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Sample records for ae tauschii genome

  1. BAC libraries of Triticum urartu, Aegilops speltoides and Ae. tauschii, the diploid ancestors of polyploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Akhunov, E D; Akhunova, A R; Dvorák, J

    2005-11-01

    Triticum urartu, Aegilops speltoides and Ae. tauschii are respectively the immediate diploid sources, or their closest relatives, of the A, B and D genomes of polyploid wheats. Here we report the construction and characterization of arrayed large-insert libraries in a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vector, one for each of these diploid species. The libraries are equivalent to 3.7, 5.4 and 4.1 of the T. urartu, Ae. speltoides, Ae. tauschii genomes, respectively. The predicted levels of genome coverage were confirmed by library hybridization with single-copy genes. The libraries were used to estimate the proportion of known repeated nucleotide sequences and gene content in each genome by BAC-end sequencing. Repeated sequence families previously detected in Triticeae accounted for 57, 61 and 57% of the T. urartu, Ae. speltoides and Ae. tauschii genomes, and coding regions accounted for 5.8, 4.5 and 4.8%, respectively. PMID:16177898

  2. A 4-gigabase physical map unlocks the structure and evolution of the complex genome of Aegilops tauschii, the wheat D-genome progenitor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current limitations in genome sequencing technology require the construction of physical maps for high-quality draft sequences of large plant genomes, such as that of Aegilops tauschii, the wheat D-genome progenitor. To construct a physical map of the Ae. tauschii genome, we fingerprinted 461,70...

  3. Effective transfer of chromosomes carrying leaf rust resistance genes from Aegilops tauschii Coss. into hexaploid triticale (X Triticosecale Witt.) using Ae. tauschii × Secale cereale amphiploid forms.

    PubMed

    Kwiatek, Michał; Majka, Maciej; Wiśniewska, Halina; Apolinarska, Barbara; Belter, Jolanta

    2015-05-01

    This paper shows the results of effective uses of a molecular cytogenetics toolbox and molecular marker to transfer leaf rust resistance genes from Aegilops tauschii × Secale cereale (DDRR, 2n = 4x = 28) amphiploid forms to triticale cv. Bogo (AABBRR, 2n = 6x = 42). The molecular markers of resistance genes and in situ hybridization analysis of mitotic metaphase of root meristems confirmed the stable inheritance of chromosome 3D segments carrying Lr32 from the BC2F2 to the BC2F5 generation of (Ae. tauschii × S. cereale) × triticale hybrids. The chromosome pairing analysis during metaphase I of meiosis of BC2F4 and BC2F5 hybrids showed increasing regular bivalent formation of 3D chromosome pairs and decreasing number of univalents in subsequent generations. The results indicate that using amphiploid forms as a bridge between wild and cultivated forms can be a successful technology to transfer the D-genome chromatin carrying leaf rust resistance genes into triticale. PMID:25502891

  4. A 4-gigabase physical map unlocks the structure and evolution of the complex genome of Aegilops tauschii, the wheat D-genome progenitor

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ming-Cheng; Gu, Yong Q.; You, Frank M.; Deal, Karin R.; Ma, Yaqin; Hu, Yuqin; Huo, Naxin; Wang, Yi; Wang, Jirui; Chen, Shiyong; Jorgensen, Chad M.; Zhang, Yong; McGuire, Patrick E.; Pasternak, Shiran; Stein, Joshua C.; Ware, Doreen; Kramer, Melissa; McCombie, W. Richard; Kianian, Shahryar F.; Martis, Mihaela M.; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Sehgal, Sunish K.; Li, Wanlong; Gill, Bikram S.; Bevan, Michael W.; Šimková, Hana; Doležel, Jaroslav; Weining, Song; Lazo, Gerard R.; Anderson, Olin D.; Dvorak, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The current limitations in genome sequencing technology require the construction of physical maps for high-quality draft sequences of large plant genomes, such as that of Aegilops tauschii, the wheat D-genome progenitor. To construct a physical map of the Ae. tauschii genome, we fingerprinted 461,706 bacterial artificial chromosome clones, assembled contigs, designed a 10K Ae. tauschii Infinium SNP array, constructed a 7,185-marker genetic map, and anchored on the map contigs totaling 4.03 Gb. Using whole genome shotgun reads, we extended the SNP marker sequences and found 17,093 genes and gene fragments. We showed that collinearity of the Ae. tauschii genes with Brachypodium distachyon, rice, and sorghum decreased with phylogenetic distance and that structural genome evolution rates have been high across all investigated lineages in subfamily Pooideae, including that of Brachypodieae. We obtained additional information about the evolution of the seven Triticeae chromosomes from 12 ancestral chromosomes and uncovered a pattern of centromere inactivation accompanying nested chromosome insertions in grasses. We showed that the density of noncollinear genes along the Ae. tauschii chromosomes positively correlates with recombination rates, suggested a cause, and showed that new genes, exemplified by disease resistance genes, are preferentially located in high-recombination chromosome regions. PMID:23610408

  5. [SSR mapping of stripe rust resistance gene from Ae. tauschii].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Quan; Jia, Ji-Zeng; Yang, Hong; Zhang, Bao-Shi

    2008-04-01

    A dominant wheat stripe rust resistance gene, temporarily designated as YrY201, was identified in an accession Y201 of Aegilops tauschii. By bulk segregation analysis, three microsatellite markers Xgwm273b, Xgwm37 and Wmc14 were found to be linked to YrY201 with genetic distance of 11.5, 5.8 and 10.9 cM , respectively. According to the locations of the linked markers, the resistance gene was located on chromosome 7DL. Based on the chromosomal location and the resistance pattern of the gene, we proposed that YrY201 was a novel stripe rust resistance gene, and could be selected by marker-assisted selection. PMID:18424421

  6. Genome-wide identification of novel genetic markers from RNA sequencing assembly of diverse Aegilops tauschii accessions.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Ryo; Yoshida, Kentaro; Motoi, Yuka; Sato, Kazuhiro; Takumi, Shigeo

    2016-08-01

    The wild species in the Triticeae tribe are tremendous resources for crop breeding due to their abundant natural variation. However, their huge and highly repetitive genomes have hindered the establishment of physical maps and the completeness of their genome sequences. To develop molecular markers for the efficient utilization of their valuable traits while avoiding their genome complexity, we assembled RNA sequences of ten representative accessions of Aegilops tauschii, the progenitor of the wheat D genome, and estimated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions/deletions (indels). The deduced unigenes were anchored to the chromosomes of Ae. tauschii and barley. The SNPs and indels in the anchored unigenes, covering entire chromosomes, were sufficient for linkage map construction, even in combinations between the genetically closest accessions. Interestingly, the resolution of SNP and indel distribution on barley chromosomes was slightly higher than on Ae. tauschii chromosomes. Since barley chromosomes are regarded as virtual chromosomes of Triticeae species, our strategy allows capture of genetic markers arranged on the chromosomes in order based on the conserved synteny. The resolution of these genetic markers will be comparable to that of the Ae. tauschii whose draft genome sequence is available. Our procedure should be applicable to marker development for Triticeae species, which have no draft sequences available. PMID:27142109

  7. Fine mapping of Hch1, the causal D-genome gene for hybrid chlorosis in interspecific crosses between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii.

    PubMed

    Hirao, Kana; Nishijima, Ryo; Sakaguchi, Kohei; Takumi, Shigeo

    2016-03-23

    Hybrid chlorosis, one of the reproductive barriers between tetraploid wheat and its D-genome progenitor, Aegilops tauschii, inhibits normal growth of synthetic wheat hexaploids. Hybrid chlorosis appears to be due to an epistatic interaction of two loci from the AB and D wheat genomes. Our previous study assigned the causal D-genome gene for hybrid chlorosis, Hch1, to the short arm of chromosome 7D. Here, we constructed a fine map of 7DS near Hch1 using 280 F2 individuals from a cross of two wheat synthetic lines, one showing normal growth and the other showing hybrid chlorosis. The hybrid chlorosis phenotype was controlled by a single dominant allele of the Hch1 locus in the synthetic hexaploids. Hch1 was closely linked to four new markers within 0.2 cM, and may be localized near or within the two Ae. tauschii scaffolds containing the linked markers on 7DS. Comparative analysis of the Hch1 chromosomal region for Ae. tauschii, barley and Brachypodium showed that a local inversion occurred in the region proximal to Hch1 during the divergence between barley and Ae. tauschii, and that the Hch1 region on wheat 7DS is syntenic to Brachypodium chromosome 1. These observations provide useful information for further studies toward map-based cloning of Hch1. PMID:26687862

  8. Simultaneous transfer, introgression, and genomic localization of genes for resistance to stem rust race TTKSK (Ug99) from Aegilops tauschii to wheat.

    PubMed

    Olson, Eric L; Rouse, Matthew N; Pumphrey, Michael O; Bowden, Robert L; Gill, Bikram S; Poland, Jesse A

    2013-05-01

    Wheat production is currently threatened by widely virulent races of the wheat stem rust fungus, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, that are part of the TTKSK (also known as 'Ug99') race group. The diploid D genome donor species Aegilops tauschii (2n = 2x = 14, DD) is a readily accessible source of resistance to TTKSK and its derivatives that can be transferred to hexaploid wheat, Triticum aestivum (2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD). To expedite transfer of TTKSK resistance from Ae. tauschii, a direct hybridization approach was undertaken that integrates gene transfer, mapping, and introgression into one process. Direct crossing of Ae. tauschii accessions with an elite wheat breeding line combines the steps of gene transfer and introgression while development of mapping populations during gene transfer enables the identification of closely linked markers. Direct crosses were made using TTKSK-resistant Ae. tauschii accessions TA1662 and PI 603225 as males and a stem rust-susceptible T. aestivum breeding line, KS05HW14, as a female. Embryo rescue enabled recovery of F1 (ABDD) plants that were backcrossed as females to the hexaploid recurrent parent. Stem rust-resistant BC1F1 plants from each Ae. tauschii donor source were used as males to generate BC2F1 mapping populations. Bulked segregant analysis of BC2F1 genotypes was performed using 70 SSR loci distributed across the D genome. Using this approach, stem rust resistance genes from both accessions were located on chromosome arm 1DS and mapped using SSR and EST-STS markers. An allelism test indicated the stem rust resistance gene transferred from PI 603225 is Sr33. Race specificity suggests the stem rust resistance gene transferred from TA1662 is unique and this gene has been temporarily designated SrTA1662. Stem rust resistance genes derived from TA1662 and PI 603225 have been made available with selectable molecular markers in genetic backgrounds suitable for stem rust resistance breeding. PMID:23377571

  9. Dissecting miRNAs in Wheat D Genome Progenitor, Aegilops tauschii.

    PubMed

    Akpinar, Bala A; Budak, Hikmet

    2016-01-01

    As the post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, microRNAs or miRNAs comprise an integral part of understanding how genomes function. Although miRNAs have been a major focus of recent efforts, miRNA research is still in its infancy in most plant species. Aegilops tauschii, the D genome progenitor of bread wheat, is a wild diploid grass exhibiting remarkable population diversity. Due to the direct ancestry and the diverse gene pool, A. tauschii is a promising source for bread wheat improvement. In this study, a total of 87 Aegilops miRNA families, including 51 previously unknown, were computationally identified both at the subgenomic level, using flow-sorted A. tauschii 5D chromosome, and at the whole genome level. Predictions at the genomic and subgenomic levels suggested A. tauschii 5D chromosome as rich in pre-miRNAs that are highly associated with Class II DNA transposons. In order to gain insights into miRNA evolution, putative 5D chromosome miRNAs were compared to its modern ortholog, Triticum aestivum 5D chromosome, revealing that 48 of the 58 A. tauschii 5D miRNAs were conserved in orthologous T. aestivum 5D chromosome. The expression profiles of selected miRNAs (miR167, miR5205, miR5175, miR5523) provided the first experimental evidence for miR5175, miR5205 and miR5523, and revealed differential expressional changes in response to drought in different genetic backgrounds for miR167 and miR5175. Interestingly, while miR5523 coding regions were present and expressed as pre-miR5523 in both T. aestivum and A. tauschii, the expression of mature miR5523 was observed only in A. tauschii under normal conditions, pointing out to an interference at the downstream processing of pre-miR5523 in T. aestivum. Overall, this study expands our knowledge on the miRNA catalog of A. tauschii, locating a subset specifically to the 5D chromosome, with ample functional and comparative insight which should contribute to and complement efforts to develop drought tolerant

  10. Dissecting miRNAs in Wheat D Genome Progenitor, Aegilops tauschii

    PubMed Central

    Akpinar, Bala A.; Budak, Hikmet

    2016-01-01

    As the post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, microRNAs or miRNAs comprise an integral part of understanding how genomes function. Although miRNAs have been a major focus of recent efforts, miRNA research is still in its infancy in most plant species. Aegilops tauschii, the D genome progenitor of bread wheat, is a wild diploid grass exhibiting remarkable population diversity. Due to the direct ancestry and the diverse gene pool, A. tauschii is a promising source for bread wheat improvement. In this study, a total of 87 Aegilops miRNA families, including 51 previously unknown, were computationally identified both at the subgenomic level, using flow-sorted A. tauschii 5D chromosome, and at the whole genome level. Predictions at the genomic and subgenomic levels suggested A. tauschii 5D chromosome as rich in pre-miRNAs that are highly associated with Class II DNA transposons. In order to gain insights into miRNA evolution, putative 5D chromosome miRNAs were compared to its modern ortholog, Triticum aestivum 5D chromosome, revealing that 48 of the 58 A. tauschii 5D miRNAs were conserved in orthologous T. aestivum 5D chromosome. The expression profiles of selected miRNAs (miR167, miR5205, miR5175, miR5523) provided the first experimental evidence for miR5175, miR5205 and miR5523, and revealed differential expressional changes in response to drought in different genetic backgrounds for miR167 and miR5175. Interestingly, while miR5523 coding regions were present and expressed as pre-miR5523 in both T. aestivum and A. tauschii, the expression of mature miR5523 was observed only in A. tauschii under normal conditions, pointing out to an interference at the downstream processing of pre-miR5523 in T. aestivum. Overall, this study expands our knowledge on the miRNA catalog of A. tauschii, locating a subset specifically to the 5D chromosome, with ample functional and comparative insight which should contribute to and complement efforts to develop drought tolerant

  11. Genome-wide association study of drought-related resistance traits in Aegilops tauschii.

    PubMed

    Qin, Peng; Lin, Yu; Hu, Yaodong; Liu, Kun; Mao, Shuangshuang; Li, Zhanyi; Wang, Jirui; Liu, Yaxi; Wei, Yuming; Zheng, Youliang

    2016-07-01

    The D-genome progenitor of wheat (Triticum aestivum), Aegilops tauschii, possesses numerous genes for resistance to abiotic stresses, including drought. Therefore, information on the genetic architecture of A. tauschii can aid the development of drought-resistant wheat varieties. Here, we evaluated 13 traits in 373 A. tauschii accessions grown under normal and polyethylene glycol-simulated drought stress conditions and performed a genome-wide association study using 7,185 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. We identified 208 and 28 SNPs associated with all traits using the general linear model and mixed linear model, respectively, while both models detected 25 significant SNPs with genome-wide distribution. Public database searches revealed several candidate/flanking genes related to drought resistance that were grouped into three categories according to the type of encoded protein (enzyme, storage protein, and drought-induced protein). This study provided essential information for SNPs and genes related to drought resistance in A. tauschii and wheat, and represents a foundation for breeding drought-resistant wheat cultivars using marker-assisted selection. PMID:27392238

  12. Genome-wide association study of drought-related resistance traits in Aegilops tauschii

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Peng; Lin, Yu; Hu, Yaodong; Liu, Kun; Mao, Shuangshuang; Li, Zhanyi; Wang, Jirui; Liu, Yaxi; Wei, Yuming; Zheng, Youliang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The D-genome progenitor of wheat (Triticum aestivum), Aegilops tauschii, possesses numerous genes for resistance to abiotic stresses, including drought. Therefore, information on the genetic architecture of A. tauschii can aid the development of drought-resistant wheat varieties. Here, we evaluated 13 traits in 373 A. tauschii accessions grown under normal and polyethylene glycol-simulated drought stress conditions and performed a genome-wide association study using 7,185 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. We identified 208 and 28 SNPs associated with all traits using the general linear model and mixed linear model, respectively, while both models detected 25 significant SNPs with genome-wide distribution. Public database searches revealed several candidate/flanking genes related to drought resistance that were grouped into three categories according to the type of encoded protein (enzyme, storage protein, and drought-induced protein). This study provided essential information for SNPs and genes related to drought resistance in A. tauschii and wheat, and represents a foundation for breeding drought-resistant wheat cultivars using marker-assisted selection. PMID:27560650

  13. Genome-wide association study of drought-related resistance traits in Aegilops tauschii.

    PubMed

    Qin, Peng; Lin, Yu; Hu, Yaodong; Liu, Kun; Mao, Shuangshuang; Li, Zhanyi; Wang, Jirui; Liu, Yaxi; Wei, Yuming; Zheng, Youliang

    2016-01-01

    The D-genome progenitor of wheat (Triticum aestivum), Aegilops tauschii, possesses numerous genes for resistance to abiotic stresses, including drought. Therefore, information on the genetic architecture of A. tauschii can aid the development of drought-resistant wheat varieties. Here, we evaluated 13 traits in 373 A. tauschii accessions grown under normal and polyethylene glycol-simulated drought stress conditions and performed a genome-wide association study using 7,185 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. We identified 208 and 28 SNPs associated with all traits using the general linear model and mixed linear model, respectively, while both models detected 25 significant SNPs with genome-wide distribution. Public database searches revealed several candidate/flanking genes related to drought resistance that were grouped into three categories according to the type of encoded protein (enzyme, storage protein, and drought-induced protein). This study provided essential information for SNPs and genes related to drought resistance in A. tauschii and wheat, and represents a foundation for breeding drought-resistant wheat cultivars using marker-assisted selection. PMID:27560650

  14. Introgression of stem rust resistance genes SrTA10187 and SrTA10171 from Aegilops tauschii to wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diploid progenitor of the wheat D genome, Aegilops tauschii, has provided a wealth of genes for resistance to many diseases and insect pests of wheat. Ae. tauschii is a readily accessible pool of genes for wheat breeding as genes can be transferred to elite wheat cultivars though direct hybridi...

  15. Physical mapping resources for large plant genomes: radiation hybrids for wheat D-genome progenitor Aegilops tauschii

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Development of a high quality reference sequence is a daunting task in crops like wheat with large (~17Gb), highly repetitive (>80%) and polyploid genome. To achieve complete sequence assembly of such genomes, development of a high quality physical map is a necessary first step. However, due to the lack of recombination in certain regions of the chromosomes, genetic mapping, which uses recombination frequency to map marker loci, alone is not sufficient to develop high quality marker scaffolds for a sequence ready physical map. Radiation hybrid (RH) mapping, which uses radiation induced chromosomal breaks, has proven to be a successful approach for developing marker scaffolds for sequence assembly in animal systems. Here, the development and characterization of a RH panel for the mapping of D-genome of wheat progenitor Aegilops tauschii is reported. Results Radiation dosages of 350 and 450 Gy were optimized for seed irradiation of a synthetic hexaploid (AABBDD) wheat with the D-genome of Ae. tauschii accession AL8/78. The surviving plants after irradiation were crossed to durum wheat (AABB), to produce pentaploid RH1s (AABBD), which allows the simultaneous mapping of the whole D-genome. A panel of 1,510 RH1 plants was obtained, of which 592 plants were generated from the mature RH1 seeds, and 918 plants were rescued through embryo culture due to poor germination (<3%) of mature RH1 seeds. This panel showed a homogenous marker loss (2.1%) after screening with SSR markers uniformly covering all the D-genome chromosomes. Different marker systems mostly detected different lines with deletions. Using markers covering known distances, the mapping resolution of this RH panel was estimated to be <140kb. Analysis of only 16 RH lines carrying deletions on chromosome 2D resulted in a physical map with cM/cR ratio of 1:5.2 and 15 distinct bins. Additionally, with this small set of lines, almost all the tested ESTs could be mapped. A set of 399 most informative RH

  16. Gene Space Dynamics during the Evolution of Aegilops tauschii, Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa, and Sorghum bicolor Genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine different regions totaling 9.7 Mb of the 4.02 Gb Aegilops tauschii genome were sequenced using the Sanger sequencing technology and compared with orthologous Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa (rice) and Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) genomic sequences. The ancestral gene content in these regio...

  17. Strategy for exploiting exotic germplasm using genetic, morphological, and environmental diversity: the Aegilops tauschii Coss. example.

    PubMed

    Jones, H; Gosman, N; Horsnell, R; Rose, G A; Everest, L A; Bentley, A R; Tha, S; Uauy, C; Kowalski, A; Novoselovic, D; Simek, R; Kobiljski, B; Kondic-Spika, A; Brbaklic, L; Mitrofanova, O; Chesnokov, Y; Bonnett, D; Greenland, A

    2013-07-01

    Hexaploid bread wheat evolved from a rare hybridisation, which resulted in a loss of genetic diversity in the wheat D-genome with respect to the ancestral donor, Aegilops tauschii. Novel genetic variation can be introduced into modern wheat by recreating the above hybridisation; however, the information associated with the Ae. tauschii accessions in germplasm collections is limited, making rational selection of accessions into a re-synthesis programme difficult. We describe methodologies to identify novel diversity from Ae. tauschii accessions that combines Bayesian analysis of genotypic data, sub-species diversity and geographic information that summarises variation in climate and habitat at the collection point for each accession. Comparisons were made between diversity discovered amongst a panel of Ae. tauschii accessions, bread wheat varieties and lines from the CIMMYT synthetic hexaploid wheat programme. The selection of Ae. tauschii accessions based on differing approaches had significant effect on diversity within each set. Our results suggest that a strategy that combines several criteria will be most effective in maximising the sampled variation across multiple parameters. The analysis of multiple layers of variation in ex situ Ae. tauschii collections allows for an informed and rational approach to the inclusion of wild relatives into crop breeding programmes. PMID:23558983

  18. Reaction of selected accessions of Aegilops tauschii to wheat blast, 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wheat pathotype of M. oryzae is not known to occur outside of South America. To prepare for possible introduction into the U.S., it is important to search for sources of resistance including resistance in relatives of wheat. Ten accessions of the D genome progenitor of wheat, Ae. tauschii, and t...

  19. Physical mapping of a large plant genome using global high-information-content-fingerprinting: the distal region of the wheat ancestor Aegilops tauschii chromosome 3DS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical maps employing libraries of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones are essential for comparative genomics and sequencing of large and repetitive genomes such as those of the hexaploid bread wheat. The diploid ancestor of wheat genome, Aegilops tauschii, is used as a resource for wheat...

  20. Hypersensitive Response-Like Reaction Is Associated with Hybrid Necrosis in Interspecific Crosses between Tetraploid Wheat and Aegilops tauschii Coss

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Nobuyuki; Hosogi, Naoki; Park, Pyoyun; Takumi, Shigeo

    2010-01-01

    Background Hybrid speciation is classified into homoploid and polyploid based on ploidy level. Common wheat is an allohexaploid species that originated from a naturally occurring interploidy cross between tetraploid wheat and diploid wild wheat Aegilops tauschii Coss. Aegilops tauschii provides wide naturally occurring genetic variation. Sometimes its triploid hybrids with tetraploid wheat show the following four types of hybrid growth abnormalities: types II and III hybrid necrosis, hybrid chlorosis, and severe growth abortion. The growth abnormalities in the triploid hybrids could act as postzygotic hybridization barriers to prevent formation of hexaploid wheat. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we report on the geographical and phylogenetic distribution of Ae. tauschii accessions inducing the hybrid growth abnormalities and showed that they are widely distributed across growth habitats in Ae. tauschii. Molecular and cytological characterization of the type III necrosis phenotype was performed. The hybrid abnormality causing accessions were widely distributed across growth habitats in Ae. tauschii. Transcriptome analysis showed that a number of defense-related genes such as pathogenesis-related genes were highly up-regulated in the type III necrosis lines. Transmission electron microscope observation revealed that cell death occurred accompanied by generation of reactive oxygen species in leaves undergoing type III necrosis. The reduction of photosynthetic activity occurred prior to the appearance of necrotic symptoms on the leaves exhibiting hybrid necrosis. Conclusions/Significance Taking these results together strongly suggests that an autoimmune response might be triggered by intergenomic incompatibility between the tetraploid wheat and Ae. tauschii genomes in type III necrosis, and that genetically programmed cell death could be regarded as a hypersensitive response-like cell death similar to that observed in Arabidopsis intraspecific and Nicotiana

  1. [Phylogenetic relationships and intraspecific variation of D-genome Aegilops L. as revealed by RAPD analysis].

    PubMed

    Goriunova, S V; Kochieva, E Z; Chikida, N N; Pukhal'skiĭ, V A

    2004-05-01

    RAPD analysis was carried out to study the genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships of polyploid Aegilops species, which contain the D genome as a component of the alloploid genome, and diploid Aegilops tauschii, which is a putative donor of the D genome for common wheat. In total, 74 accessions of six D-genome Aegilops species were examined. The highest intraspecific variation (0.03-0.21) was observed for Ae. tauschii. Intraspecific distances between accessions ranged 0.007-0.067 in Ae. cylindrica, 0.017-0.047 in Ae. vavilovii, and 0.00-0.053 in Ae. juvenalis. Likewise, Ae. ventricosa and Ae. crassa showed low intraspecific polymorphism. The among-accession difference in alloploid Ae. ventricosa (genome DvNv) was similar to that of one parental species, Ae. uniaristata (N), and substantially lower than in the other parent, Ae. tauschii (D). The among-accession difference in Ae. cylindrica (CcDc) was considerably lower than in either parent, Ae. tauschii (D) or Ae. caudata (C). With the exception of Ae. cylindrica, all D-genome species--Ae. tauschii (D), Ae. ventricosa (DvNv), Ae. crassa (XcrDcrl and XcrDcrlDcr2), Ae. juvenalis (XjDjUj), and Ae. vavilovii (XvaDvaSva)--formed a single polymorphic cluster, which was distinct from clusters of other species. The only exception, Ae. cylindrica, did not group with the other D-genome species, but clustered with Ae. caudata (C), a donor of the C genome. The cluster of these two species was clearly distinct from the cluster of the other D-genome species and close to a cluster of Ae. umbellulata (genome U) and Ae. ovata (genome UgMg). Thus, RAPD analysis for the first time was used to estimate and to compare the interpopulation polymorphism and to establish the phylogenetic relationships of all diploid and alloploid D-genome Aegilops species. PMID:15272562

  2. Simultaneous transfer, introgression and genomic localization of genes for resistance to stem rust race TTKSK Ug99 from Aegilops tauschii to wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat production is currently threatened by widely virulent races of the wheat stem rust fungus, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, that are part of the TTKSK (also known as ‘Ug99’) race group. The diploid D genome donor species Aegilops tauschii (2n=2x=14, DD) is a readily accessible source of resis...

  3. Genome comparisons reveal a dominant mechanism of chromosome number reduction in grasses and accelerated genome evolution in Triticeae

    PubMed Central

    Luo, M. C.; Deal, K. R.; Akhunov, E. D.; Akhunova, A. R.; Anderson, O. D.; Anderson, J. A.; Blake, N.; Clegg, M. T.; Coleman-Derr, D.; Conley, E. J.; Crossman, C. C.; Dubcovsky, J.; Gill, B. S.; Gu, Y. Q.; Hadam, J.; Heo, H. Y.; Huo, N.; Lazo, G.; Ma, Y.; Matthews, D. E.; McGuire, P. E.; Morrell, P. L.; Qualset, C. O.; Renfro, J.; Tabanao, D.; Talbert, L. E.; Tian, C.; Toleno, D. M.; Warburton, M. L.; You, F. M.; Zhang, W.; Dvorak, J.

    2009-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphism was used in the construction of an expressed sequence tag map of Aegilops tauschii, the diploid source of the wheat D genome. Comparisons of the map with the rice and sorghum genome sequences revealed 50 inversions and translocations; 2, 8, and 40 were assigned respectively to the rice, sorghum, and Ae. tauschii lineages, showing greatly accelerated genome evolution in the large Triticeae genomes. The reduction of the basic chromosome number from 12 to 7 in the Triticeae has taken place by a process during which an entire chromosome is inserted by its telomeres into a break in the centromeric region of another chromosome. The original centromere–telomere polarity of the chromosome arms is maintained in the new chromosome. An intrachromosomal telomere–telomere fusion resulting in a pericentric translocation of a chromosome segment or an entire arm accompanied or preceded the chromosome insertion in some instances. Insertional dysploidy has been recorded in three grass subfamilies and appears to be the dominant mechanism of basic chromosome number reduction in grasses. A total of 64% and 66% of Ae. tauschii genes were syntenic with sorghum and rice genes, respectively. Synteny was reduced in the vicinity of the termini of modern Ae. tauschii chromosomes but not in the vicinity of the ancient termini embedded in the Ae. tauschii chromosomes, suggesting that the dependence of synteny erosion on gene location along the centromere–telomere axis either evolved recently in the Triticeae phylogenetic lineage or its evolution was recently accelerated. PMID:19717446

  4. Sequencing chromosome 5D of Aegilops tauschii and comparison with its allopolyploid descendant bread wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Akpinar, Bala A; Lucas, Stuart J; Vrána, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Budak, Hikmet

    2015-08-01

    Flow cytometric sorting of individual chromosomes and chromosome-based sequencing reduces the complexity of large, repetitive Triticeae genomes. We flow-sorted chromosome 5D of Aegilops tauschii, the D genome donor of bread wheat and sequenced it by Roche 454 GS FLX platform to approximately 2.2x coverage. Repetitive sequences represent 81.09% of the survey sequences of this chromosome, and Class I retroelements are the prominent type, with a particular abundance of LTR/Gypsy superfamily. Nonrepetitive sequences were assembled to cover 17.76% of the total chromosome regions. Up to 6188 nonrepetitive gene loci were predicted to be encoded by the 5D chromosome. The numbers and chromosomal distribution patterns of tRNA genes suggest abundance in tRNA(L) (ys) and tRNA(M) (et) species, while the nonrepetitive assembly reveals tRNA(A) (la) species as the most abundant type. A comparative analysis of the genomic sequences of bread wheat and Aegilops chromosome 5D indicates conservation of gene content. Orthologous unique genes, matching Aegilops 5D sequences, numbered 3730 in barley, 5063 in Brachypodium, 4872 in sorghum and 4209 in rice. In this study, we provide a chromosome-specific view into the structure and organization of the 5D chromosome of Ae. tauschii, the D genome ancestor of bread wheat. This study contributes to our understanding of the chromosome-level evolution of the wheat genome and presents a valuable resource in wheat genomics due to the recent hybridization of Ae. tauschii genome with its tetraploid ancestor. PMID:25516153

  5. Sequence polymorphism in polyploid wheat and their d-genome diploid ancestor.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Katherine S; Dvorak, Jan; Lagudah, Evans S; Akhunov, Eduard; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Wolters, Petra; Powell, Wayne

    2004-06-01

    Sequencing was used to investigate the origin of the D genome of the allopolyploid species Triticum aestivum and Aegilops cylindrica. A 247-bp region of the wheat D-genome Xwye838 locus, encoding ADP-glucopyrophosphorylase, and a 326-bp region of the wheat D-genome Gss locus, encoding granule-bound starch synthase, were sequenced in a total 564 lines of hexaploid wheat (T. aestivum, genome AABBDD) involving all its subspecies and 203 lines of Aegilops tauschii, the diploid source of the wheat D genome. In Ae. tauschii, two SNP variants were detected at the Xwye838 locus and 11 haplotypes at the Gss locus. Two haplotypes with contrasting frequencies were found at each locus in wheat. Both wheat Xwye838 variants, but only one of the Gss haplotypes seen in wheat, were found among the Ae. tauschii lines. The other wheat Gss haplotype was not found in either Ae. tauschii or 70 lines of tetraploid Ae. cylindrica (genomes CCDD), which is known to hybridize with wheat. It is concluded that both T. aestivum and Ae. cylindrica originated recurrently, with at least two genetically distinct progenitors contributing to the formation of the D genome in both species. PMID:15238542

  6. Physical mapping of a large plant genome using global high-information content fingerprinting: a distal region of wheat chromosome 3DS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical maps employing libraries of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones are essential for comparative genomics and sequencing of large and repetitive genomes such as those of wheat. We report the use of the Ae. tauschii, the diploid ancestor of the wheat D genome, for the construction of t...

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Brevibacterium linens AE038-8, an Extremely Arsenic-Resistant Bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Maizel, Daniela; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Brown, Steven D.; Ferrero, Marcela; Rosen, Barry

    2015-04-16

    To understand the arsenic biogeocycles in the groundwaters at Tucumán, Argentina, we isolated Brevibacterium linens sp. strain AE38-8, obtained from arsenic-contaminated well water. This strain is extremely resistant to arsenicals and has arsenic resistance (ars) genes in its genome. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of B. linens AE38-8.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Brevibacterium linens AE038-8, an Extremely Arsenic-Resistant Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Maizel, Daniela; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Brown, Steven D.; Ferrero, Marcela A.

    2015-01-01

    To understand the arsenic biogeocycles in the groundwaters at Tucumán, Argentina, we isolated Brevibacterium linens sp. strain AE38-8, obtained from arsenic-contaminated well water. This strain is extremely resistant to arsenicals and has arsenic resistance (ars) genes in its genome. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of B. linens AE38-8. PMID:25883298

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Brevibacterium linens AE038-8, an Extremely Arsenic-Resistant Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Maizel, Daniela; Utturkar, Sagar M; Brown, Steven D; Ferrero, Marcela A; Rosen, Barry P

    2015-01-01

    To understand the arsenic biogeocycles in the groundwaters at Tucumán, Argentina, we isolated Brevibacterium linens sp. strain AE38-8, obtained from arsenic-contaminated well water. This strain is extremely resistant to arsenicals and has arsenic resistance (ars) genes in its genome. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of B. linens AE38-8. PMID:25883298

  10. Genetic effect of the Aegilops caudata plasmon on the manifestation of the Ae. cylindrica genome.

    PubMed

    Tsunewaki, Koichiro; Mori, Naoki; Takumi, Shigeo

    2014-01-01

    In the course of reconstructing Aegilops caudata from its own genome (CC) and its plasmon, which had passed half a century in common wheat (genome AABBDD), we produced alloplasmic Ae. cylindrica (genome CCDD) with the plasmon of Ae. caudata. This line, designated (caudata)-CCDD, was found to express male sterility in its second substitution backcross generation (SB2) of (caudata)-AABBCCDD pollinated three times with the Ae. cylindrica pollen. We repeatedly backcrossed these SB2 plants with the Ae. cylindrica pollen until the SB5 generation, and SB5F2 progeny were produced by self-pollination of the SB5 plants. Thirteen morphological and physiological characters, including pollen and seed fertilities, of the (caudata)-CCDD SB5F2 were compared with those of the euplasmic Ae. cylindrica. The results indicated that the male sterility expressed by (caudata)-CCDD was due to genetic incompatibility between the Ae. cylindrica genome and Ae. caudata plasmon that did not affect any other characters of Ae. cylindrica. Also, we report that the genome integrity functions in keeping the univalent transmission rate high. PMID:25832746

  11. Annotation-based genome-wide SNP discovery in the large and complex Aegilops tauschii genome using next-generation sequencing without a reference genome sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An annotation-based, genome-wide SNP discovery pipeline is reported using NGS data for large and complex genomes without a reference genome sequence. Roche 454 shotgun reads with low genome coverage of one genotype are annotated in order to distinguish single-copy sequences and repeat junctions fr...

  12. A 4-gigbase physical map unlocks the structure and evolution of the complex genome of Aegilop tauschii, the wheat D-genome progenitor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genomes of wheat and its relatives in the tribe Triticeae are large, containing nearly 90% repetitive DNA, and some are polyploid. These genomes can currently be completely sequenced only by the ordered-clone genome sequencing approach, which reduces the complexity of sequence assembly from th...

  13. Radiation hybrid maps of D-genome of Aegilops tauschii and their application in sequence assembly of large and complex plant genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The large and complex genome of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., ~17 Gb) requires high-resolution genome maps saturated with ordered markers to assist in anchoring and orienting BAC contigs/ sequence scaffolds for whole genome sequence assembly. Radiation hybrid (RH) mapping has proven to be an e...

  14. Rapid genome mapping in nano channel array for highly complete and accurate de novo sequence assembly of the complex Aegilops tauschii genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have enabled high-throughput and low-cost generation of sequence data; however, de novo genome assembly remains a great challenge, particularly for large genomes. NGS short reads are often insufficient to create large contigs that span repeat sequences...

  15. Quantification of genetic relationships among A genomes of wheats.

    PubMed

    Brandolini, A; Vaccino, P; Boggini, G; Ozkan, H; Kilian, B; Salamini, F

    2006-04-01

    The genetic relationships of A genomes of Triticum urartu (Au) and Triticum monococcum (Am) in polyploid wheats are explored and quantified by AFLP fingerprinting. Forty-one accessions of A-genome diploid wheats, 3 of AG-genome wheats, 19 of AB-genome wheats, 15 of ABD-genome wheats, and 1 of the D-genome donor Ae. tauschii have been analysed. Based on 7 AFLP primer combinations, 423 bands were identified as potentially A genome specific. The bands were reduced to 239 by eliminating those present in autoradiograms of Ae. tauschii, bands interpreted as common to all wheat genomes. Neighbour-joining analysis separates T. urartu from T. monococcum. Triticum urartu has the closest relationship to polyploid wheats. Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccum and T. turgidum subsp. durum lines are included in tightly linked clusters. The hexaploid spelts occupy positions in the phylogenetic tree intermediate between bread wheats and T. turgidum. The AG-genome accessions cluster in a position quite distant from both diploid and other polyploid wheats. The estimates of similarity between A genomes of diploid and polyploid wheats indicate that, compared with Am, Au has around 20% higher similarity to the genomes of polyploid wheats. Triticum timo pheevii AG genome is molecularly equidistant from those of Au and Am wheats. PMID:16699549

  16. Harnessing NGS and Big Data Optimally: Comparison of miRNA Prediction from Assembled versus Non-assembled Sequencing Data--The Case of the Grass Aegilops tauschii Complex Genome.

    PubMed

    Budak, Hikmet; Kantar, Melda

    2015-07-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, endogenous, non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. As high-throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) and Big Data rapidly accumulate for various species, efforts for in silico identification of miRNAs intensify. Surprisingly, the effect of the input genomics sequence on the robustness of miRNA prediction was not evaluated in detail to date. In the present study, we performed a homology-based miRNA and isomiRNA prediction of the 5D chromosome of bread wheat progenitor, Aegilops tauschii, using two distinct sequence data sets as input: (1) raw sequence reads obtained from 454-GS FLX Titanium sequencing platform and (2) an assembly constructed from these reads. We also compared this method with a number of available plant sequence datasets. We report here the identification of 62 and 22 miRNAs from raw reads and the assembly, respectively, of which 16 were predicted with high confidence from both datasets. While raw reads promoted sensitivity with the high number of miRNAs predicted, 55% (12 out of 22) of the assembly-based predictions were supported by previous observations, bringing specificity forward compared to the read-based predictions, of which only 37% were supported. Importantly, raw reads could identify several repeat-related miRNAs that could not be detected with the assembly. However, raw reads could not capture 6 miRNAs, for which the stem-loops could only be covered by the relatively longer sequences from the assembly. In summary, the comparison of miRNA datasets obtained by these two strategies revealed that utilization of raw reads, as well as assemblies for in silico prediction, have distinct advantages and disadvantages. Consideration of these important nuances can benefit future miRNA identification efforts in the current age of NGS and Big Data driven life sciences innovation. PMID:26061358

  17. Quantification and organization of WIS2-1A and BARE-1 retrotransposons in different genomes of Triticum and Aegilops species.

    PubMed

    Pagnotta, Mario Augusto; Mondini, Linda; Porceddu, Enrico

    2009-09-01

    A real-time PCR approach was adopted and optimized to estimate and compare, through a relative quantification, the copy number of WIS2-1A and BARE-1 retrotransposons. The aim of this approach was to identify and quantify the presence of these retrotransposons in Triticum and Aegilops species, and to understand better the genome organization of these retroelements. The species were selected to assess and compare the evolution of the different types of genomes between the more recent species such as the diploid Triticum monococcum, tetraploid T. dicoccon and hexaploid T. spelta, and the corresponding genome donors of the ancient diploids Aegilops (Ae. speltoides, Ae. tauschii, Ae. sharonensis and Ae. bicornis) and T. urartu. The results of this study indicated the presence of great variation in copy number both within and among species, and the existence of a non-linear relationship between retrotransposon copy number and ploidy level. For WIS2-1A, as expected, T. monococcum showed the lowest copy number which instead was similar in T. dicoccon and T. spelta; also T. urartu (AA), Ae. speltoides (BB) and Ae. tauschii (DD) showed a higher WIS2-1A copy number. Similar results were observed for BARE-1 retroelements except for Ae. tauschii which as in T. monococcum showed lower retroelements content; a similar content for T. dicoccon and T. urartu, whereas a higher number was found in T. spelta and Ae. speltoides. The results presented here are in accord with previous studies and contribute to unravelling the structure and evolution of polyploidy and repetitive genomes. PMID:19543749

  18. Flow sorting of C-genome chromosomes from wild relatives of wheat Aegilops markgrafii, Ae. triuncialis and Ae. cylindrica, and their molecular organization

    PubMed Central

    Molnár, István; Vrána, Jan; Farkas, András; Kubaláková, Marie; Cseh, András; Molnár-Láng, Márta; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Aegilops markgrafii (CC) and its natural hybrids Ae. triuncialis (UtUtCtCt) and Ae. cylindrica (DcDcCcCc) represent a rich reservoir of useful genes for improvement of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), but the limited information available on their genome structure and the shortage of molecular (cyto-) genetic tools hamper the utilization of the extant genetic diversity. This study provides the complete karyotypes in the three species obtained after fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with repetitive DNA probes, and evaluates the potential of flow cytometric chromosome sorting. Methods The flow karyotypes obtained after the analysis of 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-stained chromosomes were characterized and the chromosome content of the peaks on the flow karyotypes was determined by FISH. Twenty-nine conserved orthologous set (COS) markers covering all seven wheat homoeologous chromosome groups were used for PCR with DNA amplified from flow-sorted chromosomes and genomic DNA. Key Results FISH with repetitive DNA probes revealed that chromosomes 4C, 5C, 7Ct, T6UtS.6UtL-5CtL, 1Cc and 5Dc could be sorted with purities ranging from 66 to 91 %, while the remaining chromosomes could be sorted in groups of 2–5. This identified a partial wheat–C-genome homology for group 4 and 5 chromosomes. In addition, 1C chromosomes were homologous with group 1 of wheat; a small segment from group 2 indicated 1C–2C rearrangement. An extensively rearranged structure of chromosome 7C relative to wheat was also detected. Conclusions The possibility of purifying Aegilops chromosomes provides an attractive opportunity to investigate the structure and evolution of the Aegilops C genome and to develop molecular tools to facilitate the identification of alien chromatin and support alien introgression breeding in bread wheat. PMID:26043745

  19. The origin of the B-genome of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Haider, N

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the origin of cultivated wheats would further their genetic improvement. The hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., AABBDD) is believed to have originated through one or more rare hybridization events between Aegilops tauschii (DD) and the tetraploid T. turgidum (AABB). Progenitor of the A-genome of the tetraploid and hexaploid wheats has generally been accepted to be T. urartu. In spite of the large number of attempts and published reports about the origin of the B-genome in cultivated wheats, the donor of the B-genome is still relatively unknown and controversial and, hence, remains open. This genome has been found to be closely related to the S-genome of the Sitopsis section (Ae. speltoides, Ae. longissima, Ae. sharonensis, Ae. searsii, and Ae. bicornis) of the genus Aegilops L. Among Sitopsis species, the most positive evidence has been accumulated for Ae. speltoides as the progenitor of the B-genome. Therefore, one or more of the Sitopsis species were proposed frequently as the B-genome donor. Although several reviews have been written on the origin of the genomes of wheat over the years, this paper will attempt for the first time to review the immense literature on the subject, with a particular emphasis on the B-genome which has attracted a huge attention over some 100 years. The ambiguity and conflicting results in most of the methods employed in deducing the precise B-genome donor/s to bread wheat are also discussed. PMID:23755530

  20. Near Full-Length Genomic Characterization of a Novel CRF 01_AE/C Recombinant from Western India.

    PubMed

    Karade, Santosh; Pandey, Sudhanshu; Gianchandani, Sheetal; Kurle, Swarali N; Ghate, Manisha; Gaikwad, Nitin S; Rewari, Bharat B; Gangakhedkar, Raman R

    2015-12-01

    HIV is known for its genetic variability across the globe. The HIV epidemic in India is primarily driven by subtype C, although sporadic circulating and unique recombinant forms are also reported from a few metropolitan cities in which genotyping facilities are available. Here we report a novel CRF01_AE/C recombinant from a multicenter study on the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART), 12 months after its initiation. Our subject is a 32-year-old heterosexual female, a native of Pune city in western India. Identification and analyses of recombination breakpoints using jpHMM@Gobics and SimPlot bootscanning revealed six recombination breakpoints, indicating insertion of the CRF01_AE genome at three points in the backbone of subtype C. Both subtype C and CRF01_AE are commonly seen in the population at risk of heterosexual HIV transmission, thereby providing an opportunity for cocirculation and recombination. The emergence of a novel recombinant of CRF01_AE/C is indicative of the increasing genetic diversity of the HIV epidemic in India. PMID:26323027

  1. [Genetic analysis and SSR mapping on an new stem stripe rust resistance gene YrY206 in Aegilops tauschii].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiquan; Lang, Jie; Ma, Shuqin; Zhang, Baoshi

    2008-08-01

    A wheat stripe rust resistance gene was screened out from Aegilops tauschii which is relative genera of wheat species, broadening the genetic basis of the anti-disease character of wheat species. By hybridizing diversed Ae. Tauschii species, which is either resistant or susceptible to wheat stripe rust, a dominant wheat stripe rust resistance gene was detected from Ae. Tauschii (Coss.) Schmal Y206. The novel gene was temporarily designated as YrY206. By bulk segregation analysis, four microsatellite markers Wmc11a, Xgwm71c, Xgwm161 and Xgwm183 were found to be linked to YrY206 with genetic distances of 4.0, 3.3, 1.5 and 9.3 cM, respectively. According to the locations of the linked markers, the resistance gene was located on chromosome 3DS. Based on the chromosomal location and the resistance pattern of the gene, YrY206 should be a novel stripe rust resistance gene. PMID:18998554

  2. Genetic Basis for Spontaneous Hybrid Genome Doubling during Allopolyploid Speciation of Common Wheat Shown by Natural Variation Analyses of the Paternal Species

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Yoshihiro; Nasuda, Shuhei; Ashida, Yasuyo; Nitta, Miyuki; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Takumi, Shigeo; Kawahara, Taihachi

    2013-01-01

    The complex process of allopolyploid speciation includes various mechanisms ranging from species crosses and hybrid genome doubling to genome alterations and the establishment of new allopolyploids as persisting natural entities. Currently, little is known about the genetic mechanisms that underlie hybrid genome doubling, despite the fact that natural allopolyploid formation is highly dependent on this phenomenon. We examined the genetic basis for the spontaneous genome doubling of triploid F1 hybrids between the direct ancestors of allohexaploid common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., AABBDD genome), namely Triticumturgidum L. (AABB genome) and Aegilopstauschii Coss. (DD genome). An Ae. tauschii intraspecific lineage that is closely related to the D genome of common wheat was identified by population-based analysis. Two representative accessions, one that produces a high-genome-doubling-frequency hybrid when crossed with a T. turgidum cultivar and the other that produces a low-genome-doubling-frequency hybrid with the same cultivar, were chosen from that lineage for further analyses. A series of investigations including fertility analysis, immunostaining, and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis showed that (1) production of functional unreduced gametes through nonreductional meiosis is an early step key to successful hybrid genome doubling, (2) first division restitution is one of the cytological mechanisms that cause meiotic nonreduction during the production of functional male unreduced gametes, and (3) six QTLs in the Ae. tauschii genome, most of which likely regulate nonreductional meiosis and its subsequent gamete production processes, are involved in hybrid genome doubling. Interlineage comparisons of Ae. tauschii’s ability to cause hybrid genome doubling suggested an evolutionary model for the natural variation pattern of the trait in which non-deleterious mutations in six QTLs may have important roles. The findings of this study demonstrated that the

  3. Near Full-Length Genome Identification of a Novel HIV-1 Recombinant Form (CRF01_AE/CRF07_BC) in Zhejiang, China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiaorong; Li-Jun, Xu; Xie, Tiansheng; Liu, Fumin; Wu, Nanping

    2016-09-01

    CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC are the two major circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) in China. Furthermore, many kinds of unique recombinant forms (URFs) between CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC were recently identified in China. Here we detected a novel recombinant of CRF07_BC/CRF01_AE, whose genome structure is distinctly different from other URFs reported before. The phylogenetic analysis of the near full-length sequence of 15zj032 reveals that three regions of CRF01_AE insert into the CRF07_BC backbone. Recently, the continued emergence of novel URFs implies that super infections of different subtypes of HIV-1 are common in China and should be given enough importance. PMID:27353182

  4. Genome Sequence of a Complex HIV-1 Unique Recombinant Form Involving CRF01_AE, Subtype B, and Subtype B' Identified in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chow, Wei Zhen; Nizam, Sarimie; Ong, Lai Yee; Ng, Kim Tien; Chan, Kok Gan; Takebe, Yutaka; Koh, Clayton; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2014-01-01

    A complex HIV-1 unique recombinant form involving subtypes CRF01_AE, B, and B' was recently identified from an injecting drug user in Malaysia. A total of 13 recombination breakpoints were mapped across the near-full-length genome of isolate 10MYPR226, indicating the increasingly diverse molecular epidemiology and frequent linkage among various high-risk groups. PMID:24675847

  5. Recent emergence of the wheat Lr34 multi-pathogen resistance: insights from haplotype analysis in wheat, rice, sorghum and Aegilops tauschii.

    PubMed

    Krattinger, Simon G; Jordan, David R; Mace, Emma S; Raghavan, Chitra; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Keller, Beat; Lagudah, Evans S

    2013-03-01

    Spontaneous sequence changes and the selection of beneficial mutations are driving forces of gene diversification and key factors of evolution. In highly dynamic co-evolutionary processes such as plant-pathogen interactions, the plant's ability to rapidly adapt to newly emerging pathogens is paramount. The hexaploid wheat gene Lr34, which encodes an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, confers durable field resistance against four fungal diseases. Despite its extensive use in breeding and agriculture, no increase in virulence towards Lr34 has been described over the last century. The wheat genepool contains two predominant Lr34 alleles of which only one confers disease resistance. The two alleles, located on chromosome 7DS, differ by only two exon-polymorphisms. Putatively functional homoeologs and orthologs of Lr34 are found on the B-genome of wheat and in rice and sorghum, but not in maize, barley and Brachypodium. In this study we present a detailed haplotype analysis of homoeologous and orthologous Lr34 genes in genetically and geographically diverse selections of wheat, rice and sorghum accessions. We found that the resistant Lr34 haplotype is unique to the wheat D-genome and is not found in the B-genome of wheat or in rice and sorghum. Furthermore, we only found the susceptible Lr34 allele in a set of 252 Ae. tauschii genotypes, the progenitor of the wheat D-genome. These data provide compelling evidence that the Lr34 multi-pathogen resistance is the result of recent gene diversification occurring after the formation of hexaploid wheat about 8,000 years ago. PMID:23117720

  6. Introgression of wheat DNA markers from A, B and D genomes in early generation progeny of Aegilops cylindrica Host x Triticum aestivum L. hybrids.

    PubMed

    Schoenenberger, N; Felber, F; Savova-Bianchi, D; Guadagnuolo, R

    2005-11-01

    Introgression from allohexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L., AABBDD) to allotetraploid jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host, CCDD) can take place in areas where the two species grow in sympatry and hybridize. Wheat and Ae. cylindrica share the D genome, issued from the common diploid ancestor Aegilops tauschii Coss. It has been proposed that the A and B genome of bread wheat are secure places to insert transgenes to avoid their introgression into Ae. cylindrica because during meiosis in pentaploid hybrids, A and B genome chromosomes form univalents and tend to be eliminated whereas recombination takes place only in D genome chromosomes. Wheat random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fragments, detected in intergeneric hybrids and introgressed to the first backcross generation with Ae. cylindrica as the recurrent parent and having a euploid Ae. cylindrica chromosome number or one supernumerary chromosome, were assigned to wheat chromosomes using Chinese Spring nulli-tetrasomic wheat lines. Introgressed fragments were not limited to the D genome of wheat, but specific fragments of A and B genomes were also present in the BC1. Their presence indicates that DNA from any of the wheat genomes can introgress into Ae. cylindrica. Successfully located RAPD fragments were then converted into highly specific and easy-to-use sequence characterised amplified regions (SCARs) through sequencing and primer design. Subsequently these markers were used to characterise introgression of wheat DNA into a BC1S1 family. Implications for risk assessment of genetically modified wheat are discussed. PMID:16133306

  7. Genomic characterization of two novel HIV-1 unique (CRF01_AE/B) recombinant forms among men who have sex with men in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Li, Jia; Feng, Yi; Kalish, Marcia L; Lu, Hongyan; Yin, Lu; Liao, Lingjie; Qian, Han-Zhu; Frost, Simon D W; Ruan, Yuhua; Vermund, Sten H; Shao, Yiming; Xing, Hui

    2015-09-01

    We report here two novel HIV-1 recombinant forms (CRF01_AE/B) isolated from two HIV-positive male subjects infected through homosexual contact in Beijing, China. Recombination contributes substantially to the genetic diversity of HIV-1, and is likely to occur in populations in which multiple subtypes circulate. Molecular epidemiological studies showed that subtype B, CRF01_AE, and CRF07_BC are currently cocirculating in parallel among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China, providing the opportunity for the emergence of new recombinants. Phylogenetic analysis of near full-length genome (NFLG) sequences showed that the unique recombinant forms (URFs) were composed of gene regions from CRF01_AE and subtype B. The CRF01_AE region of the recombinants clustered together with a previously described cluster 4 lineage of CRF01_AE. The B regions of both the recombinants clustered within the B strains. The two recombinants were quite similar with six breakpoints in common. These data highlight the importance of continuous surveillance of the dynamic change of HIV-1 subtypes and new recombinants among the MSM population. PMID:26058342

  8. Genomic Characterization of a Novel HIV-1 Second-Generation Recombinant Form Originated from CRF01_AE and CRF08_BC in Dali Prefecture of Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianjian; Li, Lin; Li, Huiqin; Li, Jingyun; Yang, Shaomin; Zhang, Mi; Ouyang, Hongmei

    2016-06-01

    Yunnan seems to be a "hot spot" region of HIV-1 recombination. CRF01_AE and subtype CRF08_BC are two main HIV-1 clades circulating in Yunnan. We report here a novel HIV-1 second-generation recombinant form originated from CRF01_AE and CRF08_BC. The strain (12YN10551) was isolated from a HIV-positive male infected through heterosexual contact in Dali prefecture of Yunnan province, China. This is the first report of HIV-1 near full-length genomic sequence in Dali. Recombinant analysis shows that 12YN10551 was composed of two well-established circulating recombinant forms (CRF01_AE and CRF08_BC). Two CRF01_AE recombinant fragments were inserted into the CRF08_BC backbone genome in the pol/vif/vpr/tat/rev and nef gene regions, respectively. The discovery and characterization of this new recombinant indicate that intersubtype recombination is continuously generating new forms of HIV-1. More work is needed to better monitor the genetic diversity of HIV-1 in this region. PMID:26885777

  9. AE 941.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    AE 941 [Arthrovas, Neoretna, Psovascar] is shark cartilage extract that inhibits angiogenesis. AE 941 acts by blocking the two main pathways that contribute to the process of angiogenesis, matrix metalloproteases and the vascular endothelial growth factor signalling pathway. When initial development of AE 941 was being conducted, AEterna assigned the various indications different trademarks. Neovastat was used for oncology, Psovascar was used for dermatology, Neoretna was used for ophthalmology and Arthrovas was used for rheumatology. However, it is unclear if these trademarks will be used in the future and AEterna appears to only be using the Neovastat trademark in its current publications regardless of the indication. AEterna Laboratories signed commercialisation agreements with Grupo Ferrer Internacional SA of Spain and Medac GmbH of Germany in February 2001. Under the terms of the agreement, AEterna has granted exclusive commercialisation and distribution rights to AE 941 in oncology to Grupo Ferrer Internacional for the Southern European countries of France, Belgium, Spain, Greece, Portugal and Italy. It also has rights in Central and South America. Medac GmbH will have marketing rights in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, Switzerland, Austria, Ireland, the Netherlands and Eastern Europe. In October 2002, AEterna Laboratories announced that it had signed an agreement with Australian healthcare products and services company Mayne Group for marketing AE 941 (as Neovastat) in Australia, New Zealand, Canada and Mexico. In March 2003, AEterna Laboratories announced it has signed an agreement with Korean based LG Life Sciences Ltd for marketing AE 941 (as Neovastat) in South Korea. The agreement provides AEterna with upfront and milestone payments, as well as a return on manufacturing and sales of AE 941. AEterna Laboratories had granted Alcon Laboratories an exclusive worldwide licence for AE 941 for ophthalmic products. However, this licence has been terminated. In

  10. Near-Full-Length Genome Sequences of a Novel HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Form, CRF01_AE/B'/C (CRF78_cpx), in Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Song, Yindi; Feng, Yue; Miao, Zhijiang; Wang, Binghui; Yang, Ming; Zhang, A-Mei; Liu, Li; Xia, Xueshan

    2016-06-01

    We report a novel HIV circulating recombinant form (CRF78_cpx) composed mainly of CRF01_AE with inserts from subtypes B and C identified from three epidemiologically unlinked individuals in Yunnan province, China. Two of the subjects are heterosexual men and one is a male intravenous drug user. Sequencing and analyzing the near-full-length genome of these three isolates (YNTC88, YNTC19, and YNTC35) revealed identical recombination breakpoints in all three viruses, but considerable genetic diversity between them, across the genomes, indicating that this is not a newly created CRF, only newly detected. CRF78_cpx differs from previously documented CRF01-AE/B'/C forms in its distinct backbone, inserted fragment size, and breakpoints, and is not related to other described recombinants in the region such as CRF07_BC or CRF65_cpx (also composed of CRF01_AE, B', and C). Our present findings further enrich the diversity of the prevalent HIV-1 CRFs in Yunnan, which is considered as an epicenter of HIV-1 infections in China. PMID:26885715

  11. Draft genome of the wheat A-genome progenitor Triticum urartu.

    PubMed

    Ling, Hong-Qing; Zhao, Shancen; Liu, Dongcheng; Wang, Junyi; Sun, Hua; Zhang, Chi; Fan, Huajie; Li, Dong; Dong, Lingli; Tao, Yong; Gao, Chuan; Wu, Huilan; Li, Yiwen; Cui, Yan; Guo, Xiaosen; Zheng, Shusong; Wang, Biao; Yu, Kang; Liang, Qinsi; Yang, Wenlong; Lou, Xueyuan; Chen, Jie; Feng, Mingji; Jian, Jianbo; Zhang, Xiaofei; Luo, Guangbin; Jiang, Ying; Liu, Junjie; Wang, Zhaobao; Sha, Yuhui; Zhang, Bairu; Wu, Huajun; Tang, Dingzhong; Shen, Qianhua; Xue, Pengya; Zou, Shenhao; Wang, Xiujie; Liu, Xin; Wang, Famin; Yang, Yanping; An, Xueli; Dong, Zhenying; Zhang, Kunpu; Zhang, Xiangqi; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Dvorak, Jan; Tong, Yiping; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Li, Zhensheng; Wang, Daowen; Zhang, Aimin; Wang, Jun

    2013-04-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, AABBDD) is one of the most widely cultivated and consumed food crops in the world. However, the complex polyploid nature of its genome makes genetic and functional analyses extremely challenging. The A genome, as a basic genome of bread wheat and other polyploid wheats, for example, T. turgidum (AABB), T. timopheevii (AAGG) and T. zhukovskyi (AAGGA(m)A(m)), is central to wheat evolution, domestication and genetic improvement. The progenitor species of the A genome is the diploid wild einkorn wheat T. urartu, which resembles cultivated wheat more extensively than do Aegilops speltoides (the ancestor of the B genome) and Ae. tauschii (the donor of the D genome), especially in the morphology and development of spike and seed. Here we present the generation, assembly and analysis of a whole-genome shotgun draft sequence of the T. urartu genome. We identified protein-coding gene models, performed genome structure analyses and assessed its utility for analysing agronomically important genes and for developing molecular markers. Our T. urartu genome assembly provides a diploid reference for analysis of polyploid wheat genomes and is a valuable resource for the genetic improvement of wheat. PMID:23535596

  12. Chloroplast and nuclear microsatellite analysis of Aegilops cylindrica.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Harish T; Vales, M Isabel; Watson, Christy J W; Mallory-Smith, Carol A; Mori, Naoki; Rehman, Maqsood; Zemetra, Robert S; Riera-Lizarazu, Oscar

    2005-08-01

    Aegilops cylindrica Host (2n = 4x = 28, genome CCDD) is an allotetraploid formed by hybridization between the diploid species Ae. tauschii Coss. (2n = 2x = 14, genome DD) and Ae. markgrafii (Greuter) Hammer (2n = 2x = 14, genome CC). Previous research has shown that Ae. tauschii contributed its cytoplasm to Ae. cylindrica. However, our analysis with chloroplast microsatellite markers showed that 1 of the 36 Ae. cylindrica accessions studied, TK 116 (PI 486249), had a plastome derived from Ae. markgrafii rather than Ae. tauschii. Thus, Ae. markgrafii has also contributed its cytoplasm to Ae. cylindrica. Our analysis of chloroplast and nuclear microsatellite markers also suggests that D-type plastome and the D genome in Ae. cylindrica were closely related to, and were probably derived from, the tauschii gene pool of Ae. tauschii. A determination of the likely source of the C genome and the C-type plastome in Ae. cylindrica was not possible. PMID:15986256

  13. [Molecular-genetic analysis of wheat (T. aestivum L.) genome with introgression of Ae. cylindrica Host genetic elements].

