution never explicitly referred to Science, except in the patent clause. But many technical responsibilities are implied in references to weights and measures, the census, and the like. Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, and in particular Benjamin Franklin, were highly literate in science, but it was their disciple, President John Quincy Adams who promoted as a matter of policy a direct role of the government in science--in particular with respect to astronomy, land surveys and navigation--all physical sciences. Some agencies of government--notably the National Bureau of Standards and the Department of Agriculture were founded in the early days of the Republic with scientific and technical missions. Since then the involvement of the government with science has waxed and waned but the major expansion of the interaction between physics and government occurred after World War II when physicists demonstrated the power of their craft during mobilization of science in support of the war effort. In discussing the interaction of physics with government we should distinguish ''science in government''--scientific input into policy making--from ''government in science,'' which is the support and management of that part of the overall scientific endeavor for which the government has responsibility. Let me turn first to the subject of physics in government. An overwhelming fraction of governmental decisions today have scientific and technical components; decisions ignoring these components are wasteful at best and can imperil the nation. For this reason governmental bodies at all levels solicit scientific advice--or at least give lip service to the need for such advice. When such advice was deliberately avoided, as President Reagan did before announcing his Strategic Defense Initiative in March 1983, the technically unattainable goal ''to make nuclear weapons impotent and obsolete'' was proclaimed.

  15. Intriguing structures and magic sizes of heavy noble metal nanoclusters around size 55 governed by relativistic effect and covalent bonding.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X J; Xue, X L; Guo, Z X; Jia, Yu; Li, S F; Zhang, Zhenyu; Gao, Y F

    2015-11-07

    Nanoclusters usually display exotic physical and chemical properties due to their intriguing geometric structures in contrast to their bulk counterparts. By means of first-principles calculations within density functional theory, we find that heavy noble metal PtN nanoclusters around the size N = 55 begin to prefer an open configuration, rather than previously reported close-packed icosahedron or core-shell structures. Particularly, for PtN, the widely supposed icosahedronal magic cluster is changed to a three-atomic-layered structure with D6h symmetry, which can be well addressed by our recently established generalized Wulff construction principle (GWCP). However, the magic number of PtN clusters around 55 is shifted to a new odd number of 57. The high symmetric three-layered Pt57 motif is mainly stabilized by the enhanced covalent bonding contributed by both spin-orbital coupling effect and the open d orbital (5d(9)6s(1)) of Pt, which result in a delicate balance between the enhanced Pt-Pt covalent bonding of the interlayers and negligible d dangling bonds on the cluster edges. These findings about PtN clusters are also applicable to IrN clusters, but qualitatively different from their earlier neighboring element Os and their later neighboring element Au. The magic numbers for Os and Au are even, being 56 and 58, respectively. The findings of the new odd magic number 57 are the important supplementary of the recently established GWCP.

  16. Secondary interactions or ligand scrambling? Subtle steric effects govern the iridium(I) coordination chemistry of phosphoramidite ligands.

    PubMed

    Osswald, Tina; Rüegger, Heinz; Mezzetti, Antonio

    2010-01-25

    The like and unlike isomers of phosphoramidite (P*) ligands are found to react differently with iridium(I), which is a key to explaining the apparently inconsistent results obtained by us and other research groups in a variety of catalytic reactions. Thus, the unlike diastereoisomer (aR,S,S)-[IrCl(cod)(1 a)] (2 a; cod=1,5-cyclooctadiene, 1 a=(aR,S,S)-(1,1'-binaphthalene)-2,2'-diyl bis(1-phenylethyl)phosphoramidite) forms, upon chloride abstraction, the monosubstituted complex (aR,S,S)-[Ir(cod)(1,2-eta-1 a,kappaP)](+) (3 a), which contains a chelating P* ligand that features an eta(2) interaction between a dangling phenyl group and iridium. Under analogous conditions, the like analogue (aR,R,R)-1 a' gives the disubstituted species (aR,R,R)-[Ir(cod)(1 a',kappaP)(2)](+) (4 a') with monodentate P* ligands. The structure of 3 a was assessed by a combination of X-ray and NMR spectroscopic studies, which indicate that it is the configuration of the binaphthol moiety (and not that of the dangling benzyl N groups) that determines the configuration of the complex. The effect of the relative configuration of the P* ligand on its iridium(I) coordination chemistry is discussed in the context of our preliminary catalytic results and of apparently random results obtained by other groups in the iridium(I)-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation of allylic acetates and in rhodium(I)-catalyzed asymmetric cycloaddition reactions. Further studies with the unlike ligand (aS,R,R)-(1,1'-binaphthalene)-2,2'-diyl bis{[1-(1-naphthalene-1-yl)ethyl]phosphoramidite} (1 b) showed a yet different coordination mode, that is, the eta(4)-arene-metal interaction in (aS,R,R)-[Ir(cod)(1,2,3,4-eta-1 b,kappaP)](+) (3 b).

  17. Intriguing structures and magic sizes of heavy noble metal nanoclusters around size 55 governed by relativistic effect and covalent bonding

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, X. J.; Xue, X. L.; Jia, Yu; Guo, Z. X.; Li, S. F.; Zhang, Zhenyu; Gao, Y. F.

    2015-11-07

    Nanoclusters usually display exotic physical and chemical properties due to their intriguing geometric structures in contrast to their bulk counterparts. By means of first-principles calculations within density functional theory, we find that heavy noble metal Pt{sub N} nanoclusters around the size N = 55 begin to prefer an open configuration, rather than previously reported close-packed icosahedron or core-shell structures. Particularly, for Pt{sub N}, the widely supposed icosahedronal magic cluster is changed to a three-atomic-layered structure with D{sub 6h} symmetry, which can be well addressed by our recently established generalized Wulff construction principle (GWCP). However, the magic number of Pt{sub N} clusters around 55 is shifted to a new odd number of 57. The high symmetric three-layered Pt{sub 57} motif is mainly stabilized by the enhanced covalent bonding contributed by both spin-orbital coupling effect and the open d orbital (5d{sup 9}6s{sup 1}) of Pt, which result in a delicate balance between the enhanced Pt–Pt covalent bonding of the interlayers and negligible d dangling bonds on the cluster edges. These findings about Pt{sub N} clusters are also applicable to Ir{sub N} clusters, but qualitatively different from their earlier neighboring element Os and their later neighboring element Au. The magic numbers for Os and Au are even, being 56 and 58, respectively. The findings of the new odd magic number 57 are the important supplementary of the recently established GWCP.

  18. Intriguing structures and magic sizes of heavy noble metal nanoclusters around size 55 governed by relativistic effect and covalent bonding

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, X. J.; Xue, X. L.; Guo, Z. X.; Jia, Yu; Li, S. F.; Zhang, Zhenyu; Gao, Y. F.

    2015-11-02

    Nanoclusters usually display exotic physical and chemical properties due to their intriguing geometric structures in contrast to their bulk counterparts. By means of first-principles calculations within density functional theory, we find that heavy noble metal PtN nanoclusters around the size N = 55 begin to prefer an open configuration, rather than previously reported close-packed icosahedron or core-shell structures. Particularly, for PtN, the widely supposed icosahedronal magic cluster is changed to a three-atomic-layered structure with D6h symmetry, which can be well addressed by our recently established generalized Wulff construction principle (GWCP). But, the magic number of PtN clusters around 55 is shifted to a new odd number of 57. The high symmetric three-layered Pt-57 motif is mainly stabilized by the enhanced covalent bonding contributed by both spin-orbital coupling effect and the open d orbital (5d96s1) of Pt, which result in a delicate balance between the enhanced Pt-Pt covalent bonding of the interlayers and negligible d dangling bonds on the cluster edges. Our findings about PtN clusters are also applicable to IrN clusters, but qualitatively different from their earlier neighboring element Os and their later neighboring element Au. The magic numbers for Os and Au are even, being 56 and 58, respectively. Finally, the findings of the new odd magic number 57 are the important supplementary of the recently established GWCP.

  19. Intriguing structures and magic sizes of heavy noble metal nanoclusters around size 55 governed by relativistic effect and covalent bonding

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, X. J.; Xue, X. L.; Guo, Z. X.; ...

