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Sample records for aedes aegypti mosquitoes

  1. Neuropeptidomics of the mosquito Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neuropeptidomic data were collected on the mosquito Ae. aegypti which is considered the most tractable mosquito species for physiological and endocrine studies. The data were solely obtained by direct mass spectrometric profiling, including tandem fragmentation, of selected tissues from single speci...

  2. Oviposition and olfaction responses of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to insecticides.

    PubMed

    Canyon, D V; Muller, R

    2013-12-01

    Insecticide applications are not particularly effective on Aedes aegypti mosquitoes which has been attributed to their 'closet' behaviour, or ability to rest in places that remain unexposed to insecticides. Some researchers have suggested that insecticides repel mosquitoes, which would result in less exposure and increased dispersal. If repellence due to insecticides is a fact, acquiring a vector-borne disease, such as dengue, could legitimately be attributed to local vector control efforts and this would lead to restitution claims. This study thus investigated the effect of insecticide presence on mosquito behaviour indirectly via oviposition and directly via olfactory response. In all experiments, oviposition in each insecticide compared to its water and ethanol controls was not significantly different. This indicates that Ae. aegypti mosquitoes are not affected by insecticide presence and that increased dispersal is unlikely to be caused by vector control spraying.

  3. [Detection of Aedes (Stegomyia) Aegypti L. mosquitoes in Sochi city].

    PubMed

    Riabova, T E; Iunicheva, Iu V; Markovich, N Ia; Ganushkina, L A; Orabeĭ, V G; Sergiev, V P

    2005-01-01

    Few Aedes aegypti females were found when collecting the mosquitoes attacking human beings in the Central District of Sochi in August to September 2001-2004. Ae. aegypti, a vector of dangerous causative agents of diseases, such as yellow and Aden fevers, appeared on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus is recorded after its long absence. By taking into account the potential epidemic value of Ae. aegypti, it is necessary to make a monitoring in the cities, towns, and settlements to establish the spread, number, and the breading sites of mosquitoes in the given area and to prevent their mass reproduction. The effectiveness of Ae. albopictus as a vector of Aden fever has been established in different regions of the world. Entomological surveys for Ae. albopictus should be made in the areas of Russia where Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were distributed early in the past century, particularly in the southern port towns and settlements of Russia. Ae. albopictus is potentially able to spread to the north further than is Ae. aegypti.

  4. Formulas of components of citronella oil against mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti).

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wey-Shin; Yen, Jui-Hung; Wang, Yei-Shung

    2013-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is an epidemic vector of several diseases such as dengue fever and yellow fever. Several pesticides are used to control the mosquito population. Because of their frequent use, some mosquitoes have developed resistance. In this study, we used the Y-tube olfactometer to test essential oils of Cymbopogon species and screened specific formulas of components as repellents against Ae. aegypti. At 400 μL, the extracted oil of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) and myrcene produced a low-active response by inhibiting mosquito host-seeking activity. Citronella grass, lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), citral and myrcene also produced a low-treatment response to repellents, for more potential to affect host-seeking behavior. Furthermore, the mixture of citral, myrcene, and citronellal oil (C:M:Ci = 6:4:1) greatly affected and inhibited host-seeking behavior (76% active response; 26% treatment response with 40 μL; 42.5%, 18% with 400 μL; and 19%, 23% with 1000 μL). As compared with the result for N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET; 44%, 22% with 400 μL), adjusting the composition formulas of citronella oil had a synergistic effect, for more effective repellent against Ae. aegypti. PMID:23998314

  5. Public Health Response to Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus Mosquitoes Invading California, USA.

    PubMed

    Porse, Charsey Cole; Kramer, Vicki; Yoshimizu, Melissa Hardstone; Metzger, Marco; Hu, Renjie; Padgett, Kerry; Vugia, Duc J

    2015-10-01

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, primary vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses, were recently detected in California, USA. The threat of potential local transmission of these viruses increases as more infected travelers arrive from affected areas. Public health response has included enhanced human and mosquito surveillance, education, and intensive mosquito control.

  6. Population structure of the mosquito Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, S B; Boots, M; Frantz, A C; Butlin, R K

    2013-12-01

    Eleven microsatellite markers were used to determine the genetic population structure and spread of Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Pakistan using mosquitoes collected from 13 different cities. There is a single genetic cluster of Ae. aegypti in Pakistan with a pattern of isolation by distance within the population. The low level of isolation by distance suggests the long-range passive dispersal of this mosquito, which may be facilitated by the tyre trade in Pakistan. A decrease in genetic diversity from south to north suggests a recent spread of this mosquito from Karachi. A strong negative correlation between genetic distance and the quality of road connections shows that populations in cities connected by better road networks are less differentiated, which suggests the human-aided passive dispersal of Ae. aegypti in Pakistan. Dispersal on a large spatial scale may facilitate the strategy of introducing transgenic Ae. aegypti or intracellular bacteria such as Wolbachia to control the spread of dengue disease in Pakistan, but it also emphasizes the need for simple measures to control container breeding sites.

  7. Origin of the Dengue Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti, in California

    PubMed Central

    Gloria-Soria, Andrea; Brown, Julia E.; Kramer, Vicki; Hardstone Yoshimizu, Melissa; Powell, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever is among the most widespread vector-borne infectious diseases. The primary vector of dengue is the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Ae. aegypti is prevalent in the tropics and sub-tropics and is closely associated with human habitats outside its native range of Africa. While long established in the southeastern United States of America where dengue is re-emerging, breeding populations have never been reported from California until the summer of 2013. Using 12 highly variable microsatellite loci and a database of reference populations, we have determined that the likely source of the California introduction is the southeastern United States, ruling out introductions from abroad, from the geographically closer Arizona or northern Mexico populations, or an accidental release from a research laboratory. The power to identify the origin of new introductions of invasive vectors of human disease relies heavily on the availability of a panel of reference populations. Our work demonstrates the importance of generating extensive reference databases of genetically fingerprinted human-disease vector populations to aid public health efforts to prevent the introduction and spread of vector-borne diseases. PMID:25077804

  8. Origin of the dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, in California.

    PubMed

    Gloria-Soria, Andrea; Brown, Julia E; Kramer, Vicki; Hardstone Yoshimizu, Melissa; Powell, Jeffrey R

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever is among the most widespread vector-borne infectious diseases. The primary vector of dengue is the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Ae. aegypti is prevalent in the tropics and sub-tropics and is closely associated with human habitats outside its native range of Africa. While long established in the southeastern United States of America where dengue is re-emerging, breeding populations have never been reported from California until the summer of 2013. Using 12 highly variable microsatellite loci and a database of reference populations, we have determined that the likely source of the California introduction is the southeastern United States, ruling out introductions from abroad, from the geographically closer Arizona or northern Mexico populations, or an accidental release from a research laboratory. The power to identify the origin of new introductions of invasive vectors of human disease relies heavily on the availability of a panel of reference populations. Our work demonstrates the importance of generating extensive reference databases of genetically fingerprinted human-disease vector populations to aid public health efforts to prevent the introduction and spread of vector-borne diseases.

  9. Intriguing olfactory proteins from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Yuko; Chen, Angela M.; Tsuruda, Jennifer M.; Cornel, Anthon J.; Debboun, Mustapha; Leal, Walter S.

    2004-09-01

    Four antennae-specific proteins (AaegOBP1, AaegOBP2, AaegOBP3, and AaegASP1) were isolated from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti and their full-length cDNAs were cloned. RT-PCR indicated that they are expressed in female and, to a lesser extent, in male antennae, but not in control tissues (legs). AaegOBP1 and AaegOBP3 showed significant similarity to previously identified mosquito odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) in cysteine spacing pattern and sequence. Two of the isolated proteins have a total of eight cysteine residues. The similarity of the spacing pattern of the cysteine residues and amino acid sequence to those of previously identified olfactory proteins suggests that one of the cysteine-rich proteins (AaegOBP2) is an OBP. The other (AaegASP1) did not belong to any group of known OBPs. Structural analyses indicate that six of the cysteine residues in AaegOBP2 are linked in a similar pattern to the previously known cysteine pairing in OBPs, i.e., Cys-24 Cys-55, Cys-51 Cys-104, Cys-95 Cys-113. The additional disulfide bridge, Cys-38 Cys-125, knits the extended C-terminal segment of the protein to a predicted α2-helix. As indicated by circular dichroism (CD) spectra, the extra rigidity seems to prevent the predicted formation of a C-terminal α-helix at low pH.

  10. Productivity and population density estimates of the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Williams, C R; Johnson, P H; Ball, T S; Ritchie, S A

    2013-09-01

    New mosquito control strategies centred on the modifying of populations require knowledge of existing population densities at release sites and an understanding of breeding site ecology. Using a quantitative pupal survey method, we investigated production of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (L.) (Stegomyia aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Cairns, Queensland, Australia, and found that garden accoutrements represented the most common container type. Deliberately placed 'sentinel' containers were set at seven houses and sampled for pupae over 10 weeks during the wet season. Pupal production was approximately constant; tyres and buckets represented the most productive container types. Sentinel tyres produced the largest female mosquitoes, but were relatively rare in the field survey. We then used field-collected data to make estimates of per premises population density using three different approaches. Estimates of female Ae. aegypti abundance per premises made using the container-inhabiting mosquito simulation (CIMSiM) model [95% confidence interval (CI) 18.5-29.1 females] concorded reasonably well with estimates obtained using a standing crop calculation based on pupal collections (95% CI 8.8-22.5) and using BG-Sentinel traps and a sampling rate correction factor (95% CI 6.2-35.2). By first describing local Ae. aegypti productivity, we were able to compare three separate population density estimates which provided similar results. We anticipate that this will provide researchers and health officials with several tools with which to make estimates of population densities.

  11. Mathematical model of temephos resistance in Aedes aegypti mosquito population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldila, D.; Nuraini, N.; Soewono, E.; Supriatna, A. K.

    2014-03-01

    Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue disease in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Dengue became major public concern in these countries due to the unavailability of vaccine or drugs for dengue disease in the market. Hence, the only way to control the spread of DF and DHF is by controlling the vectors carrying the disease, for instance with fumigation, temephos or genetic manipulation. Many previous studies conclude that Aedes aegypti may develop resistance to many kind of insecticide, including temephos. Mathematical model for transmission of temephos resistance in Aedes aegypti population is discussed in this paper. Nontrivial equilibrium point of the system and the corresponding existence are shown analytically. The model analysis have shown epidemiological trends condition that permits the coexistence of nontrivial equilibrium is given analytically. Numerical results are given to show parameter sensitivity and some cases of worsening effect values for illustrating possible conditions in the field.

  12. Experience- and age-mediated oviposition behaviour in the yellow fever mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti).

    PubMed

    Ruktanonchai, N W; Lounibos, L P; Smith, D L; Allan, S A

    2015-09-01

    In repeated behaviours such as those of feeding and reproduction, past experiences can inform future behaviour. By altering their behaviour in response to environmental stimuli, insects in highly variable landscapes can tailor their behaviour to their particular environment. In particular, female mosquitoes may benefit from plasticity in their choice of egg-laying site as these sites are often temporally variable and clustered. The opportunity to adapt egg-laying behaviour to past experience also exists for mosquito populations as females typically lay eggs multiple times throughout their lives. Whether experience and age affect egg-laying (or oviposition) behaviour in the mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) was assessed using a wind tunnel. Initially, gravid mosquitoes were provided with a cup containing either repellent or well water. After ovipositing in these cups, the mosquitoes were blood-fed and introduced into a wind tunnel. In this wind tunnel, an oviposition cup containing repellent was placed in the immediate vicinity of the gravid mosquitoes. A cup containing well water was placed at the opposite end of the tunnel so that if the females flew across the chamber, they encountered the well water cup, in which they readily laid eggs. Mosquitoes previously exposed to repellent cups became significantly more likely to later lay eggs in repellent cups, suggesting that previous experience with suboptimal oviposition sites informs mosquitoes of the characteristics of nearby oviposition sites. These results provide further evidence that mosquitoes modify behaviour in response to environmental information and are demonstrated in a vector species in which behavioural plasticity may be ecologically and epidemiologically meaningful.