    PubMed

    Galaev, A V; Sivolap, Iu M

    2005-01-01

    Wheat-aegilops hybrid plants Triticum aestivum L. (2n = 42) x Aegilops cylindrica Host (2n = 28) were investigated with using microsatellite markers. In two BC1F9 lines some genome modifications connected with losing DNA fragments of initial variety or appearing of Aegilops genome elements were detected. In some investigated hybrids new amplicons lacking in parental plants were found. Substitution of wheat chromosomes for aegilops chromosomes was not revealed. Analysis of microsatellite loci in BC2F5 plants showed stable introgression of aegilops genetic elements into wheat; elimination of some transferred aegilops DNA fragments in the course of backcrossing; decreasing size of introgressive elements after backcrossing. Introgressive lines were classified according to genome changes. PMID:16250247

  14. Sequencing of 15 622 gene-bearing BACs clarifies the gene-dense regions of the barley genome.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Amatriaín, María; Lonardi, Stefano; Luo, MingCheng; Madishetty, Kavitha; Svensson, Jan T; Moscou, Matthew J; Wanamaker, Steve; Jiang, Tao; Kleinhofs, Andris; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Wise, Roger P; Stein, Nils; Ma, Yaqin; Rodriguez, Edmundo; Kudrna, Dave; Bhat, Prasanna R; Chao, Shiaoman; Condamine, Pascal; Heinen, Shane; Resnik, Josh; Wing, Rod; Witt, Heather N; Alpert, Matthew; Beccuti, Marco; Bozdag, Serdar; Cordero, Francesca; Mirebrahim, Hamid; Ounit, Rachid; Wu, Yonghui; You, Frank; Zheng, Jie; Simková, Hana; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Duma, Denisa; Altschmied, Lothar; Blake, Tom; Bregitzer, Phil; Cooper, Laurel; Dilbirligi, Muharrem; Falk, Anders; Feiz, Leila; Graner, Andreas; Gustafson, Perry; Hayes, Patrick M; Lemaux, Peggy; Mammadov, Jafar; Close, Timothy J

    2015-10-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) possesses a large and highly repetitive genome of 5.1 Gb that has hindered the development of a complete sequence. In 2012, the International Barley Sequencing Consortium released a resource integrating whole-genome shotgun sequences with a physical and genetic framework. However, because only 6278 bacterial artificial chromosome (BACs) in the physical map were sequenced, fine structure was limited. To gain access to the gene-containing portion of the barley genome at high resolution, we identified and sequenced 15 622 BACs representing the minimal tiling path of 72 052 physical-mapped gene-bearing BACs. This generated ~1.7 Gb of genomic sequence containing an estimated 2/3 of all Morex barley genes. Exploration of these sequenced BACs revealed that although distal ends of chromosomes contain most of the gene-enriched BACs and are characterized by high recombination rates, there are also gene-dense regions with suppressed recombination. We made use of published map-anchored sequence data from Aegilops tauschii to develop a synteny viewer between barley and the ancestor of the wheat D-genome. Except for some notable inversions, there is a high level of collinearity between the two species. The software HarvEST:Barley provides facile access to BAC sequences and their annotations, along with the barley-Ae. tauschii synteny viewer. These BAC sequences constitute a resource to improve the efficiency of marker development, map-based cloning, and comparative genomics in barley and related crops. Additional knowledge about regions of the barley genome that are gene-dense but low recombination is particularly relevant. PMID:26252423

  15. Molecular evolution of Wcor15 gene enhanced our understanding of the origin of A, B and D genomes in Triticum aestivum

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fangfang; Si, Hongqi; Wang, Chengcheng; Sun, Genlou; Zhou, Erting; Chen, Can; Ma, Chuanxi

    2016-01-01

    The allohexaploid bread wheat originally derived from three closely related species with A, B and D genome. Although numerous studies were performed to elucidate its origin and phylogeny, no consensus conclusion has reached. In this study, we cloned and sequenced the genes Wcor15-2A, Wcor15-2B and Wcor15-2D in 23 diploid, 10 tetraploid and 106 hexaploid wheat varieties and analyzed their molecular evolution to reveal the origin of the A, B and D genome in Triticum aestivum. Comparative analyses of sequences in diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheats suggest that T. urartu, Ae. speltoides and Ae. tauschii subsp. strangulata are most likely the donors of the Wcor15-2A, Wcor15-2B and Wcor15-2D locus in common wheat, respectively. The Wcor15 genes from subgenomes A and D were very conservative without insertion and deletion of bases during evolution of diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid. Non-coding region of Wcor15-2B gene from B genome might mutate during the first polyploidization from Ae. speltoides to tetraploid wheat, however, no change has occurred for this gene during the second allopolyploidization from tetraploid to hexaploid. Comparison of the Wcor15 gene shed light on understanding of the origin of the A, B and D genome of common wheat. PMID:27526862

  16. Molecular evolution of Wcor15 gene enhanced our understanding of the origin of A, B and D genomes in Triticum aestivum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangfang; Si, Hongqi; Wang, Chengcheng; Sun, Genlou; Zhou, Erting; Chen, Can; Ma, Chuanxi

    2016-01-01

    The allohexaploid bread wheat originally derived from three closely related species with A, B and D genome. Although numerous studies were performed to elucidate its origin and phylogeny, no consensus conclusion has reached. In this study, we cloned and sequenced the genes Wcor15-2A, Wcor15-2B and Wcor15-2D in 23 diploid, 10 tetraploid and 106 hexaploid wheat varieties and analyzed their molecular evolution to reveal the origin of the A, B and D genome in Triticum aestivum. Comparative analyses of sequences in diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheats suggest that T. urartu, Ae. speltoides and Ae. tauschii subsp. strangulata are most likely the donors of the Wcor15-2A, Wcor15-2B and Wcor15-2D locus in common wheat, respectively. The Wcor15 genes from subgenomes A and D were very conservative without insertion and deletion of bases during evolution of diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid. Non-coding region of Wcor15-2B gene from B genome might mutate during the first polyploidization from Ae. speltoides to tetraploid wheat, however, no change has occurred for this gene during the second allopolyploidization from tetraploid to hexaploid. Comparison of the Wcor15 gene shed light on understanding of the origin of the A, B and D genome of common wheat. PMID:27526862

  17. Sequencing of chloroplast genomes from wheat, barley, rye and their relatives provides a detailed insight into the evolution of the Triticeae tribe.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Christopher P; Senerchia, Natacha; Stein, Nils; Akhunov, Eduard D; Keller, Beat; Wicker, Thomas; Kilian, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Using Roche/454 technology, we sequenced the chloroplast genomes of 12 Triticeae species, including bread wheat, barley and rye, as well as the diploid progenitors and relatives of bread wheat Triticum urartu, Aegilops speltoides and Ae. tauschii. Two wild tetraploid taxa, Ae. cylindrica and Ae. geniculata, were also included. Additionally, we incorporated wild Einkorn wheat Triticum boeoticum and its domesticated form T. monococcum and two Hordeum spontaneum (wild barley) genotypes. Chloroplast genomes were used for overall sequence comparison, phylogenetic analysis and dating of divergence times. We estimate that barley diverged from rye and wheat approximately 8-9 million years ago (MYA). The genome donors of hexaploid wheat diverged between 2.1-2.9 MYA, while rye diverged from Triticum aestivum approximately 3-4 MYA, more recently than previously estimated. Interestingly, the A genome taxa T. boeoticum and T. urartu were estimated to have diverged approximately 570,000 years ago. As these two have a reproductive barrier, the divergence time estimate also provides an upper limit for the time required for the formation of a species boundary between the two. Furthermore, we conclusively show that the chloroplast genome of hexaploid wheat was contributed by the B genome donor and that this unknown species diverged from Ae. speltoides about 980,000 years ago. Additionally, sequence alignments identified a translocation of a chloroplast segment to the nuclear genome which is specific to the rye/wheat lineage. We propose the presented phylogeny and divergence time estimates as a reference framework for future studies on Triticeae. PMID:24614886

  18. Accelerated senescence and enhanced disease resistance in hybrid chlorosis lines derived from interspecific crosses between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Hiroki; Mizuno, Nobuyuki; Tosa, Yukio; Yoshida, Kentaro; Park, Pyoyun; Takumi, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid chlorosis, a type of hybrid incompatibility, has frequently been reported in inter- and intraspecific crosses of allopolyploid wheat. In a previous study, we reported some types of growth abnormalities such as hybrid necrosis and observed hybrid chlorosis with mild or severe abnormalities in wheat triploids obtained in crosses between tetraploid wheat cultivar Langdon and four Ae. tauschii accessions and in their derived synthetic hexaploids. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying hybrid chlorosis are not well understood. Here, we compared cytology and gene expression in leaves to characterize the abnormal growth in wheat synthetics showing mild and severe chlorosis. In addition, we compared disease resistance to wheat blast fungus. In total 55 and 105 genes related to carbohydrate metabolism and 53 and 89 genes for defense responses were markedly up-regulated in the mild and severe chlorosis lines, respectively. Abnormal chloroplasts formed in the mesophyll cells before the leaves yellowed in the hybrid chlorosis lines. The plants with mild chlorosis showed increased resistance to wheat blast and powdery mildew fungi, although significant differences only in two, third internode length and maturation time, out of the examined agricultural traits were found between the wild type and plants showing mild chlorosis. These observations suggest that senescence might be accelerated in hybrid chlorosis lines of wheat synthetics. Moreover, in wheat synthetics showing mild chlorosis, the negative effects on biomass can be minimized, and they may show substantial fitness under pathogen-polluted conditions. PMID:25806790

  19. Accelerated Senescence and Enhanced Disease Resistance in Hybrid Chlorosis Lines Derived from Interspecific Crosses between Tetraploid Wheat and Aegilops tauschii

    PubMed Central

    Tosa, Yukio; Yoshida, Kentaro; Park, Pyoyun; Takumi, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid chlorosis, a type of hybrid incompatibility, has frequently been reported in inter- and intraspecific crosses of allopolyploid wheat. In a previous study, we reported some types of growth abnormalities such as hybrid necrosis and observed hybrid chlorosis with mild or severe abnormalities in wheat triploids obtained in crosses between tetraploid wheat cultivar Langdon and four Ae. tauschii accessions and in their derived synthetic hexaploids. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying hybrid chlorosis are not well understood. Here, we compared cytology and gene expression in leaves to characterize the abnormal growth in wheat synthetics showing mild and severe chlorosis. In addition, we compared disease resistance to wheat blast fungus. In total 55 and 105 genes related to carbohydrate metabolism and 53 and 89 genes for defense responses were markedly up-regulated in the mild and severe chlorosis lines, respectively. Abnormal chloroplasts formed in the mesophyll cells before the leaves yellowed in the hybrid chlorosis lines. The plants with mild chlorosis showed increased resistance to wheat blast and powdery mildew fungi, although significant differences only in two, third internode length and maturation time, out of the examined agricultural traits were found between the wild type and plants showing mild chlorosis. These observations suggest that senescence might be accelerated in hybrid chlorosis lines of wheat synthetics. Moreover, in wheat synthetics showing mild chlorosis, the negative effects on biomass can be minimized, and they may show substantial fitness under pathogen-polluted conditions. PMID:25806790

  20. Near Full-Length Genomic Characterization of a Novel HIV Type 1 CRF01_AE/CRF07_BC Recombinant Form Transmitted Between a Heterosexual Couple in Guangxi, China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhe; Shen, Zhiyong; Xiong, Runsong; Liang, Fuxiong; Liang, Shujia; Li, Jianjun; Tan, Guangjie; Jiang, He; Yang, Xiaoyi; Li, Fan; Liao, Lingjie; Shao, Yiming; Feng, Yi; Zhu, Qiuying

    2016-07-01

    In this research, we reported a new second generation recombinant form (GXDY460B) between circulating recombinant form (CRF)01_AE and CRF07_BC in a seroconversion couple who obtained the virus from her husband by heterosexual behavior. The analysis result of the near full-length genomic characterization showed that the genome comprises at least 12 interlaced segments, including six CRF07_BC and six CRF01_AE segments, with CRF07_BC as the main framework. Cocirculation of multiple virus subtypes and multiple infection routes have existed for a long time in Guangxi, but the recombinant strain was rarely reported among heterosexual transmission population because of its lower crowd confounding degree than men who have sex with men and injecting drug user population. It is the first time that the unique recombinant form (URF) between CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC was identified among heterosexual transmission in Guangxi. The emergence of the novel recombinant helps to understand the pattern of the URF virus. PMID:26892263

  1. Near full-length genome sequence of a novel HIV-1 recombinant form (CRF01_AE/B) detected among men who have sex with men in Jilin Province, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingguang; Feng, Yi; Yang, Yao; Chen, Yanli; Guo, Qi; Sun, Liuyan; Zang, Xihui; Xing, Hui; Shao, Yiming

    2014-07-01

    We report here a novel HIV-1 recombinant form (CRF01_AE/B) detected from a comprehensive HIV-1 molecular epidemiologic study among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Jilin province of northeastern China. The near full-length genome (NFLG) analyses showed that the novel HIV-1 recombinant isolate (JL.RF07) was composed of CRF01_AE cluster 5 (northeastern China origin) and subtype B (U.S. and European origin), with six recombinant breakpoints observed in the pol, vif, tat, rev, and env gene regions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detection of a novel HIV-1 recombinant form (CRF01_AE/B) in Jilin, which may indicate an active transmission network of HIV-1 infection among MSM in the region. Further studies of the molecular epidemiology of the HIV-1 epidemic among MSM in northeastern China are necessary to gain a fuller understanding of the transmission network and potential public health impact of HIV-1 among MSM in this region. PMID:24521207

  2. Genome Comparisons Reveal a Dominant Mechanism of Chromosome Number Reduction in Grasses and Accelerated Genome Evolution in Triticeae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single nucleotide polymorphism was employed in the construction of a high-resolution, expressed sequence tag (EST) map of Aegilops tauschii, the diploid source of the wheat D genome. Comparison of the map with the rice and sorghum genome sequences revealed 50 inversions and translocations; 2, 8, and...

  3. Comparison of genome-wide gene expression patterns in the seedlings of nascent allohexaploid wheats produced by two combinations of hybrids.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yeonju; Kawaura, Kanako; Kishii, Masahiro; Sakuma, Shun; Ogihara, Yasunari

    2015-01-01

    Allopolyploidization in plants is an important event that enhances heterosis and environmental adaptation. Common wheat, Triticum aestivum (AABBDD), which is an allohexaploid that evolved from an allopolyploidization event between T. turgidum (AABB) and Aegilops tauschii (DD), shows more growth vigor and wider adaptation than tetraploid wheats. To better understand the molecular basis for the heterosis of hexaploid wheat, we systematically analyzed the genome-wide gene expression patterns of two combinations of newly hybridized triploids (ABD), their chromosome-doubled hexaploids (AABBDD), stable synthetic hexaploids (AABBDD) and natural hexaploids, in addition to their parents, T. turgidum (AABB) and Ae. tauschii (DD), using a microarray to reconstruct the events of allopolyploidization and genome stabilization. Overall comparisons of gene expression profiles showed that the newly generated hexaploids exhibited gene expression patterns similar to those of their maternal tetraploids, irrespective of hybrid combination. With successive generations, the gene expression profiles of nascent hexaploids became less similar to the maternal profiles, and belonged to a separate cluster from the natural hexaploids. Triploids revealed characteristic expression patterns, suggesting endosperm effects. In the newly hybridized triploids (ABD) of two independent synthetic lines, approximately one-fifth of expressed genes displayed non-additive expression; the number of these genes decreased with polyploidization and genome stabilization. Approximately 20% of the non-additively expressed genes were transmitted across generations throughout allopolyploidization and successive self-pollinations, and 43 genes overlapped between the two combinations, indicating that shared gene expression patterns can be seen during allohexaploidization. Furthermore, four of these 43 genes were involved in starch and sucrose metabolism, suggesting that these metabolic events play key roles in the

  4. Anarchy in AE Aquarii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, W. F.

    Interest in AE Aqr remains high, as evidenced by the lively discussion that took place during the workshop. In this contribution I briefly remark on the results I presented at the workshop, then address topics that were raised during the discussion. I attempt to preserve the spirit and flavor of that discussion.

  5. Genetic map of Triticum turgidum based on a hexaploid wheat population without genetic recombination for D genome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A synthetic doubled-haploid hexaploid wheat population, SynDH1, derived from the spontaneous chromosome doubling of triploid F1 hybrid plants obtained from the cross of hybrids Triticum turgidum ssp. durum line Langdon (LDN) and ssp. turgidum line AS313, with Aegilops tauschii ssp. tauschii accession AS60, was previously constructed. SynDH1 is a tetraploidization-hexaploid doubled haploid (DH) population because it contains recombinant A and B chromosomes from two different T. turgidum genotypes, while all the D chromosomes from Ae. tauschii are homogenous across the whole population. This paper reports the construction of a genetic map using this population. Results Of the 606 markers used to assemble the genetic map, 588 (97%) were assigned to linkage groups. These included 513 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers, 72 simple sequence repeat (SSR), one insertion site-based polymorphism (ISBP), and two high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) markers. These markers were assigned to the 14 chromosomes, covering 2048.79 cM, with a mean distance of 3.48 cM between adjacent markers. This map showed good coverage of the A and B genome chromosomes, apart from 3A, 5A, 6A, and 4B. Compared with previously reported maps, most shared markers showed highly consistent orders. This map was successfully used to identify five quantitative trait loci (QTL), including two for spikelet number on chromosomes 7A and 5B, two for spike length on 7A and 3B, and one for 1000-grain weight on 4B. However, differences in crossability QTL between the two T. turgidum parents may explain the segregation distortion regions on chromosomes 1A, 3B, and 6B. Conclusions A genetic map of T. turgidum including 588 markers was constructed using a synthetic doubled haploid (SynDH) hexaploid wheat population. Five QTLs for three agronomic traits were identified from this population. However, more markers are needed to increase the density and resolution of this map in the

  6. THE WHEAT D-GENOME HMW-GLUTENIN LOCUS:BAC SEQUENCING, GENE DISTRIBUTION, AND RETROTRANSPOSON CLUSTERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A bacterial-artificial-chromosome (BAC) clone from the genome of Triticum tauschii, the D-genome ancestor of hexaploid bread wheat, was sequenced and the presence of the two paralogous x- and y- type high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin genes of the Glu-D1 locus was confirmed. These two genes occur...

  7. Stem rust, tan spot, Stagonospora nodorum blotch, and Hessian fly resistance in Langdon durum - Aegilops tauschii synethetic hexaploid wheat lines.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diseases and pests of wheat incur serious yield and quality losses to wheat grown worldwide. In the current study, we tested synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) lines developed from various Aegilops tauschii lines crossed with the tetraploid durum wheat line Langdon. The SHW lines were tested along wi...

  8. MlNCD1: A novel Aegilops tauschii derived powdery mildew resistance gene identified in common wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew is a major fungal disease in wheat, especially in cool maritime climates. A novel Aegilops tauschii derived wheat powdery mildew resistance gene present in the germplasm line NC96BGTD1 was genetically characterized as a monogenic trait in field trials using F2 and F4-derived lines fr...

  9. Lights, camera, A&E.

    PubMed

    Gould, Mark

    Channel 4 series 24 Hours in A&E was one of the television highlights of 2011. Filmed at King's College Hospital in London, it showed the reality of life in an A&E department and may have improved the public's understanding of nursing. PMID:22324233

  10. Near full-length genome sequence of a novel HIV type 1 second-generation recombinant form (CRF01_AE/CRF07_BC) identified among men who have sex with men in Jilin, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingguang; Ning, Chuanyi; He, Xiang; Yang, Yao; Xing, Hui; Hong, Kunxue; Shao, Yiming; Yang, Rongge

    2013-12-01

    We report here a novel HIV-1 second-generation recombinant form (CRF01_AE/CRF07_BC) composed of CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC, identified among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Jilin, with four breakpoints observed in the pol, vif, and vpr genes. The CRF01_AE regions of the recombinant were clustered with the CRF01_AE lineage, which is mainly circulating among MSM in northern China, with the support of 100% bootstrap value, indicating that the parental origin of the CRF01_AE regions was from MSM, in which recombination events may be more likely to occur. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detection of a novel HIV-1 second-generation recombinant form (CRF01AE/CRF07_BC) in Jilin, which indicates active transmission networks of HIV-1 infection among MSM in the region. Therefore, it is necessary to continue monitoring the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 among MSM in Jilin to obtain a better understanding of the transmission and potential public health impact of HIV-1 among MSM in the region. PMID:23809010

  11. (abstract) Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beer, Reinhard

    1994-01-01

    AES is a low-cost analog of the TES downlooking modes. Because AES operates at ambient temperature, limb-viewing is not possible. The first flight of AES took place in April 1994 on the NASA P3B aircraft out of Wallops Island, VA. While planned as an engineering test flight, spectra were successfully acquired both over the Atlantic Ocean and the area of the Great Dismal Swamp on the Virginia-North Carolina border. At this writing (July 1994), a second series of flights on the NASA DC8 aircraft out of Ames RC,CA is in progress. By the time of the workshop, a third series using the NASA C130 should have been accomplished.

  12. Transport activity of chimaeric AE2-AE3 chloride/bicarbonate anion exchange proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Fujinaga, Jocelyne; Loiselle, Frederick B; Casey, Joseph R

    2003-01-01

    Chloride/bicarbonate anion exchangers (AEs), found in the plasma membrane of most mammalian cells, are involved in pH regulation and bicarbonate metabolism. Although AE2 and AE3 are highly similar in sequence, AE2-transport activity was 10-fold higher than AE3 (41 versus 4 mM x min(-1) respectively), when expressed by transient transfection of HEK-293 cells. AE2-AE3 chimaeras were constructed to define the region responsible for differences in transport activity. The level of AE2 expression was approx. 30% higher than that of AE3. Processing to the cell surface, studied by chemical labelling and confocal microscopy, showed that AE2 is processed to the cell surface approx. 8-fold more efficiently than AE3. The efficiency of cell-surface processing was dependent on the cytoplasmic domain, since the AE2 domain conferred efficient processing upon the AE3 membrane domain, with a predominant role for amino acids 322-677 of AE2. AE2 that was expressed in HEK-293 cells was glycosylated, but little of AE3 was. However, AE2 expressed in the presence of the glycosylation inhibitor, tunicamycin, was not glycosylated, yet retained 85 +/- 8% of anion-transport activity. Therefore glycosylation has little, if any, role in the cell-surface processing or activity of AE2 or AE3. We conclude that the low anion-transport activity of AE3 in HEK-293 cells is due to low level processing to the plasma membrane, possibly owing to protein interactions with the AE3 cytoplasmic domain. PMID:12578559

  13. Acoustic emission characterization using AE (parameter) delay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. H., Jr.; Lee, S. S.

    1983-01-01

    The acoustic emission (AE) parameter delay concept is defined as that particular measured value of a parameter at which a specified baseline level of cumulative AE activity is reached. The parameter can be from any of a broad range of elastic, plastic, viscoelastic, and fracture mechanics parameters, as well as their combinations. Such parameters include stress, load, strain, displacement, time, temperature, loading cycle, unloading stress, stress intensity factor, strain energy release rate, and crack tip plasticity zone size, while the AE activity may be AE event counts, ringdown counts, energy, event duration, etc., as well as their combinations. Attention is given to examples for the AE parameter delay concept, together with various correlations.

  14. Wheat - Aegilops introgressions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aegilops is the most closely related genus to Triticum in the tribe Triticeae. Aegilops speltoides Tausch (B genome donor) and Ae. tauschii Coss. (D genome donor) contributed two of the three genomes present in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD genomes). The Aegilops genus c...

  15. Infrared observations of AE Aquarii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanzi, E. G.; Chincarini, G.; Tarenghi, M.

    1981-01-01

    Broadband infrared observations of the cataclysmic variable AE Aquarii are reported. The observations were obtained in the J, H, K and L filters with the InSb photometer attached to the 1-m telescope of the European Southern Observatory. The infrared energy distribution observed from 0.35 to 3.5 microns for phase 0.5 suggests a spectral type of K5 V for the secondary and a distance to the system of approximately 70 pc if an absolute magnitude of 7.3 is assumed. Monitoring of the flux at 2.2 microns reveals a variability with an amplitude of approximately 0.3 magnitude over one third of the orbital period, the nature of which is under investigation.

  16. The AE-8 trapped electron model environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vette, James I.

    1991-01-01

    The machine sensible version of the AE-8 electron model environment was completed in December 1983. It has been sent to users on the model environment distribution list and is made available to new users by the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). AE-8 is the last in a series of terrestrial trapped radiation models that includes eight proton and eight electron versions. With the exception of AE-8, all these models were documented in formal reports as well as being available in a machine sensible form. The purpose of this report is to complete the documentation, finally, for AE-8 so that users can understand its construction and see the comparison of the model with the new data used, as well as with the AE-4 model.

  17. The structure and organization of the human erythroid anion exchanger (AE1) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Sahr, K.E.; Taylor, W.M.; Daniels, B.P.

    1994-12-01

    The AE1 (anion exchanger, band 3) protein is expressed in erythrocytes and in the A-type intercalated cells of the kidney distal collecting tubule. In both cell types it mediates the electroneutral transport of chloride and bicarbonate ions across the lipid bilayer, and, in erythrocytes, it also serves as the critical attachment site of the peripheral membrane skeleton. We have characterized the human AE1 gene using overlapping clones isolated from a phage library of human genomic DNA. The gene spans {approximately}20 kb and consists of 20 exons separated by 19 introns. The structure of the human AE1 gene corresponds closely with that of the previously characterized mouse AE1 gene, with a high degree of conservation of exon/intron junctions, as well as exon and intron nucleotide sequences. The putative upstream and internal promoter sequences of the human AE1 gene used in erythroid and kidney cells, respectively, are described. We also report the nucleotide sequence of the entire 3{prime} noncoding region of exon 20, which was lacking in the published cDNA sequences. In addition, we have characterized 9 Alu repeat elements found within the body of the human AE1 gene that are members of 4 related subfamilies that appear to have entered the genome at different times during primate evolution. 59 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Implication of Triticum searsii as the B-genome donor to wheat using DNA hybridizations.

    PubMed

    Nath, J; McNay, J W; Paroda, C M; Gulati, S C

    1983-08-01

    In vitro DNA:DNA hybridizations and hydroxyapatite thermal chromatography were employed to help identify the species ancestral to the B genome of the polyploid wheats. We hybridized 3H-Triticum aestivum DNA to the unlabeled DNAs of T. urartu, T. speltoides, T. sharonensis, T. bicorne, T. longissimum, and T. searsii, 3H-Labeled DNA of T. urartu was hybridized with the DNA of a synthetic tetraploid. AADD. The heteroduplex thermal stabilities indicated that T. searsii was most closely related to T. aestivum (ABD) and that the genome of T. urartu was more closely related to the A genome than the B genome. The degree of reassociation which may have occurred between the six diploid species and the D genome of T. aestivum was evaluated by hybridizing 3H-T. tauschii DNA with the DNAs of the diploids. The results indicated that T. urartu had the least sequence homology to T. tauschii, the D-genome donor lending additional support to the conclusion that T. urartu is related to the A genome. Thus, it is highly probable that T. searsii is the B-genome donor to the polyploid wheats or a major chromosome donor if the B genome is, in fact, polyphyletic in origin. PMID:6626143

  19. AES analysis of barium fluoride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashin, G. N.; Makhnjuk, V. I.; Rumjantseva, S. M.; Shchekochihin, Ju. M.

    1993-06-01

    AES analysis of thin films of metal fluorides is a difficult problem due to charging and decomposition of such films under electron bombardment. We have developed a simple algorithm for a reliable quantitative AES analysis of metal fluoride thin films (BaF 2 in our work). The relative AES sensitivity factors for barium and fluorine were determined from BaF 2 single-crystal samples. We have investigated the dependence of composition and stability of barium fluoride films on the substrate temperature during film growth. We found that the instability of BaF 2 films grown on GaAs substrates at high temperatures (> 525°C) is due to a loss of fluorine. Our results show that, under the optimal electron exposure conditions, AES can be used for a quantitative analysis of metal fluoride thin films.

  20. Clinical epidemiology of human AE in Europe.

    PubMed

    Vuitton, D A; Demonmerot, F; Knapp, J; Richou, C; Grenouillet, F; Chauchet, A; Vuitton, L; Bresson-Hadni, S; Millon, L

    2015-10-30

    This review gives a critical update of the situation regarding alveolar echinococcosis (AE) in Europe in humans, based on existing publications and on findings of national and European surveillance systems. All sources point to an increase in human cases of AE in the "historic endemic areas" of Europe, namely Germany, Switzerland, Austria and France and to the emergence of human cases in countries where the disease had never been recognised until the end of the 20th century, especially in central-eastern and Baltic countries. Both increase and emergence could be only due to methodological biases; this point is discussed in the review. One explanation may be given by changes in the animal reservoir of the parasite, Echinococcus multilocularis (increase in the global population of foxes in Europe and its urbanisation, as well as a possible increased involvement of pet animals as definitive infectious hosts). The review also focuses onto 2 more original approaches: (1) how changes in therapeutic attitudes toward malignant and chronic inflammatory diseases may affect the epidemiology of AE in the future in Europe, since a recent survey of such cases in France showed the emergence of AE in patients with immune suppression since the beginning of the 21st century; (2) how setting a network of referral centres in Europe based on common studies on the care management of patients might contribute to a better knowledge of AE epidemiology in the future. PMID:26346900

  1. The accretion column of AE Aqr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Claudia; Costa, D. Joaquim; Luna, Gerardo; Lima, Isabel J.; Silva, Karleyne M. G.; De Araujo, Jose Carlos N.; Coelho, Jaziel

    2016-07-01

    AE Aqr is a magnetic cataclysmic variable, whose white dwarf rotates at the very fast rate of 33 s modulating the flux from high-energies to optical wavelengths. There are many studies of the origin of its emission, which consider emission from a rotating magnetic field or from an accretion column. Recently, MAGIC observations have discarded AE Aqr emission in very high energy gamma-rays discarding non-thermal emission. Furthermore, soft and hard X-ray data from Swift and NuSTAR were fitted using thermal models. Here we present the modelling of AE Aqr X-ray spectra and light curve considering the emission of a magnetic accretion column using the Cyclops code. The model takes into consideration the 3D geometry of the system, allowing to properly represent the white-dwarf auto eclipse, the pre-shock column absorption, and the varying density and temperature of a tall accretion column.

  2. Differential attack on mini-AES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajeng Gemellia, Asadini Dwi; Indarjani, Santi

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents the results of differential attack on Mini-AES algorithm. The differential trails are constructed using all combinations of propagation ratio without repetition. To give practical results, we implement the key extraction for differential characteristics which have the highest and lowest probability as a comparison. Based on total propagation ratio and complexity resulted, Mini-AES algorithms are vulnerable to differential attack. The best differential characteristic is the differential characteristic using a single active s-box with the propagation ratio of 8 / 16.

  3. Matt Rogers on AES Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Matt

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Energy and AES Energy Storage recently agreed to a $17.1M conditional loan guarantee commitment. This project will develop the first battery-based energy storage system to provide a more stable and efficient electrical grid for New York State's high-voltage transmission network. Matt Rogers is the Senior Advisor to the Secretary for Recovery Act Implementation.

  4. Matt Rogers on AES Energy Storage

    ScienceCinema

    Rogers, Matt

    2013-05-29

    The Department of Energy and AES Energy Storage recently agreed to a $17.1M conditional loan guarantee commitment. This project will develop the first battery-based energy storage system to provide a more stable and efficient electrical grid for New York State's high-voltage transmission network. Matt Rogers is the Senior Advisor to the Secretary for Recovery Act Implementation.

  5. Partial characterization of glutathione S-transferases from wheat (Triticum spp.) and purification of a safener-induced glutathione S-transferase from Triticum tauschii.

    PubMed Central

    Riechers, D E; Irzyk, G P; Jones, S S; Fuerst, E P

    1997-01-01

    Hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has very low constitutive glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity when assayed with the chloroacetamide herbicide dimethenamid as a substrate, which may account for its low tolerance to dimethenamid in the field. Treatment of seeds with the herbicide safener fluxofenim increased the total GST activity extracted from T. aestivum shoots 9-fold when assayed with dimethenamid as a substrate, but had no effect on glutathione levels. Total GST activity in crude protein extracts from T. aestivum, Triticum durum, and Triticum tauschii was separated into several component GST activities by anion-exchange fast-protein liquid chromatography. These activities (isozymes) differed with respect to their activities toward dimethenamid or 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as substrates and in their levels of induction by safener treatment. A safener-induced GST isozyme was subsequently purified by anion-exchange and affinity chromatography from etiolated shoots of the diploid wheat species T. tauschii (a progenitor of hexaploid wheat) treated with the herbicide safener cloquintocet-mexyl. The isozyme bound to a dimethenamid-affinity column and had a subunit molecular mass of 26 kD based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified enzyme (designated GST TSI-1) was recognized by an antiserum raised against a mixture of maize (Zea mays) GSTs. Amino acid sequences obtained from protease-digested GST TSI-1 had significant homology with the safener-inducible maize GST V and two auxin-regulated tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) GST isozymes. PMID:9276955

  6. Magnetic fields in Herbig Ae stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubrig, S.; Schöller, M.; Yudin, R. V.

    2004-12-01

    Herbig Ae stars are young A-type stars in the pre-main sequence evolutionary phase with masses of ˜1.5-3 M⊙. They show rather intense surface activity (Dunkin et al. \\cite{Du97}, MNRAS, 290, 165) and infrared excess related to the presence of circumstellar disks. Because of their youth, primordial magnetic fields inherited from the parent molecular cloud may be expected, but no direct evidence for the presence of magnetic fields on their surface, except in one case (Donati et al. \\cite{Do97}, MNRAS, 291, 658), has been found until now. Here we report observations of optical circular polarization with FORS 1 at the VLT in the three Herbig Ae stars HD 139614, HD 144432 and HD 144668. A definite longitudinal magnetic field at 4.8 σ level, =-450±93 G, has been detected in the Herbig Ae star HD 139614. This is the largest magnetic field ever diagnosed for a Herbig Ae star. A hint of a weak magnetic field is found in the other two Herbig Ae stars, HD 144432 and HD 144668, for which magnetic fields are measured at the ˜1.6 σ and ˜2.5 σ level respectively. Further, we report the presence of circular polarization signatures in the Ca II K line in the V Stokes spectra of HD 139614 and HD 144432, which appear unresolved at the low spectral resolution achievable with FORS 1. We suggest that models involving accretion of matter from the disk to the star along a global stellar magnetic field of a specific geometry can account for the observed Zeeman signatures. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO programme No. 072.D-0377).

  7. [Analysis of 5S rDNA changes in synthetic allopolyploids Triticum x Aegilops].

    PubMed

    Shcherban', A B; Sergeeva, E M; Badaeva, E D; Salina, E A

    2008-01-01

    By the example of three synthetic allopolyploids: Aegilops sharonensis x Ae. umbellulata (2n =28), Triticum urartu x Ae. tauschii (2n =28), T. dicoccoides x Ae. tauschii (2n =42) the 5S rDNA changes at the early stage of allopolyploidization were investigated. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), the quantitative changes affecting the separate loci of one of the parental genomes were revealed in plants of S3 generation of each hybrid combination. Souther hybridization with genomic DNA of allopolyploid T. urartu x Ae. tauschii (TMU38 x TQ27) revealed lower intensity of the fragments from Ae. tauschii compared with the T. urartu fragments. It may be confirmation of the reduction of signal on 1D chromosome that was revealed in this hybrid using FISH. Both appearance of a new 5S rDNA fragments and full disappearance of fragments from parental species were not showed by Southern hybridization, as well as PCR-analysis of 5-15 plants of S2-S3 generations. The changes were not found under comparison of primary structure of nine 5S rDNA sequences of allopolyploid TMU38 x TQ27 with analogous sequences from parental species genomes. The observable similarity by FISH results of one of the studied synthetic allopolyploids with natural allopolyploid of similar genome composition indicates the early formation of unique for each allopolyploid 5S rDNA organization. PMID:18856060

  8. AES Water Architecture Study Interim Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarguisingh, Miriam J.

    2012-01-01

    The mission of the Advanced Exploration System (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) is to develop advanced water recovery systems in order to enable NASA human exploration missions beyond low earth orbit (LEO). The primary objective of the AES WRP is to develop water recovery technologies critical to near term missions beyond LEO. The secondary objective is to continue to advance mid-readiness level technologies to support future NASA missions. An effort is being undertaken to establish the architecture for the AES Water Recovery System (WRS) that meets both near and long term objectives. The resultant architecture will be used to guide future technical planning, establish a baseline development roadmap for technology infusion, and establish baseline assumptions for integrated ground and on-orbit environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) definition. This study is being performed in three phases. Phase I of this study established the scope of the study through definition of the mission requirements and constraints, as well as indentifying all possible WRS configurations that meet the mission requirements. Phase II of this study focused on the near term space exploration objectives by establishing an ISS-derived reference schematic for long-duration (>180 day) in-space habitation. Phase III will focus on the long term space exploration objectives, trading the viable WRS configurations identified in Phase I to identify the ideal exploration WRS. The results of Phases I and II are discussed in this paper.

  9. 22 CFR 120.30 - The Automated Export System (AES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false The Automated Export System (AES). 120.30... DEFINITIONS § 120.30 The Automated Export System (AES). The Automated Export System (AES) is the Department of... data and defense services shall be reported directly to the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls...

  10. 22 CFR 120.30 - The Automated Export System (AES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false The Automated Export System (AES). 120.30... DEFINITIONS § 120.30 The Automated Export System (AES). The Automated Export System (AES) is the Department of... data and defense services shall be reported directly to the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls...

  11. 22 CFR 120.30 - The Automated Export System (AES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false The Automated Export System (AES). 120.30... DEFINITIONS § 120.30 The Automated Export System (AES). The Automated Export System (AES) is the Department of... data and defense services shall be reported directly to the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls...

  12. 22 CFR 120.30 - The Automated Export System (AES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false The Automated Export System (AES). 120.30... DEFINITIONS § 120.30 The Automated Export System (AES). The Automated Export System (AES) is the Department of... data and defense services shall be reported directly to the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls...

  13. 22 CFR 120.30 - The Automated Export System (AES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The Automated Export System (AES). 120.30... DEFINITIONS § 120.30 The Automated Export System (AES). The Automated Export System (AES) is the Department of... data and defense services shall be reported directly to the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls...

  14. Molecular survey of Tamyb10-1 genes and their association with grain colour and germinability in Chinese wheat and Aegilops tauschii.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhong Dong; Chen, Jie; Li, Ting; Chen, Feng; Cui, Dang Qun

    2015-09-01

    To investigate allelic variation of Myb10-1 genes in Chinese wheat and to examine its association with germination level in wheat, a total of 582 Chinese bread wheat cultivars and 110 Aegilops tauschii accessions were used to identify allelic variations of three Myb10-1 genes. Identification results indicated that there is a novel Tamyb10-B1 allele, designated Tamyb10-B1c, in the five Chinese landraces. The Tamyb10-B1c possibly has a large deletion including Tamyb10-B1 gene. There are three novel Tamyb10-D1 alleles (Aetmyb10-D1c, Aetmyb10-D1d and Aetmyb10-D1e) that were discovered in Aegilops tauschii. Of them, Aetmyb10-D1c allele possessed a 104-bp deletion and this resulted in a frame shift in the open reading frame of the Aetmyb10-D1 gene. AETMYB10-D1d and AETMYB10-D1e proteins possessed three and two different amino acids when compared with TAMYB10-D1b protein, respectively. Association of Tamyb10-1 allelic variation with grain germination level indicated that all five allelic combinations with red grains showed a significantly higher GP (germination percentage) and GI (germination index) values than those of white-grained Tamyb10-A1a/Tamyb10-B1a/Tamyb10-D1a genotype after storing it for one year. Moreover, the Tamyb10-A1b/Tamyb10-B1c/Tamyb10-D1b genotype possesses the significantly highest GP and GI among the six different Tamyb10-1 combinations. This study could provide useful information for wheat breeding programme in terms of grain colour and germination level. PMID:26440084

  15. Physical mapping resources for large plant genomes: radiation hybrids for wheat D-genome progenitor aegilops tauschii accession AL8/78

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: A high quality reference sequence can provide a complete catalog of genes of a species, the regulatory elements that control their structure and function provide the basis for understanding the role of genes in evolution and development. However, development of a high quality referenc...

  16. BOREAS AES READAC Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, G. Barrie; Funk, Barry; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Canadian AES personnel collected and processed data related to surface atmospheric meteorological conditions over the BOREAS region. This data set contains 15-minute meteorological data from one READAC meteorology station in Hudson Bay, Saskatchewan. Parameters include day, time, type of report, sky condition, visibility, mean sea level pressure, temperature, dewpoint, wind, altimeter, opacity, minimum and maximum visibility, station pressure, minimum and maximum air temperature, a wind group, precipitation, and precipitation in the last hour. The data were collected non-continuously from 24-May-1994 to 20-Sep-1994. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data.

  17. BOREAS AES MARSII Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, G. Barrie; Funk, Barry; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Canadian AES personnel collected several data sets related to surface and atmospheric meteorological conditions over the BOREAS region. This data set contains 15-minute meteorological data from six MARSII meteorology stations in the BOREAS region in Canada. Parameters include site, time, temperature, dewpoint, visibility, wind speed, wind gust, wind direction, two cloud groups, precipitation, and station pressure. Temporally, the data cover the period of May to September 1994. Geo-graphically, the stations are spread across the provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data.

  18. Genetic structure of Aegilops cylindrica Host in its native range and in the United States of America.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Harish T; Vales, M Isabel; Mallory-Smith, Carol; Riera-Lizarazu, Oscar

    2009-10-01

    Chloroplast and nuclear microsatellite markers were used to study genetic diversity and genetic structure of Aegilops cylindrica Host collected in its native range and in adventive sites in the USA. Our analysis suggests that Ae. cylindrica, an allotetraploid, arose from multiple hybridizations between Ae. markgrafii (Greuter) Hammer. and Ae. tauschii Coss. presumably along the Fertile Crescent, where the geographic distributions of its diploid progenitors overlap. However, the center of genetic diversity of this species now encompasses a larger area including northern Iraq, eastern Turkey, and Transcaucasia. Although the majority of accessions of Ae. cylindrica (87%) had D-type plastomes derived from Ae. tauschii, accessions with C-type plastomes (13%), derived from Ae. markgrafii, were also observed. This corroborates a previous study suggesting the dimaternal origin of Ae. cylindrica. Model-based and genetic distance-based clustering using both chloroplast and nuclear markers indicated that Ae. tauschii ssp. tauschii contributed one of its D-type plastomes and its D genome to Ae. cylindrica. Analysis of genetic structure using nuclear markers suggested that Ae. cylindrica accessions could be grouped into three subpopulations (arbitrarily named N-K1, N-K2, and N-K3). Members of the N-K1 subpopulation were the most numerous in its native range and members of the N-K2 subpopulation were the most common in the USA. Our analysis also indicated that Ae. cylindrica accessions in the USA were derived from a few founder genotypes. The frequency of Ae. cylindrica accessions with the C-type plastome in the USA (approximately 24%) was substantially higher than in its native range of distribution (approximately 3%) and all C-type Ae. cylindrica in the USA except one belonged to subpopulation N-K2. The high frequency of the C-type plastome in the USA may reflect a favorable nucleo-cytoplasmic combination. PMID:19618161

  19. The inner zone electron model AE-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teague, M. J.; Vette, J. I.

    1972-01-01

    A description is given of the work performed in the development of the inner radiation zone electron model, AE-5. A complete description of the omnidirectional flux model is given for energy thresholds E sub T in the range 4.0 E sub T/(MeV) 0.04 and for L values in the range 2.8 L 1.2 for an epoch of October 1967. Confidence codes for certain regions of B-L space and certain energies are given based on data coverage and the assumptions made in the analysis. The electron model programs that can be supplied to a user are referred to. One of these, a program for accessing the model flux at arbitrary points in B-L space and arbitrary energies, includes the latest outer zone electron model and proton model. The model AE-5, is based on data from five satellites, OGO 1, OGO 3, 1963-38C, OV3-3, and Explorer 26, spanning the period December 1964 to December 1967.

  20. AE measurements for evaluation of defects in FRP pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Kawahara, Masanori; Takatsu, Takashi

    1995-11-01

    AE (acoustic emission) measurement was conducted in a series of pressuring tests of FRP pressure vessels in order to examine its applicability to the safety evaluation of vessels. Tested vessels were commercial FRP pressure vessels fabricated by filament winding of high strength glass fibers, impregnated epoxy resin, on a Al alloy liner. At the final stage of fabrication, they were subjected to autofrettage, an overpressuring treatment to produce compressive residual stresses in metal liner. AE measurement results showed a strong Kaiser`s effect and high felicity ratios. In a virgin vessel, very few AE signals were detected below the autofrettage pressure. Vessels containing artificial defects showed distinct increase in AE signals at the level of test pressure. AE origin map were obtained by triangular-zone calculation. Discussions are directed, in particular, to the selection of threshold and to the applicability of AE measurement to the in-service inspection of FRP pressure vessel.

  1. Energy efficiency analysis and implementation of AES on an FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenney, David

    The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) was developed by Joan Daemen and Vincent Rjimen and endorsed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology in 2001. It was designed to replace the aging Data Encryption Standard (DES) and be useful for a wide range of applications with varying throughput, area, power dissipation and energy consumption requirements. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are flexible and reconfigurable integrated circuits that are useful for many different applications including the implementation of AES. Though they are highly flexible, FPGAs are often less efficient than Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs); they tend to operate slower, take up more space and dissipate more power. There have been many FPGA AES implementations that focus on obtaining high throughput or low area usage, but very little research done in the area of low power or energy efficient FPGA based AES; in fact, it is rare for estimates on power dissipation to be made at all. This thesis presents a methodology to evaluate the energy efficiency of FPGA based AES designs and proposes a novel FPGA AES implementation which is highly flexible and energy efficient. The proposed methodology is implemented as part of a novel scripting tool, the AES Energy Analyzer, which is able to fully characterize the power dissipation and energy efficiency of FPGA based AES designs. Additionally, this thesis introduces a new FPGA power reduction technique called Opportunistic Combinational Operand Gating (OCOG) which is used in the proposed energy efficient implementation. The AES Energy Analyzer was able to estimate the power dissipation and energy efficiency of the proposed AES design during its most commonly performed operations. It was found that the proposed implementation consumes less energy per operation than any previous FPGA based AES implementations that included power estimations. Finally, the use of Opportunistic Combinational Operand Gating on an AES cipher

  2. BOREAS AES Campbell Scientific Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, G. Barrie; Funk, Barrie; Knapp. David E. (Editor); Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Canadian AES personnel collected data related to surface and atmospheric meteorological conditions over the BOREAS region. This data set contains 15-minute meteorological data from 14 automated meteorology stations located across the BOREAS region. Included in this data are parameters of date, time, mean sea level pressure, station pressure, temperature, dew point, wind speed, resultant wind speed, resultant wind direction, peak wind, precipitation, maximum temperature in the last hour, minimum temperature in the last hour, pressure tendency, liquid precipitation in the last hour, relative humidity, precipitation from a weighing gauge, and snow depth. Temporally, the data cover the period of August 1993 to December 1996. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data.

  3. Discovery of radio emission from AE Aquarii

    SciTech Connect

    Bookbinder, J.A.; Lamb, D.Q.

    1987-12-01

    VLA 1.4-GHz and 4.9-GHz observations of six DQ Her cataclysmic variables, obtained in the C/D hybrid configuration with 50-MHz bandwidth, 7-sec time resolution, and limiting flux density about 200 microJy on July 21, 1984, are reported. Variable radio emission with time scale less than 5 min, circular polarization less than 15 percent, and flux density 3-5 mJy at 1.4 GHz and 8-16 mJy at 4.9 GHz is detected from AE Aqr. This emission is tentatively attributed to synchrotron emission from mildly relativistic electrons, powered by the MHD torque coupling the magnetic white dwarf to either (1) a secondary with a strong magnetic field or (2) an accretion disk. 20 references.

  4. Discovery of radio emission from AE Aquarii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bookbinder, J. A.; Lamb, D. Q.

    1987-01-01

    VLA 1.4-GHz and 4.9-GHz observations of six DQ Her cataclysmic variables, obtained in the C/D hybrid configuration with 50-MHz bandwidth, 7-sec time resolution, and limiting flux density about 200 microJy on July 21, 1984, are reported. Variable radio emission with time scale less than 5 min, circular polarization less than 15 percent, and flux density 3-5 mJy at 1.4 GHz and 8-16 mJy at 4.9 GHz is detected from AE Aqr. This emission is tentatively attributed to synchrotron emission from mildly relativistic electrons, powered by the MHD torque coupling the magnetic white dwarf to either (1) a secondary with a strong magnetic field or (2) an accretion disk.

  5. Multiple Lookup Table-Based AES Encryption Algorithm Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Jin; Liu, Wenyi; Zhang, Huixin

    Anew AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) encryption algorithm implementation was proposed in this paper. It is based on five lookup tables, which are generated from S-box(the substitution table in AES). The obvious advantages are reducing the code-size, improving the implementation efficiency, and helping new learners to understand the AES encryption algorithm and GF(28) multiplication which are necessary to correctly implement AES[1]. This method can be applied on processors with word length 32 or above, FPGA and others. And correspondingly we can implement it by VHDL, Verilog, VB and other languages.

  6. PDS 144: THE FIRST CONFIRMED Herbig Ae-Herbig Ae WIDE BINARY

    SciTech Connect

    Hornbeck, J. B.; Williger, G. M.; Lauroesch, J. T.; Grady, C. A.; Perrin, M. D.; Grogin, N. A.; Wisniewski, J. P.; Tofflemire, B. M.; Brown, A.; Holtzman, J. A.; Arraki, K.; Hamaguchi, K.; Woodgate, B.; Petre, R.; Bonfield, D. G.; Daly, B.

    2012-01-01

    PDS 144 is a pair of Herbig Ae stars that are separated by 5.''35 on the sky. It has previously been shown to have an A2Ve Herbig Ae star viewed at 83 Degree-Sign inclination as its northern member and an A5Ve Herbig Ae star as its southern member. Direct imagery revealed a disk occulting PDS 144 N-the first edge-on disk observed around a Herbig Ae star. The lack of an obvious disk in direct imagery suggested PDS 144 S might be viewed face-on or not physically associated with PDS 144 N. Multi-epoch Hubble Space Telescope imagery of PDS 144 with a 5 year baseline demonstrates PDS 144 N and S are comoving and have a common proper motion with TYC 6782-878-1. TYC 6782-878-1 has previously been identified as a member of Upper Sco sub-association A at d = 145 {+-} 2 pc with an age of 5-10 Myr. Ground-based imagery reveals jets and a string of Herbig-Haro knots extending 13' (possibly further) which are aligned to within 7 Degree-Sign {+-} 6 Degree-Sign on the sky. By combining proper motion data and the absence of a dark mid-plane with radial velocity data, we measure the inclination of PDS 144 S to be i = 73 Degree-Sign {+-} 7 Degree-Sign . The radial velocity of the jets from PDS 144 N and S indicates they, and therefore their disks, are misaligned by 25 Degree-Sign {+-} 9 Degree-Sign . This degree of misalignment is similar to that seen in T Tauri wide binaries.

  7. PDS 144: The First Confirmed Herbig Ae-Herbig Ae Wide Binary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornbeck, J. B.; Grady, C. A.; Perrin, M. D.; Wisniewski, J. P.; Tofflemire, B. M.; Brown, A.; Holtzman, J. A.; Arraki, K.; Hamaguchi, K.; Woodgate, B.; Petre, R.; Daly, B.; Grogin, N. A.; Bonfield, D. G.; Williger, G. M.; Lauroesch, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    PDS 144 is a pair of Herbig Ae stars that are separated by 5.35" on the sky. It has previously been shown to have an A2Ve Herbig Ae star viewed at 83 deg inclination as its northern member and an A5Ve Herbig Ae star as its southern member. Direct imagery revealed a disk occulting PDS 144 N - the first edge-on disk observed around a Herbig Ae star. The lack of an obvious disk in direct imagery suggested PDS 144 S might be viewed face-on or not physically associated with PDS 144 N. Multi-epoch HST imagery of PDS 144 with a 5 yr baseline demonstrates PDS 144 N & S are comoving and have a common proper motion with TYC 6782-878-1. TYC 6782-878-1 has previously been identified as a member of Upper Sco sub-association A at d = 145 +/- 2 pc with an age of 5 - 10 Myr. Ground-based imagery reveals jets and a string of HH knots extending 13' (possibly further) which are aligned to within 7 deg +/- 6 deg on the sky. By combining proper motion data and the absence of a dark mid-plane with radial velocity data, we measure the inclination of PDS 144 S to be i = 73 deg +/- 7 deg. The radial velocity of the jets from PDS 144 N & S indicates they, and therefore their disks, are misaligned by 25 deg +/- 9 deg.. This degree of misalignment is similar to that seen in T-Tauri wide binaries.

  8. 15 CFR 758.2 - Automated Export System (AES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Automated Export System (AES). 758.2... CLEARANCE REQUIREMENTS § 758.2 Automated Export System (AES). The Census Bureau's Foreign Trade Statistics Regulations (FTSR) (15 CFR Part 30) contain provisions for filing Shipper's Export Declarations...

  9. 15 CFR 758.2 - Automated Export System (AES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automated Export System (AES). 758.2... CLEARANCE REQUIREMENTS § 758.2 Automated Export System (AES). The Census Bureau's Foreign Trade Statistics Regulations (FTSR) (15 CFR Part 30) contain provisions for filing Shipper's Export Declarations...

  10. 15 CFR 758.2 - Automated Export System (AES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Automated Export System (AES). 758.2... CLEARANCE REQUIREMENTS § 758.2 Automated Export System (AES). The Census Bureau's Foreign Trade Statistics Regulations (FTSR) (15 CFR part 30) contain provisions for filing Shipper's Export Declarations...

  11. 15 CFR 758.2 - Automated Export System (AES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Automated Export System (AES). 758.2... CLEARANCE REQUIREMENTS § 758.2 Automated Export System (AES). The Census Bureau's Foreign Trade Statistics Regulations (FTSR) (15 CFR Part 30) contain provisions for filing Shipper's Export Declarations...

  12. A Grammar Sketch of the Kaki Ae Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifton, John M.

    Kaki Ae is a non-Austronesian language spoken by about 300 people on the south coast of Papua New Guinea, at best distantly related to any other language in that area. A brief grammar sketch of the language is presented, including discussion of the phonology, sentences, phrases, words, and morpheme categories. Kaki Ae phonemics include 11…

  13. The global compendium of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Kraemer, Moritz U. G.; Sinka, Marianne E.; Duda, Kirsten A.; Mylne, Adrian; Shearer, Freya M.; Brady, Oliver J.; Messina, Jane P.; Barker, Christopher M.; Moore, Chester G.; Carvalho, Roberta G.; Coelho, Giovanini E.; Van Bortel, Wim; Hendrickx, Guy; Schaffner, Francis; Wint, G. R. William; Elyazar, Iqbal R. F.; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the main vectors transmitting dengue and chikungunya viruses. Despite being pathogens of global public health importance, knowledge of their vectors’ global distribution remains patchy and sparse. A global geographic database of known occurrences of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus between 1960 and 2014 was compiled. Herein we present the database, which comprises occurrence data linked to point or polygon locations, derived from peer-reviewed literature and unpublished studies including national entomological surveys and expert networks. We describe all data collection processes, as well as geo-positioning methods, database management and quality-control procedures. This is the first comprehensive global database of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence, consisting of 19,930 and 22,137 geo-positioned occurrence records respectively. Both datasets can be used for a variety of mapping and spatial analyses of the vectors and, by inference, the diseases they transmit. PMID:26175912

  14. Gene flow between wheat and wild relatives: empirical evidence from Aegilops geniculata, Ae. neglecta and Ae. triuncialis

    PubMed Central

    Arrigo, Nils; Guadagnuolo, Roberto; Lappe, Sylvain; Pasche, Sophie; Parisod, Christian; Felber, François

    2011-01-01

    Gene flow between domesticated species and their wild relatives is receiving growing attention. This study addressed introgression between wheat and natural populations of its wild relatives (Aegilops species). The sampling included 472 individuals, collected from 32 Mediterranean populations of three widespread Aegilops species (Aegilops geniculata, Ae. neglecta and Ae. triuncialis) and compared wheat field borders to areas isolated from agriculture. Individuals were characterized with amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting, analysed through two computational approaches (i.e. Bayesian estimations of admixture and fuzzy clustering), and sequences marking wheat-specific insertions of transposable elements. With this combined approach, we detected substantial gene flow between wheat and Aegilops species. Specifically, Ae. neglecta and Ae. triuncialis showed significantly more admixed individuals close to wheat fields than in locations isolated from agriculture. In contrast, little evidence of gene flow was found in Ae. geniculata. Our results indicated that reproductive barriers have been regularly bypassed during the long history of sympatry between wheat and Aegilops. PMID:25568015

  15. Characterization of Aes nuclear foci in colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Itatani, Yoshiro; Sonoshita, Masahiro; Kakizaki, Fumihiko; Okawa, Katsuya; Stifani, Stefano; Itoh, Hideaki; Sakai, Yoshiharu; Taketo, M Mark

    2016-01-01

    Amino-terminal enhancer of split (Aes) is a member of Groucho/Transducin-like enhancer (TLE) family. Aes is a recently found metastasis suppressor of colorectal cancer (CRC) that inhibits Notch signalling, and forms nuclear foci together with TLE1. Although some Notch-associated proteins are known to form subnuclear bodies, little is known regarding the dynamics or functions of these structures. Here, we show that Aes nuclear foci in CRC observed under an electron microscope are in a rather amorphous structure, lacking surrounding membrane. Investigation of their behaviour during the cell cycle by time-lapse cinematography showed that Aes nuclear foci dissolve during mitosis and reassemble after completion of cytokinesis. We have also found that heat shock cognate 70 (HSC70) is an essential component of Aes foci. Pharmacological inhibition of the HSC70 ATPase activity with VER155008 reduces Aes focus formation. These results provide insight into the understanding of Aes-mediated inhibition of Notch signalling. PMID:26229111

  16. Cause of the exceptionally high AE average for 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestes, A.

    2012-04-01

    In this work we focus on the year of 2003 when the AE index was extremely high (AE=341nT, with peak intensity more than 2200nT), this value is almost 100 nT higher when compared with others years of the cycle 23. Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and plasma data are compared with geomagnetic AE and Dst indices to determine the causes of exceptionally high AE average value. Analyzing the solar wind parameters we found that the annual average speed value was extremely high, approximately 542 km/s (peak value ~1074 km/s). These values were due to recurrent high-speed solar streams from large coronal holes, which stretch to the solar equator, and low-latitude coronal holes, which exist for many solar rotations. AE was found to increase with increasing solar wind speed and decrease when solar wind speed decrease. The cause of the high AE activity during 2003 is the presence of the high-speed corotating streams that contain large-amplitude Alfvén waves throughout the streams, which resulted in a large number of HILDCAAs events. When plasma and field of solar wind impinge on Earth's magnetosphere, the southward field turnings associated with the wave fluctuations cause magnetic reconnection and consequential high levels of AE activity and very long recovery phases on Dst, sometimes lasting until the next stream arrives.

  17. Automated Estimating System (AES), Version 5. 1, User's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, R.K.; Holder, D.A.

    1992-08-01

    This document describes Version 5.1 of the Automated Estimating System (AES), a personal computer-based software package. The AES is designed to aid in the creation, updating, and reporting of project cost estimates for the Estimating and Scheduling Department of the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Engineering Division. AES provides formatted input screens to guide the user though the estimate creation/update process and provides several standardized reports that allow cost to be sorted and summarized in many different formats and at several levels of aggregation.

  18. 15 CFR Appendix B to Part 30 - AES Filing Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false AES Filing Codes B Appendix B to Part 30 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Pt. 30, App. B Appendix B to Part 30—AES Filing Codes Part I—Method of Transportation...

  19. Dynamic evolution of resistance gene analogs in the orthologous genomic regions of powdery mildew resistance gene MlIW170 in Triticum dicoccoides and Aegilops tauschii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat is one of the most important staple grain crops in the world. Powdery mildew disease caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici can result in significant losses in both grain yield and quality in wheat. In this study, the wheat powdery mildew resistance gene MlIW170 locus located on the short ...

  20. A Recombinant AeDNA Containing the Insect-Specific Toxin, BmK IT1, Displayed an Increasing Pathogenicity on Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Jin-Bao; Dong, Yun-Qiao; Peng, Hong-Juan; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2010-01-01

    The Aedes aegypti densovirus (AeDNV) has previously shown potential in mosquito control. To improve its efficacy as a biopesticide, the gene for an excitatory insect-specific toxin from Buthus martensii Karsch (BmK IT1) was inserted into the AeDNV genome and cloned into pUCA plasmid. The coding sequence for green fluorescent protein was ligated to the C-terminus of the BmK IT1 gene as a screening marker. Recombinant and helper plasmids were cotransfected into C6/36 cells; wild-type viruses were the controls. The recombinant viruses were identified and quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction and exposed to Ae. albopictus larvae for the evaluation of its bioinsecticidal activity. LT50 and LD50 bioassays showed that the recombinant AeDNV had stronger and faster pathogenic effects on Ae. albopictus than the wild-type virus. This is the first report on the recombinant AeDNA containing the insect-specific toxin, BmK IT1, which may be used to develop a novel type of insecticide. PMID:20810829

  1. [The effect of the genome of the variety on the adaptive characteristics of alloplasmic strains of winter wheat].

    PubMed

    Simonenko, V K; Khangil'din, V V; Vlasenko, V A

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of adaptability and genetical distances between 12 cytoplasms of Aegilops, Triticum and Haynaldia villosa for three winter wheat genomes showed an existence of genome-plasmon interactions. The plasmons of Ae. variabilis, Ae. cylindrica, Ae. squarrosa var. strangulata, T. dicoccoides appeared to be perspective in practical breeding for adaptability. Interactions are revealed as alteration of productivity and adaptability, and as genetic divergence. PMID:10920857

  2. PGSB PlantsDB: updates to the database framework for comparative plant genome research.

    PubMed

    Spannagl, Manuel; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Bader, Kai C; Martis, Mihaela M; Seidel, Michael; Kugler, Karl G; Gundlach, Heidrun; Mayer, Klaus F X

    2016-01-01

    PGSB (Plant Genome and Systems Biology: formerly MIPS) PlantsDB (http://pgsb.helmholtz-muenchen.de/plant/index.jsp) is a database framework for the comparative analysis and visualization of plant genome data. The resource has been updated with new data sets and types as well as specialized tools and interfaces to address user demands for intuitive access to complex plant genome data. In its latest incarnation, we have re-worked both the layout and navigation structure and implemented new keyword search options and a new BLAST sequence search functionality. Actively involved in corresponding sequencing consortia, PlantsDB has dedicated special efforts to the integration and visualization of complex triticeae genome data, especially for barley, wheat and rye. We enhanced CrowsNest, a tool to visualize syntenic relationships between genomes, with data from the wheat sub-genome progenitor Aegilops tauschii and added functionality to the PGSB RNASeqExpressionBrowser. GenomeZipper results were integrated for the genomes of barley, rye, wheat and perennial ryegrass and interactive access is granted through PlantsDB interfaces. Data exchange and cross-linking between PlantsDB and other plant genome databases is stimulated by the transPLANT project (http://transplantdb.eu/). PMID:26527721

  3. PGSB PlantsDB: updates to the database framework for comparative plant genome research

    PubMed Central

    Spannagl, Manuel; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Bader, Kai C.; Martis, Mihaela M.; Seidel, Michael; Kugler, Karl G.; Gundlach, Heidrun; Mayer, Klaus F.X.

    2016-01-01

    PGSB (Plant Genome and Systems Biology: formerly MIPS) PlantsDB (http://pgsb.helmholtz-muenchen.de/plant/index.jsp) is a database framework for the comparative analysis and visualization of plant genome data. The resource has been updated with new data sets and types as well as specialized tools and interfaces to address user demands for intuitive access to complex plant genome data. In its latest incarnation, we have re-worked both the layout and navigation structure and implemented new keyword search options and a new BLAST sequence search functionality. Actively involved in corresponding sequencing consortia, PlantsDB has dedicated special efforts to the integration and visualization of complex triticeae genome data, especially for barley, wheat and rye. We enhanced CrowsNest, a tool to visualize syntenic relationships between genomes, with data from the wheat sub-genome progenitor Aegilops tauschii and added functionality to the PGSB RNASeqExpressionBrowser. GenomeZipper results were integrated for the genomes of barley, rye, wheat and perennial ryegrass and interactive access is granted through PlantsDB interfaces. Data exchange and cross-linking between PlantsDB and other plant genome databases is stimulated by the transPLANT project (http://transplantdb.eu/). PMID:26527721

  4. A scaling relationship between AE and natural earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimitsu, N.; Kawakata, H.; Takahashi, N.

    2013-12-01

    Micro fracture which occurs during rock fracture experiments are called acoustic emission (AE), and it help us to understand detailed processes of fault growth. However, it was unclear whether AE can be considered as a small earthquake or not. Usually, the seismic moment and the corner frequency are used for characterizing source property. It has been reported that the seismic moment is inversely proportional to the cube of corner frequency for natural earthquakes (with magnitude higher than ~ -4). In this study, we examine continuity of this relationship toward smaller magnitude of AE (around magnitude -8), estimating the source parameters of AE. Previously, it was impossible to record AE waveforms by broadband transducers under tri-axial conditions due to lack of pressure seal mechanism. Here we achieved protection of broadband transducers to use them under high pressure environments. This achievement enabled us to do spectral analysis of AE. At the same time, we also achieved multi-channel continuous recording with a high sampling rate, so as not to miss some events smaller than threshold or hide some events behind the mask times by triggered recording. We prepared a cylindrical Westerly granite sample, 50 mm in diameter and 100 mm in height. Sealed nine broadband transducers (sensitive range; 100 kHz - 2000 kHz) were attached on the sample surface. High sampling recording as 20 MS/s per channel was continued, during tri-axial loading (confining pressure: 10 MPa) which was continued to be controlled even after the peak strength. More than 6000 hypocenters were estimated from all pick data during the experiment. We clustered events around the peak strength, so that their differences of hypocenter locations were shorter than 2 mm and their cross correlation values for more than four channels were higher than 0.8. Then, we analyzed two of the largest clusters. After calibrating transducer response, we obtained displacement spectra for S waves, and estimated their

  5. Acoustic emissions (AE) during failure of granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michlmayr, Gernot; Or, Dani

    2014-05-01

    The release of shallow landslides and other geological mass movements is the result of progressive failure accumulation. Mechanical failure in disordered geologic materials occurs in intermittent breakage episodes marking the disintegration or rearrangement of load-bearing elements. Abrupt strain energy release in such breakage episodes is associated with generation of elastic waves measurable as high-frequency (kHz range) acoustic emissions (AE). The close association of AE with progressive failure events hold a promise for using such noninvasive methods to assess the mechanical state of granular Earth materials or for the development early warning methods for shallow landslides. We present numerical simulations that incorporate damage accumulation and associated stress redistribution using a fiber-bundle model. The stress released from element failure (fibers) is redistributed to the surrounding elements and eventually triggers larger failure avalanches. AE signals generated from such events and eventually hitting a virtual sensor are modeled using visco-elastic wave propagation laws. The model captures the characteristic saw-tooth shape of the observed stress-strain curves obtained from strain-controlled experiments with glass beads, including large intermittent stress release events that stem from cascading failure avalanches. The model also reproduces characteristics of AE signatures and yield a good agreement between simulation results and experimental data. Linking mechanical and AE information in the proposed modeling framework offer a solid basis for interpretation of measured field data.

  6. Determination of AES Orbit Elements Using Mixed Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnik, S. Ja.; Strakhova, S. L.

    An algorithm is worked out and a program is compiled for a determination of AES (artificial Earth satellite) orbit elements using both goniometrical and range-finder observations of different precision. The observations of one or several passages carried out from one or several stations can be used. A number of observational stations and a number of observations are not limited in principle. When solving this task the AES ephemerides on the moments of observations are calculated for different sets of orbit elements. A parameter F is considered which is a function of orbit elements. The parameter presents a square-mean deviation of AES ephemeris position on the moments {J;} from its observed one. The determination of real orbit elements comes to minimizing of parameter F by orbit elements using a method of deformed polyhedron. When calculating the ephemeris the amendments for 2-d, 3-d, 4-th geopotential zone harmonics are considered.

  7. An Improved Recovery Algorithm for Decayed AES Key Schedule Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsow, Alex

    A practical algorithm that recovers AES key schedules from decayed memory images is presented. Halderman et al. [1] established this recovery capability, dubbed the cold-boot attack, as a serious vulnerability for several widespread software-based encryption packages. Our algorithm recovers AES-128 key schedules tens of millions of times faster than the original proof-of-concept release. In practice, it enables reliable recovery of key schedules at 70% decay, well over twice the decay capacity of previous methods. The algorithm is generalized to AES-256 and is empirically shown to recover 256-bit key schedules that have suffered 65% decay. When solutions are unique, the algorithm efficiently validates this property and outputs the solution for memory images decayed up to 60%.

  8. A high performance hardware implementation image encryption with AES algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmani, Ali; Jafari, Mohamad; Miremadi, Seyed Sohrab

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes implementation of a high-speed encryption algorithm with high throughput for encrypting the image. Therefore, we select a highly secured symmetric key encryption algorithm AES(Advanced Encryption Standard), in order to increase the speed and throughput using pipeline technique in four stages, control unit based on logic gates, optimal design of multiplier blocks in mixcolumn phase and simultaneous production keys and rounds. Such procedure makes AES suitable for fast image encryption. Implementation of a 128-bit AES on FPGA of Altra company has been done and the results are as follow: throughput, 6 Gbps in 471MHz. The time of encrypting in tested image with 32*32 size is 1.15ms.

  9. Summary of detection, location, and characterization capabilities of AE for continuous monitoring of cracks in reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hutton, P.H.; Kurtz, R.J.; Friesel, M.A.; Pappas, R.A.; Skorpik, J.R.; Dawson, J.F.

    1984-10-01

    The objective of the program is to develop acoustic emission (AE) methods for continuous monitoring of reactor pressure boundaries to detect and evaluate crack growth. The approach involves three phases: develop relationships to identify crack growth AE signals and to use identified crack growth AE data to estimate flaw severity; evaluate and refine AE/flaw relationships through fatigue testing a heavy section vessel under simulated reactor conditions; and demonstrate continuous AE monitoring on a nuclear power reactor system.

  10. Determination of Minerals in Apples by ICP AES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duxbury, Mark

    2003-10-01

    A laboratory experiment is described that involves the elemental analysis of apples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (IICP AES). The results of the experiment allow students to predict the cold-storage stability of apples. During the experiment the sample-preparation techniques and digestion procedures involved in elemental analysis of solid organic samples are introduced and the optimization of the ICP AES is explored. The method detailed can easily be adapted for the analysis of a wider range of elements. The laboratory experiment may also be undertaken using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) with only minor modifications in the sample-preparation procedure.

  11. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR METTLER AE163 AND AE240 ELECTRONIC BALANCE (NHX/SOP-160-008)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This procedure describes the process of calibrating the Mettler AE 163 and AE 240 electronic, dual range analytical balances each having an enclosed weighing pan. Weight ranges for the AE 163 are 0-30 g (0.01 mg readability) and 0-160 g (0.1 mg readability). Weight ranges for the...

  12. Gravity waves in the thermosphere observed by the AE satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S. H.; Reber, C. A.; Huang, F. T.

    1983-01-01

    Atmospheric Explorer (AE) satellite data were used to investigate the spectra characteristics of wave-like structure observed in the neutral and ionized components of the thermosphere. Power spectral analysis derived by the maximum entropy method indicate the existence of a broad spectrum of scale sizes for the fluctuations ranging from tens to thousands of kilometers.

  13. Identification of Novel Recombinant Forms of Hepatitis B Virus Generated from Genotypes Ae and G in HIV-1-Positive Japanese Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Yoko; Kawahata, Takuya; Mori, Haruyo; Furubayashi, Keiichi; Taniguchi, Yasushi; Itoda, Ichiro; Komano, Jun

    2015-07-01

    The rare hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype G (HBV/G) coinfects HIV-1-positive individuals along with HBV/A and generates recombinants. However, the circulation of HBV A/G recombinants remains poorly understood. This molecular epidemiologic study examined HBV A/G recombinants in Japanese HIV-1-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Initially, blood specimens submitted for confirmatory tests of HIV infection in Osaka and Tokyo, Japan, from 2006 to 2013 were examined for HIV-1, and HIV-1-positive specimens were screened for HBV. Among 817 specimens from HIV-1-positive individuals, HBsAg was detected in 59 specimens; of these, HBV/Ae (alternatively A2), a subgenotype of HBV/A prevalent in Europe and North America, was identified in 70.2%, HBV/C in 17.5%, and HBV/G in 10.5%, and HBV/E in 1.8% according to the core gene sequence. The full-length genome analysis of HBV was performed on HBV/G-positive specimens because some HBV A/G recombinants were historically overlooked by genotyping based on a partial genome analysis. It revealed that five of the specimens contained novel Ae/G recombinants, the core gene of which had a high sequence similarity to HBV/G. Detailed analyses showed that novel recombinants were coinfected with HBV/Ae in a recombinant-dominant fashion. No major drug-resistant mutations were found in the newly identified HBV Ae/G recombinants. Some of the individuals asymptomatically coinfected with HIV/HBV suffered mild liver injury. This study demonstrated that novel Ae/G HBV recombinants were identified in Japanese HIV-1-positive MSM. The pathogenicity of novel HBV Ae/G recombinants should be examined in a future longitudinal study. Surveillance of such viruses in HIV-1-positive individuals should be emphasized. PMID:25825936

  14. Identification of Novel Recombinant Forms of Hepatitis B Virus Generated from Genotypes Ae and G in HIV-1-Positive Japanese Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Kawahata, Takuya; Mori, Haruyo; Furubayashi, Keiichi; Taniguchi, Yasushi; Itoda, Ichiro; Komano, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The rare hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype G (HBV/G) coinfects HIV-1-positive individuals along with HBV/A and generates recombinants. However, the circulation of HBV A/G recombinants remains poorly understood. This molecular epidemiologic study examined HBV A/G recombinants in Japanese HIV-1-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Initially, blood specimens submitted for confirmatory tests of HIV infection in Osaka and Tokyo, Japan, from 2006 to 2013 were examined for HIV-1, and HIV-1-positive specimens were screened for HBV. Among 817 specimens from HIV-1-positive individuals, HBsAg was detected in 59 specimens; of these, HBV/Ae (alternatively A2), a subgenotype of HBV/A prevalent in Europe and North America, was identified in 70.2%, HBV/C in 17.5%, and HBV/G in 10.5%, and HBV/E in 1.8% according to the core gene sequence. The full-length genome analysis of HBV was performed on HBV/G-positive specimens because some HBV A/G recombinants were historically overlooked by genotyping based on a partial genome analysis. It revealed that five of the specimens contained novel Ae/G recombinants, the core gene of which had a high sequence similarity to HBV/G. Detailed analyses showed that novel recombinants were coinfected with HBV/Ae in a recombinant-dominant fashion. No major drug-resistant mutations were found in the newly identified HBV Ae/G recombinants. Some of the individuals asymptomatically coinfected with HIV/HBV suffered mild liver injury. This study demonstrated that novel Ae/G HBV recombinants were identified in Japanese HIV-1-positive MSM. The pathogenicity of novel HBV Ae/G recombinants should be examined in a future longitudinal study. Surveillance of such viruses in HIV-1-positive individuals should be emphasized. PMID:25825936

  15. Supraphysiologic levels of the AML1-ETO isoform AE9a are essential for transformation.

    PubMed

    Link, Kevin A; Lin, Shan; Shrestha, Mahesh; Bowman, Melissa; Wunderlich, Mark; Bloomfield, Clara D; Huang, Gang; Mulloy, James C

    2016-08-01

    Chromosomal translocation 8;21 is found in 40% of the FAB M2 subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The resultant in-frame fusion protein AML1-ETO (AE) acts as an initiating oncogene for leukemia development. AE immortalizes human CD34(+) cord blood cells in long-term culture. We assessed the transforming properties of the alternatively spliced AE isoform AE9a (or alternative splicing at exon 9), which is fully transforming in a murine retroviral model, in human cord blood cells. Full activity was realized only upon increased fusion protein expression. This effect was recapitulated in the AE9a murine AML model. Cotransduction of AE and AE9a resulted in a strong selective pressure for AE-expressing cells. In the context of AE, AE9a did not show selection for increased expression, affirming observations of human t(8;21) patient samples where full-length AE is the dominant protein detected. Mechanistically, AE9a showed defective transcriptional regulation of AE target genes that was partially corrected at high expression. Together, these results bring an additional perspective to our understanding of AE function and highlight the contribution of oncogene expression level in t(8;21) experimental models. PMID:27457952

  16. "Storms of crustal stress" and AE earthquake precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregori, G. P.; Poscolieri, M.; Paparo, G.; de Simone, S.; Rafanelli, C.; Ventrice, G.