    2015-11-02

    Nanoclusters usually display exotic physical and chemical properties due to their intriguing geometric structures in contrast to their bulk counterparts. By means of first-principles calculations within density functional theory, we find that heavy noble metal PtN nanoclusters around the size N = 55 begin to prefer an open configuration, rather than previously reported close-packed icosahedron or core-shell structures. Particularly, for PtN, the widely supposed icosahedronal magic cluster is changed to a three-atomic-layered structure with D6h symmetry, which can be well addressed by our recently established generalized Wulff construction principle (GWCP). But, the magic number of PtN clusters around 55 ismore » shifted to a new odd number of 57. The high symmetric three-layered Pt-57 motif is mainly stabilized by the enhanced covalent bonding contributed by both spin-orbital coupling effect and the open d orbital (5d96s1) of Pt, which result in a delicate balance between the enhanced Pt-Pt covalent bonding of the interlayers and negligible d dangling bonds on the cluster edges. Our findings about PtN clusters are also applicable to IrN clusters, but qualitatively different from their earlier neighboring element Os and their later neighboring element Au. The magic numbers for Os and Au are even, being 56 and 58, respectively. Finally, the findings of the new odd magic number 57 are the important supplementary of the recently established GWCP.« less

  20. Implementing a new governance model.

    PubMed

    Stanley-Clarke, Nicky; Sanders, Jackie; Munford, Robyn

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to discuss the lessons learnt from the process of implementing a new model of governance within Living Well, a New Zealand statutory mental health agency. Design/methodology/approach - It presents the findings from an organisational case study that involved qualitative interviews, meeting observations and document analysis. Archetype theory provided the analytical framework for the research enabling an analysis of both the formal structures and informal value systems that influenced the implementation of the governance model. Findings - The research found that the move to a new governance model did not proceed as planned. It highlighted the importance of staff commitment, the complexity of adopting a new philosophical approach and the undue influence of key personalities as key determining factors in the implementation process. The findings suggest that planners and managers within statutory mental health agencies need to consider the implications of any proposed governance change on existing roles and relationships, thinking strategically about how to secure professional commitment to change. Practical implications - There are ongoing pressures within statutory mental health agencies to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of organisational structures and systems. This paper has implications for how planners and managers think about the process of implementing new governance models within the statutory mental health environment in order to increase the likelihood of sustaining and embedding new approaches to service delivery. Originality/value - The paper presents insights into the process of implementing new governance models within a statutory mental health agency in New Zealand that has relevance for other jurisdictions.

  1. Academe-Local Government Partnership Towards Effective Application of Geospatial Technologies for Smarter Flood Disaster Management at the Local Level: AN Example from Mindanao, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makinano-Santillan, M.; Santillan, J. R.; Morales, E. M. O.; Asube, L. C. S.; Amora, A. M.; Cutamora, L. C.; Makinano, R. M.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we discuss how an academe-local government partnership can lead the way for the effective use of geospatial technologies for smarter and geospatially-informed decision making before, during, and after a flood disaster. In Jabonga municipality, in the province of Agusan del Norte, in Mindanao, Philippines, two significant flooding events occurred in the year 2014 which were caused by overflowing water bodies due to continuous heavy rains. These flood events inundated populated areas, caused massive evacuation, made roads un-passable, and greatly damaged sources of incomes such as croplands and other agricultural areas. The partnership between Caraga State University and the local government of Jabonga attempts to improve localized flood disaster management through the development of web-based Near-real Time Flood Event Visualization and Damage Estimations (Flood EViDEns) application. Flood EViDENs utilizes LiDAR-derived elevation and information products as well as other elevation datasets, water level records by monitoring stations, flood simulation models, flood hazard maps, and socio-economic datasets (population, household information, etc.), in order to visualize in near-real time the current and future extent of flooding, to disseminate early warnings, and to provide maps and statistics of areas and communities affected and to be affected by flooding. The development of Flood EViDEns as the main product of the partnership is an important application of geospatial technologies that will allow smarter and geospatially-informed decision making before, during, and after a flood disaster in Jabonga.

  2. Women in Engineering Program Advocates Network (WEPAN): Evaluation of the seventh annual conference

    SciTech Connect

    Brainard, S.G.

    1996-08-01

    The primary goals of the 1996 WEPAN Conference were to: (1) Conduct technical and programmatic seminars for institutions desiring to initiate, replicate, or expand women in engineering programs; (2) Provide assistance in fundraising and grant writing; (3) Profile women in engineering programs of excellence; (4) Sponsor inspiring, knowledgeable and motivational keynote speakers; and, (5) Offer a series of workshops focused on topics such as: establishing partnerships with industry, current research findings, retention strategies, issues affecting special populations, and early intervention techniques. In an effort to provide greater access for women to engineering careers, women in engineering program directors at Purdue University, Stevens Institute of Technology and the University of Washington joined together in 1990 to establish WEPAN, a national network of individuals interested in the recruitment, admission, retention, and graduation of women engineering students. This is the seventh year of operation. Success of this effort has been reflected in numerous ways: increased membership in the organization; increased number of women in engineering programs; increased number of women graduating in engineering; and grants from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the AT&T Foundation, and many other corporations to carry out the goals of WEPAN. The Seventh Annual Women in Engineering Conference entitled, Capitalizing on Today`s Challenges, was held in Denver, Colorado on June 1-4, 1996 at the Hyatt Regency. The conference brought together representatives from academia, government, and industry and examined current issues and initiatives for women in technology, science, and education. Building on the successes of the previous conferences, the seventh conference offered a new variety of speakers and topics.

  3. New York's Experiment: Participation in Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragaw, Donald H.

    1989-01-01

    Reports a New York State Education Department mandated government participation course. Course requirements were to examine public policy issues and to incorporate a participatory element. Describes four programs that were implemented by school districts: Effective Participation in Government Program; The Community Service Corps; National Issues…

  4. Diversity in Governance: A Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Allan E.

    This report investigates the effects of diversity on governance by examining the supply and demand for minorities trained in public policy analysis and management and international affairs specialties at the federal level. The data were obtained from various U.S. Government published reports. Topics covered concerning the supply side include:…

  5. Does Privatization Affect Access to Government Information?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caponio, Joseph F.; Geffner, Janet

    This paper begins by pointing out that privatization, or relying on the private sector to provide commercial goods and services for government departments and agencies, is a tool that has been used effectively by the federal government for several decades. It then presents the theoretical basis for privatization, describes a number of methods used…

  6. A Correlational Study between IT Governance and the Effect on Strategic Management Functioning among Senior & Middle Management in Medium Scale Software Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurien, Sam

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore whether there are relationships between elements of information technology (IT) governance, strategic planning, and strategic functions among senior and mid-level management at medium-scaled software development firms. Several topics and models of IT governance literature were discussed and the gap in…

  7. 41 CFR 301-10.260 - May I use a Government aircraft for travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Government Vehicle Travel on Government Aircraft § 301-10.260 May I use a Government aircraft for travel? You may use Government aircraft for travel only if you have authorization from an executive agency under... on Government aircraft only when a Government aircraft is the most cost-effective mode of travel....

  8. 41 CFR 301-10.260 - May I use a Government aircraft for travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Government Vehicle Travel on Government Aircraft § 301-10.260 May I use a Government aircraft for travel? You may use Government aircraft for travel only if you have authorization from an executive agency under... on Government aircraft only when a Government aircraft is the most cost-effective mode of travel....

  9. 41 CFR 301-10.260 - May I use a Government aircraft for travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Government Vehicle Travel on Government Aircraft § 301-10.260 May I use a Government aircraft for travel? You may use Government aircraft for travel only if you have authorization from an executive agency under... on Government aircraft only when a Government aircraft is the most cost-effective mode of travel....

  10. 41 CFR 301-10.260 - May I use a Government aircraft for travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Government Vehicle Travel on Government Aircraft § 301-10.260 May I use a Government aircraft for travel? You may use Government aircraft for travel only if you have authorization from an executive agency under... on Government aircraft only when a Government aircraft is the most cost-effective mode of travel....

  11. 41 CFR 301-10.260 - May I use a Government aircraft for travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Government Vehicle Travel on Government Aircraft § 301-10.260 May I use a Government aircraft for travel? You may use Government aircraft for travel only if you have authorization from an executive agency under... on Government aircraft only when a Government aircraft is the most cost-effective mode of travel....

  12. How nurse leaders can foster a climate of good governance.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Sally; Westmore, Kathryn

    2012-09-01

    This article is the first in a series of four examining the components of good corporate governance. Poor governance can result in patients receiving poor quality care; all healthcare professionals, therefore, have a role in ensuring effective governance. This article discusses how an organisation's culture and leadership can contribute to good corporate governance. Nurse leaders can influence the culture of effective governance by building trust and respect and challenging the behaviours that led to poor quality care. The next article in this series will look at how an organisation's systems and processes can affect the effectiveness of its governance.

  13. Local Governments Reimbursement Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In the event of a release (or threatened release) of hazardous substances, EPA may provide a safety net of up to $25,000 per incident to local governments for expenses related to the release and associated emergency response measures.

  14. Lean Government Methods Guide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Guide focuses primarily on Lean production, which is an organizational improvement philosophy and set of methods that originated in manufacturing but has been expanded to government and service sectors.

  15. LESS Government Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Latham, Tom [R-IA-4

    2011-06-15

    06/30/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Government Organization, Efficiency, and Financial Management . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. Government and the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondale, Walter F.

    1975-01-01

    In order to deal successfully with the changes and pressures placed upon families, article considered the extent government policies are helping or hurting families, and what kind of support services are available. (Author/RK)

  17. 3 CFR - Government Contracting

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... contract oversight could reduce such sums significantly. Government outsourcing for services also raises... governmental functions. Agencies and departments must operate under clear rules prescribing when outsourcing is... oversee acquisitions appropriately; and (4) clarify when governmental outsourcing for services is and...