  13. Investigations of Koutango Virus Infectivity and Dissemination Dynamics in Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo Lobo, Jaime M; Christofferson, Rebecca C; Mores, Christopher N

    2014-01-01

    Aedes aegypti has already been implicated in the emergence of dengue and chikungunya viruses in the southern US. Vector competence is the ability of a mosquito species to support transmission of an arbovirus, which is bounded by its ability to support replication and dissemination of the virus through the mosquito body to the salivary glands to be expectorated in the saliva at the time of feeding on a vertebrate host. Here, we investigate the vector competence of A. aegypti for the arbovirus koutango by orally challenging mosquitoes with two titers of virus. We calculated the effective vector competence, a cumulative measure of transmission capability weighted by mosquito survival, and determined that A. aegypti was competent at the higher dose only. We conclude that further investigation is needed to determine the infectiousness of vertebrate hosts to fully assess the emergence potential of this virus in areas rich in A. aegypti. PMID:25574140

  14. Winter Refuge for Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus Mosquitoes in Hanoi during Winter

    PubMed Central

    Tsunoda, Takashi; Cuong, Tran Chi; Dong, Tran Duc; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Le, Nguyen Hoang; Phong, Tran Vu; Minakawa, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    Dengue occurs throughout the year in Hanoi, Vietnam, despite winter low temperatures <10°C. During July 2010 to March 2012, we surveyed monthly for Aedes larvae and pupae in 120 houses in 8 Hanoi districts. Aedes albopictus preferred discarded containers in summer and pupal density drastically decreased in winter. Aedes aegypti preferred concrete tanks and this preference increased in winter. Even in winter, the lowest water temperature found in concrete tanks was >14°C, exceeding the developmental zero point of Ae. aegypti. Although jars, drums and concrete tanks were the dominant containers previously (1994–97) in Hanoi, currently the percentage of residences with concrete tanks was still high while jars and drums were quite low. Our study showed that concrete tanks with broken lids allowing mosquitoes access were important winter refuge for Ae. aegypti. We also indicate a concern about concrete tanks serving as foci for Ae. aegypti to expand their distribution in cooler regions. PMID:24752230

  15. Proteomic identification of dengue virus binding proteins in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and Aedes albopictus cells.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Maria de Lourdes; Limón-Camacho, Gustavo; Tovar, Rosalinda; Diaz-Badillo, Alvaro; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Black, William C

    2013-01-01

    The main vector of dengue in America is the mosquito Aedes aegypti, which is infected by dengue virus (DENV) through receptors of midgut epithelial cells. The envelope protein (E) of dengue virus binds to receptors present on the host cells through its domain III that has been primarily recognized to bind cell receptors. In order to identify potential receptors, proteins from mosquito midgut tissue and C6/36 cells were purified by affinity using columns with the recombinant E protein domain III (rE-DIII) or DENV particles bound covalently to Sepharose 4B to compare and evaluate their performance to bind proteins including putative receptors from female mosquitoes of Ae. aegypti. To determine their identity mass spectrometric analysis of purified proteins separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed. Our results indicate that both viral particles and rE-DIII bound proteins with the same apparent molecular weights of 57 and 67 kDa. In addition, viral particles bound high molecular weight proteins. Purified proteins identified were enolase, beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (beta-ARK), translation elongation factor EF-1 alpha/Tu, and cadherin. PMID:24324976

  16. Dengue virus 3 genotype I in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and eggs, Brazil, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Ana P P; Figueiredo, Leandra B; dos Santos, João R; Eiras, Alvaro E; Bonjardim, Cláudio A; Ferreira, Paulo C P; Kroon, Erna G

    2010-06-01

    Dengue virus type 3 genotype I was detected in Brazil during epidemics in 2002-2004. To confirm this finding, we identified this virus genotype in naturally infected field-caught Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and eggs. Results showed usefulness of virus investigations in vectors as a component of active epidemiologic surveillance. PMID:20507754

  17. Chikungunya Virus in Febrile Humans and Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes, Yucatan, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Cigarroa-Toledo, Nohemi; Blitvich, Bradley J.; Cetina-Trejo, Rosa C.; Talavera-Aguilar, Lourdes G.; Baak-Baak, Carlos M.; Torres-Chablé, Oswaldo M.; Hamid, Md-Nafiz; Friedberg, Iddo; González-Martinez, Pedro; Alonzo-Salomon, Gabriela; Rosado-Paredes, Elsy P.; Rivero-Cárdenas, Nubia; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe C.; Farfan-Ale, Jose A.; Garcia-Rejon, Julian E.

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was isolated from 12 febrile humans in Yucatan, Mexico, in 2015. One patient was co-infected with dengue virus type 1. Two additional CHIKV isolates were obtained from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes collected in the homes of patients. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the CHIKV isolates belong to the Asian lineage. PMID:27347760

  18. Mosquito activity of a series of chalcones and 2-pyrazoline derivatives against Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) transmit pathogens to humans, leading to diseases such as yellow fever and dengue fever. Repellents and insecticides are two common interventions to reduce mosquito biting and thereby disease risk. However, overreliance on a chemical or class of chemicals c...

  19. Chikungunya Virus in Febrile Humans and Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes, Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cigarroa-Toledo, Nohemi; Blitvich, Bradley J; Cetina-Trejo, Rosa C; Talavera-Aguilar, Lourdes G; Baak-Baak, Carlos M; Torres-Chablé, Oswaldo M; Hamid, Md-Nafiz; Friedberg, Iddo; González-Martinez, Pedro; Alonzo-Salomon, Gabriela; Rosado-Paredes, Elsy P; Rivero-Cárdenas, Nubia; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe C; Farfan-Ale, Jose A; Garcia-Rejon, Julian E; Machain-Williams, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was isolated from 12 febrile humans in Yucatan, Mexico, in 2015. One patient was co-infected with dengue virus type 1. Two additional CHIKV isolates were obtained from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes collected in the homes of patients. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the CHIKV isolates belong to the Asian lineage. PMID:27347760

  20. Wolbachia Blocks Currently Circulating Zika Virus Isolates in Brazilian Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Heverton Leandro Carneiro; Rocha, Marcele Neves; Dias, Fernando Braga Stehling; Mansur, Simone Brutman; Caragata, Eric Pearce; Moreira, Luciano Andrade

    2016-06-01

    The recent association of Zika virus with cases of microcephaly has sparked a global health crisis and highlighted the need for mechanisms to combat the Zika vector, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Wolbachia pipientis, a bacterial endosymbiont of insect, has recently garnered attention as a mechanism for arbovirus control. Here we report that Aedes aegypti harboring Wolbachia are highly resistant to infection with two currently circulating Zika virus isolates from the recent Brazilian epidemic. Wolbachia-harboring mosquitoes displayed lower viral prevalence and intensity and decreased disseminated infection and, critically, did not carry infectious virus in the saliva, suggesting that viral transmission was blocked. Our data indicate that the use of Wolbachia-harboring mosquitoes could represent an effective mechanism to reduce Zika virus transmission and should be included as part of Zika control strategies. PMID:27156023

  1. Site-Specific Cassette Exchange Systems in the Aedes aegypti Mosquito and the Plutella xylostella Moth

    PubMed Central

    Haghighat-Khah, Roya Elaine; Scaife, Sarah; Martins, Sara; St John, Oliver; Matzen, Kelly Jean; Morrison, Neil; Alphey, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Genetically engineered insects are being evaluated as potential tools to decrease the economic and public health burden of mosquitoes and agricultural pest insects. Here we describe a new tool for the reliable and targeted genome manipulation of pest insects for research and field release using recombinase mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) mechanisms. We successfully demonstrated the established ΦC31-RMCE method in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, which is the first report of RMCE in mosquitoes. A new variant of this RMCE system, called iRMCE, combines the ΦC31-att integration system and Cre or FLP-mediated excision to remove extraneous sequences introduced as part of the site-specific integration process. Complete iRMCE was achieved in two important insect pests, Aedes aegypti and the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, demonstrating the transferability of the system across a wide phylogenetic range of insect pests. PMID:25830287

  2. Wolbachia Blocks Currently Circulating Zika Virus Isolates in Brazilian Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Heverton Leandro Carneiro; Rocha, Marcele Neves; Dias, Fernando Braga Stehling; Mansur, Simone Brutman; Caragata, Eric Pearce; Moreira, Luciano Andrade

    2016-06-01

    The recent association of Zika virus with cases of microcephaly has sparked a global health crisis and highlighted the need for mechanisms to combat the Zika vector, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Wolbachia pipientis, a bacterial endosymbiont of insect, has recently garnered attention as a mechanism for arbovirus control. Here we report that Aedes aegypti harboring Wolbachia are highly resistant to infection with two currently circulating Zika virus isolates from the recent Brazilian epidemic. Wolbachia-harboring mosquitoes displayed lower viral prevalence and intensity and decreased disseminated infection and, critically, did not carry infectious virus in the saliva, suggesting that viral transmission was blocked. Our data indicate that the use of Wolbachia-harboring mosquitoes could represent an effective mechanism to reduce Zika virus transmission and should be included as part of Zika control strategies.

  3. Adult survivorship of the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti varies seasonally in central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Leon E; Jeffery, Jason A L; Trewin, Brendan J; Wockner, Leesa F; Nguyen, Thi Yen; Nguyen, Hoang Le; Nghia, Le Trung; Hine, Emma; Ryan, Peter A; Kay, Brian H

    2014-02-01

    The survival characteristics of the mosquito Aedes aegypti affect transmission rates of dengue because transmission requires infected mosquitoes to survive long enough for the virus to infect the salivary glands. Mosquito survival is assumed to be high in tropical, dengue endemic, countries like Vietnam. However, the survival rates of wild populations of mosquitoes are seldom measured due the difficulty of predicting mosquito age. Hon Mieu Island in central Vietnam is the site of a pilot release of Ae. aegypti infected with a strain of Wolbachia pipientis bacteria (wMelPop) that induces virus interference and mosquito life-shortening. We used the most accurate mosquito age grading approach, transcriptional profiling, to establish the survival patterns of the mosquito population from the population age structure. Furthermore, estimations were validated on mosquitoes released into a large semi-field environment consisting of an enclosed house, garden and yard to incorporate natural environmental variability. Mosquito survival was highest during the dry/cool (January-April) and dry/hot (May-August) seasons, when 92 and 64% of Hon Mieu mosquitoes had survived to an age that they were able to transmit dengue (12 d), respectively. This was reduced to 29% during the wet/cool season from September to December. The presence of Ae. aegypti older than 12 d during each season is likely to facilitate the observed continuity of dengue transmission in the region. We provide season specific Ae. aegypti survival models for improved dengue epidemiology and evaluation of mosquito control strategies that aim to reduce mosquito survival to break the dengue transmission cycle.

  4. Adult Survivorship of the Dengue Mosquito Aedes aegypti Varies Seasonally in Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Hugo, Leon E.; Jeffery, Jason A. L.; Trewin, Brendan J.; Wockner, Leesa F.; Thi Yen, Nguyen; Le, Nguyen Hoang; Nghia, Le Trung; Hine, Emma; Ryan, Peter A.; Kay, Brian H.

    2014-01-01

    The survival characteristics of the mosquito Aedes aegypti affect transmission rates of dengue because transmission requires infected mosquitoes to survive long enough for the virus to infect the salivary glands. Mosquito survival is assumed to be high in tropical, dengue endemic, countries like Vietnam. However, the survival rates of wild populations of mosquitoes are seldom measured due the difficulty of predicting mosquito age. Hon Mieu Island in central Vietnam is the site of a pilot release of Ae. aegypti infected with a strain of Wolbachia pipientis bacteria (wMelPop) that induces virus interference and mosquito life-shortening. We used the most accurate mosquito age grading approach, transcriptional profiling, to establish the survival patterns of the mosquito population from the population age structure. Furthermore, estimations were validated on mosquitoes released into a large semi-field environment consisting of an enclosed house, garden and yard to incorporate natural environmental variability. Mosquito survival was highest during the dry/cool (January-April) and dry/hot (May-August) seasons, when 92 and 64% of Hon Mieu mosquitoes had survived to an age that they were able to transmit dengue (12 d), respectively. This was reduced to 29% during the wet/cool season from September to December. The presence of Ae. aegypti older than 12 d during each season is likely to facilitate the observed continuity of dengue transmission in the region. We provide season specific Ae. aegypti survival models for improved dengue epidemiology and evaluation of mosquito control strategies that aim to reduce mosquito survival to break the dengue transmission cycle. PMID:24551251

  5. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: First Report on the Presence of the Arbovirus Mosquito Vector in Nouakchott.

    PubMed

    Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Brengues, Cécile; Faye, Ousmane; Simard, Frédéric; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital city, Nouakchott. We describe the development sites in which larvae of the two species were found, drawing attention to the risk for emergence of arbovirus transmission in the city. PMID:26335483

  6. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: First Report on the Presence of the Arbovirus Mosquito Vector in Nouakchott.

    PubMed

    Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Brengues, Cécile; Faye, Ousmane; Simard, Frédéric; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital city, Nouakchott. We describe the development sites in which larvae of the two species were found, drawing attention to the risk for emergence of arbovirus transmission in the city.

  7. Multiple factors contribute to anautogenous reproduction by the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Gulia-Nuss, Monika; Elliot, Anne; Brown, Mark R; Strand, Michael R

    2015-11-01

    Aedes aegypti is an anautogenous mosquito that must blood feed on a vertebrate host to produce and lay a clutch of eggs. The rockpool mosquito, Georgecraigius atropalpus, is related to A. aegypti but is a facultatively autogenous species that produces its first clutch of eggs shortly after emerging without blood feeding. Consumption of a blood meal by A. aegypti triggers the release of ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone (OEH) and insulin-like peptide 3 (ILP3) from the brain, which stimulate egg formation. OEH and ILP3 also stimulate egg formation in G. atropalpus but are released at eclosion independently of blood feeding. These results collectively suggest that blood meal dependent release of OEH and ILP3 is one factor that prevents A. aegypti from reproducing autogenously. Here, we examined two other factors that potentially inhibit autogeny in A. aegypti: teneral nutrient reserves and the ability of OEH and ILP3 to stimulate egg formation in the absence of blood feeding. Measures of nutrient reserves showed that newly emerged A. aegypti females had similar wet weights but significantly lower protein and glycogen reserves than G. atropalpus females when larvae were reared under identical conditions. OEH stimulated non-blood fed A. aegypti females to produce ecdysteroid hormone and package yolk into oocytes more strongly than ILP3. OEH also reduced host seeking and blood feeding behavior, yet females produced few mature eggs. Overall, our results indicate that multiple factors prevent A. aegypti from reproducing autogenously.