    2010-02-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) displays violent paroxysms preceding strong earthquakes, observed within some large area (several hundred kilometres wide) around the epicentre. We call them "storms of crustal stress" or, briefly "crustal storms". A few case histories are discussed, all dealing with the Italian peninsula, and with the different behaviour shown by the AE records in the Cephalonia island (Greece), which is characterized by a different tectonic setting. AE is an effective tool for diagnosing the state of some wide slab of the Earth's crust, and for monitoring its evolution, by means of AE of different frequencies. The same effect ought to be detected being time-delayed, when referring to progressively lower frequencies. This results to be an effective check for validating the physical interpretation. Unlike a seismic event, which involves a much limited focal volume and therefore affects a restricted area on the Earth's surface, a "crustal storm" typically involves some large slab of lithosphere and crust. In general, it cannot be easily reckoned to any specific seismic event. An earthquake responds to strictly local rheological features of the crust, which are eventually activated, and become crucial, on the occasion of a "crustal storm". A "crustal storm" lasts typically few years, eventually involving several destructive earthquakes that hit at different times, at different sites, within that given lithospheric slab. Concerning the case histories that are here discussed, the lithospheric slab is identified with the Italian peninsula. During 1996-1997 a "crustal storm" was on, maybe elapsing until 2002 (we lack information for the period 1998-2001). Then, a quiet period occurred from 2002 until 26 May 2008, when a new "crustal storm" started, and by the end of 2009 it is still on. During the 1996-1997 "storm" two strong earthquakes occurred (Potenza and Colfiorito) - and (maybe) in 2002 also the Molise earthquake can be reckoned to this "storm". During the

  17. Genetic analysis of the T. aestivum/Ae. sharonensis introgressive lines of common wheat for resistance to powdery mildew.

    PubMed

    Vdovychenko, Zh V; Antonyuk, M Z; Ternovskaya, T K

    2005-01-01

    Results of investigation of peculiarities of common wheat hybridological analysis for a discrete character, resistance for powdery mildew, governed by the alien gene from Ae. sharonensis are present. Relation between genome structure of crossed introgressive lines and deviation of empirical ratios of segregation in F2 from theoretical, based on the assumption about monogenic inheritance of considered character is established. The approach to the quantitative count of influence of such connection on distortion of actual segregation in comparison with theoretically expected ratio is developed. PMID:16250248

  18. Differential inhibition of AE1 and AE2 anion exchangers by oxonol dyes and by novel polyaminosterol analogs of the shark antibiotic squalamine.

    PubMed

    Alper, S L; Chernova, M N; Williams, J; Zasloff, M; Law, F Y; Knauf, P A

    1998-01-01

    Oxonol and polyaminosterol drugs were examined as inhibitors of recombinant mouse AE1 and AE2 anion exchangers expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and were compared as inhibitors of AE1-mediated anion flux in red cells and in HL-60 cells that express AE2. The oxonols WW-781, diBA(5)C4, and diBA(3)C4 inhibited HL-60 cell Cl-/Cl- exchange with IC50 values from 1 to 7 microM, 100-1000 times less potent than their IC50 values for red cell Cl-/anion exchange. In Xenopus oocytes, diBA(5)C4 inhibited AE1-mediated Cl- efflux several hundred times more potently than that mediated by AE2. Several novel squalamine-related polyaminosterols were also evaluated as anion exchange inhibitors. In contrast to diBA(5)C4, polyaminosterol 1361 inhibited oocyte-expressed AE2 8-fold more potently than AE1 (IC50 0.6 versus 5.2 microM). The 3-fold less potent desulfo-analog, 1360, showed similar preference for AE2. It was found that 1361 also partially inhibited Cl- efflux from red cells, whereas neither polyaminosterol inhibited Cl efflux from HL60 cells. Thus, the oxonol diBA(5)C4 is >100-fold more potent as an inhibitor of AE1 than of AE2, whereas the polyaminosterols 1360 and 1361 are 8-fold more potent as inhibitors of AE2 than of AE1. Assay conditions and cell type influenced IC50 values for both classes of compounds. PMID:10353714

  19. A Novel Byte-Substitution Architecture for the AES Cryptosystem

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Fakir Sharif; Ali, Md. Liakot

    2015-01-01

    The performance of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) mainly depends on speed, area and power. The S-box represents an important factor that affects the performance of AES on each of these factors. A number of techniques have been presented in the literature, which have attempted to improve the performance of the S-box byte-substitution. This paper proposes a new S-box architecture, defining it as ultra low power, robustly parallel and highly efficient in terms of area. The architecture is discussed for both CMOS and FPGA platforms, and the pipelined architecture of the proposed S-box is presented for further time savings and higher throughput along with higher hardware resources utilization. A performance analysis and comparison of the proposed architecture is also conducted with those achieved by the existing techniques. The results of the comparison verify the outperformance of the proposed architecture in terms of power, delay and size. PMID:26491967

  20. Paediatric unplanned reattendance rate: A&E clinical quality indicators.

    PubMed

    O'Loughlin, Kate; Hacking, Katie A; Simmons, Naomi; Christian, William; Syahanee, R; Shamekh, Ahmed; Prince, Nicholas J

    2013-03-01

    The new accident and emergency (A&E) unplanned reattendance rate clinical quality indicator is intended to drive reduction of avoidable reattendances. Validation data for reattendance rates in children are awaited. The aim of this three site observational study is to establish the rate and reasons for unplanned reattendance to UK paediatric A&Es. Each centre undertook retrospective case note review of children attending at least twice within 7 days. Unplanned reattendance rates at the three centres were 5.1%, 5.2% and 4.4%. Reducing unnecessary unplanned reattendances is beneficial for patients, service capacity and efficacy. This study has identified two groups for targeting reattendance reduction: parents of children returning with the same diagnosis, severity unchanged and parents who bypass primary care resources. Clear communication and early involvement of experienced clinicians are paramount. This study has indicated that a 1%-5% unplanned reattendance rate is realistic, achievable and can drive improvement in children's services. PMID:23287643

  1. A Novel Byte-Substitution Architecture for the AES Cryptosystem.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Fakir Sharif; Ali, Md Liakot

    2015-01-01

    The performance of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) mainly depends on speed, area and power. The S-box represents an important factor that affects the performance of AES on each of these factors. A number of techniques have been presented in the literature, which have attempted to improve the performance of the S-box byte-substitution. This paper proposes a new S-box architecture, defining it as ultra low power, robustly parallel and highly efficient in terms of area. The architecture is discussed for both CMOS and FPGA platforms, and the pipelined architecture of the proposed S-box is presented for further time savings and higher throughput along with higher hardware resources utilization. A performance analysis and comparison of the proposed architecture is also conducted with those achieved by the existing techniques. The results of the comparison verify the outperformance of the proposed architecture in terms of power, delay and size. PMID:26491967

  2. Petchienes A-E, Meroterpenoids from Ganoderma petchii.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qin-Lei; Guo, Ping-Xia; Luo, Qi; Yan, Hui; Cheng, Yong-Xian

    2015-12-01

    Petchienes A-E (1-5), five new meroterpenoids, were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma petchii. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were elucidated by means of spectroscopic and computational methods. Compound 4 was isolated as a racemic mixture, which was finally purified by chiral HPLC to yield individual (-) and (+)-antipodes. Biological evaluation showed that compounds 2 and (-)-4 could increase intracellular free calcium concentration at 10 μM in HEK-293 cells. PMID:26882654

  3. HARPS spectropolarimetry of Herbig Ae/Be stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubrig, S.; Ilyin, I.; Schöller, M.; Lo Curto, G.

    2013-12-01

    Our knowledge of the presence and the strength of magnetic fields in intermediate-mass pre-main-sequence stars remains very poor. We present new magnetic field measurements in six Herbig Ae/Be stars observed with HARPS in spectropolarimetric mode. We downloaded from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) archive the publically available HARPS spectra for six Herbig Ae/Be stars. Wavelength shifts between right- and left-hand side circularly polarised spectra were interpreted in terms of a longitudinal magnetic field , using the moment technique introduced by Mathys. The application of the moment technique to the HARPS spectra allowed us in addition to study the presence of the crossover effect and quadratic magnetic fields. Our search for longitudinal magnetic fields resulted in first detections of weak magnetic fields in the Herbig Ae/Be stars HD 58647 and HD 98922. Further, we confirm the previous tentative detection of a weak magnetic field in HD 104237 by Donati et al. and confirm the previous detection of a magnetic field in the Herbig Ae star HD 190073. Surprisingly, the measured longitudinal magnetic field of HD 190073, < Bz >=91±18 G at a significance level of 5σ is not in agreement with the measurement results of Alecian et al. (2013), < Bz >=-10±20 G, who applied the LSD method to exactly the same data. No crossover effect was detected for any star in the sample. Only for HD 98922 the crossover effect was found to be close to 3σ with a measured value of -4228±1443 km s-1 G. A quadratic magnetic field of the order of 10 kG was detected in HD 98922, and of ˜3.5 kG in HD 104237. Based on data obtained from the ESO Science Archive Facility under requests MSCHOELLER 51301, 51324, 36608-36611.

  4. ASASSN-14ae: a tidal disruption event at 200 Mpc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holoien, T. W.-S.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Shappee, B. J.; Grupe, D.; Basu, U.; Beacom, J. F.; Brimacombe, J.; Brown, J. S.; Davis, A. B.; Jencson, J.; Pojmanski, G.; Szczygieł, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    ASASSN-14ae is a candidate tidal disruption event (TDE) found at the centre of SDSS J110840.11+340552.2 (d ≃ 200 Mpc) by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN). We present ground-based and Swift follow-up photometric and spectroscopic observations of the source, finding that the transient had a peak luminosity of L ≃ 8 × 1043 erg s-1 and a total integrated energy of E ≃ 1.7 × 1050 erg radiated over the ˜5 months of observations presented. The blackbody temperature of the transient remains roughly constant at T ˜ 20 000 K while the luminosity declines by nearly 1.5 orders of magnitude during this time, a drop that is most consistent with an exponential, L ∝ e-t/t 0 with t0 ≃ 39 d. The source has broad Balmer lines in emission at all epochs as well as a broad He II feature emerging in later epochs. We compare the colour and spectral evolution to both supernovae and normal AGN to show that ASASSN-14ae does not resemble either type of object and conclude that a TDE is the most likely explanation for our observations. At z = 0.0436, ASASSN-14ae is the lowest-redshift TDE candidate discovered at optical/UV wavelengths to date, and we estimate that ASAS-SN may discover 0.1-3 of these events every year in the future.

  5. Compact and Secure Design of Masked AES S-Box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakeri, Babak; Salmasizadeh, Mahmoud; Moradi, Amir; Tabandeh, Mahmoud; Shalmani, Mohammad T. Manzuri

    Composite field arithmetic is known as an alternative method for lookup tables in implementation of S-box block of AES algorithm. The idea is to breakdown the computations to lower order fields and compute the inverse there. Recently this idea have been used both for reducing the area in implementation of S-boxes and masking implementations of AES algorithm. The most compact design using this technique is presented by Canright using only 92 gates for an S-box block. In another approach, IAIK laboratory has presented a masked implementation of AES algorithm with higher security comparing common masking methods using Composite field arithmetic. Our work in this paper is to use basic ideas of the two approaches above to get a compact masked S-box. We shall use the idea of masking inversion of IAIK's masked S-box but we will rewrite the equations using normal basis. We arrange the terms in these equations in a way that the optimized functions in Canright's compact S-box can be used for our design. An implementation of IAIK's masked S-box is also presented using Canright's polynomial functions to have a fair comparison between our design and IAIK's design. Moreover, we show that this design which uses two special normal basis for GF(16) and GF(4) is the smallest. We shall also prove the security of this design using some lemmas.

  6. Why does A&E attract newly qualified registered nurses?

    PubMed

    Cronin, Gerard; Cronin, Camille

    2006-04-01

    Workforce planning is a particular buzzword that nurse managers must grapple with and now must understand. They must develop strategies to ensure the life and growth of a department while incorporating numerous government targets to ensure the service reaches quality, achieves and meets predetermined goals. To do all this that manager needs a workforce. The recruitment of nursing staff to a specialist area such as Accident & Emergency (A&E) requires a level of creativity and sustained effort. Newly qualified registered nurse working in A&E have, in the past, been considered to be an unusual group of staff to apply to work in A&E. However, many health service managers receive applications from staff in this category and are often encouraged to recruit newly qualified registered nurse's rather than pay for agency workers. Using a qualitative approach this paper explores the key reasons why newly qualified registered nurses choose to work in an Accident & Emergency environment. Data was collected from a sample of 25 newly qualified registered nurses and analysed thematically. Five themes are presented: challenge, teamwork, diversity, support, and learning. These themes have implications for Accident and Emergency units and human resource and workforce planning departments. PMID:16464593

  7. Acc homoeoloci and the evolution of wheat genomes

    PubMed Central

    Chalupska, D.; Lee, H. Y.; Faris, J. D.; Evrard, A.; Chalhoub, B.; Haselkorn, R.; Gornicki, P.

    2008-01-01

    The DNA sequences of wheat Acc-1 and Acc-2 loci, encoding the plastid and cytosolic forms of the enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase, were analyzed with a view to understanding the evolution of these genes and the origin of the three genomes in modern hexaploid wheat. Acc-1 and Acc-2 loci from each of the wheats Triticum urartu (A genome), Aegilops tauschii (D genome), Triticum turgidum (AB genome), and Triticum aestivum (ABD genome), as well as two Acc-2-related pseudogenes from T. urartu were sequenced. The 2.3–2.4 Mya divergence time calculated here for the three homoeologous chromosomes, on the basis of coding and intron sequences of the Acc-1 genes, is at the low end of other estimates. Our clock was calibrated by using 60 Mya for the divergence between wheat and maize. On the same time scale, wheat and barley diverged 11.6 Mya, based on sequences of Acc and other genes. The regions flanking the Acc genes are not conserved among the A, B, and D genomes. They are conserved when comparing homoeologous genomes of diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid wheats. Substitution rates in intergenic regions consisting primarily of repetitive sequences vary substantially along the loci and on average are 3.5-fold higher than the Acc intron substitution rates. The composition of the Acc homoeoloci suggests haplotype divergence exceeding in some cases 0.5 Mya. Such variation might result in a significant overestimate of the time since tetraploid wheat formation, which occurred no more than 0.5 Mya. PMID:18599450

  8. Acc homoeoloci and the evolution of wheat genomes.

    PubMed

    Chalupska, D; Lee, H Y; Faris, J D; Evrard, A; Chalhoub, B; Haselkorn, R; Gornicki, P

    2008-07-15

    The DNA sequences of wheat Acc-1 and Acc-2 loci, encoding the plastid and cytosolic forms of the enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase, were analyzed with a view to understanding the evolution of these genes and the origin of the three genomes in modern hexaploid wheat. Acc-1 and Acc-2 loci from each of the wheats Triticum urartu (A genome), Aegilops tauschii (D genome), Triticum turgidum (AB genome), and Triticum aestivum (ABD genome), as well as two Acc-2-related pseudogenes from T. urartu were sequenced. The 2.3-2.4 Mya divergence time calculated here for the three homoeologous chromosomes, on the basis of coding and intron sequences of the Acc-1 genes, is at the low end of other estimates. Our clock was calibrated by using 60 Mya for the divergence between wheat and maize. On the same time scale, wheat and barley diverged 11.6 Mya, based on sequences of Acc and other genes. The regions flanking the Acc genes are not conserved among the A, B, and D genomes. They are conserved when comparing homoeologous genomes of diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid wheats. Substitution rates in intergenic regions consisting primarily of repetitive sequences vary substantially along the loci and on average are 3.5-fold higher than the Acc intron substitution rates. The composition of the Acc homoeoloci suggests haplotype divergence exceeding in some cases 0.5 Mya. Such variation might result in a significant overestimate of the time since tetraploid wheat formation, which occurred no more than 0.5 Mya. PMID:18599450

  9. 15 CFR 758.1 - The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) or Automated Export System (AES) record. 758.1 Section 758.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record. (a) The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record. The SED (Form 7525-V, Form 7525-V-Alt, or Automated Export System record)...

  10. 15 CFR 758.1 - The Automated Export System (AES) record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CLEARANCE REQUIREMENTS § 758.1 The Automated Export System (AES) record. (a) The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record. The SED (Form 7525-V, Form 7525-V-Alt, or Automated... AES record requirements. When an exemption from filing the Shipper's Export Declaration or...

  11. 15 CFR 758.1 - The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) or Automated Export System (AES) record. 758.1 Section 758.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record. (a) The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record. The SED (Form 7525-V, Form 7525-V-Alt, or Automated Export System record)...

  12. 15 CFR 758.1 - The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) or Automated Export System (AES) record. 758.1 Section 758.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record. (a) The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record. The SED (Form 7525-V, Form 7525-V-Alt, or Automated Export System record)...

  13. 76 FR 4089 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Automated Export System (AES) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Automated Export System (AES) Program... INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Automated Export System (AES), is the instrument used for collecting export trade... provisions for preparing and filing the AES record. These data are used in the development of U.S....

  14. 15 CFR 758.1 - The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) or Automated Export System (AES) record. 758.1 Section 758.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record. (a) The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record. The SED (Form 7525-V, Form 7525-V-Alt, or Automated Export System record)...

  15. TURBO-AE: An Aeroelastic Code for Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakhle, Milind A.

    1997-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) program is developing new technologies to increase the fuel efficiency of commercial aircraft engines, improve the safety of engine operation, and reduce engine emissions and noise. With the development of new designs for ducted fans, compressors, and turbines to achieve these goals, a basic aeroelastic requirement is that there should be no flutter or high resonant blade stresses in the operating regime. To verify the aeroelastic soundness of these designs, we need an accurate prediction and analysis code. Such a two-dimensional viscous propulsion aeroelastic code, named TURBO-AE, is being developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The TURBO-AE aeroelastic code is based on a three-dimensional unsteady aerodynamic Euler/Navier-Stokes turbomachinery code TURBO, developed under a grant from NASA Lewis. TURBO-AE can model viscous flow effects that play an important role in certain aeroelastic problems, such as flutter with flow separation (or stall flutter) and flutter in the presence of shock and boundary-layer interaction. The structural dynamics representation of the blade in the TURBO-AE code is based on a normal mode representation. A finite element analysis code, such as NASTRAN, is used to calculate in-vacuum vibration modes and the associated natural frequency. A work-per-cycle approach is used to determine aeroelastic (flutter) stability. With this approach, the motion of the blade is prescribed to be a harmonic vibration in a specified in vacuum normal mode. The aerodynamic forces acting on the vibrating blade and the work done by these forces on the vibrating blade during a cycle of vibration are calculated. If positive work is being done on the blade by the aerodynamic forces, the blade is dynamically unstable, since it will extract energy from the flow, leading to an increase in the amplitude of the blade's oscillation. Initial calculations have been done for a configuration representative of the Energy

  16. Development and characterization of wheat-Ae. searsii Robertsonian translocations and a recombinant chromosome conferring resistance to stem rust.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenxuan; Jin, Yue; Rouse, Matthew; Friebe, Bernd; Gill, Bikram; Pumphrey, Michael O

    2011-05-01

    The emergence of a new highly virulent race of stem rust (Puccinia graminis tritici), Ug99, rapid evolution of new Ug99 derivative races overcoming resistance of widely deployed genes, and spread towards important wheat growing areas now potentially threaten world food security. Exploiting novel genes effective against Ug99 from wild relatives of wheat is one of the most promising strategies for the protection of the wheat crop. A new source of resistance to Ug99 was identified in the short arm of the Aegilops searsii chromosome 3S(s) by screening wheat- Ae. searsii introgression libraries available as individual chromosome and chromosome arm additions to the wheat genome. For transferring this resistance gene into common wheat, we produced three double-monosomic chromosome populations (3A/3S(s), 3B/3S(s) and 3D/3S(s)) and then applied integrated stem rust screening, molecular maker analysis, and cytogenetic analysis to identify resistant wheat-Ae. searsii Robertsonian translocation. Three Robertsonian translocations (T3AL·3S(s)S, T3BL·3S(s)S and T3DL·3S(s)S) and one recombinant (T3DS-3S(s)S·3S(s)L) with stem rust resistance were identified and confirmed to be genetically compensating on the basis of genomic in situ hybridization, analysis of 3A, 3B, 3D and 3S(s)S-specific SSR/STS-PCR markers, and C-banding. In addition, nine SSR/STS-PCR markers of 3S(s)S-specific were developed for marker-assisted selection of the resistant gene. Efforts to reduce potential linkage drag associated with 3S(s)S of Ae. searsii are currently under way. PMID:21347655

  17. Mutation Conferring Apical-Targeting Motif on AE1 Exchanger Causes Autosomal Dominant Distal RTA

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Andrew C.; Su, Ya; Yiu, Vivian; Cuthbert, Alan W.; Trachtman, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in SLC4A1 that mislocalize its product, the chloride/bicarbonate exchanger AE1, away from its normal position on the basolateral membrane of the α-intercalated cell cause autosomal dominant distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). We studied a family exhibiting dominant inheritance and defined a mutation (AE1-M909T) that affects the C terminus of AE1, a region rich in potential targeting motifs that are incompletely characterized. Expression of AE1-M909T in Xenopus oocytes confirmed preservation of its anion exchange function. Wild-type GFP-tagged AE1 localized to the basolateral membrane of polarized MDCK cells, but AE1-M909T localized to both the apical and basolateral membranes. Wild-type AE1 trafficked directly to the basolateral membrane without apical passage, whereas AE1-M909T trafficked to both cell surfaces, implying the gain of an apical-targeting signal. We found that AE1-M909T acquired class 1 PDZ ligand activity that the wild type did not possess. In summary, the AE1-M909T mutation illustrates the role of abnormal targeting in dRTA and provides insight into C-terminal motifs that govern normal trafficking of AE1. PMID:22518001

  18. Mutation conferring apical-targeting motif on AE1 exchanger causes autosomal dominant distal RTA.

    PubMed

    Fry, Andrew C; Su, Ya; Yiu, Vivian; Cuthbert, Alan W; Trachtman, Howard; Karet Frankl, Fiona E

    2012-07-01

    Mutations in SLC4A1 that mislocalize its product, the chloride/bicarbonate exchanger AE1, away from its normal position on the basolateral membrane of the α-intercalated cell cause autosomal dominant distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). We studied a family exhibiting dominant inheritance and defined a mutation (AE1-M909T) that affects the C terminus of AE1, a region rich in potential targeting motifs that are incompletely characterized. Expression of AE1-M909T in Xenopus oocytes confirmed preservation of its anion exchange function. Wild-type GFP-tagged AE1 localized to the basolateral membrane of polarized MDCK cells, but AE1-M909T localized to both the apical and basolateral membranes. Wild-type AE1 trafficked directly to the basolateral membrane without apical passage, whereas AE1-M909T trafficked to both cell surfaces, implying the gain of an apical-targeting signal. We found that AE1-M909T acquired class 1 PDZ ligand activity that the wild type did not possess. In summary, the AE1-M909T mutation illustrates the role of abnormal targeting in dRTA and provides insight into C-terminal motifs that govern normal trafficking of AE1. PMID:22518001

  19. Mid-IR Spectra Herbig Ae/Be Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, Diane; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Herbig Ae/Be stars are intermediate mass pre-main sequence stars, the higher mass analogues to the T Tauri stars. Because of their higher mass, they are expected form more rapidly than the T Tauri stars. Whether the Herbig Ae/Be stars accrete only from collapsing infalling envelopes or whether accrete through geometrically flattened viscous accretion disks is of current debate. When the Herbig Ae/Be stars reach the main sequence they form a class called Vega-like stars which are known from their IR excesses to have debris disks, such as the famous beta Pictoris. The evolutionary scenario between the pre-main sequence Herbig Ae/Be stars and the main sequence Vega-like stars is not yet revealed and it bears on the possibility of the presence of Habitable Zone planets around the A stars. Photometric studies of Herbig Ae/Be stars have revealed that most are variable in the optical, and a subset of stars show non-periodic drops of about 2 magnitudes. These drops in visible light are accompanied by changes in their colors: at first the starlight becomes reddened, and then it becomes bluer, the polarization goes from less than 0.1 % to roughly 1% during these minima. The theory postulated by V. Grinnin is that large cometary bodies on highly eccentric orbits occult the star on their way to being sublimed, for systems that are viewed edge-on. This theory is one of several controversial theories about the nature of Herbig Ae/Be stars. A 5 year mid-IR spectrophotometric monitoring campaign was begun by Wooden and Butner in 1992 to look for correlations between the variations in visible photometry and mid-IR dust emission features. Generally the approximately 20 stars that have been observed by the NASA Ames HIFOGS spectrometer have been steady at 10 microns. There are a handful, however, that have shown variable mid-IR spectra, with 2 showing variations in both the continuum and features anti-correlated with visual photometry, and 3 showing variations in the emission

  20. Genome-wide characterization of microsatellites in Triticeae species: abundance, distribution and evolution.

    PubMed

    Deng, Pingchuan; Wang, Meng; Feng, Kewei; Cui, Licao; Tong, Wei; Song, Weining; Nie, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellites are an important constituent of plant genome and distributed across entire genome. In this study, genome-wide analysis of microsatellites in 8 Triticeae species and 9 model plants revealed that microsatellite characteristics were similar among the Triticeae species. Furthermore, genome-wide microsatellite markers were designed in wheat and then used to analyze the evolutionary relationship of wheat and other Triticeae species. Results displayed that Aegilops tauschii was found to be the closest species to Triticum aestivum, followed by Triticum urartu, Triticum turgidum and Aegilops speltoides, while Triticum monococcum, Aegilops sharonensis and Hordeum vulgare showed a relatively lower PCR amplification effectivity. Additionally, a significantly higher PCR amplification effectivity was found in chromosomes at the same subgenome than its homoeologous when these markers were subjected to search against different chromosomes in wheat. After a rigorous screening process, a total of 20,666 markers showed high amplification and polymorphic potential in wheat and its relatives, which were integrated with the public available wheat markers and then anchored to the genome of wheat (CS). This study not only provided the useful resource for SSR markers development in Triticeae species, but also shed light on the evolution of polyploid wheat from the perspective of microsatellites. PMID:27561724

  1. Genome-wide characterization of microsatellites in Triticeae species: abundance, distribution and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Pingchuan; Wang, Meng; Feng, Kewei; Cui, Licao; Tong, Wei; Song, Weining; Nie, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellites are an important constituent of plant genome and distributed across entire genome. In this study, genome-wide analysis of microsatellites in 8 Triticeae species and 9 model plants revealed that microsatellite characteristics were similar among the Triticeae species. Furthermore, genome-wide microsatellite markers were designed in wheat and then used to analyze the evolutionary relationship of wheat and other Triticeae species. Results displayed that Aegilops tauschii was found to be the closest species to Triticum aestivum, followed by Triticum urartu, Triticum turgidum and Aegilops speltoides, while Triticum monococcum, Aegilops sharonensis and Hordeum vulgare showed a relatively lower PCR amplification effectivity. Additionally, a significantly higher PCR amplification effectivity was found in chromosomes at the same subgenome than its homoeologous when these markers were subjected to search against different chromosomes in wheat. After a rigorous screening process, a total of 20,666 markers showed high amplification and polymorphic potential in wheat and its relatives, which were integrated with the public available wheat markers and then anchored to the genome of wheat (CS). This study not only provided the useful resource for SSR markers development in Triticeae species, but also shed light on the evolution of polyploid wheat from the perspective of microsatellites. PMID:27561724

  2. Numerical and experimental characterizations of low frequency MEMS AE sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saboonchi, Hossain; Ozevin, Didem

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, new MEMS Acoustic Emission (AE) sensors are introduced. The transduction principle of the sensors is capacitance due to gap change. The sensors are numerically modeled using COMSOL Multiphysics software in order to estimate the resonant frequencies and capacitance values, and manufactured using MetalMUMPS process. The process includes thick metal layer (20 μm) made of nickel for freely vibration layer and polysilicon layer as the stationary layer. The metal layer provides a relatively heavy mass so that the spring constant can be designed high for low frequency sensor designs in order to increase the collapse voltage level (proportional to the stiffness), which increases the sensor sensitivity. An insulator layer is deposited between stationary layer and freely vibration layer, which significantly reduces the potential of stiction as a failure mode. As conventional AE sensors made of piezoelectric materials cannot be designed for low frequencies (<300 kHz) with miniature size, the MEMS sensor frequencies are tuned to 50 kHz and 200 kHz. The each sensor contained several parallel-connected cells with an overall size of approximately 250μm × 500 μm. The electromechanical characterizations are performed using high precision impedance analyzer and compared with the numerical results, which indicate a good fit. The initial mechanical characterization tests in atmospheric pressure are conducted using pencil lead break simulations. The proper sensor design reduces the squeeze film damping so that it does not require any vacuum packaging. The MEMS sensor responses are compared with similar frequency piezoelectric AE sensors.

  3. Using patient passports to improve A&E asthma care.

    PubMed

    Newell, Karen; Bunce, Rebecca; Hume, Shenagh

    The asthma patient passport (APP) is a patient-specific asthma plan that details what to do when asthma is out of control. It helps patients who have severe, difficult-to-manage asthma, and health professionals when these patients present at accident and emergency. This article shows that, while the APP acts as a patient's advocate, it also facilitates accessing emergency care by making it more streamlined. Case studies explore why people with asthma have avoided going to A&E, putting their lives at risk, and provide an insight into how difficult it can be for people to navigate the healthcare system when they are at their most vulnerable. PMID:26021030

  4. AES XPS study of chromium carbides and chromium iron carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detroye, M.; Reniers, F.; Buess-Herman, C.; Vereecken, J.

    1999-04-01

    The nature of chromium rich carbides which precipitate at grain boundaries in steels is still not perfectly understood. We performed a multitechnique approach on model chromium carbide and chromium-iron carbide samples: Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and High Energy Electron Diffraction (HEED) were used to characterise the samples. Significant chemical shifts were observed for the Cr, Fe and C XPS peaks in the M 7C 3 compound (M stands for metal), indicating unambiguously that the compound formed is a mixed iron-chromium carbide.

  5. Artificial epi-Retinal Prosthesis (AeRP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doorish, John F.

    2006-09-01

    There are several research projects going on around the world, which are attempting to develop a prosthetic device to restore sight to the blind. This paper describes the efforts of Second Sight of New York, Inc. The device being developed is called an Artificial epi-Retinal Prosthesis (AeRP), which is basically a small optical computer that fits into the intraocular space of the eye. The AeRP is designed to draw light into the device by specially designed fibre optics. The light is ‘digitized’ by the fibre optic system and then directed to individual photodiode cells making up concentric cylinders thus providing several hundred photodiode cells in the device. The produced electrical stimulation from each cell is then delivered to the retinal ganglion cells by a specially designed delivery system utilizing electrically conducting polymer strands (ECP), which sit on an ‘umbrella’ at the back of the device. The retinal ganglion cells receive the electrical stimulation, which would then be transmitted through the visual system of the brain. There are several innovations in this approach as compared to the other projects. They include, first the design, which will allow for a high number of PC to produce electrical stimulation that will stimulate multiple RGC per PC; the use of the ECP strands has not been used in such an approach before this. Tests have revealed that nerve cells have a good affinity for the material of the ECP. The use of the ECP as well as the fact that the AeRP is completely photovoltaic, with no external power sources, implies that there will not be high heat build-up in the back of the eye, which might damage RGC. A smaller version of the AeRP called the Mini epi-Retinal Prosthesis (MeRP) is the subject of a complimentary paper. It is being built now and will be tested in cell culture studies to determine the efficacy of the design and materials. No actual implants have been performed yet.

  6. Determination of the AES attitude from the angular velocity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliasberg, P. E.; Pivovarov, M. L.

    1984-10-01

    A nonlinear algorithm that could be used for the AES satellite to determine its motions relative to its mass center using rate sensor data is presented. The calculations are performed relative to absolute geocentric and satellite body coordinate systems. A transfer matrix of cosines relates positions and velocities in one system to positions and velocities in the other. The orientation algorithm is obtained with a matrix kinematic equation solved by a least squares technique. Sample calculations for the Intercosmos 17 satellite, employing sun sensor and magnetometer data, show the algorithm's capabilities for generating the satellite variations in the orbital coordinate system. Yaw, roll and pitch data are obtained.

  7. Genetic Characteristics of CRF01_AE Among Newly Diagnosed HIV-1-Infected 16- to 25-Year Olds in 3 Geographic Regions of Guangxi, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Shen, Zhi-Yong; Li, Zheng; Liang, Shu-Jia; He, Cui; Liang, Fu-Xiong; Feng, Yi; Li, Jian-Jun; Ruan, Yu-Hua; Zhou, Yue-Jiao; Shao, Yi-Ming; Xing, Hui; Liao, Ling-Jie

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of clusters and drug resistance of CRF01_AE among newly diagnosed, treatment-naïve HIV-infected teenagers and young adults in 3 major HIV-affected geographic regions of Guangxi Province, including the cities of Hezhou, Liuzhou, and Nanning. Samples were sequentially collected from newly diagnosed HIV-infected 16- to 25-year olds in these 3 regions from 2009 to 2013. The viral genome was extracted, and the partial pol gene was amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses were used to determine HIV-1 subtypes and CRF01_AE clusters. Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) mutations were identified using the 2009 WHO list of TDR mutations. A total of 216 sequences were obtained from CRF01_AE strains, which accounted for 83.1% of the 260 genotyped samples, of which 36 were from Hezhou, 147 from Liuzhou, and 33 in Nanning. Most (83.3%, 180/216) were from heterosexuals, followed by injection drug users (5.6%), homosexuals (4.2%), and unknown risk group (6.9%). Based on phylogenetic analyses by the maximum likelihood method, 5 distinct clusters (cluster 1-5) were identified with 213 (98.6%) sequences, whereas 3 (1.4%) sequences were ungrouped. In Hezhou, 88.9% (32/36) of CRF01_AE infections were caused by cluster 2, and 11.1% (4/36) were caused by cluster 1. In Liuzhou, 83.0% (122/147) of the CRF01_AE strains were found in cluster 1, 11.6% (17/147) from cluster 2, 1.4% (2/147) from cluster 3, 2.7% (4/147) from cluster 4, and 0.7% (1/147) from cluster 5. The distribution of CRF01_AE clusters was more even in Nanning than it was in the other 2 regions, with 18.2% (6/33) from cluster 1, 36.3% (12/33) from cluster 2, 9.1% (3/33) from cluster 3, 18.2% (6/33) from cluster 4, and 12.1% (4/33) from cluster 5. The most frequent TDR mutations were M46I (2) in the protease region and Y181C (2) from the reverse transcriptase fragment. Clusters 1 and 2 of CRF01_AE strains were prevalent in Liuzhou and Hezhou, respectively. However

  8. Decryption-decompression of AES protected ZIP files on GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duong, Tan Nhat; Pham, Phong Hong; Nguyen, Duc Huu; Nguyen, Thuy Thanh; Le, Hung Duc

    2011-10-01

    AES is a strong encryption system, so decryption-decompression of AES encrypted ZIP files requires very large computing power and techniques of reducing the password space. This makes implementations of techniques on common computing system not practical. In [1], we reduced the original very large password search space to a much smaller one which surely containing the correct password. Based on reduced set of passwords, in this paper, we parallel decryption, decompression and plain text recognition for encrypted ZIP files by using CUDA computing technology on graphics cards GeForce GTX295 of NVIDIA, to find out the correct password. The experimental results have shown that the speed of decrypting, decompressing, recognizing plain text and finding out the original password increases about from 45 to 180 times (depends on the number of GPUs) compared to sequential execution on the Intel Core 2 Quad Q8400 2.66 GHz. These results have demonstrated the potential applicability of GPUs in this cryptanalysis field.

  9. Quantification of AES depth profiles by the MRI model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovač, Janez; Zalar, Anton; Praček, Borut

    2003-02-01

    The main physical effects that contribute to interface broadening in the sputter depth profiles of polycrystalline metallic multilayer structures were studied by comparison of measured and simulated AES depth profiles. An algorithm based on the so-called mixing-roughness-information depth (MRI) model was used to simulate AES depth profiles of Ni/Cr multilayer structures with different roughnesses of the initial surfaces. The simulated depth profiles were compared with measurements performed at two different depth profiling parameters on the Ni/Cr and Al/Ni/Cr multilayer structures with an initial surface roughness of about 1.0 and 21.5 nm, respectively. The comparison of simulated and measured depth profiles enabled us to separate and estimate different contributions to the interface broadening, as well as their dependence on the sputter depth. We found that roughness was the dominant factor related to depth resolution with respect to the information depth and atomic mixing contribution. The values of roughness introduced into the simulation algorithm coincided well with the values measured by AFM at the initial surface and after depth profiling. The results showed the capability of the simulation procedure based on the MRI model to separate and evaluate different contributions to the depth resolution.

  10. The spectrum and variability of radio emission from AE Aquarii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abada-Simon, Meil; Lecacheux, Alain; Bastian, Tim S.; Bookbinder, Jay A.; Dulk, George A.

    1993-01-01

    The first detections of the magnetic cataclysmic variable AE Aquarii at millimeter wavelengths are reported. AE Aqr was detected at wavelengths of 3.4 and 1.25 mm. These data are used to show that the time-averaged spectrum is generally well fitted by a power law S(nu) varies as nu exp alpha, where alpha is approximately equal to 0.35-0.60, and that the power law extends to millimeter wavelengths, i.e., the spectral turnover is at a frequency higher than 240 GHz. It is suggested that the spectrum is consistent with that expected from a superposition of flarelike events where the frequency distribution of the initial flux density is a power law f (S0) varies as S0 exp -epsilon, with index epsilon approximately equal to 1.8. Within the context of this model, the high turnover frequency of the radio spectrum implies magnetic field strengths in excess of 250 G in the source.

  11. Transformation of AeIn4 Indides (Ae = Ba, Sr) into an AeAu2In2 Structure Type Through Gold Substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Jing-Cao; Corbett, John D.

    2007-04-17

    The title compounds were prepared from the elements by high-temperature solid-state synthesis techniques. X-ray structural analyses shows that BaAu{sub 2}In{sub 2} (1) and SrAu{sub 2}In{sub 2} (2) crystallize in a new orthorhombic structure, Pnma, Z = 4 (a = 8.755(2), 8.530(2) {angstrom}; b = 4.712(1), 4.598(1) {angstrom}; c = 12.368(3), 12.283(4) {angstrom}, respectively). Gold substitutes for 50% of the indium atoms in the tetragonal BaIn{sub 4} and monoclinic SrIn{sub 4} parents to give this new and more flexible orthorhombic structure. The Ae atoms in this structure are contained within chains of hexagonal prisms built of alternating In and Au that have additional augmenting atoms around their waists from further condensation of parallel displaced chains. The driving forces for these structural changes are in part the shorter Au-In distances (2.72 and 2.69 {angstrom}) relative to d(In-In) in the parents, presumably because of relativistic contractions with Au. Generalities about such centered prismatic building blocks and their condensation modes in these and related phases are described. Band structure calculations (EHTB) demonstrate that the two compounds are metallic, which is confirmed by measurements of the resistivity of 1 and the magnetic susceptibilities of both.

  12. CRF01_AE/B/C, a Novel Drug-Resistant HIV-1 Recombinant in Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jing; Xin, Ruolei; Li, Zheng; Feng, Yi; Lu, Hongyan; Liao, Lingjie; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming; Xing, Hui

    2015-07-01

    We report a unique HIV-1 recombinant strain (URF) from an HIV-positive man who has sex with men (MSM) in Beijing, China. This virus genome has insertions and multiple drug-resistant mutations to both nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), as well as a complex intersubtype recombinant structure with 11 breakpoints. Phylogenetic analysis of the near full-length genome (NFLG) shows that this URF is comprised of gene regions originating from three circulating viral strains: CRF01_AE, subtype B, and subtype C. The parental CRF01_AE regions of the recombinant cluster with a previously described cluster 4 sublineage of CRF01_AE. The B regions of the recombinant cluster within the B (United States-European origin) subtype and the three subtype C regions cluster with a strain detected in China in 1998. The detection and characterization of this complex drug-resistant URF indicate an ongoing generation of recombinant strains among MSM, and will help to provide insight into our understanding of the dynamics and complexity of the HIV-1 epidemic in China. PMID:25962473

  13. An effective tool for identifying HIV-1 subtypes B, C, CRF01_AE, their recombinant forms, and dual infections in Southeast Asia by the multi-region subtype specific PCR (MSSP) assay.

    PubMed

    Sakkhachornphop, Supachai; Kijak, Gustavo H; Beyrer, Chris; Razak, Myat Htoo; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Jittiwutikarn, Jaroon; Suriyanon, Vinai; Robb, Merlin L; Kim, Jerome H; Celentano, David D; McCutchan, Francine E; Tovanabutra, Sodsai

    2015-06-01

    The RV144 Thai vaccine trial has been the only vaccine study to show efficacy in preventing HIV infection. Ongoing molecular surveillance of HIV-1 in Southeast Asia is vital for vaccine development and evaluation. In this study a novel tool, the multi-region subtype specific PCR (MSSP) assay, that was able to identify subtypes B, C, CRF01_AE for Thailand, other Southeast Asian countries, India and China is described. The MSSP assay is based on a nested PCR strategy and amplifies eight short regions distributed along the HIV-1 genome using subtype-specific primers. A panel of 41 clinical DNA samples obtained primarily from opiate users in northern Thailand was used to test the assay performance. The MSSP assay provided 73-100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for the three subtypes in each genome region. The assay was then field-tested on 337 sera from HIV infected northern Thai drug users collected between 1999 and 2002. Subtype distribution was CRF01_AE 77.4% (n=261), subtype B 3.3% (n=11), CRF01_AE/B recombinant 12.2% (n=41), CRF01_AE/C recombinant 0.6% (n=2), and non-typeable 6.5% (n=22). The MSSP assay is a simple, cost-effective, and accurate genotyping tool for laboratory settings with limited resources and is sensitive enough to capture the recombinant genomes and dual infections. PMID:25725414

  14. Latitudinal variation of thermospheric hydrogen near solstice from AE-D observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanatani, S.; Breig, E. L.

    1988-01-01

    Variations of thermospheric neutral atomic hydrogen with latitude during a solstice season near solar minimum were investigated using data acquired with the polar-orbiting AE-D satellite. Hydrogen concentrations at low latitude were found to be comparable to those found from observations with the AE-E satellite, but were slightly higher than concentrations derived from the 1983 mass spectrometer incoherent scatter atmospheric model. Results confirm the general summer-to-winter density increase, large latitudinal gradients in the summer hemisphere, and the winter enhancement of hydrogen observed in AE-C nighttime measurements. The AE-D data, however, show a small polar depression in hydrogen concentration at high winter latitudes, attributed to atmospheric dynamics following auroral heating. The density gradients observed by AE-D in the summer hemisphere were in sharp contrast to the more constant horizontal daytime profiles reported from OGO-6 and previous AE-C measurements, indicating the possibility of local time effects.

  15. A high voltage power supply for the AE-C and D low energy electron experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    A description is given of the electrical and mechanical design and operation of high voltage power supplies for space flight use. The supply was used to generate the spiraltron high voltage for low energy electron experiment on AE-C and D. Two versions of the supply were designed and built; one design is referred to as the low power version (AE-C) and the other as the high power version (AE-D). Performance is discussed under all operating conditions.

  16. NPS alternate techsat satellite, design project for AE-4871

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This project was completed as part of AE-4871, Advanced Spacecraft Design. The intent of the course is to provide experience in the design of all the major components in a spacecraft system. Team members were given responsibility for the design of one of the six primary subsystems: power, structures, propulsion, attitude control, telemetry, tracking and control (TT&C), and thermal control. In addition, a single member worked on configuration control, launch vehicle integration, and a spacecraft test plan. Given an eleven week time constraint, a preliminary design of each subsystem was completed. Where possible, possible component selections were also made. Assistance for this project came principally from the Naval Research Laboratory's Spacecraft Technology Branch. Specific information on components was solicited from representatives in industry. The design project centers on a general purpose satellite bus that is currently being sought by the Strategic Defense Initiative.

  17. Effects of Auger electron elastic scattering in quantitative AES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, Aleksander

    1987-09-01

    The Monte Carlo algorithm was developed for simulating the trajectories of electrons elastically scattered in the solid. The distribution of scattering angles was determined using the partial wave expansion method. This algorithm was used to establish the influence of Auger electron elastic collisions on the results of quantitative AES analysis. The calculations were performed for the most pronounced KLL, L 3 MM and M 5NN Auger transitions. It turned out that due to the elastic collisions the Auger electron signal is decreased by up to 10%. The corresponding decreased of the escape depth of Auger electrons reaches 30% as compared with the value derived from the inelastic mean free path. The values of the inelastic mean free path resulting from the overalyer method may be strongly affected by elastic scattering of Auger electrons.

  18. Report on the Development of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES).

    PubMed

    Nechvatal, J; Barker, E; Bassham, L; Burr, W; Dworkin, M; Foti, J; Roback, E

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) initiated a process to select a symmetric-key encryption algorithm to be used to protect sensitive (unclassified) Federal information in furtherance of NIST's statutory responsibilities. In 1998, NIST announced the acceptance of 15 candidate algorithms and requested the assistance of the cryptographic research community in analyzing the candidates. This analysis included an initial examination of the security and efficiency characteristics for each algorithm. NIST reviewed the results of this preliminary research and selected MARS, RC™, Rijndael, Serpent and Twofish as finalists. Having reviewed further public analysis of the finalists, NIST has decided to propose Rijndael as the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). The research results and rationale for this selection are documented in this report. PMID:27500035

  19. STS-80 Payload WSF-3 in Hanger AE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In NASA's Building AE on Cape Canaveral Air Station, preparation of the Wake Shield Facility-3 (WSF-3) continues as workers install Get Away Special canisters for ballast on the spacecraft. The WSF-3 represents the third flight since 1994 of the disk- shaped satellite primarily designed to generate an ultravacuum in space in which to grow advanced semiconductor high-purity thin films. The WSF-3 is one of the primary payloads scheduled to fly aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia on Mission STS-80, targeted to lift off around Nov. 8. On this mission, the WSF-3 will fly free of the orbiter for about three days. It will be deployed from the orbiter and retrieved using the Remote Manipulator System robotic arm.

  20. Report on the Development of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)

    PubMed Central

    Nechvatal, James; Barker, Elaine; Bassham, Lawrence; Burr, William; Dworkin, Morris; Foti, James; Roback, Edward

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) initiated a process to select a symmetric-key encryption algorithm to be used to protect sensitive (unclassified) Federal information in furtherance of NIST’s statutory responsibilities. In 1998, NIST announced the acceptance of 15 candidate algorithms and requested the assistance of the cryptographic research community in analyzing the candidates. This analysis included an initial examination of the security and efficiency characteristics for each algorithm. NIST reviewed the results of this preliminary research and selected MARS, RC™, Rijndael, Serpent and Twofish as finalists. Having reviewed further public analysis of the finalists, NIST has decided to propose Rijndael as the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). The research results and rationale for this selection are documented in this report.

  1. Optical Mass Flow Diagnostics in Herbig Ae/Be Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauley, P. Wilson; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.

    2015-09-01

    We examine a broad range of mass flow diagnostics in a large sample of Herbig Ae/Be stars (HAEBES) using high resolution optical spectra. The Hβ and He i 5876 Å lines show the highest incidence of P Cygni (30%) and inverse P Cygni (14%) morphologies, respectively. The Fe ii 4924 Å line also shows a large incidence of P Cygni profiles (11%). We find support for many of the conclusions reached in a study based on the analysis of the He i λ10830 line in a large sample of HAEBES. Namely, HAEBES exhibit smaller fractions of both blueshifted absorption (i.e., mass outflow) and redshifted absorption (i.e., mass infall or accretion) than their lower mass cousins, the classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs). In particular, the optical data supports the conclusion that HAEBES displaying redshifted absorption, in general, show maximum redshifted absorption velocities that are smaller fractions of their stellar escape velocities than is found for CTTSs. This suggests that HAEBE accretion flows are originating deeper in the gravitational potentials of their stars than in CTTS systems. In addition, we find a lack of inner disk wind signatures in the blueshifted absorption objects; only stellar wind signatures are clearly observed. These findings, along with the lack of detected magnetic fields around HAEBES, support the idea that large magnetospheres are not prevalent around HAEBES and that accretion flows are instead mediated by significantly smaller magnetospheres with relatively smaller truncation radii (e.g., 1-2 R*). Redshifted absorption is much more common around Herbig Ae stars than Be stars, suggesting that Herbig Be stars may accrete via a boundary layer rather than along magnetic field lines.

  2. Evaluation of the Surface Roughness using AE method with Air Blowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, T.; Takata, S.; Hino, T.; Yoshida, K.

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to find the development for the evaluation of the surface roughness by the Acoustic Emission (AE) method with air blowing. We paid attention to the AE wave due to air blowing on the specimen plate with different surface roughness. The relationship between the AE wave and surface roughness of specimen plates was investigated. As the result, there is large and continuous difference in the Root Mean Square (RMS) value of their AE waveform. The RMS value decreases by increasing of the surface roughness of specimen plates. It suggested that this characteristic has the possibility to establish a new method of nondestructive surface roughness testing.

  3. [The alien genetic variability for amelioration of wheat grain quality characteristics].

    PubMed

    Rybalka, O I

    2008-01-01

    The alien germplasm presented by different wild wheat relatives such as Ae. umbellulata (UU, 2n = 14), Ae. cylindrica (CCDD, 2n = 28), Ae. tauschii (DD, 2n = 14), Ae. ventricosa (DDUnUn, 2n = 28), Ae. variabilis (UUSS, 2n = 28), T. palmovae (AADD, 2n = 28) was involved into interspecific crosses with T. aestivum to produce transfers of exotic Gli/Glu-alleles to cultivated bread wheat varieties. The array of novel exotic Gli/Glu-alleles was introduced into cultivated wheat genome. Considerable negative as well as positive influence of some exotic alleles on bread-making quality characters or endosperm texture was observed. The original interspecific material with improved quality characteristics was recommended to be applied for wheat breeding. PMID:19140427

  4. Phylogenetic and temporal dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 CRF01_AE in China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jingrong; Xin, Ruolei; Yu, Shuangqing; Bai, Lishi; Wang, Weishi; Wu, Tingchen; Su, Xueli; Lu, Hongyan; Pang, Xinghuo; Yan, Hong; Feng, Xia; He, Xiong; Zeng, Yi

    2013-01-01

    To explore the epidemic history of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in China, 408 fragments of gag gene sequences of CRF01_AE sampled in 2002-2010 were determined from different geographical regions and risk populations in China. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the CRF01_AE sequences can be grouped into four clusters, suggesting that at least four genetically independent CRF01_AE descendants are circulating in China, of which two were closely related to the isolates from Thailand and Vietnam. Cluster 1 has the most extensive distribution in China. In North China, cluster 1 and cluster 4 were mainly transmitted through homosexuality.The real substance of the recent HIV-1 epidemic in men who have sex with men(MSM) of North China is a rapid spread of CRF01_AE, or rather two distinctive natives CRF01_AE.The time of the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) of four CRF01_AE clusters ranged from the years 1990.9 to 2003.8 in different regions of China. This is the first phylogenetic and temporal dynamics study of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in China. PMID:23365653

  5. Experimental study on AE characteristics of three-point-bending concrete beams

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Bing; Liu Juanyu

    2004-03-01

    In this research, acoustic emission (AE) characteristics of three-point-bending concrete beams were investigated during the entire loading period. It was found that the relative notch depth significantly influenced AE characteristics. The occurrence of AE events decreased greatly with an increase of the relative notch depth. The influences of different fibers in concrete on AE characteristics were investigated as well. The experimental results indicated that the Weibull function can be used to describe quantitatively the influences of the relative notch depth and fibers on AE characteristics, fracture characteristics, and brittleness of concrete. The two parameters, {theta} and m, of the Weibull function depended on the geometry of the concrete specimens and the brittleness of concrete, respectively.

  6. Genetic Characterization of a Unique Recombinant Originating from CRF55_01B, CRF01_AE, and CRF07_BC in Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Gui, Tao; Zhao, Jin; Sun, Changrong; Chen, Lin; Liu, Yongjian; Zheng, Chenli; Li, Hanping; Li, Tianyi; Bao, Zuoyi; Wang, Xiaolin; Li, Jingyun; Li, Lin

    2015-05-01

    Multiple subtypes were found to be epidemic in the Shenzhen men who have sex with men (MSM) population, which always predicts the emergence of a unique recombinant. In 2012, CRF55_01B was first reported, which later was proven to have originated in MSM in Shenzhen city. In this study, we reported a unique recombinant form (URF) of HIV-1 identified in a man who has had sex with men in Shenzhen city. The strain showed a genomic schematic map similar to CRF55_01B with subtype C segments inserted in the gag and pol genes. The full-length genome was amplified in two halves with 1-kb overlap regions. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced. A recombination detection program showed that two subtype C fragments and two subtype B fragments were inserted into the CRF01_AE backbone genome in the gag and pol regions. In the phylogenetic tree, the subtype C fragments clustered with CRF07_BC variants and the other segments grouped with CRF55_01B strains except for one segment that clustered with CRF01_AE. Similar breakpoints between our strain and CRF65_cpx were also observed. The data suggested that the URF strain might be the recombinant form of CRF55_01B, CRF01_AE, and CRF07_BC. This is the first report of a third generation of recombination of HIV-1 that originated from CRF55_01B in China. The identification of the URF indicated the severity of the HIV epidemic in Shenzhen MSM and the urgent need for epidemiological surveillance of the new recombination. PMID:25748656

  7. Genetic Characterization of a Unique Recombinant Originating from CRF55_01B, CRF01_AE, and CRF07_BC in Shenzhen, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jin; Sun, Changrong; Chen, Lin; Liu, Yongjian; Zheng, Chenli; Li, Hanping; Li, Tianyi; Bao, Zuoyi; Wang, Xiaolin; Li, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Multiple subtypes were found to be epidemic in the Shenzhen men who have sex with men (MSM) population, which always predicts the emergence of a unique recombinant. In 2012, CRF55_01B was first reported, which later was proven to have originated in MSM in Shenzhen city. In this study, we reported a unique recombinant form (URF) of HIV-1 identified in a man who has had sex with men in Shenzhen city. The strain showed a genomic schematic map similar to CRF55_01B with subtype C segments inserted in the gag and pol genes. The full-length genome was amplified in two halves with 1-kb overlap regions. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced. A recombination detection program showed that two subtype C fragments and two subtype B fragments were inserted into the CRF01_AE backbone genome in the gag and pol regions. In the phylogenetic tree, the subtype C fragments clustered with CRF07_BC variants and the other segments grouped with CRF55_01B strains except for one segment that clustered with CRF01_AE. Similar breakpoints between our strain and CRF65_cpx were also observed. The data suggested that the URF strain might be the recombinant form of CRF55_01B, CRF01_AE, and CRF07_BC. This is the first report of a third generation of recombination of HIV-1 that originated from CRF55_01B in China. The identification of the URF indicated the severity of the HIV epidemic in Shenzhen MSM and the urgent need for epidemiological surveillance of the new recombination. PMID:25748656

  8. Spectral Analysis and Classification of Herbig Ae/Be Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Jesús; Calvet, Nuria; Briceño, César; Hartmann, Lee; Berlind, Perry

    2004-03-01

    We present an analysis of the optical spectra of 75 early-type emission-line stars, many of which have been classified previously as Herbig Ae/Be (HAeBe) stars. Accurate spectral types were derived for 58 members of the sample; high continuum veiling, contamination by nonphotospheric absorption features, or a composite binary spectrum prevented accurate spectral typing for the rest. Approximately half of our sample exhibited [O I] λ6300 forbidden-line emission down to our detection limit of 0.1 Å equivalent width; a third of the sample exhibited Fe II emission (multiplet 42). A subset of 11 of the HAeBe sample showed abnormally strong Fe II absorption; 75% of this subset are confirmed UX Ori objects. Combining our spectral typing results with photometry from the literature, we confirm previous findings of high values of total-to-selective extinction (RV~5) in our larger sample, suggesting significant grain growth in the environments of HAeBe stars. With this high value of RV, the vast majority of HAeBe stars appear younger than with the standard RV=3.1 extinction law and are more consistent with being pre-main-sequence objects.

  9. Universal quantification of elastic scattering effects in AES and XPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, Aleksander

    1996-09-01

    Elastic scattering of photoelectrons in a solid can be accounted for in the common formalism of XPS by introducing two correction factors, βeff and Qx. In the case of AES, only one correction factor, QA, is required. As recently shown, relatively simple analytical expressions for the correction factors can be derived from the kinetic Boltzmann equation within the so-called "transport approximation". The corrections are expressed here in terms of the ratio of the transport mean free path (TRMFP) to the inelastic mean free path (IMFP). Since the available data for the TRMFP are rather limited, it was decided to complete an extensive database of these values. They were calculated in the present work for the same elements and energies as in the IMFP tabulation published by Tanuma et al. An attempt has been made to derive a predictive formula providing the ratios of the TRMFP to the IMFP. Consequently, a very simple and accurate algorithm for calculating the correction factors βeff, Qx and QA has been developed. This algorithm can easily be generalized to multicomponent solids. The resulting values of the correction factors were found to compare very well with published values resulting from Monte Carlo calculations.

  10. Remarks on the definition of the backscattering factor in AES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, Aleksander

    2002-03-01

    It has been shown that the backscattering factor in AES can be defined as an integral of the product of the excitation depth distribution function and the emission depth distribution function. First function describes the number of ionizations as a function of depth while the second function describes the escape probability of Auger electrons created at different depths. The backscattering factor calculated from such definition is found to depend on the Auger electron emission angle. For emission angles up to 40° with respect to surface normal, this dependence is not pronounced. However, influence of the emission angle on the backscattering factor may be substantial at glancing emission angles. Values of the backscattering factor calculated from the proposed algorithm assuming the emission angle equal to 40° differ noticeably from values resulting from the Shimizu expression. The deviation may reach 18% at primary electron energy of 2000 eV. Furthermore, the backscattering factor may become smaller than unity at primary energies close to the ionization energy. This effect has been suggested in earlier studies.

  11. AES based secure low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy for WSNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishore, K. R.; Sarma, N. V. S. N.

    2013-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) provide a low cost solution in diversified application areas. The wireless sensor nodes are inexpensive tiny devices with limited storage, computational capability and power. They are being deployed in large scale in both military and civilian applications. Security of the data is one of the key concerns where large numbers of nodes are deployed. Here, an energy-efficient secure routing protocol, secure-LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy) for WSNs based on the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is being proposed. This crypto system is a session based one and a new session key is assigned for each new session. The network (WSN) is divided into number of groups or clusters and a cluster head (CH) is selected among the member nodes of each cluster. The measured data from the nodes is aggregated by the respective CH's and then each CH relays this data to another CH towards the gateway node in the WSN which in turn sends the same to the Base station (BS). In order to maintain confidentiality of data while being transmitted, it is necessary to encrypt the data before sending at every hop, from a node to the CH and from the CH to another CH or to the gateway node.

  12. The (BETA) Pictoris Phenomenon Among Herbig Ae/Be Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, C. A.; Perez, M. R.; Talavera, A.; Bjorkman, K. S.; deWinter, D.; The, P.-S.; Molster, F. J.; vandenAncker, M. E.; Sitko, M. L.; Morrison, N. D.; Beaver, M. L.; McCollum, B.; Castelaz, M. W.

    1996-01-01

    We present a survey of high dispersion UV and optical spectra of Herbig Ae/Be (HAeBe) and related stars. We find accreting, circumstellar gas over the velocity range +100 to +400 km/s, and absorption profiles similar to those seen toward Beta Pic, in 36% of the 33 HAeBe stars with IUE data as well as in 3 non-emission B stars. We also find evidence of accretion in 7 HAeBe stars with optical data only. Line profile variability appears ubiquitous. As a group, the stars with accreting gas signatures have higher v sin i than the stars with outflowing material, and tend to exhibit large amplitude (greater than or equal to 1(sup m)) optical light variations. All of the program stars with polarimetric variations that are anti-correlated with the optical light, previously interpreted as the signature of a dust disk viewed close to equator-on, also show spectral signatures of accreting gas. These data imply that accretion activity in HAeBe stars is preferentially observed when the line of sight transits the circumstellar dust disk. Our data imply that the spectroscopic signatures of accreting circumstellar material seen in Beta Pic are not unique to that object, but instead are consistent with interpretation of Beta Pic as a comparatively young A star with its associated circumstellar disk.

  13. A Selective Encryption Algorithm Based on AES for Medical Information

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ju-Young; Chon, Ki-Hwan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The transmission of medical information is currently a daily routine. Medical information needs efficient, robust and secure encryption modes, but cryptography is primarily a computationally intensive process. Towards this direction, we design a selective encryption scheme for critical data transmission. Methods We expand the advandced encrytion stanard (AES)-Rijndael with five criteria: the first is the compression of plain data, the second is the variable size of the block, the third is the selectable round, the fourth is the optimization of software implementation and the fifth is the selective function of the whole routine. We have tested our selective encryption scheme by C++ and it was compiled with Code::Blocks using a MinGW GCC compiler. Results The experimental results showed that our selective encryption scheme achieves a faster execution speed of encryption/decryption. In future work, we intend to use resource optimization to enhance the round operations, such as SubByte/InvSubByte, by exploiting similarities between encryption and decryption. Conclusions As encryption schemes become more widely used, the concept of hardware and software co-design is also a growing new area of interest. PMID:21818420

  14. Characterization of the extremely arsenic-resistant Brevibacterium linens strain AE038-8 isolated from contaminated groundwater in Tucumán, Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maizel, Daniela; Blum, Jodi S.; Ferrero, Marcela A.; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Brown, Steven D.; Rosen, Barry P.; Oremland, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    Brevibacterium linens AE038-8, isolated from As-contaminated groundwater in Tucumán (Argentina), is highly resistant to arsenic oxyanions, being able to tolerate up to 1 M As(V) and 75 mM As(III) in a complex medium. Strain AE038-8 was also able to reduce As(V) to As(III) when grown in complex medium but paradoxically it could not do this in a defined minimal medium with sodium acetate and ammonium sulfate as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. No oxidation of As(III) to As(V) was observed under any conditions. Three copies of the ars operon comprising arsenic resistance genes were found on B. linens AE038-8 genome. In addition to the well known arsC, ACR3 andarsR, two copies of the arsO gene of unknown function were detected.

  15. High-dispersion absorption-line spectroscopy of AE Aqr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echevarría, J.; Smith, Robert Connon; Costero, R.; Zharikov, S.; Michel, R.

    2008-07-01

    High-dispersion time-resolved spectroscopy of the unique magnetic cataclysmic variable AE Aqr is presented. A radial velocity analysis of the absorption lines yields K2 = 168.7 +/- 1kms-1. Substantial deviations of the radial velocity curve from a sinusoid are interpreted in terms of intensity variations over the secondary star's surface. A complex rotational velocity curve as a function of orbital phase is detected which has a modulation frequency of twice the orbital frequency, leading to an estimate of the binary inclination angle that is close to 70°. The minimum and maximum rotational velocities are used to indirectly derive a mass ratio of q = 0.6 and a radial velocity semi-amplitude of the white dwarf of K1 = 101 +/- 3kms-1. We present an atmospheric temperature indicator, based on the absorption-line ratio of FeI and CrI lines, whose variation indicates that the secondary star varies from K0 to K4 as a function of orbital phase. The ephemeris of the system has been revised, using more than 1000 radial velocity measurements, published over nearly five decades. From the derived radial velocity semi-amplitudes and the estimated inclination angle, we calculate that the masses of the stars are M1 = 0.63 +/- 0.05Msolar M2 = 0.37 +/- 0.04Msolar, and their separation is a = 2.33 +/- 0.02Rsolar. Our analysis indicates the presence of a late-type star whose radius is larger, by a factor of nearly 2, than the radius of a normal main-sequence star of the same mass. Finally, we discuss the possibility that the measured variations in the rotational velocity, temperature and spectral type of the secondary star as functions of orbital phase may, like the radial velocity variations, be attributable to regions of enhanced absorption on the star's surface.

  16. Photometric variability of the Herbig Ae star HD 37806

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rucinski, S. M.; Zwintz, K.; Hareter, M.; Pojmański, G.; Kuschnig, R.; Matthews, J. M.; Guenther, D. B.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Sasselov, D.; Weiss, W. W.

    2010-11-01

    Context. The more massive counterparts of T Tauri stars, the Herbig Ae/Be stars, are known to vary in a complex way with no variability mechanism clearly identified. Aims: We attempt to characterize the optical variability of HD 37806 (MWC 120) on time scales ranging between minutes and several years. Methods: A continuous, one-minute resolution, 21 day-long sequence of MOST (Microvariability & Oscillations of STars) satellite observations has been analyzed using wavelet, scalegram and dispersion analysis tools. The MOST data have been augmented by sparse observations over 9 seasons from ASAS (All Sky Automated Survey), by previously non-analyzed ESO (European Southern Observatory) data partly covering 3 seasons and by archival measurements dating back half a century ago. Results: Mutually superimposed flares or accretion instabilities grow in size from about 0.0003 of the mean flux on a time scale of minutes to a peak-to-peak range of <0.05 on a time scale of a few years. The resulting variability has properties of stochastic “red” noise, whose self-similar characteristics are very similar to those observed in cataclysmic binary stars, but with much longer characteristic time scales of hours to days (rather than minutes) and with amplitudes which appear to cease growing in size on time scales of tens of years. In addition to chaotic brightness variations combined with stochastic noise, the MOST data show a weakly defined cyclic signal with a period of about 1.5 days, which may correspond to the rotation of the star. Based on data from the MOST satellite, a Canadian Space Agency mission jointly operated by Dynacon Inc., the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies and the University of British Columbia, with the assistance of the University of Vienna, and on data from the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) conducted by the Warsaw University Observatory, Warsaw, Poland at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  17. Application of Normal Mode Expansion to AE Waves in Finite Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorman, M. R.; Prosser, W. H.