  18. Health Domains for Sale: The Need for Global Health Internet Governance

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Bryan A; Kohler, Jillian C; Attaran, Amir

    2014-01-01

    A debate on Internet governance for health, or “eHealth governance”, is emerging with the impending award of a new dot-health (.health) generic top-level domain name (gTLD) along with a host of other health-related domains. This development is critical as it will shape the future of the health Internet, allowing largely unrestricted use of .health second-level domain names by future registrants, raising concerns about the potential for privacy, use and marketing of health-related information, credibility of online health content, and potential for Internet fraud and abuse. Yet, prospective .health gTLD applicants do not provide adequate safeguards for use of .health or related domains and have few or no ties to the global health community. If approved, one of these for-profit corporate applicants would effectively control the future of the .health address on the Internet with arguably no active oversight from important international public health stakeholders. This would represent a lost opportunity for the public health, medical, and broader health community in establishing a trusted, transparent and reliable source for health on the Internet. Countries, medical associations, civil society, and consumer advocates have objected to these applications on grounds that they do not meet the public interest. We argue that there is an immediate need for action to postpone awarding of the .health gTLD and other health-related gTLDs to address these concerns and ensure the appropriate development of sound eHealth governance rules, principles, and use. This would support the crucial need of ensuring access to quality and evidence-based sources of health information online, as well as establishing a safe and reliable space on the Internet for health. We believe, if properly governed, .health and other domains could represent such a promise in the future. PMID:24598602

  19. Understanding 'anticipatory governance'.

    PubMed

    Guston, David H

    2014-04-01

    Anticipatory governance is 'a broad-based capacity extended through society that can act on a variety of inputs to manage emerging knowledge-based technologies while such management is still possible'. It motivates activities designed to build capacities in foresight, engagement, and integration--as well as through their production ensemble. These capacities encourage and support the reflection of scientists, engineers, policy makers, and other publics on their roles in new technologies. This article reviews the early history of the National Nanotechnology Initiative in the United States, and it further explicates anticipatory governance through exploring the genealogy of the term and addressing a set of critiques found in the literature. These critiques involve skepticism of three proximities of anticipatory governance: to its object, nanotechnology, which is a relatively indistinct one; to the public, which remains almost utterly naive toward nanotechnology; and to technoscience itself, which allegedly renders anticipatory governance complicit in its hubris. The article concludes that the changing venues and the amplification within them of the still, small voices of folks previously excluded from offering constructive visions of futures afforded by anticipatory governance may not be complete solutions to our woes in governing technology, but they certainly can contribute to bending the long arc of technoscience more toward humane ends.

  20. Government Positions for Physicists.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, David

    2006-03-01

    There are a number of government agencies that employ physicists in a wide variety of jobs -- from student internships to post docs to full time staff positions. You can do real, creative, fore-front physics or pursue a wide range of leadership positions. The possibilities are almost unlimited and so is the impact your work can have on the government, academia, and industry. So how do you go about finding a government job? What qualities or abilities are deemed valuable? What are the advantages and disadvantages to working in the government? I will bring some personal experiences and observations from working in the government (one year as a rotator at the National Science Foundation in the Division of Materials Research and almost 18 years at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, both as a Group Leader and a Division Chief) to bear on these questions and more. Prior to my government career I was a physics professor pursuing research and teaching in academia.

  1. Graduate midwives' perception of their preparation and support in using evidence to advocate for women's choice: A Western Australian study.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Yvonne; Lewis, Lucy; Kuliukas, Lesley; Butt, Janice; Wood, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted with 83 midwives working across the Western Australian (WA) maternity sector who graduated from one WA University. We explored midwives' attitudes and utilisation of research and assertive communication in addition to perceptions of their educational preparation to advocate for women. The greatest opportunity for research exposure was working on a clinical audit (25.3%). No differences were found between graduate groups using the Edmonton Research Orientation subscales, although findings suggest a positive view towards research. Midwives were more likely to be assertive with their clinical colleagues than a midwifery manager or medical colleague when: expressing their opinions (P = <0.001); saying no (P = <0.001); allowing others to express their opinions (P = <0.001); and making suggestions to others (P = 0.025). A qualitative phase with 15 midwives explored concepts around advocating for women. Four themes emerged: 'having the confidence to question', 'communication skills', work environment' and 'knowing the woman and what she wants'. Findings suggest strategies are needed in their entry to practice preparation and ongoing professional development to facilitate research engagement. Using assertive behaviour to provide feedback to clinical colleagues warrants attention to enhance reflective practice. Building communication skills through observing positive role models and participating in role play was highlighted.

  2. Academics and Advocates: The Role of Consumer Researchers in Public Policy-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brobeck, Stephen

    1988-01-01

    As the marketplace becomes increasingly complex, the need for consumer research involvement in public policy making grows. The most effective way for academics to affect policy is to participate in advocacy groups. (SK)

  3. Moving beyond Peer Education: Using Peer Advocates to Increase Condom Availability on College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Scott M.; Hartzell, Sarahmona; Bickers Bock, Lindsey B.

    2006-01-01

    Recent empirical investigations and epidemiological trends promulgate the need for effective sexual health education and advocacy programs based on the needs of college students. While many peer-based programs are reliant on pedagogical strategies, additional advocacy programs are needed to resolve the difficulties associated with reaching target…

  4. Public Opinion on Youth, Crime and Race: A Guide for Advocates. Building Blocks for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soler, Mark

    This guide summarizes public opinion research on youth and juvenile justice issues from the Building Blocks for Youth focus groups and various national polls. Overall, the public is less fearful about crime than in the past but believes juvenile crime is increasing. There is serious public concern about the effectiveness of the juvenile justice…

  5. Theater and Dialogue to Increase Youth's Intentions to Advocate for LGBTQQ People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wernick, Laura J.; Kulick, Alex; Dessel, Adrienne B.; Graham, Louis F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluates the effectiveness of an intervention using theater and dialogue to raise awareness about homophobia and transphobia and increase intentions to participate in macro-level change efforts around lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQQ) issues. Methods: Using a pretest-posttest design, this…

  6. School Nurses as Advocates for Youth Tobacco Education Programs: The TAR WARS Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Martin C.; Costley, C. Mark; Cain, Jeff; Zaiger, Donna; McMullen, Sarah

    1998-01-01

    TAR WARS is an interactive, anti-tobacco program for fifth graders designed to promote positive health choices by increasing students' awareness of attitudes regarding tobacco use and the effects of tobacco on the body. The program encourages health care provider involvement in community health activities and mobilizes community support against…

  7. The Complete IEP Guide: How To Advocate for Your Special Ed Child. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Lawrence M.

    This book is intended to help parents of students with disabilities effectively proceed on their own through the Individualized Education Program (IEP) process. Chapters cover the following topics: (1) child advocacy; (2) basic legal concepts of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, the IEP, state special education laws, and some…

  8. Women in engineering program advocates network (WEPAN): Evaluation of the fourth annual conference

    SciTech Connect

    Brainard, S.G.

    1994-08-01

    The 1994 WEPAN conference highlighted the establishment of the three Regional Centers for Women in Engineering, which are located at the University of Washington, Purdue University, and Stevens Insitute of Technology. An overall evaluation was conducted on the effectiveness of the conference, including the quality of plenary sessions, workshops, registration, accommodations and reception.

  9. Of Horses' Mouths and Toothpick Houses. A Devil's Advocate Position vis-a-vis CME Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Judith Ribble; Pennington, Floyd A.

    1984-01-01

    The authors argue that continuing medical education (CME) research fails to prove its effectiveness in patient outcomes, that there is no theory from which to generate measurable hypotheses and that questionable methodology, dubious applicability, and misleading conclusions pervade CME research. (SK)

  10. School Wellness Policies: Perceptions, Barriers, and Needs among School Leaders and Wellness Advocates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Peggy; Berends, Victoria; Ellis, Karen; Gonzalez, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Background: School wellness policies are a key component to the prevention of adolescent obesity. This national research study sought to understand the wellness environment in school districts across the country and to identify challenges districts face and needs they have in order to effectively implement, monitor, and evaluate school wellness…

  11. Advocating Service Learning for Developing Citizenship in University Students in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorasamy, Nirmala; Pillay, Soma

    2010-01-01

    An effective and efficient public sector is largely dependent on employees who accept the responsibility for providing high-quality public services. It can be argued that public management students, as future employees in the public sector, need to be educated for responsible citizenship. Higher education institutions in South Africa are expected…

  12. What To Do about Jabbering Parrots: Lessons Learned while Advocating for Best Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Michael P.

    2001-01-01

    Notes that it is important for educators to remember to avoid battles with critics who tie up and wear down educators with arguing--not arguments--because it drains limited time and energy and pulls them away from more important things like working with children. Suggests that it is more effective to prepare a thoughtful, reflective response…

  13. The effects of free government health insurance among small children--evidence from the free care for children under six policy in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ha; Wang, Wenjuan

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few years, there have been an increasing number of impact evaluations of health insurance and other demand-side financing programs in developing countries. Yet the literature on insurance impact among small children is limited. This paper evaluates the effects of a Vietnamese government's policy in 2005, which granted free access to health services in public facilities to all children younger than 6 years. In particular, we focus on children among households who are not eligible for a program for the poor, which has been administered concurrently in the country. Using two waves of the Vietnam Household Living Standard Surveys conducted right before and after the policy started and a difference-in-differences method, we found a major increase in both inpatient and outpatient care in the secondary public hospitals. At the same time, there is evidence indicating a reduction in the use of tertiary hospitals. Compared with the policy's non-beneficiaries, beneficiaries in the age group 4-5 years also experienced fewer sick days, incurred less out-of-pocket spending on healthcare, and were less likely to encounter catastrophic expenditure. Evidence thus suggests that insurance provided by the policy has served the function as a safety net and helped improving efficiency of the health system by reducing the use of costly tertiary care.