  8. Behavioral Response of Aedes aegypti Mosquito towards Essential Oils Using Olfactometer

    PubMed Central

    Uniyal, Ashish; Tikar, Sachin N; Mendki, Murlidhar J; Singh, Ram; Shukla, Shakti V; Agrawal, Om P; Veer, Vijay; Sukumaran, Devanathan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aedes aegypti mosquito is responsible for transmitting human diseases like dengue and chikungunya. Personal or space protection with insect repellents is a practical approach to reducing human mosquito contact, thereby minimizing disease transmission. Essential oils are natural volatile substances from plants used as protective measure against blood-sucking mosquitoes. Methods: Twenty-three essential oils were evaluated for their repellent effect against Ae. aegypti female mosquito in laboratory conditions using Y-tube olfactometer. Results: The essential oils exhibited varying degree of repellency. Litsea oil showed 50.31%, 60.2 %, and 77.26% effective mean repellency at 1 ppm, 10 ppm and 100 ppm respectively, while DEET exhibited 59.63%, 68.63%, 85.48% and DEPA showed 57.97%, 65.43%, and 80.62% repellency at respective above concentrations. Statistical analysis revealed that among the tested essential oils, litsea oil had effective repellency in comparison with DEET and DEPA against Ae. aegypti mosquito at all concentration. Essential oils, DEET and DEPA showed significant repellence against Ae. aegypti (P< 0.05) at all 3 concentration tested. Conclusion: Litsea oil exhibited effective percentage repellency similar to DEET and DEPA. The essential oils are natural plant products that may be useful for developing safer and newer herbal based effective mosquito repellents. PMID:27308295

  9. Methods for TALEN evaluation, use, and mutation detection in the mosquito Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Sanjay; Aryan, Azadeh; Haac, Mary Etna; Myles, Kevin M.; Adelman, Zach N.

    2016-01-01

    The generation and study of transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes provides an essential tool for elucidating the complex molecular biology of this important vector. Within the field, genetic manipulation has now surpassed the proof of principle stage and is now utilised in both applied and theoretical vector control strategies. The application of new instruments, technologies and techniques allows ever more controlled experiments to be conducted. In this text we describe microinjection of Ae. aegypti embryos in the context of evaluating and performing genomic editing with transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). PMID:26443221

  10. On the Seasonal Occurrence and Abundance of the Zika Virus Vector Mosquito Aedes Aegypti in the Contiguous United States

    PubMed Central

    Monaghan, Andrew J.; Morin, Cory W.; Steinhoff, Daniel F.; Wilhelmi, Olga; Hayden, Mary; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Reiskind, Michael; Lloyd, Alun L.; Smith, Kirk; Schmidt, Chris A.; Scalf, Paige E.; Ernst, Kacey

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: An ongoing Zika virus pandemic in Latin America and the Caribbean has raised concerns that travel-related introduction of Zika virus could initiate local transmission in the United States (U.S.) by its primary vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Methods: We employed meteorologically driven models for 2006-2015 to simulate the potential seasonal abundance of adult Aedes aegypti for fifty cities within or near the margins of its known U.S. range. Mosquito abundance results were analyzed alongside travel and socioeconomic factors that are proxies of viral introduction and vulnerability to human-vector contact.     Results: Meteorological conditions are largely unsuitable for Aedes aegypti over the U.S. during winter months (December-March), except in southern Florida and south Texas where comparatively warm conditions can sustain low-to-moderate potential mosquito abundance. Meteorological conditions are suitable for Aedes aegypti across all fifty cities during peak summer months (July-September), though the mosquito has not been documented in all cities. Simulations indicate the highest mosquito abundance occurs in the Southeast and south Texas where locally acquired cases of Aedes-transmitted viruses have been reported previously. Cities in southern Florida and south Texas are at the nexus of high seasonal suitability for Aedes aegypti and strong potential for travel-related virus introduction. Higher poverty rates in cities along the U.S.-Mexico border may correlate with factors that increase human exposure to Aedes aegypti.     Discussion: Our results can inform baseline risk for local Zika virus transmission in the U.S. and the optimal timing of vector control activities, and underscore the need for enhanced surveillance for Aedes mosquitoes and Aedes-transmitted viruses. PMID:27066299

  11. SEX DETERMINATION. A male-determining factor in the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Hall, Andrew Brantley; Basu, Sanjay; Jiang, Xiaofang; Qi, Yumin; Timoshevskiy, Vladimir A; Biedler, James K; Sharakhova, Maria V; Elahi, Rubayet; Anderson, Michelle A E; Chen, Xiao-Guang; Sharakhov, Igor V; Adelman, Zach N; Tu, Zhijian

    2015-06-12

    Sex determination in the mosquito Aedes aegypti is governed by a dominant male-determining factor (M factor) located within a Y chromosome-like region called the M locus. Here, we show that an M-locus gene, Nix, functions as an M factor in A. aegypti. Nix exhibits persistent M linkage and early embryonic expression, two characteristics required of an M factor. Nix knockout with clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 resulted in largely feminized genetic males and the production of female isoforms of two key regulators of sexual differentiation: doublesex and fruitless. Ectopic expression of Nix resulted in genetic females with nearly complete male genitalia. Thus, Nix is both required and sufficient to initiate male development. This study provides a foundation for mosquito control strategies that convert female mosquitoes into harmless males. PMID:25999371

  12. A novel multiple membrane blood-feeding system for investigating and maintaining Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yi-Pey

    2014-12-01

    A novel multiple membrane blood-feeding system for mosquitoes has been developed for the study and routine maintenance of Aedes aegypti L. and Aedes albopictus Skuse that require a meal of vertebrate blood to produce eggs. This blood-feeding system uses cattle collagen sausage-casing membrane to facilitate feeding. The efficiency of this blood-feeding system was compared to a live mice blood source. We observed that Ae. aegypti that fed on pig whole blood had 89.7% (w/o ATP) and 90.7% (w/ ATP) blood-feeding rates, which were not significantly different from the mice-fed ones (98.0%). Ae. albopictus fed on pig whole blood (w/ ATP) had a success rate of 84.4%, which was significantly different from the mice-fed mosquitoes (51.1%). The feeding rates did not differ between sausage-casing membrane and Parafilm-M(®). The survival rate, fecundity, pupation, and pupal emergence rates of Aedes females fed on pig whole blood were not significantly different from the mice-fed ones. The artificial blood feeder can be applied to replace live animals as blood sources. Considering that this simple, inexpensive, convenient, and efficient feeding device can be built with common laboratory materials for research on Aedes mosquitoes.

  13. Effective disposal of nitrogen waste in blood-fed Aedes aegypti mosquitoes requires alanine aminotransferase.

    PubMed

    Mazzalupo, Stacy; Isoe, Jun; Belloni, Virginia; Scaraffia, Patricia Y

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the mechanisms responsible for the success of female mosquitoes in their disposal of excess nitrogen, we investigated the role of alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) in blood-fed Aedes aegypti. Transcript and protein levels from the 2 ALAT genes were analyzed in sucrose- and blood-fed A. aegypti tissues. ALAT1 and ALAT2 exhibit distinct expression patterns in tissues during the first gonotrophic cycle. Injection of female mosquitoes with either double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-ALAT1 or dsRNA ALAT2 significantly decreased mRNA and protein levels of ALAT1 or ALAT2 in fat body, thorax, and Malpighian tubules compared with dsRNA firefly luciferase-injected control mosquitoes. The silencing of either A. aegypti ALAT1 or ALAT2 caused unexpected phenotypes such as a delay in blood digestion, a massive accumulation of uric acid in the midgut posterior region, and a significant decrease of nitrogen waste excretion during the first 48 h after blood feeding. Concurrently, the expression of genes encoding xanthine dehydrogenase and ammonia transporter (Rhesus 50 glycoprotein) were significantly increased in tissues of both ALAT1- and ALAT2-deficient females. Moreover, perturbation of ALAT1 and ALAT2 in the female mosquitoes delayed oviposition and reduced egg production. These novel findings underscore the efficient mechanisms that blood-fed mosquitoes use to avoid ammonia toxicity and free radical damage.-Mazzalupo, S., Isoe, J., Belloni, V., Scaraffia, P. Y. Effective disposal of nitrogen waste in blood-fed Aedes aegypti mosquitoes requires alanine aminotransferase.

  14. Laboratory and semi-field evaluation of Mosquito Dunks against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larvae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Fansiri, Thanyalak; Thavara, Usavadee; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Krasaesub, Somporn; Sithiprasasna, Ratana

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory bioassays and semi-field studies were conducted on the efficacy and longevity of Mosquito Dunks (7,000 ITU/mg Bti) in order to determine the concentration-response relationship and the effectiveness on the potency of the Bti product against Aedes mosquito species based on the WHO protocol standard methods and to determine the longevity of release for this product against Ae. aegypti mosquito larvae in water storage containers. This bio-potency study with the late 3rd instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus was carried out according to WHO standard protocols. The six concentrations of the Bti product used in each test were replicated 4 times with 25 mosquito larvae. Probit analysis was then used to determine the LC50 and LC95 which was equated with dosages of 1.02 and 1.86 ppm for Ae. aegypti; and 0.39 and 0.84 ppm for Ae. albopictus, which reveals a potency of 382.95 and 303.74 ITU/mg, respectively. The semi-field evaluation of this product in 200-liter earthen jars against 3rd instar larvae of Ae. aegypti showed satisfactory control of greater than 80% at 11 weeks post-treatment.

  15. The Aquaporin Gene Family of the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Lisa L.; Boudko, Dmitri Y.; Marinotti, Osvaldo; Carpenter, Victoria K.; Dawe, Angus L.; Hansen, Immo A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is the principal vector of the Dengue and yellow fever viruses. During feeding, an adult female can take up more than its own body weight in vertebrate blood. After a blood meal females excrete large amounts of urine through their excretion system, the Malpighian tubules (MT). Diuresis starts within seconds after the mosquito starts feeding. Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of membrane transporters that regulate the flow of water, glycerol and other small molecules across cellular membranes in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Our aim was to identify aquaporins that function as water channels, mediating transcellular water transport in MTs of adult female Ae. aegypti. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a bioinformatics approach we screened genome databases and identified six putative AQPs in the genome of Ae. aegypti. Phylogenetic analysis showed that five of the six Ae. aegypti AQPs have high similarity to classical water-transporting AQPs of vertebrates. Using microarray, reverse transcription and real time PCR analysis we found that all six AQPs are expressed in distinct patterns in mosquito tissues/body parts. AaAQP1, 4, and 5 are strongly expressed in the adult female MT. RNAi-mediated knockdown of the MT-expressed mosquito AQPs resulted in significantly reduced diuresis. Conclusions/Significance Our results support the notion that AQP1, 4, and 5 function as water transporters in the MTs of adult female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. Our results demonstrate the importance of these AQPs for mosquito diuresis after blood ingestion and highlight their potential as targets for the development of novel vector control strategies. PMID:21249121

  16. Heritable CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shengzhang; Lin, Jingyi; Held, Nicole L; Clem, Rollie J; Passarelli, A Lorena; Franz, Alexander W E

    2015-01-01

    In vivo targeted gene disruption is a powerful tool to study gene function. Thus far, two tools for genome editing in Aedes aegypti have been applied, zinc-finger nucleases (ZFN) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN). As a promising alternative to ZFN and TALEN, which are difficult to produce and validate using standard molecular biological techniques, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated sequence 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system has recently been discovered as a "do-it-yourself" genome editing tool. Here, we describe the use of CRISPR/Cas9 in the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. In a transgenic mosquito line expressing both Dsred and enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP) from the eye tissue-specific 3xP3 promoter in separated but tightly linked expression cassettes, we targeted the ECFP nucleotide sequence for disruption. When supplying the Cas9 enzyme and two sgRNAs targeting different regions of the ECFP gene as in vitro transcribed mRNAs for germline transformation, we recovered four different G1 pools (5.5% knockout efficiency) where individuals still expressed DsRed but no longer ECFP. PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing of PCR amplicons revealed indels in the ECFP target gene ranging from 2-27 nucleotides. These results show for the first time that CRISPR/Cas9 mediated gene editing is achievable in Ae. aegypti, paving the way for further functional genomics related studies in this mosquito species. PMID:25815482

  17. Mosquito larvicidal activity of aromatic medicinal plant oils against Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2006-06-01

    Larvicidal activity of essential oils derived from 11 aromatic medicinal plants against early 4th-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens was tested in the laboratory. At 100 ppm, the essential oils of all plants caused 100% mortality against Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens pallens. At 25 ppm, the essential oils of Citrus bergamia, Cuminum myrrha, and Pimenta racemosa caused 100% mortality against larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens pallens. The oil of C. begamia caused 32.5% and 24.5% mortality against Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens pallens at 12.5 ppm, but 24.2% and 0% mortality against Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens pallens at 6.25 ppm, respectively. The oil of P. racemosa caused 52.3% and 38.5% mortality against Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens pallens at 12.5 ppm, but 32.2% and 0% mortality against Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens pallens at 6.25 ppm, respectively. The larvicidal activity of oils of C. bergamia, C. myrrha, and P. racemosa was significantly reduced when used at 6.25 ppm. These plants warrant further studies as possible agents for mosquito control.

  18. RNAi-mediated gene knockdown and in vivo diuresis assay in adult female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Drake, Lisa L; Price, David P; Aguirre, Sarah E; Hansen, Immo A

    2012-07-14

    This video protocol demonstrates an effective technique to knockdown a particular gene in an insect and conduct a novel bioassay to measure excretion rate. This method can be used to obtain a better understanding of the process of diuresis in insects and is especially useful in the study of diuresis in blood-feeding arthropods that are able to take up huge amounts of liquid in a single blood meal. This RNAi-mediated gene knockdown combined with an in vivo diuresis assay was developed by the Hansen lab to study the effects of RNAi-mediated knockdown of aquaporin genes on Aedes aegypti mosquito diuresis. The protocol is setup in two parts: the first demonstration illustrates how to construct a simple mosquito injection device and how to prepare and inject dsRNA into the thorax of mosquitoes for RNAi-mediated gene knockdown. The second demonstration illustrates how to determine excretion rates in mosquitoes using an in vivo bioassay.