    1997-01-01

    Breckenridge et al. (1975), Hsu (1985) and Pao (1978) adapted approaches from seismology to calculate the response at the surface of an infinite half-space and an infinite plate. These approaches have found use in calibrating acoustic emission (AE) transducers. However, it is difficult to extend this theoretical approach to AE testing of practical structures. Weaver and Pao (1982) considered a normal mode solution to the Lamb equations. Hutchinson (1983) pointed out the potential relevance of Mindlin's plate theory (1951) to AE. Pao (1982) reviewed Medick s (1961) classical plate theory for a point source, but rejected it as useful for AE and no one seems to have investigated its relevance to AE any further. Herein, a normal mode solution to the classical plate bending equation was investigated for its applicability to AE. The same source-time function chosen by Weaver and Pao is considered. However, arbitrary source and receiver positions are chosen relative to the boundaries of the plate. This is another advantage of the plate theory treatment in addition to its simplicity. The source does not have to be at the center of the plate as in the axisymmetric treatment. The plate is allowed to remain finite and reflections are predicted. The importance of this theory to AE is that it can handle finite plates, realistic boundary conditions, and can be extended to composite materials.

  18. Phylodynamic analysis of the dissemination of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Liao, Huanan; Tee, Kok Keng; Hase, Saiki; Uenishi, Rie; Li, Xiao-Jie; Kusagawa, Shigeru; Thang, Pham Hong; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Pybus, Oliver G; Takebe, Yutaka

    2009-08-15

    To estimate the epidemic history of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in Vietnam and adjacent Guangxi, China, we determined near full-length nucleotide sequences of CRF01_AE from a total of 33 specimens collected in 1997-1998 from different geographic regions and risk populations in Vietnam. Phylogenetic and Bayesian molecular clock analyses were performed to estimate the date of origin of CRF01_AE lineages. Our study reconstructs the timescale of CRF01_AE expansion in Vietnam and neighboring regions and suggests that the series of CRF01_AE epidemics in Vietnam arose by the sequential introduction of founder strains into new locations and risk groups. CRF01_AE appears to have been present among heterosexuals in South-Vietnam for more than a decade prior to its epidemic spread in the early 1990s. In the late 1980s, the virus spread to IDUs in Southern Vietnam and subsequently in the mid-1990s to IDUs further north. Our results indicate the northward dissemination of CRF01_AE during this time. PMID:19540543

  19. [Detection of the introgression of genome elements of Aegilops cylindrica Host. into Triticum aestivum L. genome with ISSR-analysis].

    PubMed

    Galaev, A V; Babaiants, L T; Sivolap, Iu M

    2003-01-01

    Comparative analysis of introgressive and parental forms of wheat was carried out to reveal the sites of donor genome with new loci of resistance to fungal diseases. By ISSR-method 124 ISSR-loci were detected in the genomes of 18 individual plants of introgressive line 5/20-91; 17 of them have been related to introgressive fragments of Ae. cylindrica genome in T. aestivum. It was shown that ISSR-method is effective for detection of the variability caused by introgression of alien genetic material to T. aestivum genome. PMID:12945176

  20. Global temperature constraints on Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus persistence and competence for dengue virus transmission

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue is a disease that has undergone significant expansion over the past hundred years. Understanding what factors limit the distribution of transmission can be used to predict current and future limits to further dengue expansion. While not the only factor, temperature plays an important role in defining these limits. Previous attempts to analyse the effect of temperature on the geographic distribution of dengue have not considered its dynamic intra-annual and diurnal change and its cumulative effects on mosquito and virus populations. Methods Here we expand an existing modelling framework with new temperature-based relationships to model an index proportional to the basic reproductive number of the dengue virus. This model framework is combined with high spatial and temporal resolution global temperature data to model the effects of temperature on Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus persistence and competence for dengue virus transmission. Results Our model predicted areas where temperature is not expected to permit transmission and/or Aedes persistence throughout the year. By reanalysing existing experimental data our analysis indicates that Ae. albopictus, often considered a minor vector of dengue, has comparable rates of virus dissemination to its primary vector, Ae. aegypti, and when the longer lifespan of Ae. albopictus is considered its competence for dengue virus transmission far exceeds that of Ae. aegypti. Conclusions These results can be used to analyse the effects of temperature and other contributing factors on the expansion of dengue or its Aedes vectors. Our finding that Ae. albopictus has a greater capacity for dengue transmission than Ae. aegypti is contrary to current explanations for the comparative rarity of dengue transmission in established Ae. albopictus populations. This suggests that the limited capacity of Ae. albopictus to transmit DENV is more dependent on its ecology than vector competence. The recommendations, which we

  1. Molecular detection of HIV-1 subtype B, CRF01_AE, CRF33_01B, and newly emerging recombinant lineages in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chook, Jack Bee; Ong, Lai Yee; Takebe, Yutaka; Chan, Kok Gan; Choo, Martin; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2015-03-01

    A molecular genotyping assay for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) circulating in Southeast Asia is difficult to design because of the high level of genetic diversity. We developed a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to detect subtype B, CRF01_AE, CRF33_01B, and three newly described circulating recombinant forms, (CRFs) (CRF53_01B, CRF54_01B, and CRF58_01B). A total of 785 reference genomes were used for subtype-specific primers and TaqMan probes design targeting the gag, pol, and env genes. The performance of this assay was compared and evaluated with direct sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. A total of 180 HIV-infected subjects from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were screened and 171 samples were successfully genotyped, in agreement with the phylogenetic data. The HIV-1 genotype distribution was as follows: subtype B (16.7%); CRF01_AE (52.8%); CRF33_01B (24.4%); CRF53_01B (1.1%); CRF54_01B (0.6%); and CRF01_AE/B unique recombinant forms (4.4%). The overall accuracy of the genotyping assay was over 95.0%, in which the sensitivities for subtype B, CRF01_AE, and CRF33_01B detection were 100%, 100%, and 97.7%, respectively. The specificity of genotyping was 100%, inter-subtype specificities were > 95% and the limit of detection of 10(3) copies/mL for plasma. The newly developed real-time PCR assay offers a rapid and cost-effective alternative for large-scale molecular epidemiological surveillance for HIV-1. PMID:25535315

  2. Automated Estimating System (AES), Version 5.1, User`s manual. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, R.K.; Holder, D.A.

    1992-08-01

    This document describes Version 5.1 of the Automated Estimating System (AES), a personal computer-based software package. The AES is designed to aid in the creation, updating, and reporting of project cost estimates for the Estimating and Scheduling Department of the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Engineering Division. AES provides formatted input screens to guide the user though the estimate creation/update process and provides several standardized reports that allow cost to be sorted and summarized in many different formats and at several levels of aggregation.

  3. Automated Estimating System (AES): Version 6.1: User`s manual. Revision 6

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, R.K.; Holder, D.A.

    1996-03-01

    This document describes Version 6.1 of the Automated Estimating System (AES), a personal computer-based software package. The AES is designed to aid in the creation, updating, and reporting of project cost estimates for the Estimating and Scheduling Engineering Department of Central Engineering Services of Lockheed Martin Energy Systems,Inc. AES provides formatted input screens to guide the user through the estimate creation/update process and provides several standardized reports that allow cost to be sorted and summarized in many different formats and at several levels of aggregation.

  4. Application of TURBO-AE to Flutter Prediction: Aeroelastic Code Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyniak, Daniel; Simons, Todd A.; Stefko, George (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The TURBO-AE program has been evaluated by comparing the obtained results to cascade rig data and to prediction made from various in-house programs. A high-speed fan cascade, a turbine cascade, a turbine cascade and a fan geometry that shower flutter in torsion mode were analyzed. The steady predictions for the high-speed fan cascade showed the TURBO-AE predictions to match in-house codes. However, the predictions did not match the measured blade surface data. Other researchers also reported similar disagreement with these data set. Unsteady runs for the fan configuration were not successful using TURBO-AE .

  5. Cross-correlation analysis of the AE index and the interplanetary magnetic field Bz component.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, C.-I.; Tsurutani, B.; Kawasaki, K.; Akasofu, S.-I.

    1973-01-01

    A cross-correlation study between magnetospheric activity (the AE index) and the southward-directed component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) is made for a total of 792 hours (33 days) with a time resolution of about 5.5 min. The peak correlation tends to occur when the interplanetary data are shifted approximately 40 min later with respect to the AE index data. Cross-correlation analysis is conducted on some idealized wave forms to illustrate that this delay between southward turning of the IMF and the AE index should not be interpreted as being the duration of the growth phase.

  6. A new class of wheat gliadin genes and proteins.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Olin D; Dong, Lingli; Huo, Naxin; Gu, Yong Q

    2012-01-01

    The utility of mining DNA sequence data to understand the structure and expression of cereal prolamin genes is demonstrated by the identification of a new class of wheat prolamins. This previously unrecognized wheat prolamin class, given the name δ-gliadins, is the most direct ortholog of barley γ3-hordeins. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the orthologous δ-gliadins and γ3-hordeins form a distinct prolamin branch that existed separate from the γ-gliadins and γ-hordeins in an ancestral Triticeae prior to the branching of wheat and barley. The expressed δ-gliadins are encoded by a single gene in each of the hexaploid wheat genomes. This single δ-gliadin/γ3-hordein ortholog may be a general feature of the Triticeae tribe since examination of ESTs from three barley cultivars also confirms a single γ3-hordein gene. Analysis of ESTs and cDNAs shows that the genes are expressed in at least five hexaploid wheat cultivars in addition to diploids Triticum monococcum and Aegilops tauschii. The latter two sequences also allow assignment of the δ-gliadin genes to the A and D genomes, respectively, with the third sequence type assumed to be from the B genome. Two wheat cultivars for which there are sufficient ESTs show different patterns of expression, i.e., with cv Chinese Spring expressing the genes from the A and B genomes, while cv Recital has ESTs from the A and D genomes. Genomic sequences of Chinese Spring show that the D genome gene is inactivated by tandem premature stop codons. A fourth δ-gliadin sequence occurs in the D genome of both Chinese Spring and Ae. tauschii, but no ESTs match this sequence and limited genomic sequences indicates a pseudogene containing frame shifts and premature stop codons. Sequencing of BACs covering a 3 Mb region from Ae. tauschii locates the δ-gliadin gene to the complex Gli-1 plus Glu-3 region on chromosome 1. PMID:23284903

  7. A New Class of Wheat Gliadin Genes and Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Olin D.; Dong, Lingli; Huo, Naxin; Gu, Yong Q.

    2012-01-01

    The utility of mining DNA sequence data to understand the structure and expression of cereal prolamin genes is demonstrated by the identification of a new class of wheat prolamins. This previously unrecognized wheat prolamin class, given the name δ-gliadins, is the most direct ortholog of barley γ3-hordeins. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the orthologous δ-gliadins and γ3-hordeins form a distinct prolamin branch that existed separate from the γ-gliadins and γ-hordeins in an ancestral Triticeae prior to the branching of wheat and barley. The expressed δ-gliadins are encoded by a single gene in each of the hexaploid wheat genomes. This single δ-gliadin/γ3-hordein ortholog may be a general feature of the Triticeae tribe since examination of ESTs from three barley cultivars also confirms a single γ3-hordein gene. Analysis of ESTs and cDNAs shows that the genes are expressed in at least five hexaploid wheat cultivars in addition to diploids Triticum monococcum and Aegilops tauschii. The latter two sequences also allow assignment of the δ-gliadin genes to the A and D genomes, respectively, with the third sequence type assumed to be from the B genome. Two wheat cultivars for which there are sufficient ESTs show different patterns of expression, i.e., with cv Chinese Spring expressing the genes from the A and B genomes, while cv Recital has ESTs from the A and D genomes. Genomic sequences of Chinese Spring show that the D genome gene is inactivated by tandem premature stop codons. A fourth δ-gliadin sequence occurs in the D genome of both Chinese Spring and Ae. tauschii, but no ESTs match this sequence and limited genomic sequences indicates a pseudogene containing frame shifts and premature stop codons. Sequencing of BACs covering a 3 Mb region from Ae. tauschii locates the δ-gliadin gene to the complex Gli-1 plus Glu-3 region on chromosome 1. PMID:23284903

  8. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Anther Extrusion in Hexaploid Spring Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Muqaddasi, Quddoos H.; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Nagel, Manuela; Börner, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus; Röder, Marion S.

    2016-01-01

    In a number of crop species hybrids are able to outperform line varieties. The anthers of the autogamous bread wheat plant are normally extruded post anthesis, a trait which is unfavourable for the production of F1 hybrid grain. Higher anther extrusion (AE) promotes cross fertilization for more efficient hybrid seed production. Therefore, this study aimed at the genetic dissection of AE by genome wide association studies (GWAS) and determination of the main effect QTL. We applied GWAS approach to identify DArT markers potentially linked to AE to unfold its genetic basis in a panel of spring wheat accessions. Phenotypic data were collected for three years and best linear unbiased estimate (BLUE) values were calculated across all years. The extent of the AE correlation between growing years and BLUE values ranged from r = +0.56 (2013 vs 2015) to 0.91 (2014 vs BLUE values). The broad sense heritability was 0.84 across all years. Six accessions displayed stable AE >80% across all the years. Genotyping data included 2,575 DArT markers (with minimum of 0.05 minor allele frequency applied). AE was influenced both by genotype and by the growing environment. In all, 131 significant marker trait associations (MTAs) (|log10 (P)| >FDR) were established for AE. AE behaved as a quantitative trait, with five consistently significant markers (significant across at least two years with a significant BLUE value) contributing a minor to modest proportion (4.29% to 8.61%) of the phenotypic variance and affecting the trait either positively or negatively. For this reason, there is potential for breeding for improved AE by gene pyramiding. The consistently significant markers linked to AE could be helpful for marker assisted selection to transfer AE to high yielding varieties allowing to promote the exploitation of hybrid-heterosis in the key crop wheat. PMID:27191600

  9. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Anther Extrusion in Hexaploid Spring Wheat.

    PubMed

    Muqaddasi, Quddoos H; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Nagel, Manuela; Börner, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus; Röder, Marion S

    2016-01-01

    In a number of crop species hybrids are able to outperform line varieties. The anthers of the autogamous bread wheat plant are normally extruded post anthesis, a trait which is unfavourable for the production of F1 hybrid grain. Higher anther extrusion (AE) promotes cross fertilization for more efficient hybrid seed production. Therefore, this study aimed at the genetic dissection of AE by genome wide association studies (GWAS) and determination of the main effect QTL. We applied GWAS approach to identify DArT markers potentially linked to AE to unfold its genetic basis in a panel of spring wheat accessions. Phenotypic data were collected for three years and best linear unbiased estimate (BLUE) values were calculated across all years. The extent of the AE correlation between growing years and BLUE values ranged from r = +0.56 (2013 vs 2015) to 0.91 (2014 vs BLUE values). The broad sense heritability was 0.84 across all years. Six accessions displayed stable AE >80% across all the years. Genotyping data included 2,575 DArT markers (with minimum of 0.05 minor allele frequency applied). AE was influenced both by genotype and by the growing environment. In all, 131 significant marker trait associations (MTAs) (|log10 (P)| >FDR) were established for AE. AE behaved as a quantitative trait, with five consistently significant markers (significant across at least two years with a significant BLUE value) contributing a minor to modest proportion (4.29% to 8.61%) of the phenotypic variance and affecting the trait either positively or negatively. For this reason, there is potential for breeding for improved AE by gene pyramiding. The consistently significant markers linked to AE could be helpful for marker assisted selection to transfer AE to high yielding varieties allowing to promote the exploitation of hybrid-heterosis in the key crop wheat. PMID:27191600

  10. 40 CFR 174.530 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ae protein in cotton; temporary exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ae protein... thuringiensis Cry2Ae protein in cotton; temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ae protein in or on the food commodities of cotton, cotton; cotton,...

  11. 40 CFR 174.530 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ae protein in cotton; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ae protein... Cry2Ae protein in cotton; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ae protein in or on the food and feed commodities of cotton; cotton, undelinted seed;...

  12. 40 CFR 174.530 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ae protein in cotton; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ae protein... Cry2Ae protein in cotton; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ae protein in or on the food and feed commodities of cotton; cotton, undelinted seed;...

  13. 40 CFR 174.530 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ae protein in cotton; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ae protein... Cry2Ae protein in cotton; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ae protein in or on the food and feed commodities of cotton; cotton, undelinted seed;...

  14. Identification of transposons, retroelements, and a gene family predominantly expressed in floral tissues in chromosome 3DS of the hexaploid wheat progenitor Aegilops tauschii.

    PubMed

    Whitford, Ryan; Baumann, Ute; Sutton, Tim; Gumaelius, Luke; Wolters, Petra; Tingey, Scott; Able, Jason A; Langridge, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A multigene family expressed during early floral development was identified on the short arm of wheat chromosome 3D in the region of the Ph2 locus, a locus controlling homoeologous chromosome pairing in allohexaploid wheat. Physical, genetic and molecular characterisation of the Wheat Meiosis 1 (WM1) gene family identified seven members that localised within a region of 173-kb. WM1 gene family members were sequenced and they encode mainly type Ia plasma membrane-anchored leucine rich repeat-like receptor proteins. In situ expression profiling suggests the gene family is predominantly expressed in floral tissue. In addition to the WM1 gene family, a number of other genes, gene fragments and pseudogenes were identified. It has been predicted that there is approximately one gene every 19-kb and that this region of the wheat genome contains 23 repetitive elements including BARE-1 and Wis2-1 like sequences. Nearly 50% of the repetitive elements identified were similar to known transposons from the CACTA superfamily. Ty1-copia, Ty3-gypsy and Athila LTR retroelements were also prevalent within the region. The WM1 gene cluster is present on 3DS and on barley 3HS but missing from the A and B genomes of hexaploid wheat. This suggests either recent generation of the cluster or specific deletion of the cluster during wheat polyploidisation. The evolutionary significance of the cluster, its possible roles in disease response or floral and early meiotic development and its location at or near the Ph2 locus are discussed. PMID:16534632

  15. ISO spectroscopy of disks around Herbig Ae/Be stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acke, B.; van den Ancker, M. E.

    2004-10-01

    We have investigated the infrared spectra of all 46 Herbig Ae/Be stars for which spectroscopic data are available in the ISO data archive. Our quantitative analysis of these spectra focuses on the emission bands at 3.3, 6.2, ``7.7'', 8.6 and 11.2 micron, linked to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the nanodiamond-related features at 3.4 and 3.5 micron, the amorphous 10 micron silicate band and the crystalline silicate band at 11.3 micron. We have detected PAH emission in 57% of the Herbig stars in our sample. Although for most of these sources the PAH spectra are similar, there are clear examples of differences in the PAH spectra within our sample which can be explained by differences in PAH size, chemistry and/or ionization. Amorphous silicate emission was detected in the spectra of 52% of the sample stars, amorphous silicate absorption in 13%. We have detected crystalline silicate emission in 11 stars (24% of our sample), of which four (9%) also display strong PAH emission. We have classified the sample sources according to the strength of their mid-IR energy distribution. The systems with stronger mid-infared (20-100 μm) excesses relative to their near-infrared (1-5 μm) excess display significantly more PAH emission than those with weaker mid-infrared excesses. There are no pronounced differences in the behaviour of the silicate feature between the two groups. This provides strong observational support for the disk models by \\citet{dullemond01}, in which systems with a flaring disk geometry display a strong mid-infrared excess, whereas those with disks that are strongly shadowed by the puffed-up inner rim of the disk only display modest amounts of mid-infrared emission. Since the silicates are expected to be produced mainly in the warm inner disk regions, no large differences in silicate behaviour are expected between the two groups. In contrast to this, the PAH emission is expected to be produced mainly in the part of the disk atmosphere that is

  16. Characterizing the composition and evolution of homoeologous genomes in hexaploid wheat through BAC-end sequencing on chromosome 3B.

    PubMed

    Paux, Etienne; Roger, Delphine; Badaeva, Ekatherina; Gay, Georges; Bernard, Michel; Sourdille, Pierre; Feuillet, Catherine

    2006-11-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the most important crops worldwide. However, because of its large, hexaploid, highly repetitive genome it is a challenge to develop efficient means for molecular analysis and genetic improvement in wheat. To better understand the composition and molecular evolution of the hexaploid wheat homoeologous genomes and to evaluate the potential of BAC-end sequences (BES) for marker development, we have followed a chromosome-specific strategy and generated 11 Mb of random BES from chromosome 3B, the largest chromosome of bread wheat. The sequence consisted of about 86% of repetitive elements, 1.2% of coding regions, and 13% remained unknown. With 1.2% of the sequence length corresponding to coding sequences, 6000 genes were estimated for chromosome 3B. New repetitive sequences were identified, including a Triticineae-specific tandem repeat (Fat) that represents 0.6% of the B-genome and has been differentially amplified in the homoeologous genomes before polyploidization. About 10% of the BES contained junctions between nested transposable elements that were used to develop chromosome-specific markers for physical and genetic mapping. Finally, sequence comparison with 2.9 Mb of random sequences from the D-genome of Aegilops tauschii suggested that the larger size of the B-genome is due to a higher content in repetitive elements. It also indicated which families of transposable elements are mostly responsible for differential expansion of the homoeologous wheat genomes during evolution. Our data demonstrate that BAC-end sequencing from flow-sorted chromosomes is a powerful tool for analysing the structure and evolution of polyploid and highly repetitive genomes. PMID:17010109

  17. Characterization of Maize Amylose-extender (ae) Mutant Starches. Part II: Structures and Properties of Starch Residues Remaining After Enzymatic Hydrolyis at Boiling-water Temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GEMS-0067 maize ae-line starch developed by Truman State University and the Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) Project consisted of 39.4%-43.2% resistant-starch (RS), which was larger than the existing ae-line starches of H99ae, OH43ae, B89ae, and B84ae (11.5%-19.1%) as reported in part I of the s...

  18. Using a Delphi approach to develop a strategy for A&E in defence nursing.

    PubMed

    Kenward, Gary; Berry, Andy; Despres, Julian; McLeod, Judith

    The Armed Forces has seen an increase in the number of operational deployments overseas and a greater demand for Accident and Emergency (A&E) trained nurses. This article describes a modified Delphi study used to contribute to the development of a strategy for emergency nursing in the Defence Nursing Services. Twenty-eight A&E specialists took part and the key issues raised were recruitment and retention, staff development, new roles, research priorities, increased internal recruitment of A&E nurses to meet operational demands, and the need for a structured career pathway to help retention. The most pressing areas requiring research were evaluation of the nurse practitioner role, clinical competencies and managing heat injuries in the operational setting. The modified Delphi study provided a valuable and detailed insight into the challenges and aspirations of the military A&E nursing cadre and has assisted in developing a strategy for emergency nursing. PMID:17353829

  19. 12. PWD Drawing 10,0005(463AE1)(1936), 'Electrical Lighting and Power' Mare ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. PWD Drawing 10,000-5(463A-E-1)(1936), 'Electrical Lighting and Power' - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Battery Test Office & Storage Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  20. Spectral Characteristics of Continuous Acoustic Emission (AE) Data from Laboratory Rock Deformation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, J. William; Goodfellow, Sebastian; Reyes-Montes, Juan; Nasseri, Farzine; Young, R. Paul

    2016-04-01

    Continuous acoustic emission (AE) data recorded during rock deformation tests facilitates the monitoring of fracture initiation and propagation due to applied stress changes. Changes in the frequency and energy content of AE waveforms have been previously observed and were associated with microcrack coalescence and the induction or mobilisation of large fractures which are naturally associated with larger amplitude AE events and lower-frequency components. The shift from high to low dominant frequency components during the late stages of the deformation experiment, as the rate of AE events increases and the sample approaches failure, indicates a transition from the micro-cracking to macro-cracking regime, where large cracks generated result in material failure. The objective of this study is to extract information on the fracturing process from the acoustic records around sample failure, where the fast occurrence of AE events does not allow for identification of individual AE events and phase arrivals. Standard AE event processing techniques are not suitable for extracting this information at these stages. Instead the observed changes in the frequency content of the continuous record can be used to characterise and investigate the fracture process at the stage of microcrack coalescence and sample failure. To analyse and characterise these changes, a detailed non-linear and non-stationary time-frequency analysis of the continuous waveform data is required. Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and Hilbert Spectral Analysis (HSA) are two of the techniques used in this paper to analyse the acoustic records which provide a high-resolution temporal frequency distribution of the data. In this paper we present the results from our analysis of continuous AE data recorded during a laboratory triaxial deformation experiment using the combined EMD and HSA method.

  1. QTug.sau-3B Is a Major Quantitative Trait Locus for Wheat Hexaploidization

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ming; Luo, Jiangtao; Zeng, Deying; Zhang, Li; Ning, Shunzong; Yuan, Zhongwei; Yan, Zehong; Zhang, Huaigang; Zheng, Youliang; Feuillet, Catherine; Choulet, Frédéric; Yen, Yang; Zhang, Lianquan; Liu, Dengcai

    2014-01-01

    Meiotic nonreduction resulting in unreduced gametes is thought to be the predominant mechanism underlying allopolyploid formation in plants. Until now, however, its genetic base was largely unknown. The allohexaploid crop common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), which originated from hybrids of T. turgidum L. with Aegilops tauschii Cosson, provides a model to address this issue. Our observations of meiosis in pollen mother cells from T. turgidum×Ae. tauschii hybrids indicated that first division restitution, which exhibited prolonged cell division during meiosis I, was responsible for unreduced gamete formation. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for this trait, named QTug.sau-3B, was detected on chromosome 3B in two T. turgidum×Ae. tauschii haploid populations. This QTL is situated between markers Xgwm285 and Xcfp1012 and covered a genetic distance of 1 cM in one population. QTug.sau-3B is a haploid-dependent QTL because it was not detected in doubled haploid populations. Comparative genome analysis indicated that this QTL was close to Ttam-3B, a collinear homolog of tam in wheat. Although the relationship between QTug.sau-3B and Ttam requires further study, high frequencies of unreduced gametes may be related to reduced expression of Ttam in wheat. PMID:25128436

  2. Ae Behavior of Smart Stress Memory Patch after Variable Amplitude Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujino, Y.; Nambu, S.; Enoki, M.

    Recently, the structural health monitoring becomes increasingly great important to assure the ease and safety of our life, and it is required significantly to develop non-destructive evaluation for structures such as bridges and tunnels. Some sacrificed specimens have been developed to evaluate the fatigue damage of structures such as fatigue cycles and residual lifetime, but it can be applied only when the stress history is known beforehand. These fatigue sensors need no cable and can be used at low cost in contrast to strain gage. In previous study, a smart stress memory patch was developed as a new fatigue sensor. The patch can measure simultaneously the maximum stress, stress amplitude and the number of fatigue cycles by crack length measurement and Kaiser effect of Acoustic Emission (AE). The crack growth behavior under constant amplitude (CA) loading has been investigated, and AE behavior also has been evaluated only after CA loading. However, AE characteristics after variable amplitude (VA) loading in service are extremely important. Moreover, it is very important to control AE behavior of the smart patch in order to evaluate the applied stress using Kaiser effect. In this study, fatigue test with single overload was investigated to evaluate its influence. Moreover, effect of crack length and heat treatment on AE behavior was also investigated. Finally, AE behavior of the patch was evaluated after fatigue CA loading with overload or VA loading with log-normal distribution and overload.

  3. AE Geomagnetic Index Predictability for High Speed Solar Wind Streams: A Wavelet Decomposition Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guarnieri, Fernando L.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Hajra, Rajkumar; Echer, Ezequiel; Gonzalez, Walter D.; Mannucci, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    High speed solar wind streams cause geomagnetic activity at Earth. In this study we have applied a wavelet interactive filtering and reconstruction technique on the solar wind magnetic field components and AE index series to allowed us to investigate the relationship between the two. The IMF Bz component was found as the most significant solar wind parameter responsible by the control of the AE activity. Assuming magnetic reconnection associated to southward directed Bz is the main mechanism transferring energy into the magnetosphere, we adjust parameters to forecast the AE index. The adjusted routine is able to forecast AE, based only on the Bz measured at the L1 Lagrangian point. This gives a prediction approximately 30-70 minutes in advance of the actual geomagnetic activity. The correlation coefficient between the observed AE data and the forecasted series reached values higher than 0.90. In some cases the forecast reproduced particularities observed in the signal very well.The high correlation values observed and the high efficacy of the forecasting can be taken as a confirmation that reconnection is the main physical mechanism responsible for the energy transfer during HILDCAAs. The study also shows that the IMF Bz component low frequencies are most important for AE prediction.

  4. Synthesis, Crystal and Electronic Structures of the Pnictides AE3TrPn3 (AE = Sr, Ba; Tr = Al, Ga; Pn = P, As)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stoyko, Stanislav; Voss, Leonard; He, Hua; Bobev, Svilen

    2015-09-24

    New ternary arsenides AE3TrAs3 (AE = Sr, Ba; Tr = Al, Ga) and their phosphide analogs Sr3GaP3 and Ba3AlP3 have been prepared by reactions of the respective elements at high temperatures. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies reveal that Sr3AlAs3 and Ba3AlAs3 adopt the Ba3AlSb3-type structure (Pearson symbol oC56, space group Cmce, Z = 8). This structure is also realized for Sr3GaP3 and Ba3AlP3. Likewise, the compounds Sr3GaAs3 and Ba3GaAs3 crystallize with the Ba3GaSb3-type structure (Pearson symbol oP56, space group Pnma, Z = 8). Both structures are made up of isolated pairs of edge-shared AlPn4 and GaPn4 tetrahedra (Pn = pnictogen, i.e.,more » P or As), separated by the alkaline-earth Sr2+ and Ba2+ cations. In both cases, there are no homoatomic bonds, hence, regardless of the slightly different atomic arrangements, both structures can be rationalized as valence-precise [AE2+]3[Tr3+][Pn3-]3, or rather [AE2+]6[Tr2Pn6]12-, i.e., as Zintl phases.« less

  5. Transmembrane protein 139 (TMEM139) interacts with human kidney isoform of anion exchanger 1 (kAE1).

    PubMed

    Nuiplot, Nalin-On; Junking, Mutita; Duangtum, Natapol; Khunchai, Sasiprapa; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-Thai; Akkarapatumwong, Varaporn

    2015-08-01

    Human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) mediates Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanges at the basolateral membrane of the acid-secreting α-intercalated cells. Mutations in SLC4A1 gene encoding kAE1 are associated with distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). Several studies have shown that impaired trafficking of the mutant kAE1 is an important molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of dRTA. Proteins involved in kAE1 trafficking were identified but the mechanism resulting in dRTA remained unclear. Thus, this study attempted to search for additional proteins interacting with C-terminal of kAE1 (Ct-kAE1) and involved in kAE1 trafficking to cell membrane. Transmembrane protein 139 (TMEM139) was identified as a protein interacting with Ct-kAE1 by yeast two-hybrid screening. The interaction between kAE1 and TMEM139 was confirmed by affinity co-purification, co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-based protein fragment complementation assay (PCA). In addition, flow cytometry results showed that suppression of endogenous TMEM139 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) and over-expression of TMEM139 in HEK293T cells could reduce and increase membrane localization of kAE1, respectively. The presented data demonstrate that TMEM139 interacts with kAE1 and promotes its intracellular trafficking. PMID:26049106

  6. Novel AE1 mutations in recessive distal renal tubular acidosis. Loss-of-function is rescued by glycophorin A.

    PubMed

    Tanphaichitr, V S; Sumboonnanonda, A; Ideguchi, H; Shayakul, C; Brugnara, C; Takao, M; Veerakul, G; Alper, S L

    1998-12-15

    The AE1 gene encodes band 3 Cl-/HCO3- exchangers that are expressed both in the erythrocyte and in the acid-secreting, type A intercalated cells of the kidney. Kidney AE1 contributes to urinary acidification by providing the major exit route for HCO3- across the basolateral membrane. Several AE1 mutations cosegregate with dominantly transmitted nonsyndromic renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). However, the modest degree of in vitro hypofunction exhibited by these dRTA-associated mutations fails to explain the disease phenotype in light of the normal urinary acidification associated with the complete loss-of-function exhibited by AE1 mutations linked to dominant spherocytosis. We report here novel AE1 mutations linked to a recessive syndrome of dRTA and hemolytic anemia in which red cell anion transport is normal. Both affected individuals were triply homozygous for two benign mutations M31T and K56E and for the loss-of-function mutation, G701D. AE1 G701D loss-of-function was accompanied by impaired trafficking to the Xenopus oocyte surface. Coexpression with AE1 G701D of the erythroid AE1 chaperonin, glycophorin A, rescued both AE1-mediated Cl- transport and AE1 surface expression in oocytes. The genetic and functional data both suggest that the homozygous AE1 G701D mutation causes recessively transmitted dRTA in this kindred with apparently normal erythroid anion transport. PMID:9854053

  7. Prognostic assessment in COPD without lung function: the B-AE-D indices.

    PubMed

    Boeck, Lucas; Soriano, Joan B; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; Blasi, Francesco; Kostikas, Konstantinos; Boersma, Wim; Milenkovic, Branislava; Louis, Renaud; Lacoma, Alicia; Djamin, Remco; Aerts, Joachim; Torres, Antoni; Rohde, Gernot; Welte, Tobias; Martinez-Camblor, Pablo; Rakic, Janko; Scherr, Andreas; Koller, Michael; van der Palen, Job; Marin, Jose M; Alfageme, Inmaculada; Almagro, Pere; Casanova, Ciro; Esteban, Cristobal; Soler-Cataluña, Juan J; de-Torres, Juan P; Miravitlles, Marc; Celli, Bartolome R; Tamm, Michael; Stolz, Daiana

    2016-06-01

    Several composite markers have been proposed for risk assessment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, choice of parameters and score complexity restrict clinical applicability. Our aim was to provide and validate a simplified COPD risk index independent of lung function.The PROMISE study (n=530) was used to develop a novel prognostic index. Index performance was assessed regarding 2-year COPD-related mortality and all-cause mortality. External validity was tested in stable and exacerbated COPD patients in the ProCOLD, COCOMICS and COMIC cohorts (total n=2988).Using a mixed clinical and statistical approach, body mass index (B), severe acute exacerbations of COPD frequency (AE), modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea severity (D) and copeptin (C) were identified as the most suitable simplified marker combination. 0, 1 or 2 points were assigned to each parameter and totalled to B-AE-D or B-AE-D-C. It was observed that B-AE-D and B-AE-D-C were at least as good as BODE (body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnoea, exercise capacity), ADO (age, dyspnoea, airflow obstruction) and DOSE (dyspnoea, obstruction, smoking, exacerbation) indices for predicting 2-year all-cause mortality (c-statistic: 0.74, 0.77, 0.69, 0.72 and 0.63, respectively; Hosmer-Lemeshow test all p>0.05). Both indices were COPD specific (c-statistic for predicting COPD-related 2-year mortality: 0.87 and 0.89, respectively). External validation of B-AE-D was performed in COCOMICS and COMIC (c-statistic for 1-year all-cause mortality: 0.68 and 0.74; c-statistic for 2-year all-cause mortality: 0.65 and 0.67; Hosmer-Lemeshow test all p>0.05).The B-AE-D index, plus copeptin if available, allows a simple and accurate assessment of COPD-related risk. PMID:27103389

  8. Reduced DIDS-sensitive chloride conductance in Ae1-/- mouse erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Alper, Seth L.; Vandorpe, David H.; Peters, Luanne L.; Brugnara, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    The resting membrane potential of the human erythrocyte is largely determined by a constitutive Cl- conductance ∼100-fold greater than the resting cation conductance. The 4,4′-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid (DIDS)-sensitive electroneutral Cl- transport mediated by the human erythroid Cl-/HCO3- exchanger, AE1 (SLC4A1, band 3) is ≥10,000-fold greater than can be accounted for by the Cl- conductance of the red cell. The molecular identities of conductive anion pathways across the red cell membrane remain poorly defined. We have examined red cell Cl- conductance in the Ae1-/- mouse as a genetic test of the hypothesis that Ae1 mediates DIDS-sensitive Cl- conductance in mouse red cells. We report here that wildtype mouse red cell membrane potential resembles that of human red cells in the predominance of its Cl- conductance. We show with four technical approaches that the DIDS-sensitive component of erythroid Cl- conductance is reduced or absent from Ae1-/- red cells. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the Ae1 anion exchanger polypeptide can operate infrequently in a conductive mode. However, the fragile red cell membrane of the Ae1-/- mouse red cell exhibits reduced abundance or loss of multiple polypeptides. Thus, loss of one or more distinct, DIDS-sensitive anion channel polypeptide(s) from the Ae1-/- red cell membrane cannot be ruled out as an explanation for the reduced DIDS-sensitive anion conductance. PMID:18329299

  9. Crustal stress, seismicity, acoustic emission (AE), and tectonics: the Kefallinì;a (Greece) case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregori, G. P.; Poscolieri, M.; Paparo, G.; Ventrice, G.; de Simone, S.; Rafanelli, C.

    2009-04-01

    New inferences - confirming previous results (see references)- are presented dealing with a few years Acoustic Emission (AE) records collected at Kefallinìa (Ionian Islands, Greece). A physical distinction between HF (high frequency) vs. LF (low frequency) AE is required. Step-wise changes of the AE underground conductivity are evidenced, and can be suitably handled. "Smooth" results concern (i) the annual variation, (ii) some long-lasting stress "solitons" crossing through the area, and (iii) tidal effects. In particular, every AE station can be operated like a monitoring station both for Earth's tides and for the free oscillations of the Earth. In addition, Kefallinìa exhibits a much peculiar groundwater circulation, in which conduit flow is dominant, that originates a specific (and unique) AE effect. By means of AE time-series analysis, "extreme" or "catastrophic" events can be also monitored and possibly related to relevant tectonic occurrences (either earthquakes, or maybe other occasional phenomena). They can be investigated, and have a regional - rather than local - character. Therefore, every interpretation based on a single station record - being biased by some arbitrariness - can only result indicative. A standardized procedure and software is proposed for routine AE data handling and analysis. References.: Lagios et al., 2004. In Proc. SCI 2004 (The 8th World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatic), Orlando, Florida, July 1004, 6 pp. Poscolieri et al., 2006. In. G. Cello and B. D. Malamud, (eds), 2006. Geol. Soc. London, Special Publ., 261, 63-78. Poscolieri et al., 2006a. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 6, 961-971.

  10. Locating the Accretion Footprint on a Herbig Ae Star: MWC 480

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, C. A.; Hamaguchi, K.; Schneider, G.; Stecklum, B.; Woodgate, B. E.; McCleary, J. E.; Williger, G. M.; Sitko, M. L.; Menard, F.; Henning, Th.; Brittain, S.; Troutmann, M.; Donehew, B.; Hines, D.; Wisniewski, J. P.; Lynch, D. K.; Russell, R. W.; Rudy, R. J.; Day, A. M.; Shenoy, A.; Wilner, D.; Silverston, M.; Bouret, J.-C.; Clampin, M.; Petre, R.

    2011-01-01

    Accretion is a fundamental process which establishes the dynamics of the protoplanetary disk and the final properties of the forming star. In solar-type stars, the star-disk coupling is determined by the magnetic field structure, which is responsible for funneling material from the disk midplane to higher latitudes on the star. Here, we use pan-chromatic data for the Herbig Ae star MWC 480 to address whether similar processes occur in intermediate-mass stars. MWC 480 has X-ray emission typical of actively accreting Herbig Ae stars, but with 5-9 x more photoelectric absorption than expected from optical and FUV data. We consider 3 sources for the absorption: the disk absorption in a wind or jet, and accretion. While we detect the disk in scattered light in are-analysis of archival HST data. the data are consistent with grazing illumination of the dust disk. We find that MWC 480's disk is stratified, geometrically thin, and is not responsible for the observed photoelectric absorption. MWC 480 drives a bipolar jet, but with a mass loss rate which is low compared to other Herbig Ae stars, where the outflow is more favorably oriented and enhanced photoelectric absorption is not seen. This excludes a jet or wind origin for the enhanced photoelectric absorption. We compare MWC 480's 0 VI emission with other Herbig Ae stars. The distribution of the emission in inclination, and lack of a correlation of profile shape and system inclination excludes equatorially-confined accretion for the FUSE Herbig Ae stars. The photoelectric absorption data further suggest that the accretion footprint on MWC 480 and other Herbig Ae stars is located at high temperate, rather than polar, latitudes. These findings support the presence of funneled accretion in MWC 480 and Herbig Ae stars, strengthening the parallel to T Tauri stars.

  11. Prognostic assessment in COPD without lung function: the B-AE-D indices

    PubMed Central

    Boeck, Lucas; Blasi, Francesco; Kostikas, Konstantinos; Boersma, Wim; Milenkovic, Branislava; Louis, Renaud; Lacoma, Alicia; Djamin, Remco; Aerts, Joachim; Torres, Antoni; Rohde, Gernot; Welte, Tobias; Martinez-Camblor, Pablo; Rakic, Janko; Scherr, Andreas; Koller, Michael; van der Palen, Job; Marin, Jose M.; Alfageme, Inmaculada; Almagro, Pere; Casanova, Ciro; Esteban, Cristobal; Soler-Cataluña, Juan J.; de-Torres, Juan P.; Miravitlles, Marc; Celli, Bartolome R.; Tamm, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Several composite markers have been proposed for risk assessment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, choice of parameters and score complexity restrict clinical applicability. Our aim was to provide and validate a simplified COPD risk index independent of lung function. The PROMISE study (n=530) was used to develop a novel prognostic index. Index performance was assessed regarding 2-year COPD-related mortality and all-cause mortality. External validity was tested in stable and exacerbated COPD patients in the ProCOLD, COCOMICS and COMIC cohorts (total n=2988). Using a mixed clinical and statistical approach, body mass index (B), severe acute exacerbations of COPD frequency (AE), modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea severity (D) and copeptin (C) were identified as the most suitable simplified marker combination. 0, 1 or 2 points were assigned to each parameter and totalled to B-AE-D or B-AE-D-C. It was observed that B-AE-D and B-AE-D-C were at least as good as BODE (body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnoea, exercise capacity), ADO (age, dyspnoea, airflow obstruction) and DOSE (dyspnoea, obstruction, smoking, exacerbation) indices for predicting 2-year all-cause mortality (c-statistic: 0.74, 0.77, 0.69, 0.72 and 0.63, respectively; Hosmer–Lemeshow test all p>0.05). Both indices were COPD specific (c-statistic for predicting COPD-related 2-year mortality: 0.87 and 0.89, respectively). External validation of B-AE-D was performed in COCOMICS and COMIC (c-statistic for 1-year all-cause mortality: 0.68 and 0.74; c-statistic for 2-year all-cause mortality: 0.65 and 0.67; Hosmer–Lemeshow test all p>0.05). The B-AE-D index, plus copeptin if available, allows a simple and accurate assessment of COPD-related risk. PMID:27103389

  12. AE sources of droplet SCC testing in type 304 stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiwa, Mitsuharu; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Yamawaki, Hisashi; Ito, Kaita; Enoki, Manabu

    2014-02-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) and optical video microscope (VMS) monitoring was proposed to investigate the stress corrosion cracking of type 304 stainless steels of work-hardened (WH) and solution heat treatment (ST) specimen caused by a small magnesium-chloride droplet. The crack propagation length could measure clearly under the droplet with coved glass by VMS. The cracks velocities of WH were 3.2-5.2 ×10 μm/ks and it propagated almost continuously. That of ST were 2.1-3.8 ×10 μm/ks and it propagated similar to WH. AE signals were generated at early stage of SCC testing, after that they were generated discontinuously in WH. None of AE signals were detected in ST. The detected AE signals were synchronized with bubbling from pitting and on the crack in a droplet observed by high magnification VMS. With the SEM observations, cracking bottom of pitting and small pitting on the crack were observed at the bubbling position. It could be concluded that the detected AE signals were mainly attributed to the bubbling from the pitting.

  13. Assimilation and implications of AE-9/AP-9 in the design process of JPL missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Soria-Santacruz Pich, M.; Jun, I.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA AE-8/AP-8 has been the standard geospace environment specification for decades. This model describes the energetic particle environment around the Earth and is currently the default model used in the design of space missions at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Moreover, the model plays a critical role in the determination of the shielding and survivability of the satellites orbiting our planet. A recent update supported by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), the AE-9/AP-9 model, was released in September 2012 and included many improvements like increased spatial resolution and the specification of the uncertainty due to instrument errors or space weather variability. A current effort at JPL is in place with the objective of making a decision within the Laboratory on the transition from AE-8/AP-8 to the new AE-9/AP-9. In this study we present the results of this effort, which involves the comparison between both versions of the model for different satellite orbits, the comparison between AE-9/AP-9 and in-situ satellite data from the Van Allen Probes and the OSTM/Jason 2 satellite, and the implications of adopting the new model for spacecraft design in terms of survivability, shielding, single event effects, and spacecraft charging.

  14. MEASURING THE STELLAR ACCRETION RATES OF HERBIG Ae/Be STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Donehew, Brian; Brittain, Sean E-mail: sbritt@clemson.edu

    2011-02-15

    The accretion rate of young stars is a fundamental characteristic of these systems. While accretion onto T Tauri stars has been studied extensively, little work has been done on measuring the accretion rate of their intermediate-mass analogs, the Herbig Ae/Be stars. Measuring the stellar accretion rate of Herbig Ae/Bes is not straightforward both because of the dearth of metal absorption lines available for veiling measurements and the intrinsic brightness of Herbig Ae/Be stars at ultraviolet wavelengths where the brightness of the accretion shock peaks. Alternative approaches to measuring the accretion rate of young stars by measuring the luminosity of proxies such as the Br {gamma} emission line have not been calibrated. A promising approach is the measurement of the veiling of the Balmer discontinuity. We present measurements of this veiling as well as the luminosity of Br {gamma}. We show that the relationship between the luminosity of Br {gamma} and the stellar accretion rate for classical T Tauri stars is consistent with Herbig Ae stars but not Herbig Be stars. We discuss the implications of this finding for understanding the interaction of the star and disk for Herbig Ae/Be stars.

  15. Search for gamma-ray emissions from AE Aquarii with Fermi LAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Rea, Nanda; De Ona Wilhelmi, Emma; Torres, Diego F.; Hou, Xian

    2016-07-01

    AE Aquarii is a cataclysmic variable with the fastest known rotating magnetized white dwarf (P_{spin} = 33.08 s). We report on deep searches for gamma-ray emission and pulsations from AE Aquarii in seven years of Fermi-LAT Pass 8 data. Using different X-ray observations spanning 20 years, we substantially extended the timing ephemeris of AE Aquarii. A spin phase jump was discovered between MJD 55122.5 - 56078.64 by X-ray timing analysis. Using the extended timing ephemeris, we searched for gamma-ray pulsations at the spin period and its first harmonic. No gamma-ray pulsation were detected above 3 sigma significance. Neither steady gamma-ray emission nor gamma-ray variability of AE Aquarii were detected by Fermi-LAT. We impose the most restrictive upper limit on the gamma-ray emission from AE Aquarii to date, as 1.23×10^{-12} erg cm^{-2} s^{-1} in 0.1-300 GeV range providing constrains on models.

  16. Synthesis, Crystal and Electronic Structures of the Pnictides AE3TrPn3 (AE = Sr, Ba; Tr = Al, Ga; Pn = P, As)

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyko, Stanislav; Voss, Leonard; He, Hua; Bobev, Svilen

    2015-09-24

    New ternary arsenides AE3TrAs3 (AE = Sr, Ba; Tr = Al, Ga) and their phosphide analogs Sr3GaP3 and Ba3AlP3 have been prepared by reactions of the respective elements at high temperatures. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies reveal that Sr3AlAs3 and Ba3AlAs3 adopt the Ba3AlSb3-type structure (Pearson symbol oC56, space group Cmce, Z = 8). This structure is also realized for Sr3GaP3 and Ba3AlP3. Likewise, the compounds Sr3GaAs3 and Ba3GaAs3 crystallize with the Ba3GaSb3-type structure (Pearson symbol oP56, space group Pnma, Z = 8). Both structures are made up of isolated pairs of edge-shared AlPn4 and GaPn4 tetrahedra (Pn = pnictogen, i.e., P or As), separated by the alkaline-earth Sr2+ and Ba2+ cations. In both cases, there are no homoatomic bonds, hence, regardless of the slightly different atomic arrangements, both structures can be rationalized as valence-precise [AE2+]3[Tr3+][Pn3-]3, or rather [AE2+]6[Tr2Pn6]12-, i.e., as Zintl phases.

  17. In situ mapping of the effect of additional mutations on starch granule structure in amylose-extender (ae) maize kernels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongli; Wellner, Nikolaus; Parker, Mary L; Morris, Victor J; Cheng, Fang

    2015-03-15

    Optical (KI/I2-staining, polarised) and FTIR microscopy has been used to monitor starch granule structure within wild-type (wt), GEMS-0067 and waxy-amylose-extender (wx-ae) maize mutant kernels. In the GEMS-0067 mutant containing the high amylose modifier (HAM) gene(s) plus the recessive ae gene, structural heterogeneity characteristic of the ae mutation was reduced markedly. However, enhanced variation in granule shape and size was observed distributed spatially within the kernel, which appears to be related to new heterogeneity in internal starch granule structure. In wx-ae starch mutants the ae gene led to heterogeneity of starch granule structure equivalent to that in single ae mutants, plus new structural heterogeneity coincident with novel induced variation in granule size and shape. PMID:25542125

  18. Dust emission features in 3-micron spectra of Herbig Ae/Be stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooke, T. Y.; Tokunaga, A. T.; Strom, S. E.

    1993-01-01

    Attention is given to low- and medium-resolution spectra in the 3-micron region of 24 Herbig Ae/Be stars obtained in a search for organic features from the dust around young stars. The 3.29-micron emission feature from aromatic hydrocarbons was detected in three objects: Lk H-alpha 25, XY Per, and AS 310. Two other stars, HD 245185 and HK Ori, may have weak features. About 20 percent of the Herbig Ae/Be surveyed to date have firmly detected 3.29-micron features. The available data indicate that the 3.29-micron feature is more extended around Herbig Ae/Be stars of earlier spectral type, possibly due to dehydrogenization or destruction of the aromatics near these stars. It is suggested that the total number of aromatics excited by the stars is also greater around the earlier-type objects.

  19. Winter Refuge for Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus Mosquitoes in Hanoi during Winter

    PubMed Central

    Tsunoda, Takashi; Cuong, Tran Chi; Dong, Tran Duc; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Le, Nguyen Hoang; Phong, Tran Vu; Minakawa, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    Dengue occurs throughout the year in Hanoi, Vietnam, despite winter low temperatures <10°C. During July 2010 to March 2012, we surveyed monthly for Aedes larvae and pupae in 120 houses in 8 Hanoi districts. Aedes albopictus preferred discarded containers in summer and pupal density drastically decreased in winter. Aedes aegypti preferred concrete tanks and this preference increased in winter. Even in winter, the lowest water temperature found in concrete tanks was >14°C, exceeding the developmental zero point of Ae. aegypti. Although jars, drums and concrete tanks were the dominant containers previously (1994–97) in Hanoi, currently the percentage of residences with concrete tanks was still high while jars and drums were quite low. Our study showed that concrete tanks with broken lids allowing mosquitoes access were important winter refuge for Ae. aegypti. We also indicate a concern about concrete tanks serving as foci for Ae. aegypti to expand their distribution in cooler regions. PMID:24752230

  20. Comparative genome analysis between Agrostis stolonifera and members of the Pooideae subfamily, including Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Araneda, Loreto; Sim, Sung-Chur; Bae, Jin-Joo; Chakraborty, Nanda; Curley, Joe; Chang, Taehyun; Inoue, Maiko; Warnke, Scott; Jung, Geunhwa

    2013-01-01

    Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera, allotetraploid 2n = 4x = 28) is one of the major cool-season turfgrasses. It is widely used on golf courses due to its tolerance to low mowing and aggressive growth habit. In this study, we investigated genome relationships of creeping bentgrass relative to the Triticeae (a consensus map of Triticum aestivum, T. tauschii, Hordeum vulgare, and H. spontaneum), oat, rice, and ryegrass maps using a common set of 229 EST-RFLP markers. The genome comparisons based on the RFLP markers revealed large-scale chromosomal rearrangements on different numbers of linkage groups (LGs) of creeping bentgrass relative to the Triticeae (3 LGs), oat (4 LGs), and rice (8 LGs). However, we detected no chromosomal rearrangement between creeping bentgrass and ryegrass, suggesting that these recently domesticated species might be closely related, despite their memberships to different Pooideae tribes. In addition, the genome of creeping bentgrass was compared with the complete genome sequence of Brachypodium distachyon in Pooideae subfamily using both sequences of the above-mentioned mapped EST-RFLP markers and sequences of 8,470 publicly available A. stolonifera ESTs (AgEST). We discovered large-scale chromosomal rearrangements on six LGs of creeping bentgrass relative to B. distachyon. Also, a total of 24 syntenic blocks based on 678 orthologus loci were identified between these two grass species. The EST orthologs can be utilized in further comparative mapping of Pooideae species. These results will be useful for genetic improvement of Agrostis species and will provide a better understanding of evolution within Pooideae species. PMID:24244501

  1. Trends of investigations on atomic analytical emission spectrometry (AES) in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salkauskas, Julius

    2003-11-01

    The main trends, results and methods of the investigations in AES are reviewed. The majority of the papers were devoted to the regularities and processes in electric discharges applied as spectra excitation sources. For this task the methods of plasma diagnostics, computer simulation, Fourier analysis of the noises, fluctuation as well as the correlation methods were developed and applied in AES. Lately much attention was paid to the metrological problems in spectrochemistry and analytical chemistry. At present the methods of inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy are implemented.

  2. Automated Estimating System (AES), Standard Value Update Program, user`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, R.K.; Holder, D.A.

    1994-08-01

    This manual contains instructions for operating the Standard Value Update Program. This program is operated and controlled by selected individuals in the Estimating and Scheduling Engineering Department of the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Engineering Division. It is used to control and standardized input into the Automated Estimating System (AES) Estimating program, a person computer-based software package designed to aid in the creation, updating, and reporting of project cost estimates. The AES Estimating program is documented in a separate user`s manual.

  3. Abscisic acid influx into human nucleated cells occurs through the anion exchanger AE2.

    PubMed

    Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Zocchi, Elena; Fresia, Chiara; Booz, Valeria; Guida, Lucrezia

    2016-06-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a hormone conserved from cyanobacteria to higher plants, where it regulates responses to environmental stimuli. ABA also plays a role in mammalian physiology, pointedly in inflammatory responses and in glycemic control. As the animal ABA receptor is on the intracellular side of the plasma membrane, a transporter is required for the hormone's action. Here we demonstrate that ABA transport in human nucleated cells occurs via the anion exchanger AE2. Together with the recent demonstration that ABA influx into human erythrocytes occurs via Band 3, this result identifies the AE family members as the mammalian ABA transporters. PMID:27015766

  4. AES-128 Bit Algorithm Using Fully Pipelined Architecture for Secret Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanambika, M.; Adilakshmi, S.; Noorbasha, Fazal

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, an efficient method for high speed hardware implementation of AES algorithm is presented. So far, many implementations of AES have been proposed, for various goals that effect the Sub Byte transformation in various ways. These methods of implementation are based on combinational logic and are done in polynomial bases. In the proposed architecture, it is done by using composite field arithmetic in normal bases. In addition, efficient key expansion architecture suitable for 6 sub pipelined round units is also presented. These designs were described using VerilogHDL, simulated using Modelsim.

  5. [Application of ICP-AES to the chemical speciation of heavy metals in flyash].

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu-Wen; Pu, Li-Mei; Qiao, Wei; Wang, Wei; Wan, Xiao; Zhang, Xin-Rong

    2006-08-01

    Chemical speciation of seven heavy metals of flyashes in incinerator was quantitatively tested using ICP-AES. Results showed that ICP-AES procedure could carry out quick, exact and high precision experiments. RSD ratio for most detected metals was lower than 3% while few metals present a comparatively high RSD when whose content was near the detection limits. The recovery ratio was 85.7%-100.63% flyashes were found to have high content of Zn, Pb. Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn existed mostly as carbonates and were leachable, while Cr and Ni were combined to metal oxides substrates and present immobilization characteristics. PMID:17058967

  6. Mice with a Targeted Disruption of the Cl−/HCO3− Exchanger AE3 Display a Reduced Seizure Threshold

    PubMed Central

    Hentschke, Moritz; Wiemann, Martin; Hentschke, Suna; Kurth, Ingo; Hermans-Borgmeyer, Irm; Seidenbecher, Thomas; Jentsch, Thomas J.; Gal, Andreas; Hübner, Christian A.

    2006-01-01

    Neuronal activity results in significant pH shifts in neurons, glia, and interstitial space. Several transport mechanisms are involved in the fine-tuning and regulation of extra- and intracellular pH. The sodium-independent electroneutral anion exchangers (AEs) exchange intracellular bicarbonate for extracellular chloride and thereby lower the intracellular pH. Recently, a significant association was found with the variant Ala867Asp of the anion exchanger AE3, which is predominantly expressed in brain and heart, in a large cohort of patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. To analyze a possible involvement of AE3 dysfunction in the pathogenesis of seizures, we generated an AE3-knockout mouse model by targeted disruption of Slc4a3. AE3-knockout mice were apparently healthy, and neither displayed gross histological and behavioral abnormalities nor spontaneous seizures or spike wave complexes in electrocorticograms. However, the seizure threshold of AE3-knockout mice exposed to bicuculline, pentylenetetrazole, or pilocarpine was reduced, and seizure-induced mortality was significantly increased compared to wild-type littermates. In the pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampal CA3 region, where AE3 is strongly expressed, disruption of AE3 abolished sodium-independent chloride-bicarbonate exchange. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that AE3 modulates seizure susceptibility and, therefore, are of significance for understanding the role of intracellular pH in epilepsy. PMID:16354689

  7. Gastrin inhibits a novel, pathological colon cancer signaling pathway involving EGR1, AE2 and P-ERK

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ling-Jun; Liu, Rui-Jun; Zeng, Zhi; Alper, Seth L.; Cui, Heng-Jing; Lu, Yang; Zheng, Lin; Yan, Zhao-Wen; Fu, Guo-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Human anion exchanger 2 (AE2) is a plasma membrane protein that regulates intracellular pH and cell volume. AE2 contributes to transepithelial transport of chloride and bicarbonate in normal colon and other epithelial tissues. We now report that AE2 overexpression in colon cancer cells is correlated with expression of the nuclear proliferation marker, Ki67. Survival analysis of 24 patients with colon cancer in early stage or 33 patients with tubular adenocarcinoma demonstrated that expression of AE2 is correlated with poor prognosis. Cellular and molecular experiments indicated that AE2 expression promoted proliferation of colon cancer cells. In addition, we found that transcription factor EGR1 underlies AE2 upregulation, and the AE2 sequester p16INK4a (P16) in the cytoplasm of colon cancer cells. Cytoplasmic P16 enhanced ERK phosphorylation and promoted proliferation of colon cancer cells. Gastrin inhibited proliferation of colon cancer cells by suppressing expression of EGR1 and AE2 and by blocking ERK phosphorylation. Taken together, our data describe a novel EGR1/AE2/P16/P-ERK signaling pathway in colon carcinogenesis, with implications for pathologic prognosis and for novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:22228178

  8. FISH digital imaging microscopy in mosquito genomics.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, M L; Brown, S E; Knudson, D L

    1996-03-01

    The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, transmits pathogens that affect both humans and livestock, and has been the focus of extensive research to identify genetic loci that may be useful in control strategies. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and digital imaging microscopy have provided a rapid mechanism to populate the physical map with probes derived from genetic markers, cDNAs and recombinant genomic libraries. When the physical and genetic linkage maps are aligned, map-based cloning will allow the rapid isolation of target genomic sequences. The strategy of FISH mapping and the results of initial hybridization studies are reviewed here by Martin Ferguson, Susan Brown and Dennis Knudson. An Ae. aegypti-specific genomic database, which collates data from mapping studies, sequences, references and other relevant information, is also discussed. PMID:15275237

  9. Properties of AE indices derived from real-time global simulation and their implications for solar wind-magnetosphere coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, K.; Shimazu, H.; Fujita, S.; Watari, S.; Kunitake, M.; Shinagawa, H.; Tanaka, T.

    2008-03-01

    Real-time magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere (S-M-I) coupling system was used to calculate auroral electrojet (AE) indices. This simulation reproduces the magnetic field configurations in the magnetosphere, magnetospheric convection, and field-aligned currents (FACs) using the upstream boundary conditions with the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), solar wind speed, temperature, and proton number density measured by the ACE spacecraft. The electrical potential at 3 RE (Earth radii) from the center of the Earth is mapped on the ionosphere. The ionospheric currents are deduced from Ohm's law to match the divergence of Pedersen and Hall currents from FACs. The AE indices are obtained from the magnetic field perturbation caused by the simulated ionospheric currents. We compared the simulated AE indices for 247 d with the AE indices deduced from the magnetic variations at up to 12 stations located around the auroral latitude. The results show that the simulated AE reproduces the observed AE indices well. Of the 247 d, 64% had cross-correlation coefficients of more than 0.5. We also found that the simulated AE indices do not correlate well with the observed AE indices when the standard deviations of variations in the observed AE indices are less than 100 nT. When variations in the AE indices are small, some of the short-period perturbations of the electromagnetic energy flowing from the solar wind into the magnetosphere is absorbed or filtered in the real S-M-I coupling system by some mechanism that is not included in our MHD simulation and that the resulting fluctuation in the AE indices is damped compared with the simulation.

  10. Correlation of laser ablation plasma emission with ICP-AES signal intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, A.J.; Mao, X.L.; Shannon, M.A.

    1994-12-31

    Laser ablation offers many favorable characteristics for direct solid sample chemical analysis. However, the technique usually provides poor precision in comparison to solution nebulization. The primary contributor to this imprecision is the irreproducibility of the laser material interaction. This paper describes a technique for monitoring changes in the laser material interaction directly, and using these data to improve inductively coupled atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Simultaneous measurements of the spectral emission intensity in the laser-induced plasma (LIP) and the ICP-AES were made under different power density conditions. The LIP spatial profile and excitation temperature was measured. The data from the LIP show a strong correlation with ICP-AES signal intensity. Both emission signals increase linearly with the laser power density (log-log) and show a change in the slope for different spot sizes and laser powers. These results support the occurrence of two different ablation mechanisms, a less efficient interaction dominating at the higher power densities (> 1 GW/cm2) and a more efficient interaction in the lower power density regimes. The benefits of using simultaneous monitoring of the laser induced plasma for chemical analysis by ICP-AES will be discussed.

  11. AE Monitoring of Microdamages in Bioceramics for Artificial Joints under Simulated Body Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakayama, Shuichi; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Oshima, Toyokatsu; Kobayashi, Satoshi

    Microfracture process of 3mol% yttria stabilized zirconia (3Y-TZP) for artificial joints was evaluated using the acoustic emission technique. In order to investigate the effects of environment and strain rate on the microfracture process, four point bending tests were carried out in air and physiological saline (P.S.) at various loading rates. From the results of AE behavior, rapid AE increasing point was observed before the final unstable fracture. It was suggested from the previous work that the AE increasing point corresponds to the maincrack formation. The critical stress for maincrack formation, σC, was determined from the bending stress at the AE increasing point. The critical stress as well as bending strength, σB, decreased in physiological saline. In particular, the decrease in critical stress was remarkable. It was then understood that stress corrosion cracking (SCC) by water in physiological saline affected maincrack formation rather than the final fracture. Consequently, it was suggested that the evaluation of σC is essential for the reliability assessment of bioceramics.

  12. Public Health Response to Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus Mosquitoes Invading California, USA

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Vicki; Yoshimizu, Melissa Hardstone; Metzger, Marco; Hu, Renjie; Padgett, Kerry; Vugia, Duc J.

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, primary vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses, were recently detected in California, USA. The threat of potential local transmission of these viruses increases as more infected travelers arrive from affected areas. Public health response has included enhanced human and mosquito surveillance, education, and intensive mosquito control. PMID:26401891

  13. The Impact of Church Affiliation on Language Use in Kwara'ae (Solomon Islands).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson-Gegeo, Karen Ann; Gegeo, David Welchman

    1991-01-01

    The impact of church affiliation on language use, identity, and change among Kwara'ae speakers in the Solomon Islands is examined. It was found that members of different sects signal their separate identities not only through linguistic code but also through discourse patterns and nonverbal aspects of communication. (26 references) (JL)

  14. Production and Perception of the English /ae/-/?/ Contrast in Switched-Dominance Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casillas, Joseph V.; Simonet, Miquel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how fluent second-language (L2) learners of English produce and perceive the /ae/-/?/ vowel contrast of Southwestern American English. Two learner groups are examined: (1) early, proficient English speakers who were raised by Spanish-speaking families but who became dominant in English during childhood and, as adults, lack…

  15. Sputter-induced erosion of alkali metal surfaces - AES, XPS and SIMS studies

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper will discuss the manner in which the techniques of Auger-electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray-photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and ion-scattering spectroscopy (ISS) may be used to study the use of high secondary-ion-yield surfaces as a means of reducing plasma-impurity influx in magnetic-confinement fusion devices.

  16. Program of Aes Orbit Determination from Measurement Data of Astronomical Station ("orbita - M")

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheptoon, A. D.; Kolesnik, S. Ja.; Paltsev, N. G.

    A program is developed of determining AES orbits from measurement data of one or several astronomical stations. Its algorithm is rather stable to small errors of measurements and permits to use data with low accuracy for calculations.The use of several transits data enables to increase presision of orbital semi-major axe determination by nearly 10000 times.

  17. Investigation of Participation in Adult Education in Turkey: AES Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dincer, N. Nergiz; Tekin-Koru, Ayca; Askar, Petek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the determinants of participation in adult education in Turkey. The analysis is conducted using the Adult Education Survey (AES), conducted by TurkStat. The results indicate that economic growth in the sector of employment significantly and positively affects the odds for adult education participation. The data…

  18. Manadodioxans A-E: polyketide endoperoxides from the marine sponge Plakortis bergquistae.

    PubMed

    Gushiken, Masaki; Kagiyama, Ippei; Kato, Hikaru; Kuwana, Toshiyuki; Losung, Fitje; Mangindaan, Remy E P; de Voogd, Nicole J; Tsukamoto, Sachiko

    2015-10-01

    Five new polyketide endoperoxides, manadodioxans A-E, were isolated from the marine sponge Plakortis bergquistae. Manadodioxan E showed antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli at 10 μg/disk, while its oxo congener, manadodioxan D, was inactive. PMID:26006223

  19. A Scan-Based Attack Based on Discriminators for AES Cryptosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nara, Ryuta; Togawa, Nozomu; Yanagisawa, Masao; Ohtsuki, Tatsuo

    A scan chain is one of the most important testing techniques, but it can be used as side-channel attacks against a cryptography LSI. We focus on scan-based attacks, in which scan chains are targeted for side-channel attacks. The conventional scan-based attacks only consider the scan chain composed of only the registers in a cryptography circuit. However, a cryptography LSI usually uses many circuits such as memories, micro processors and other circuits. This means that the conventional attacks cannot be applied to the practical scan chain composed of various types of registers. In this paper, a scan-based attack which enables to decipher the secret key in an AES cryptography LSI composed of an AES circuit and other circuits is proposed. By focusing on bit pattern of the specific register and monitoring its change, our scan-based attack eliminates the influence of registers included in other circuits than AES. Our attack does not depend on scan chain architecture, and it can decipher practical AES cryptography LSIs.

  20. MAGIC search for VHE γ-ray emission from AE Aquarii in a multiwavelength context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksić, J.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Babic, A.; Bangale, P.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Doert, M.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hildebrand, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Idec, W.; Kadenius, V.; Kellermann, H.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Krause, J.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lozano, I.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nakajima, D.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Nowak, N.; Orito, R.; Overkemping, A.; Paiano, S.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Persic, M.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Preziuso, S.; Puljak, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rodriguez Garcia, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, T.; Saito, K.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinbring, T.; Storz, J.; Strzys, M.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thaele, J.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Zanin, R.

    2014-08-01

    Context. It has been claimed that the nova-like cataclysmic variable AE Aquarii (AE Aqr) is a very-high-energy (VHE, E> 100 GeV) source both on observational and theoretical grounds. Aims: We search for VHE γ-ray emission from AE Aqr during different states of the source at several wavelengths to confirm or rule out previous claims of detection of γ-ray emission from this object. Methods: We report on observations of AE Aqr performed by MAGIC. The source was observed during 12 h as part of a multiwavelength campaign carried out between May and June 2012 covering the optical, X-ray, and γ-ray ranges. Besides MAGIC, the other facilities involved were the KVA, Skinakas, and Vidojevica telescopes in the optical and Swift in X-rays. We calculated integral upper limits coincident with different states of the source in the optical. We computed upper limits to the pulsed emission limiting the signal region to 30% of the phaseogram and we also searched for pulsed emission at different frequencies applying the Rayleigh test. Results: AE Aqr was not detected at VHEs during the multiwavelength campaign. We establish integral upper limits at the 95% confidence level for the steady emission assuming the differential flux proportional to a power-law function dφ/ dE ∝ E- Γ, with a Crab-like photon spectral index of Γ = 2.6. The upper limit above 200 GeV is 6.4 × 10-12 cm-2 s-1 and above 1 TeV is 7.4 × 10-13 cm-2 s-1. We obtained an upper limit for the pulsed emission of 2.6 × 10-12 cm-2 s-1 for energies above 200 GeV. Applying the Rayleigh test for pulsed emission at different frequencies we did not find any significant signal. Conclusions: Our results indicate that AE Aqr is not a VHE γ-ray emitter at the level of emission previously claimed. We have established the most constraining upper limits for the VHE γ-ray emission of AE Aqr.