  14. Preventing and controlling land subsidence in Shanghai -towards more integrated and effective land use and ground water governance in the Yangtze Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Liping

    2016-04-01

    The Yangtze Delta, covers 210,700 square kilometers and with 156 million inhabitants (NRDC, 2010; The National Bureau of Statistics, 2011), is one of the areas most severely affected by land subsidence in China. Up to 2012, the area with cumulative subsidence above 200 mm in Yangtze Delta has been closed to 10,000 square kilometers. Shanghai, located at the estuary of the Yangtze River and with a population of 23 million, is the most densely populated city in Yangtze Delta (The National Bureau of Statistics, 2011). Since 1921, the recorded cumulative subsidence has been 200 to 300 mm in the central area of the city (Chai, Shen, Zhu, & Zhang, 2005). Excessive pumping of groundwater is considered to be the leading reason, accounts for nearly 70%, of the city's land subsidence, the weight of skyscrapers and global warming also play hefty roles (30%) (Springer, 2012). Research has shown that the main method to control land subsidence in Shanghai is to prevent groundwater from dropping (Chai, Shen, Zhu, & Zhang, 2005), the city has made great efforts in this regard since 1965 (the beginning of the so-called "control period"), for example, it has been recharging underground water through 121 wells with more than 60,000 tons every day since 2012 (Chinadaily, 2012). It is a huge burden considering the city has been suffering from a shortage of fresh water. In 2013, with the other two provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang in Yangtze Delta, Shanghai signed a delta cooperation agreement on the prevention and control of land subsidence and jointly issued a Prevention and Control Planning on Land Subsidence in Yangtze Delta (2014-2020), which aims to establish a long-effect mechanism in the delta scope. This research aims to analyze and assess the land and groundwater governance arrangements related to land subsidence in the Yangtze Delta in general and Shanghai in specific, in order to develop optimizing adaptation strategies and associated governance arrangements. It examines the

  15. Seeking conversion versus advocating tolerance in the pursuit of social change.

    PubMed

    Prislin, Radmila; Filson, Jennifer

    2009-11-01

    In 2 studies, the authors examined reactions to social change effected by minorities' successful increase of tolerance for diversity within a group or conversion of a group to the minority position. Minorities who increased tolerance for diversity, compared with those who converted a group to their own position, identified more strongly with the group (Study 1). Study 2 replicated these findings. Additionally, it showed that majorities disidentified less from the group when majorities lost their dominant position due to the group's increased tolerance for diversity than when majorities lost their dominant position due to the group's conversion to the minority position. Thus, minority-effected social change left a group stronger when that change increased the group's tolerance than when the group experienced conversion. Expectations that differences within a group would be regulated through social conflict (vs. conciliation) mediated the effect of the mode of change on group identification. Motives for minorities' pursuit of social change through tolerance of diversity versus group conversion are discussed.

  16. The path to successful commercialization of cell and gene therapies: empowering patient advocates.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Gerhard; Abou-El-Enein, Mohamed; Kent, Alastair; Poole, Brian; Forte, Miguel

    2017-02-01

    Often, novel gene and cell therapies provide hope for many people living with incurable diseases. To facilitate and accelerate a successful regulatory approval and commercialization path for effective, safe and affordable cell and gene therapies, the involvement of patient advocacy groups (PAGs) should be considered early in the development process. This report provides a thorough overview of the various roles PAGs play in the clinical translation of cell and gene therapies and how they can bring about positive changes in the regulatory process, infrastructure improvements and market stability.

  17. Governing for Enterprise Security (GES) Implementation Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    Security (GES) 1 1.1 Governing for Enterprise Security Definitions 3 1.2 Eleven Characteristics of Effective Security Governance 5 1.3 Effective versus...and technical considerations. SOFTWARE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE | 5 This shift in perspective elevates security from a standalone, technical...Officer (CSO), 5 Chief Risk Officer (CRO), and Chief Privacy Officer (CPO). Security roles and responsibilities for business leaders are denoted by

  18. Advocating for malaria elimination - learning from the successes of other infectious disease elimination programmes.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Maxine A; Dean, Angela J; Chancellor, Arna

    2014-06-05

    Malaria elimination is back on the agenda, but it remains challenging for countries to make the transition from effective control to elimination. Many other infectious diseases have been targeted by globally-coordinated elimination advocacy campaigns, and advocacy has been considered an essential component of the success of other disease elimination programmes. What can the malaria community learn from these successes? A review of infectious disease elimination programmes to identify successful elements of advocacy for disease elimination was undertaken. Key elements are: (i) a global elimination plan, supported by international health bodies; (ii) thorough costings and tools to support the business case; (iii) an approach that is positioned within a development framework; (iv) core elimination advocacy messages; (v) provision of advocacy tools for partners (vi) extensive and effective community engagement; and (vii) strong partnerships. These features provide insights into 'what works' in global elimination advocacy. Advocacy is a powerful tool to support the long-term political and financial commitment necessary for malaria elimination. The global malaria community needs to work together, to ensure that the early steps towards the end goal of malaria elimination are taken.

  19. Effective Faith-Based Treatment Programs. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources of the Committee on Government Reform. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session (May 23, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Reform.

    This document presents witness testimonies from a hearing discussing two issues critical to the House of Representatives, Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources: insuring government support for effective programs to reduce the demand for illegal drugs, and facilitating the inclusion of faith-based providers in the…

  20. Caregivers, school liaisons, and agency advocates speak out about the educational needs of children and youths in foster care.

    PubMed

    Zetlin, Andrea; Weinberg, Lois; Shea, Nancy M

    2010-07-01

    Children in foster care comprise a population of students at great risk for school failure. The child welfare agency, schools, and home must all work together to provide the services and supports required to achieve better results. The purpose of this study was to conduct focus groups with participants from each sector to discuss their views on the educational problems and needs of students in foster care and their recommendations for what is needed to improve the academic prospects of foster students. The article provides details of the distinct themes identified by caregivers, school liaisons, and agency advocates and reveals how each group-while recognizing that foster students face substantial school problems-operates independent of each other and lacks a shared view on what is needed. The article concludes with recommendations for designing a model program that involves all the sectors and provides an arena for strategically addressing barriers to school success.

  1. "You Know the Medicine, I Know My Kid": How Parents Advocate for Their Children Living With Complex Chronic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Katherine A; Sullivan, Shelbie L

    2016-09-02

    Caring for a child with a chronic condition has received considerable attention in the pediatric health literature. Today, approximately 1 out of 5 North American children are diagnosed with a chronic condition that requires parents to become caregivers and advocates. Although advocacy is regarded as a significant aspect to parental caregiving, more research is needed to better define this oversimplified and misrepresented concept in clinical practice and research. Subsequently, we interviewed 35 parents of children diagnosed with complex chronic conditions. Within our analysis, we identified three themes that elaborate upon how parental advocacy is socially constructed through communication behaviors and partnerships with other people (e.g., medical professionals, family, school educators). We also discuss the emotional side of advocacy, and proffer suggestions to practitioners who work with parents to form collaborative care teams.

  2. Advocating in schools for children with disabilities: what's new with IDEA?

    PubMed

    Altshuler, Sandra J; Kopels, Sandra

    2003-07-01

    All social workers who work with children and families, regardless of their practice setting, should be aware of the important educational rights to which children with disabilities and their families are entitled. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (P.L. 101-476), one of the most sweeping laws protecting children with disabilities, was substantially amended in 1997, and its regulatory provisions became legally effective in October 1999. This article provides information about the requirements of the law and the impact of those changes on children's educational rights. The changes discussed and their practice implications include expansion of categories of children with disabilities; new requirements for mobile, homeless, or culturally diverse populations and participants in the individualized education program process; payment for private school placements for children with disabilities; discipline of children with disabilities; and provision of social work services in the schools.

  3. Professionalizing Government Strategists

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    out professional strategies in exchange for the treasure they entrust to the government. Defining Strategy Socrates is given credit for clarifying...services need to make these improvements. Therefore his solutions have wider applications if one desires. 14 Tad Beckman, The Sophists and Socrates

  4. Governance Structure: Palomar College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palomar Coll., San Marcos, CA.