  19. The influence of diet on the use of near-infrared spectroscopy to determine the age of female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interventions targeting adult mosquitoes are used to combat transmission of vector-borne diseases, including dengue. Without available vaccines, targeting the primary vector, Aedes aegypti, is essential to prevent transmission. Older mosquitoes (>/='7 days) are of greatest epidemiological significan...

  20. The Dengue Virus Mosquito Vector Aedes aegypti at High Elevation in México

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Hayden, Mary H.; Welsh-Rodriguez, Carlos; Ochoa-Martinez, Carolina; Tapia-Santos, Berenice; Kobylinski, Kevin C.; Uejio, Christopher K.; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Monache, Luca Delle; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Steinhoff, Daniel F.; Eisen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    México has cities (e.g., México City and Puebla City) located at elevations > 2,000 m and above the elevation ceiling below which local climates allow the dengue virus mosquito vector Aedes aegypti to proliferate. Climate warming could raise this ceiling and place high-elevation cities at risk for dengue virus transmission. To assess the elevation ceiling for Ae. aegypti and determine the potential for using weather/climate parameters to predict mosquito abundance, we surveyed 12 communities along an elevation/climate gradient from Veracruz City (sea level) to Puebla City (∼2,100 m). Ae. aegypti was commonly encountered up to 1,700 m and present but rare from 1,700 to 2,130 m. This finding extends the known elevation range in México by > 300 m. Mosquito abundance was correlated with weather parameters, including temperature indices. Potential larval development sites were abundant in Puebla City and other high-elevation communities, suggesting that Ae. aegypti could proliferate should the climate become warmer. PMID:22987656

  1. Mosquito larvicidal activity of seaweeds extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohamed Yacoob Syed; Ravikumar, Sundaram; Beula, Johanson Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify the larvicidal activity of the seaweed extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus Methods Seaweed extracts of Ulva lactuca, Caulerpa racemosa (C. racemosa), Sargassum microystum, Caulerpa scalpelliformis, Gracilaria corticata, Turbinaria decurrens, Turbinaria conoides and Caulerpa toxifolia were dissolved in DMSO to prepare a graded series of concentration. The test for the larvicidal effect of seaweeds against mosquitos larvae was conducted in accordance with the WHO standard method. Batches of 25 early 4th instar larvae of three mosquitoes were transferred to 250 mL enamel bowl containing 199 mL of distilled water and 1 mL of plant extracts (10-100 µg). Each experiment was conducted with triplicate with concurrent a control group. Results Among the seaweeds extract, C. racemosa showed toxicity against 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi with equivalent LC50 value (0.055 6±0.010 3) µg/mL, (0.067 5±0.136 0) µg/mL and (0.066 1±0.007 6) µg/mL, respectively. Conclusions The present study concluded that, the mosquito larvicidal property of C. racemosa might be the prospective alternative source to control the mosquitoes.

  2. Temporal abundance of Aedes aegypti in Manaus, Brazil, measured by two trap types for adult mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Degener, Carolin Marlen; de Ázara, Tatiana Mingote Ferreira; Roque, Rosemary Aparecida; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; Nobre, Aline Araújo; Ohly, Jörg Johannes; Geier, Martin; Eiras, Álvaro Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    A longitudinal study was conducted in Manaus, Brazil, to monitor changes of adult Aedes aegypti (L.) abundance. The objectives were to compare mosquito collections of two trap types, to characterise temporal changes of the mosquito population, to investigate the influence of meteorological variables on mosquito collections and to analyse the association between mosquito collections and dengue incidence. Mosquito monitoring was performed fortnightly using MosquiTRAPs (MQT) and BG-Sentinel (BGS) traps between December 2008-June 2010. The two traps revealed opposing temporal infestation patterns, with highest mosquito collections of MQTs during the dry season and highest collections of BGS during the rainy seasons. Several meteorological variables were significant predictors of mosquito collections in the BGS. The best predictor was the relative humidity, lagged two weeks (in a positive relationship). For MQT, only the number of rainy days in the previous week was significant (in a negative relationship). The correlation between monthly dengue incidence and mosquito abundance in BGS and MQT was moderately positive and negative, respectively. Catches of BGS traps reflected better the dynamic of dengue incidence. The findings help to understand the effects of meteorological variables on mosquito infestation indices of two different traps for adult dengue vectors in Manaus. PMID:25494470

  3. Targeting gene expression to the female larval fat body of transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Totten, D C; Vuong, M; Litvinova, O V; Jinwal, U K; Gulia-Nuss, M; Harrell, R A; Beneš, H

    2013-02-01

    As the fat body is a critical tissue for mosquito development, metamorphosis, immune and reproductive system function, the characterization of regulatory modules targeting gene expression to the female mosquito fat body at distinct life stages is much needed for multiple, varied strategies for controlling vector-borne diseases such as dengue and malaria. The hexameric storage protein, Hexamerin-1.2, of the mosquito Aedes atropalpus is female-specific and uniquely expressed in the fat body of fourth instar larvae and young adults. We have identified in the Hex-1.2 gene, a short regulatory module that directs female-, tissue-, and stage-specific lacZ reporter gene expression using a heterologous promoter in transgenic lines of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. Male transgenic larvae and pupae of one line expressed no Escherichia coli β-galactosidase or transgene product; in two other lines reporter gene activity was highly female-biased. All transgenic lines expressed the reporter only in the fat body; however, lacZ mRNA levels were no different in males and females at any stage examined, suggesting that the gene regulatory module drives female-specific expression by post-transcriptional regulation in the heterologous mosquito. This regulatory element from the Hex-1.2 gene thus provides a new molecular tool for transgenic mosquito control as well as functional genetic analysis in aedine mosquitoes.

  4. Discovery of an alternate metabolic pathway for urea synthesis in adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Scaraffia, Patricia Y; Tan, Guanhong; Isoe, Jun; Wysocki, Vicki H; Wells, Michael A; Miesfeld, Roger L

    2008-01-15

    We demonstrate the presence of an alternate metabolic pathway for urea synthesis in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that converts uric acid to urea via an amphibian-like uricolytic pathway. For these studies, female mosquitoes were fed a sucrose solution containing (15)NH4Cl, [5-(15)N]-glutamine, [(15)N]-proline, allantoin, or allantoic acid. At 24 h after feeding, the feces were collected and analyzed in a mass spectrometer. Specific enzyme inhibitors confirmed that mosquitoes incorporate (15)N from (15)NH4Cl into [5-(15)N]-glutamine and use the (15)N of the amide group of glutamine to produce labeled uric acid. More importantly, we found that [(15)N2]-uric acid can be metabolized to [(15)N]-urea and be excreted as nitrogenous waste through an uricolytic pathway. Ae. aegypti express all three genes in this pathway, namely, urate oxidase, allantoinase, and allantoicase. The functional relevance of these genes in mosquitoes was shown by feeding allantoin or allantoic acid, which significantly increased unlabeled urea levels in the feces. Moreover, knockdown of urate oxidase expression by RNA interference demonstrated that this pathway is active in females fed blood or (15)NH4Cl based on a significant increase in uric acid levels in whole-body extracts and a reduction in [(15)N]-urea excretion, respectively. These unexpected findings could lead to the development of metabolism-based strategies for mosquito control.

  5. Environmental and Genetic Factors Determine Whether the Mosquito Aedes aegypti Lays Eggs without a Blood Meal

    PubMed Central

    Ariani, Cristina V.; Smith, Sophia C. L.; Osei-Poku, Jewelna; Short, Katherine; Juneja, Punita; Jiggins, Francis M.

    2015-01-01

    Some mosquito strains or species are able to lay eggs without taking a blood meal, a trait named autogeny. This may allow populations to persist through times or places where vertebrate hosts are scarce. Autogenous egg production is highly dependent on the environment in some species, but the ideal conditions for its expression in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are unknown. We found that 3.2% of females in a population of Ae. aegypti from Kenya were autogenous. Autogeny was strongly influenced by temperature, with many more eggs laid at 28°C compared with 22°C. Good nutrition in larval stages and feeding on higher concentrations of sugar solution during the adult stage both result in more autogenous eggs being produced. The trait also has a genetic basis, as not all Ae. aegypti genotypes can lay autogenously. We conclude that Ae. aegypti requires a favorable environment and a suitable genotype to be able to lay eggs without a blood meal. PMID:25646251

  6. Dynamics of the "popcorn" Wolbachia infection in outbred Aedes aegypti informs prospects for mosquito vector control.

    PubMed

    Yeap, H L; Mee, P; Walker, T; Weeks, A R; O'Neill, S L; Johnson, P; Ritchie, S A; Richardson, K M; Doig, C; Endersby, N M; Hoffmann, A A

    2011-02-01

    Forty percent of the world's population is at risk of contracting dengue virus, which produces dengue fever with a potentially fatal hemorrhagic form. The wMelPop Wolbachia infection of Drosophila melanogaster reduces life span and interferes with viral transmission when introduced into the mosquito Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue virus. Wolbachia has been proposed as an agent for preventing transmission of dengue virus. Population invasion by Wolbachia depends on levels of cytoplasmic incompatibility, fitness effects, and maternal transmission. Here we characterized these traits in an outbred genetic background of a potential target population of Ae. aegypti using two crossing schemes. Cytoplasmic incompatibility was strong in this background, and the maternal transmission rate of Wolbachia was high. The infection substantially reduced longevity of infected adult females, regardless of whether adults came from larvae cultured under high or low levels of nutrition or density. The infection reduced the viability of diapausing and nondiapausing eggs. Viability was particularly low when eggs were laid by older females and when diapausing eggs had been stored for a few weeks. The infection affected mosquito larval development time and adult body size under different larval nutrition levels and densities. The results were used to assess the potential for wMelPop-CLA to invade natural populations of Ae. aegypti and to develop recommendations for the maintenance of fitness in infected mosquitoes that need to compete against field insects. PMID:21135075

  7. Flushing effect of rain on container-inhabiting mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Koenraadt, C J M; Harrington, L C

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the role of heavy rain on container-inhabiting mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) populations, and how different species may have adapted to such conditions. Rains were created with a rain simulator calibrated to natural rain intensities in the habitats of two important vector species: Aedes aegypti (L.) from northern Thailand and Culex pipiens L. from New York state, USA. Immature stages of Ae. aegypti were able to resist the flushing effect of rain better than Cx. pipiens. This difference was most dramatic during the pupal stage. Fourth instars of Ae. aegypti were not affected by flushing when exposed for longer rain intervals (30 versus 60 min) or at a colder water temperature (24 versus 16 degrees C). In contrast, significantly more Cx. pipiens larvae flushed out with longer rain exposure. Warmer water temperatures also increased the proportion of Cx. pipiens flushed out, but mostly at the longest exposure time. Container position (tilted at a 7 degrees angle or level) did not affect proportions of fourth instars flushed out for both species. More accurate models of vector-borne diseases can be developed by incorporating the described effects of rain on container-breeding mosquito populations. Such models may provide more realistic assessments of disease risk and ensure optimal use of limited financial resources of mosquito control agencies.

  8. Stable transformation of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, with the Hermes element from the housefly.

    PubMed

    Jasinskiene, N; Coates, C J; Benedict, M Q; Cornel, A J; Rafferty, C S; James, A A; Collins, F H

    1998-03-31

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the world's most important vector of yellow fever and dengue viruses. Work is currently in progress to control the transmission of these viruses by genetically altering the capacity of wild Ae. aegypti populations to support virus replication. The germ-line transformation system reported here constitutes a major advance toward the implementation of this control strategy. A modified Hermes transposon carrying a 4.7-kb fragment of genomic DNA that includes a wild-type allele of the Drosophila melanogaster cinnabar (cn) gene was used to transform a white-eyed recipient strain of Ae. aegypti. Microinjection of preblastoderm mosquito embryos with this construct resulted in 50% of the emergent G0 adults showing some color in their eyes. Three transformed families were recovered, each resulting from an independent insertion event of the cn+-carrying transposon. The cn+ gene functioned as a semidominant transgene and segregated in Mendelian ratios. Hermes shows great promise as a vector for efficient, heritable, and stable transformation of this important mosquito vector species.

  9. Biogeography of the two major arbovirus mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae), in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the past ten years, the Indian Ocean region has been the theatre of severe epidemics of chikungunya and dengue. These outbreaks coincided with a high increase in populations of Aedes albopictus that outcompete its sister taxon Aedes aegypti in most islands sampled. The objective of this work was to update the entomological survey of the two Aedes species in the island of Madagascar which has to face these arboviroses. Methods The sampling of Aedes mosquitoes was conducted during two years, from October 2007 to October 2009, in fifteen localities from eight regions of contrasting climates. Captured adults were identified immediately whereas immature stages were bred until adult stage for determination. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using two mtDNA genes, COI and ND5 and trees were constructed by the maximum likelihood (ML) method with the gene time reversible (GTR) model. Experimental infections with the chikungunya virus strain 06.21 at a titer of 107.5 pfu/mL were performed to evaluate the vector competence of field-collected mosquitoes. Disseminated infection rates were measured fourteen days after infection by immunofluorescence assay performed on head squashes. Results The species Aedes aegypti was detected in only six sites in native forests and natural reserves. In contrast, the species Aedes albopictus was found in 13 out of the 15 sites sampled. Breeding sites were mostly found in man-made environments such as discarded containers, used tires, abandoned buckets, coconuts, and bamboo cuts. Linear regression models showed that the abundance of Ae. albopictus was significantly influenced by the sampling region (F = 62.00, p < 2.2 × 10-16) and period (F = 36.22, p = 2.548 × 10-13), that are associated with ecological and climate variations. Phylogenetic analysis of the invasive Ae. albopictus distinguished haplotypes from South Asia and South America from those of Madagascar, but the markers used were not discriminant enough to discern

  10. Characterization of a vasodilator from the salivary glands of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, J M

    1992-04-01

    Salivary gland homogenates and oil-induced saliva of the mosquito Aedes aegypti dilate the rabbit aortic ring and contract the guinea pig ileum. The vasodilatory activity is endothelium-dependent, heat-stable, sensitive to both trypsin and chymotrypsin treatments, and both smooth muscle activities cross-desensitize to the tachykinin peptide substance P. Both bioactivities co-elute when salivary gland homogenates are fractionated by reversed-phase HPLC. Molecular sieving chromatography indicates a relative molecular mass of 1400. A monoclonal antibody specific to the carboxy terminal region of tachykinins reacts with material in the posterior part of the central lobe of paraformaldehyde-fixed salivary glands. The presence of a vasodilatory peptide of the tachykinin family in the salivary glands of A. aegypti is proposed and its role in blood feeding is discussed. PMID:1375258

  11. Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes Exhibit Decreased Repellency by DEET following Previous Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Stanczyk, Nina M.; Brookfield, John F. Y.; Field, Linda M.; Logan, James G.