  1. Organizing for empowerment: an interview with AES's Roger Sant and Dennis Bakke. Interview by Suzy Wetlaufer.

    PubMed

    Sant, R; Bakke, D

    1999-01-01

    The topic of empowerment is receiving a lot of attention, but how many employees are truly empowered? At the global electricity giant AES Corporation, the answer is all 40,000 of them. In this interview, chairman Roger Sant and CEO Dennis Bakke reflect on their trials and triumphs in creating an exceptional company and explain how their employee-run company works. When they founded AES in 1981, Sant and Bakke set out to create a company where people could have engaging experiences on a daily basis--a company that embodied the principles of fairness, integrity, social responsibility, and fun. Putting those principles into action has created something unique--an ecosystem of real empowerment. What does that system look like? Rather than having a traditional hierarchical chain of command, AES is organized around small teams that are responsible for operations and maintenance. Moreover, AES has eliminated functional departments; there's no corporate marketing division or human resources department. For the system to work, every person must become a well-rounded generalist--a mini-CEO. That, in turn, redefines the jobs of the people at headquarters. Instead of setting strategy and making the "the big decisions," Sant and Bakke act as advisers, guardians of the principles, accountability officers, and chief encouragers. Can other companies successfully adopt the mechanics of such a system? Not unless they first adopt the shared principles that have guided AES since its inception. "Empowerment without values isn't empowerment," says Sant. "It's just technique," adds Bakke. PMID:10345387

  2. Acoustic emission (AE) health monitoring of diaphragm type couplings using neural network analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godinez-Azcuaga, Valery F.; Shu, Fong; Finlayson, Richard D.; O'Donnell, Bruce

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents the latest results obtained from Acoustic Emission (AE) monitoring and detection of cracks and/or damage in diaphragm couplings, which are used in some aircraft and engine drive systems. Early detection of mechanical failure in aircraft drive train components is a key safety and economical issue with both military and civil sectors of aviation. One of these components is the diaphragm-type coupling, which has been evaluated as the ideal drive coupling for many application requirements such as high speed, high torque, and non-lubrication. Its flexible axial and angular displacement capabilities have made it indispensable for aircraft drive systems. However, diaphragm-type couplings may develop cracks during their operation. The ability to monitor, detect, identify, and isolate coupling cracks on an operational aircraft system is required in order to provide sufficient advance warning to preclude catastrophic failure. It is known that metallic structures generate characteristic Acoustic Emission (AE) during crack growth/propagation cycles. This phenomenon makes AE very attractive among various monitoring techniques for fault detection in diaphragm-type couplings. However, commercially available systems capable of automatic discrimination between signals from crack growth and normal mechanical noise are not readily available. Positive classification of signals requires experienced personnel and post-test data analysis, which tend to be a time-consuming, laborious, and expensive process. With further development of automated classifiers, AE can become a fully autonomous fault detection technique requiring no human intervention after implementation. AE has the potential to be fully integrated with automated query and response mechanisms for system/process monitoring and control.

  3. 75 FR 70742 - AES Laurel Mountain, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AES Laurel Mountain, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of AES Laurel Mountain, LLC's application for market-based...

  4. 77 FR 71189 - AES Beaver Valley, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AES Beaver Valley, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of AES Beaver Valley, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  5. AE index forecast at different time scales through an ANN algorithm based on L1 IMF and plasma measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallocchia, G.; Amata, E.; Consolini, G.; Marcucci, M. F.; Bertello, I.

    2008-02-01

    The AE index is known to have two main components, one directly driven by the solar wind and the other related to the magnetotail unloading process. As regards the role played by the IMF and solar wind parameters, recently several authors used artificial neural networks (ANN) to forecast AE from solar wind data. Following this track, in this paper we present a study of the AE forecast at different time scales, from 5 min to 1 h, in order to check whether the performance of the ANN prediction varies significantly as a function of the AE time resolution.The study is based on a new ANN Elman network with Bz (in GSM) and Vx as inputs, one hidden layer containing four neurons, four context units and one output neuron. We find that the forecast AE values, during disturbed AE periods, result to be always smaller than the experimental values; on the other hand, the algorithm performance improves as the time scale increases, i.e. the total standard deviation (calculated over a test data set) between the forecast and the Kyoto AE decreases as the averaging time increases. Under the hypothesis that this decrease follows an exponential law, we find that the 1 h scale normalised standard deviation is 0.975, very close to the asymptotic value of 0.95 for an infinite averaging time. We interpret our results in the sense that the unloading component of the AE variations cannot be predicted from IMF and solar wind parameters only.

  6. Characterization of Maize Amylose-Extender (ae) Mutant Starches. Part I: Relationship Between Resistant Starch Contents and Molecular Structures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endosperm starches were isolated from kernels of seven maize amylose-extender (ae) lines. The resistant starch (RS) contents, measured using AOAC method 991.43, showed that three new ae-mutant starch lines developed by the USDA-ARS Germplasm Enhancement (GEM) and Truman State University had larger R...

  7. Production of Mucosally Transmissible SHIV Challenge Stocks from HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Form 01_AE env Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Tartaglia, Lawrence J.; Chang, Hui-Wen; Lee, Benjamin C.; Abbink, Peter; Ng’ang’a, David; Boyd, Michael; Lavine, Christy L.; Lim, So-Yon; Sanisetty, Srisowmya; Whitney, James B.; Seaman, Michael S.; Rolland, Morgane; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Robb, Merlin L.; Kim, Jerome H.; Michael, Nelson L.; Barouch, Dan H.

    2016-01-01

    Simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge stocks are critical for preclinical testing of vaccines, antibodies, and other interventions aimed to prevent HIV-1. A major unmet need for the field has been the lack of a SHIV challenge stock expressing circulating recombinant form 01_AE (CRF01_AE) env sequences. We therefore sought to develop mucosally transmissible SHIV challenge stocks containing HIV-1 CRF01_AE env derived from acutely HIV-1 infected individuals from Thailand. SHIV-AE6, SHIV-AE6RM, and SHIV-AE16 contained env sequences that were >99% identical to the original HIV-1 isolate and did not require in vivo passaging. These viruses exhibited CCR5 tropism and displayed a tier 2 neutralization phenotype. These challenge stocks efficiently infected rhesus monkeys by the intrarectal route, replicated to high levels during acute infection, and established chronic viremia in a subset of animals. SHIV-AE16 was titrated for use in single, high dose as well as repetitive, low dose intrarectal challenge studies. These SHIV challenge stocks should facilitate the preclinical evaluation of vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, and other interventions targeted at preventing HIV-1 CRF01_AE infection. PMID:26849216

  8. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  9. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  10. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  11. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  12. Genome walking.

    PubMed

    Shapter, Frances M; Waters, Daniel L E

    2014-01-01

    Genome walking is a method for determining the DNA sequence of unknown genomic regions flanking a region of known DNA sequence. The Genome walking has the potential to capture 6-7 kb of sequence in a single round. Ideal for identifying gene promoter regions where only the coding region. Genome walking also has significant utility for capturing homologous genes in new species when there are areas in the target gene with strong sequence conservation to the characterized species. The increasing use of next-generation sequencing technologies will see the principles of genome walking adapted to in silico methods. However, for smaller projects, PCR-based genome walking will remain an efficient method of characterizing unknown flanking sequence. PMID:24243201

  13. The predominant cluster of CRF01_AE circulating among newly diagnosed HIV-1-positive people in Anhui Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianjun; Shen, Yuelan; Zhong, Ping; Feng, Yi; Xing, Hui; Jin, Lin; Qin, Yizu; Liu, Aiwen; Miao, Lifeng; Cui, Lili; Su, Bin; Guo, Hongxiong

    2015-09-01

    CRF01_AE, which has led a new epidemic in many provinces in China and has displayed complex characteristics, has now evolved into multiple clusters in China. Some clusters often circulate in specific regions or among specific risk populations in China. To better determine the characteristics of CRF01_AE circulating in Anhui Province, we analyzed CRF01_AE based on gag and pol sequences. Our results showed that CRF01_AE circulating in Anhui Province was clearly divided into three clusters. Cluster 1 covered 90% of the sequences in all CRF01_AE. Among Cluster 1, the sequences from men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexuals were interwoven. It is suggested that MSM may play a bridge role in transmitting HIV-1 among the different risk groups. PMID:26123125

  14. Realization and optimization of AES algorithm on the TMS320DM6446 based on DaVinci technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Wen-bin; Xiao, Fu-hai

    2013-03-01

    The application of AES algorithm in the digital cinema system avoids video data to be illegal theft or malicious tampering, and solves its security problems. At the same time, in order to meet the requirements of the real-time, scene and transparent encryption of high-speed data streams of audio and video in the information security field, through the in-depth analysis of AES algorithm principle, based on the hardware platform of TMS320DM6446, with the software framework structure of DaVinci, this paper proposes the specific realization methods of AES algorithm in digital video system and its optimization solutions. The test results show digital movies encrypted by AES128 can not play normally, which ensures the security of digital movies. Through the comparison of the performance of AES128 algorithm before optimization and after, the correctness and validity of improved algorithm is verified.

  15. Prophage Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Canchaya, Carlos; Proux, Caroline; Fournous, Ghislain; Bruttin, Anne; Brüssow, Harald

    2003-01-01

    The majority of the bacterial genome sequences deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database contain prophage sequences. Analysis of the prophages suggested that after being integrated into bacterial genomes, they undergo a complex decay process consisting of inactivating point mutations, genome rearrangements, modular exchanges, invasion by further mobile DNA elements, and massive DNA deletion. We review the technical difficulties in defining such altered prophage sequences in bacterial genomes and discuss theoretical frameworks for the phage-bacterium interaction at the genomic level. The published genome sequences from three groups of eubacteria (low- and high-G+C gram-positive bacteria and γ-proteobacteria) were screened for prophage sequences. The prophages from Streptococcus pyogenes served as test case for theoretical predictions of the role of prophages in the evolution of pathogenic bacteria. The genomes from further human, animal, and plant pathogens, as well as commensal and free-living bacteria, were included in the analysis to see whether the same principles of prophage genomics apply for bacteria living in different ecological niches and coming from distinct phylogenetical affinities. The effect of selection pressure on the host bacterium is apparently an important force shaping the prophage genomes in low-G+C gram-positive bacteria and γ-proteobacteria. PMID:12794192

  16. [Evolution study of wheat (Tritium aestivum L.) A, B and D genome based on DNA sequence similarity].

    PubMed

    Yu, B L; Huang, Z F; Zhou, W J; Zhang, W J

    2001-01-01

    Tritium aestivum L., and its four potential origin species T. urartu T., T. monococcum L., Ae. squarrosa L. and T. dicoccum S., were amplified with MWG913, a STS marker located in 1H chromosome of barley. Those products are cloned and sequenced. By the discrepancies of these sequences, we have obtained some evidences about the origin of wheat A, B, D genomes at molecular level. The results showed that the studied sequence in A genomes of Tritium aestivum L. was identical with that of T. urartu T., T. monococcum L. and T. dicoccum S.; that in D genome of Tritium aestivum L. was as same as that of Ae. squarrosa L.; that in B genome of Tritium aestivum L. differed from that of T. dicoccum S. in 0.61%. The results also suggested that A, B and D genome have the different evolution speed. PMID:11480175

  17. Loss of the AE3 Anion Exchanger in a Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Model Causes Rapid Decompensation and Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Al Moamen, Nabeel J.; Prasad, Vikram; Bodi, Ilona; Miller, Marian L.; Neiman, Michelle L.; Lasko, Valerie M.; Alper, Seth L.; Wieczorek, David F.; Lorenz, John N.; Shull, Gary E.

    2010-01-01

    The AE3 Cl−/HCO3− exchanger is abundantly expressed in the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes, where it mediates Cl−-uptake and HCO3−-extrusion. Inhibition of AE3-mediated Cl−/HCO3− exchange has been suggested to protect against cardiac hypertrophy; however, other studies indicate that AE3 might be necessary for optimal cardiac function. To test these hypotheses we crossed AE3-null mice, which appear phenotypically normal, with a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mouse model carrying a Glu180Gly mutation in α–tropomyosin (TM180). Loss of AE3 had no effect on hypertrophy; however, survival of TM180/AE3 double mutants was sharply reduced compared with TM180 single mutants. Analysis of cardiac performance revealed impaired cardiac function in TM180 and TM180/AE3 mutants. TM180/AE3 double mutants were more severely affected and exhibited little response to β-adrenergic stimulation, a likely consequence of their more rapid progression to heart failure. Increased expression of calmodulin-dependent kinase II and protein phosphatase 1 and differences in methylation and localization of protein phosphatase 2A were observed, but were similar in single and double mutants. Phosphorylation of phospholamban on Ser16 was sharply increased in both single and double mutants relative to wild-type hearts under basal conditions, leading to reduced reserve capacity for β-adrenergic stimulation of phospholamban phosphorylation. Imaging analysis of isolated myocytes revealed reductions in amplitude and decay of Ca2+ transients in both mutants, with greater reductions in TM180/AE3 mutants, consistent with the greater severity of their heart failure phenotype. Thus, in the TM180 cardiomyopathy model, loss of AE3 had no apparent anti-hypertrophic effect and led to more rapid decompensation and heart failure. PMID:21056571

  18. Aquaculture Genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genomics chapter covers the basics of genome mapping and sequencing and the current status of several relevant species. The chapter briefly describes the development and use of (cDNA, BAC, etc.) libraries for mapping and obtaining specific sequence information. Other topics include comparative ...

  19. Upregulation of mir-506 Leads to Decreased AE2 Expression in Biliary Epithelium of Patients with Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Banales, Jesús M.; Sáez, Elena; Úriz, Miriam; Sarvide, Sarai; Urribarri, Aura D.; Splinter, Patrick; Tietz Bogert, Pamela S.; Bujanda, Luis; Prieto, Jesús; Medina, Juan F.; LaRusso, Nicholas F.

    2012-01-01

    Cl−/HCO3−anion exchanger 2 (AE2) participates in intracellular pH homeostasis and secretin-stimulated biliary bicarbonate secretion. AE2/SLC4A2 gene expression is reduced in liver and blood mononuclear cells from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Our previous findings of hepatic and immunological features mimicking PBC in Ae2-deficient mice strongly suggest that decreased AE2 expression might be involved in the pathogenesis of PBC. Here we tested the potential role of hsa-microRNA 506 (miR-506) – predicted as candidate to target AE2 mRNA – for the decreased expression of AE2 in PBC. Real-time qPCR showed that miR-506 expression is increased in PBC livers versus normal liver specimens. In situ hybridization in liver sections confirmed that miR-506 is upregulated in the intrahepatic bile ducts of PBC livers compared with normal and primary-sclerosing-cholangitis livers. Precursor-mediated overexpression of miR-506 in SV40-immortalized normal human cholangiocytes (H69 cells) led to decreased AE2 protein expression and activity, as indicated by immunoblotting and microfluorimetry, respectively. Moreover, miR-506 overexpression in 3D-cultured H69 cholangiocytes blocked the secretin-stimulated expansion of cystic structures developed under the three-dimensional conditions. Luciferase assays and site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that miR-506 specifically may bind the 3’UTR region of AE2 mRNA and prevent protein translation. Finally, cultured PBC cholangiocytes showed decreased AE2 activity together with miR-506 overexpression compared to normal human cholangiocytes, and, transfection of PBC cholangiocytes with anti-miR-506 was able to improve their AE2 activity. Conclusion miR-506 is upregulated in cholangiocytes from PBC patients, binds the 3’UTR region of AE2 mRNA and prevents protein translation, leading to diminished AE2 activity and impaired biliary secretory functions. In view of the putative pathogenic role of decreased AE2 in PBC, mi

  20. Phylogeny and expression of paralogous and orthologous sulphate transporter genes in diploid and hexaploid wheats.

    PubMed

    Buchner, Peter; Prosser, Ian M; Hawkesford, Malcolm J

    2004-06-01

    Twelve genes encoding two closely related subtypes (ST1.1a and ST1.1b) of a sulphate transporter have been identified in the diploid wheats Aegilops tauschii, Triticum urartu, and Aegilops speltoides, as well as the hexaploid Triticum aestivum. Based on phylogenetic comparisons with other plant sulphate transporters, the ST1.1a and 1.1b subtypes aligned with group 1 of the plant sulphate transporter gene family. The exon-intron structure was conserved within the ST1.1a or ST1.1b genes; however, substantial variability in intron sequences existed between the two types. The high overall sequence similarity indicated that ST1.1b represented a duplication of the ST1.1a gene, which must have occurred before the evolution of the ancestral diploid wheat progenitor. In contrast with the close relationship of the T. urartu and Ae. tauschii sequences to the corresponding A and D genome sequences of T. aestivum, the divergence between the Ae. speltoides sequences and the B genome sequences suggested that the B genome ST1.1a gene has been modified by recombination. Transcript analysis revealed predominant expression of the ST1.1a type and an influence of sulphur availability on the level of expression. PMID:15190370

  1. 3AE8: monoclonal antibody defining inflammatory macrophages in three species.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z; Yen, S E; Walker, W S

    1984-01-01

    A mouse monoclonal antibody (MAb 3AE8) of the IgG1 isotype was prepared against rabbit splenocytes and was found by indirect immunofluorescence and direct binding assays to react, in the rabbit, primarily with oil-induced peritoneal exudate macrophages (PEM phi). This MAb did not bind to rabbit T cells, B cells, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, or resident alveolar or peritoneal M phi but it did bind to a subpopulation of rabbit splenocytes with surface characteristics of null cells. The antibody also recognized mouse and rat PEM phi as well as the murine M phi cell lines P388D1 and IC-21. Consistent with findings in the rabbit, it did not bind to M phi obtained from the peritoneal cavities of rats or mice. The addition of MAb 3AE8 to mouse PEM phi caused a marked enhancement in the phagocytic uptake of erythrocyte target cells sensitized with a mouse antierythrocyte antiserum. PMID:6480022

  2. A Spectro-Astrometric Measurement of Brackett Gamma Emission in Herbig Ae/Be Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Thomas; Brittain, S.

    2012-01-01

    In T Tauri stars, the Brackett-gamma line strength is a reliable indicator of accretion luminosity. Among intermediate mass young stars, Herbig Ae stars also show this correlation, but in Herbig Be stars the Br-gamma line flux significantly overpredicts accretion luminosity. This Br-gamma excess in Herbig Be stars is thought to arise from a spatially extended outflow. Using commissioning data from the LUCIFER spectrograph on the 8.4-meter Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), we present a spectro-astrometric study of two Herbig Ae/Be stars, the HAe star MWC480 and the HBe star HD 259431. In both stars, an extended Br-gamma source can be ruled out down to 0.001'' at the 1σ level. We discuss the implication of our limits on the extension of the Br-gamma emission and possible ways forward.

  3. BOREAS AES Five-Day Averaged Surface Meteorological and Upper Air Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Strub, Richard; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    The Canadian Atmospheric Environment Service (AES) provided BOREAS with hourly and daily surface meteorological data from 23 of the AES meteorological stations located across Canada and upper air data from 1 station at The Pas, Manitoba. Due to copyright restrictions on the full resolution surface meteorological data, this data set contains 5-day average values for the surface parameters. The upper air data are provided in their full resolution form. The 5-day averaging was performed in order to create a data set that could be publicly distributed at no cost. Temporally, the surface meteorological data cover the period of January 1975 to December 1996 and the upper air data cover the period of January 1961 to November 1996. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-staff data. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  4. Radio continuum observations of the Herbig Ae/Be stars HD 163296 and HR 5999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. A.; Perez, M. R.; Yusef-Zadeh, F.

    1993-01-01

    Very Large Array (VLA) observations of the two bright Herbig Ae/Be stars HD 163296 and HR 5999 have been carried out at lambda 3.6 and 20 cm. We report the detection of a radio source at lambda 3.6 cm that may be associated with HD 163296. From the peak flux density of 0.39 mJy/beam area, we estimate a mass-loss rate of 1.8 x 10(exp -8) solar mass/yr if the flux is due to free-free emission in an ionized wind with spherical symmetry, assuming a terminal wind velocity of 200 km/s. HR 5999 was not detected at either wavelength. We discuss the results in terms of the stellar-driven and accretion-driven scenarios for line and wind formation in Herbig Ae/Be stars.

  5. A SOPC-BASED Evaluation of AES for 2.4 GHz Wireless Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ken, Cai; Xiaoying, Liang

    In modern systems, data security is needed more than ever before and many cryptographic algorithms are utilized for security services. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is an example of such technologies. In this paper an innovative SOPC-based approach for the security services evaluation in WSN is proposed that addresses the issues of scalability, flexible performance, and silicon efficiency for the hardware acceleration of encryption system. The design includes a Nios II processor together with custom designed modules for the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) which has become the default choice for various security services in numerous applications. The objective of this mechanism is to present an efficient hardware realization of AES using very high speed integrated circuit hardware description language (Verilog HDL) and expand the usability for various applications. As compared to traditional customize processor design, the mechanism provides a very broad range of cost/performance points.

  6. [Application of kalman filtering based on wavelet transform in ICP-AES].

    PubMed

    Qin, Xia; Shen, Lan-sun

    2002-12-01

    Kalman filtering is a recursive algorithm, which has been proposed as an attractive alternative to correct overlapping interferences in ICP-AES. However, the noise in ICP-AES contaminates the signal arising from the analyte and hence limits the accuracy of kalman filtering. Wavelet transform is a powerful technique in signal denoising due to its multi-resolution characteristics. In this paper, first, the effect of noise on kalman filtering is discussed. Then we apply the wavelet-transform-based soft-thresholding as the pre-processing of kalman filtering. The simulation results show that the kalman filtering based on wavelet transform can effectively reduce the noise and increase the accuracy of the analysis. PMID:12914186

  7. Modified Redundancy based Technique—a New Approach to Combat Error Propagation Effect of AES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, B.; Bhunia, C. T.; Maulik, U.

    2012-06-01

    Advanced encryption standard (AES) is a great research challenge. It has been developed to replace the data encryption standard (DES). AES suffers from a major limitation of error propagation effect. To tackle this limitation, two methods are available. One is redundancy based technique and the other one is bite based parity technique. The first one has a significant advantage of correcting any error on definite term over the second one but at the cost of higher level of overhead and hence lowering the processing speed. In this paper, a new approach based on the redundancy based technique is proposed that would certainly speed up the process of reliable encryption and hence the secured communication.

  8. Combined AES, LEED, SEM and TEM characterizations of CuSi(100) interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanbücken, M.; Métois, J. J.; Mathiez, P.; Salvan, F.

    1985-10-01

    CuSi(100) interfaces prepared under UHV at different substrate temperatures ( TS) have been characterized using in-situ Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED) as well as ex-situ scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM). At room temperature (RT), the film grows in a layer by layer like mode. With increasing TS, the intensity of the Cu M 2,3VV (61 eV) Auger transition decreases and at TS = 500°C no Cu Auger signal could be measured below θ ˜ 100. Yet SEM and TEM observations of these deposits show islands in epitaxial relation with the substrate. It can be determined from TEM images that these islands are covered with a Si skin ( ˜ 50 Å; thick) and that they are deeply implanted in the Si substrate. This explains the AES measurements.

  9. Validation of the French version of the Acceptability E-scale (AES) for mental E-health systems.

    PubMed

    Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Sauteraud, Alain; Olive, Jérôme; Sagaspe, Patricia; Bioulac, Stéphanie; Philip, Pierre

    2016-03-30

    Despite the increasing use of E-health systems for mental-health organizations, there is a lack of psychometric tools to evaluate their acceptability by patients with mental disorders. Thus, this study aimed to translate and validate a French version of the Acceptability E-scale (AES), a 6-item self-reported questionnaire that evaluates the extent to which patients find E-health systems acceptable. A forward-backward translation of the AES was performed. The psychometric properties of the French AES version, with construct validity, internal structural validity and external validity (Pearson's coefficient between AES scores and depression symptoms on the Beck Depression Inventory II) were analyzed. In a sample of 178 patients (mean age=46.51 years, SD=12.91 years), the validation process revealed satisfactory psychometric properties: factor analysis revealed two factors: "Satisfaction" (3 items) and "Usability" (3 items) and Cronbach's alpha was 0.7. No significant relation was found between AES scores and depression symptoms. The French version of the AES revealed a two-factor scale that differs from the original version. In line with the importance of acceptability in mental health and with a view to E-health systems for patients with mental disorders, the use of the AES in psychiatry may provide important information on acceptability (i.e., satisfaction and usability). PMID:26809367

  10. Integrated Design for Marketing and Manufacturing team: An examination of LA-ICP-AES in a mobile configuration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has identified the need for field-deployable elemental analysis devices that are safer, faster, and less expensive than the fixed laboratory procedures now used to screen hazardous waste sites. As a response to this need, the Technology Integration Program (TIP) created a mobile, field-deployable laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (LA-ICP-AES) sampling and analysis prototype. Although the elemental. screening prototype has been successfully field-tested, continued marketing and technical development efforts are required to transfer LA-ICP-AES technology to the commercial sector. TIP established and supported a student research and design group called the Integrated Design for Marketing and Manufacturing (IDMM) team to advance the technology transfer of mobile, field-deployable LA-ICP-AES. The IDMM team developed a conceptual design (which is detailed in this report) for a mobile, field-deployable LA-ICP-AES sampling and analysis system, and reports the following findings: Mobile, field-deployable LA-ICP-AES is commercially viable. Eventual regulatory acceptance of field-deployable LA-ICP-AES, while not a simple process, is likely. Further refinement of certain processes and components of LA-ICP-AES will enhance the device`s sensitivity and accuracy.

  11. Role of stochastic fluctuations in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system: A stochastic model for the AE index variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulkkinen, Antti; Klimas, Alex; Vassiliadis, Dimitris; Uritsky, Vadim

    2006-10-01

    A new stochastic model for the AE index variations is developed to investigate the role of stochastic fluctuations in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. In contrast to pioneering stochastic models by Hnat et al. (2003, 2005), here the model is set up for the actual integrated quantity, i.e., AE index itself, instead of differenced variables, i.e., AE(t + Δt) - AE(t) and because of the different approach used in the derivation of the model, we do not restrict our model parameters to the power law behavior only. Also, we integrate the model to obtain a time series to which the observed AE is then compared to. The model suggests that the fluctuations are of internal magnetospheric origin, though the bursts can be triggered by an external perturbation, and are an interplay of deterministic and stochastic components of a stationary out-of-equilibrium system. The fundamental result of the study is that stochastic fluctuations play a central role in the evolution of the AE index and cannot be grossly neglected. Also, in the model, the basic mechanism for all burst sizes is the same and thus no specific "substorm"-related bursts can be extracted from the AE index fluctuations. This suggests that from the global perspective, a specific well-defined "class of substorms" may not exist. On the basis of their assumed spatiotemporal locality, impulsive dissipation events (IDE) (Sergeev et al., 1996) were proposed to be the fundamental physical building block of the AE index fluctuations. The average temporal size of IDEs may explain the 3 mHz break in the power spectra of the time derivative of the AE index reported here.

  12. Genomics into Healthcare: The 5th Pan Arab Human Genetics Conference and 2013 Golden Helix Symposium

    PubMed Central

    Fortina, Paolo; AlKhaja, Najib; Al Ali, Mahmoud Taleb; Hamzeh, Abdul Rezzak; Nair, Pratibha; Innocenti, Federico; Patrinos, George P.; Kricka, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    The joint 5th Pan Arab Human Genetics conference and 2013 Golden Helix Symposium, “Genomics into Healthcare” was coorganized by the Center for Arab Genomic Studies (http://www.cags.org.ae) in collaboration with the Golden Helix Foundation (http://www.goldenhelix.org) in Dubai, United Arab Emirates from 17 to 19 November, 2013. The meeting was attended by over 900 participants, doctors and biomedical students from over 50 countries and was organized into a series of nine themed sessions that covered cancer genomics and epigenetics, genomic and epigenetic studies, genomics of blood and metabolic disorders, cytogenetic diagnosis and molecular profiling, next-generation sequencing, consanguinity and hereditary diseases, clinical genomics, clinical applications of pharmacogenomics, and genomics in public health. PMID:24526565

  13. Development of genome-specific primers for homoeologous genes in allopolyploid species: the waxy and starch synthase II genes in allohexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as examples

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In allopolypoid crops, homoeologous genes in different genomes exhibit a very high sequence similarity, especially in the coding regions of genes. This makes it difficult to design genome-specific primers to amplify individual genes from different genomes. Development of genome-specific primers for agronomically important genes in allopolypoid crops is very important and useful not only for the study of sequence diversity and association mapping of genes in natural populations, but also for the development of gene-based functional markers for marker-assisted breeding. Here we report on a useful approach for the development of genome-specific primers in allohexaploid wheat. Findings In the present study, three genome-specific primer sets for the waxy (Wx) genes and four genome-specific primer sets for the starch synthase II (SSII) genes were developed mainly from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and/or insertions or deletions (Indels) in introns and intron-exon junctions. The size of a single PCR product ranged from 750 bp to 1657 bp. The total length of amplified PCR products by these genome-specific primer sets accounted for 72.6%-87.0% of the Wx genes and 59.5%-61.6% of the SSII genes. Five genome-specific primer sets for the Wx genes (one for Wx-7A, three for Wx-4A and one for Wx-7D) could distinguish the wild type wheat and partial waxy wheat lines. These genome-specific primer sets for the Wx and SSII genes produced amplifications in hexaploid wheat, cultivated durum wheat, and Aegilops tauschii accessions, but failed to generate amplification in the majority of wild diploid and tetraploid accessions. Conclusions For the first time, we report on the development of genome-specific primers from three homoeologous Wx and SSII genes covering the majority of the genes in allohexaploid wheat. These genome-specific primers are being used for the study of sequence diversity and association mapping of the three homoeologous Wx and SSII genes in natural

  14. Applications of high resolution ICP-AES in the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.G.; Giglio, J.J.; Goodall, P.S.; Cummings, D.G.

    1998-07-01

    Application of high resolution ICP-AES to selected problems of importance in the nuclear industry is a growing field. The advantages in sample preparation time, waste minimization and equipment cost are considerable. Two examples of these advantages are presented in this paper, burnup analysis of spent fuel and analysis of major uranium isotopes. The determination of burnup, an indicator of fuel cycle efficiency, has been accomplished by the determination of {sup 139}La by high resolution inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (HR-ICP-AES). Solutions of digested samples of reactor fuel rods were introduced into a shielded glovebox housing an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and the resulting atomic emission transmitted to a high resolution spectrometer by a 31 meter fiber optic bundle. Total and isotopic U determination by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) is presented to allow for the calculation of burnup for the samples. This method of burnup determination reduces the time, material, sample handling and waste generated associated with typical burnup determinations which require separation of lanthanum from the other fission products with high specific activities. Work concerning an alternative burnup indicator, {sup 236}U, is also presented for comparison. The determination of {sup 235}U:{sup 238}U isotope ratios in U-Zr fuel alloys is also presented to demonstrate the versatility of HR-ICP-AES.

  15. Finite element modelling of ultrasound, with reference to transducers and AE waves.

    PubMed

    Hill, R; Forsyth, S A; Macey, P

    2004-04-01

    Finite element (FE) modelling has a role to play in simulating elastic wave propagation associated with structural vibrations, acoustic phenomena and ultrasound problems. In this work we have used the PAFEC software [PAFEC finite element software PACSYS, Strelley Hall, Nottingham, NG8 6PE, UK]. With the advent of increased computer power and greater availability of software these simulations have become more readily available and will provide improved insight into wave propagation problems. Simulations have been undertaken of transient wave propagation in steel plates with an attached simple resonant transducer. This simulates acoustic emission (AE) propagation in plate like structures relevant to many industrial applications. Simulations for short propagation distances suggest the resonant transducer voltage signal carries information on the plate-waves propagating in the structure, overlaid with the piezoelectric resonance and some information might be extracted from the transducer signal. Looking at the wave propagation information alone, a great deal of variability is seen in the displacement profile for different source types, orientations and locations. Although users have expressed a need for calibration of the AE detection process, this idea remains problematic since the complete generation and detection system has the features of a chaotic system. Using FE modelling a method of "point calibration" might be available, for some specific AE applications such as crack growth along known paths. PMID:15047294

  16. Monitoring acoustic emission (AE) energy in slurry impingement using a new model for particle impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droubi, M. G.; Reuben, R. L.; White, G.

    2015-10-01

    A series of systematic impact tests have been carried out to investigate the influence of particle size, free stream velocity, particle impact angle, and nominal particle concentration on the amount of energy dissipated in a carbon steel target using a slurry impingement erosion test rig, as indicated by the acoustic emission (AE) recorded by a sensor mounted on the back of the target. Silica sand particles of mean particle size 152.5, 231, and 362.5 μm were used for impingement on the target at angles varying between 30° and 90° while the free stream velocity was changed between 4.2 and 12.7 m/s. In previous work by the authors, it was demonstrated that the AE time series associated with particle-laden air striking a carbon steel target could be described as the cumulation of individual particle arrival events each drawn from a statistical distribution model. The high arrival rate involved in a slurry jet poses challenges in resolving individual particle impact signatures in the AE record, and so the model has been extended in this paper to account for different particle carrier-fluids and to situations where arrivals cannot necessarily be resolved.

  17. LINFLUX-AE: A Turbomachinery Aeroelastic Code Based on a 3-D Linearized Euler Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, T. S. R.; Bakhle, M. A.; Trudell, J. J.; Mehmed, O.; Stefko, G. L.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the development and validation of LINFLUX-AE, a turbomachinery aeroelastic code based on the linearized unsteady 3-D Euler solver, LINFLUX. A helical fan with flat plate geometry is selected as the test case for numerical validation. The steady solution required by LINFLUX is obtained from the nonlinear Euler/Navier Stokes solver TURBO-AE. The report briefly describes the salient features of LINFLUX and the details of the aeroelastic extension. The aeroelastic formulation is based on a modal approach. An eigenvalue formulation is used for flutter analysis. The unsteady aerodynamic forces required for flutter are obtained by running LINFLUX for each mode, interblade phase angle and frequency of interest. The unsteady aerodynamic forces for forced response analysis are obtained from LINFLUX for the prescribed excitation, interblade phase angle, and frequency. The forced response amplitude is calculated from the modal summation of the generalized displacements. The unsteady pressures, work done per cycle, eigenvalues and forced response amplitudes obtained from LINFLUX are compared with those obtained from LINSUB, TURBO-AE, ASTROP2, and ANSYS.

  18. Towards leakage resiliency: memristor-based AES design for differential power attack mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khedkar, Ganesh; Donahue, Colin; Kudithipudi, Dhireesha

    2014-05-01

    Side-channel attacks (SCAs), specifically differential power attacks (DPA), target hardware vulnerabilities of cryptosystems. Next generation computing systems, integrated with emerging technologies such as RRAM, offer unique opportunities to mitigate DPAs with their inherent device characteristics. We propose two different approaches to mitigate DPA attacks using memristive hardware. The first approach, obfuscates the power profile using dual RRAM modules. The power profile stays almost uniform for any given data access. This is achieved by realizing a memory and its complementary module in RRAM hardware. Balancing logic, which ensures the parallel access, is implemented in CMOS. The power consumed with the dual-RRAM balancing is an order lower than the corresponding pure CMOS implementation. The second exploratory approach, uses a novel neuromemristive architecture to compute an AES transformation and mitigate DPAs. Both the proposed approaches were tested on a 128-bit AES algorithm. A customized simulation framework, integrating CAD tools, is developed to mount the DPA attacks. In both the designs, the attack mounted on the baseline architectures (CMOS only) was successful and full key was recovered. However, DPA attacks mounted on the dual RRAM modules and neuromemristive hardware modules of an AES cryptoprocessor yielded no successful keys, demonstrating their resiliency to DPA attacks.

  19. An AES chip with DPA resistance using hardware-based random order execution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Yu; Xiangyu, Li; Cong, Chen; Yihe, Sun; Liji, Wu; Xiangmin, Zhang

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents an AES (advanced encryption standard) chip that combats differential power analysis (DPA) side-channel attack through hardware-based random order execution. Both decryption and encryption procedures of an AES are implemented on the chip. A fine-grained dataflow architecture is proposed, which dynamically exploits intrinsic byte-level independence in the algorithm. A novel circuit called an HMF (Hold-Match-Fetch) unit is proposed for random control, which randomly sets execution orders for concurrent operations. The AES chip was manufactured in SMIC 0.18 μm technology. The average energy for encrypting one group of plain texts (128 bits secrete keys) is 19 nJ. The core area is 0.43 mm2. A sophisticated experimental setup was built to test the DPA resistance. Measurement-based experimental results show that one byte of a secret key cannot be disclosed from our chip under random mode after 64000 power traces were used in the DPA attack. Compared with the corresponding fixed order execution, the hardware based random order execution is improved by at least 21 times the DPA resistance.

  20. On the molecular structure of the amylopectin fraction isolated from "high-amylose" ae maize starches.

    PubMed

    Peymanpour, Ghazal; Marcone, Massimo; Ragaee, Sanaa; Tetlow, Ian; Lane, Christopher C; Seetharaman, Koushik; Bertoft, Eric

    2016-10-01

    The amylopectin fractions from starch of a series of amylose-extender (ae) maize samples (HYLON(®) V, VII and VIII starches) were isolated and analysed for their molecular composition and structure. The fractions from all samples contained both a high and a low molecular weight fraction (HMF and LMF), of which LMF increased with the amylose content of the starch and appeared to have substantially more of long chains than HMF. A normal amylose-containing maize starch (NMS), which served as a reference sample, contained very little LMF, which suggested that LMF was the inherent result of the effect of the loss of starch branching enzyme IIb activity in the ae mutants. Clusters were isolated from the amylopectin fractions using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens α-amylase, which effectively hydrolyses long internal chain segments between clusters. During the hydrolysis process, clearly more of small dextrins were released from the ae starches in comparison to NMS. It appeared that some of these small dextrins did not precipitate in methanol together with the majority of the clusters. Nevertheless, isolated clusters from the HYLON starch samples were smaller than in NMS and the clusters possessed a lower density of branches with longer chains. The composition of small, branched building blocks was also clearly different: HYLON starch samples possessed much more of single-branched blocks and less multiple-branched blocks than NMS. PMID:27296443

  1. Regions of the bread wheat D genome associated with variation in key photosynthesis traits and shoot biomass under both well watered and water deficient conditions.

    PubMed

    Osipova, Svetlana; Permyakov, Alexey; Permyakova, Marina; Pshenichnikova, Tatyana; Verkhoturov, Vasiliy; Rudikovsky, Alexandr; Rudikovskaya, Elena; Shishparenok, Alexandr; Doroshkov, Alexey; Börner, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    A quantitative trait locus (QTL) approach was taken to reveal the genetic basis in wheat of traits associated with photosynthesis during a period of exposure to water deficit stress. The performance, with respect to shoot biomass, gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf pigment content and the activity of various ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes and catalase, of a set of 80 wheat lines, each containing a single chromosomal segment introgressed from the bread wheat D genome progenitor Aegilops tauschii, was monitored in plants exposed to various water regimes. Four of the seven D genome chromosomes (1D, 2D, 5D, and 7D) carried clusters of both major (LOD >3.0) and minor (LOD between 2.0 and 3.0) QTL. A major QTL underlying the activity of glutathione reductase was located on chromosome 2D, and another, controlling the activity of ascorbate peroxidase, on chromosome 7D. A region of chromosome 2D defined by the microsatellite locus Xgwm539 and a second on chromosome 7D flanked by the marker loci Xgwm1242 and Xgwm44 harbored a number of QTL associated with the water deficit stress response. PMID:26374127

  2. Low Cost Design of an Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Processor Using a New Common-Subexpression-Elimination Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming-Chih; Hsiao, Shen-Fu

    In this paper, we propose an area-efficient design of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) processor by applying a new common-expression-elimination (CSE) method to the sub-functions of various transformations required in AES. The proposed method reduces the area cost of realizing the sub-functions by extracting the common factors in the bit-level XOR/AND-based sum-of-product expressions of these sub-functions using a new CSE algorithm. Cell-based implementation results show that the AES processor with our proposed CSE method has significant area improvement compared with previous designs.

  3. Ae4 (Slc4a9) is an electroneutral monovalent cation-dependent Cl-/HCO3- exchanger.

    PubMed

    Peña-Münzenmayer, Gaspar; George, Alvin T; Shull, Gary E; Melvin, James E; Catalán, Marcelo A

    2016-05-01

    Ae4 (Slc4a9) belongs to the Slc4a family of Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchangers and Na(+)-HCO3 (-) cotransporters, but its ion transport cycle is poorly understood. In this study, we find that native Ae4 activity in mouse salivary gland acinar cells supports Na(+)-dependent Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange that is comparable with that obtained upon heterologous expression of mouse Ae4 and human AE4 in CHO-K1 cells. Additionally, whole cell recordings and ion concentration measurements demonstrate that Na(+) is transported by Ae4 in the same direction as HCO3 (-) (and opposite to that of Cl(-)) and that ion transport is not associated with changes in membrane potential. We also find that Ae4 can mediate Na(+)-HCO3 (-) cotransport-like activity under Cl(-)-free conditions. However, whole cell recordings show that this apparent Na(+)-HCO3 (-) cotransport activity is in fact electroneutral HCO3 (-)/Na(+)-HCO3 (-) exchange. Although the Ae4 anion exchanger is thought to regulate intracellular Cl(-) concentration in exocrine gland acinar cells, our thermodynamic calculations predict that the intracellular Na(+), Cl(-), and HCO3 (-) concentrations required for Ae4-mediated Cl(-) influx differ markedly from those reported for acinar secretory cells at rest or under sustained stimulation. Given that K(+) ions share many properties with Na(+) ions and reach intracellular concentrations of 140-150 mM (essentially the same as extracellular [Na(+)]), we hypothesize that Ae4 could mediate K(+)-dependent Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange. Indeed, we find that Ae4 mediates Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange activity in the presence of K(+) as well as Cs(+), Li(+), and Rb(+) In summary, our results strongly suggest that Ae4 is an electroneutral Cl(-)/nonselective cation-HCO3 (-) exchanger. We postulate that the physiological role of Ae4 in secretory cells is to promote Cl(-) influx in exchange for K(+)(Na(+)) and HCO3 (-) ions. PMID:27114614

  4. Antarctic Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Andrew; Cockell, Charles S.; Convey, Peter; Detrich III, H. William; Fraser, Keiron P. P.; Johnston, Ian A.; Methe, Barbara A.; Murray, Alison E.; Peck, Lloyd S.; Römisch, Karin; Rogers, Alex D.

    2004-01-01

    With the development of genomic science and its battery of technologies, polar biology stands on the threshold of a revolution, one that will enable the investigation of important questions of unprecedented scope and with extraordinary depth and precision. The exotic organisms of polar ecosystems are ideal candidates for genomic analysis. Through such analyses, it will be possible to learn not only the novel features that enable polar organisms to survive, and indeed thrive, in their extreme environments, but also fundamental biological principles that are common to most, if not all, organisms. This article aims to review recent developments in Antarctic genomics and to demonstrate the global context of such studies. PMID:18629155

  5. Identification of quantitative trait loci for abscisic acid responsiveness in the D-genome of hexaploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Iehisa, Julio C M; Matsuura, Takakazu; Mori, Izumi C; Yokota, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Fuminori; Takumi, Shigeo

    2014-06-15

    In crop species such as wheat, abiotic stresses and preharvest sprouting reduce grain yield and quality. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays important roles in abiotic stress tolerance and seed dormancy. In previous studies, we evaluated ABA responsiveness of 67 Aegilops tauschii accessions and their synthetic hexaploid wheat lines, finding wide variation that was due to the D-genome. In this study, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was performed using an F2 population derived from crosses of highly ABA-responsive and less-responsive synthetic wheat lines. A significant QTL was detected on chromosome 6D, in a similar location to that reported for ABA responsiveness using recombinant inbred lines derived from common wheat cultivars Mironovskaya 808 and Chinese Spring. A comparative map and physiological and expression analyses of the 6D QTL suggested that this locus involved in line differences among wheat synthetics is different from that involved in cultivar differences in common wheat. The common wheat 6D QTL was found to affect seed dormancy and the regulation of cold-responsive/late embryogenesis abundant genes during dehydration. However, in synthetic wheat, we failed to detect any association of ABA responsiveness with abiotic stress tolerance or seed dormancy, at least under our experimental conditions. Development of near-isogenic lines will be important for functional analyses of the synthetic wheat 6D QTL. PMID:24877675

  6. Validation of the new trapped environment AE9/AP9/SPM at low Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badavi, Francis F.

    2014-09-01

    The completion of the international space station (ISS) in 2011 has provided the space research community an ideal proving ground for future long duration human activities in space. Ionizing radiation measurements in ISS form the ideal tool for the validation of radiation environmental models, nuclear transport codes and nuclear reaction cross sections. Indeed, prior measurements on the space transportation system (STS; shuttle) provided vital information impacting both the environmental models and the nuclear transport code developments by indicating the need for an improved dynamic model of the low Earth orbit (LEO) trapped environment. Additional studies using thermo-luminescent detector (TLD), tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) area monitors, and computer aided design (CAD) model of earlier ISS configurations, confirmed STS observations that, as input, computational dosimetry requires an environmental model with dynamic and directional (anisotropic) behavior, as well as an accurate six degree of freedom (DOF) definition of the vehicle attitude and orientation along the orbit of ISS. At LEO, a vehicle encounters exposure from trapped particles and attenuated galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Within the trapped field, a challenge arises from properly estimating the amount of exposure acquired. There exist a number of models to define the intensities of the trapped particles during the solar quiet and active times. At active times, solar energetic particles (SEP) generated by solar flare or coronal mass ejection (CME) also contribute to the exposure at high northern and southern latitudes. Among the more established trapped models are the historic and popular AE8/AP8, dating back to the 1980s, the historic and less popular CRRES electron/proton, dating back to 1990s and the recently released AE9/AP9/SPM. The AE9/AP9/SPM model is a major improvement over the older AE8/AP8 and CRRES models. This model is derived from numerous measurements acquired over four

  7. Genome sequence of a novel HIV-1 circulating recombinant form 54_01B from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kim Tien; Ong, Lai Yee; Takebe, Yutaka; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2012-10-01

    We report here the first novel HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF) 54_01B (CRF54_01B) isolated from three epidemiologically unlinked subjects of different risk groups in Malaysia. These recently sampled recombinants showed a complex genome organization composed of parental subtype B' and CRF01_AE, with identical recombination breakpoints observed in the gag, pol, and vif genes. Such a discovery highlights the ongoing active generation and spread of intersubtype recombinants involving the subtype B' and CRF01_AE lineages and indicates the potential of the new CRF in bridging HIV-1 transmission among different risk groups in Southeast Asia. PMID:22997423

  8. Genomic Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Working Group Independent Web site Informing the effective integration of genomics into health practice—Lynch syndrome ACCE Model for Evaluating Genetic Tests Recommendations by the EGAPP Working Group Top of ... ...

  9. A Recent Outbreak of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection in Southern China Was Initiated by Two Highly Homogeneous, Geographically Separated Strains, Circulating Recombinant Form AE and a Novel BC Recombinant

    PubMed Central

    Piyasirisilp, Sucheep; McCutchan, Francine E.; Carr, Jean K.; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Liu, Wei; Chen, Jie; Wagner, Ralf; Wolf, Hans; Shao, Yiming; Lai, Shenghan; Beyrer, Chris; Yu, Xiao-Fang

    2000-01-01

    New outbreaks of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) among injecting drug users (IDUs) are spreading in China along heroin trafficking routes. Recently, two separate HIV-1 epidemics among IDUs were reported in Guangxi, Southern China, where partial sequencing of the env gene showed subtype C and circulating recombinant form (CRF) AE. We evaluated five virtually full-length HIV-1 genome sequences from IDUs in Guangxi to determine the genetic diversity and the presence of intersubtype recombinants. Sequence analysis showed two geographically separated, highly homogeneous HIV-1 strains. B/C intersubtype recombinants were found in three IDUs from Baise City, in a mountainous region near the Yunnan-Guangxi border. These were mostly subtype C, with portions of the capsid and reverse transcriptase (RT) genes from subtype B. The subtype B portion of the capsid was located in the N-terminal domain, which has been shown to influence virus core maturation, virus infectivity, and binding to cyclophilin A, whereas the subtype B portion of RT was located in the palm subdomain, which is the active site of the enzyme. These BC recombinants differed from a BC recombinant found in Xinjiang Province in northwestern China. CRF AE strains were found in IDUs from Nanning, the capital of Guangxi, and in IDUs from Pingxiang City near the China-Vietnam border. The AE and BC recombinants were both remarkable for their low interpatient diversity, less than 1% for the full genome. Rapid spread of HIV-1 among IDUs may foster the emergence of highly homogeneous strains, including novel recombinants in regions with multiple subtypes. PMID:11070028

  10. An unsupervised pattern recognition approach for AE data originating from fatigue tests on polymer-composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doan, D. D.; Ramasso, E.; Placet, V.; Zhang, S.; Boubakar, L.; Zerhouni, N.

    2015-12-01

    This work investigates acoustic emission generated during tension fatigue tests carried out on a carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite specimen. Since massive fatigue data processing, especially noise reduction, remains an important challenge in AE data analysis, a Mahalanobis distance-based noise modeling has been proposed in the present work to tackle this problem. A sequential feature selection based on Davies-Bouldin index has been implemented for fast dimensionality reduction. An unsupervised classifier offline-learned from quasi-static data is then used to classify the data to different AE sources with the possibility to dynamically accommodate with unseen ones. With an efficient proposed noise removal and automatic separation of AE events, this pattern discovery procedure provides an insight into fatigue damage development in composites in the presence of millions of AE events.

  11. Monoclonal antibody AE-2 modulates carbamate and organophosphate inhibition of fetal bovine serum acetylcholinesterase. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, A.D.; Chiang, P.K.; Doctor, B.P.; Fryar, N.; Rhee, J.P.

    1993-12-31

    The monoclonal antibody AE-2 raised against the human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) dimer (acetylcholine acetylhydrolase, EC 3.1.1.7), binds to other mammalian AChEs, including the tetramer that occurs in fetal bovine serum (FBS). AE2 partially inhibited the rate of hydrolysis of the charged substrate acetylthiocholine by FBS AChE, whereas it increased the rate of hydrolysis of the neutral substrate indophenyl acetate. Present results show that AE-2 decreases the rate of inhibition of FBS AChE by the positively charged organophosphate amition-p-toluene sulfonate and the positively charged carbamates pyridostigmine and neostigmine but accelerate inhibition of FBS AChE by neutral organophosphates paraoxon and diisopropylfluorophosphate. Results suggest that AE-2 may allosterically modulate an anionic site in the catalytic center of FBS AChE.

  12. A study of the initial oxidation of evaporated thin films of aluminum by AES, ELS, and ESD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujor, M.; Larson, L. A.; Poppa, H.

    1982-01-01

    The room temperature, low pressure, oxidation of evaporated aluminum thin films has been studied by AES, ELS, and ESD. ESD was the most sensitive of the three methods to characterize a clean aluminum surface. Two oxidation stages were distinguished in the 0-3000 L oxygen exposure range. Between 0 and 50 L, the chemisorption of oxygen atoms was characterized by a fast decrease of the 67 eV AES Al peak and the 10 eV surface plasmon peak, and by a simultaneous increase of the oxygen AES and ESD signals. After 50 L, a change in slope in all AES and ESD signal variations was attributed to the slow growth of a thin layer of aluminum oxide, which after 3000 L was still only a few angstroms thick.

  13. IrAE – an asparaginyl endopeptidase (legumain) in the gut of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus

    PubMed Central

    Sojka, Daniel; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Dvořák, Jan; Sajid, Mohammed; Franta, Zdeněk; Schneider, Eric L.; Craik, Charles S.; Vancová, Marie; Burešová, Veronika; Bogyo, Matthew; Sexton, Kelly B.; McKerrow, James H.; Caffrey, Conor R.; Kopáček, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Ticks are ectoparasitic blood-feeders and important vectors for pathogens including arboviruses, rickettsiae, spirochetes and protozoa. As obligate blood-feeders, one possible strategy to retard disease transmission is disruption of the parasite’s ability to digest host proteins. However, the constituent peptidases in the parasite gut and their potential interplay in the digestion of the blood meal are poorly understood. We have characterized a novel asparaginyl endopeptidase (legumain) from the hard tick Ixodes ricinus (termed IrAE), which is the first such characterization of a clan CD family C13 cysteine peptidase (protease) in arthropods. By RT-PCR of different tissues, IrAE mRNA was only expressed in the tick gut. Indirect immunofluorescence and electron microscopy localized IrAE in the digestive vesicles of gut cells and within the peritrophic matrix. IrAE was functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris and reacted with a specific peptidyl fluorogenic substrate, and acyloxymethyl ketone and aza-asparagine Michael acceptor inhibitors. IrAE activity was unstable at pH ≥ 6.0 and was shown to have a strict specificity for asparagine at P1 using a positional scanning synthetic combinatorial library. The enzyme hydrolyzed protein substrates with a pH optimum of 4.5, consistent with the pH of gut cell digestive vesicles. Thus, IrAE cleaved the major protein of the blood meal, hemoglobin, to a predominant peptide of 4 kDa. Also, IrAE trans-processed and activated the zymogen form of Schistosoma mansoni cathepsin B1 – an enzyme contributing to hemoglobin digestion in the gut of that bloodfluke. The possible functions of IrAE in the gut digestive processes of I. ricinus are compared with those suggested for other hematophagous parasites. PMID:17336985

  14. Houttuynoids A-E, anti-herpes simplex virus active flavonoids with novel skeletons from Houttuynia cordata.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Dan; Gao, Hao; Zhu, Qin-Chang; Wang, Ya-Qi; Li, Ting; Mu, Zhen-Qiang; Wu, Hong-Ling; Peng, Tao; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2012-04-01

    Houttuynoids A-E (1-5), a new type of flavonoid with houttuynin tethered to hyperoside, and their presumed biosynthetic precursor hyperoside (6) were isolated from the whole plant of Houttuynia cordata. Their structures were elucidated by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR. A hypothetical biogenetic pathway for houttuynoids A-E was proposed. Compounds 1-5 exhibited potent anti-HSV (herpes simplex viruses) activity. PMID:22414220

  15. The Epidemic Dynamics of Four Major Lineages of HIV-1 CRF01_AE Strains After Their Introduction into China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Haiyan; Li, Tingting; Wang, Yan; Sun, Binlian; Yang, Rongge

    2016-05-01

    The epidemic of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in China was driven by multiple lineages of HIV-1 viruses introduced in the 1990s and increasing; it is important to investigate their epidemic status in China. In this study, we download all available CRF01_AE sequences (n = 2,931) from China and their associated epidemiological information in the Los Alamos HIV database for our analysis to explore their epidemic status in China. The results showed there were 11 distinct clusters of CRF01_AE strains in China, and 4 major clusters that accounted for 80.0% (1,793/2,241) of Chinese CRF01_AE strains in total had led a real epidemic. Clusters 1 and 2 were epidemic among heterosexuals and injecting drug users in southern and southwestern China, while Clusters 3 and 4 were predominant among homosexuals in eastern and central China and northeastern China, respectively. HIV-1 CRF01_AE strains detected in heterosexuals had the most complex characteristic, underscoring its important role in the occurrence of multiple CRF01_AE lineages. Furthermore, epidemic history reconstruction analysis using the birth-death susceptible-infected-removed package revealed that the four clusters had gone through varying epidemic stages. Clusters 2 and 3 were near the peak of the local epidemic, while Clusters 1 and 4 were just in the very early stage of their epidemic. The epidemic status of CRF01_AE clusters in the future is mainly determined by the effect of prevention and control. Our study provides new insights into the understanding of the epidemic dynamics of CRF01_AE in China. PMID:26830205

  16. Antitumor activities of dFv-LDP-AE: An enediyne-energized fusion protein targeting tumor-associated antigen gelatinases.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Gen-Shen; Wu, Min-Na; Guo, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Sheng-Hua; Miao, Qing-Fang; Zhen, Yong-Su

    2012-10-01

    Gelatinases play an important role in tumor growth and metastasis, and overexpression of these molecules is strongly correlated with poor prognosis in a variety of malignant tumors. Lidamycin is an enediyne antitumor antibiotic with potent cytotoxicity. We previously reported that a tandem scFv format (dFv-LDP-AE) showed enhanced binding ability with gelatinases compared with the scFv-lidamycin conjugate (Fv-LDP-AE). In this study, the antitumor activities of dFv-LDP-AE on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. By SDS-PAGE analysis, it was found that partial fusion protein dFv-LDP existed as dimer; the results of ELISA and immunofluorescence demonstrated that the fusion protein dFv-LDP could efficiently bind to hepatoma cells in vitro. The apparent arrest of cell cycle at G2/M phase and induction of apoptosis at nanomole levels indicated that the dFv-LDP-AE was very potent against HCC. In in vivo experiments, dFv-LDP-AE shown enhanced cytotoxic effects compared to those of LDM. Administration at mouse tolerable dosage level, the inhibition rate of tumor growth was 89.5% of dFv-LDP-AE vs. 73.6% of LDM on transplantable H22 in mice (P<0.05) and, 87.3% of dFv-LDP-AE vs. 63.4% of LDM on hepatoma Bel-7402 in athymic mice (P<0.01). Small animal optical imaging showed that the FITC-labeled dFv-LDP preferentially localized in the tumor site in less than 30 min, which demonstrated remarkable tumor-targeting properties. Taken together with the above findings, the enediyne-energized fusion protein dFv-LDP-AE showed potential application as a new agent for therapeutic appications in HCC. PMID:22797730

  17. Heterogeneous Evolution of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) and Other Populations in China

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xiaorong; Wu, Haibo; Peng, Xiuming; Jin, Changzhong; Wu, Nanping

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The HIV epidemic in men who have sex with men (MSM) continues to grow in most countries. However, the phylodynamic and virological differences among HIV-1 strains circulating in MSM and other populations are not well characterized. Methods Nearly full-length genomes (NFLGs) of the HIV-1 CRF01_AE were obtained from the Los Alamos HIV database. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using the NFLG, gag, pol and env genes, using the maximum likelihood method. Selection pressure analyses at the codon level were performed for each gene in the phylogenetic clusters using PAML. Results Sequences isolated from MSM in China clustered in Clusters 1 (92.5%) and 2 (85.71%). The major risk factor for Cluster 3 was heterosexual transmission (62.16%). The ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions in the env gene (0.7–0.75) was higher than the gag (0.26–0.34) or pol (0.21–0.26) genes. In env gene, Cluster 1 (4.56×10-3subs/site/year) and 2 (6.01×10-3subs/site/year) had higher evolutionary rates than Cluster 3 (1.14×10-3subs/site/year). Positive selection affected 4.2–6.58% of the amino acid sites in the env gene. Two sites (HXB2:136 and 316) evolved similarly in Clusters 1 and 2, but not Cluster 3. Conclusion The HIV-1 CRF01_AE in MSM is evolving differently than in other populations. PMID:26623642

  18. In silico phylogenomics using complete genomes: a case study on the evolution of hominoids.

    PubMed

    Costa, Igor Rodrigues; Prosdocimi, Francisco; Jennings, W Bryan

    2016-09-01

    The increasing availability of complete genome data is facilitating the acquisition of phylogenomic data sets, but the process of obtaining orthologous sequences from other genomes and assembling multiple sequence alignments remains piecemeal and arduous. We designed software that performs these tasks and outputs anonymous loci (AL) or anchored enrichment/ultraconserved element loci (AE/UCE) data sets in ready-to-analyze formats. We demonstrate our program by applying it to the hominoids. Starting with human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan genomes, our software generated an exhaustive data set of 292 ALs (∼1 kb each) in ∼3 h. Not only did analyses of our AL data set validate the program by yielding a portrait of hominoid evolution in agreement with previous studies, but the accuracy and precision of our estimated ancestral effective population sizes and speciation times represent improvements. We also used our program with a published set of 512 vertebrate-wide AE "probe" sequences to generate data sets consisting of 171 and 242 independent loci (∼1 kb each) in 11 and 13 min, respectively. The former data set consisted of flanking sequences 500 bp from adjacent AEs, while the latter contained sequences bordering AEs. Although our AE data sets produced the expected hominoid species tree, coalescent-based estimates of ancestral population sizes and speciation times based on these data were considerably lower than estimates from our AL data set and previous studies. Accordingly, we suggest that loci subjected to direct or indirect selection may not be appropriate for coalescent-based methods. Complete in silico approaches, combined with the burgeoning genome databases, will accelerate the pace of phylogenomics. PMID:27435933

  19. A near-realtime forecasting for the AE index during intervals with Interplanetary Alfvén Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarnieri, Fernando

    In recent years, Interplanetary Alfvén Waves have been shown as able to produce geomagnetic effects on Earth's magnetosphere, mainly visible in the AE index. These effects may last for several days (at least 2 days) and can reach very high AE peak values (more than 1000 nT), with enhanced AE average values occurring outside main phases of geomagnetic storms. Recently, Guarnieri (2005) and Guarnieri et al. (2007) have shown that it is possible to obtain high correlation coefficients between interplanetary Bz (obtained from ACE spacecraft) and AE index using a wavelet filtering method. This methodology allowed us to develop a set of equations to obtain the AE index based on the filtered Bz. An automated routine was developed to get the realtime Bz data from ACE and identify the presence of Alfvén waves. Once verified that these waves are present, the routine applies the wavelet filtering process. The Bz filtered time series is then shifted accordingly to the solar wind speed to take in to account the structure travel time from ACE to the Earth's magnetosphere. This shifted series is fed in to the equations to obtain the AE forecast. As soon as the preliminary tests were finished, the forecasting will be made available to the general public.

  20. An Integrated Linkage, Chromosome, and Genome Map for the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Timoshevskiy, Vladimir A.; Severson, David W.; deBruyn, Becky S.; Black, William C.; Sharakhov, Igor V.; Sharakhova, Maria V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito, is an efficient vector of arboviruses and a convenient model system for laboratory research. Extensive linkage mapping of morphological and molecular markers localized a number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to the mosquito's ability to transmit various pathogens. However, linking the QTLs to Ae. aegypti chromosomes and genomic sequences has been challenging because of the poor quality of polytene chromosomes and the highly fragmented genome assembly for this species. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on the approach developed in our previous study, we constructed idiograms for mitotic chromosomes of Ae. aegypti based on their banding patterns at early metaphase. These idiograms represent the first cytogenetic map developed for mitotic chromosomes of Ae. aegypti. One hundred bacterial artificial chromosome clones carrying major genetic markers were hybridized to the chromosomes using fluorescent in situ hybridization. As a result, QTLs related to the transmission of the filarioid nematode Brugia malayi, the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum, and the dengue virus, as well as sex determination locus and 183 Mbp of genomic sequences were anchored to the exact positions on Ae. aegypti chromosomes. A linear regression analysis demonstrated a good correlation between positions of the markers on the physical and linkage maps. As a result of the recombination rate variation along the chromosomes, 12 QTLs on the linkage map were combined into five major clusters of QTLs on the chromosome map. Conclusion This study developed an integrated linkage, chromosome, and genome map—iMap—for the yellow fever mosquito. Our discovery of the localization of multiple QTLs in a few major chromosome clusters suggests a possibility that the transmission of various pathogens is controlled by the same genomic loci. Thus, the iMap will facilitate the identification of genomic determinants of traits responsible

  1. Genome databases

    SciTech Connect

    Courteau, J.

    1991-10-11

    Since the Genome Project began several years ago, a plethora of databases have been developed or are in the works. They range from the massive Genome Data Base at Johns Hopkins University, the central repository of all gene mapping information, to small databases focusing on single chromosomes or organisms. Some are publicly available, others are essentially private electronic lab notebooks. Still others limit access to a consortium of researchers working on, say, a single human chromosome. An increasing number incorporate sophisticated search and analytical software, while others operate as little more than data lists. In consultation with numerous experts in the field, a list has been compiled of some key genome-related databases. The list was not limited to map and sequence databases but also included the tools investigators use to interpret and elucidate genetic data, such as protein sequence and protein structure databases. Because a major goal of the Genome Project is to map and sequence the genomes of several experimental animals, including E. coli, yeast, fruit fly, nematode, and mouse, the available databases for those organisms are listed as well. The author also includes several databases that are still under development - including some ambitious efforts that go beyond data compilation to create what are being called electronic research communities, enabling many users, rather than just one or a few curators, to add or edit the data and tag it as raw or confirmed.

  2. SPITZER'S VIEW ON AROMATIC AND ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBON EMISSION IN HERBIG Ae STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Acke, B.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Bouwman, J.; Juhasz, A.; Henning, Th.; Van den Ancker, M. E.; Meeus, G.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2010-07-20

    The chemistry of astronomical hydrocarbons, responsible for the well-known infrared emission features detected in a wide variety of targets, remains enigmatic. Here we focus on the group of young intermediate-mass Herbig Ae stars. We have analyzed the aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features in the infrared spectra of a sample of 53 Herbig Ae stars, obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. We confirm that the PAH-to-stellar luminosity ratio is higher in targets with a flared dust disk. However, a few sources with a flattened dust disk still show relatively strong PAH emission. Since PAH molecules trace the gas disk, this indicates that gas disks may still be flared, while the dust disk has settled due to grain growth. There are indications that the strength of the 11.3 {mu}m feature also depends on dust disk structure, with flattened disks being less bright in this feature. We confirm that the CC bond features at 6.2 and 7.8 {mu}m shift to redder wavelengths with decreasing stellar effective temperature. Moreover, we show that this redshift is accompanied by a relative increase of aliphatic CH emission and a decrease of the aromatic 8.6 {mu}m CH feature strength. Cool stars in our sample are surrounded by hydrocarbons with a high aliphatic/aromatic CH ratio and a low aromatic CH/CC ratio, and vice versa for the hot stars. We conclude that, while the overall hydrocarbon emission strength depends on the dust disk's geometry, the relative differences seen in the IR emission features in disks around Herbig Ae stars are mainly due to chemical differences of the hydrocarbon molecules induced by the stellar UV field. Strong UV flux reduces the aliphatic component and emphasizes the spectral signature of the aromatic molecules in the IR spectra.

  3. Estimation of The Radiation Environment Based On The NASA Ap-8 and Ae-8 Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Thomas; Lyons, Valerie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the earth's trapped radiation environment, as described by the NASA models AP-8 and AE-8. We include a description of the sources and structure of the trapped radiation belts, and their dependence on external factors. After describing how to use the models to predict the environment, we present data from various space missions, and compare those data to the models. This shows the limits and strengths of the models. Finally, we describe alternative models of the trapped radiation belts, and discuss why they have not been widely adopted yet.

  4. The Environment of the Optically Brightest Herbig Ae Star, HD 104237

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, C. A.; Woodgate, B.; Torres, Carlos A. O.; Henning, Th.; Apai, D.; Rodmann, J.; Wang, Hongchi; Stecklum, B.; Linz, H.; Williger, G. M.; Brown, A.; Wilkinson, E.; Harper, G. M.; Herczeg, G. J.; Danks, A.; Vieira, G. L.; Malumuth, E.; Collins, N. R.; Hill, R. S.

    2004-06-01

    We investigate the environment of the nearest Herbig Ae star, HD 104237, with a multiwavelength combination of optical coronagraphic, near-IR, and mid-IR imaging supported by optical, UV, and far-ultraviolet spectroscopy. We confirm the presence of T Tauri stars associated with the Herbig Ae star HD 104237, noted by Feigelson et al. We find that two of the stars within 15" of HD 104237 have IR excesses, potentially indicating the presence of circumstellar disks, in addition to the Herbig Ae star itself. We derive a new spectral type of A7.5Ve-A8Ve for HD 104237 and find log(L/Lsolar)=1.39. With these data, HD 104237 has an age of t~5 Myr, in agreement with the estimates for the other members of the association. HD 104237 is still actively accreting, with a conspicuous UV/far-UV excess seen down to 1040 Å, and is driving a bipolar microjet termed HH 669. This makes it the second, older Herbig Ae star now known to have a microjet. The presence of the microjet enables us to constrain the circumstellar disk to r<=0.6" (70 AU) with an inclination angle of i=18deg+14-11 from pole-on. The absence of a spatially extended continuum and fluorescent H2 emission near Lyα is in agreement with the prediction of shadowed disk models for the IR spectral energy distribution. With the high spatial density of disks in this group of stars, proximity, and minimal reddening, HD 104237 and its companions should serve as ideal laboratories for probing the comparative evolution of planetary systems. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA Contract NAS5-26555. Based on observations made with ESO's TIMMI2 camera on La Silla, Chile, under program ID 71.C-0438. Based on observations made with the ESO VLT and the Near-IR Adaptive Optics System+Conica, under program ID 71.C-0143. Based on observations made under the ON-ESO agreement for the joint operation of the 1.52 m

  5. Prediction of AU, AL, and AE indices using solar wind parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, B.; Li, X.; Temerin, M. A.; Liu, S.