    The governance structure of Palomar College (PC) in San Marcos, California, is defined in the plan described in this document. Introductory material indicates that the plan was designed to provide appropriate representation for each of PC's constituent groups, delineate committee responsibilities and reporting relationships, establish the…

  5. Name that Government Guru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCew, Sheri

    2004-01-01

    No Child Left Behind and state testing mandate the study of government officials, at local, state, and federal levels, in judicial, legislative, and executive branches. At Wattles Elementary School in Troy, Michigan, test scores indicated that this was a weak area--not surprising since this always has been primarily a high school subject. In this…

  6. Biology and the Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Roger D.

    1969-01-01

    Emphasizes the social implications of biological knowledge and discusses two main government roles in biology: (1) a creative and supportive role, including support of education and research, (2) control, regulation and protection related to the applications of biological knowledge. Public control is considered necessary in areas such as food and…

  7. Governing for Enterprise Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    1 2 W hat Is Governing for Enterprise Security? ................................................ 5 3 W hat Are the Risks...23 4.3 Determ ining Adequate Security ........................................................ 25 5 What Are the...security. Section 4 lays the foundation for determining how much security is enough and further expands the definition of adequate security. Section 5

  8. Government in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Donald J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This issue begins with information on new economic education curriculum materials and includes a conceptual introduction to the relationship between local government and the economy. Following this, four instructional units are provided. The first unit, called "Communities Need Rules," is intended for preschool and kindergarten children.…

  9. In Brief: Open government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-03-01

    U.S. President Barack Obama's Memorandum on Transparency and Open Government requires federal agencies to take steps toward increased transparency, public participation, and collaboration. Agencies are accepting suggestions until 19 March 2010. For more information, visit http://www.whitehouse.gov/open and http://www.usa.gov/webcontent/open/tool_poc.shtml.

  10. Governance and Civic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ekundayo J. D., Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers on the socioeconomic development, legal, gender, philosophical, and human rights dimensions of state governance within the context of social, economic, and political processes in Sierra Leone and Kenya. The Political Literacy and Civic Education (PLACE) Project, which was sponsored by the British Overseas Development…

  11. Terrorism, Governance, and Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-13

    science research on national security issues. A primary objective was to develop better theories about the impact of aid programs on terrorist and...SUBJECT TERMS Terrorism, counterinsurgency, economics, development, foreign aid , governance, insurgent, national security, political science, political...9 • Optimal Scale and Design of Development and Military Aid

  12. Advocating for opioid substitution therapy in Central Asia: much still to be done.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Danielle; Burrows, Dave; Bolotbaeva, Aisuluu

    2014-11-01

    Opioid substitution therapy (OST) was first introduced in the formerly-Soviet Central Asian Republics as an HIV prevention intervention for people who inject drugs (PWID) in 2002. Presently, pilot programs function in Kazakhstan and Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan has scaled-up from the pilot phase to the operation of over 20 OST sites nation-wide. All three countries have taken steps towards lower-threshold programs, allowing clients to enroll regardless of HIV status, and, in some cases, without documentation of failure to complete other drug treatment programs. However, OST programs remain exclusively funded by international donors, and political and societal opposition to these programs threaten their stability. In order to counter negative campaigns and political attacks on OST, organized advocacy efforts are needed. This commentary explores efforts undertaken by international donor partners supporting advocacy efforts to scale-up OST and assure a sustainable future for programming. It examines both proactive and reactive efforts, and the variety of target audiences that need to be reached to conduct effective advocacy. Ultimately we find that, while a range of tools are available for OST advocacy in the hostile environments of the former Soviet Union, the strengthening of advocacy groups is needed to assure an optimized platform exists for using the evidence and developing relevant materials in the appropriate languages (including, but not limited to, Russian) for both proactive and reactive efforts; and that more robust monitoring is desirable to bring sharper focus to replicable methods.

  13. Funding for U.S. biomedical research: the case for the scientist-advocate.

    PubMed

    Nurse, J T D; Fox, C H

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. biomedical research community finds itself at a particularly consequential moment. Since the end of the Fiscal Year (FY) 1998-2003 NIH budget doubling period, brought to fruition with bipartisan leadership, the Federal investment in biomedical research has been declining. The NIH budget has actually decreased in constant dollars since FY 2004. Across-the-board cuts included in the Budget Control Act of 2011 would result in a loss of $2.4 billion and roughly 2,300 research project grants in FY 2013 alone, unless Congress acts to intervene before January 2013. Many of the beneficiaries of NIH support view advocacy for research funding as "someone else's job". The case to reverse this mindset must be made. Members of Congress and their staffers are open to consideration of the case for sustaining Federal investments in science, even during these difficult budget times. However, the advocacy effort must be broad-based and repeatedly presented to effect change. The figures on economic return from spending on biomedical research are compelling, but they do not tell the entire story. The results of biomedical research improve and save lives every single day, a fact that should not be lost on our elected leaders.

  14. State Governance Action Report, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogle, Greg

    2008-01-01

    This is the fifth edition of the State Governance Action Report that has been produced since 2000 by the Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges' (AGB's) Ingram Center for Public Trusteeship and Governance. Focusing primarily on state and higher education policies directly affecting governance, trusteeship, and institutionally…

  15. State Governance Action Report, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the State Governance Action Report for 2007. Compiled in this report are state policy developments, including legislation, commissions, and studies, affecting the structure, responsibilities, and operations of public higher education governing boards and institutionally related foundations. Governance and governance-related…

  16. Universities and Industry: Does the Lambert Code of Governance Meet the Requirements of Good Governance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckland, Roger

    2004-01-01

    The Lambert Model Code of Governance proposes to institutionalise the dominance of governors from commercial and industrial organisations as core members of compact and effective boards controlling UK universities. It is the latest expression of a fashion for viewing university governance as an overly-simple example of an obsolete system, where…

  17. Discrimination theory of rule-governed behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cerutti, Daniel T.

    1989-01-01

    In rule-governed behavior, previously established elementary discriminations are combined in complex instructions and thus result in complex behavior. Discriminative combining and recombining of responses produce behavior with characteristics differing from those of behavior that is established through the effects of its direct consequences. For example, responding in instructed discrimination may be occasioned by discriminative stimuli that are temporally and situationally removed from the circumstances under which the discrimination is instructed. The present account illustrates properties of rule-governed behavior with examples from research in instructional control and imitation learning. Units of instructed behavior, circumstances controlling compliance with instructions, and rule-governed problem solving are considered. PMID:16812579

  18. Shared governance in the endoscopy department.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, R; Tate, R

    1995-01-01

    Studies have indicated that active participation by employees improves job satisfaction and performance. There is a sense of pride and accountability that is demonstrated in the work environment when staff are involved in the decision-making process. Recent emergence of a relatively new philosophy for management that promotes employee ownership is shared governance. This type of leadership allows individuals who are at the center of the work place to participate in the decisions that actively reflect their needs. In this article, the authors describe the process of implementing shared governance in an Endoscopy Department. The effectiveness of shared governance is evidenced by the renewed enthusiasm and energy demonstrated by the staff.

  19. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Government Compensation of Kidney Donors.

    PubMed

    Held, P J; McCormick, F; Ojo, A; Roberts, J P

    2016-03-01

    From 5000 to 10 000 kidney patients die prematurely in the United States each year, and about 100 000 more suffer the debilitating effects of dialysis, because of a shortage of transplant kidneys. To reduce this shortage, many advocate having the government compensate kidney donors. This paper presents a comprehensive cost-benefit analysis of such a change. It considers not only the substantial savings to society because kidney recipients would no longer need expensive dialysis treatments--$1.45 million per kidney recipient--but also estimates the monetary value of the longer and healthier lives that kidney recipients enjoy--about $1.3 million per recipient. These numbers dwarf the proposed $45 000-per-kidney compensation that might be needed to end the kidney shortage and eliminate the kidney transplant waiting list. From the viewpoint of society, the net benefit from saving thousands of lives each year and reducing the suffering of 100 000 more receiving dialysis would be about $46 billion per year, with the benefits exceeding the costs by a factor of 3. In addition, it would save taxpayers about $12 billion each year.

  20. A Cost‐Benefit Analysis of Government Compensation of Kidney Donors

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, F.; Ojo, A.; Roberts, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract From 5000 to 10 000 kidney patients die prematurely in the United States each year, and about 100 000 more suffer the debilitating effects of dialysis, because of a shortage of transplant kidneys. To reduce this shortage, many advocate having the government compensate kidney donors. This paper presents a comprehensive cost‐benefit analysis of such a change. It considers not only the substantial savings to society because kidney recipients would no longer need expensive dialysis treatments—$1.45 million per kidney recipient—but also estimates the monetary value of the longer and healthier lives that kidney recipients enjoy—about $1.3 million per recipient. These numbers dwarf the proposed $45 000‐per‐kidney compensation that might be needed to end the kidney shortage and eliminate the kidney transplant waiting list. From the viewpoint of society, the net benefit from saving thousands of lives each year and reducing the suffering of 100 000 more receiving dialysis would be about $46 billion per year, with the benefits exceeding the costs by a factor of 3. In addition, it would save taxpayers about $12 billion each year. PMID:26474298

  1. Empirical studies on changes in oil governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemal, Mohammad

    Regulation of the oil and gas sector is consequential to the economies of oil-producing countries. In the literature, there are two types of regulation: indirect regulation through taxes and tariffs or direct regulation through the creation of a National Oil Company (NOC). In the 1970s, many oil-producing countries nationalized their oil and gas sectors by creating and giving ownership rights of oil and gas resources to NOCs. In light of the success of Norway in regulating its oil and gas resources, over the past two decades several countries have changed their oil governance by changing the rights given to NOC from ownership right to mere access rights like other oil companies. However, empirical literature on these changes in oil governance is quite thin. Thus, this dissertation will explore three research questions to investigate empirically these changes in oil governance. First, I investigate empirically the impact of the changes in oil governance on aggregate domestic income. By employing a difference-in-difference method, I will show that a country which changed its oil governance increases its GDP per-capita by 10%. However, the impact is different for different types of political institution. Second, by observing the changes in oil governance in Indonesia , I explore the impact of the changes on learning-by-doing and learning spillover effect in offshore exploration drilling. By employing an econometric model which includes interaction terms between various experience variables and changes in an oil governance dummy, I will show that the change in oil governance in Indonesia enhances learning-by-doing by the rigs and learning spillover in a basin. Lastly, the impact of the changes in oil governance on expropriation risk and extraction path will be explored. By employing a difference-in-difference method, this essay will show that the changes in oil governance reduce expropriation and the impact of it is different for different sizes of resource stock.