    2013-01-01

    DEET (N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide) is one of the most widely used mosquito repellents. Although DEET has been shown to be extremely effective, recent studies have revealed that certain individual insects are unaffected by its presence. A genetic basis for this has been shown in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, but, for the triatomine bug, Rhodnius prolixus, a decrease in response to DEET occurred shortly after previous exposure, indicating that non-genetic factors may also be involved in DEET “insensitivity”. In this study, we examined host-seeking behaviour and electrophysiological responses of A. aegypti after pre-exposure to DEET. We found that three hours after pre-exposure the mosquitoes showed behavioural insensitivity, and electroantennography revealed this correlated with the olfactory receptor neurons responding less to DEET. The change in behaviour as a result of pre-exposure to DEET has implications for the use of repellents and the ability of mosquitoes to overcome them. PMID:23437043

  12. Sialic acid expression in the mosquito Aedes aegypti and its possible role in dengue virus-vector interactions.

    PubMed

    Cime-Castillo, Jorge; Delannoy, Philippe; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Monroy-Martínez, Verónica; Harduin-Lepers, Anne; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto; Hernández-Hernández, Fidel de la Cruz; Zenteno, Edgar; Cabello-Gutiérrez, Carlos; Ruiz-Ordaz, Blanca H

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral disease which affects humans. DF is caused by the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes, which are transmitted to the host by the mosquito Aedes aegypti that has key roles in DENV infection, replication, and viral transmission (vector competence). Mosquito saliva also plays an important role during DENV transmission. In this study, we detected the presence of sialic acid (Sia) in Aedes aegypti tissues, which may have an important role during DENV-vector competence. We also identified genome sequences encoding enzymes involved in Sia pathways. The cDNA for Aedes aegypti CMP-Sia synthase (CSAS) was amplified, cloned, and functionally evaluated via the complementation of LEC29.Lec32 CSAS-deficient CHO cells. AedesCSAS-transfected LEC29.Lec32 cells were able to express Sia moieties on the cell surface. Sequences related to α-2,6-sialyltransferase were detected in the Aedes aegypti genome. Likewise, we identified Sia-α-2,6-DENV interactions in different mosquito tissues. In addition, we evaluated the possible role of sialylated molecules in a salivary gland extract during DENV internalization in mammalian cells. The knowledge of early DENV-host interactions could facilitate a better understanding of viral tropism and pathogenesis to allow the development of new strategies for controlling DENV transmission.

  13. Sialic Acid Expression in the Mosquito Aedes aegypti and Its Possible Role in Dengue Virus-Vector Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Cime-Castillo, Jorge; Delannoy, Philippe; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Monroy-Martínez, Verónica; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto; Hernández-Hernández, Fidel de la Cruz; Cabello-Gutiérrez, Carlos; Ruiz-Ordaz, Blanca H.

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral disease which affects humans. DF is caused by the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes, which are transmitted to the host by the mosquito Aedes aegypti that has key roles in DENV infection, replication, and viral transmission (vector competence). Mosquito saliva also plays an important role during DENV transmission. In this study, we detected the presence of sialic acid (Sia) in Aedes aegypti tissues, which may have an important role during DENV-vector competence. We also identified genome sequences encoding enzymes involved in Sia pathways. The cDNA for Aedes aegypti CMP-Sia synthase (CSAS) was amplified, cloned, and functionally evaluated via the complementation of LEC29.Lec32 CSAS-deficient CHO cells. AedesCSAS-transfected LEC29.Lec32 cells were able to express Sia moieties on the cell surface. Sequences related to α-2,6-sialyltransferase were detected in the Aedes aegypti genome. Likewise, we identified Sia-α-2,6-DENV interactions in different mosquito tissues. In addition, we evaluated the possible role of sialylated molecules in a salivary gland extract during DENV internalization in mammalian cells. The knowledge of early DENV-host interactions could facilitate a better understanding of viral tropism and pathogenesis to allow the development of new strategies for controlling DENV transmission. PMID:25874215

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Chikungunya Virus Isolated from an Aedes aegypti Mosquito during an Outbreak in Yemen, 2011.

    PubMed

    Fahmy, Nermeen T; Klena, John D; Mohamed, Amr S; Zayed, Alia; Villinski, Jeffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus is recognized as a serious public health problem. The complete genome was sequenced for a chikungunya virus isolated from the mosquito Aedes aegypti during a 2011 outbreak in Al Hodayda, Yemen, which resulted in significant human fatalities. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this Yemeni isolate is most closely related to Indian Ocean strains of the east/central/south African genotype. PMID:26184944

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of Chikungunya Virus Isolated from an Aedes aegypti Mosquito during an Outbreak in Yemen, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Klena, John D.; Mohamed, Amr S.; Zayed, Alia; Villinski, Jeffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus is recognized as a serious public health problem. The complete genome was sequenced for a chikungunya virus isolated from the mosquito Aedes aegypti during a 2011 outbreak in Al Hodayda, Yemen, which resulted in significant human fatalities. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this Yemeni isolate is most closely related to Indian Ocean strains of the east/central/south African genotype. PMID:26184944

  16. Physiological recordings and RNA sequencing of the gustatory appendages of the yellow-fever mosquito Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electrophysiological recording of action potentials from sensory neurons of mosquitoes provides investigators a glimpse into the chemical perception of these disease vectors. We have recently identified a bitter sensing neuron in the labellum of female Aedes aegypti that responds to DEET and other ...

  17. Gustatory receptor neuron responds to DEET and other insect repellents in the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three gustatory receptor neurons were characterized for contact chemoreceptive sensilla on the labella of female yellow fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti. The neuron with the smallest amplitude spike responded to the feeding deterrent, quinine, as well as DEET and other insect repellents. Two other ...

  18. A leucokinin mimic elicits aversive behavior in mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) and inhibits the sugar taste neuron

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect kinins (leucokinins) are multifunctional peptides acting as neurohormones and neurotransmitters. In females of the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (L.), aedeskinins are known to stimulate fluid secretion from the renal organs (Malpighian tubules) and hindgut contractions by activating a G prot...

  19. A salivary gland-specific, maltase-like gene of the vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    James, A A; Blackmer, K; Racioppi, J V

    1989-01-30

    Genomic and cDNA clones of a gene expressed specifically in the salivary glands of adult Aedes aegypti have been isolated and sequenced. This gene encodes an abundant mRNA that is transcribed throughout the male salivary gland but only in the cells of the proximal lateral lobes of the female gland. The deduced protein has many basic amino acids, several possible sites for N-glycosylation, and displays striking similarities with the products of a yeast maltase gene and three previously unidentified genes from Drosophila melanogaster. We propose the name 'Maltase-like I' (MalI) to designate this gene. The presumed function of this gene product is to assist the mosquito in its sugar-feeding capabilities. The mosquito and fruitfly genes have similar structural features 5' to the protein coding regions, indicating that these genes may share common control mechanisms.

  20. A piperidine amide extracted from Piper longum L. fruit shows activity against Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae.

    PubMed

    Yang, Young-Cheol; Lee, Sang-Guei; Lee, Hee-Kwon; Kim, Moo-Key; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2002-06-19

    Mosquito larvicidal activity of Piper longum fruit-derived materials against the fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti was examined. A crude methanol extract of P. longum fruits was found to be active against the larvae, and the hexane fraction of the methanol extract showed a strong larvicidal activity of 100% mortality. The biologically active component of P. longum fruits was characterized as pipernonaline by spectroscopic analyses. The LC(50) value of pipernonaline was 0.25 mg/L. The toxicity of pipernonaline is comparable to that of pirimiphos-methyl as a mosquito larvicide. In tests with available components derived from P. longum, no activity was observed with piperettine, piperine, or piperlongumine.

  1. Bioefficacy of Mentha piperita essential oil against dengue fever mosquito Aedes aegypti L

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sarita; Wahab, Naim; Warikoo, Radhika

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the larvicidal and repellent potential of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of peppermint plant, Mentha piperita (M. piperita) against the larval and adult stages of Aedes aegypti (Ae. Aegypti). Methods The larvicidal potential of peppermint oil was evaluated against early fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti using WHO protocol. The mortality counts were made after 24 and 48 h, and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. The efficacy of peppermint oil as mosquito repellent was assessed using the human-bait technique. The measured area of one arm of a human volunteer was applied with the oil and the other arm was applied with ethanol. The mosquito bites on both the arms were recorded for 3 min after every 15 min. The experiment continued for 3 h and the percent protection was calculated. Results The essential oil extracted from M. piperita possessed excellent larvicidal efficiency against dengue vector. The bioassays showed an LC50 and LC90 value of 111.9 and 295.18 ppm, respectively after 24 h of exposure. The toxicity of the oil increased 11.8% when the larvae were exposed to the oil for 48 h. The remarkable repellent properties of M. piperita essential oil were established against adults Ae. aegypti. The application of oil resulted in 100% protection till 150 min. After next 30 min, only 1-2 bites were recorded as compared with 8-9 bites on the control arm. Conclusions The peppermint essential oil is proved to be efficient larvicide and repellent against dengue vector. Further studies are needed to identify the possible role of oil as adulticide, oviposition deterrent and ovicidal agent. The isolation of active ingredient from the oil could help in formulating strategies for mosquito control. PMID:23569733

  2. Genome engineering with CRISPR-Cas9 in the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Kistler, Kathryn E; Vosshall, Leslie B; Matthews, Benjamin J

    2015-04-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is a potent vector of the chikungunya, yellow fever, and dengue viruses, responsible for hundreds of millions of infections and over 50,000 human deaths per year. Mutagenesis in Ae. aegypti has been established with TALENs, ZFNs, and homing endonucleases, which require the engineering of DNA-binding protein domains to provide genomic target sequence specificity. Here, we describe the use of the CRISPR-Cas9 system to generate site-specific mutations in Ae. aegypti. This system relies on RNA-DNA base-pairing to generate targeting specificity, resulting in efficient and flexible genome-editing reagents. We investigate the efficiency of injection mix compositions, demonstrate the ability of CRISPR-Cas9 to generate different types of mutations via disparate repair mechanisms, and report stable germline mutations in several genomic loci. This work offers a detailed exploration into the use of CRISPR-Cas9 in Ae. aegypti that should be applicable to non-model organisms previously out of reach of genetic modification. PMID:25818303

  3. A Multipurpose, High-Throughput Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Chip for the Dengue and Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Evans, Benjamin R; Gloria-Soria, Andrea; Hou, Lin; McBride, Carolyn; Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Zhao, Hongyu; Powell, Jeffrey R

    2015-05-01

    The dengue and yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, contributes significantly to global disease burden. Genetic study of Aedes aegypti is essential to understanding its evolutionary history, competence as a disease vector, and the effects and efficacy of vector control methods. The prevalence of repeats and transposable elements in the Aedes aegypti genome complicates marker development and makes genome-wide genetic study challenging. To overcome these challenges, we developed a high-throughput genotyping chip, Axiom_aegypti1. This chip screens for 50,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms present in Aedes aegypti populations from around the world. The array currently used genotypes 96 samples simultaneously. To ensure that these markers satisfy assumptions commonly made in many genetic analyses, we tested for Mendelian inheritance and linkage disequilibrium in laboratory crosses and a wild population, respectively. We have validated more than 25,000 of these markers to date, and expect this number to increase with more sampling. We also present evidence of the chip's efficacy in distinguishing populations throughout the world. The markers on this chip are ideal for applications ranging from population genetics to genome-wide association studies. This tool makes rapid, cost-effective, and comparable genotype data attainable to diverse sets of Aedes aegypti researchers, from those interested in potential range shifts due to climate change to those characterizing the genetic underpinnings of its competence to transmit disease. PMID:25721127

  4. A Multipurpose, High-Throughput Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Chip for the Dengue and Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Evans, Benjamin R; Gloria-Soria, Andrea; Hou, Lin; McBride, Carolyn; Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Zhao, Hongyu; Powell, Jeffrey R

    2015-02-26

    The dengue and yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, contributes significantly to global disease burden. Genetic study of Aedes aegypti is essential to understanding its evolutionary history, competence as a disease vector, and the effects and efficacy of vector control methods. The prevalence of repeats and transposable elements in the Aedes aegypti genome complicates marker development and makes genome-wide genetic study challenging. To overcome these challenges, we developed a high-throughput genotyping chip, Axiom_aegypti1. This chip screens for 50,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms present in Aedes aegypti populations from around the world. The array currently used genotypes 96 samples simultaneously. To ensure that these markers satisfy assumptions commonly made in many genetic analyses, we tested for Mendelian inheritance and linkage disequilibrium in laboratory crosses and a wild population, respectively. We have validated more than 25,000 of these markers to date, and expect this number to increase with more sampling. We also present evidence of the chip's efficacy in distinguishing populations throughout the world. The markers on this chip are ideal for applications ranging from population genetics to genome-wide association studies. This tool makes rapid, cost-effective, and comparable genotype data attainable to diverse sets of Aedes aegypti researchers, from those interested in potential range shifts due to climate change to those characterizing the genetic underpinnings of its competence to transmit disease.