    2013-12-01

    An empirical model that predicts the AU index, a measure of the Earth's east electrojet, derived from magnetometers in the Northern hemisphere, is introduced. In addition, we have improved the previous AL model (Li et al., 2007) and have combined it with the AU model to produce an AE model. All models are based on upstream solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field parameters that have been propagated to the magnetopause by a simple ballistic propagation scheme for the years 1995 to 2001. The AU model predicts the 10-min averaged AU index for the seven years 1995-2001 with a prediction efficiency (PE) of 0.716, a linear correlation coefficient (LC) between the AU index and the model of 0.846, and a root mean square (RMS) error of 39.3 nT. We have updated the AL model introduced in Li et al. [2007] using the same prediction functions used to predict AU but with different parameters. The new AL model predicts the seven year AL index with a PE of 0.715, an LC of 0.846, and an RMS error of 81.6 nT. Using AE = AU-AL, the AE index is predicted with a PE of 0.788, an LC of 0.888, and an RMS error of 95.7 nT. The better PE and LC of the AE model over AU and AL models is because AU and AL are better correlated then their prediction errors. It is also found that: (1) The F10.7 index modulates the growth of auroral electrojet indices; (2) AU and AL behave differently during geomagnetic storm main phases. AU can drop to a low level while the magnitude of AL does not drop as much; (3) the longer-averaged auroral electrojets indices can be predicted very well but shorter timescale variations are much less predictable; (4) auroral electrojet activity is strongly dependent on the upstream solar wind velocity and the interplanetary magnetic field but is only weakly dependent on the solar wind density.

  6. Dust Around Herbig Ae Stars: Additional Constraints from their Photometric and Polarimetric Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krivova, N. A.; Ilin, V. B.; Fischer, O.

    1996-01-01

    For the Herbig Ae stars with Algol-like minima (UX Ori, WW Vul, etc), the effects of circumstellar dust include: excess infrared emission, anomalous ultraviolet extinction, the 'blueing' of the stars in minima accompanying by an increase of intrinsic polarization. Using a Monte-Carlo code for polarized radiation transfer we have simulated these effects and compared the results obtained for different models with the observational data available. We found that the photometric and polarimetric behavior of the stars provided essential additional constraints on the circumstellar dust models. The models with spheroidal shell geometry and compact (non-fluffy) dust grains do not appear to be able to explain all the data.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radial velocity curves of AE Aqr (Echevarria+, 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echevarria, J.; Smith, R. C.; Costero, R.; Zharikov, S.; Michel, R.

    2008-11-01

    Spectroscopic observations of AE Aqr were made using the AAT and the University College London Echelle Spectrograph (UCLES) at the coude focus on 1991 August 2 and 3. Three further runs were obtained at the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional at San Pedro Martir (SPM) using the 2.1-m telescope and the Echelle Spectrograph. The first observations were gathered on the nights of 1997 September 22 and 23. The second set of observations were made on the nights of 2000 August 17 to 19. The third run was made on 2001 August 29. (1 data file).

  8. Microstructural Evolution of a C-Mn Steel During Hot Compression Above the Ae3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranas, Clodualdo M.; Shen, Yu-Jack; Rodrigues, Samuel F.; Jonas, John J.

    2016-09-01

    In order to study the microstructural evolution during deformation, hot compression tests were carried out on a 0.06 wt pct C-0.30 wt pct Mn-0.01 wt pct Si steel at temperatures above the Ae3. The volume fraction of ferrite produced dynamically increased with the applied strain and decreased with increasing temperature. The present data are used to generate an isothermal strain-temperature-transformation diagram based on the applied strain. Results of this type can be employed to predict the effect of dynamic transformation during thermomechanical processing.

  9. HARPS spectropolarimetry of three sharp-lined Herbig Ae stars: New insights ⋆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järvinen, S. P.; Carroll, T. A.; Hubrig, S.; Schöller, M.; Ilyin, I.; Korhonen, H.; Pogodin, M.; Drake, N. A.

    2015-12-01

    Aims: Recently, several arguments have been presented that favour a scenario in which the low detection rate of magnetic fields in Herbig Ae stars can be explained by the weakness of these fields and rather large measurement uncertainties. Spectropolarimetric studies involving sharp-lined Herbig Ae stars appear to be a promising approach for the detection of such weak magnetic fields. These studies offer a clear spectrum interpretation with respect to the effects of blending, local velocity fields, and chemical abundances, and allow us to identify a proper sample of spectral lines appropriate for magnetic field determination. Methods: High-resolution spectropolarimetric observations of the three sharp-lined (vsini< 15 km s-1) Herbig Ae stars HD 101412, HD 104237, and HD 190073 have been obtained in recent years with the HARPS spectrograph in polarimetric mode. We used these archival observations to investigate the behaviour of their longitudinal magnetic fields. To carry out the magnetic field measurements, we used the multi-line singular value decomposition (SVD) method for Stokes profile reconstruction. Results: We carried out a high-resolution spectropolarimetric analysis of the Herbig Ae star HD 101412 for the first time. We discovered that different line lists yield differences in both the shape of the Stokes V signatures and their field strengths. They could be interpreted in the context of the impact of the circumstellar matter and elemental abundance inhomogeneities on the measurements of the magnetic field. On the other hand, due to the small size of the Zeeman features on the first three epochs and the lack of near-IR observations, circumstellar and photospheric contributions cannot be estimated unambiguously. In the SVD Stokes V spectrum of the SB2 system HD 104237, we detect that the secondary component, which is a T Tauri star, possesses a rather strong magnetic field ⟨Bz⟩ = 129 ± 12 G, while no significant field is present in the primary

  10. [Artificial neural network applied for spectral overlap interference correction in ICP-AES].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Liu, S; Zeng, X

    1997-10-01

    A back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) has been applied to correcting spectral overlap interference in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Some network parameters including the range of input values and training sequence for training patterns presented to the network were discussed using simulated Ce 413.380nm and Pr 413.380nm line profiles. Results show that the noise in simulated mixture spectra will slow down the network convergence and has more influence on network prediction. PMID:15810366

  11. Conceptual design of the AE481 Demon Remotely Piloted Vehicle (RPV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hailes, Chris; Kolver, Jill; Nestor, Julie; Patterson, Mike; Selow, Jan; Sagdeo, Pradip; Katz, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    This project report presents a conceptual design for a high speed remotely piloted vehicle (RPV). The AE481 Demon RPV is capable of performing video reconnaissance missions and electronic jamming over hostile territory. The RPV cruises at a speed of Mach 0.8 and an altitude of 300 feet above the ground throughout its mission. It incorporates a rocket assisted takeoff and a parachute-airbag landing. Missions are preprogrammed, but in-flight changes are possible. The Demon is the answer to a military need for a high speed, low altitude RPV. The design methods, onboard systems, and avionics payload are discussed in this conceptual design report along with economic viability.

  12. Low-dimensional chaos in magnetospheric activity from AE time series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassiliadis, D. V.; Sharma, A. S.; Eastman, T. E.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1990-01-01

    The magnetospheric response to the solar-wind input, as represented by the time-series measurements of the auroral electrojet (AE) index, has been examined using phase-space reconstruction techniques. The system was found to behave as a low-dimensional chaotic system with a fractal dimension of 3.6 and has Kolmogorov entropy less than 0.2/min. These indicate that the dynamics of the system can be adequately described by four independent variables, and that the corresponding intrinsic time scale is of the order of 5 min. The relevance of the results to magnetospheric modeling is discussed.

  13. Determination of soil micronutrients (Fe, Cu, Mn, B) extracted by Mehlich 3 using MP-AES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krebstein, Kadri; Tõnutare, Tõnu; Rodima, Ako; Kõlli, Raimo; Künnapas, Allan; Rebane, Jaanus; Penu, Priit; Vennik, Kersti; Soobik, Liina

    2015-04-01

    The total concentration of micronutrients in soils is not a good predictor of its bioavailability and solubility. Therefore, during the decades several methods for the determination of plant availability and extractable fraction of micro- and macronutrients in soil were developed. Among several methods Mehlich 3 is the most appropriate due to its suitability for extracting soil micro- and macronutrients simultaneously. The AAS (atomic absorption spectroscopic) and ICP (inductively coupled plasma) methods are widely used for the analysis of microelements today. In 2011 the third method was added to this list with the appearance of the microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometer (MP-AES). This multielemental analytical equipment has a high potential in the soil analysis. Up to now there have been made some experiments for the use of MP-AES in soil and geological material analysis. But there is no information about the analysis of soil micronutrients extracted according to Mehlich 3 method and determined with the MP-AES. Due to the differences in atomization conditions the different emission and absorption lines are used in different instrumental methods. Therefore it is very important to choose the most suitable emission lines and the best atomization conditions. From the analytical viewpoint it is important to get coincidental results with other instrumental methods and from the agronomical point of view it is important to know the difference between AAS and ICP methods. For the experiment 51 soil samples were used. The samples were collected from A horizons of agricultural lands. The pH range was from 4.7 to 7.5 and organic matter content from 1.4 to 7.8%. The content of Mehlich 3 extractable micronutrients was determined using ICP and MP instrumental methods. The micronutrient contents ranged as follows: Fe - from 170 to 470 mg kg-1, Mn - from 5 to 190 mg kg-1, Cu - from 0.3 to 4.5 mg kg-1, B - from 0.2 to 2.1 mg kg-1. The optimal instrumental settings for iron

  14. Ae4 (Slc4a9) Anion Exchanger Drives Cl- Uptake-dependent Fluid Secretion by Mouse Submandibular Gland Acinar Cells.

    PubMed

    Peña-Münzenmayer, Gaspar; Catalán, Marcelo A; Kondo, Yusuke; Jaramillo, Yasna; Liu, Frances; Shull, Gary E; Melvin, James E

    2015-04-24

    Transcellular Cl(-) movement across acinar cells is the rate-limiting step for salivary gland fluid secretion. Basolateral Nkcc1 Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporters play a critical role in fluid secretion by promoting the intracellular accumulation of Cl(-) above its equilibrium potential. However, salivation is only partially abolished in the absence of Nkcc1 cotransporter activity, suggesting that another Cl(-) uptake pathway concentrates Cl(-) ions in acinar cells. To identify alternative molecular mechanisms, we studied mice lacking Ae2 and Ae4 Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchangers. We found that salivation stimulated by muscarinic and β-adrenergic receptor agonists was normal in the submandibular glands of Ae2(-/-) mice. In contrast, saliva secretion was reduced by 35% in Ae4(-/-) mice. The decrease in salivation was not related to loss of Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter or Na(+)/H(+) exchanger activity in Ae4(-/-) mice but correlated with reduced Cl(-) uptake during β-adrenergic receptor activation of cAMP signaling. Direct measurements of Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger activity revealed that HCO3 (-)-dependent Cl(-) uptake was reduced in the acinar cells of Ae2(-/-) and Ae4(-/-) mice. Moreover, Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger activity was nearly abolished in double Ae4/Ae2 knock-out mice, suggesting that most of the Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger activity in submandibular acinar cells depends on Ae2 and Ae4 expression. In conclusion, both Ae2 and Ae4 anion exchangers are functionally expressed in submandibular acinar cells; however, only Ae4 expression appears to be important for cAMP-dependent regulation of fluid secretion. PMID:25745107

  15. Listeria Genomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabanes, Didier; Sousa, Sandra; Cossart, Pascale

    The opportunistic intracellular foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes has become a paradigm for the study of host-pathogen interactions and bacterial adaptation to mammalian hosts. Analysis of L. monocytogenes infection has provided considerable insight into how bacteria invade cells, move intracellularly, and disseminate in tissues, as well as tools to address fundamental processes in cell biology. Moreover, the vast amount of knowledge that has been gathered through in-depth comparative genomic analyses and in vivo studies makes L. monocytogenes one of the most well-studied bacterial pathogens. This chapter provides an overview of progress in the exploration of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data in Listeria spp. to understand genome evolution and diversity, as well as physiological aspects of metabolism used by bacteria when growing in diverse environments, in particular in infected hosts.

  16. Genome Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Winslow, Raimond L.; Boguski, Mark S.

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews recent advances in genomics and informatics relevant to cardiovascular research. In particular, we review the status of (1) whole genome sequencing efforts in human, mouse, rat, zebrafish, and dog; (2) the development of data mining and analysis tools; (3) the launching of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Programs for Genomics Applications and Proteomics Initiative; (4) efforts to characterize the cardiac transcriptome and proteome; and (5) the current status of computational modeling of the cardiac myocyte. In each instance, we provide links to relevant sources of information on the World Wide Web and critical appraisals of the promises and the challenges of an expanding and diverse information landscape. PMID:12750305

  17. Targeted disruption of the Cl−/HCO3− exchanger Ae2 results in osteopetrosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Josephsen, Kaj; Praetorius, Jeppe; Frische, Sebastian; Gawenis, Lara R.; Kwon, Tae-Hwan; Agre, Peter; Nielsen, Søren; Fejerskov, Ole

    2009-01-01

    Osteoclasts are multinucleated bone-resorbing cells responsible for constant remodeling of bone tissue and for maintaining calcium homeostasis. The osteoclast creates an enclosed space, a lacuna, between their ruffled border membrane and the mineralized bone. They extrude H+ and Cl− into these lacunae by the combined action of vesicular H+-ATPases and ClC-7 exchangers to dissolve the hydroxyapatite of bone matrix. Along with intracellular production of H+ and HCO3− by carbonic anhydrase II, the H+-ATPases and ClC-7 exchangers seems prerequisite for bone resorption, because genetic disruption of either of these proteins leads to osteopetrosis. We aimed to complete the molecular model for lacunar acidification, hypothesizing that a HCO3− extruding and Cl− loading anion exchange protein (Ae) would be necessary to sustain bone resorption. The Ae proteins can provide both intracellular pH neutrality and serve as cellular entry mechanism for Cl− during bone resorption. Immunohistochemistry revealed that Ae2 is exclusively expressed at the contra-lacunar plasma membrane domain of mouse osteoclast. Severe osteopetrosis was encountered in Ae2 knockout (Ae2−/−) mice where the skeletal development was impaired with a higher diffuse radio-density on x-ray examination and the bone marrow cavity was occupied by irregular bone speculae. Furthermore, osteoclasts in Ae2−/− mice were dramatically enlarged and fail to form the normal ruffled border facing the lacunae. Thus, Ae2 is likely to be an essential component of the bone resorption mechanism in osteoclasts. PMID:19164575

  18. The L7Ae protein binds to two kink-turns in the Pyrococcus furiosus RNase P RNA

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Stella M.; Lai, Lien B.; Foster, Mark P.; Gopalan, Venkat

    2014-01-01

    The RNA-binding protein L7Ae, known for its role in translation (as part of ribosomes) and RNA modification (as part of sn/oRNPs), has also been identified as a subunit of archaeal RNase P, a ribonucleoprotein complex that employs an RNA catalyst for the Mg2+-dependent 5′ maturation of tRNAs. To better understand the assembly and catalysis of archaeal RNase P, we used a site-specific hydroxyl radical-mediated footprinting strategy to pinpoint the binding sites of Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu) L7Ae on its cognate RNase P RNA (RPR). L7Ae derivatives with single-Cys substitutions at residues in the predicted RNA-binding interface (K42C/C71V, R46C/C71V, V95C/C71V) were modified with an iron complex of EDTA-2-aminoethyl 2-pyridyl disulfide. Upon addition of hydrogen peroxide and ascorbate, these L7Ae-tethered nucleases were expected to cleave the RPR at nucleotides proximal to the EDTA-Fe–modified residues. Indeed, footprinting experiments with an enzyme assembled with the Pfu RPR and five protein cofactors (POP5, RPP21, RPP29, RPP30 and L7Ae–EDTA-Fe) revealed specific RNA cleavages, localizing the binding sites of L7Ae to the RPR's catalytic and specificity domains. These results support the presence of two kink-turns, the structural motifs recognized by L7Ae, in distinct functional domains of the RPR and suggest testable mechanisms by which L7Ae contributes to RNase P catalysis. PMID:25361963

  19. Sequence elimination and cytosine methylation are rapid and reproducible responses of the genome to wide hybridization and allopolyploidy in wheat.

    PubMed

    Shaked, H; Kashkush, K; Ozkan, H; Feldman, M; Levy, A A

    2001-08-01

    Interspecific or intergeneric hybridization, followed by chromosome doubling, can lead to the formation of new allopolyploid species. Recent studies indicate that allopolyploid formation is associated with genetic and epigenetic changes, although little is known about the type of changes that occur, how rapidly they occur, and the type of sequences involved. To address these matters, we have surveyed F1 hybrids between diploid species from the wheat (Aegilops and Triticum) group and their derived allotetraploids by screening a large number of loci using amplified fragment length polymorphism and DNA gel blot analysis and by assaying the extent of cytosine methylation. We found that sequence elimination is one of the major and immediate responses of the wheat genome to wide hybridization or allopolyploidy, that it affects a large fraction of the genome, and that it is reproducible. In one cross between AE: sharonensis x AE: umbellulata, 14% of the loci from AE: sharonensis were eliminated compared with only 0.5% from AE: umbellulata, with most changes occurring in the F1 hybrid. In contrast, crosses between AE: longissima x T. urartu showed that sequence elimination was more frequent after chromosome doubling. Alterations in cytosine methylation occurred in approximately 13% of the loci, either in the F1 hybrid or in the allopolyploid. For eight of nine bands that were isolated, the sequences that underwent elimination corresponded to low-copy DNA, whereas alterations in methylation patterns affected both repetitive DNA sequences, such as retrotransposons, and low-copy DNA in approximately equal proportions. PMID:11487690

  20. Deciphering the X-ray Emission of the Nearest Herbig Ae Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, Stephen L.

    2004-01-01

    In this research program, we obtained and analyzed an X-ray observation of the young nearby intermediate mass pre-main sequence star HD 104237 using the XMM-Newton space-based observatory. The observation was obtained on 17 Feb. 2002. This observation yielded high-quality X-ray images, spectra, and timing data which provided valuable information on the physical processes responsible for the X-ray emission. This star is a member of the group of so-called Herbig Ae/Be stars, which are young intermediate mass (approx. 2 - 4 solar masses) pre-main sequence (PMS) stars a few million years old that have not yet begun core hydrogen burning. The objective of the XMM-Newton observation was to obtain higher quality data than previously available in order to constrain possible X-ray emission mechanisms. The origin of the X-ray emission from Herbig Ae/Be stars is not yet known. These intermediate mass PMS stars lie on radiative tracks and are not expected to emit X-rays via solar-like magnetic processes, nor are their winds powerful enough to produce X-rays by radiative wind shocks as in more massive O-type stars. The emission could originate in unseen low-mass companions, or it may be intrinsic to the Herbig stars themselves if they still have primordial magnetic fields or can sustain magnetic activity via a nonsolar dynamo.

  1. Roche tomography of cataclysmic variables - VII. The long-term magnetic activity of AE Aqr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, C. A.; Watson, C. A.; Steeghs, D.; Dhillon, V. S.; Shahbaz, T.

    2016-06-01

    We present a long-term study of the secondary star in the cataclysmic variable AE Aqr, using Roche tomography to indirectly image starspots on the stellar surface spanning 8 years of observations. The seven maps show an abundance of spot features at both high and low latitudes. We find that all maps have at least one large high-latitude spot region, and we discuss its complex evolution between maps, as well as its compatibility with current dynamo theories. Furthermore, we see the apparent growth in fractional spot coverage, fs, around 45° latitude over the duration of observations, with a persistently high fs near latitudes of 20°. These bands of spots may form as part of a magnetic activity cycle, with magnetic flux tubes emerging at different latitudes, similar to the `butterfly' diagram for the Sun. We discuss the nature of flux tube emergence in close binaries, as well as the activity of AE Aqr in the context of other stars.

  2. Hello Darkness My Old Friend: The Fading of the Nearby TDE ASASSN-14ae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Jonathan S.; Shappee, Benjamin J.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Prieto, J. L.

    2016-08-01

    We present late-time optical spectroscopy taken with the Large Binocular Telescope's Multi-Object Double Spectrograph, an improved ASAS-SN pre-discovery non-detection, and late-time Swift observations of the nearby (d = 193 Mpc, z = 0.0436) tidal disruption event (TDE) ASASSN-14ae. Our observations span from ˜ 20 days before to ˜ 750 days after discovery. The proximity of ASASSN-14ae allows us to study the optical evolution of the flare and the transition to a host dominated state with exceptionally high precision. We measure very weak Hα emission 300 days after discovery (LHα ≃ 4 × 1039 ergs s-1) and the most stringent upper limit to date on the Hα luminosity ˜ 750 days after discovery (LHα ≲ 1039 ergs s-1), suggesting that the optical emission arising from a TDE can vanish on a timescale as short as 1 year. Our results have important implications for both spectroscopic detection of TDE candidates at late times, as well as the nature of TDE host galaxies themselves.

  3. A spectro-astrometric measurement of Brackett gamma emission in Herbig Ae/Be stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, T. S.; Brittain, S.; Stevans, M.; Kurgatt, C.

    2012-07-01

    In T Tauri stars, the Brackett γ line strength is a reliable indicator of accretion luminosity. Among intermediate mass young stars, Herbig Ae stars also show this correlation, but in Herbig Be stars the Brγ line flux significantly overpredicts accretion luminosity. This Brγ excess in Herbig Be stars is thought to arise from a spatially extended outflow. Using commissioning data from the LUCIFER spectrograph on the 8.4-meter Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), we present a spectro-astrometric study of two Herbig Ae/Be stars, the HAe star MWC480 and the HBe star HD 259431. In both stars, an extended Brγ source can be ruled out down to 0.001 arcsec at the 1σ level. Using currently accepted parallax values of 137 ± 25 pc and 173 ± 37 pc, this implies a lack of spatially extended structure beyond 0.131 ± 0.024 AU for MWC 480 and 0.166 ± 0.036 AU for HD 259431. Spectro-astrometric precision depends on both the signal-to-noise and the angular resolution of an observation. To confidently rule out an extended Brγ source as the origin of the Brγ excess, either a repeat of these observations with the LBT's AO enabled, or an 81× increase in observing time, is needed.

  4. Effect of Deep Cryogenic Treatment on Microstructure and Properties of AE42 Mg Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhale, Pranav; Shastri, H.; Mondal, A. K.; Masanta, M.; Kumar, S.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of deep cryogenic treatment (DCT) on microstructure and mechanical properties including corrosion behavior of the squeeze-cast AE42 alloy has been investigated. For comparison, the same has also been studied on the untreated alloy. Both the untreated and deep cryogenic-treated (DCTed) alloys comprised α-Mg and Al4RE phases. Volume fraction of the Al4RE phase in the AE42 alloy reduced gradually following DCT carried out from 4 to 16 h. Ductility and UTS increase significantly with a marginal increase in YS of all the DCTed alloys. The improvement was attributed to the dissolution of the brittle Al4RE phase following DCT. Among the alloys employed, the best tensile properties were obtained for the 16-h DCT alloy due to its lowest content of the brittle Al4RE phase. Creep resistance of the DCTed alloys was lower than that of the untreated alloy owing to the presence of less amount of thermally stable intermetallic Al4RE phase. Wear resistance of the alloy reduces following DCT due to reduced hardness of the DCTed alloys. The untreated alloy exhibits the best corrosion resistance, whereas poor corrosion resistance of the DCTed alloys is attributed to the reduced amount of Al4RE phase that fails to built a corrosion resistance barrier.

  5. Effective AE source location of damages in the wind turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, D. J.; Han, B. H.

    2012-05-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) has emerged as a powerful nondestructive tool to detect preexisting defects or to characterize failure mechanisms. Recently, this technique or this kind of principle, that is an in-situ monitoring of inside damages of materials or structures, becomes increasingly popular for monitoring the integrity of large structures like a huge wind blade. Therefore, it is required to find a symptom of damage propagation before catastrophic failure through a continuous monitoring. In this study, we have tried to develop a source location algorithm for damage identification on the part of real wind turbine blade. First, it was focused to understand the activities of acoustic emission events generated from the glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) structures such as a wind blade. Secondly, this study aims to identify and locate the damages from blade specimens. In this work, the activities of AE signals generated from external artificial sources was evaluated and located by new developed source location algorithm. The results show that new suggested source location algorithm was much higher performance than conventional source location method.

  6. Einstein X-ray observations of Herbig Ae/Be stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damiani, F.; Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the X-ray emission from Herbig Ae/Be stars, using the full set of Einstein Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) observations. Of a total of 31 observed Herbig stars, 11 are confidently identified with X-ray sources, with four additonal dubious identifications. We have used maximum likelihood luminosity functions to study the distribution of X-ray luminosity, and we find that Be stars are significantly brighter in X-rays than Ae stars and that their X-ray luminosity is independent of projected rotational velocity v sin i. The X-ray emission is instead correlated with stellar bolometric luminosity and with effective temperature, and also with the kinetic luminosity of the stellar wind. These results seem to exclude a solar-like origin for the X-ray emission, a possibility suggested by the most recent models of Herbig stars' structure, and suggest an analogy with the X-ray emission of O (and early B) stars. We also observe correlations between X-ray luminosity and the emission at 2.2 microns (K band) and 25 microns, which strengthen the case for X-ray emission of Herbig stars originating in their circumstellar envelopes.

  7. The calibration of XRF polyethylene reference materials with k0-NAA and ICP-AES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swagten, Josefien; Bossus, Daniël; Vanwersch, Hanny

    2006-08-01

    Due to the lack of commercially available polyethylene reference materials for the calibration of X-ray fluorescence spectrometers (XRF), DSM Resolve, in cooperation with PANalytical, prepared and calibrated such a set of standards in 2005. The reference materials were prepared based on the addition of additives to virgin polyethylene. The mentioned additives are added to improve the performance of the polymers. The elements present in additives are tracers for the used additives. The reference materials contain the following elements: F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Ca, Ti and Zn in the concentration range of 5 mg/kg for Ti, up to 600 mg/kg for Mg. The calibration of the reference materials, including a blank, was performed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and Neutron Activation Analysis ( k0-NAA). ICP-AES was used to determine the elements Na, Mg, Al, P, Ca, Ti and Zn whereas k0-NAA was used for F, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Ti and Zn. Over the complete concentration range, a good agreement of the results was found between the both techniques. This project has shown that within DSM Resolve, it is possible to develop and to calibrate homogenous reference materials for XRF.

  8. Characterization of fold defects in AZ91D and AE42 magnesium alloy permanent mold castings

    SciTech Connect

    Bichler, L.; Ravindran, C.

    2010-03-15

    Casting premium-quality magnesium alloy components for aerospace and automotive applications poses unique challenges. Magnesium alloys are known to freeze rapidly prior to filling a casting cavity, resulting in misruns and cold shuts. In addition, melt oxidation, solute segregation and turbulent metal flow during casting contribute to the formation of fold defects. In this research, formation of fold defects in AZ91D and AE42 magnesium alloys cast via the permanent mold casting process was investigated. Computer simulations of the casting process predicted the development of a turbulent metal flow in a critical casting region with abrupt geometrical transitions. SEM and light optical microscopy examinations revealed the presence of folds in this region for both alloys. However, each alloy exhibited a unique mechanism responsible for fold formation. In the AZ91D alloy, melt oxidation and velocity gradients in the critical casting region prevented fusion of merging metal front streams. In the AE42 alloy, limited solubility of rare-earth intermetallic compounds in the {alpha}-Mg phase resulted in segregation of Al{sub 2}RE particles at the leading edge of a metal front and created microstructural inhomogeneity across the fold.

  9. Association of ionospheric storms and substorms of Global Electron Content with proxy AE index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yenen, S. D.; Gulyaeva, T. L.; Arikan, F.; Arikan, O.

    2015-10-01

    Storm time modeling of Global Electron Content (GEC) calculated from GIM-TEC for 1999-2013 is associated with new proxy of Auroral Electrojet variability expressed as a smoothed and normalized Auroral Electrojet index (AEsn). The variability in GEC is captured by the computation of DGEC which is obtained by taking the hourly ratio of instant GEC to median of GEC values at the same hour of 7 preceding days. The storm onset is determined by a joint analysis of variations in IMF-B magnitude, its derivative (dB/dt) and direction of IMF-Bz together with sudden increase in AE exceeding 900 nT. The start of the pre-storm period is chosen to be 7 h prior to the storm onset time and the storm recovery period ends 41 h after the storm onset. The hourly AEsn is related to DGEC during the storm period through a polynomial whose coefficients are estimated in the linear least squares sense. Estimated coefficients are examined and grouped with respect to different kinds of auroral storms. Examples of modeling methodology are provided using four different kinds of intense storms and substorms, namely, Positive Arctic, Positive Antarctic, Negative Arctic and Negative Antarctic that occurred between 1999 and 2013. The estimated coefficients for storm periods are compared with those of non-storm periods. It is observed that the positive correlation between the increase of AE and GEC can be a promising precursor of space weather variability.

  10. Chemical abundance analysis of symbiotic giants. RW Hya, SY Mus, BX Mon, and AE Ara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, C.; Mikolajewska, J.; Hinkle, K. H.; Schmidt, M. R.; Gromadzki, M.

    2014-04-01

    Symbiotic stars are the long period, binary systems of strongly interacting stars at the final stages of evolution which can be useful tool to understand the chemical evolution of the Galaxy and the formation of stellar populations. Knowledge of the chemical composition of the symbiotic giants is essential to advancing our understanding of these issues but unfortunately reliably determinations exist only in a few cases. We perform a program for detailed chemical composition analysis in over 30 symbiotic giants, based on the high resolution, near-IR spectra, obtained with Phoenix/Gemini South spectrometer. The methods of the standard LTE analysis is used to obtain photospheric abundances of CNO and elements around iron peak. Here we present results obtained for four objects: RW Hya, SY Mus, BX Mon, and AE Ara. Our analysis revealed a significantly sub-solar metallicity (Me/H ~ -0.75) for RW Hya, a slightly sub-solar metallicities (Me/H ~ 0.2-0.3) in BX Mon and AE Ara, and a near-solar metallicity in SY Mus. 12C/13C isotopic ratios are low in all cases, ranging from ~6 to ~10.

  11. NuSTAR AND SWIFT Observations of the Fast Rotating Magnetized White Dwarf AE Aquarii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitaguchi, Takao; An, Hongjun; Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Hayashi, Takayuki; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Rana, Vikram R.; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, Will W.

    2014-01-01

    AE Aquarii is a cataclysmic variable with the fastest known rotating magnetized white dwarf (P(sub spin) = 33.08 s). Compared to many intermediate polars, AE Aquarii shows a soft X-ray spectrum with a very low luminosity (LX (is) approximately 10(exp 31) erg per second). We have analyzed overlapping observations of this system with the NuSTAR and the Swift X-ray observatories in 2012 September. We find the 0.5-30 keV spectra to be well fitted by either an optically thin thermal plasma model with three temperatures of 0.75(+0.18 / -0.45), 2.29(+0.96 / -0.82), and 9.33 (+6.07 / -2.18) keV, or an optically thin thermal plasma model with two temperatures of 1.00 (+0.34 / -0.23) and 4.64 (+1.58 / -0.84) keV plus a power-law component with photon index of 2.50 (+0.17 / -0.23). The pulse profile in the 3-20 keV band is broad and approximately sinusoidal, with a pulsed fraction of 16.6% +/- 2.3%. We do not find any evidence for a previously reported sharp feature in the pulse profile.

  12. NuStar and Swift Observations of the Fast Rotating Magnetized White Dwarf AE Aquarii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitaguchi, Takao; An, Hongjun; Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Hayashi, Takayuki; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Rana, Vikram R.; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, Will W.

    2014-01-01

    AE Aquarii is a cataclysmic variable with the fastest known rotating magnetized white dwarf (P(sub spin) = 33.08 s). Compared to many intermediate polars, AE Aquarii shows a soft X-ray spectrum with a very low luminosity (LX (is) approximately 10(exp 31) erg per second). We have analyzed overlapping observations of this system with the NuSTAR and the Swift X-ray observatories in 2012 September. We find the 0.5-30 keV spectra to be well fitted by either an optically thin thermal plasma model with three temperatures of 0.75(+0.18 / -0.45), 2.29(+0.96 / -0.82), and 9.33 (+6.07 / -2.18) keV, or an optically thin thermal plasma model with two temperatures of 1.00 (+0.34 / -0.23) and 4.64 (+1.58 / -0.84) keV plus a power-law component with photon index of 2.50 (+0.17 / -0.23). The pulse profile in the 3-20 keV band is broad and approximately sinusoidal, with a pulsed fraction of 16.6% +/- 2.3%. We do not find any evidence for a previously reported sharp feature in the pulse profile.

  13. The Hsp90 chaperone controls the biogenesis of L7Ae RNPs through conserved machinery

    PubMed Central

    Boulon, Séverine; Marmier-Gourrier, Nathalie; Pradet-Balade, Bérengère; Wurth, Laurence; Verheggen, Céline; Jády, Beáta E.; Rothé, Benjamin; Pescia, Christina; Robert, Marie-Cécile; Kiss, Tamás; Bardoni, Barbara; Krol, Alain; Branlant, Christiane; Allmang, Christine; Bertrand, Edouard; Charpentier, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins of the L7Ae family are at the heart of many essential ribonucleoproteins (RNPs), including box C/D and H/ACA small nucleolar RNPs, U4 small nuclear RNP, telomerase, and messenger RNPs coding for selenoproteins. In this study, we show that Nufip and its yeast homologue Rsa1 are key components of the machinery that assembles these RNPs. We observed that Rsa1 and Nufip bind several L7Ae proteins and tether them to other core proteins in the immature particles. Surprisingly, Rsa1 and Nufip also link assembling RNPs with the AAA + adenosine triphosphatases hRvb1 and hRvb2 and with the Hsp90 chaperone through two conserved adaptors, Tah1/hSpagh and Pih1. Inhibition of Hsp90 in human cells prevents the accumulation of U3, U4, and telomerase RNAs and decreases the levels of newly synthesized hNop58, hNHP2, 15.5K, and SBP2. Thus, Hsp90 may control the folding of these proteins during the formation of new RNPs. This suggests that Hsp90 functions as a master regulator of cell proliferation by allowing simultaneous control of cell signaling and cell growth. PMID:18268104

  14. Sodium Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Imaging Polarimetry of Herbig Ae/Be Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Perrin, M D; Graham, J R; Lloyd, J P; Kalas, P; Gates, E L; Gavel, D T; Pennington, D M; Max, C E

    2004-01-08

    The future of high-resolution ground-based optical and infrared astronomy requires the successful implementation of laser guide star adaptive optics systems. We present the first science results from the Lick Observatory sodium beacon laser guide star system. By coupling this system to a near-infrared (J;H;Ks bands) dual-channel imaging polarimeter, we achieve very high sensitivity to light scattered in the circumstellar enviroment of Herbig Ae/Be stars on scales of 100-300 AU. Observations of LkH{alpha} 198 reveal a highly polarized, biconical nebula 10 arcseconds in diameter (6000 AU) . We also observe a polarized jet-like feature associated with the deeply embedded source LkH{alpha} 198-IR. The star LkH{alpha} 233 presents a narrow, unpolarized dark lane dividing its characteristic butterfly-shaped polarized reflection nebulosity. This linear structure is oriented perpendicular to an optical jet and bipolar cavity and is consistent with the presence of an optically thick circumstellar disk blocking our direct view of the star. These data suggest that the evolutionary picture developed for the lower-mass T Tauri stars is also relevant to the Herbig Ae/Be stars and demonstrate the ability of laser guide star adaptive optics systems to obtain scientific results competitive with natural guide star adaptive optics or space-based telescopes.

  15. The far-infrared behaviour of Herbig Ae/Be discs: Herschel PACS photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual, N.; Montesinos, B.; Meeus, G.; Marshall, J. P.; Mendigutía, I.; Sandell, G.

    2016-02-01

    Herbig Ae/Be objects are pre-main sequence stars surrounded by gas- and dust-rich circumstellar discs. These objects are in the throes of star and planet formation, and their characterisation informs us of the processes and outcomes of planet formation processes around intermediate mass stars. Here we analyse the spectral energy distributions of disc host stars observed by the Herschel open time key programme "Gas in Protoplanetary Systems". We present Herschel/PACS far-infrared imaging observations of 22 Herbig Ae/Bes and 5 debris discs, combined with ancillary photometry spanning ultraviolet to sub-millimetre wavelengths. From these measurements we determine the diagnostics of disc evolution, along with the total excess, in three regimes spanning near-, mid-, and far-infrared wavelengths. Using appropriate statistical tests, these diagnostics are examined for correlations. We find that the far-infrared flux, where the disc becomes optically thin, is correlated with the millimetre flux, which provides a measure of the total dust mass. The ratio of far-infrared to sub-millimetre flux is found to be greater for targets with discs that are brighter at millimetre wavelengths and that have steeper sub-millimetre slopes. Furthermore, discs with flared geometry have, on average, larger excesses than flat geometry discs. Finally, we estimate the extents of these discs (or provide upper limits) from the observations. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  16. Genomic Characterization of Two Novel HIV-1 Second-Generation Recombinant Forms Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Wei, Huamian; Feng, Yi; Li, Jia; Kalish, Marcia L.; Lu, Hongyan; Yin, Lu; Liao, Lingjie; Qian, Han-Zhu; Frost, Simon D.W.; Ruan, Yuhua; Vermund, Sten H.; Shao, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We report two different unique HIV-1 recombinant viruses from two HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beijing, China. Phylogenetic analysis of near full-length genomes (NFLG) showed that the unique recombinant forms (URFs) were comprised of gene regions from two circulating recombinant forms, CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC, both common in China. The parental CRF01_AE region of the recombinants clustered together with a previously described cluster 4 lineage of CRF01_AE. The CRF07_BC regions of both the recombinants clustered within the CRF07_BC radiation, but were distinct from other CRF07_BC reference sequences. The two recombinant forms had two breakpoints in common. The emergence of the two URFs indicates the ongoing generation of recombinant viruses involving CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC, and may provide insight into our understanding of the dynamics and complexity of the HIV-1 epidemic in China. PMID:25495675

  17. Genomic characterization of two novel HIV-1 second-generation recombinant forms among men who have sex with men in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Wei, Huamian; Feng, Yi; Li, Jia; Kalish, Marcia L; Lu, Hongyan; Yin, Lu; Liao, Lingjie; Qian, Han-Zhu; Frost, Simon D W; Ruan, Yuhua; Vermund, Sten H; Shao, Yiming; Xing, Hui

    2015-03-01

    We report two different unique HIV-1 recombinant viruses from two HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beijing, China. Phylogenetic analysis of near full-length genomes (NFLG) showed that the unique recombinant forms (URFs) were comprised of gene regions from two circulating recombinant forms, CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC, both common in China. The parental CRF01_AE region of the recombinants clustered together with a previously described cluster 4 lineage of CRF01_AE. The CRF07_BC regions of both the recombinants clustered within the CRF07_BC radiation, but were distinct from other CRF07_BC reference sequences. The two recombinant forms had two breakpoints in common. The emergence of the two URFs indicates the ongoing generation of recombinant viruses involving CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC, and may provide insight into our understanding of the dynamics and complexity of the HIV-1 epidemic in China. PMID:25495675

  18. Global Genomic Diversity of Human Papillomavirus 6 Based on 724 Isolates and 190 Complete Genome Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Jelen, Mateja M.; Chen, Zigui; Kocjan, Boštjan J.; Burt, Felicity J.; Chan, Paul K. S.; Chouhy, Diego; Combrinck, Catharina E.; Coutlée, François; Estrade, Christine; Ferenczy, Alex; Fiander, Alison; Franco, Eduardo L.; Garland, Suzanne M.; Giri, Adriana A.; González, Joaquín Víctor; Gröning, Arndt; Heidrich, Kerstin; Hibbitts, Sam; Hošnjak, Lea; Luk, Tommy N. M.; Marinic, Karina; Matsukura, Toshihiko; Neumann, Anna; Oštrbenk, Anja; Picconi, Maria Alejandra; Richardson, Harriet; Sagadin, Martin; Sahli, Roland; Seedat, Riaz Y.; Seme, Katja; Severini, Alberto; Sinchi, Jessica L.; Smahelova, Jana; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.; Tachezy, Ruth; Tohme, Sarah; Uloza, Virgilijus; Vitkauskiene, Astra; Wong, Yong Wee; Židovec Lepej, Snježana; Burk, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human papillomavirus type 6 (HPV6) is the major etiological agent of anogenital warts and laryngeal papillomas and has been included in both the quadrivalent and nonavalent prophylactic HPV vaccines. This study investigated the global genomic diversity of HPV6, using 724 isolates and 190 complete genomes from six continents, and the association of HPV6 genomic variants with geographical location, anatomical site of infection/disease, and gender. Initially, a 2,800-bp E5a-E5b-L1-LCR fragment was sequenced from 492/530 (92.8%) HPV6-positive samples collected for this study. Among them, 130 exhibited at least one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), indel, or amino acid change in the E5a-E5b-L1-LCR fragment and were sequenced in full. A global alignment and maximum likelihood tree of 190 complete HPV6 genomes (130 fully sequenced in this study and 60 obtained from sequence repositories) revealed two variant lineages, A and B, and five B sublineages: B1, B2, B3, B4, and B5. HPV6 (sub)lineage-specific SNPs and a 960-bp representative region for whole-genome-based phylogenetic clustering within the L2 open reading frame were identified. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that lineage B predominated globally. Sublineage B3 was more common in Africa and North and South America, and lineage A was more common in Asia. Sublineages B1 and B3 were associated with anogenital infections, indicating a potential lesion-specific predilection of some HPV6 sublineages. Females had higher odds for infection with sublineage B3 than males. In conclusion, a global HPV6 phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of two variant lineages and five sublineages, showing some degree of ethnogeographic, gender, and/or disease predilection in their distribution. IMPORTANCE This study established the largest database of globally circulating HPV6 genomic variants and contributed a total of 130 new, complete HPV6 genome sequences to available sequence repositories. Two HPV

  19. Whither genomics?

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Andrew W

    2000-01-01

    The flood of data from genome-wide analysis is transforming biology. We need to develop new, interdisciplinary approaches to convert these data into information about the components and structures of individual biological pathways and to use the resulting information to yield knowledge about general principles that explain the functions and evolution of life. PMID:11104516

  20. Mutation of the maize sbe1a and ae genes alters morphology and physical behavior of wx-type endosperm starch granules.

    PubMed

    Li, Ji-Hong; Guiltinan, Mark J; Thompson, Donald B

    2007-12-10

    In maize, three isoforms of starch-branching enzyme, SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb, are encoded by the Sbe1a, Sbe2a, and Amylose extender (Ae) genes, respectively. The objective of this research was to explore the effects of null mutations in the Sbe1a and Ae genes alone and in combination in wx background on kernel characteristics and on the morphology and physical behavior of endosperm starch granules. Differences in kernel morphology and weight, starch accumulation, starch granule size and size distribution, starch microstructure, and thermal properties were observed between the ae wx and sbe1a ae wx plants but not between the sbe1a wx mutants when compared to wx. Starch from sbe1a ae wx plants exhibited a larger granule size with a wider gelatinization temperature range and a lower endotherm enthalpy than ae wx. Microscopy shows weaker iodine staining in sbe1a ae wx starch granules. X-ray diffraction revealed A-type crystallinity in wx and sbe1a wx starches and B-type in sbe1a ae wx and ae wx. This study suggests that, while the SBEIIb isoform plays a dominant role in maize endosperm starch synthesis, SBEI also plays a role, which is only observable in the presence of the ae mutation. PMID:17765880

  1. Trafficking defect of mutant kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) proteins associated with distal renal tubular acidosis and Southeast Asian ovalocytosis.

    PubMed

    Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Udomchaiprasertkul, Wandee; Noisakran, Sansanee; Rungroj, Nanyawan; Akkarapatumwong, Varaporn; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2006-11-24

    Compound heterozygous anion exchanger 1 (AE1) SAO/G701D mutations result in distal renal tubular acidosis with Southeast Asian ovalocytosis. Interaction, trafficking and localization of wild-type and mutant (SAO and G701D) kAE1 proteins fused with hemagglutinin, six-histidine, Myc, or green fluorescence protein (GFP) were examined in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. When individually expressed, wild-type kAE1 was localized at cell surface while mutant kAE1 SAO and G701D were intracellularly retained. When co-expressed, wild-type kAE1 could form heterodimer with kAE1 SAO or kAE1 G701D and could rescue mutant kAE1 proteins to express on the cell surface. Co-expression of kAE1 SAO and kAE1 G701D also resulted in heterodimer formation but intracellular retention without cell surface expression, suggesting their trafficking defect and failure to rescue each other to the plasma membrane, most likely the molecular mechanism of the disease in the compound heterozygous condition. PMID:17027918

  2. Implementation of the AES as a Hash Function for Confirming the Identity of Software on a Computer System

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Randy R.; Bass, Robert B.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Mileson, Nicholas D.

    2003-01-20

    This paper provides a brief overview of the implementation of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) as a hash function for confirming the identity of software resident on a computer system. The PNNL Software Authentication team chose to use a hash function to confirm software identity on a system for situations where: (1) there is limited time to perform the confirmation and (2) access to the system is restricted to keyboard or thumbwheel input and output can only be displayed on a monitor. PNNL reviewed three popular algorithms: the Secure Hash Algorithm - 1 (SHA-1), the Message Digest - 5 (MD-5), and the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) and selected the AES to incorporate in software confirmation tool we developed. This paper gives a brief overview of the SHA-1, MD-5, and the AES and sites references for further detail. It then explains the overall processing steps of the AES to reduce a large amount of generic data-the plain text, such is present in memory and other data storage media in a computer system, to a small amount of data-the hash digest, which is a mathematically unique representation or signature of the former that could be displayed on a computer's monitor. This paper starts with a simple definition and example to illustrate the use of a hash function. It concludes with a description of how the software confirmation tool uses the hash function to confirm the identity of software on a computer system.

  3. Genome sequence of Aedes aegypti, a major arbovirus vector.

    PubMed

    Nene, Vishvanath; Wortman, Jennifer R; Lawson, Daniel; Haas, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Tu, Zhijian Jake; Loftus, Brendan; Xi, Zhiyong; Megy, Karyn; Grabherr, Manfred; Ren, Quinghu; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Lobo, Neil F; Campbell, Kathryn S; Brown, Susan E; Bonaldo, Maria F; Zhu, Jingsong; Sinkins, Steven P; Hogenkamp, David G; Amedeo, Paolo; Arensburger, Peter; Atkinson, Peter W; Bidwell, Shelby; Biedler, Jim; Birney, Ewan; Bruggner, Robert V; Costas, Javier; Coy, Monique R; Crabtree, Jonathan; Crawford, Matt; Debruyn, Becky; Decaprio, David; Eiglmeier, Karin; Eisenstadt, Eric; El-Dorry, Hamza; Gelbart, William M; Gomes, Suely L; Hammond, Martin; Hannick, Linda I; Hogan, James R; Holmes, Michael H; Jaffe, David; Johnston, J Spencer; Kennedy, Ryan C; Koo, Hean; Kravitz, Saul; Kriventseva, Evgenia V; Kulp, David; Labutti, Kurt; Lee, Eduardo; Li, Song; Lovin, Diane D; Mao, Chunhong; Mauceli, Evan; Menck, Carlos F M; Miller, Jason R; Montgomery, Philip; Mori, Akio; Nascimento, Ana L; Naveira, Horacio F; Nusbaum, Chad; O'leary, Sinéad; Orvis, Joshua; Pertea, Mihaela; Quesneville, Hadi; Reidenbach, Kyanne R; Rogers, Yu-Hui; Roth, Charles W; Schneider, Jennifer R; Schatz, Michael; Shumway, Martin; Stanke, Mario; Stinson, Eric O; Tubio, Jose M C; Vanzee, Janice P; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio; Werner, Doreen; White, Owen; Wyder, Stefan; Zeng, Qiandong; Zhao, Qi; Zhao, Yongmei; Hill, Catherine A; Raikhel, Alexander S; Soares, Marcelo B; Knudson, Dennis L; Lee, Norman H; Galagan, James; Salzberg, Steven L; Paulsen, Ian T; Dimopoulos, George; Collins, Frank H; Birren, Bruce; Fraser-Liggett, Claire M; Severson, David W

    2007-06-22

    We present a draft sequence of the genome of Aedes aegypti, the primary vector for yellow fever and dengue fever, which at approximately 1376 million base pairs is about 5 times the size of the genome of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Nearly 50% of the Ae. aegypti genome consists of transposable elements. These contribute to a factor of approximately 4 to 6 increase in average gene length and in sizes of intergenic regions relative to An. gambiae and Drosophila melanogaster. Nonetheless, chromosomal synteny is generally maintained among all three insects, although conservation of orthologous gene order is higher (by a factor of approximately 2) between the mosquito species than between either of them and the fruit fly. An increase in genes encoding odorant binding, cytochrome P450, and cuticle domains relative to An. gambiae suggests that members of these protein families underpin some of the biological differences between the two mosquito species. PMID:17510324

  4. QTL Mapping of Genome Regions Controlling Temephos Resistance in Larvae of the Mosquito Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe del Carmen; Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Suarez, Adriana Flores; Black, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the principal vector of dengue and yellow fever flaviviruses. Temephos is an organophosphate insecticide used globally to suppress Ae. aegypti larval populations but resistance has evolved in many locations. Methodology/Principal Findings Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) controlling temephos survival in Ae. aegypti larvae were mapped in a pair of F3 advanced intercross lines arising from temephos resistant parents from Solidaridad, México and temephos susceptible parents from Iquitos, Peru. Two sets of 200 F3 larvae were exposed to a discriminating dose of temephos and then dead larvae were collected and preserved for DNA isolation every two hours up to 16 hours. Larvae surviving longer than 16 hours were considered resistant. For QTL mapping, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified at 23 single copy genes and 26 microsatellite loci of known physical positions in the Ae. aegypti genome. In both reciprocal crosses, Multiple Interval Mapping identified eleven QTL associated with time until death. In the Solidaridad×Iquitos (SLD×Iq) cross twelve were associated with survival but in the reciprocal IqxSLD cross, only six QTL were survival associated. Polymorphisms at acetylcholine esterase (AchE) loci 1 and 2 were not associated with either resistance phenotype suggesting that target site insensitivity is not an organophosphate resistance mechanism in this region of México. Conclusions/Significance Temephos resistance is under the control of many metabolic genes of small effect and dispersed throughout the Ae. aegypti genome. PMID:25330200

  5. Evaluation of the new radiation belt AE9/AP9/SPM model for a cislunar mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badavi, Francis F.; Walker, Steven A.; Santos Koos, Lindsey M.

    2014-09-01

    this time. From a mission planning point of view, this date is ideal as the predictable GCR exposure will be at a maximum, while the sporadic SEP will be at a minimum. In addition, it is anticipated that by 2020 a vehicle capable of launching a crew of four will be operationally ready. During the LEO-GEO transit, the crew and cargo vehicles will encounter exposure from trapped particles and attenuated GCR, followed by free space exposure due to GCR and SEP during solar active times. Within the trapped field, a challenge arises from properly calculating the amount of exposure acquired. Within this field, in the absence of SEP (i.e. solar quiet times), the vehicles will have to transit through an inner proton belt, an inner and outer electron belts, and an attenuated GCR field. There exist a number of models to define the intensities of the trapped particles during the quiet and active SEP. Among the more established trapped models are the historic and popular electron/proton AE8/AP8 model dating back to the 1980s, the historic and less popular electron/proton CRRES model dating back to 1990s, and the recently released electron/proton/space plasma AE9/AP9/SPM model. The AE9/AP9/SPM model is a major improvement over the older AE8/AP8 and CRRES models. This model is derived from numerous measurements acquired over four solar cycles dating back to the 1970s, roughly representing 40 years of data collection. In contrast, the older AE8/AP8 and CRRES models were limited to only a few months of measurements taken during the prior solar minima and maxima. In this work, within the trapped field, along the design trajectory of the crew vehicle, the AE9/AP9/SPM model is evaluated against the older AE8/AP8 model during solar quiet times. The analysis is then extended to the GCR dominated en-route, cislunar L2 space and return trajectories in order to provide cumulative exposure estimates to the crew vehicle for the duration of the entire mission.

  6. Aerosol absorption coefficient and Equivalent Black Carbon by parallel operation of AE31 and AE33 aethalometers at the Zeppelin station, Ny Ålesund, Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Kalogridis, Athina-Cerise; Vratolis, Sterios; Fiebig, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Light absorbing carbon in atmospheric aerosol plays a critical role in radiative forcing and climate change. Despite the long term measurements across the Arctic, comparing data obtained by a variety of methods across stations requires caution. A method for extracting the aerosol absorption coefficient from data obtained over the decades by filter based instrument is still under development. An IASOA Aerosol working group has been initiated to address this and other cross-site aerosol comparison opportunities. Continuous ambient measurements of EBC/light attenuation by means of a Magee Sci. AE-31 aethalometer operating at the Zeppelinfjellet station (474 m asl; 78°54'N, 11°53'E), Ny Ålesund, Svalbard, have been available since 2001 (Eleftheriadis et al, 2009), while a new aethalometer model (AE33, Drinovec et al, 2014) has been installed to operate in parallel from the same inlet since June 2015. Measurements are recorded by a Labview routine collecting all available parameters reported by the two instrument via RS232 protocol. Data are reported at 1 and 10 minute intervals as averages for EBC (μg m-3) and aerosol absorption coefficients (Mm-1) by means of routine designed to report Near Real Time NRT data at the EBAS WDCA database (ebas.nilu.no) Results for the first 6 month period are reported here in an attempt to evaluate comparative performance of the two instruments in terms of their response with respect to the variable aerosol load of light absorbing carbon during the warm and cold seasons found in the high arctic. The application of available conversion schemes for obtaining the absorption coefficient by the two instruments is found to demonstrate a marked difference in their output. During clean periods of low aerosol load (EBC < 30 ng m-3), the two instruments display a better agreement with regression slope for the 880 nm signal between the two at ~ 0.9 compared to a slope at ~ 0.6 during the period of higher absorbing carbon loads (400< EBC<30 ng m

  7. Abundances in the High-Latitude Herbig Ae Star PDS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, Charles R.; Hubrig, S.; Przybilla, N.

    2014-01-01

    The unusual Herbig Ae star PDS2 (CD -53 251) was noted in the survey by Gregorio-Hetem, et al. (AJ 103, 549, 1992) of the IRAS catalog entries for T Tauri or Herbig Ae/Be stars. It has a high Galactic latitude and is unrelated to any known star-forming region (Vieira, et al. AJ, 126, 2971, 2003). The metallic emission spectrum, common among Herbig Ae/Be stars, is undeveloped in PDS2. Strong, variable H-alpha and He I 10830A emission, have been found e.g. (Hubrig, et al. EDP Sciences, in press). We do see sharp [O I] displaced some 25-30 km/sec to the violet of the photospheric spectrum. Lithium is not identified. An upper limit of Log(Li/Ntot) <= -10.95 was derived by assuming a 1mA 6707A feature. Hubrig, et al. (A&A, 502, 283, 2009), detected a magnetic field of the order of 100 Gauss, which might could indicate a relation to the magnetic CP stars. We have performed an abundance study based on HARPS and X-shooter spectra. PDS2 is a mid-F star where the effective temperature is indicated by the Balmer line strengths, virtually independent of the surface gravity. The latter may then be found from the first and second spectra of Fe, supplemented in this study by Ti, V, Cr, Mn, and Ni. The first spectra of these elements are nearly independent of surface gravity. The relatively low value of v sin(i), ca. 12 +/- 2 km/sec, allows us to restrict many abundance determinations to lines with equivalent widths less than 40 mA. The stronger lines then yield the microturbulence parameter (1.8 km/sec), crucial when stronger lines must be used. We find Te = 6500K and log g = 3.5. Abundances are given for 28 elements. We find a pattern similar to that found for HD 101412 in an earlier work (Cowley et al. A&A, 523, 65, 2010), and confirmed in a larger study by Folsom, et al. (MNRAS, 422, 2072, 2012). Refractory elements are depleted with respect to their solar values, while volatile elements, with the exception of Zn, are normal or mildly enhanced. All determinations are in LTE

  8. Homoeologous copy-specific expression patterns of MADS-box genes for floral formation in allopolyploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Miku; Tanaka, Hiroko; Shitsukawa, Naoki; Kitagawa, Satoshi; Takumi, Shigeo; Murai, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The consensus model for floral organ formation in higher plants, the so-called ABCDE model, proposes that floral whorl-specific combinations of class A, B, C, D, and E genes specify floral organ identity. Class A, B, C, D and E genes encode MADS-box transcription factors; the single exception being the class A gene APETALA2. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a hexaploid species with a genome constitution AABBDD; the hexaploid originated from a cross between tetraploid T. turgidum (AABB) and diploid Aegilops tauschii (DD). Tetraploid wheat is thought to have originated from a cross between the diploid species T. urartu (AA) and Ae. speltoides (BB). Consequently, the hexaploid wheat genome contains triplicated homoeologous copies (homoeologs) of each gene derived from the different ancestral diploid species. In this study, we examined the expression patterns of homoeologs of class B, C and D MADS-box genes during floral development. For the class B gene wheat PISTILLATA2 (WPI2), the homoeologs from the A and D genomes were expressed, while expression of the B genome homoeolog was suppressed. For the class C gene wheat AGAMOUS1 (WAG1), the homoeologs on the A and B genomes were expressed, while expression of the D genome homoeolog was suppressed. For the class D gene wheat SEEDSTICK (WSTK), the B genome homoeolog was preferentially expressed. These differential patterns of homoeolog expression were consistently observed among different hexaploid wheat varieties and synthetic hexaploid wheat lines developed by artificial crosses between tetraploid wheat and Ae. tauschii. These results suggest that homoeolog-specific regulation of the floral MADS-box genes occurs in allopolyploid wheat. PMID:26616759

  9. Citrus Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Talon, Manuel; Gmitter Jr., Fred G.

    2008-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most widespread fruit crops globally, with great economic and health value. It is among the most difficult plants to improve through traditional breeding approaches. Currently, there is risk of devastation by diseases threatening to limit production and future availability to the human population. As technologies rapidly advance in genomic science, they are quickly adapted to address the biological challenges of the citrus plant system and the world's industries. The historical developments of linkage mapping, markers and breeding, EST projects, physical mapping, an international citrus genome sequencing project, and critical functional analysis are described. Despite the challenges of working with citrus, there has been substantial progress. Citrus researchers engaged in international collaborations provide optimism about future productivity and contributions to the benefit of citrus industries worldwide and to the human population who can rely on future widespread availability of this health-promoting and aesthetically pleasing fruit crop. PMID:18509486

  10. Genes encoding plastid acetyl-CoA carboxylase and 3-phosphoglycerate kinase of the Triticum/Aegilops complex and the evolutionary history of polyploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shaoxing; Sirikhachornkit, Anchalee; Su, Xiujuan; Faris, Justin; Gill, Bikram; Haselkorn, Robert; Gornicki, Piotr

    2002-06-11

    The classic wheat evolutionary history is one of adaptive radiation of the diploid Triticum/Aegilops species (A, S, D), genome convergence and divergence of the tetraploid (Triticum turgidum AABB, and Triticum timopheevii AAGG) and hexaploid (Triticum aestivum, AABBDD) species. We analyzed Acc-1 (plastid acetyl-CoA carboxylase) and Pgk-1 (plastid 3-phosphoglycerate kinase) genes to determine phylogenetic relationships among Triticum and Aegilops species of the wheat lineage and to establish the timeline of wheat evolution based on gene sequence comparisons. Triticum urartu was confirmed as the A genome donor of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat. The A genome of polyploid wheat diverged from T. urartu less than half a million years ago (MYA), indicating a relatively recent origin of polyploid wheat. The D genome sequences of T. aestivum and Aegilops tauschii are identical, confirming that T. aestivum arose from hybridization of T. turgidum and Ae. tauschii only 8,000 years ago. The diploid Triticum and Aegilops progenitors of the A, B, D, G, and S genomes all radiated 2.5-4.5 MYA. Our data suggest that the Acc-1 and Pgk-1 loci have different histories in different lineages, indicating genome mosaicity and significant intraspecific differentiation. Some loci of the S genome of Aegilops speltoides and the G genome of T. timophevii are closely related, suggesting the same origin of some parts of their genomes. None of the Aegilops genomes analyzed is a close relative of the B genome, so the diploid progenitor of the B genome remains unknown. PMID:12060759

  11. The analysis of chlorine with other elements of interest in waste oil/fuels by ICP-AES

    SciTech Connect

    Tsourides, D.

    1998-12-31

    It has been said that there are more chemical analysis performed on oil/fuels than any other material. The sensitivity, linearity, multi-element capability, and relative freedom from matrix effects of ICP-AES makes it particularly suitable for elemental analysis of these samples. However, until recently the routine analysis of Chlorine had not been possible by ICP-AES. The addition of the Halogen elements, particularly Chlorine, to ICP-AES analysis is of importance to several industries that burn waste oil as fuel. The recycling and disposal of waste oil is closely regulated by metal and halogen content in all developed countries. In some countries, waste oil containing more than 1,000 ppm of Chlorine is considered hazardous waste. However, used oil may be burned as a fuel if it meets certain allowable limits. The paper describes the procedures for chlorine analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy.

  12. Analysis of high-purity germanium dioxide by ETV-ICP-AES with preliminary concentration of trace elements.

    PubMed

    Medvedev, Nickolay S; Shaverina, Anastasiya V; Tsygankova, Alphiya R; Saprykin, Anatoly I

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a combined technique of germanium dioxide analysis by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) with preconcentration of trace elements by distilling off matrix and electrothermal (ETV) introduction of the trace elements concentrate into the ICP. Evaluation of metrological characteristics of the developed technique of high-purity germanium dioxide analysis was performed. The limits of detection (LODs) for 25 trace elements ranged from 0.05 to 20ng/g. The accuracy of proposed technique is confirmed by "added-found" («or spiking») experiment and comparing the results of ETV-ICP-AES and ICP-AES analysis of high purity germanium dioxide samples. PMID:27216693

  13. Ancient genomics

    PubMed Central

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten E.; Ávila-Arcos, María C.; Barnett, Ross; Campos, Paula F.; Cappellini, Enrico; Ermini, Luca; Fernández, Ruth; da Fonseca, Rute; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Hansen, Anders J.; Jónsson, Hákon; Korneliussen, Thorfinn; Margaryan, Ashot; Martin, Michael D.; Moreno-Mayar, J. Víctor; Raghavan, Maanasa; Rasmussen, Morten; Velasco, Marcela Sandoval; Schroeder, Hannes; Schubert, Mikkel; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Wales, Nathan; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a revolution in ancient DNA (aDNA) research. Although the field's focus was previously limited to mitochondrial DNA and a few nuclear markers, whole genome sequences from the deep past can now be retrieved. This breakthrough is tightly connected to the massive sequence throughput of next generation sequencing platforms and the ability to target short and degraded DNA molecules. Many ancient specimens previously unsuitable for DNA analyses because of extensive degradation can now successfully be used as source materials. Additionally, the analytical power obtained by increasing the number of sequence reads to billions effectively means that contamination issues that have haunted aDNA research for decades, particularly in human studies, can now be efficiently and confidently quantified. At present, whole genomes have been sequenced from ancient anatomically modern humans, archaic hominins, ancient pathogens and megafaunal species. Those have revealed important functional and phenotypic information, as well as unexpected adaptation, migration and admixture patterns. As such, the field of aDNA has entered the new era of genomics and has provided valuable information when testing specific hypotheses related to the past. PMID:25487338

  14. Genomic Imprinting

    PubMed Central

    Bajrami, Emirjeta; Spiroski, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genomic imprinting is the inheritance out of Mendelian borders. Many of inherited diseases and human development violates Mendelian law of inheritance, this way of inheriting is studied by epigenetics. AIM: The aim of this review is to analyze current opinions and options regarding to this way of inheriting. RESULTS: Epigenetics shows that gene expression undergoes changes more complex than modifications in the DNA sequence; it includes the environmental influence on the gametes before conception. Humans inherit two alleles from mother and father, both are functional for the majority of the genes, but sometimes one is turned off or “stamped” and doesn’t show in offspring, that gene is imprinted. Imprinting means that that gene is silenced, and gene from other parent is expressed. The mechanisms for imprinting are still incompletely defined, but they involve epigenetic modifications that are erased and then reset during the creation of eggs and sperm. Genomic imprinting is a process of silencing genes through DNA methylation. The repressed allele is methylated, while the active allele is unmethylated. The most well-known conditions include Prader-Willi syndrome, and Angelman syndrome. Both of these syndromes can be caused by imprinting or other errors involving genes on the long arm of chromosome 15. CONCLUSIONS: Genomic imprinting and other epigenetic mechanisms such as environment is shown that plays role in offspring neurodevelopment and autism spectrum disorder. PMID:27275355

  15. The AE9/AP9/SPM Next Generation Radiation Specification Models - Progress Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Paul; Johnston, William Robert; Huston, Stuart; Guild, Timothy

    2016-07-01

    The AE9/AP9/SPM model has now been released to the global satellite design community, with a recent update to version 1.2. We are working on incorporating new data sources, such as AZUR and NASA's Van Allen Probes, while also addressing critiques raised by the science and engineering communities. In particular, we are investigating discrepancies for protons at low altitude and electrons at geostationary altitudes. Finally, we are scoping out architectural improvements to enable features requested by industry: improved stitching between the plasma and radiation models, local time dependence in the plasma model, longitude dependence in the electron radiation model, and solar cycle variation in the low altitude protons. We provide a brief update on the status of the model, discrepancy investigations, and plans for the future.

  16. ICP-AES Determination of Mineral Content in Boletus tomentipes Collected from Different Sites of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-mei; Zhang, Ji; Li, Tao; Li, Jie-qing; Wang, Yuan-zhong; Liu, Hong-gao

    2015-05-01

    P, Na, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Zn, As, Cd, Co, Cr and Ni, contents have been examined in caps and stipes of Boletus tomentipes collected from different sites of Yunnan province, southwest China. The elements were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) with microwave digestion. P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn and Cu were the most abundant amongst elements determined in Boletus tomentipes. The caps were richer in P, Mg, Zn and Cd, and the stipes in Ca, Co and Ni. Cluster analysis showed a difference between Puer (BT7 and BT8) and other places. The PCA explained about 77% of the total variance, and the minerals differentiating these places were P (PC1) together with Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, As and Ni, Na (PC2) together with Cd, and Zn (PC3). The results of this study imply that element concentrations of a mushroom are mutative when collected from the different bedrock soil geochemistry. PMID:26415467

  17. Dust and Gas Depletion in the Disk around Herbig Ae Star Oph IRS 48

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Joanna; Herczeg, G.; Andrews, S.; van Dishoeck, E.; Wilner, D.; Rosenfeld, K.; Pontoppidan, K.

    2012-05-01

    The processes that form transition disks - disks with depleted inner regions - are not well understood although possible scenarios include planet formation, grain growth and photoevaporation. Disks with well characterized dust holes are rare but even less is known about the corresponding gas structure, which should be diagnostic of the underlying physics. We present new resolved gas and dust observations of the Herbig Ae star Oph IRS 48. An extremely large 30 AU radius gas hole is seen directly in our VLT CRIRES observations of the fundamental band of CO at 4.7 micron. A hole of similar size was also previosuly detected in warm dust at 20 microns. However, PAH molecules, usually a gas tracer, are located within the hole. Our new high spatial resolution SMA imaging (0.3'') unexpectedly reveals a smaller hole in the millimeter dust grains. We will discuss the implications of this complex disk structure and the potential formation scenarios.

  18. The FUSE satellite is prepped for prelaunch processing at Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Workers in Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, begin removing the plastic covering from NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite before prelaunch processing. FUSE will undergo a functional test of its systems, followed by installation of the flight batteries and solar arrays. Tests are also scheduled for the communications and data systems linking FUSE with the spacecraft control center at The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. FUSE was developed and will be operated by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The launch aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket is targeted for May 20 at Launch Complex 17.