  2. 48 CFR 46.406 - Foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract Quality Assurance 46.406 Foreign governments. Government contract quality assurance performed for foreign governments or international agencies shall...

  3. 6 CFR 25.8 - Government contractor Defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Government contractor Defense. 25.8 Section 25.8...-TERRORISM BY FOSTERING EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 25.8 Government contractor Defense. (a) Criteria for... applicability of the government contractor defense. In determining whether to issue such Certification,...

  4. 6 CFR 25.8 - Government contractor Defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Government contractor Defense. 25.8 Section 25.8...-TERRORISM BY FOSTERING EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 25.8 Government contractor Defense. (a) Criteria for... applicability of the government contractor defense. In determining whether to issue such Certification,...

  5. 6 CFR 25.8 - Government contractor Defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Government contractor Defense. 25.8 Section 25.8...-TERRORISM BY FOSTERING EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 25.8 Government contractor Defense. (a) Criteria for... applicability of the government contractor defense. In determining whether to issue such Certification,...

  6. 6 CFR 25.8 - Government contractor Defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Government contractor Defense. 25.8 Section 25.8...-TERRORISM BY FOSTERING EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 25.8 Government contractor Defense. (a) Criteria for... applicability of the government contractor defense. In determining whether to issue such Certification,...

  7. Shared Health Governance

    PubMed Central

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2014-01-01

    Health and Social Justice (Ruger 2009a) developed the “health capability paradigm,” a conception of justice and health in domestic societies. This idea undergirds an alternative framework of social cooperation called “shared health governance” (SHG). SHG puts forth a set of moral responsibilities, motivational aspirations, and institutional arrangements, and apportions roles for implementation in striving for health justice. This article develops further the SHG framework and explains its importance and implications for governing health domestically. PMID:21745082

  8. Measuring government commitment to vaccination.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Amanda; Zoloa, Juan Ignacio; Duran, Denizhan

    2013-04-18

    Vaccination is among the most cost-effective health interventions and has attracted ever greater levels of funding from public and private donors. However, some countries, mainly populous lower-middle income countries, are lagging behind on vaccination financing and performance. In this paper, we discuss the rationale for investing in vaccination and construct a metric to measure government commitment to vaccination that could promote accountability and better tracking of performance. While noting the limitations of available data, we find that populous middle-income countries, which stand to gain tremendously from increased vaccination uptake, perform poorly in terms of their vaccination outcomes.

  9. Pay modernisation and healthcare governance.

    PubMed

    Benton, David C

    Policies interact and have direct and indirect consequences resulting in both short-term and longer-term effects on the working lives of professionals, the care they offer and the education needed by future generations of staff. This article explores how pay modernisation could result in benefits and risks for corporate, clinical and staff governance. It is argued that if pay modernisation as a major enabler of service redesign is to succeed then far greater understanding of how various policies interact and their potential consequences is required.

  10. Student Leaders as Advocates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suitt, Regina

    2016-01-01

    The need for adult education programs and services is great, yet federal and state funding and enrollment have declined. This reality means that the field is burdened to protect what federal dollars still exist. One approach to address these funding challenges is to engage students in making the case to funders and policy makers for addressing…

  11. Patient Advocate Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee ... of Hope Affair Meet PAF Our 20 Year History & Mission PAF Leaders & Board Members Annual Reports & Financials ...

  12. Effect of Gender on Students' Academic Performance in Computer Studies in Secondary Schools in New Bussa, Borgu Local Government of Niger State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adigun, Joseph; Onihunwa, John; Irunokhai, Eric; Sada, Yusuf; Adesina, Olubunmi

    2015-01-01

    This research studied the relationship between student's gender and academic performance in computer science in New Bussa, Borgu local government of Niger state. Questionnaire which consisted of 30 multiple-choice items drawn from Senior School Certificate Examination past questions as set by the West Africa Examination Council in 2014 multiple…

  13. An Analysis of Total Personality as Advocated by Holistic Theorists and Its Effect upon Healthy Personality. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Willard B.

    This conceptual work is concerned with the development of a holistic theory of personality. The following were selected for their strong orientation in this direction: Gordon Allport, Andras Angyal, Kurt Goldstein, Prescott Lecky, Abraham Maslow, Bardner Murphy, and Carl Rogers. The four themes which emerged from an analysis of their writings are…

  14. Digital government and public health.

    PubMed

    Fountain, Jane E

    2004-10-01

    Digital government is typically defined as the production and delivery of information and services inside government and between government and the public using a range of information and communication technologies. Two types of government relationships with other entities are government-to-citizen and government-to-government relationships. Both offer opportunities and challenges. Assessment of a public health agency's readiness for digital government includes examination of technical, managerial, and political capabilities. Public health agencies are especially challenged by a lack of funding for technical infrastructure and expertise, by privacy and security issues, and by lack of Internet access for low-income and marginalized populations. Public health agencies understand the difficulties of working across agencies and levels of government, but the development of new, integrated e-programs will require more than technical change - it will require a profound change in paradigm.

  15. Government Intervention in Child Rearing: Governing Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, Robert Davis argues that much of the moral anxiety currently surrounding children in Europe and North America emerges at ages and stages curiously familiar from traditional Western constructions of childhood. The symbolism of infancy has proven enduringly effective over the last two centuries in associating the earliest years of…

  16. Government-NGO collaboration and sustainability of orphans and vulnerable children projects in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Alana; Hartwig, Kari; Merson, Michael

    2008-02-01

    Given current donor attention to orphans and children made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS, and the need for a new framework that recognizes the complementary roles of nations and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), this analysis reviews NGO-operated community-based orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) projects in Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland. There has been a lack of attention within the field of evaluation to inter-organizational relationships, specifically those with government agencies, as a factor in sustainability. We analyzed evaluations of nine OVC projects funded by the Bristol-Myers Squibb Foundation for the influence of government-NGO collaboration on project sustainability. For eight of the nine projects, evaluations provided evidence of the importance of the government partnership for sustainability. Government collaboration was important in projects designed to help families access government grants, initiate community-based solutions, and advocate for OVC rights through legislation. Government partnerships were also critical to the sustainability of two projects involved in placing children in foster care, but these showed signs of tension with government partners. In addition to the more common factors associated with sustainability, such as organizational characteristics, donors and NGOs should concentrate on developing strong partnerships with local and national government agencies for the sustainability of their projects.

  17. Assessing the Fate of an Aromatic Hydrocarbon Fluid in Agricultural Spray Applications Using the Three-Stage ADVOCATE Model Framework.

    PubMed

    Toose, Liisa; Warren, Christopher; Mackay, Donald; Parkerton, Thomas; Letinski, Daniel; Manning, Ryan; Connelly, Martin; Rohde, Arlean; Fritz, Brad; Hoffmann, W Clint

    2015-08-12

    Components of emulsifiable concentrates (ECs) used in pesticide formulations may be emitted to air following application in agricultural use and contribute to ozone formation. A key consideration is the fraction of the ECs that is volatilized. This study is designed to provide a mechanistic model framework for estimating emissions of an aromatic hydrocarbon fluid used in ECs based on the results of spray chamber experiments that simulate fate as the fluids become subject to volatilization, sorption to soil, and biodegradation. The results indicate the need to treat the volatilization losses in three stages: (i) losses during spraying, (ii) losses up to 12 h after spraying in which the soil is coated with the ECs, and (iii) subsequent longer term losses in which the ECs become increasingly sorbed and subject to biodegradation. A mass balance model, the agrochemical derived volatile organic compound air transfer evaluation (ADVOCATE) tool, is developed, treating the ECs as seven hydrocarbon component groups, to estimate the volatilization and biodegradation losses using parameters fitted to empirical data. This enables losses to be estimated for each hydrocarbon component under field conditions, thereby providing a basis for improved estimation of ozone formation potential and for designing ECs that have lower emissions.