  5. Olfactory learning and memory in the disease vector mosquito Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Vinauger, Clément; Lutz, Eleanor K.; Riffell, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory learning in blood-feeding insects, such as mosquitoes, could play an important role in host preference and disease transmission. However, standardised protocols allowing testing of their learning abilities are currently lacking, and how different olfactory stimuli are learned by these insects remains unknown. Using a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm, we trained individuals and groups of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to associate an odorant conditioned stimulus (CS) with a blood-reinforced thermal stimulus (unconditioned stimulus; US). Results showed, first, that mosquitoes could learn the association between L-lactic acid and the US, and retained the association for at least 24 h. Second, the success of olfactory conditioning was dependent upon the CS – some odorants that elicited indifferent responses in naïve mosquitoes, such as L-lactic acid and 1-octen-3-ol, were readily learned, whereas others went from aversive to attractive after training (Z-3-hexen-1-ol) or were untrainable (β-myrcene and benzyl alcohol). Third, we examined whether mosquitoes' ability to learn could interfere with the action of the insect repellent DEET. Results demonstrated that pre-exposure and the presence of DEET in the CS reduced the aversive effects of DEET. Last, the nature of the formed memories was explored. Experiments using cold-shock treatments within the first 6 h post-training (for testing anaesthesia-resistant memory) and a protein synthesis inhibitor (cycloheximide; to disrupt the formation of long-term memory) both affected mosquitoes' performances. Together, these results show that learning is a crucial component in odour responses in A. aegypti, and provide the first evidence for the functional role of different memory traces in these responses. PMID:24737761

  6. Genetic selection of a flavivirus-refractory strain of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Miller, B R; Mitchell, C J

    1991-10-01

    Two inbred (isofemale) Aedes aegypti mosquito lines were derived that manifested a resistant or susceptible phenotype following ingestion of yellow fever virus; lack of virus movement from the midgut defined the resistant phenotype. Other flaviviruses, including dengue 1-4, Uganda S, and Zika, viruses behaved in a similar fashion in the two mosquito lines. Crosses between the two lines produced progeny that were of intermediate susceptibility, indicating codominance; F2 backcrosses to the parents yielded results consistent with a major controlling genetic locus and provide evidence of a second locus capable of modulating the phenotype of the major gene. The rapid selection necessary to fix the susceptible and refractory phenotypes support the hypothesis of a single major controlling locus. Viral movement across the midgut is likely to be governed by a single major gene and modifying minor genes or a group of closely linked genes. These inbred mosquito lines will be useful in discovering the molecular basis for flavivirus resistance in Ae. aegypti.

  7. The developmental transcriptome of the mosquito Aedes aegypti, an invasive species and major arbovirus vector.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Omar S; Antoshechkin, Igor; Amrhein, Henry; Williams, Brian; Diloreto, Race; Sandler, Jeremy; Hay, Bruce A

    2013-09-04

    Mosquitoes are vectors of a number of important human and animal diseases. The development of novel vector control strategies requires a thorough understanding of mosquito biology. To facilitate this, we used RNA-seq to identify novel genes and provide the first high-resolution view of the transcriptome throughout development and in response to blood feeding in a mosquito vector of human disease, Aedes aegypti, the primary vector for Dengue and yellow fever. We characterized mRNA expression at 34 distinct time points throughout Aedes development, including adult somatic and germline tissues, by using polyA+ RNA-seq. We identify a total of 14,238 novel new transcribed regions corresponding to 12,597 new loci, as well as many novel transcript isoforms of previously annotated genes. Altogether these results increase the annotated fraction of the transcribed genome into long polyA+ RNAs by more than twofold. We also identified a number of patterns of shared gene expression, as well as genes and/or exons expressed sex-specifically or sex-differentially. Expression profiles of small RNAs in ovaries, early embryos, testes, and adult male and female somatic tissues also were determined, resulting in the identification of 38 new Aedes-specific miRNAs, and ~291,000 small RNA new transcribed regions, many of which are likely to be endogenous small-interfering RNAs and Piwi-interacting RNAs. Genes of potential interest for transgene-based vector control strategies also are highlighted. Our data have been incorporated into a user-friendly genome browser located at www.Aedes.caltech.edu, with relevant links to Vectorbase (www.vectorbase.org).

  8. Imidacloprid impairs the post-embryonic development of the midgut in the yellow fever mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti).

    PubMed

    Fernandes, K M; Gonzaga, W G; Pascini, T V; Miranda, F R; Tomé, H V V; Serrão, J E; Martins, G F

    2015-09-01

    The mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a vector for the dengue and yellow fever viruses. As blood digestion occurs in the midgut, this organ constitutes the route of entry of many pathogens. The effects of the insecticide imidacloprid on the survival of St. aegypti were investigated and the sub-lethal effects of the insecticide on midgut development were determined. Third instar larvae were exposed to different concentrations of imidacloprid (0.15, 1.5, 3.0, 6.0 and 15.0 p.p.m.) and survival was monitored every 24 h for 10 days. Midguts from imidacloprid-treated insects at different stages of development were dissected and processed for analyses by transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence microscopy and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) assays. Imidacloprid concentrations of 3.0 and 15.0 p.p.m. were found to affect midgut development similarly. Digestive cells of the fourth instar larvae (L4) midgut exposed to imidacloprid had more multilamellar bodies, abundantly found in the cell apex, and more electron-lucent vacuoles in the basal region compared with those from untreated insects. Moreover, imidacloprid interfered with the differentiation of regenerative cells, dramatically reducing the number of digestive and endocrine cells and leading to malformation of the midgut epithelium in adults. The data demonstrate that imidacloprid can reduce the survival of mosquitoes and thus indicate its potentially high efficacy in the control of St. aegypti populations.

  9. Development of a mosquito attractant blend of small molecules against host-seeking Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Saratha, R; Mathew, Nisha

    2016-04-01

    A mosquito's dependence on olfaction in the hunt for human host could be efficiently exploited to protect humans from mosquito bites. The present study is undertaken to make the most attractant compound blend for Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to lure them to traps. Eleven molecules (M1-M11) at different dilutions were screened for attractancy against non-blood-fed adult female mosquitoes in an olfactometer. The results showed that the attractancy was dependent on both the chemical nature of the molecule and the strength of the odor. Out of 11 molecules screened, 9 showed significant attractancy (P < 0.05) when tested individually. The attractancy was in the order of M11 > M7 > M6 > M10 > M9 > M3 > M2 > M1 > M4 with attractancy indices (AIs) 86.11, 55.93, 55.17, 54, 52.94, 52, 50, 43.64, and 32, respectively, at the optimum dilutions. Seven blends (I-VII) were made and were screened for attractancy against Ae. aegypti. All the blends showed significant attractancy (P < 0.05). The attractancy was in the order of blend VII > III > IV > I > VI > V > II with AIs 96.63, 89.19, 65, 57.89, 56.1, 47.13, and 44.44, respectively. Among the seven blends, blend VII with constituent molecules M6, M9, M10, and M11 is the most promising with an AI value of 96.63. This blend will be useful in luring the host-seeking mosquitoes to traps. The field efficacy of these attractant blends may be explored in the future. PMID:26693718

  10. Coordinated changes in JH biosynthesis and JH hemolymph titers in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Martínez, Salvador; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nouzova, Marcela; Noriega, Fernando G.

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile hormone III (JH) is synthesized by the corpora allata (CA) and plays a key role in mosquito development and reproduction. A decrease in JH titer during the last instar larvae allows pupation and metamorphosis to proceed. As the anti-metamorphic role of JH comes to an end, the CA of the late pupa once again synthesizes JH, which plays an essential role in orchestrating reproductive maturation. In spite of the importance of Aedes aegypti as a vector, a detailed study of the changes of JH hemolymph titers during the gonotrophic cycle has never been performed. In the present studies, using a High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to a Fluorescent Detector (HPLC-FD) method, we measured changes in JH levels in the hemolymph of female mosquitoes during the pupal and adult stages. Our results revealed tightly concomitant changes in JH biosynthesis and JH hemolymph titers during the gonotrophic cycle of female mosquito. Feeding high sugar diets resulted in an increase of JH titers, and mating also modified JH titers in hemolymph. In addition these studies confirmed that JH titer in mosquitoes is fundamentally determined by the rate of biosynthesis in the CA. PMID:25445664

  11. nanos gene control DNA mediates developmentally regulated transposition in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Adelman, Zach N; Jasinskiene, Nijole; Onal, Sedef; Juhn, Jennifer; Ashikyan, Aurora; Salampessy, Michael; MacCauley, Todd; James, Anthony A

    2007-06-12

    Transposable elements (TEs) are proposed as a basis for developing drive systems to spread pathogen resistance genes through vector mosquito populations. The use of transcriptional and translational control DNA elements from genes expressed specifically in the insect germ line to mediate transposition offers possibilities for mitigating some of the concerns about transgene behavior in the target vector species and eliminating effects on nontarget organisms. Here, we describe the successful use of the promoter and untranslated regions from the nanos (nos) orthologous gene of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, to control sex- and tissue-specific expression of exogenously derived mariner MosI transposase-encoding DNA. Transgenic mosquitoes expressed transposase mRNA in abundance near or equal to the endogenous nos transcript and exclusively in the female germ cells. In addition, MosI mRNA was deposited in developing oocytes and localized and maintained at the posterior pole during early embryonic development. Importantly, four of five transgenic lines examined were capable of mobilizing a second MosI transgene into the mosquito genome, indicating that functional transposase was being produced. Thus, the nos control sequences show promise as part of a TE-based gene drive system.

  12. The effect of bacterial challenge on ferritin regulation in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Geiser, Dawn L.; Zhou, Guoli; Mayo, Jonathan J.; Winzerling, Joy J.

    2012-01-01

    Secreted ferritin is the major iron storage and transport protein in insects. Here we characterize the message and protein expression profiles of yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) ferritin heavy chain homologue (HCH) and light chain homologue (LCH) subunits in response to iron and bacterial challenge. In vivo experiments demonstrated tissue specific regulation of HCH and LCH expression over time post-blood meal (PBM). Transcriptional regulation of HCH and LCH was treatment specific, with differences in regulation for naïve versus mosquitoes challenged with heat-killed bacteria (HKB). Translational regulation by iron regulatory protein (IRP) binding activity for the iron responsive element (IRE) was tissue specific and time-dependent PBM. However, mosquitoes challenged with HKB showed little change in IRP/IRE binding activity compared to naïve animals. The changes in ferritin regulation and expression in vivo were confirmed with in vitro studies. We challenged mosquitoes with HKB followed by a blood meal to determine the effects on ferritin expression, and demonstrate a synergistic, time-dependent, regulation of expression for HCH and LCH. PMID:23956079

  13. Intraspecific variation in desiccation survival time of Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquito eggs of Australian origin.

    PubMed

    Faull, Katherine J; Williams, Craig R

    2015-12-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes preferentially oviposit in natural and artificial receptacles where their eggs are able to withstand drying as water levels fluctuate. Desiccation-resistant eggs also increase the potential for establishment in non-native habitats while providing logistical impediments to control programs. Viability and mean survival times of eggs stored under three dryness conditions for up to 367 days were investigated among three field-derived colonies of Australian Ae. aegypti to understand variation in desiccation survival. Further investigations compared egg survival between an established colony and its wild counterpart. Our results confirmed that Ae. aegypti eggs can withstand desiccation for extended periods of time with approximately 2-15% egg viability recorded after one year and viability remaining above 88% under all conditions through 56 days. Intraspecific variations in egg survival times were recorded, suggesting local adaptation while each of the colonies demonstrated a consistent preference for higher humidity. Egg volume varied between the populations, suggesting a relationship between egg volume and survival time, with the marginally larger eggs (Charters Towers and Innisfail) having greater desiccation resistance over the range of conditions. The strong survivorship of Charters Towers eggs in dry, warm conditions demonstrates the adaptive significance of a desiccation-resistant egg. PMID:26611964

  14. Intraspecific DNA variation in nuclear genes of the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Morlais, I; Severson, D W

    2003-12-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are an abundant source of genetic variation among individual organisms. To assess the usefulness of SNPs for genome analysis in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, we sequenced 25 nuclear genes in each of three strains and analysed nucleotide diversity. The average frequency of nucleotide variation was 12 SNPs per kilobase, indicating that nucleotide variation in Ae. aegypti is similar to that in other organisms, including Drosophila and the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Transition polymorphisms outnumbered transversion polymorphisms, at a ratio of about 2:1. We examined codon usage and confirmed that mutational bias favours G and C ending codons. Codon bias was most pronounced in highly expressed genes. Nucleotide diversity estimates indicated that substitution rates are positively correlated in coding and non-coding regions. Nucleotide diversity varied from one gene to another. The unequal distribution of SNPs among Ae. aegypti nuclear genes suggests that single base variations are non-neutral and are subject to selective constraints. Our analysis showed that ubiquitously expressed genes have lower polymorphism rates and are likely under strong purifying selection, whereas tissue specific genes and genes with a putative role in parasite defence exhibit higher levels of polymorphism that may be associated with diversifying selection. PMID:14986924

  15. Spatial genetic structure of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in mainland Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Hlaing, Thaung; Tun-Lin, Willoughby; Somboon, Pradya; Socheat, Duong; Setha, To; Min, Sein; Thaung, Sein; Anyaele, Okorie; De Silva, Babaranda; Chang, Moh Seng; Prakash, Anil; Linton, Yvonne; Walton, Catherine

    2010-07-01

    Aedes aegypti mosquitoes originated in Africa and are thought to have spread recently to Southeast Asia, where they are the major vector of dengue. Thirteen microsatellite loci were used to determine the genetic population structure of A. aegypti at a hierarchy of spatial scales encompassing 36 sites in Myanmar, Cambodia and Thailand, and two sites in Sri Lanka and Nigeria. Low, but significant, genetic structuring was found at all spatial scales (from 5 to >2000 km) and significant F IS values indicated genetic structuring even within 500 m. Spatially dependent genetic-clustering methods revealed that although spatial distance plays a role in shaping larger-scale population structure, it is not the only factor. Genetic heterogeneity in major port cities and genetic similarity of distant locations connected by major roads, suggest that human transportation routes have resulted in passive long-distance migration of A. aegypti. The restricted dispersal on a small spatial scale will make localized control efforts and sterile insect technology effective for dengue control. Conversely, preventing the establishment of insecticide resistance genes or spreading refractory genes in a genetic modification strategy would be challenging. These effects on vector control will depend on the relative strength of the opposing effects of passive dispersal. PMID:25567928

  16. Intraspecific variation in desiccation survival time of Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquito eggs of Australian origin.