  19. The FUSE satellite is prepped for prelaunch processing at Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite is unveiled before prelaunch processing. FUSE will undergo a functional test of its systems, followed by installation of the flight batteries and solar arrays. Tests are also scheduled for the communications and data systems linking FUSE with the spacecraft control center at The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. FUSE was developed and will be operated by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The launch aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket is targeted for May 20 at Launch Complex 17.

  20. The FUSE satellite is prepped for prelaunch processing at Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Workers in Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, get ready to remove the protective shipping cover from NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite for prelaunch processing. FUSE will undergo a functional test of its systems, followed by installation of the flight batteries and solar arrays. Tests are also scheduled for the communications and data systems linking FUSE with the spacecraft control center at The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. FUSE was developed and will be operated by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The launch aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket is targeted for May 20 at Launch Complex 17.

  1. The FUSE satellite is prepped for prelaunch processing at Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite stands alone after workstands have been removed. As part of prelaunch processing, FUSE will undergo a functional test of its systems, followed by installation of the flight batteries and solar arrays. Tests are also scheduled for the communications and data systems linking FUSE with the spacecraft control center at The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. FUSE was developed and will be operated by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The launch aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket is targeted for May 20 at Launch Complex 17.

  2. Asphodosides A-E, anti-MRSA metabolites from Asphodelus microcarpus.

    PubMed

    Ghoneim, Mohammed M; Elokely, Khaled M; El-Hela, Atef A; Mohammad, Abd-Elsalam I; Jacob, Melissa; Radwan, Mohamed M; Doerksen, Robert J; Cutler, Stephen J; Ross, Samir A

    2014-09-01

    Bioassay guided fractionation of the ethanolic extract of Asphodelus microcarpus Salzm. et Viv. (Xanthorrhoeaceae or Asphodelaceae) resulted in isolation of five compounds identified as asphodosides A-E (1-5). Compounds 2-4 showed activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with IC50 values of 1.62, 7.0 and 9.0μg/mL, respectively. They also exhibited activity against Staphylococcus aureus (non-MRSA) with IC50 values of 1.0, 3.4 and 2.2μg/mL, respectively. The structure elucidation of isolated metabolites was carried out using spectroscopic data (1D and 2D NMR), optical rotation and both experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD). PMID:25034614

  3. Evidence for particle acceleration in AE Aqr from radio and X-ray observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Jager, O. C.

    1991-01-01

    The novalike cataclysmic variable AE Aquarii shows evidence for radio synchrotron emission from expanding magnetized clouds. The radio and UV flare timescales are similar indicating that the central engine is located close to the white dwarf. A collisionless shock may develop above the polar cap, which may explain the observed temperature. Protons and ions accelerated up to energies of more than 1 TeV can diffuse away from the central engine, enter magnetized clouds, and generate waves which in turn heat and accelerate electrons. An embarrassing situation exists where reprocessed optical and X-ray pulsations (33 s) are observed, but the expected direct X-ray pulse from the white dwarf is absent. The standard theory for CVs cannot explain this, and one possible explanation is that a beam of relativistic protons and ions from the polar cap may give the observed reprocessed optical to X-rays in a thick target fixed in the system.

  4. Calcarides A-E, antibacterial macrocyclic and linear polyesters from a Calcarisporium strain.

    PubMed

    Silber, Johanna; Ohlendorf, Birgit; Labes, Antje; Erhard, Arlette; Imhoff, Johannes F

    2013-09-01

    Bioactive compounds were detected in crude extracts of the fungus, Calcarisporium sp. KF525, which was isolated from German Wadden Sea water samples. Purification of the metabolites from the extracts yielded the five known polyesters, 15G256α, α-2, β, β-2 and π (1-5), and five new derivatives thereof, named calcarides A-E (6-10). The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy supported by UV and HRESIMS data. The compounds exhibited inhibitory activities against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Xanthomonas campestris and Propionibacterium acnes. As the antibacterial activities were highly specific with regard to compound and test strain, a tight structure-activity relationship is assumed. PMID:23994907

  5. Asphodosides A-E, anti-MRSA metabolites from Asphodelus microcarpus

    PubMed Central

    Ghoneim, Mohammed M.; Elokely, Khaled M.; El-Hela, Atef A.; Mohammad, Abd-Elsalam I.; Jacob, Melissa; Radwan, Mohamed M.; Doerksen, Robert J.; Cutler, Stephen J.; Ross, Samir A.

    2016-01-01

    Bioassay guided fractionation of the ethanolic extract of Asphodelus microcarpus Salzm. et Viv. (Xanthorrhoeaceae or Asphodelaceae) resulted in isolation of five compounds identified as asphodosides A-E (1–5). Compounds 2–4 showed activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with IC50 values of 1.62, 7.0 and 9.0 μg/mL, respectively. They also exhibited activity against Staphylococcus aureus (non-MRSA) with IC50 values of 1.0, 3.4 and 2.2 μg/mL, respectively. The structure elucidation of isolated metabolites was carried out using spectroscopic data (1D and 2D NMR), optical rotation and both experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD). PMID:25034614

  6. Statin-AE: a novel angiostatin-endostatin fusion protein with enhanced antiangiogenic and antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Scappaticci, F A; Contreras, A; Smith, R; Bonhoure, L; Lum, B; Cao, Y; Engleman, E G; Nolan, G P

    2001-01-01

    The combination of angiostatin and endostatin has been shown to have synergistic antiangiogenic and antitumor effects when the genes for these proteins are delivered to tumor cells by retroviral gene transfer. Here we report the construction of a murine angiostatin-endostatin fusion gene (Statin-AE) which shows enhanced antiangiogenic activity on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) tube formation in vitro compared with angiostatin or endostatin alone. Similarly, the fusion gene demonstrates antiangiogenic effects in vivo and antitumor activity in a B16F10 melanoma model when co-delivered by retroviral packaging cell inoculation in mice. The fusion gene demonstrates significantly greater inhibition of tumor growth compared with angiostatin, endostatin or the combination of genes. PMID:12197471

  7. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) in support of nuclear waste management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff, Edmund A.; Horwitz, E. Philip

    Simulated complex nuclear waste solutions are characterized by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Simultaneous and sequential measurements are made of liquid extraction distribution coefficients needed in the development of process flow sheets for component separations. This paper describes the determination of 19 elements, comprised of process contaminants (Al, Cr, Fe, Ni) and nuclear fission products (Ba, Cd, Ce, Eu, La, Mo, Nd, Pd, Pr, Rh, Ru, Sm, Sr, Y, Zr), in diverse aqueous streams. The concentrations determined vary from 0.04 to 4000μg ml -1 with dilutions being used to bring analytical measurements into the range of calibration standards. The estimated precision and accuracy of the method are 1-5 %. Data are presented on recoveries and material balances for extraction systems that can be used for the implementation of actinide (III)-fission product separation schemes.

  8. An overview of SAE AE-9B high speed ring bus (HSRB) performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delcoco, Robert J.; Kroeger, Brian W.; Kurtz, John J.

    The design, operating principles, and theoretical performance of a standard high-speed token-passing ring bus (HSRB) are described and illustrated with diagrams and graphs. The HSRB is being developed by the SAE AE-9B subcommittee to meet future military (ship and aircraft) requirements for high-speed local-area networking. Consideration is given to priority and short-message operations, the token frame, the message-frame format, minimal-station-delay protocols, ring synchronization, and fault-recovery methods. Comparative calculations show the performance of an optimized HSRB at 100 Mb/s to be superior to that of a linear contention bus or a linear token-passing bus. If maximum and average message length are kept to 512 and 100 words, respectively, it is estimated that the HSRB can attain throughput efficiency greater than 90 percent and high-priority-message latency time less than 500 microsec.

  9. Cystophloroketals A-E, Unusual Phloroglucinol-Meroterpenoid Hybrids from the Brown Alga Cystoseira tamariscifolia.

    PubMed

    El Hattab, Mohamed; Genta-Jouve, Grégory; Bouzidi, Naïma; Ortalo-Magné, Annick; Hellio, Claire; Maréchal, Jean-Philippe; Piovetti, Louis; Thomas, Olivier P; Culioli, Gérald

    2015-07-24

    Cystophloroketals A-E (1-5), five new phloroglucinol-meroditerpenoid hybrids, have been isolated together with their putative biosynthetic precursor, the monocyclic meroditerpenoid 6, from the Mediterranean brown alga Cystoseira tamariscifolia. They represent the first examples of meroditerpenoids linked to a phloroglucinol through a 2,7-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane moiety. The chemical structures, including absolute configurations, were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis (HR-ESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR, and ECD) and TDDFT ECD calculations. Compounds 1-6 were tested for their antifouling activity against several marine colonizing species (bacteria, fungi, invertebrates, micro- and macroalgae). Compound 6 showed high potency for the inhibition of macrofoulers (invertebrates and macroalgae), while cystophloroketals B (2) and D (4) displayed strong inhibition of the germination of the two macroalgae tested and moderate antimicrobial activities (bacteria, microalgae, and fungi). PMID:26158859

  10. Analysis of synthetic motor oils for additive elements by ICP-AES

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.C.; Salmon, S.G.

    1995-12-31

    Standard motor oils are made by blending paraffinic or naphthenic mineral oil base stocks with additive packages containing anti-wear agents, dispersants, corrosion inhibitors, and viscosity index improvers. The blender can monitor the correct addition of the additives by determining the additive elements in samples dissolved in a solvent by ICP-AES. Internal standardization is required to control sample transport interferences due to differences in viscosity between samples and standards. Synthetic motor oils, made with poly-alpha-olefins and trimethylol propane esters, instead of mineral oils, pose an additional challenge since these compounds affect the plasma as well as having sample transport interference considerations. The synthetic lubricant base stocks add significant oxygen to the sample matrix, which makes the samples behave differently than standards prepared in mineral oil. Determination of additive elements in synthetic motor oils will be discussed.

  11. High resolution Mid-Infrared Imaging of Dust Disks Structures around Herbig Ae Stars with VISIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doucet, C.; Lagage, P.; Pantin, E.

    We present a new mode of observations with VISIR, the mid-InfraRed (mid-IR) imager and spectrometer on the VLT (ESO, Chile): the so-called BURST mode. This mode allows to reach the diffraction limit of the telescope. To illustrate results obtained with this mode, we discuss observations of disks around Herbig Ae stars, believed to harbour circumstellar disks. The 10-20 micron atmospheric windows are well-suited to study the extended emission of these objects. With a 8 m class telescope, in fair seeing conditions, the observations are diffraction limited at 10 micron and the spatial resolution could reach the diffraction limit of 0.3 arcsec. As a result, it is possible to resolve disks with a typical size of 100 AU around objects at a distance of 100 pc. We present here a significant example, HD97048, for which a flared disk of 350 AU is resolved at 11.3 micron (PAH band).

  12. Rickenyls A-E, antioxidative terphenyls from the fungus Hypoxylon rickii (Xylariaceae, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Kuhnert, Eric; Surup, Frank; Herrmann, Jennifer; Huch, Volker; Müller, Rolf; Stadler, Marc

    2015-10-01

    Our screening efforts for new natural products with interesting bioactivity have revealed the neotropical ascomycete Hypoxylon rickii as a prolific source. We isolated five secondary metabolites with a p-terphenyl backbone from the mycelial extract of a fermentation of this fungus in 70 l scale by using RP-HPLC, which were named rickenyls A-E (1-5). Their structures were elucidated by X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy, complemented by HRESIMS. Two of the compounds contained a quinone core structure in ortho (2) and para-position (5), respectively. We obtained 2 spontaneously and by lead tetraacetate oxidation from 1. All compounds were screened for antimicrobial, antioxidative and cytotoxic activities. Rickenyl A (1) exhibited strong antioxidative effects and moderate cytotoxic activity against various cancer cell lines. PMID:26296745

  13. Interdependence between Cooling Rate, Microstructure and Porosity in Mg Alloy AE42

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Liang; Rhee, Hongjoo; Felicelli, Sergio D.; Sabau, Adrian S; Berry, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Porosity is a major concern in the production of light metal parts. This work aims to identify some of the mechanisms of microporosity formation during the gravity-poured castings of magnesium alloy AE42. Two graphite plate molds and a ceramic cylindrical mold were selected to produce a wide range of cooling rates. Temperature data during cooling was acquired with type K thermocouples at 60 Hz at two or three locations of each casting. The microstructure of samples extracted from the regions of measured temperature was then characterized with optical metallography. The results of this study revealed the existence of oxide film defects, similar to those observed in aluminum alloys. The cooling rates showed significant effect on the formation of porosity.

  14. [Determination of trace elements in radix ophiopogonis by HG-ICP-AES].

    PubMed

    Lou, Qi-Zheng; Xu, Run-Sheng

    2007-06-01

    In this paper, a method of microwave digestion technique for the contents determination of trace elements Ni, Zn, Mn, Cu, Mg, Fe, Ca and Pb in radix ophiopogonis by hydride generation inductively coupled plasma atomic emition spectrometry (HG-ICP-AES) was reported. Its recovery ratio obtained by standard addition method ranged between 97.8% and 102.5%, and its RSD was lower than 4.0%. The results of the determination show that radix ophiopogonis is rich in the inorganic elements such as Fe, and the content of Zn in radix ophiopogonis of Zhejiang is much higher in radix ophiopogonis of Sichun. The result will provide scientific data for the study on the elements in radix ophiopogonis and on their relativity of medicine efficacy. PMID:17763797

  15. SWS observations of HI lines from the ionized winds of Herbig AeBe stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedettini, M.; Nisini, B.; Giannini, T.; Saraceno, P.; Lorenzetti, D.; Smith, H. A.

    SWS grating spectra are obtained towards the two Herbig AeBe stars MWC1080 and CoD -42^{\\circ} 11721, showing hydrogen recombination lines of the Brackett, Pfund and Humphreys series. The observed line decrements in each spectral series are consistent with emission from ionized winds, as expected from these early-type stars. We compare the observed line emission with a wind model assuming a constant rate of mass flow from the star, this allows to consistently derive mass loss rate and distance of both stars. We also show that the observed decrements are consistent with a ionization bounded compact region, whose size is only few tens of the stellar radius.

  16. Distinguishing Astragalus mongholicus and Its Planting Soil Samples from Different Regions by ICP-AES.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Zheng, Sihao; Yang, Qingzhen; Chen, Shilin; Huang, Linfang

    2016-01-01

    "Daodi herb" enjoys a good reputation for its quality and clinical effects. As one of the most popular daodi herbs, Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao (A. membranaceus) is popularly used for its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immune-enhancing properties. In this study, we used inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) technique to investigate the inorganic elements contents in A. mongholicu and its soil samples from daodi area (Shanxi) and non-daodi areas (Inner Mongolia and Gansu). A total of 21 inorganic elements (Pb, Cd, As, Hg, Cu, P, K, Zn, Mn, Ca, Mg, Fe, Se, B, Al, Na, Cr, Ni, Ba, Ti and Sr) were simultaneously determined. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to differentiate A. mongholicu and soil samples from the three main producing areas. It was found that the inorganic element characteristics as well as the uptake and accumulation behavior of the three kinds of samples were significantly different. The high contents of Fe, B, Al, Na, Cr and Ni could be used as a standard in the elements fingerprint to identify daodi and non-daodi A. Mongholicus. As the main effective compounds were closely related to the pharmacodynamics activities, the inter-relationships between selected elements and components could reflect that the quality of A. Mongholicus from Shanxi were superior to others to a certain degree. This finding highlighted the usefulness of ICP-AES elemental analysis and evidenced that the inorganic element profile can be employed to evaluate the genuineness of A. mongholicus. PMID:27077837

  17. Comparison between the polar cap index, PC and the auroral electrojet indices AE, AL, and AU

    SciTech Connect

    Vennerstrom, S.; Friis-Christensen, E. ); Troshichev, O.A.; Andresen, V.G. )

    1991-01-01

    The newly introduced index PC for magnetic activity in the polar cap has been examined to establish to which extent it can serve as an indicator of auroral electrojet activity. PC is derived from a single nearpole station, as a 15-min average index. The authors have derived it for two stations, one in the northern hemisphere (Thule) and one in the southern hemisphere (Vostok). The simplicity of the PC index enables us to make a large data base for statistical investigations. They have thus used 7 years of PC values for the two stations to analyze the relationship between PC and the auroral zone indices AE, AU, and AL statistically. They find a very high correlation between PC and AE during winter and equinox, the linear correlation coefficient being {approximately} 0.8-0.9 for Thule and {approximately} 0.7-0.8 for Vostok. During summer the correlation is less because the PC index is then disturbed by polar cap currents controlled by the northward and east-west components of the interplanetary magnetic field. They therefore stress the importance of having PC available from both the northern and southern hemisphere. From event studies they find that PC is sensitive both to DP 2 type electrojet activity and to substorm intensifications of the westward electrojet in the midnight or postmidnight sector but less sensitive to substorm intensifications of the westward electrojet in the midnight or post midnight sector. They conclude that PC can serve as a fast available indicator of DP 2 and DP 1 activity in the polar regions, excluding intrusions of the westward electrojet in the premidnight sector.

  18. Prescribing the Kp, AE and Dst Response Using the Magnetospheric State Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, S. F.; Van Artsdalen, K. J.; Shao, X.

    2014-12-01

    The magnetosphere exhibits a variety of geomagnetic activities in response to different solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) input. Global-scale geomagnetic activities, such as those due to substorms and storms, are reflected in the Kp, AE and Dst indices, which are constructed from ground-based magnetometer observations. Understanding how and the conditions under which a geomagnetic storm or substorm occurs are outstanding questions in heliophysics and space weather predication. While it is generally accepted that Earth-directed coronal mass ejections from the sun can cause geomagnetic storms and substorms in the magnetosphere, the specific necessary and sufficient conditions, in terms of both the solar wind drivers and pre-existing magnetospheric conditions, for triggering different types of geomagnetic activities are yet to be delineated. For example, while it is generally thought that geomagnetic storms can be triggered by extended intervals of southward IMF Bz, it is still not clear how and at what point during the southward-IMF Bz interval a storm will arise, and how the storm-triggering process may be affected by the pre-existing state of the magnetosphere. To address these specific questions, we have applied the magnetospheric state prescription technique developed by Fung and Shao [2008]. We have used solar wind and geomagnetic indices data taken in 1970-2009 to constructed a magnetospheric state lookup table and applied the table to perform out-of-sample predictions or prescriptions of the Kp, AE and Dst indices during different geomagnetic storm intervals (with minimum Dst ≤ -100 nT) that occurred after 2009. Our presentation will discuss the validity of the magnetospheric state prescription technique and the role of different magnetopsheric state parameters in prescribing geomagnetic storm development. Fung, S. F. and X. Shao, Specification of multiple geomagnetic responses to variable solar wind and IMF input, Ann. Geophys., 26, 639

  19. Chandra X-Ray Observatory's Radiation Environment and the AP-8/AE-8 Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Virani, S. N.; Plucinsky, P. P.; Butt, Y. M.; Mueller-Mellin, R.

    2000-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) was launched on July 23, 1999 and reached its final orbit on August 7, 1999. The CXO is in a highly elliptical orbit, approximately 140,000 km x 10,000 km, and has a period of roughly 63.5 hours (approx. 2.6 days). It transits the Earth's Van Allen belts once per orbit during which no science observations can be performed due to the high radiation environment. The Chandra X-ray Observatory Center (CXC) currently uses the National Space Science Data Center's "near Earth" AP-8/AE-8 radiation belt model to predict the start and end times of passage through the radiation belts. However, our scheduling software only uses a simple dipole model of the Earth's magnetic field. The resulting B, L magnet coordinates, do not always give sufficiently accurate predictions of the start and end times of transit of the Van Allen belts. We show this by comparing to the data from Chandra's on-board radiation monitor, the EPHIN (Electron, Proton, Helium Instrument particle detector) instrument. We present evidence that demonstrates this mis- of the radiation belts as well as data that also demonstrate the significant variability of one radiation belt transit to the next as experienced by the CXO. We present an explanation for why the dipole implementation of the AP-8/AE-8 gives inaccurate results. We are also investigating use of the Magnetospheric Specification and Forecast Model (MSM) - a model that also accounts for radiation belt variability and geometry.

  20. A high-resolution spectropolarimetric survey of Herbig Ae/Be stars - I. Observations and measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alecian, E.; Wade, G. A.; Catala, C.; Grunhut, J. H.; Landstreet, J. D.; Bagnulo, S.; Böhm, T.; Folsom, C. P.; Marsden, S.; Waite, I.

    2013-02-01

    This is the first in a series of papers in which we describe and report the analysis of a large survey of Herbig Ae/Be stars in circular spectropolarimetry. Using the ESPaDOnS and Narval high-resolution spectropolarimeters at the Canada-France-Hawaii and Bernard Lyot Telescopes, respectively, we have acquired 132 circularly polarized spectra of 70 Herbig Ae/Be stars and Herbig candidates. The large majority of these spectra are characterized by a resolving power of about 65 000, and a spectral coverage from about 3700 Å to 1 μm. The peak signal-to-noise ratio per CCD pixel ranges from below 100 (for the faintest targets) to over 1000 (for the brightest). The observations were acquired with the primary aim of searching for magnetic fields in these objects. However, our spectra are suitable for a variety of other important measurements, including rotational properties, variability, binarity, chemical abundances, circumstellar environment conditions and structure, etc. In this paper, we describe the sample selection, the observations and their reduction, and the measurements that will comprise the basis of much of our following analysis. We describe the determination of fundamental parameters for each target. We detail the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) that we have applied to each of our spectra, including the selection, editing and tuning of the LSD line masks. We describe the fitting of the LSD Stokes I profiles using a multicomponent model that yields the rotationally broadened photospheric profile (providing the projected rotational velocity and radial velocity for each observation) as well as circumstellar emission and absorption components. Finally, we diagnose the longitudinal Zeeman effect via the measured circular polarization, and report the longitudinal magnetic field and Stokes V Zeeman signature detection probability. As an appendix, we provide a detailed review of each star observed.

  1. DIAGNOSING MASS FLOWS AROUND HERBIG Ae/Be STARS USING THE HE I λ10830 LINE

    SciTech Connect

    Cauley, P. Wilson; Johns-Krull, Christopher M. E-mail: cmj@rice.edu

    2014-12-20

    We examine He I λ10830 profile morphologies for a sample of 56 Herbig Ae/Be stars (HAEBES). We find significant differences between HAEBES and classical T-Tauri stars (CTTS) in the statistics of both blueshifted absorption (i.e., mass outflows) and redshifted absorption features (i.e., mass infall or accretion). Our results suggest that, in general, Herbig Be (HBe) stars do not accrete material from their inner disks in the same manner as CTTS, which are believed to accrete material via magnetospheric accretion, whereas Herbig Ae (HAe) stars generally show evidence for magnetospheric accretion. We find no evidence in our sample of narrow blueshifted absorption features, which are typical indicators of inner disk winds and are common in He I λ10830 profiles of CTTS. The lack of inner-disk-wind signatures in HAEBES, combined with the paucity of detected magnetic fields on these objects, suggests that accretion through large magnetospheres that truncate the disk several stellar radii above the surface is not as common for HAe and late-type HBe stars as it is for CTTS. Instead, evidence is found for smaller magnetospheres in the maximum redshifted absorption velocities in our HAEBE sample. These velocities are, on average, a smaller fraction of the system escape velocity than is found for CTTS, suggesting accretion is taking place closer to the star. Smaller magnetospheres, and evidence for boundary layer accretion in HBe stars, may explain the less common occurrence of redshifted absorption in HAEBES. Evidence is found that smaller magnetospheres may be less efficient at driving outflows compared to CTTS magnetospheres.

  2. Chemical spots on the surface of the strongly magnetic Herbig Ae star HD 101412

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järvinen, S. P.; Hubrig, S.; Schöller, M.; Ilyin, I.; Carroll, T. A.; Korhonen, H.

    2016-03-01

    Due to the knowledge of the rotation period and the presence of a rather strong surface magnetic field, the sharp-lined young Herbig Ae star HD 101412 with a rotation period of 42 d has become one of the most well-studied targets among the Herbig Ae stars. High-resolution HARPS polarimetric spectra of HD 101412 were recently obtained on seven different epochs. Our study of the spectral variability over the part of the rotation cycle covered by HARPS observations reveals that the line profiles of the elements Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Sr are clearly variable while He exhibits variability that is opposite to the behaviour of the other elements studied. Since classical Ap stars usually show a relationship between the magnetic field geometry and the distribution of element spots, we used in our magnetic field measurements different line samples belonging to the three elements with the most numerous spectral lines, Ti, Cr, and Fe. Over the time interval covered by the available spectra, the longitudinal magnetic field changes sign from negative to positive polarity. The distribution of field values obtained using Ti, Cr, and Fe lines is, however, completely different compared to the magnetic field values determined in previous low-resolution FORS 2 measurements, where hydrogen Balmer lines are the main contributors to the magnetic field measurements, indicating the presence of concentration of the studied iron-peak elements in the region of the magnetic equator. Further, we discuss the potential role of contamination by the surrounding warm circumstellar matter in the appearance of Zeeman features obtained using Ti lines. Based on data obtained from the ESO Science Archive Facility under request MSCHOELLER 101895 (ESO programme Nos. 081.C-0410(A), 085.C-0137(A), and 187.D-0917(D)).

  3. [Analysis of trace elements in corncob by microwave digestion-ICP-AES].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yong; Zhang, Jin-Ping; Yang, Gang; Li, Zuo-Hu

    2007-07-01

    The contents of trace elements of Zn, Mg, Mn, Sr, Fe, Pb, Cu and Se in the corncob collected from Beijing, Shan-dong, Jilin, Yunnan, Xinjiang, Gansu, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Jiangsu, Neimeng in China were determined by ICP-AES using microwave digestion. The optimum condition of digesting the corncob was: put 1.5 mL of 68% nitric acid and 0.5 mL of hydrofluoric acid in the pot, then digested the sample with 3 steps under the 400 W power in the microwave oven. This digesting procedure could completely and quickly digest the sample. The relative standard deviations and recovery yield are 0.72%-4.16% and 95.5%-104.5% for Zn, 1.58-3.66% and 98.2%-103.5% for Mg, 0.19%-4.58% and 97.0%-103.2% for Mn, 1.31%-4.90% and 95.7%-104.1% for Sr, 1.40%-4.01% and 95.9%-104.6% for Fe, 1.55%-4.28% and 95.1%-104.5% for Pb, 2.16%-5.00% and 96.4%-103.5% for Cu, and 2.00%-4.99% and 95.1%-101.3% for Se, respectively. The analysis of the trace metals by the method of ICP-AES using the method of microwave digestion proved to be easily operational, rapid, highly sensitive, and accurate. It could be adopted as the method of determining many elements simultaneously. PMID:17944429

  4. Penicyclones A-E, Antibacterial Polyketides from the Deep-Sea-Derived Fungus Penicillium sp. F23-2.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenqiang; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Zhu, Tianjiao; Gu, Qianqun; Li, Dehai

    2015-11-25

    Five new ambuic acid analogues, penicyclones A-E (1-5), were isolated from the extract of the deep-sea-derived fungus Penicillium sp. F23-2. The structures including the absolute configurations were established by interpretation of NMR and MS data, as well as the application of ECD, X-ray crystallography, and a chemical conversion, as well as the TDDFT-ECD calculations. Penicyclones A-E (1-5) exhibited antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus with MIC values ranging from 0.3 to 1.0 μg/mL. PMID:26540093

  5. Low-Level Space Optimization of an AES Implementation for a Bit-Serial Fully Pipelined Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Raphael; Rettberg, Achim

    A previously developed AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) implementation is optimized and described in this paper. The special architecture for which this implementation is targeted comprises synchronous and systematic bit-serial processing without a central controlling instance. In order to shrink the design in terms of logic utilization we deeply analyzed the architecture and the AES implementation to identify the most costly logic elements. We propose to merge certain parts of the logic to achieve better area efficiency. The approach was integrated into an existing synthesis tool which we used to produce synthesizable VHDL code. For testing purposes, we simulated the generated VHDL code and ran tests on an FPGA board.

  6. Modification of the aggregation behaviour of the environmental Ralstonia eutropha-like strain AE815 is reflected by both surface hydrophobicity and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) patterns.

    PubMed

    Bossier, P; Top, E M; Huys, G; Kersters, K; Boonaert, C J; Rouxhet, P G; Verstraete, W

    2000-02-01

    After inoculation of the plasmid-free non-aggregative Ralstonia eutropha-like strain AE815 in activated sludge, followed by reisolation on a selective medium, a mutant strain A3 was obtained, which was characterized by an autoaggregative behaviour. Strain A3 had also acquired an IncP1 plasmid, pLME1, co-aggregated with yeast cells when co-cultured, and stained better with Congo red than did the AE815 strain. Contact angle measurements showed that the mutant strain was considerably more hydrophobic than the parent strain AE815, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the production of an extracellular substance. A similar hydrophobic mutant (AE176R) could be isolated from the AE815-isogenic R. eutropha-like strain AE176. With the DNA fingerprinting technique repetitive extragenic palindromic-polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR), no differences between these four strains, AE815, A3, AE176 and AE176R, could be revealed. However, using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) DNA fingerprinting technique with three different primer combinations, small but clear reproducible differences between the banding patterns of the autoaggregative mutants and their non-autoaggregative parent strains were observed for each primer set. These studies demonstrate that, upon introduction of a strain in an activated sludge microbial community, minor genetic changes readily occur, which can nevertheless have major consequences for the phenotype of the strain and its aggregation behaviour. PMID:11243262

  7. Genome wide identification of C1-2i zinc finger proteins and their response to abiotic stress in hexaploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Cheuk, Arnaud; Houde, Mario

    2016-04-01

    The C1-2i wheat Q-type C2H2 zinc finger protein (ZFP) transcription factor subclass has been reported to play important roles in plant stress responses. This subclass of ZFPs has not been studied in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) and we aimed to identify all members of this subclass and evaluate their responses to different abiotic stresses causing oxidative stress. Exploiting the recently published wheat draft genome sequence, we identified 53 members (including homoeologs from A, B and D genomes) of the C1-2i wheat Q-type C2H2 ZFPs (TaZFPs) representing 21 genes. Evolution analysis revealed that 9 TaZFPs members are directly inherited from the parents Triticum urartu and Aegilops tauschii, while 15 diverged through neoploidization events. This TaZFP subclass is responsive to the oxidative stress generator H2O2 and to high light, drought stress and flooding. Most TaZFPs are responsive to H2O2 (37/53), high light (44/53), flooding (31/53) or drought (37/53); 32 TaZFPs were up-regulated by at least 3 stresses and 16 were responsive to all stresses tested. A large number of these TaZFPs were physically mapped on different wheat draft genome sequences with known markers useful for QTL mapping. Our results show that the C1-2i subclass of TaZFPs is associated with responses to different abiotic stresses and that most TaZFPs (30/53 or 57 %) are located on group 5 chromosomes known to be involved in environment adaptation. Detailed characterization of these novel wheat TaZFPs and their association to QTL or eQTL may help to design wheat cultivars with improved tolerance to abiotic stress. PMID:26638714

  8. Alteration of the Microbiota and Virulence Gene Expression in E. coli O157:H7 in Pig Ligated Intestine with and without AE Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hai; Feng, Yanni; Ying, Xin; Gong, Joshua; Gyles, Carlton L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previously we found that E. coli O157:H7 inoculated into ligated pig intestine formed attaching and effacing (AE) lesions in some pigs but not in others. The present study evaluated changes in the microbial community and in virulence gene expression in E. coli O157:H7 in ligated pig intestine in which the bacteria formed AE lesions or failed to form AE lesions. Methodology/Principal Findings The intestinal microbiota was assessed by RNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The DGGE banding patterns showed distinct differences involving two bands which had increased intensity specifically in AE-negative pigs (AE- bands) and several bands which were more abundant in AE-positive pigs. Sequence analysis revealed that the two AE- bands belonged to Veillonella caviae, a species with probiotic properties, and Bacteroides sp. Concurrent with the differences in microbiota, gene expression analysis by quantitative PCR showed that, compared with AE negative pigs, E. coli O157:H7 in AE positive pigs had upregulated genes for putative adhesins, non-LEE encoded nleA and quorum sensing qseF, acid resistance gene ureD, and genes from the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). Conclusions/Significance The present study demonstrated that AE-positive pigs had reduced activities or populations of Veillonella caviae and Bacterioides sp. compared with AE-negative pigs. Further studies are required to understand how the microbiota was changed and the role of these organisms in the control of E. coli O157:H7. PMID:26090813

  9. 19 CFR 4.76 - Procedures and responsibilities of carriers filing outbound vessel manifest information via the AES.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... filing of outbound vessel manifest information electronically (see, 15 CFR part 30). All sea carriers are... outbound vessel manifest information via the AES. 4.76 Section 4.76 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND...

  10. Primary excitation spectra in XPS and AES of Cu, CuO: Relative importance of surface and core hole effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauly, N.; Tougaard, S.

    2015-11-01

    Quantitative interpretation of structures observed in XPS and AES requires models to correct for various physical processes involved. Besides the initial excitation process in XPS and AES, the measured spectrum is affected by three additional effects: the corehole(s), transport to the surface region and passage through the surface and vacuum regions. These three effects can be calculated by the QUEELS-XPS software (Quantitative analysis of Electron Energy Losses at Surfaces) in terms of energy-differential inelastic electron scattering cross sections. From this and the QUASES software (Quantitative Analysis of Surfaces by Electron Spectroscopy), background contributions and primary excitation spectra are obtained for various transitions (Cu 2p from Cu or CuO and Cu L3M23M23) and we investigate the separate effect of bulk, surface, and core hole(s) excitations. We show that the shape of the XPS and AES primary spectra and background contributions are modified slightly by surface effects and very strongly by core hole(s) effects. For metals, the intrinsic excitations give rise to a prominent spike in the background close to the XPS-peak energy. This spike will be much reduced for wide band gap insulators. Moreover our method gives an easy procedure to obtain the true primary excitation spectra for XPS and AES.

  11. 19 CFR 192.13 - Revocation of participants' AES post-departure (Option 4) filing privileges; appeal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revocation of participants' AES post-departure (Option 4) filing privileges; appeal procedures. 192.13 Section 192.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXPORT CONTROL Filing of Export Information Through...

  12. 19 CFR 4.76 - Procedures and responsibilities of carriers filing outbound vessel manifest information via the AES.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... filing of outbound vessel manifest information electronically (see, 15 CFR part 30). All sea carriers are... for AES are found at 15 CFR 30.60. A sea carrier certified to use the module that adheres to the procedures set forth in this section and the Census Regulations (15 CFR part 30) concerning the...

  13. 40 CFR 174.530 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ae protein in cotton; temporary exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ae protein in cotton; temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.530 Section 174.530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED...

  14. 42 CFR 84.160 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type A and Type AE respirators; test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type A and Type AE respirators; test requirements. 84.160 Section 84.160 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  15. 42 CFR 84.160 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type A and Type AE respirators; test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type A and Type AE respirators; test requirements. 84.160 Section 84.160 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  16. 42 CFR 84.160 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type A and Type AE respirators; test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type A and Type AE respirators; test requirements. 84.160 Section 84.160 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  17. 42 CFR 84.160 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type A and Type AE respirators; test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type A and Type AE respirators; test requirements. 84.160 Section 84.160 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  18. 42 CFR 84.160 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type A and Type AE respirators; test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type A and Type AE respirators; test requirements. 84.160 Section 84.160 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  19. 19 CFR 192.13 - Revocation of participants' AES post-departure (Option 4) filing privileges; appeal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Revocation of participants' AES post-departure (Option 4) filing privileges; appeal procedures. 192.13 Section 192.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXPORT CONTROL Filing of Export Information Through...

  20. 75 FR 11169 - AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC; Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Revised...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Sparrows Point LNG Terminal and Pipeline Project March 1, 2010. The staff of the Federal Energy Regulatory... operation of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal and natural gas pipeline proposed by AES Sparrows... LNG terminal and natural gas pipeline facilities: A ship unloading facility, with two berths,...

  1. 75 FR 20591 - AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC and Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of Final General Conformity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... General Conformity Determination for Pennsylvania for the Proposed Sparrows Point LNG Terminal and... liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal and natural gas pipeline proposed by AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC... quality impacts from the construction and operation of the following LNG terminal and natural gas...

  2. 75 FR 353 - AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC and Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... Terminal and Pipeline Project December 29, 2009. The staff of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission... natural gas (LNG) import terminal and natural gas pipeline proposed by AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC and Mid... operation of the following LNG terminal and natural gas pipeline facilities: A ship unloading facility,...

  3. Undergraduate Observations of Separation and Position Angle of Double Stars ARY 6 AD and ARY 6 AE at Manzanita Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffert, Michael J.; Weise, Eric; Clow, Jenna; Hirzel, Jacquelyn; Leeder, Brett; Molyneux, Scott; Scutti, Nicholas; Spartalis, Sarah; Tokuhara, Corey

    2014-05-01

    Six beginning astronomy students, part of an undergraduate stellar astronomy course, one advanced undergraduate student assistant, and a professor measured the position angles and separations of Washington Double Stars (WDS) 05460 + 2119 (also known as ARY 6 AD and ARY 6 AE). The measurements were made at the Manzanita Observatory (116° 20'42" W, 32° 44' 5" N) of the Tierra Astronomical Institute on 10 Blackwood Rd. in Boulevard, California (www.youtube.com/watch?v=BHVdcMGBGDU), at an elevation of 4,500 ft. A Celestron 11" HD Edge telescope was used to measure the position angles and separations of ARY 6 AD and ARY 6 AE. The averages of our measurements are as follows: separation AD: trial 1 124.1 arcseconds and trial 2 124.5 arcseconds. The average of separation for AE: trial 1 73.3 arcseconds and trial 2 73.8 arcseconds. The averages of position angle for AD: trial 1 159.9 degrees and trial 2 161.3 degrees. The averages of position angle for AE: trial 1 232.6 degrees and trial 2 233.7 degrees.

  4. An EP4 antagonist ONO-AE3-208 suppresses cell invasion, migration, and metastasis of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Song; Zhang, Zhengyu; Ogawa, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Sakamoto, Hiromasa; Shibasaki, Noboru; Goto, Takayuki; Wang, Liming; Terada, Naoki

    2014-09-01

    EP4 is one of the prostaglandin E2 receptors, which is the most common prostanoid and is associated with inflammatory disease and cancer. We previously reported that over-expression of EP4 was one of the mechanisms responsible for progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer, and an EP4 antagonist ONO-AE3-208 in vivo suppressed the castration-resistant progression regulating the activation of androgen receptor. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of EP4 with prostate cancer metastasis and the efficacy of ONO-AE3-208 for suppressing the metastasis. The expression levels of EP4 mRNA were evaluated in prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP, and PC3. EP4 over-expressing LNCaP was established, and their cell invasiveness was compared with the control LNCaP (LNCaP/mock). The in vitro cell proliferation, invasion, and migration of these cells were examined under different concentrations of ONO-AE3-208. An in vivo bone metastatic mouse model was constructed by inoculating luciferase expressing PC3 cells into left ventricle of nude mice. Their bone metastasis was observed by bioluminescent imaging with or without ONO-AE3-208 administration. The EP4 mRNA expression levels were higher in PC3 than in LNCaP, and EP4 over-expression of LNCaP cells enhanced their cell invasiveness. The in vitro cell invasion and migration were suppressed by ONO-AE3-208 in a dose-dependent manner without affecting cell proliferation. The in vivo bone metastasis of PC3 was also suppressed by ONO-AE3-208 treatment. EP4 expression levels were correlated with prostate cancer cell invasiveness and EP4 specific antagonist ONO-AE3-208 suppressed cell invasion, migration, and bone metastasis, indicating that it is a potential novel therapeutic modality for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. PMID:24744183

  5. Infrared imaging and millimetre continuum mapping of Herbig Ae/Be and FU Orionis stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henning, Th.; Burkert, A.; Launhardt, R.; Leinert, Ch.; Stecklum, B.

    1998-08-01

    The goal of this paper is a detailed analysis of the dusty environment of Herbig Ae/Be stars and FU Orionis objects. For this purpose we mapped 22 regions at 1.3 mm wavelength containing 25 target objects. We found that it is indispensable to perform mapping in contrast to pointed On-On measurements in order to obtain the correct distribution of cold material around young stellar objects and to relate 1.3 mm flux densities to individual sources. To get reliable information about the structure and shape of the dust configurations and their relation to the stellar sources, we superimposed the millimetre maps on near-infrared images. The comparison of the data demonstrated that some of the Herbig Ae/Be stars are not associated with the peak of the millimetre emission. This is obviously the case for V 376 Cas/LkHα 198, MWC 137, CoD-42(deg) 11721, and V 1685 Cyg/V 1686 Cyg. We found two different morphologies of the dust envelopes: 6 regions show a compact structure, whereas 12 regions are characterized by a core/envelope structure. The ``disk'' objects AB Aur and HD 163296 show only a compact core and are not surrounded by an extended envelope. We did not detect HK Ori, HD 250550, LkHα 25, and V 1515 Cyg which all have low IRAS luminosities. Based on the flux densities derived from the millimetre maps, we estimated characteristic physical parameters like density and mass assuming optically thin emission. The total masses of the circumstellar regions around the Herbig Ae/Be stars with core/envelope structure and with ``genuine" point-like millimetre sources are 80+/-60 Msun\\ and 0.15+/-0.15 Msun, respectively. The lowest and highest masses of the circumstellar material were found around AB Aur (0.03 Msun) and CoD-42(deg) 11721 (1100 Msun), respectively. The average densities in the cores range from 10(5) to 10(8) cm(-3) . The densities of the extended envelopes are of the order of 10(4) to 10(5) cm(-3) . In addition, we combined the measured millimetre flux densities

  6. Genomes on ice.

    PubMed

    Parkhill, Julian

    2016-03-01

    This month's Genome Watch discusses the analysis of a Helicobacter pylori genome from the preserved Copper-Age mummy known as the Iceman and how ancient genomes shed light on the history of bacterial pathogens. PMID:26853114

  7. Whole Genome Sequencing

    MedlinePlus

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Whole Genome Sequencing You are here Home Testing & Services Testing ... the full story, click here . What is whole genome sequencing? Whole genome sequencing is the mapping out ...

  8. Spectroscopic signatures of magnetospheric accretion in Herbig Ae/Be stars. I. The case of HD 101412

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöller, M.; Pogodin, M. A.; Cahuasquí, J. A.; Drake, N. A.; Hubrig, S.; Petr-Gotzens, M. G.; Savanov, I. S.; Wolff, B.; González, J. F.; Mysore, S.; Ilyin, I.; Järvinen, S. P.; Stelzer, B.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Models of magnetically-driven accretion and outflows reproduce many observational properties of T Tauri stars. This concept is not well established for the more massive Herbig Ae/Be stars. Aims: We intend to examine the magnetospheric accretion in Herbig Ae/Be stars and search for rotational modulation using spectroscopic signatures, in this first paper concentrating on the well-studied Herbig Ae star HD 101412. Methods: We used near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the magnetic Herbig Ae star HD 101412 to test the magnetospheric character of its accretion disk/star interaction. We reduced and analyzed 30 spectra of HD 101412, acquired with the CRIRES and X-shooter spectrographs installed at the VLT (ESO, Chile). The spectroscopic analysis was based on the He iλ10 830 and Paγ lines, formed in the accretion region. Results: We found that the temporal behavior of these diagnostic lines in the near-infrared spectra of HD 101412 can be explained by rotational modulation of line profiles generated by accreting gas with a period P = 20.53d±1.68d. The discovery of this period, about half of the magnetic rotation period Pm = 42.076d previously determined from measurements of the mean longitudinal magnetic field, indicates that the accreted matter falls onto the star in regions close to the magnetic poles intersecting the line-of-sight two times during the rotation cycle. We intend to apply this method to a larger sample of Herbig Ae/Be stars. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme IDs 087.C-0124(A), 088.C-0218(A,B,C,E), 090.C-0331(A), and 092.C-0126(A).

  9. Peptide-Based Optical uPAR Imaging for Surgery: In Vivo Testing of ICG-Glu-Glu-AE105

    PubMed Central

    Juhl, Karina; Christensen, Anders; Persson, Morten; Ploug, Michael; Kjaer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Near infrared intra-operative optical imaging is an emerging technique with clear implications for improved cancer surgery by enabling a more distinct delineation of the tumor margins during resection. This modality has the potential to increase the number of patients having a curative radical tumor resection. In the present study, a new uPAR-targeted fluorescent probe was developed and the in vivo applicability was evaluated in a human xenograft mouse model. Most human carcinomas express high level of uPAR in the tumor-stromal interface of invasive lesions and uPAR is therefore considered an ideal target for intra-operative imaging. Conjugation of the flourophor indocyanine green (ICG) to the uPAR agonist (AE105) provides an optical imaging ligand with sufficiently high receptor affinity to allow for a specific receptor targeting in vivo. For in vivo testing, human glioblastoma xenograft mice were subjected to optical imaging after i.v. injection of ICG-AE105, which provided an optimal contrast in the time window 6–24 h post injection. Specificity of the uPAR-targeting probe ICG-AE105 was demonstrated in vivo by 1) no uptake of unconjugated ICG after 15 hours, 2) inhibition of ICG-AE105 tumor uptake by a bolus injection of the natural uPAR ligand pro-uPA, and finally 3) the histological colocalization of ICG-AE105 fluorescence and immunohistochemical detected human uPAR on resected tumor slides. Taken together, our data supports the potential use of this probe for intra-operative optical guidance in cancer surgery to ensure complete removal of tumors while preserving adjacent, healthy tissue. PMID:26828431

  10. Chloride Accumulators NKCC1 and AE2 in Mouse GnRH Neurons: Implications for GABAA Mediated Excitation.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Burds, Carol; Cheng, Paul; Wray, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A developmental "switch" in chloride transporters occurs in most neurons resulting in GABAA mediated hyperpolarization in the adult. However, several neuronal cell subtypes maintain primarily depolarizing responses to GABAA receptor activation. Among this group are gonadotropin-releasing hormone-1 (GnRH) neurons, which control puberty and reproduction. NKCC1 is the primary chloride accumulator in neurons, expressed at high levels early in development and contributes to depolarization after GABAA receptor activation. In contrast, KCC2 is the primary chloride extruder in neurons, expressed at high levels in the adult and contributes to hyperpolarization after GABAA receptor activation. Anion exchangers (AEs) are also potential modulators of responses to GABAA activation since they accumulate chloride and extrude bicarbonate. To evaluate the mechanism(s) underlying GABAA mediated depolarization, GnRH neurons were analyzed for 1) expression of chloride transporters and AEs in embryonic, pre-pubertal, and adult mice 2) responses to GABAA receptor activation in NKCC1-/- mice and 3) function of AEs in these responses. At all ages, GnRH neurons were immunopositive for NKCC1 and AE2 but not KCC2 or AE3. Using explants, calcium imaging and gramicidin perforated patch clamp techniques we found that GnRH neurons from NKCC1-/- mice retained relatively normal responses to the GABAA agonist muscimol. However, acute pharmacological inhibition of NKCC1 with bumetanide eliminated the depolarization/calcium response to muscimol in 40% of GnRH neurons from WT mice. In the remaining GnRH neurons, HCO3- mediated mechanisms accounted for the remaining calcium responses to muscimol. Collectively these data reveal mechanisms responsible for maintaining depolarizing GABAA mediated transmission in GnRH neurons. PMID:26110920

  11. Chloride Accumulators NKCC1 and AE2 in Mouse GnRH Neurons: Implications for GABAA Mediated Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Burds, Carol; Cheng, Paul; Wray, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A developmental “switch” in chloride transporters occurs in most neurons resulting in GABAA mediated hyperpolarization in the adult. However, several neuronal cell subtypes maintain primarily depolarizing responses to GABAA receptor activation. Among this group are gonadotropin-releasing hormone-1 (GnRH) neurons, which control puberty and reproduction. NKCC1 is the primary chloride accumulator in neurons, expressed at high levels early in development and contributes to depolarization after GABAA receptor activation. In contrast, KCC2 is the primary chloride extruder in neurons, expressed at high levels in the adult and contributes to hyperpolarization after GABAA receptor activation. Anion exchangers (AEs) are also potential modulators of responses to GABAA activation since they accumulate chloride and extrude bicarbonate. To evaluate the mechanism(s) underlying GABAA mediated depolarization, GnRH neurons were analyzed for 1) expression of chloride transporters and AEs in embryonic, pre-pubertal, and adult mice 2) responses to GABAA receptor activation in NKCC1-/- mice and 3) function of AEs in these responses. At all ages, GnRH neurons were immunopositive for NKCC1 and AE2 but not KCC2 or AE3. Using explants, calcium imaging and gramicidin perforated patch clamp techniques we found that GnRH neurons from NKCC1-/- mice retained relatively normal responses to the GABAA agonist muscimol. However, acute pharmacological inhibition of NKCC1 with bumetanide eliminated the depolarization/calcium response to muscimol in 40% of GnRH neurons from WT mice. In the remaining GnRH neurons, HCO3- mediated mechanisms accounted for the remaining calcium responses to muscimol. Collectively these data reveal mechanisms responsible for maintaining depolarizing GABAA mediated transmission in GnRH neurons. PMID:26110920

  12. Multi-Window Classical Least Squares Multivariate Calibration Methods for Quantitative ICP-AES Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    CHAMBERS,WILLIAM B.; HAALAND,DAVID M.; KEENAN,MICHAEL R.; MELGAARD,DAVID K.

    1999-10-01

    The advent of inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometers (ICP-AES) equipped with charge-coupled-device (CCD) detector arrays allows the application of multivariate calibration methods to the quantitative analysis of spectral data. We have applied classical least squares (CLS) methods to the analysis of a variety of samples containing up to 12 elements plus an internal standard. The elements included in the calibration models were Ag, Al, As, Au, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Pd, and Se. By performing the CLS analysis separately in each of 46 spectral windows and by pooling the CLS concentration results for each element in all windows in a statistically efficient manner, we have been able to significantly improve the accuracy and precision of the ICP-AES analyses relative to the univariate and single-window multivariate methods supplied with the spectrometer. This new multi-window CLS (MWCLS) approach simplifies the analyses by providing a single concentration determination for each element from all spectral windows. Thus, the analyst does not have to perform the tedious task of reviewing the results from each window in an attempt to decide the correct value among discrepant analyses in one or more windows for each element. Furthermore, it is not necessary to construct a spectral correction model for each window prior to calibration and analysis: When one or more interfering elements was present, the new MWCLS method was able to reduce prediction errors for a selected analyte by more than 2 orders of magnitude compared to the worst case single-window multivariate and univariate predictions. The MWCLS detection limits in the presence of multiple interferences are 15 rig/g (i.e., 15 ppb) or better for each element. In addition, errors with the new method are only slightly inflated when only a single target element is included in the calibration (i.e., knowledge of all other elements is excluded during calibration). The MWCLS method is found to be vastly

  13. Relating jet structure to photometric variability: the Herbig Ae star HD 163296

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellerbroek, L. E.; Podio, L.; Dougados, C.; Cabrit, S.; Sitko, M. L.; Sana, H.; Kaper, L.; de Koter, A.; Klaassen, P. D.; Mulders, G. D.; Mendigutía, I.; Grady, C. A.; Grankin, K.; van Winckel, H.; Bacciotti, F.; Russell, R. W.; Lynch, D. K.; Hammel, H. B.; Beerman, L. C.; Day, A. N.; Huelsman, D. M.; Werren, C.; Henden, A.; Grindlay, J.

    2014-03-01

    Herbig Ae/Be stars are intermediate-mass pre-main sequence stars surrounded by circumstellar dust disks. Some are observed to produce jets, whose appearance as a sequence of shock fronts (knots) suggests a past episodic outflow variability. This "jet fossil record" can be used to reconstruct the outflow history. We present the first optical to near-infrared (NIR) spectra of the jet from the Herbig Ae star HD 163296, obtained with VLT/X-shooter. We determine the physical conditions in the knots and also their kinematic "launch epochs". Knots are formed simultaneously on either side of the disk, with a regular interval of ~16 yr. The velocity dispersion versus jet velocity and the energy input are comparable between both lobes. However, the mass-loss rate, velocity,and shock conditions are asymmetric. We find Ṁjet/Ṁacc ~ 0.01-0.1, which is consistent with magneto-centrifugal jet launching models. No evidence of any dust is found in the high-velocity jet, suggesting a launch region within the sublimation radius (<0.5 au). The jet inclination measured from proper motions and radial velocities confirms that it is perpendicular to the disk. A tentative relation is found between the structure of the jet and the photometric variability of the central source. Episodes of NIR brightening were previously detected and attributed to a dusty disk wind. We report for the first time significant optical fadings lasting from a few days up to a year, coinciding with the NIR brightenings. These are very likely caused by dust lifted high above the disk plane, and this supports the disk wind scenario. The disk wind is launched at a larger radius than the high-velocity atomic jet, although their outflow variability may have a common origin. No significant relation between outflow and accretion variability could be established. Our findings confirm that this source undergoes periodic ejection events, which may be coupled with dust ejections above the disk plane. Based on observations

  14. Organic molecules in protoplanetary disks around T Tauri and Herbig Ae stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thi, W.-F.; van Zadelhoff, G.-J.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2004-10-01

    The results of single-dish observations of low- and high-J transitions of selected molecules from protoplanetary disks around two T Tauri stars (LkCa 15 and TW Hya) and two Herbig Ae stars (HD 163296 and MWC 480) are reported. Simple molecules such as CO, 13CO, HCO+, CN and HCN are detected. Several lines of H2CO are found toward the T Tauri star LkCa 15 but not in other objects. No CH3OH has been detected down to abundances of 10-9-10-8 with respect to H2. SO and CS lines have been searched for without success. Line ratios indicate that the molecular emission arises from dense (106-108 cm-3) and moderately warm (T ˜ 20-40 K) intermediate height regions of the disk atmosphere between the midplane and the upper layer, in accordance with predictions from models of the chemistry in disks. The sizes of the disks were estimated from model fits to the 12CO 3-2 line profiles. The abundances of most species are lower than in the envelope around the solar-mass protostar IRAS 16293-2422. Freeze-out in the cold midplane and photodissociation by stellar and interstellar ultraviolet photons in the upper layers are likely causes of the depletion. CN is strongly detected in all disks, and the CN/HCN abundance ratio toward the Herbig Ae stars is even higher than that found in galactic photon-dominated regions, testifying to the importance of photodissociation by radiation from the central object in the upper layers. DCO+ is detected toward TW Hya, but not in other objects. The high inferred DCO+/HCO+ ratio of ˜0.035 is consistent with models of the deuterium fractionation in disks which include strong depletion of CO. The inferred ionization fraction in the intermediate height regions as deduced from HCO+ is at least 10-11-10-10, comparable to that derived for the midplane from recent H2D+ observations. Comparison with the abundances found in cometary comae is made. Tables 3-5 are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  15. The activation pathway of the volume-sensitive organic osmolyte channel in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing skate anion exchanger 1 (AE1).

    PubMed

    Koomoa, Dana-Lynn T; Musch, Mark W; Goldstein, Leon

    2005-12-01

    When swollen, skate red blood cells increase permeability and allow efflux of a number of solutes, including taurine. Hypoosmosis-induced taurine permeability appears to involve the red cell anion exchanger. However, three isoforms have been cloned from these cells. Therefore, to determine the ability of the individual isoform skate anion exchanger 1 (skAE1) to mediate hypoosmosis-induced taurine permeability as well as associated regulatory events, skAE1 was expressed in Xenopus oocytes. This study focused on investigating the role of tyrosine kinases and lipid rafts in the regulation of the channel. The results showed that tyrosine kinase inhibitors and lipid raft-disrupting agents inhibited the volume-sensitive organic osmolyte channel while protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors activated the channel in oocytes expressing skAE1. To study the role of lipid rafts in the activation of the volume-sensitive organic osmolyte channel, the cellular localization of skAE1 was investigated. Also, the role of tyrosine kinases was investigated by examining the tyrosine phosphorylation state of skAE1. Hypoosmotic stress induced mobilization of skAE1 into light membranes and the cell surface as well as tyrosine phosphorylation of skAE1. These events are involved in the activation of the volume-sensitive organic osmolyte channel in Xenopus oocytes expressing skAE1. PMID:16604471

  16. Temporal Patterns of Abundance of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of Ae. albopictus in the Central African Republic

    PubMed Central

    Kamgang, Basile; Ngoagouni, Carine; Manirakiza, Alexandre; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Paupy, Christophe; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) was first reported in central Africa in 2000, in Cameroon, with the indigenous mosquito species Ae. aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Today, this invasive species is present in almost all countries of the region, including the Central African Republic (CAR), where it was first recorded in 2009. As invasive species of mosquitoes can affect the distribution of native species, resulting in new patterns of vectors and concomitant risk for disease, we undertook a comparative study early and late in the wet season in the capital and the main cities of CAR to document infestation and the ecological preferences of the two species. In addition, we determined the probable geographical origin of invasive populations of Ae. albopictus with two mitochondrial DNA genes, COI and ND5. Analysis revealed that Ae. aegypti was more abundant earlier in the wet season and Ae. albopictus in the late wet season. Used tyres were the most heavily colonized productive larval habitats for both species in both seasons. The invasive species Ae. albopictus predominated over the resident species at all sites in which the two species were sympatric. Mitochondrial DNA analysis revealed broad low genetic diversity, confirming recent introduction of Ae. albopictus in CAR. Phylogeographical analysis based on COI polymorphism indicated that the Ae. albopictus haplotype in the CAR population segregated into two lineages, suggesting multiple sources of Ae. albopictus. These data may have important implications for vector control strategies in central Africa. PMID:24349596

  17. Ensembl Genomes 2016: more genomes, more complexity.

    PubMed

    Kersey, Paul Julian; Allen, James E; Armean, Irina; Boddu, Sanjay; Bolt, Bruce J; Carvalho-Silva, Denise; Christensen, Mikkel; Davis, Paul; Falin, Lee J; Grabmueller, Christoph; Humphrey, Jay; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Khobova, Julia; Aranganathan, Naveen K; Langridge, Nicholas; Lowy, Ernesto; McDowall, Mark D; Maheswari, Uma; Nuhn, Michael; Ong, Chuang Kee; Overduin, Bert; Paulini, Michael; Pedro, Helder; Perry, Emily; Spudich, Giulietta; Tapanari, Electra; Walts, Brandon; Williams, Gareth; Tello-Ruiz, Marcela; Stein, Joshua; Wei, Sharon; Ware, Doreen; Bolser, Daniel M; Howe, Kevin L; Kulesha, Eugene; Lawson, Daniel; Maslen, Gareth; Staines, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    Ensembl Genomes (http://www.ensemblgenomes.org) is an integrating resource for genome-scale data from non-vertebrate species, complementing the resources for vertebrate genomics developed in the context of the Ensembl project (http://www.ensembl.org). Together, the two resources provide a consistent set of programmatic and interactive interfaces to a rich range of data including reference sequence, gene models, transcriptional data, genetic variation and comparative analysis. This paper provides an update to the previous publications about the resource, with a focus on recent developments. These include the development of new analyses and views to represent polyploid genomes (of which bread wheat is the primary exemplar); and the continued up-scaling of the resource, which now includes over 23 000 bacterial genomes, 400 fungal genomes and 100 protist genomes, in addition to 55 genomes from invertebrate metazoa and 39 genomes from plants. This dramatic increase in the number of included genomes is one part of a broader effort to automate the integration of archival data (genome sequence, but also associated RNA sequence data and variant calls) within the context of reference genomes and make it available through the Ensembl user interfaces. PMID:26578574

  18. Ensembl genomes 2016: more genomes, more complexity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ensembl Genomes (http://www.ensemblgenomes.org) is an integrating resource for genome-scale data from non-vertebrate species, complementing the resources for vertebrate genomics developed in the context of the Ensembl project (http://www.ensembl.org). Together, the two resources provide a consistent...

  19. Ensembl Genomes 2016: more genomes, more complexity

    PubMed Central

    Kersey, Paul Julian; Allen, James E.; Armean, Irina; Boddu, Sanjay; Bolt, Bruce J.; Carvalho-Silva, Denise; Christensen, Mikkel; Davis, Paul; Falin, Lee J.; Grabmueller, Christoph; Humphrey, Jay; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Khobova, Julia; Aranganathan, Naveen K.; Langridge, Nicholas; Lowy, Ernesto; McDowall, Mark D.; Maheswari, Uma; Nuhn, Michael; Ong, Chuang Kee; Overduin, Bert; Paulini, Michael; Pedro, Helder; Perry, Emily; Spudich, Giulietta; Tapanari, Electra; Walts, Brandon; Williams, Gareth; Tello–Ruiz, Marcela; Stein, Joshua; Wei, Sharon; Ware, Doreen; Bolser, Daniel M.; Howe, Kevin L.; Kulesha, Eugene; Lawson, Daniel; Maslen, Gareth; Staines, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Ensembl Genomes (http://www.ensemblgenomes.org) is an integrating resource for genome-scale data from non-vertebrate species, complementing the resources for vertebrate genomics developed in the context of the Ensembl project (http://www.ensembl.org). Together, the two resources provide a consistent set of programmatic and interactive interfaces to a rich range of data including reference sequence, gene models, transcriptional data, genetic variation and comparative analysis. This paper provides an update to the previous publications about the resource, with a focus on recent developments. These include the development of new analyses and views to represent polyploid genomes (of which bread wheat is the primary exemplar); and the continued up-scaling of the resource, which now includes over 23 000 bacterial genomes, 400 fungal genomes and 100 protist genomes, in addition to 55 genomes from invertebrate metazoa and 39 genomes from plants. This dramatic increase in the number of included genomes is one part of a broader effort to automate the integration of archival data (genome sequence, but also associated RNA sequence data and variant calls) within the context of reference genomes and make it available through the Ensembl user interfaces. PMID:26578574

  20. Mechanism of the Anticoagulant Activity of Thrombin Mutant W215A/E217A

    SciTech Connect

    Gandhi, Prafull S.; Page, Michael J.; Chen, Zhiwei; Bush-Pelc, Leslie; Di Cera, Enrico

    2009-09-15

    The thrombin mutant W215A/E217A (WE) is a potent anticoagulant both in vitro and in vivo. Previous x-ray structural studies have shown that WE assumes a partially collapsed conformation that is similar to the inactive E* form, which explains its drastically reduced activity toward substrate. Whether this collapsed conformation is genuine, rather than the result of crystal packing or the mutation introduced in the critical 215-217 {beta}-strand, and whether binding of thrombomodulin to exosite I can allosterically shift the E* form to the active E form to restore activity toward protein C are issues of considerable mechanistic importance to improve the design of an anticoagulant thrombin mutant for therapeutic applications. Here we present four crystal structures of WE in the human and murine forms that confirm the collapsed conformation reported previously under different experimental conditions and crystal packing. We also present structures of human and murine WE bound to exosite I with a fragment of the platelet receptor PAR1, which is unable to shift WE to the E form. These structural findings, along with kinetic and calorimetry data, indicate that WE is strongly stabilized in the E* form and explain why binding of ligands to exosite I has only a modest effect on the E*-E equilibrium for this mutant. The E* {yields} E transition requires the combined binding of thrombomodulin and protein C and restores activity of the mutant WE in the anticoagulant pathway.

  1. Investigation of ancient Harappan faience through LA-ICP-AES and SR-μ CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Z.; Kenoyer, J. M.; Yang, Y.

    2016-04-01

    Faience (glazed quartz) production is one of the complex craft techniques used by artisans to create high-status goods for elite consumers during the Harappan Phase, 2600–1900 BC. In this study, some faience objects selected from Harappa site, Pakistan were analyzed by LA-ICP-AES and SR-μ CT. The results suggested that these faience objects can be divided into two groups by using different flux: sajji-khar (a kind of plant ash) and mixed alkali flux; copper and iron were used as coloring elements in the blue and red faience; the forming technology of two groups of faience was similar:these beads were firstly formed on an organic cylinder and then glazed by using the efflorescence technique according to replica experiments and the structural information revealed by SR-μ CT slices. Up to our knowledge, the results firstly and scientifically confirm that the production of the Harappan faience beads adopts the efflorescence glazing method. The research has increased the understanding about production technology of ancient Indus faience.

  2. The Mg 2 lines as diagnostic of PMS nature in Herbig Ae/Be stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The main objective of this program was to observe some newly discovered and previously unobserved Herbig Ae/Be (HAeBe) stars with IUE. A previous archival study suggested that there was a full range of profiles in the Mg II lines for these objects; ranging from the double peak emission to the narrow absorption lines. It has been found that by studying the IUE data of main sequence B and classical Be stars that the P Cygni profiles in the Mg II lines in HAeBe stars are truly unique and are the signature of accelerating winds in their extended circumstellar material. The arguement, for the purposes of this proposal, that the structure of the Mg II lines was a superior diagnostic of the dynamical activity and ultimately the PMS nature of these objects. This program was a follow up study of several interesting intermediate-mass stars with the goal of classifying these objects based on the shape of their MG II lines. A list of publications resulting from this research is included.

  3. Features of the matter flows in the peculiar cataclysmic variable AE Aquarii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isakova, P. B.; Ikhsanov, N. R.; Zhilkin, A. G.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Beskrovnaya, N. G.

    2016-05-01

    The structure ofmatter flows in close binary systems in which one of the components is a rapidly rotating magnetic white dwarf is studied. Themain example considered is the AEAquarii system; the period of the white dwarf's rotation is about a factor of 1000 shorter than the orbital period, and the magnetic field on the white-dwarf surface is of order 50MG. The matter flows in this system were analyzed via numerical solution of a systemofmagnetohydrodynamical equatons. These computations show that the white dwarf's magnetic field does not significantly influence the velocity field of the matter in its Roche lobe in the case of a laminar flow regime, so that the field does not hinder the formation of a transient disk (ring) surrounding the magnetosphere. However, the efficiency of the energy and angular-momentum exchange between the white dwarf and the surrounding matter increases considerably with the development of turbulent motions in the matter, accelerating the matter at the magnetosphere boundary and leading to a high escape rate from the system. The time scales for the system's transition between the laminar and turbulent modes are close to those for the transition of AE Aquarii between its quiet and active phases.

  4. Molecular oxygen measurements at 200 km from AE-D near winter solstice, 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayser, D. C.; Potter, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    Utilizing the fly-through mode, the open source neutral mass spectrometer on Atmosphere Explorer-D (AE-D) has measured O2 densities, as well as N2 densities and in situ neutral temperatures, at midmorning during winter solstice over the latitude range 90 degrees S to 90 degrees N. The expected seasonal variation in N2 was found at 200 km together with a more complex behavior in molecular oxygen than might be expected from a diffusive equilibrium model with constant lower boundary values. Under geomagnetically quiet conditions the equatorial 200 km value of O2 was about 1.7 x 10 to the 8th/cu cm. A local maximum in the 200 km O2 densities was found near 70 degrees N, where an average quiet time value was 2.5 x 10 to the 8th/cu cm, implying a 120 km density of 8.3 x 10 to the 10th/cu cm. The in situ temperature measurements confirm the presence of higher temperatures near 70 degrees N latitude, even during geomagnetically quiet conditions.

  5. Linear spectropolarimetry across the optical spectrum of Herbig Ae/Be stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ababakr, K. M.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Vink, J. S.

    2016-09-01

    We present the results of spectropolarimetric observations of 12 Herbig Ae/Be objects. Our data have the largest spectropolarimetric wavelength coverage, 4560-9480 Å, published to date. A change in linear polarization across the H α line, is detected in all objects. Such a line effect reveals the fact that stellar photons are scattered off free electrons that are not distributed in a spherically symmetric volume, suggesting the presence of small discs around these accreting objects. Thanks to the large wavelength coverage, we can report that H α is the spectral line in the optical wavelength range that is most sensitive to revealing deviations from spherical symmetry, and the one most likely to show a line effect across the polarization in such cases. Few other spectral lines display changes in polarization across the line. In addition, H α is the only line which shows an effect across its absorption component in some sources. We present a scenario explaining this finding and demonstrate that the detection of the line effect strongly relies on the number of photons scattered into our line of sight. We highlight the special case of R Mon, which is the only object in our sample to show many lines with a polarization effect, which is much stronger than in all other objects. Given that the object and its nebulosity is spatially resolved, we argue that this is due to scattering of the stellar and emission spectrum off circumstellar dust.

  6. STIS Observations of the Disk and Outflow of the Herbig Ae Star HD163296

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Randy; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Coronagraphic imaging with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope reveals a approx. 450 AU radius circumstellar disk around the Herbig Ae star HDI63296. The disk includes an annulus of reduced scattering at 325 AU and exhibits a flat trend of surface brightness in to 180-222 AU, consistent with a cleared central zone. The disk is accompanied by a chain of nebulosities ("knots") oriented roughly perpendicular to the disk. Followup spectroscopy in the visible and the far ultraviolet confirms the Herbig-Haro nature of the observed knots. The FUV data in particular reveal the presence of a collimated, bipolar outflow, with a blue-shifted Lyman alpha jet that can be traced to within 0.06 arcseconds (7.3 AU) of HD163296 and a red-shifted Lyman alpha component that may be due to infall or to a poorly collimated wind. If the estimated age of this system is correct, these data indicate that protostellar outflows may last up to 10 times longer than previously believed.