  18. The advantage of professional organizations as advocates for improved funding of maternal and child health services in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Beyeza-Kashesya, Jolly; Kaharuza, Frank; Murokora, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    The attainment of United Nations Millennium Development Goal 5 has proven elusive for many countries. Efforts to reduce maternal mortality require concerted evidence-based efforts from all key players, including professional organizations. The Association of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Uganda used the results of maternal and perinatal death review to develop and pilot advocacy programs with parliamentarians, media, and government that aimed to improve maternal and newborn health in Uganda. This work translated to further parliamentary debate on the topic, increased resource allocation by government, and improved media-related public education.

  19. Preventing Federal Government Abuse of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grifo, F. T.

    2006-12-01

    Investigations by the Union of Concerned Scientists and the mainstream media provide evidence of widespread and serious political interference in federal government science. To restore scientific integrity to the policy making process, the United States must adopt reforms that adequately protect government scientists, provide better scientific advice to Congress, strengthen the Office of Science and Technology Policy, ensure the independence of scientific advisory committees, and effectively insulate government science from politics. Methods for accomplishing these goals include ensuring that the next president is committed to respecting the scientific process and pressing Congress to exercise its oversight responsibilities. Creating meaningful reform will require the persistent and energetic engagement of the scientific community—in universities, laboratories, government agencies, and private companies. Individual scientists and scientific institutions have the opportunity to monitor the way science informs policy making and to act to defend the integrity of science.

  20. Health aid and governance in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Fielding, David

    2011-07-01

    Despite anecdotal evidence that the quality of governance in recipient countries affects the allocation of international health aid, there is no quantitative evidence on the magnitude of this effect, or on which dimensions of governance influence donor decisions. We measure health-aid flows over 1995-2006 for 109 aid recipients, matching aid data with measures of different dimensions of governance and a range of country-specific economic and health characteristics. Everything else being equal, countries with more political rights receive significantly more aid, but so do countries with higher corruption levels. The dependence of aid on political rights, even when we control for other governance indicators, suggests that health aid is sometimes used as an incentive to reward political reforms.

  1. Flood risk governance arrangements in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matczak, P.; Lewandowski, J.; Choryński, A.; Szwed, M.; Kundzewicz, Z. W.

    2015-06-01

    The STAR-FLOOD (Strengthening and Redesigning European Flood Risk Practices Towards Appropriate and Resilient Flood Risk Governance Arrangements) project, funded by the European Commission, investigates strategies for dealing with flood risk in six European countries: Belgium, the UK, France, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden and in 18 vulnerable urban regions in these countries. The project aims to describe, analyse, explain, and evaluate the main similarities and differences between the selected EU Member States in terms of development and performance of flood risk governance arrangements. It also discusses the scientific and societal importance of these similarities and differences. Attention is paid to identification and characterization of shifts in flood risk governance arrangements and in flood risk management strategies and to determination of triggering factors and restraining factors. An assessment of a change of resilience and appropriateness (legitimacy, effectiveness, efficiency) of flood risk governance arrangements in Poland is presented and comparison with other European countries is offered.

  2. Adaptive governance, ecosystem management, and natural capital.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Lisen; Folke, Carl; Österblom, Henrik; Olsson, Per

    2015-06-16

    To gain insights into the effects of adaptive governance on natural capital, we compare three well-studied initiatives; a landscape in Southern Sweden, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, and fisheries in the Southern Ocean. We assess changes in natural capital and ecosystem services related to these social-ecological governance approaches to ecosystem management and investigate their capacity to respond to change and new challenges. The adaptive governance initiatives are compared with other efforts aimed at conservation and sustainable use of natural capital: Natura 2000 in Europe, lobster fisheries in the Gulf of Maine, North America, and fisheries in Europe. In contrast to these efforts, we found that the adaptive governance cases developed capacity to perform ecosystem management, manage multiple ecosystem services, and monitor, communicate, and respond to ecosystem-wide changes at landscape and seascape levels with visible effects on natural capital. They enabled actors to collaborate across diverse interests, sectors, and institutional arrangements and detect opportunities and problems as they developed while nurturing adaptive capacity to deal with them. They all spanned local to international levels of decision making, thus representing multilevel governance systems for managing natural capital. As with any governance system, internal changes and external drivers of global impacts and demands will continue to challenge the long-term success of such initiatives.

  3. Adaptive governance, ecosystem management, and natural capital

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Lisen; Folke, Carl; Österblom, Henrik; Olsson, Per

    2015-01-01

    To gain insights into the effects of adaptive governance on natural capital, we compare three well-studied initiatives; a landscape in Southern Sweden, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, and fisheries in the Southern Ocean. We assess changes in natural capital and ecosystem services related to these social–ecological governance approaches to ecosystem management and investigate their capacity to respond to change and new challenges. The adaptive governance initiatives are compared with other efforts aimed at conservation and sustainable use of natural capital: Natura 2000 in Europe, lobster fisheries in the Gulf of Maine, North America, and fisheries in Europe. In contrast to these efforts, we found that the adaptive governance cases developed capacity to perform ecosystem management, manage multiple ecosystem services, and monitor, communicate, and respond to ecosystem-wide changes at landscape and seascape levels with visible effects on natural capital. They enabled actors to collaborate across diverse interests, sectors, and institutional arrangements and detect opportunities and problems as they developed while nurturing adaptive capacity to deal with them. They all spanned local to international levels of decision making, thus representing multilevel governance systems for managing natural capital. As with any governance system, internal changes and external drivers of global impacts and demands will continue to challenge the long-term success of such initiatives. PMID:26082542

  4. Weighted Components of i-Government Enterprise Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budiardjo, E. K.; Firmansyah, G.; Hasibuan, Z. A.

    2017-01-01

    Lack of government performance, among others due to the lack of coordination and communication among government agencies. Whilst, Enterprise Architecture (EA) in the government can be use as a strategic planning tool to improve productivity, efficiency, and effectivity. However, the existence components of Government Enterprise Architecture (GEA) do not show level of importance, that cause difficulty in implementing good e-government for good governance. This study is to explore the weight of GEA components using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in order to discovered an inherent structure of e-government. The results show that IT governance component of GEA play a major role in the GEA. The rest of components that consist of e-government system, e-government regulation, e-government management, and application key operational, contributed more or less the same. Beside that GEA from other countries analyzes using comparative base on comon enterprise architecture component. These weighted components use to construct i-Government enterprise architecture. and show the relative importance of component in order to established priorities in developing e-government.

  5. Possibilities for global governance of converging technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roco, Mihail C.

    2008-01-01

    The convergence of nanotechnology, modern biology, the digital revolution and cognitive sciences will bring about tremendous improvements in transformative tools, generate new products and services, enable opportunities to meet and enhance human potential and social achievements, and in time reshape societal relationships. This paper focuses on the progress made in governance of such converging, emerging technologies and suggests possibilities for a global approach. Specifically, this paper suggests creating a multidisciplinary forum or a consultative coordinating group with members from various countries to address globally governance of converging, emerging technologies. The proposed framework for governance of converging technologies calls for four key functions: supporting the transformative impact of the new technologies; advancing responsible development that includes health, safety and ethical concerns; encouraging national and global partnerships; and establishing commitments to long-term planning and investments centered on human development. Principles of good governance guiding these functions include participation of all those who are forging or affected by the new technologies, transparency of governance strategies, responsibility of each participating stakeholder, and effective strategic planning. Introduction and management of converging technologies must be done with respect for immediate concerns, such as privacy, access to medical advancements, and potential human health effects. At the same time, introduction and management should also be done with respect for longer-term concerns, such as preserving human integrity, dignity and welfare. The suggested governance functions apply to four levels of governance: (a) adapting existing regulations and organizations; (b) establishing new programs, regulations and organizations specifically to handle converging technologies; (c) building capacity for addressing these issues into national policies and

  6. 75 FR 78979 - Meeting of the Independent Panel To Review the Judge Advocate Requirements of the Department of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... be open to the public, subject to the availability of space. In keeping with the spirit of the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE... Department of the Navy AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice of open meetings. SUMMARY:...

  7. 75 FR 56999 - Meeting of the Independent Panel To Review the Judge Advocate Requirements of the Department of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE... Department of the Navy AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice of Open Meetings. SUMMARY: The... referred to as the Panel) will hold two open meetings on two separate dates. The Panel will meet in...

  8. Service Oriented E-Government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, Margareth; Laner, Dietmar, Dr.

    Due to different directives, the growing request for citizen-orientation, improved service quality, effectiveness, efficiency, transparency and reduction of costs, as well as administrative burden public administrations apply increasingly management tools and IT for continual service development and sustainable citizens' satisfaction. Therefore public administrations implement always more standard based management systems, such as quality ISO9001, environmental ISO 14001 or others. Due to this situation we used in different case studies as basis for e-government a the administration adapted, holistic administration management model to analyze stakeholder requirements and to integrate, harmonize and optimize services, processes, data, directives, concepts and forms. In these case studies the developed and consequently implemented holistic administration management model promotes constantly over more years service effectiveness, citizen satisfaction, efficiency, cost reduction, shorter initial training periods for new collaborators, employee involvement for sustainable citizen-oriented service improvement and organizational development.