    PubMed

    Faull, Katherine J; Williams, Craig R

    2015-12-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes preferentially oviposit in natural and artificial receptacles where their eggs are able to withstand drying as water levels fluctuate. Desiccation-resistant eggs also increase the potential for establishment in non-native habitats while providing logistical impediments to control programs. Viability and mean survival times of eggs stored under three dryness conditions for up to 367 days were investigated among three field-derived colonies of Australian Ae. aegypti to understand variation in desiccation survival. Further investigations compared egg survival between an established colony and its wild counterpart. Our results confirmed that Ae. aegypti eggs can withstand desiccation for extended periods of time with approximately 2-15% egg viability recorded after one year and viability remaining above 88% under all conditions through 56 days. Intraspecific variations in egg survival times were recorded, suggesting local adaptation while each of the colonies demonstrated a consistent preference for higher humidity. Egg volume varied between the populations, suggesting a relationship between egg volume and survival time, with the marginally larger eggs (Charters Towers and Innisfail) having greater desiccation resistance over the range of conditions. The strong survivorship of Charters Towers eggs in dry, warm conditions demonstrates the adaptive significance of a desiccation-resistant egg.

  17. Proteomic biomarkers for ageing the mosquito Aedes aegypti to determine risk of pathogen transmission.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Leon E; Monkman, James; Dave, Keyur A; Wockner, Leesa F; Birrell, Geoff W; Norris, Emma L; Kienzle, Vivian J; Sikulu, Maggy T; Ryan, Peter A; Gorman, Jeffery J; Kay, Brian H

    2013-01-01

    Biomarkers of the age of mosquitoes are required to determine the risk of transmission of various pathogens as each pathogen undergoes a period of extrinsic incubation in the mosquito host. Using the 2-D Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) procedure, we investigated the abundance of up to 898 proteins from the Yellow Fever and dengue virus vector, Aedes aegypti, during ageing. By applying a mixed-effects model of protein expression, we identified five common patterns of abundance change during ageing and demonstrated an age-related decrease in variance for four of these. This supported a search for specific proteins with abundance changes that remain tightly associated with ageing for use as ageing biomarkers. Using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry we identified ten candidate proteins that satisfied strict biomarker discovery criteria (identified in two out of three multivariate analysis procedures and in two cohorts of mosquitoes). We validated the abundances of the four most suitable candidates (Actin depolymerising factor; ADF, Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A; eIF5A, insect cuticle protein Q17LN8, and Anterior fat body protein; AFP) using semi-quantitative Western analysis of individual mosquitoes of six ages. The redox-response protein Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) and electron shuttling protein Electron transfer oxidoreductase (ETO) were subject to post-translational modifications affecting their charge states with potential effects on function. For the four candidates we show remarkably consistent decreases in abundance during ageing, validating initial selections. In particular, the abundance of AFP is an ideal biomarker candidate for whether a female mosquito has lived long enough to be capable of dengue virus transmission. We have demonstrated proteins to be a suitable class of ageing biomarkers in mosquitoes and have identified candidates for epidemiological studies of dengue and the evaluation of new disease reduction projects targeting

  18. Proteomic Biomarkers for Ageing the Mosquito Aedes aegypti to Determine Risk of Pathogen Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Hugo, Leon E.; Monkman, James; Dave, Keyur A.; Wockner, Leesa F.; Birrell, Geoff W.; Norris, Emma L.; Kienzle, Vivian J.; Sikulu, Maggy T.; Ryan, Peter A.; Gorman, Jeffery J.; Kay, Brian H.

    2013-01-01

    Biomarkers of the age of mosquitoes are required to determine the risk of transmission of various pathogens as each pathogen undergoes a period of extrinsic incubation in the mosquito host. Using the 2-D Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) procedure, we investigated the abundance of up to 898 proteins from the Yellow Fever and dengue virus vector, Aedes aegypti, during ageing. By applying a mixed-effects model of protein expression, we identified five common patterns of abundance change during ageing and demonstrated an age-related decrease in variance for four of these. This supported a search for specific proteins with abundance changes that remain tightly associated with ageing for use as ageing biomarkers. Using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry we identified ten candidate proteins that satisfied strict biomarker discovery criteria (identified in two out of three multivariate analysis procedures and in two cohorts of mosquitoes). We validated the abundances of the four most suitable candidates (Actin depolymerising factor; ADF, Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A; eIF5A, insect cuticle protein Q17LN8, and Anterior fat body protein; AFP) using semi-quantitative Western analysis of individual mosquitoes of six ages. The redox-response protein Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) and electron shuttling protein Electron transfer oxidoreductase (ETO) were subject to post-translational modifications affecting their charge states with potential effects on function. For the four candidates we show remarkably consistent decreases in abundance during ageing, validating initial selections. In particular, the abundance of AFP is an ideal biomarker candidate for whether a female mosquito has lived long enough to be capable of dengue virus transmission. We have demonstrated proteins to be a suitable class of ageing biomarkers in mosquitoes and have identified candidates for epidemiological studies of dengue and the evaluation of new disease reduction projects targeting

  19. Odonate Nymphs: Generalist Predators and Their Potential in the Management of Dengue Mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Akram, Waseem; Ali-Khan, Hafiz Azhar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dengue is amongst the most serious mosquito-borne infectious disease with hot spots in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. Unfortunately, no licensed vaccine for the disease is currently available in medicine markets. The only option available is the management of dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Method: Predatory potential of five odonate nymphs namely Anax parthenope, Bradinopyga geminate, Ischnura forcipata, Rhinocypha quadrimaculata, and Orthetrum sabina were evaluated against the 4th instar larvae of the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, under laboratory conditions. The consumption of the mosquito larvae was evaluated at three water volume levels viz., 1 liter, 2 liter and 3 liter. Results: The number of Ae. aegypti larvae consumed varied significantly among the five species, and at different levels of water volume (P< 0.01). However, the interaction between odonate nymphs and the water volumes was statistically non-significant (P> 0.05). Ischnura forcipata consumed the highest number of Ae. aegypti larvae (n=56) followed by A. parthenope (n=47) and B. geminate (n=46). The number of larvae consumed was decreased with increasing search area or water volume, and the highest predation was observed at 1-liter water volume. Conclusion: The odonate nymphs could be a good source of biological agents for the management of the mosquitoes at larval stages. PMID:27308283

  20. Sialokinin I and II: vasodilatory tachykinins from the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed Central

    Champagne, D E; Ribeiro, J M

    1994-01-01

    The saliva of the mosquito Aedes aegypti has previously been reported to contain a 1400-Da peptide with pharmacological properties typical of a tachykinin. In the present study this vasodilator has been purified to homogeneity and found to consist of two peptides: sialokinin I, with the sequence Asn-Thr-Gly-Asp-Lys-Phe-Tyr-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2, and sialokinin II, identical to sialokinin I except for an Asp in position 1. These peptides are present in amounts of 0.62 and 0.16 pmol (711 and 178 ng), respectively, per salivary gland pair. When assayed on the guinea pig ileum, both peptides are as active as the mammalian tachykinin substance P, with K0.5 values of 5.07, 6.58, and 4.94 nM for sialokinin I, sialokinin II, and substance P, respectively. PMID:8278354

  1. Investigating the Potential Range Expansion of the Vector Mosquito Aedes Aegypti in Mexico with NASA Earth Science Remote Sensing Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosson, W. L.; Estes, M. G.; Estes, S. M.; Hayden, M.; Monaghan, A. J.; Eisen, L.; Lozano-Fuentes, S.; Ochoa, C.; Tapia, B.; Welsh-Rodriquez, C. M.; Quattrochi, D.; MorenoMadrinan, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    In tropical and sub ]tropical regions, the mosquito Aedes aegypti is the major vector for the virus causing dengue, a serious public health issue in these areas. Through ongoing NSF- and NASA-funded studies, field surveys of Aedes aegypti and an integrated modeling approach are being used to improve our understanding of the potential range of the mosquito to expand toward heavily populated high elevation areas such as Mexico City under various climate change and socio ]economic scenarios. This work serves three primary objectives: (1) Employ NASA remotely-sensed data to supplement the environmental monitoring and modeling component of the project. These data-- for example, surface temperature, precipitation, vegetation indices, soil moisture and elevation-- are critical for understanding the habitat necessary for mosquito survival and abundance; (2) Implement training sessions to instruct scientists and students from Mexico and the U.S. on how to use remote sensing and implement the NASA SERVIR Regional Visualization and Monitoring System; (3) Employ the SERVIR framework to optimize the dissemination of key project results in order to increase their societal relevance and benefits in developing climate adaptation strategies. Field surveys of larval, pupal and adult Aedes aegypti, as well as detailed physical and social household characteristics, were conducted in the summers of 2011and 2012 at geographic scales from the household to the community along a transect from sea level to 2400 m ASL. These data are being used in models to estimate Aedes aegypti habitat suitability. In 2011, Aedes aegypti were identified at an elevation of over 2150 m in Puebla, the highest elevation at which this species has been observed.

  2. Investigating the Potential Range Expansion of the Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti in Mexico with NASA Earth Science Remote Sensing Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosson, W. L.; Eisen, L.; Estes, M. G.; Estes, S. M.; Hayden, M.; Lozano-Fuentes, S.; Monaghan, A. J.; Moreno Madriñán, M. J.; Ochoa, C.; Quattrochi, D.; Tapia, B.; Welsh-Rodriguez, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    In tropical and sub-tropical regions, the mosquito Aedes aegypti is the major vector for the virus causing dengue, a serious public health issue in these areas. Through ongoing NSF- and NASA-funded studies, field surveys of Aedes aegypti and an integrated modeling approach are being used to improve our understanding of the potential range of the mosquito to expand toward heavily populated high elevation areas such as Mexico City under various climate change and socio-economic scenarios. This work serves three primary objectives: (1) Employ NASA remotely-sensed data to supplement the environmental monitoring and modeling component of the project. These data -- for example, surface temperature, precipitation, vegetation indices, soil moisture and elevation -- are critical for understanding the habitat necessary for mosquito survival and abundance; (2) Implement training sessions to instruct scientists and students from Mexico and the U.S. on how to use remote sensing and implement the NASA SERVIR Regional Visualization and Monitoring System; (3) Employ the SERVIR framework to optimize the dissemination of key project results in order to increase their societal relevance and benefits in developing climate adaptation strategies. Field surveys of larval, pupal and adult Aedes aegypti, as well as detailed physical and social household characteristics, were conducted in the summers of 2011and 2012 at geographic scales from the household to the community along a transect from sea level to 2400 m ASL. These data are being used in models to estimate Aedes aegypti habitat suitability. In 2011, Aedes aegypti were identified at an elevation of over 2150 m in Puebla, the highest elevation at which this species has been observed.

  3. Aedes aegypti genomics.

    PubMed

    Severson, David W; Knudson, Dennis L; Soares, Marcelo B; Loftus, Brendan J

    2004-07-01

    The mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is the primary, worldwide arthropod vector for the yellow fever and dengue viruses. As it is also one of the most tractable mosquito species for laboratory studies, it has been and remains one of the most intensively studied arthropod species. This has resulted in the development of detailed genetic and physical maps for Ae. aegypti and considerable insight into its genome organization. The research community is well-advanced in developing important molecular tools that will facilitate a whole genome sequencing effort. This includes generation of BAC clone end sequences, physical mapping of selected BAC clones and generation of EST sequences. Whole genome sequence information for Ae. aegypti will provide important insight into mosquito chromosome evolution and allow for the identification of genes and gene function. These functions may be common to all mosquitoes or perhaps unique to individual species, possibly specific to host-seeking and blood-feeding behaviors, as well as the innate immune response to pathogens encountered during blood-feeding. This information will be invaluable to the global effort to develop novel strategies for preventing arthropod-borne disease transmission.