  7. Adenovirus E1A/E1B Transformed Amniotic Fluid Cells Support Human Cytomegalovirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Krömmelbein, Natascha; Wiebusch, Lüder; Schiedner, Gudrun; Büscher, Nicole; Sauer, Caroline; Florin, Luise; Sehn, Elisabeth; Wolfrum, Uwe; Plachter, Bodo

    2016-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replicates to high titers in primary human fibroblast cell cultures. A variety of primary human cells and some tumor-derived cell lines do also support permissive HCMV replication, yet at low levels. Cell lines established by transfection of the transforming functions of adenoviruses have been notoriously resistant to HCMV replication and progeny production. Here, we provide first-time evidence that a permanent cell line immortalized by adenovirus type 5 E1A and E1B (CAP) is supporting the full HCMV replication cycle and is releasing infectious progeny. The CAP cell line had previously been established from amniotic fluid cells which were likely derived from membranes of the developing fetus. These cells can be grown under serum-free conditions. HCMV efficiently penetrated CAP cells, expressed its immediate-early proteins and dispersed restrictive PML-bodies. Viral DNA replication was initiated and viral progeny became detectable by electron microscopy in CAP cells. Furthermore, infectious virus was released from CAP cells, yet to lower levels compared to fibroblasts. Subviral dense bodies were also secreted from CAP cells. The results show that E1A/E1B expression in transformed cells is not generally repressive to HCMV replication and that CAP cells may be a good substrate for dense body based vaccine production. PMID:26848680

  8. Preliminary Hard X-Ray Results of AE Aquarii Observed with NuSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaguchi, Takao; An, Hongjun; Rana, Vikram R.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Hailey, Charles J.; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, Will W.

    2015-01-01

    AE Aquarii is a cataclysmic variable with the fastest known rotating magnetized white dwarf (P = 33.08 s). It was observed with the NuSTAR imaging hard X-ray observatory to search for possible thermal emission above 10 keV and to identify a reported narrow feature in its pulse profile. The 3-30 keV phase-averaged spectrum is found to be well-fit by either an optically-thin thermal plasma model with a temperature of 3.9 keV plus power-law component with photon index of 2.2, or an optically-thin thermal plasma model with two temperatures of 2.3 keV and 8.7 keV, with the latter model being slightly preferred statistically. In the 3-30 keV hard energy band, we confirm a sinusoidal pulse profile with a pulsed fraction of 16.4 ± 2.4%. However, we were not able to reproduce the sharp pulse feature in the light curve in this band reported to be seen in a previous observation.

  9. PIXE and ICP-AES analysis of early glass unearthed from Xinjiang (China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Cheng, H. S.; Ma, B.; Li, Q. H.; Zhang, P.; Gan, F. X.; Yang, F. J.

    2005-10-01

    Early glasses (about 1066 BC-220 AD) unearthed from Xinjiang of China were chemically characterized by using PIXE and ICP-AES. It was found that these glasses were basically attributed to PbO-BaO-SiO2 system, K2O-SiO2 system, Na2O-CaO-SiO2 system and Na2O-CaO-PbO-SiO2 system. The results from the cluster analysis showed that some glasses had basically similar recipe and technology. The PbO-BaO-SiO2 glass and the K2O-SiO2 glass were thought to come from the central area and the south of ancient China, respectively. The part of the Na2O-CaO-SiO2 glass (including the Na2O-CaO-PbO-SiO2 glass) might be imported from Mesopotamia, while the other part might be locally produced.

  10. [Study on trace elements of lake sediments by ICP-AES and XRF core scanning].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ai-Ying; Yu, Jun-Qing; Gao, Chun-Liang; Zhang, Li-Sha; He, Xian-Hu

    2013-07-01

    It is the first time to study sediment of Toson lake in Qaidam Basin. Trace elements including Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb in lake sediment were measured by ICP-AES method, studied and optimized from different resolution methods respectively, and finally determined a optimum pretreatment system for sediment of Toson lake, namely, HCl-HNO3-HF-HClO4-H2O2 system in the proportions of 5 : 5 : 5 : 1 : 1 was determined. At the same time, the data measured by XRF core scanning were compared, the use of moisture content correction method was analyzed, and the influence of the moisture content on the scanning method was discussed. The results showed that, compared to the background value, the contents of Cd and Zn were a little higher, the content of Cr, Cu and Pb was within the background value limits. XRF core scanning was controlled by sediment elements as well as water content in sediment to some extent. The results by the two methods showed a significant positive correlation, with the correlation coefficient up to 0.673-0.925, and they have a great comparability. PMID:24059207

  11. The variable Herbig Ae Star HR 5999. X - Its photometric 'pulse-shaped' variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, M. R.; Webb, J. R.; The, P. S.

    1992-01-01

    We present additional photometric observations (Stromgren y filter) of the Herbig Ae Star HR 5999. This new set of data, composed of 282 data points covering April 1983 to August 1989, was used in conjunction with the 362 data points compiled by Baade and Stahl (1989). Our aim was to detect single or multiple periods in the integrated set of data spanning nearly 20 yr. Through the use of series analysis techniques, and by removing any linear component present in the raw data, we were able to detect weak peaks in the power spectra (in the order of intensity the strongest peaks are at 301 and 113 d) which were not self-evident in the phase diagrams. The overall picture of the data shows a small linear component, which is more noticeable in the new set of data, indicating that the recent maxima appear brighter. By a detailed analysis of the full light curve we were able to detect the presence of well-defined 'pulses' or bursts. Further Gaussian fits of these bursts indicated that the pulses are relatively rapid, of the order of 10 d, with some of them being closely spaced. No periodicity was found for the pulses. A possible explanation of these aperiodic outbursts is that they detect a flow of matter accompanied by magnetic field disturbances originated from the interior of the star, unlike those originating externally such as binary perturbations, which tend to be periodic.

  12. AN IONIZED OUTFLOW FROM AB AUR, A HERBIG AE STAR WITH A TRANSITIONAL DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez, Luis F.; Zapata, Luis A.; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Loinard, Laurent; Dzib, Sergio A.; Macías, Enrique; Anglada, Guillem

    2014-09-20

    AB Aur is a Herbig Ae star with a transitional disk. Transitional disks present substantial dust clearing in their inner regions, most probably because of the formation of one or more planets, although other explanations are still viable. In transitional objects, accretion is found to be about an order of magnitude smaller than in classical full disks. Since accretion is believed to be correlated with outflow activity, centimeter free-free jets are expected to be present in association with these systems, at weaker levels than in classical protoplanetary (full) systems. We present new observations of the centimeter radio emission associated with the inner regions of AB Aur and conclude that the morphology, orientation, spectral index, and lack of temporal variability of the centimeter source imply the presence of a collimated, ionized outflow. The radio luminosity of this radio jet is, however, about 20 times smaller than that expected for a classical system of similar bolometric luminosity. We conclude that centimeter continuum emission is present in association with stars with transitional disks, but at levels than are becoming detectable only with the upgraded radio arrays. On the other hand, assuming that the jet velocity is 300 km s{sup –1}, we find that the ratio of mass loss rate to accretion rate in AB Aur is ∼0.1, similar to that found for less evolved systems.

  13. A Study of ro-vibrational OH Emission from Herbig Ae/Be Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brittain, Sean D.; Adamkovics, Mate; Carr, John S.; Najita, Joan R.

    2016-06-01

    We present a study of ro-vibrational OH and CO emission from 21 disks around Herbig Ae/Be stars. We find that the luminosity of the OH emission is proportional to the luminosity of the CO emission over five orders of magnitude in stellar ultraviolet luminosity. We also find that the profiles of the OH and CO emission lines are similar indicating that they arise from the same radial region of the disk.The CO and OH emission are both correlated with the far ultraviolet (1300-1840Å) luminosity of the stars while the luminosity of the PAH emission is correlated with the longer wavelength ultraviolet (2450-3200Å) luminosity of the stars. Our interpretation of the observations is that the OH and CO are heated by ultraviolet photons in the same region of the disk. We also find that while disk flaring affects the PAH luminosity, it is not a factor in the luminosity of the OH and CO emission. However, transition disks with large inner holes do have systematically lower OH and CO luminosities.

  14. iPAS: AES Flight System Technology Maturation for Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Othon, William L.

    2014-01-01

    In order to realize the vision of expanding human presence in space, NASA will develop new technologies that can enable future crewed spacecraft to go far beyond Earth orbit. These technologies must be matured to the point that future project managers can accept the risk of incorporating them safely and effectively within integrated spacecraft systems, to satisfy very challenging mission requirements. The technologies must also be applied and managed within an operational context that includes both on-board crew and mission support on Earth. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program is one part of the NASA strategy to identify and develop key capabilities for human spaceflight, and mature them for future use. To support this initiative, the Integrated Power Avionics and Software (iPAS) environment has been developed that allows engineers, crew, and flight operators to mature promising technologies into applicable capabilities, and to assess the value of these capabilities within a space mission context. This paper describes the development of the integration environment to support technology maturation and risk reduction, and offers examples of technology and mission demonstrations executed to date.

  15. New strategies for SHM based on a multichannel wireless AE node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godinez-Azcuaga, Valery; Ley, Obdulia

    2014-03-01

    This paper discusses the development of an Acoustic Emission (AE) wireless node and its application for SHM (Structural Health Monitoring). The instrument development was planned for applications monitoring steel and concrete bridges components. The final product, now commercially available, is a sensor node which includes multiple sensing elements, on board signal processing and analysis capabilities, signal conditioning electronics, power management circuits, wireless data transmission element and energy harvesting unit. The sensing elements are capable of functioning in both passive and active modes, while the multiple parametric inputs are available for connecting various sensor types to measure external characteristics affecting the performance of the structure under monitoring. The output of all these sensors are combined and analyzed at the node in order to minimize the data transmission rate, which consumes significant amount of power. Power management circuits are used to reduce the data collection intervals through selective data acquisition strategies and minimize the sensor node power consumption. This instrument, known as the 1284, is an excellent platform to deploy SHM in the original bridge applications, but initial prototypes has shown significant potential in monitoring composite wind turbine blades and composites mockups of Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles (UAV) components; currently we are working to extend the use of this system to fields such as coal flow, power transformer, and off-shore platform monitoring.

  16. [Analysis of metallic elements in refractory tantalum-niobium slag by ICP-AES].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Hui; Zheng, Shi-Li; Xu, Hong-Bin; Zhang, Yip

    2009-03-01

    A new method for analysing the contents of many metalic elements, such as Ta, Nb, Sn, Ti, W, Fe, Mn, Al, Pb, Ce, Y, Sc, Pr, Sm, Nd, U, Th etc, in refractory tantalum-niobium slag by ICP-AES was developed. The samples processing procedures involve two steps, being first decomposed by potassium carbonate and boric acid at 950 degrees C for 15 min, then leached by hydrochloride and tartaric acid at 90 degrees C for 30 min. The interference of flux and tin matrix in analyzing the other elements was eliminated by the utilization of matrix matching method. This method showed satisfactory precision and accuracy with the RSDs between 0.27% and 5.48% and the recovery rates between 94.0% and 109.6%. The analysis results indicated that highly valuable metals of Sn, Ta, Nb, Ti, W and Ce are rich in the refractory tantalum-niobium slag, showing that it has the great potential for comprehensive utilization. However, the analysis result also showed that the slag is a radioactive pollution source due to a small amount of U and Th. This method is simple and fast, and has the advantage of analyzing many elements simultaneously. The accurate analytic results provided a basis for the future researches on the comprehensive utilization of refractory tantalum-niobium slag. PMID:19455829

  17. Funding Opportunity: Genomic Data Centers

    Cancer.gov

    Funding Opportunity CCG, Funding Opportunity Center for Cancer Genomics, CCG, Center for Cancer Genomics, CCG RFA, Center for cancer genomics rfa, genomic data analysis network, genomic data analysis network centers,

  18. Observations of Herbig Ae/Be Stars with Herschel/PACS: The Atomic and Molecular Contents of Their Protoplanetary Discs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeus, G.; Montesinos, B.; Mendigutia, I.; Kamp, I.; Thi, W. F.; Eiroa, C.; Grady, C. A.; Mathews, G.; Sandell, G.; Martin-Zaidi, C.; Brittain, S.; Dent, W. R. F.; Howard, C.; Menard, F.; Pinte, C.; Roberge, A.; Vandenbussche, B.; Williams, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    We observed a sample of 20 representative Herbig Ae/Be stars and 5 A-type debris discs with PACS onboard Herschel, as part of the GAS in Protoplanetary Systems (GASPS) project. The observations were done in spectroscopic mode, and cover the far-infrared lines of [OI], [CII], CO, CH+, H20, and OH. We have a [OI]63 micro/ detection rate of 100% for the Herbig Ae/Be and 0% for the debris discs. The [OI] 145 micron line is only detected in 25% and CO J = 18-17 in 45% (and fewer cases for higher J transitions) of the Herbig Ae/Be stars, while for [CII] 157 micron, we often find spatially variable background contamination. We show the first detection of water in a Herbig Ae disc, HD 163296, which has a settled disc. Hydroxyl is detected as well in this disc. First seen in HD 100546, CH+ emission is now detected for the second time in a Herbig Ae star, HD 97048. We report fluxes for each line and use the observations as line diagnostics of the gas properties. Furthermore, we look for correlations between the strength of the emission lines and either the stellar or disc parameters, such as stellar luminosity, ultraviolet and X-ray flux. accretion rate, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) band strength, and flaring. We find that the stellar ultraviolet flux is the dominant excitation mechanism of [OI] 63 micron, with the highest line fluxes being found in objects with a large amount of flaring and among the largest PAH strengths. Neither the amount of accretion nor the X-ray luminosity has an influence on the line strength. We find correlations between the line flux of [OI]63 micron and [OI] 145 micron, CO J = IS-17 and [OI] 6300 A, and between the continuum flux at 63 micron and at 1.3 mm, while we find weak correlations between the line flux. of [OI] 63 micron and the PAH luminosity, the line flux of CO J = 3-2, the continuum flux at 63 pm, the stellar effective temperature, and the Br-gamma luminosity. Finally, we use a combination of the [OI] 63 micron and C(12)O J

  19. New insights into the wheat chromosome 4D structure and virtual gene order, revealed by survey pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Helguera, Marcelo; Rivarola, Máximo; Clavijo, Bernardo; Martis, Mihaela M.; Vanzetti, Leonardo S.; González, Sergio; Garbus, Ingrid; Leroy, Phillippe; Šimková, Hana; Valárik, Miroslav; Caccamo, Mario; Doležel, Jaroslav; Mayer, Klaus F.X.; Feuillet, Catherine; Tranquilli, Gabriela; Paniego, Norma; Echenique, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Survey sequencing of the bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genome (AABBDD) has been approached through different strategies delivering important information. However, the current wheat sequence knowledge is not complete. The aim of our study is to provide different and complementary set of data for chromosome 4D. A survey sequence was obtained by pyrosequencing of flow-sorted 4DS (7.2×) and 4DL (4.1×) arms. Single ends (SE) and long mate pairs (LMP) reads were assembled into contigs (223 Mb) and scaffolds (65 Mb) that were aligned to Aegilops tauschii draft genome (DD), anchoring 34 Mb to chromosome 4. Scaffolds annotation rendered 822 gene models. A virtual gene order comprising 1973 wheat orthologous gene loci and 381 wheat gene models was built. This order was largely consistent with the scaffold order determined based on a published high density map from the Ae. tauschii chromosome 4, using bin-mapped 4D ESTs as a common reference. The virtual order showed a higher collinearity with homeologous 4B compared to 4A. Additionally, a virtual map was constructed and ∼5700 genes (∼2200 on 4DS and ∼3500 on 4DL) predicted. The sequence and virtual order obtained here using the 454 platform were compared with the Illumina one used by the IWGSC, giving complementary information. PMID:25711827

  20. Enabling functional genomics with genome engineering

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Isaac B.; Gersbach, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in genome engineering technologies have made the precise control over genome sequence and regulation possible across a variety of disciplines. These tools can expand our understanding of fundamental biological processes and create new opportunities for therapeutic designs. The rapid evolution of these methods has also catalyzed a new era of genomics that includes multiple approaches to functionally characterize and manipulate the regulation of genomic information. Here, we review the recent advances of the most widely adopted genome engineering platforms and their application to functional genomics. This includes engineered zinc finger proteins, TALEs/TALENs, and the CRISPR/Cas9 system as nucleases for genome editing, transcription factors for epigenome editing, and other emerging applications. We also present current and potential future applications of these tools, as well as their current limitations and areas for future advances. PMID:26430154

  1. Exploring Other Genomes: Bacteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2001-01-01

    Points out the importance of genomes other than the human genome project and provides information on the identified bacterial genomes Pseudomonas aeuroginosa, Leprosy, Cholera, Meningitis, Tuberculosis, Bubonic Plague, and plant pathogens. Considers the computer's use in genome studies. (Contains 14 references.) (YDS)

  2. Navigating yeast genome maintenance with functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Measday, Vivien; Stirling, Peter C

    2016-03-01

    Maintenance of genome integrity is a fundamental requirement of all organisms. To address this, organisms have evolved extremely faithful modes of replication, DNA repair and chromosome segregation to combat the deleterious effects of an unstable genome. Nonetheless, a small amount of genome instability is the driver of evolutionary change and adaptation, and thus a low level of instability is permitted in populations. While defects in genome maintenance almost invariably reduce fitness in the short term, they can create an environment where beneficial mutations are more likely to occur. The importance of this fact is clearest in the development of human cancer, where genome instability is a well-established enabling characteristic of carcinogenesis. This raises the crucial question: what are the cellular pathways that promote genome maintenance and what are their mechanisms? Work in model organisms, in particular the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has provided the global foundations of genome maintenance mechanisms in eukaryotes. The development of pioneering genomic tools inS. cerevisiae, such as the systematic creation of mutants in all nonessential and essential genes, has enabled whole-genome approaches to identifying genes with roles in genome maintenance. Here, we review the extensive whole-genome approaches taken in yeast, with an emphasis on functional genomic screens, to understand the genetic basis of genome instability, highlighting a range of genetic and cytological screening modalities. By revealing the biological pathways and processes regulating genome integrity, these analyses contribute to the systems-level map of the yeast cell and inform studies of human disease, especially cancer. PMID:26323482

  3. Ionosphere-thermosphere momentum coupling at solar maximum and solar minimum from DE-2 and AE-C data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponthieu, J. J.; Killeen, T. L.; Lee, K. M.; Carignan, G. R.; Hoegy, W. R.; Brace, L. H.

    1988-01-01

    DE-2 and AE-C measurements of plasma and neutral densities were used to derive time constants for momentum transfer (MT) to neutrals from ions in the high-latitude thermosphere. The MT time constants for solar cycle maximum (DE-2) and for solar cycle minimum (AE-C) were averaged and binned according to geomagnetic latitude and LT to provide a quantitative measure for the tightness of ion-neutral momentum coupling (MC) in the 250-350-km altitude range. Comparisons with results obtained using the Chiu and MSIS-83 empirical models have provided an indication of the accuracy with which thermospheric general circulation models quantitatively reproduce the MC between ions and neutrals in the high-latitude F-region.

  4. Low-latitude thermospheric neutral winds determined from AE-E measurements of the 6300-A nightglow at solar maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrage, M. D.; Abreu, V. J.; Fesen, C. G.

    1990-01-01

    Atmosphere Explorer E (AE-E) measurements of the O(1D) 6300-A emission in the nighttime equatorial thermosphere are used to infer the height of the F2 layer peak as a function of latitude and local time. The investigation is conducted both for northern hemisphere winter solstice and for spring equinox, under solar maximum conditions. The layer heights are used to derive magnetic meridional components of the transequatorial neutral wind, in conjunction with the MSIS-86 model and previous Jicamarca incoherent scatter measurements of the zonal electric field. The AE-E wind estimates indicate a predominant summer to winter flow for the winter solstice case. Comparisons are made with the empirical horizontal wind model HWM87 and with winds generated by the thermospheric general circulation model. The model predictions and experimental results are generally in good agreement, confirming the applicability of visible airglow data to studies of the global neutral wind pattern.

  5. Structural variability between starch granules in wild type and in ae high-amylose mutant maize kernels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongli; Parker, Mary L; Wellner, Nikolaus; Kirby, Andrew R; Cross, Kathryn; Morris, Victor J; Cheng, Fang

    2013-09-12

    Starch granule structure within wild-type and ae high-amylose mutant maize kernels has been mapped in situ using light, electron and atomic force microscopy, and both Raman and infra-red spectroscopy. The population of wild-type starch granules is found to be homogenous. The ae mutant granule population is heterogeneous. Heterogeneity in chemical and physical structure is observed within individual granules, between granules within cells, and spatially within the kernel. The highest level of heterogeneity is observed in the region where starch is first deposited during kernel development. Light microscopy demonstrates structural diversity through use of potassium iodide/iodine staining and polarised microscopy. Electron and atomic force microscopy, and infra-red and Raman spectroscopy defined the nature of the structural changes within granules. The methodology provides novel information on the changes in starch structure resulting from kernel development. PMID:23911471

  6. Comparative Analysis of Continuous Acoustic Emission (AE) Data, Acquired from 12 and 16 Bit Streaming Systems during Rock Deformation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, J.; Goodfellow, S. D.; Nasseri, M. H.; Reyes-Montes, J. M.; Young, R.

    2013-12-01

    A comparative analysis of continuous acoustic emission (AE) data acquired during a triaxial compression test, using a 12-bit and a 16-bit acquisition system, is presented. A cylindrical sample (diameter 50.1 mm and length 125 mm) of Berea sandstone was triaxally deformed at a confining pressure of 15 MPa and a strain rate of 1.6E-06 s-1. The sample was loaded differentially until failure occurred at approximately σ1 = 160 MPa. AE activity was monitored for the duration of the experiment by an array of 8 broadband piezoelectric transducers coupled to the rock sample. Raw signals were amplified by 40 dB using pre-amplifiers equipped with filter modules with a frequency passband of 100 kHz to 1 MHz. The amplifiers had a split output enabling the measured signal to be fed into a 12-bit and a 16-bit acquisition system. AE waveforms were continuously recorded at 10 MS/s on 8 data acquisition channels per system. Approximately 4,500 events were harvested and source located from the continuous data for each system. P-wave arrivals were automatically picked and event locations calculated using the downhill Simplex method and a time-varying transverse isotropic velocity model based on periodical surveys across the sample. Events detected on the 12-bit and 16-bit systems were compared both in terms of their P-wave picks and their source locations. In the early stages of AE activity, there appeared to be little difference between P-wave picks and hypocenter locations from both data sets. As the experiment progressed into the post-peak stress regime, which was accompanied by an increase in AE rate and amplitude, fewer events could be harvested from the 12-bit data compared to the 16-bit data. This is linked to the observation of a higher signal-to-noise ratio on AE waveforms harvested from the 16-bit stream compared to those from the 12-bit stream, which results in an easier identification of P-wave onsets. Similarly a higher confidence in source location is expected. Analysis

  7. [Determination of Mineral Elements in Choerospondias Axillaris and Its Extractives by ICP-AES].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yu-xin; Chen, Jun; Li, Ti; Liu, Ji-yan; Wang, Xie-yi; Cheng, Chao; Liu, Cheng-mei

    2015-04-01

    Nine elements in Choerospondias axillaris flesh, peels, aqueous extractives and gastric digesta were determined by the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) in the present study. The results showed that the contents of Fe, Ca, Zn, Mn, Al, Mg, Cu, K and P in the flesh were 27.37, 269.88, 1.51, 2.45, 1.95, 195.30, 2.45, 2,970.11, and 133.94 µg · g(-1), respectively. They are lower than that in the peels, about 40.31%, 11.70%, 21.68%, 4.27%, 10.58%, 15.76%, 68.72%, 42.04%, and 22.59%, respectively. For microwave assistant extraction, the release rate of Mn was highest (81.68%), while Fe was lowest (4.42%) in the flesh. The release rate of Zn was the highest (79.00%), while that of A1 was the lowest (4.94%) in the peels. Except Fe, Cu and Zn, the release rates of the other elements in flesh were higher than those in the peels. After gastric digestion, the release rates of nine elements were 3.25%-87.51% in the flesh and 7.11%-50.69% in the peels. The release rates of minerals in the flesh were found to be higher than those in the peels except Fe and Cu. Microwave assistant extraction can more efficiently release Fe, Ca, Mn, Mg and K from the flesh than the gastric digestion do. While gastric digestion had a significant effect on the peels, the release rates of elements, except Zn, were higher than those in microwave assistant extraction. Therefore, the difference of distribution and release of mineral elements between peels and flesh of Choerospondias axillaris was understood, which will provide a positive guide for further study of bioavailability of minerals for human body. PMID:26197601

  8. The evolution of the jet from Herbig Ae star HD 163296 from 1999 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, H. M.; Schneider, P. C.; Li, Z.-Y.

    2013-04-01

    Young A and B stars, the so-called Herbig Ae/Be stars (HAeBe), are surrounded by active accretion disks and drive outflows. We study the jet HH 409, which is launched from the HAeBe star HD 163296, using new and archival observations from Chandra and HST/STIS. In X-rays we can show that the central source is not significantly extended. The approaching jet, but not the counterjet, is detected in Lyα. In addition, there is red-shifted Lyα emission extended in the same direction as the jet, which is also absent in the counterjet. We can rule out an accretion or disk-wind origin for this feature. In the optical we find the knots B and B2 in the counterjet. Knot B has been observed previously, so we can derive its proper motion of (0.37 ± 0.01)'' yr-1. Its electron density is 3000 cm-3, thus the cooling time scale is only a few months, so the knot needs to be reheated continuously. The shock speed derived from models of Hα and forbidden emission lines decreased from 50 km s-1 in 1999 to 30 km s-1 in 2011 because the shock front loses energy as it travels along the jet. Knot B2 is observed at a similar position in 2011 to where knot B was in 1999, but shows a lower ionization fraction and higher mass loss rate, proving that there are variations in the jet launching conditions.

  9. Investigating the Origin of Hot Gas Lines in Herbig Ae/Be Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauley, P. Wilson; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.

    2016-07-01

    We analyze high-resolution UV spectra of a small sample of Herbig Ae/Be stars (HAEBESs) in order to explore the origin of the T ∼ 105 K gas in these stars. The C iv λ λ1548, 1550 line luminosities are compared to nonsimultaneous accretion rate estimates for the objects showing C iv emission. We show that the correlation between L C iv and \\dot{M} previously established for classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs) seems to extend into the HAEBE mass regime, although the large spread in literature \\dot{M} and A V values makes the actual relationship highly uncertain. With the exception of DX Cha, we find no evidence for hot, optically thick winds in our HAEBE sample. All other objects showing clear doublet emission in C iv can be well described by a two-component (i.e., a single component for each doublet member) or four-component (i.e., two components for each doublet member) Gaussian emission line fit. The morphologies and peak-flux velocities of these lines suggest that they are formed in weak, optically thin stellar winds and not in an accretion flow, as is the case for the hot lines observed in CTTSs. The lack of strong outflow signatures and lack of evidence for line formation in accretion flows are consistent with the conclusion presented in our recent optical and He i λ10830 studies that the immediate circumstellar environments of HAEBESs, in general, are not scaled-up analogs of the immediate environments around CTTSs. The conclusions presented here for hot gas lines around HAEBESs should be verified with a larger sample of objects.

  10. High Resolution Time-resolved UCLES Spectroscopy of AE Aqr: I. The Secondary Star Revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echevarria, J.; Diego, F.; Mills, D.; Connon Smith, R.

    2006-06-01

    High-dispersion time-resolved spectroscopy of the cataclysmic variable AE Aqr has been obtained. The emission lines have a complex structure that make difficult to measure the motion of the white dwarf. The cross correlation for the absorption lines shows a clear asymmetric profile as expected from a heated side of the red star. The spectral type for the secondary star varies from K2 to K5; there are clear indications that the temperature varies as a function of star longitude. The radial velocity analysis yield Kab = 165.2 ± 0.6 Km s-1 for the cross-correlated secondary star. The rotational velocity of the red star has been measured as a function of orbital period. It shows ellipsoidal variations with a period half the orbital period. The rotational velocities vary within the range Vrot sin i = 105 ± 3 Km s-1 and Vrot sin i = 130 ± 3 Km s-1. The former can be used to constrain the white dwarf semi-amplitude value to yield Kem = 139 ± 4 Km s-1 consistent with derived values from published radial velocity measurements. From a variation in the absorption line strength of 30%, we constrain the inclination angle to i = 58° ± 3. The estimated masses of the binary are: Mw = 1.07 ± 0.07 M? and Mr = 0.90 ± 0.05 M?. If this is correct we should expect a spectral type of G5 if the secondary star is a main sequence star. We suggest that the discrepancy is explained if the star has a radius 40% greater than a main sequence star for a mass of 0.90 M?.

  11. UV spectral variability in the Herbig Ae star HR 5999. 11: The accretion interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, M. R.; Grady, C. A.; The, P. S.

    1993-01-01

    We report recent IUE high- and low-dispersion observations with the IUE long wavelength camera (LWP) and short wavelength camera (SWP) of the Herbig Ae star HR 5999. We have found a dramatic change in the structure of the Mg II h and k lines (2795.5, 2802.7 A) along with some continuum flux excesses especially at the short end of the SWP camera. LWP high dispersion observations of HR 5999 obtained between 1979 and 1990, at times of comparatively low UV continuum fluxes, exhibit P Cygni type m profiles in the Mg II resonance doublet. In contrast, observations made from September 1990 through March 16-18, 1992, with high W continuum fluxes, present Mg II lines with reverse P Cygni profiles indicative of some active episodic accretion. Accreting gas can also be detected in the additional red wings of the various Fe II and Mn II absorption lines, with velocities up to +300-350 km/s (September 1990). By September 10, 1992 the Mg II profile had returned to the type III P Cygni profile similar to those from earlier spectra. The correlation between the presence of large column densities of accreting gas and the continuum light variations supports suggestions by several authors that HR 5999 is surrounded by an optically thick, viscously heated accretion disk. Detection of accreting gas in the line of sight to HR 5999 permits us to place constraints on our viewing geometry for this system. A discussion is included comparing the spectral and physical similarities between HR 5999 and the more evolved proto-planetary candidate system, beta Pictoris.

  12. [Application of a modified method of wavelet noise removing to noisy ICP-AES spectra].

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-guo; Zhang, Zhan-xia

    2003-06-01

    A new method for noise removal from signal by the wavelet transform was developed. Compared with analytical signal, noise has higher frequency and smaller amplitude. By the new wavelet filtering method, the high frequency components were first removed, and then the small ones in the remaining transformed vectors were discarded. The proposed approach was evaluated by the processing of simulated and experimental noisy ICP-AES spectra. Different amounts of noise were added to a Gaussian peak to obtain a series of noisy ICP spectra. The simulated noisy spectra with R (signal to noise ratio) = 6 and N (data number) = 51, and with R = 6 and N = 17 were used to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method. The performances of noise removal by the wavelet smoothing, the wavelet denoising and the proposed technique were compared. It was found that using the new approach, the relative errors of peak height would be no more than 5% for spectra with normal sampling points and R > or = 2. Moreover, the baseline could be easily defined, which was helpful to the accurate measurement of peak height. Experimental spectra of Al and V at low concentrations were processed by the proposed method. Intense noises were efficiently removed and the spectra became smoother without underestimating the analytical signal. The distortion of V 303.310 nm line was substantially rectified. The linear correlation coefficients between the peak heights in the reconstructed spectra and the concentrations were found to be 0.9953 for Al and 0.9836 for V, respectively. PMID:12953539

  13. Near-IR Spectroscopy of Herbig Ae/Be Companion Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, B. M.; van der Bliek, N. S.; Brandvig, B.; Thomas, S.; Doppmann, G.; Bouvier, J.

    2005-12-01

    We present first results of a program to obtain near-infrared spectra of candidate companions to intermediate mass pre-main sequence Herbig Ae/Be (HAEBE) stars. Accurate spectral classification is critical to proper identification of the secondary star and interpretation of its spectral energy distribution. Spectra also allow analysis of emission lines and other stellar charcteristics such as veiling and rotation, to determine the companion's evolutionary status and help establish binarity. Of the first six objects observed with GNIRS on Gemini South (AS310 NW, HD76534, HD150193, HR5999, HD141569 and CO Ori), we find two B+B companion pairs, three early A primaries with T Tauri type secondaries (G, K and M type), and a peculiar F+F pair in which the secondary star is the primary emission star (respectively). If true binaries, three systems are similar spectral type pairs but with very different extinction and emission properties. The three late-type secondaries all exhibit significant near-infrared excess, but only weak emission lines. Other components of our project are an AO-fed near-infrared imaging survey of a large sample of HAEBE systems (N. S. van der Bliek et al. poster) and modeling of companion spectral energy distributions (B. Brandvig et al. poster). Together, these three complementary approaches will result in the most thorough accounting of multiple HAEBE systems to date. Our initial spectroscopy sample contains about 40 objects taken from the literature, roughly half from Bouvier and Corporon (2001). Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), CNPq (Brazil

  14. ISO-LWS observations of Herbig Ae/Be stars. I. Fine structure lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzetti, D.; Tommasi, E.; Giannini, T.; Nisini, B.; Benedettini, M.; Pezzuto, S.; Strafella, F.; Barlow, M.; Clegg, P. E.; Cohen, M.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Liseau, R.; Molinari, S.; Palla, F.; Saraceno, P.; Smith, H. A.; Spinoglio, L.; White, G. J.

    1999-06-01

    We present the results of the first spectrophotometric survey of a sample of eleven Herbig Ae/Be stars (HAEBE) obtained with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). The [OI] 63mu m and the [CII] 158mu m lines are observed in all the investigated sources, while the [OI] 145mu m transition, due to its relative faintness, sometimes remains undetected. By comparing line intensity ratios with model predictions, photodissociation, due to the UV photons from the central star, results the dominating excitation mechanism although contributions of C-shocks to the [OI] emission cannot be ruled out. A clear example for the presence of a photodissociation region (PDR) illuminated by an HAEBE is shown by LWS spectroscopic mapping of NGC 7129. Some diagnostic probes of the radiation field and density are provided for the objects in our sample: these substantially agree with the known characteristics of both the star and its circumstellar environment, although the observed ratio [OI]63/[OI]145 tends to be smaller than predicted by PDR models. The most likely explanation for this behaviour is self-absorption at 63mu m by cold atomic oxygen. Fine structure lines of the ionised species [OIII], [NII] were detected whenever the star had a spectral type of B0 or earlier; in particular, around the star CoD-42(deg) 11721, besides a compact HII region, evidence is given for an extended low electron density ionised region. Finally, molecular line emission is associated with stars powering a CO outflow, and clumpy PDR models, better than C-shock models, predict for them relative cooling (CO vs OI and CO vs OH) similar to the observed ones. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States and with the participation of ISAS and NASA}

  15. Analysis of valence XPS and AES of C, N, O, and F-containing substances by DFT calculations using the model molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Kazunaka; Hyodo, Kenji; Takaoka, Kazuchiyo; Ida, Tomonori; Shimada, Shingo; Takagi, Yusuke; Kurmaev, Ernst Z.

    2015-05-01

    Experimental valence X-ray photoelectron spectra (VXPS) and Auger electron spectra (AES) of (Li, C, N, O, F) elements of four solid substances [graphite, GaN, SiO2, LiF] are analyzed by density-functional theory calculations using the model molecules of the unit cell. For the calculations, we use deMon density functional theory (DFT) program to estimate VXPS, core-electron binding energies, and (Li, C, N, O, F)-KVV AES of the solid substances. In the AES simulations, we evaluate theoretical kinetic energies of the AES with our modified calculation method. The modified kinetic energies correspond to two final-state holes at the ground state and at the transition-state in DFT calculations, respectively. Experimental KVV AES of the (Li, C, N, O) atoms in the substances agree considerably well to simulation of AES obtained with the maximum kinetic energies of the atoms, while, the experimental F KVV AES of LiF is almost in accordance with the spectra from the transition-state kinetic energy calculations.

  16. Loss of the AE3 Cl−/HCO−3 exchanger in mice affects rate-dependent inotropy and stress-related AKT signaling in heart

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Vikram; Lorenz, John N.; Lasko, Valerie M.; Nieman, Michelle L.; Al Moamen, Nabeel J.; Shull, Gary E.

    2013-01-01

    Cl−/HCO−3 exchangers are expressed abundantly in cardiac muscle, suggesting that HCO−3 extrusion serves an important function in heart. Mice lacking Anion Exchanger Isoform 3 (AE3), a major cardiac Cl−/HCO−3 exchanger, appear healthy, but loss of AE3 causes decompensation in a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) model. Using intra-ventricular pressure analysis, in vivo pacing, and molecular studies we identified physiological and biochemical changes caused by loss of AE3 that may contribute to decompensation in HCM. AE3-null mice had normal cardiac contractility under basal conditions and after β-adrenergic stimulation, but pacing of hearts revealed that frequency-dependent inotropy was blunted, suggesting that AE3-mediated HCO−3 extrusion is required for a robust force-frequency response (FFR) during acute biomechanical stress in vivo. Modest changes in expression of proteins that affect Ca2+-handling were observed, but Ca2+-transient analysis of AE3-null myocytes showed normal twitch-amplitude and Ca2+-clearance. Phosphorylation and expression of several proteins implicated in HCM and FFR, including phospholamban (PLN), myosin binding protein C, and troponin I were not altered in hearts of paced AE3-null mice; however, phosphorylation of Akt, which plays a central role in mechanosensory signaling, was significantly higher in paced AE3-null hearts than in wild-type controls and phosphorylation of AMPK, which is affected by Akt and is involved in energy metabolism and some cases of HCM, was reduced. These data show loss of AE3 leads to impaired rate-dependent inotropy, appears to affect mechanical stress-responsive signaling, and reduces activation of AMPK, which may contribute to decompensation in heart failure. PMID:24427143

  17. MHC class II tetramer analyses in AE37-vaccinated prostate cancer patients reveal vaccine-specific polyfunctional and long-lasting CD4(+) T-cells.

    PubMed

    Anastasopoulou, Eleftheria A; Voutsas, Ioannis F; Papamichail, Michael; Baxevanis, Constantin N; Perez, Sonia A

    2016-07-01

    Realizing the basis for generating long-lasting clinical responses in cancer patients after therapeutic vaccinations provides the means to further ameliorate clinical efficacy. Peptide cancer vaccines stimulating CD4(+) T helper cells are often promising for inducing immunological memory and persistent CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell responses. Recent reports from our clinical trial with the AE37 vaccine, which is a HER2 hybrid polypeptide, documented its efficacy to induce CD4(+) T cell immunity, which was associated with clinical improvements preferentially among HLA-DRB1*11(+) prostate cancer patients. Here, we performed in-depth investigation of the CD4(+) T cell response against the AE37 vaccine. We used the DR11/AE37 tetramer in combination with multicolor flow cytometry to identify and characterize AE37-specific CD4(+) T cells regarding memory and Tregs phenotype in HLA-DRB1*11(+) vaccinated patients. To verify vaccine-specific immunological memory in vivo, we also assessed AE37-specific CD4(+) T cells in defined CD4(+) memory subsets by cell sorting. Finally, vaccine-induced AE37-specific CD4(+) T cells were assessed regarding their functional profile. AE37-specific memory CD4(+) T cells could be detected in peptide-stimulated cultures from prostate cancer patients following vaccination even 4 y post-vaccination. The vast majority of vaccine-induced AE37-specific CD4(+) T cells exhibited a multifunctional, mostly Th1 cytokine signature, with the potential of granzyme B production. In contrast, we found relatively low frequencies of Tregs among AE37-specific CD4(+) T cells. This is the first report on the identification of vaccine-induced HER2-specific multifunctional long-lasting CD4(+) T cells in vaccinated prostate cancer patients. PMID:27622033

  18. Mapping Copper and Lead Concentrations at Abandoned Mine Areas Using Element Analysis Data from ICP-AES and Portable XRF Instruments: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeongyu; Choi, Yosoon; Suh, Jangwon; Lee, Seung-Ho

    2016-04-01

    Understanding spatial variation of potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs) in soil is necessary to identify the proper measures for preventing soil contamination at both operating and abandoned mining areas. Many studies have been conducted worldwide to explore the spatial variation of PTEs and to create soil contamination maps using geostatistical methods. However, they generally depend only on inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) analysis data, therefore such studies are limited by insufficient input data owing to the disadvantages of ICP-AES analysis such as its costly operation and lengthy period required for analysis. To overcome this limitation, this study used both ICP-AES and portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) analysis data, with relatively low accuracy, for mapping copper and lead concentrations at a section of the Busan abandoned mine in Korea and compared the prediction performances of four different approaches: the application of ordinary kriging to ICP-AES analysis data, PXRF analysis data, both ICP-AES and transformed PXRF analysis data by considering the correlation between the ICP-AES and PXRF analysis data, and co-kriging to both the ICP-AES (primary variable) and PXRF analysis data (secondary variable). Their results were compared using an independent validation data set. The results obtained in this case study showed that the application of ordinary kriging to both ICP-AES and transformed PXRF analysis data is the most accurate approach when considers the spatial distribution of copper and lead contaminants in the soil and the estimation errors at 11 sampling points for validation. Therefore, when generating soil contamination maps for an abandoned mine, it is beneficial to use the proposed approach that incorporates the advantageous aspects of both ICP-AES and PXRF analysis data. PMID:27043594

  19. Mapping Copper and Lead Concentrations at Abandoned Mine Areas Using Element Analysis Data from ICP–AES and Portable XRF Instruments: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeongyu; Choi, Yosoon; Suh, Jangwon; Lee, Seung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Understanding spatial variation of potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs) in soil is necessary to identify the proper measures for preventing soil contamination at both operating and abandoned mining areas. Many studies have been conducted worldwide to explore the spatial variation of PTEs and to create soil contamination maps using geostatistical methods. However, they generally depend only on inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP–AES) analysis data, therefore such studies are limited by insufficient input data owing to the disadvantages of ICP–AES analysis such as its costly operation and lengthy period required for analysis. To overcome this limitation, this study used both ICP–AES and portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) analysis data, with relatively low accuracy, for mapping copper and lead concentrations at a section of the Busan abandoned mine in Korea and compared the prediction performances of four different approaches: the application of ordinary kriging to ICP–AES analysis data, PXRF analysis data, both ICP–AES and transformed PXRF analysis data by considering the correlation between the ICP–AES and PXRF analysis data, and co-kriging to both the ICP–AES (primary variable) and PXRF analysis data (secondary variable). Their results were compared using an independent validation data set. The results obtained in this case study showed that the application of ordinary kriging to both ICP–AES and transformed PXRF analysis data is the most accurate approach when considers the spatial distribution of copper and lead contaminants in the soil and the estimation errors at 11 sampling points for validation. Therefore, when generating soil contamination maps for an abandoned mine, it is beneficial to use the proposed approach that incorporates the advantageous aspects of both ICP–AES and PXRF analysis data. PMID:27043594

  20. Genome Maps, a new generation genome browser.

    PubMed

    Medina, Ignacio; Salavert, Francisco; Sanchez, Rubén; de Maria, Alejandro; Alonso, Roberto; Escobar, Pablo; Bleda, Marta; Dopazo, Joaquín

    2013-07-01

    Genome browsers have gained importance as more genomes and related genomic information become available. However, the increase of information brought about by new generation sequencing technologies is, at the same time, causing a subtle but continuous decrease in the efficiency of conventional genome browsers. Here, we present Genome Maps, a genome browser that implements an innovative model of data transfer and management. The program uses highly efficient technologies from the new HTML5 standard, such as scalable vector graphics, that optimize workloads at both server and client sides and ensure future scalability. Thus, data management and representation are entirely carried out by the browser, without the need of any Java Applet, Flash or other plug-in technology installation. Relevant biological data on genes, transcripts, exons, regulatory features, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, karyotype and so forth, are imported from web services and are available as tracks. In addition, several DAS servers are already included in Genome Maps. As a novelty, this web-based genome browser allows the local upload of huge genomic data files (e.g. VCF or BAM) that can be dynamically visualized in real time at the client side, thus facilitating the management of medical data affected by privacy restrictions. Finally, Genome Maps can easily be integrated in any web application by including only a few lines of code. Genome Maps is an open source collaborative initiative available in the GitHub repository (https://github.com/compbio-bigdata-viz/genome-maps). Genome Maps is available at: http://www.genomemaps.org. PMID:23748955

  1. Genome Maps, a new generation genome browser

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Ignacio; Salavert, Francisco; Sanchez, Rubén; de Maria, Alejandro; Alonso, Roberto; Escobar, Pablo; Bleda, Marta; Dopazo, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    Genome browsers have gained importance as more genomes and related genomic information become available. However, the increase of information brought about by new generation sequencing technologies is, at the same time, causing a subtle but continuous decrease in the efficiency of conventional genome browsers. Here, we present Genome Maps, a genome browser that implements an innovative model of data transfer and management. The program uses highly efficient technologies from the new HTML5 standard, such as scalable vector graphics, that optimize workloads at both server and client sides and ensure future scalability. Thus, data management and representation are entirely carried out by the browser, without the need of any Java Applet, Flash or other plug-in technology installation. Relevant biological data on genes, transcripts, exons, regulatory features, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, karyotype and so forth, are imported from web services and are available as tracks. In addition, several DAS servers are already included in Genome Maps. As a novelty, this web-based genome browser allows the local upload of huge genomic data files (e.g. VCF or BAM) that can be dynamically visualized in real time at the client side, thus facilitating the management of medical data affected by privacy restrictions. Finally, Genome Maps can easily be integrated in any web application by including only a few lines of code. Genome Maps is an open source collaborative initiative available in the GitHub repository (https://github.com/compbio-bigdata-viz/genome-maps). Genome Maps is available at: http://www.genomemaps.org. PMID:23748955

  2. Surface characterization of hydrogen charged and uncharged alpha-2 and gamma titanium aluminide alloys using AES and REELS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shanabarger, M. R.

    1990-01-01

    The surfaces of selected uncharged and hydrogen charged alpha-2 and gamma titanium aluminide alloys with Nb additions were characterized by Auger electron (AES) and reflected electron energy loss (REELS) spectroscopy. The alloy surfaces were cleaned before analysis at room temperature by ion sputtering. The low energy (500 eV) ion sputtering process preferentially sputtered the surface concentration. The surface concentrations were determined by comparing AES data from the alloys with corresponding data from elemental references. No differences were observed in the Ti or Nb Auger spectra for the uncharged and hydrogen charged alloys, even though the alpha-2 alloy had 33.4 atomic percent dissolved hydrogen. Also, no differences were observed in the AES spectra when hydrogen was adsorbed from the gas phase. Bulk plasmon energy shifts were observed in all alloys. The energy shifts were induced either by dissolved hydrogen (alpha-2 alloy) or hydrogen adsorbed from the gas phase (alpha-2 and gamma alloys). The adsorption induced plasmon energy shifts were greatest for the gamma alloy and cp-Ti metal.

  3. Medium and large-scale variations of dynamo-induced electric fields from AE ion drift measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coley, W. R.; Mcclure, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    Current models of the low latitude electric field are largely based on data from incoherent scatter radars. These observations are extended through the addition of the rather extensive high quality electric field measurements from the Ion Drift Meter (IDM) aboard the Atmosphere Explorer (AE) spacecraft. Some preliminary results obtained from the Unified Abstract files of satellite AE-E are presented. This satellite was active from the end of 1975 through June 1981 in various elliptical and circular orbits having an inclination near 20 deg. The resulting data can be examined for the variation of ion drift with latitude, longitude, season, solar cycle, altitude, and magnetic activity. The results presented deal primarily with latitudinal variations of the drift features. Diagrams of data are given and briefly interpreted. The preliminary results presented here indicate that IDM data from the AE and the more recent Dynamics Explorer B spacecraft should continue to disclose some interesting and previously unobserved dynamical features of the low latitude F region.

  4. Evaluation of Generation Mechanism of Vertical Cracks in Top Coat of TBCs During APS Deposition by Laser AE Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, K.; Kuriki, H.; Araki, H.; Kuroda, S.; Enoki, M.

    2015-06-01

    Vertical cracks can be generated in the top coat of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) deposited by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). Since they are known to improve the durability of TBCs such as in the case of dense vertically cracked TBC, clarification of the mechanism and the criteria of cracking are very important. In this study, generation of such vertical cracks was monitored during APS process by laser acoustic emission (AE) method, which is an in situ, non-contact, and non-destructive technique. Temperature was also monitored inside and on the surface of a specimen during APS process for estimation of the temperature field in the top coat. Results of the AE and temperature monitoring were combined to evaluate the relationship between cracking and thermal stress in the top coat. Most of the AE events due to the generation of vertical cracks were detected during rapid heating of the surface of the top coat by the heat flux from the torch. It showed that the vertical cracks were induced due to the tensile stress caused by the temperature difference in the top coat from the rapid heating. Furthermore, the estimated critical thermal stress for vertical cracking from the monitoring results was consistent with a previously reported strength of YSZ coating deposited by thermal spray.

  5. Improvement of sensitivity of electrolyte cathode discharge atomic emission spectrometry (ELCAD-AES) for mercury using acetic acid medium.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, R

    2012-05-15

    A method has been developed to improve the sensitivity of the electrolyte cathode discharge atomic emission spectrometry (ELCAD-AES) for mercury determination. Effects of various low molecular weight organic solvents at different volume percentages as well as at different acid molarities on the mercury signal were investigated using ELCAD-AES. The addition of few percent of organic solvent, acetic acid produced significant enhancement in mercury signal. Acetic acid of 5% (v/v) with the 0.2M acidity has been found to give 500% enhancement for mercury signal in flow injection mode. Under the optimized parameters the repeatability, expressed as the percentage relative standard deviation of spectral peak area for mercury with 5% acetic acid was found to be 10% for acid blank solution and 5% for 20 ng/mL mercury standard based on multiple measurements with a multiple sample loading in flow injection mode. Limit of detection of this method was determined to be 2 ng/mL for inorganic mercury. The proposed method has been validated by determining mercury in certified reference materials, Tuna fish (IAEA-350) and Aquatic plant (BCR-060). Accuracy of the method for the mercury determination in the reference materials has been found to be between 3.5% and 5.9%. This study enhances the utility of ELCAD-AES for various types of biological and environmental materials to quantify total mercury at very low levels. PMID:22483872

  6. Electrophoretic survey of seedling esterases in wheats in relation to their phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Jaaska, V

    1980-11-01

    Evolutionary and ontogenetic variation of six seedling esterases of independent genetic control is studied in polyploid wheats and their diploid relatives by means of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Four of them are shown to be controlled by homoeoallelic genes in chromosomes of third, sixth and seventh homoeologous groups.The isoesterase electrophoretic data are considered supporting a monophyletic origin of both the primitive tetraploid and the primitive hexaploid wheat from which contemporary taxa of polyploid wheats have emerged polyphyletically and polytopically through recurrent introgressive hybridization and accumulation of mutations. Ancestral diploids belonging or closely related to Triticum boeoticum, T. urartu, Aegilops speltoides and Ae. tauschii ssp. strangulata are genetically the most suitable genome donors of polyploid wheats. Diploids of the Emarginata subsection of the section Sitopsis, Aegilops longissima s.str., Ae. sharonensis, Ae. searsii and Ae. bicornis, are unsuitable for the role of the wheat B genome donors, being all fixed for the esterase B and D electromorphs different from those of tetraploid wheats. PMID:24305916

  7. A comparison between PIXE and ICP-AES measurements of metals in aerosol particulate collected in urban and marine sites in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traversi, R.; Becagli, S.; Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.; Giannoni, M.; Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S.; Rugi, F.; Severi, M.; Udisti, R.

    2014-01-01

    PIXE and ICP-AES techniques are largely used in atmospheric aerosol studies. Since PIXE is able to provide the total elemental concentrations, while ICP-AES results depend on the extraction conditions, parallel PIXE and ICP-AES measurements of Fe, Al, Cu, Pb, Mn, Cr, Ni, V, As on PM10 and PM2.5 samples were compared. Two extraction procedures were applied to samples from 5 sites at different anthropization level in Italy: a "weak" extraction (HNO3 at pH = 1.5) and a "strong" extraction (micro-wave oven in HNO3 and H2O2 - following EU rules).

  8. Genomic Encyclopedia of Fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-08-10

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 150 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  9. JGI Fungal Genomics Program

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-03-14

    Genomes of energy and environment fungi are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 50 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such 'parts' suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here

  10. Genomics and Health Impact Update

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genomics in Practice Newborn Screening Pharmacogenomics Reproductive Health Tools and Databases About the Genomics & Health Impact Update The Office of Public Health Genomics provides updated and credible ...

  11. The evidence for clumpy accretion in the Herbig Ae star HR 5999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, M. R.; Grady, C. A.; The, P. S.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of IUE high- and low-dispersion spectra of the young Herbig Ae star HR 5999 (HD 144668) covering 1978-1992 revealed dramatic changes in the Mg II h and k (2795.5, 2802.7 A) emission profiles, changes in the column density and distribution in radial velocity of accreting gas, and flux in the Ly(alpha), O I, and C IV emission lines, which are correlated with the UV excess luminosity. Variability in the spectral type inferred from the UV spectral energy distribution, ranging from A5 IV-III in high state to A7 III in the low state, was also observed. The trend of earlier inferred spectral type with decreasing wavelength and with increasing UV continuum flux has previously been noted as a signature of accretion disks in lower mass pre-main sequence stars (PMS) and in systems undergoing FU Orionis-type outbursts. Our data represent the first detection of similar phenomena in an intermediate mass (M greater than or equal to 2 solar mass) PMS star. Recent IUE spectra show gas accreting toward the star with velocities as high as plus 300 km/s, much as is seen toward beta Pic, and suggest that we also view this system through the debris disk. The absence of UV lines with the rotational broadening expected given the optical data (A7 IV, V sini=180 plus or minus 20 km/s for this system) also suggests that most of the UV light originates in the disk, even in the low continuum state. The dramatic variability in the column density of accreting gas, is consistent with clumpy accretion, such as has been observed toward beta Pic, is a hallmark of accretion onto young stars, and is not restricted to the clearing phase, since detectable amounts of accretion are present for stars with 0.5 Myr less than t(sub age) less than 2.8 Myr. The implications for models of beta Pic and similar systems are briefly discussed.

  12. The evidence for clumpy accretion in the Herbig Ae star HR 5999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, M. R.; Grady, C. A.; The, P. S.

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of IUE high- and low-dispersion spectra of the young Herbig Ae star HR 5999 (HD 144668) covering 1978-1992 has revealed dramatic changes in the Mg II h and k (2795.5, 2802.7 A) emission profiles, changes in the column density and distribution in radial velocity of accreting gas, and flux in the Ly(alpha), O I and C IV emission lines, which are correlated with the UV excess luminosity. We also observe variability in the spectral type inferred from the UV spectral energy distribution, ranging from A5 IV-III in high state to A7 III in the low state. The trend of earlier inferred spectral type with decreasing wavelength and with increasing UV continuum flux has previously been noted as a signature of accretion disks in lower mass pre-main sequence stars (PMS) and in systems undergoing FU Orionis-type outbursts. Our data represent the first detection of similar phenomena in an intermediate mass (M equal to or greater than 2 solar mass) PMS star. Recent IUE spectra show gas accreting toward the star with velocities as high as +300 km/s, much as is seen toward beta Pic, and suggest that we also view this system through the debris disk. The absence of UV lines with the rotational broadening expected given the optical data (A7 IV, upsilon sin i = 180 plus or minus 20 km/s) for this system also suggests that most of the UV light originates in the disk, even in the low continuum state. The dramatic variability in the column density of accreting gas, consistent with clumpy accretion, such as has been observed toward beta Pic, is a hallmark of accretion onto young stars, and is not restricted to the clearing phase, since detectable amounts of accretion are present for stars, and is not restricted to the clearing phase, since detectable amounts of accretion are present for stars with 0.5 less than t(sub age) less than 2.8 Myr. The implications for models of beta Pic and similar systems are briefly discussed.

  13. Near-infrared interferometric observation of the Herbig Ae star HD 144432 with VLTI/AMBER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Kreplin, A.; Wang, Y.; Weigelt, G.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Kraus, S.; Schertl, D.; Lagarde, S.; Natta, A.; Petrov, R.; Robbe-Dubois, S.; Tatulli, E.

    2012-05-01

    Aims: We study the sub-AU-scale circumstellar environment of the Herbig Ae star HD 144432 with near-infrared VLTI/AMBER observations to investigate the structure of its inner dust disk. Methods: The interferometric observations were carried out with the AMBER instrument in the H and K band. We interpret the measured H- and K-band visibilities, the near- and mid-infrared visibilities from the literature, and the spectral energy distribution (SED) of HD 144432 by using geometric ring models and ring-shaped temperature-gradient disk models with power-law temperature distributions. Results: We derive a K-band ring-fit radius of 0.17 ± 0.01 AU and an H-band radius of 0.18 ± 0.01 AU (for a distance of 145 pc). This measured K-band radius of ~0.17 AU lies in the range between the dust sublimation radius of ~0.13 AU (predicted for a dust sublimation temperature of 1500 K and gray dust) and the prediction of models including backwarming (~0.27 AU). We find that an additional extended halo component is required in both the geometric and temperature-gradient modeling. In the best-fit temperature-gradient model, the disk consists of two components. The inner part of the disk is a thin ring with an inner radius of ~0.21 AU, a temperature of ~1600 K, and a ring thickness ~0.02 AU. The outer part extends from ~1 AU to ~10 AU with an inner temperature of ~400 K. We find that the disk is nearly face-on with an inclination angle of <28°. Conclusions: Our temperature-gradient modeling suggests that the near-infrared excess is dominated by emission from a narrow, bright rim located at the dust sublimation radius, while an extended halo component contributes ~6% to the total flux at 2 μm. The mid-infrared model emission has a two-component structure with ~20% of the flux originating from the inner ring and the rest from the outer parts. This two-component structure is indicative of a disk gap, which is possibly caused by the shadow of a puffed-up inner rim. Based on observations

  14. Using He I λ10830 to Diagnose Mass Flows Around Herbig Ae/Be Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauley, Paul W.; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    The pre-main sequence Herbig Ae/Be stars (HAEBES) are the intermediate mass cousins of the low mass T Tauri stars (TTSs). However, it is not clear that the same accretion and mass outflow mechanisms operate identically in both mass regimes. Classical TTSs (CTTSs) accrete material from their disks along stellar magnetic field lines in a scenario called magnetospheric accretion. Magnetospheric accretion requires a strong stellar dipole field in order to truncate the inner gas disk. These fields are either absent or very weak on a large majority of HAEBES, challenging the view that magnetospheric accretion is the dominant accretion mechanism. If magnetospheric accretion does not operate similarly around HAEBES as it does around CTTSs, then strong magnetocentrifugal outflows, which are directly linked to accretion and are ubiquitous around CTTSs, may be driven less efficiently from HAEBE systems. Here we present high resolution spectroscopic observations of the He I λ10830 line in a sample of 48 HAEBES. He I λ10830 is an excellent tracer of both mass infall and outflow which is directly manifested as red and blue-shifted absorption in the profile morphologies. These features, among others, are common in our sample. The occurrence of both red and blue-shifted absorption profiles is less frequent, however, than is found in CTTSs. Statistical contingency tests confirm this difference at a significant level. In addition, we find strong evidence for smaller disk truncation radii in the objects displaying red-shifted absorption profiles. This is expected for HAEBES experiencing magnetospheric accretion based on their large rotation rates and weak magnetic field strengths. Finally, the low incidence of blue-shifted absorption in our sample compared to CTTSs and the complete lack of simultaneous red and blue-shifted absorption features suggests that magnetospheric accretion in HAEBES is less efficient at driving strong outflows. The stellar wind-like outflows that are

  15. A Complete Sequence of the T. tengcongensis Genome

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Qiyu; Tian, Yuqing; Li, Wei; Xu, Zuyuan; Xuan, Zhenyu; Hu, Songnian; Dong, Wei; Yang, Jian; Chen, Yanjiong; Xue, Yanfen; Xu, Yi; Lai, Xiaoqin; Huang, Li; Dong, Xiuzhu; Ma, Yanhe; Ling, Lunjiang; Tan, Huarong; Chen, Runsheng; Wang, Jian; Yu, Jun; Yang, Huanming

    2002-01-01

    Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis is a rod-shaped, gram-negative, anaerobic eubacterium that was isolated from a freshwater hot spring in Tengchong, China. Using a whole-genome-shotgun method, we sequenced its 2,689,445-bp genome from an isolate, MB4T (Genbank accession no. AE008691). The genome encodes 2588 predicted coding sequences (CDS). Among them, 1764 (68.2%) are classified according to homology to other documented proteins, and the rest, 824 CDS (31.8%), are functionally unknown. One of the interesting features of the T. tengcongensis genome is that 86.7% of its genes are encoded on the leading strand of DNA replication. Based on protein sequence similarity, the T. tengcongensis genome is most similar to that of Bacillus halodurans, a mesophilic eubacterium, among all fully sequenced prokaryotic genomes up to date. Computational analysis on genes involved in basic metabolic pathways supports the experimental discovery that T. tengcongensis metabolizes sugars as principal energy and carbon source and utilizes thiosulfate and element sulfur, but not sulfate, as electron acceptors. T. tengcongensis, as a gram-negative rod by empirical definitions (such as staining), shares many genes that are characteristics of gram-positive bacteria whereas it is missing molecular components unique to gram-negative bacteria. A strong correlation between the G + C content of tDNA and rDNA genes and the optimal growth temperature is found among the sequenced thermophiles. It is concluded that thermophiles are a biologically and phylogenetically divergent group of prokaryotes that have converged to sustain extreme environmental conditions over evolutionary timescale. [Supplemental material is available online at http://www.genome.org.] PMID:11997336

  16. Hemolytic anemia and distal renal tubular acidosis in two Indian patients homozygous for SLC4A1/AE1 mutation A858D

    PubMed Central

    Shmukler, Boris E.; Kedar, Prabhakar S.; Warang, Prashant; Desai, Mukesh; Madkaikar, Manisha; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Colah, Roshan B.; Alper, Seth L.

    2012-01-01

    Familial distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) can be caused by mutations in the Cl−/HCO3− exchanger of the renal Type A intercalated cell, kidney AE1/SLC4A1. dRTA-associated AE1 mutations have been reported in families from North America, Europe, Thailand, Malaysia, Papua-New Guinea, Taiwan, and the Philipines, but not India. The dRTA mutation AE1 A858D has been detected only in the context of compound heterozygosity. We report here two unrelated Indian patients with combined hemolytic anemia and dRTA who share homozygous A858D mutations of the AE1/SLC4A1 gene. The mutation creates a novel restriction site that is validated for diagnostic screening. PMID:20799361

  17. A Novel HIV-1 Second-Generation Recombinant Form (CRF01_AE/07_BC) Among Heterosexuals in Nei Monggoi Autonomous Region in China.

    PubMed

    An, Minghui; Han, Xiaoxu; Zhao, Bin; Xu, Junjie; Chu, Zhenxing; Shang, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Increasing second-generation recombinant forms (CRF01_AE/07_BC) have been detected in China recently. Here, we isolated a novel CRF01_AE/07_BC second-generation recombinant form in HIV-1-positive Nei Monggoi's heterosexuals with one CRF07_BC inserted into the CRF01_AE backbone. Polygenetic analyses showed that the CRF01_AE region was grouped with the previously reported cluster 5 lineage, which spreads among the sexual population in north of China, inferring that this recombinant event occurred through heterosexual contact in the north of China possibly. The growing emergence of recombinant forms means coexistence of multiple strains and complexity of the HIV-1 epidemic, which reminds us of the urgent necessity to focus the HIV surveillance among the high-risk populations nationwide in China, particularly to enhance preventive measures in HIV-1 low-prevalence areas. PMID:27018546

  18. Activity and distribution of intracellular carbonic anhydrase II and their effects on the transport activity of anion exchanger AE1/SLC4A1

    PubMed Central

    Al-Samir, Samer; Papadopoulos, Symeon; Scheibe, Renate J; Meißner, Joachim D; Cartron, Jean-Pierre; Sly, William S; Alper, Seth L; Gros, Gerolf; Endeward, Volker

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the previously published ‘metabolon hypothesis’ postulating that a close association of the anion exchanger 1 (AE1) and cytosolic carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) exists that greatly increases the transport activity of AE1. We study whether there is a physical association of and direct functional interaction between CAII and AE1 in the native human red cell and in tsA201 cells coexpressing heterologous fluorescent fusion proteins CAII-CyPet and YPet-AE1. In these doubly transfected tsA201 cells, YPet-AE1 is clearly associated with the cell membrane, whereas CAII-CyPet is homogeneously distributed throughout the cell in a cytoplasmic pattern. Förster resonance energy transfer measurements fail to detect close proximity of YPet-AE1 and CAII-CyPet. The absence of an association of AE1 and CAII is supported by immunoprecipitation experiments using Flag-antibody against Flag-tagged AE1 expressed in tsA201 cells, which does not co-precipitate native CAII but co-precipitates coexpressed ankyrin. Both the CAII and the AE1 fusion proteins are fully functional in tsA201 cells as judged by CA activity and by cellular HCO3− permeability () sensitive to inhibition by 4,4′-Diisothiocyano-2,2′-stilbenedisulfonic acid. Expression of the non-catalytic CAII mutant V143Y leads to a drastic reduction of endogenous CAII and to a corresponding reduction of total intracellular CA activity. Overexpression of an N-terminally truncated CAII lacking the proposed site of interaction with the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail of AE1 substantially increases intracellular CA activity, as does overexpression of wild-type CAII. These variously co-transfected tsA201 cells exhibit a positive correlation between cellular and intracellular CA activity. The relationship reflects that expected from changes in cytoplasmic CA activity improving substrate supply to or removal from AE1, without requirement for a CAII–AE1 metabolon involving physical interaction. A functional

  19. Integrating sequence, evolution and functional genomics in regulatory genomics

    PubMed Central

    Vingron, Martin; Brazma, Alvis; Coulson, Richard; van Helden, Jacques; Manke, Thomas; Palin, Kimmo; Sand, Olivier; Ukkonen, Esko

    2009-01-01

    With genome analysis expanding from the study of genes to the study of gene regulation, 'regulatory genomics' utilizes sequence information, evolution and functional genomics measurements to unravel how regulatory information is encoded in the genome. PMID:19226437

  20. Mutations in the chloride-bicarbonate exchanger gene AE1 cause autosomal dominant but not autosomal recessive distal renal tubular acidosis

    PubMed Central

    Karet, F. E.; Gainza, F. J.; Györy, A. Z.; Unwin, R. J.; Wrong, O.; Tanner, M. J. A.; Nayir, A.; Alpay, H.; Santos, F.; Hulton, S. A.; Bakkaloglu, A.; Ozen, S.; Cunningham, M. J.; di Pietro, A.; Walker, W. G.; Lifton, R. P.

    1998-01-01

    Primary distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is characterized by reduced ability to acidify urine, variable hyperchloremic hypokalemic metabolic acidosis, nephrocalcinosis, and nephrolithiasis. Kindreds showing either autosomal dominant or recessive transmission are described. Mutations in the chloride-bicarbonate exchanger AE1 have recently been reported in four autosomal dominant dRTA kindreds, three of these altering codon Arg589. We have screened 26 kindreds with primary dRTA for mutations in AE1. Inheritance was autosomal recessive in seventeen kindreds, autosomal dominant in one, and uncertain due to unknown parental phenotype or sporadic disease in eight kindreds. No mutations in AE1 were detected in any of the autosomal recessive kindreds, and analysis of linkage showed no evidence of linkage of recessive dRTA to AE1. In contrast, heterozygous mutations in AE1 were identified in the one known dominant dRTA kindred, in one sporadic case, and one kindred with two affected brothers. In the dominant kindred, the mutation Arg-589/Ser cosegregated with dRTA in the extended pedigree. An Arg-589/His mutation in the sporadic case proved to be a de novo mutation. In the third kindred, affected brothers both have an intragenic 13-bp duplication resulting in deletion of the last 11 amino acids of AE1. These mutations were not detected in 80 alleles from unrelated normal individuals. These findings underscore the key role of Arg-589 and the C terminus in normal AE1 function, and indicate that while mutations in AE1 cause autosomal dominant dRTA, defects in this gene are not responsible for recessive disease. PMID:9600966