  9. Shared Governance: Balancing the Euphoria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guffey, J. Stephen; Rampp, Lary C.

    This paper presents an alternative view of shared governance within higher education institutions, examining the major problems encountered by institutions as they implement a shared governance model. Based on a review of the literature, it argues that shared governance, though increasingly popular in recent years, is an issue that should be…

  10. Recent Literature on Government Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutto, Dena Holiman

    2000-01-01

    Provides a bibliography of recent publications about government information from the literature of librarianship, archives, information technology and management, and public policy. Discusses traditional government roles and new models for information management, services, and resources; information infrastructure; access to government information…

  11. Local Government: The Learning Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degelman, Charles, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Service-Learning Network" looks at the ways that service learning can transform local government into a learning laboratory for civic education. The first article, "Creating the Missing Link: Local Government, Service Learning, and Civic Education" (Todd Clark), introduces the issue. "Service Learning and Local Government" (Ann…

  12. Canadian Government Electronic Information Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Kirsti

    1993-01-01

    Examines development and evolution of Canadian government information policy in response to issues of preservation of data, information industry involvement in government data development and marketing, role of Crown copyright, and public access to government information in electronic formats. Six key information policy instruments are also…

  13. Teaching College Students Communication Strategies for Effective Social Justice Advocacy. Black Studies and Critical Thinking. Volume 23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Robert J., Ed.; Johnson, Richard Greggory, III, Ed.; Murray, Michele C., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The book deals concretely with the most effective ways for educators to be social justice advocates, with questions about what it means to be a social justice advocate, and with the best communication strategies to advocate for a particular social justice view that might start and sustain an open dialogue. The book presents a number of practical…

  14. Farm to School and the Child Nutrition Act: Improving School Meals through Advocating Federal Support for Farm-to-School Programs. Program Results Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, James

    2011-01-01

    From 2009 to 2010, the Community Food Security Coalition advocated for more federal support and funding for farm-to-school programs as Congress considered reauthorizing the Child Nutrition Act. Farm-to-school initiatives aim to improve the quality and healthfulness of student meals through the inclusion of more fresh fruits and vegetables provided…

  15. Pilot test of the Healthy Food Environment Policy Index (Food-EPI) to increase government actions for creating healthy food environments

    PubMed Central

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Effective government policies are essential to increase the healthiness of food environments. The International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) has developed a monitoring tool (the Healthy Food Environment Policy Index (Food-EPI)) and process to rate government policies to create healthy food environments against international best practice. The aims of this study were to pilot test the Food-EPI, and revise the tool and process for international implementation. Setting New Zealand. Participants Thirty-nine informed, independent public health experts and non-governmental organisation (NGO) representatives. Primary and secondary outcome measures Evidence on the extent of government implementation of different policies on food environments and infrastructure support was collected in New Zealand and validated with government officials. Two whole-day workshops were convened of public health experts and NGO representatives who rated performance of their government for seven policy and seven infrastructure support domains against international best practice. In addition, the raters evaluated the level of difficulty of rating, and appropriateness and completeness of the evidence presented for each indicator. Results Inter-rater reliability was 0.85 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.88; Gwet’s AC2) using quadratic weights, and increased to 0.89 (95% CI 0.85 to 0.92) after deletion of the problematic indicators. Based on raters’ assessments and comments, major changes to the Food-EPI tool include strengthening the leadership domain, removing the workforce development domain, a stronger focus on equity, and adding community-based programmes and government funding for research on obesity and diet-related NCD prevention, as good practice indicators. Conclusions The resulting tool and process will be promoted and offered to countries of varying size and income globally. International benchmarking of

  16. A patient advocate to facilitate access and improve communication, care, and outcomes in adults with moderate or severe asthma: Rationale, design, and methods of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Apter, Andrea J; Morales, Knashawn H; Han, Xiaoyan; Perez, Luzmercy; Huang, Jingru; Ndicu, Grace; Localio, Anna; Nardi, Alyssa; Klusaritz, Heather; Rogers, Marisa; Phillips, Alexis; Cidav, Zuleyha; Schwartz, J Sanford

    2017-03-14

    Few interventions to improve asthma outcomes have targeted low-income minority adults. Even fewer have focused on the real-world practice where care is delivered. We adapted a patient navigator, here called a Patient Advocate (PA), a term preferred by patients, to facilitate and maintain access to chronic care for adults with moderate or severe asthma and prevalent co-morbidities recruited from clinics serving low-income urban neighborhoods. We describe the planning, design, methodology (informed by patient and provider focus groups), baseline results, and challenges of an ongoing randomized controlled trial of 312 adults of a PA intervention implemented in a variety of practices. The PA coaches, models, and assists participants with preparations for a visit with the asthma clinician; attends the visit with permission of participant and provider; and confirms participants' understanding of what transpired at the visit. The PA facilitates scheduling, obtaining insurance coverage, overcoming patients' unique social and administrative barriers to carrying out medical advice and transfer of information between providers and patients. PA activities are individualized, take account of comorbidities, and are generalizable to other chronic diseases. PAs are recent college graduates interested in health-related careers, research experience, working with patients, and generally have the same race/ethnicity distribution as potential participants. We test whether the PA intervention, compared to usual care, is associated with improved and sustained asthma control and other asthma outcomes (prednisone bursts, ED visits, hospitalizations, quality of life, FEV1) relative to baseline. Mediators and moderators of the PA-asthma outcome relationship are examined along with the intervention's cost-effectiveness.

  17. Managing government funded scientific consortia

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Bakul; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    In recent years, it is becoming apparent that good science not only requires the talents of individual scientists, but also state-of-the-art laboratory facilities. These faculties, often costing millions to billions of dollars, allow scientists unprecedented opportunities to advance their knowledge and improve the quality of human life. To make optimum use of these experimental facilities, a significant amount of computational simulations is required. These mega-projects require large-scale computational facilities and complementary infrastructures of network and software. For physical sciences in US, most of these research and development efforts are funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and National Science Foundation (NSF). Universities, US National Laboratories, and occasionally industrial partners work together on projects awarded with different flavors of government funds managed under different rules. At Fermilab, we manage multiple such collaborative computing projects for university and laboratory consortia. In this paper, I explore important lessons learned from my experience with these projects. Using examples of projects delivering computing infrastructure for the Lattice QCD Collaboration, I explain how the use of federal enterprise architecture may be deployed to run projects effectively. I also describe the lessons learned in the process. Lessons learned from the execution of the above projects are also applicable to other consortia receiving federal government funds.

  18. In the eye of the stakeholder: The challenges of governing social forest values.

    PubMed

    Sténs, Anna; Bjärstig, Therese; Nordström, Eva-Maria; Sandström, Camilla; Fries, Clas; Johansson, Johanna

    2016-02-01

    This study examines which kinds of social benefits derived from forests are emphasised by Swedish stakeholders and what governance modes and management tools they accept. Our study shows that there exists a great variety among stakeholders' perceptions of forests' social values, where tourism and recreation is the most common reference. There are also differences in preferred governance modes and management where biomass and bioenergy sectors advocate business as usual (i.e. framework regulations and voluntarism) and other stakeholders demand rigid tools (i.e. coercion and targeting) and improved landscape planning. This divide will have implications for future policy orientations and require deliberative policy processes and improved dialogue among stakeholders and authorities. We suggest that there is a potential for these improvements, since actors from almost all stakeholder groups support local influence on governance and management, acknowledged and maintained either by the authorities, i.e. targeting, or by the stakeholders themselves, i.e. voluntarism.

  19. Government-to-Government E-Government: A Case Study of a Federal Financial Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faokunla, Olumide Adegboyega

    2012-01-01

    The problem with the study of the concept of electronic government (e-Gov) is that scholars in the field have not adequately explored various dimensions of the concept. Literature on e-Gov is replete with works on the form of government to consumer e-Gov. Much less work had been done on the government to government (G2G) e-Gov. This qualitative…

  20. Government intervention in child rearing: governing infancy.

    PubMed

    Davis, Robert A

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, Robert Davis argues that much of the moral anxiety currently surrounding children in Europe and North America emerges at ages and stages curiously familiar from traditional Western constructions of childhood. The symbolism of infancy has proven enduringly effective over the last two centuries in associating the earliest years of children's lives with a peculiar prestige and aura. Infancy is then vouchsafed within this symbolism as a state in which all of society's hopes and ideals for the young might somehow be enthusiastically invested, regardless of the complications that can be anticipated in the later, more ambivalent years of childhood and adolescence. According to Davis, the understanding of the concept of infancy associated with the rise of popular education can trace its pedigree to a genuine shift in sensibility that occurred in the middle of the eighteenth century. After exploring the essentially Romantic positions of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi and Friedrich Fröbel and their relevance to the pattern of reform of early childhood education in the United Kingdom and the United States, Davis also assesses the influence of figures such as Stanley Hall and John Dewey in determining the rationale for modern early childhood education. A central contention of Davis's essay is that the assumptions evident in the theory and practice of Pestalozzi and his followers crystallize a series of tensions in the understanding of infancy and infant education that have haunted early childhood education from the origins of popular schooling in the late eighteenth century down to the policy dilemmas of the present day.