  4. Studies on repellent activity of seed oils alone and in combination on mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Mukesh, Y; Savitri, P; Kaushik, R; Singh, N P

    2014-09-01

    The study was undertaken to investigate the relative repellency of Pongamia pinnata and Azadirachta indica seed oils on vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions. The repellents were formulated into 3 groups: seed oils, their mixture and combination of seed oils with three carrier oils viz. olive, mustard and coconut oil. Different formulations of each oil were tested at the concentrations of 1% and 5% on human baits. Efficiency was assessed, based on the total protection time; biting rate and percent protection provided by each formulation. Results showed that 5% formulation of the Pongamia pinnata and Azadirachta indica seed oils, mixed in 1:1 ratio exhibited highest percentage repellency of 85%, protection time of 300 min and bite rate of 6%. 5% concentration of A. indica and P. pinnata seed oil in mustard oil base offered 86.36% and 85% protection respectively with total protection time of 230 and 240 min respectively. The study confirms that Azadirachta indica and Pongamia pinnata have mosquito-repellent potential. When mixed in different ratios or with some carrier oil their efficacy increases 2-fold in some cases. These formulations are very promising for topical use (> 5 hrs complete protection) and are comparable to the protection provided by advanced Odomos mosquito repellent cream available commercially and thus are recommended for field trial. PMID:25204067

  5. Chemical and biological insecticides select distinct gene expression patterns in Aedes aegypti mosquito

    PubMed Central

    Després, Laurence; Stalinski, Renaud; Faucon, Frédéric; Navratil, Vincent; Viari, Alain; Paris, Margot; Tetreau, Guillaume; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Riaz, Muhammad Asam; Bonin, Aurélie; Reynaud, Stéphane; David, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide evolution of mosquito resistance to chemical insecticides represents a major challenge for public health, and the future of vector control largely relies on the development of biological insecticides that can be used in combination with chemicals (integrated management), with the expectation that populations already resistant to chemicals will not become readily resistant to biological insecticides. However, little is known about the metabolic pathways affected by selection with chemical or biological insecticides. Here we show that Aedes aegypti, a laboratory mosquito strain selected with a biological insecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, Bti) evolved increased transcription of many genes coding for endopeptidases while most genes coding for detoxification enzymes were under-expressed. By contrast, in strains selected with chemicals, genes encoding detoxification enzymes were mostly over-expressed. In all the resistant strains, genes involved in immune response were under-transcribed, suggesting that basal immunity might be a general adjustment variable to compensate metabolic costs caused by insecticide selection. Bioassays generally showed no evidence for an increased susceptibility of selected strains towards the other insecticide type, and all chemical-resistant strains were as susceptible to Bti as the unselected parent strain, which is a good premise for sustainable integrated management of mosquito populations resistant to chemicals. PMID:25540155

  6. Chemical and biological insecticides select distinct gene expression patterns in Aedes aegypti mosquito.

    PubMed

    Després, Laurence; Stalinski, Renaud; Faucon, Frédéric; Navratil, Vincent; Viari, Alain; Paris, Margot; Tetreau, Guillaume; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Riaz, Muhammad Asam; Bonin, Aurélie; Reynaud, Stéphane; David, Jean-Philippe

    2014-12-01

    Worldwide evolution of mosquito resistance to chemical insecticides represents a major challenge for public health, and the future of vector control largely relies on the development of biological insecticides that can be used in combination with chemicals (integrated management), with the expectation that populations already resistant to chemicals will not become readily resistant to biological insecticides. However, little is known about the metabolic pathways affected by selection with chemical or biological insecticides. Here we show that Aedes aegypti, a laboratory mosquito strain selected with a biological insecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, Bti) evolved increased transcription of many genes coding for endopeptidases while most genes coding for detoxification enzymes were under-expressed. By contrast, in strains selected with chemicals, genes encoding detoxification enzymes were mostly over-expressed. In all the resistant strains, genes involved in immune response were under-transcribed, suggesting that basal immunity might be a general adjustment variable to compensate metabolic costs caused by insecticide selection. Bioassays generally showed no evidence for an increased susceptibility of selected strains towards the other insecticide type, and all chemical-resistant strains were as susceptible to Bti as the unselected parent strain, which is a good premise for sustainable integrated management of mosquito populations resistant to chemicals.

  7. oskar gene expression in the vector mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Juhn, J; James, A A

    2006-06-01

    A disease control strategy based on the introduction into mosquito populations of a gene conferring a pathogen-refractory phenotype is currently under investigation. This population replacement approach requires a drive system that will quickly spread and fix antipathogen effector genes in target populations. Modified transposable elements containing the control sequences of developmentally regulated genes may provide the basis for a gene drive system that regulates gene mobilization in a sex- and stage-restrictive manner. Screening of a Drosophila melanogaster database for genes whose products localize exclusively in the future germ cells during early embryonic development resulted in the identification of several candidate genes. The regulatory sequences of these genes could be used to drive transposition. Mosquito orthologous genes of oskar were identified based on sequence homology and characterized further. The tissue- and sex-specific expression profiles and hybridizations in situ show that oskar orthologous transcripts in Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti accumulate in developing oocytes of adult females and localize to the posterior poles of early embryos. These characteristics potentiate the use of the regulatory sequences of mosquito oskar genes for the control of modified transposable elements.

  8. Septic tanks as larval habitats for the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Playa-Playita, Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Burke, R; Barrera, R; Lewis, M; Kluchinsky, T; Claborn, D

    2010-06-01

    Adult Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) were previously recovered from emergence traps on septic tanks in southeastern Puerto Rico. In this study we quantified immature mosquito abundance and its relationship with structural variables of the septic tanks and chemical properties of the water containing raw sewage. A miniaturized floating funnel trap was used to sample 89 septic tanks for larvae in the Puerto Rican community of Playa-Playita. Aedes aegypti larvae were recovered from 18% of the sampled tanks (10.3 larvae per septic tank per day). Larval presence was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls and uncovered access ports. Larval abundance was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls and larger tank surface areas, and inversely associated with the total dissolved solids (TDS). Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) larvae were also recovered from 74% of the septic tanks (129.6 larvae per septic tank per day). Larval presence was negatively associated with TDS in the water and larval abundance was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls. A screened, plastic emergence trap was used to sample 93 septic tanks within the community for Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus adults. Aedes aegypti adults were recovered from 49% of the sampled tanks (8.7 adults per septic tank per day) and Cx. quinquefasciatus adults were recovered from 97% of the sampled tanks (155.5 adults per septic tank per day). Aedes aegypti adult presence was positively associated with cracking, uncapped openings and septic water pH. The Ae. aegypti adult counts were positively associated with cracking and inversely associated with TDS and conductivity. This study marks the first published record of the recovery of Ae. aegypti larvae from holding tanks containing raw sewage in the Caribbean region. Our study indicates that Ae. aegypti larvae are present in sewage water and that septic tanks have at least the potential to maintain

  9. Outbreak of chikungunya fever in Thailand and virus detection in field population of vector mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Thavara, Usavadee; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Pengsakul, Theerakamol; Bhakdeenuan, Payu; Chanama, Sumalee; Anantapreecha, Surapee; Molito, Chusak; Chompoosri, Jakkrawarn; Thammapalo, Suwich; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom; Siriyasatien, Padet

    2009-09-01

    We investigated chikungunya fever outbreak in the southern part of Thailand. Human plasma specimens obtained from suspected patients and adult wild-caught mosquitoes were detected for chikungunya virus employing reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction technique. Chikungunya virus was detected in about half of the blood specimens whereas a range of 5.5 to 100% relative infection rate was found in both sexes of the vector mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Ae. albopictus Skuse. The infection rate in Ae. albopictus was higher than in Ae. aegypti, with relative infection rate in male of both species being higher than in female. The appearance of chikungunya virus in adult male mosquitoes of both species reveals a role of transovarial transmission of the virus in field population of the mosquito vectors. These findings have provided further understanding of the relationship among mosquito vectors, chikungunya virus and epidemiology of chikungunya fever in Thailand.

  10. Synergistic repellent and irritant effect of combined essential oils on Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Noosidum, Atirach; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Chandrapatya, Angsumarn

    2014-12-01

    This study was designed to compare the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti to a single essential oil and to a mixture of two or three essential oils using an excito-repellency test chamber. Mixtures were prepared from essential oils extracted from Litsea cubeba (LC), Litsea salicifolia (LS), and Melaleuca leucadendron (ML). In general, the mixture of essential oils produced a much stronger escape response by Ae. aegypti, regardless of the test conditions. No significant difference in escape responses was seen when the mixture of oils was compared with a standard commercial product containing DEET. Greater contact irritancy was seen from mixed oils of LC and LS than with other mixed oils. Mixtures of LC and LS at 0.075% showed the highest synergistic action (65.5% escaped) compared to that with unmixed oil alone at the same concentration (LC/20% and LS=32.2%). In addition, mixtures of LC and LS at 0.075% demonstrated the highest non-contact repellency (62.7%) and showed a greater effect than the use of LC (20%) or LS (20.3%) alone. We conclude that mixtures of two essential oils show potential as active ingredients for mosquito repellents.

  11. Synergistic repellent and irritant effect of combined essential oils on Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Noosidum, Atirach; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Chandrapatya, Angsumarn

    2014-12-01

    This study was designed to compare the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti to a single essential oil and to a mixture of two or three essential oils using an excito-repellency test chamber. Mixtures were prepared from essential oils extracted from Litsea cubeba (LC), Litsea salicifolia (LS), and Melaleuca leucadendron (ML). In general, the mixture of essential oils produced a much stronger escape response by Ae. aegypti, regardless of the test conditions. No significant difference in escape responses was seen when the mixture of oils was compared with a standard commercial product containing DEET. Greater contact irritancy was seen from mixed oils of LC and LS than with other mixed oils. Mixtures of LC and LS at 0.075% showed the highest synergistic action (65.5% escaped) compared to that with unmixed oil alone at the same concentration (LC/20% and LS=32.2%). In addition, mixtures of LC and LS at 0.075% demonstrated the highest non-contact repellency (62.7%) and showed a greater effect than the use of LC (20%) or LS (20.3%) alone. We conclude that mixtures of two essential oils show potential as active ingredients for mosquito repellents. PMID:25424258

  12. Detection of all four dengue serotypes in Aedes aegypti female mosquitoes collected in a rural area in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Castro, Rosalía; Castellanos, Jaime E; Olano, Víctor A; Matiz, María Inés; Jaramillo, Juan F; Vargas, Sandra L; Sarmiento, Diana M; Stenström, Thor Axel; Overgaard, Hans J

    2016-01-01

    The Aedes aegypti vector for dengue virus (DENV) has been reported in urban and periurban areas. The information about DENV circulation in mosquitoes in Colombian rural areas is limited, so we aimed to evaluate the presence of DENV in Ae. aegypti females caught in rural locations of two Colombian municipalities, Anapoima and La Mesa. Mosquitoes from 497 rural households in 44 different rural settlements were collected. Pools of about 20 Ae. aegypti females were processed for DENV serotype detection. DENV in mosquitoes was detected in 74% of the analysed settlements with a pool positivity rate of 62%. The estimated individual mosquito infection rate was 4.12% and the minimum infection rate was 33.3/1,000 mosquitoes. All four serotypes were detected; the most frequent being DENV-2 (50%) and DENV-1 (35%). Two-three serotypes were detected simultaneously in separate pools. This is the first report on the co-occurrence of natural DENV infection of mosquitoes in Colombian rural areas. The findings are important for understanding dengue transmission and planning control strategies. A potential latent virus reservoir in rural areas could spill over to urban areas during population movements. Detecting DENV in wild-caught adult mosquitoes should be included in the development of dengue epidemic forecasting models. PMID:27074252

  13. Detection of all four dengue serotypes in Aedes aegypti female mosquitoes collected in a rural area in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Castro, Rosalía; Castellanos, Jaime E; Olano, Víctor A; Matiz, María Inés; Jaramillo, Juan F; Vargas, Sandra L; Sarmiento, Diana M; Stenström, Thor Axel; Overgaard, Hans J

    2016-04-01

    The Aedes aegypti vector for dengue virus (DENV) has been reported in urban and periurban areas. The information about DENV circulation in mosquitoes in Colombian rural areas is limited, so we aimed to evaluate the presence of DENV in Ae. aegypti females caught in rural locations of two Colombian municipalities, Anapoima and La Mesa. Mosquitoes from 497 rural households in 44 different rural settlements were collected. Pools of about 20 Ae. aegypti females were processed for DENV serotype detection. DENV in mosquitoes was detected in 74% of the analysed settlements with a pool positivity rate of 62%. The estimated individual mosquito infection rate was 4.12% and the minimum infection rate was 33.3/1,000 mosquitoes. All four serotypes were detected; the most frequent being DENV-2 (50%) and DENV-1 (35%). Two-three serotypes were detected simultaneously in separate pools. This is the first report on the co-occurrence of natural DENV infection of mosquitoes in Colombian rural areas. The findings are important for understanding dengue transmission and planning control strategies. A potential latent virus reservoir in rural areas could spill over to urban areas during population movements. Detecting DENV in wild-caught adult mosquitoes should be included in the development of dengue epidemic forecasting models.

  14. Microevolution of Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Louise, Caroline; Vidal, Paloma Oliveira; Suesdek, Lincoln

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research into the epidemiology of dengue frequently focuses on the microevolution and dispersion of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. One of the world’s largest urban agglomerations infested by Ae. aegypti is the Brazilian megalopolis of Sao Paulo, where >26,900 cases of dengue were reported until June 2015. Unfortunately, the dynamics of the genetic variability of Ae. aegypti in the Sao Paulo area have not been well studied. To reduce this knowledge gap, we assessed the morphogenetic variability of a population of Ae. aegypti from a densely urbanised neighbourhood of Sao Paulo. We tested if allelic patterns could vary over a short term and if wing shape could be a predictor of the genetic variation. Over a period of 14 months, we examined the variation of genetic (microsatellites loci) and morphological (wing geometry) markers in Ae. aegypti. Polymorphisms were detected, as revealed by the variability of 20 microsatellite loci (115 alleles combined; overall Fst = 0.0358) and 18 wing landmarks (quantitative estimator Qst = 0.4732). These levels of polymorphism are higher than typically expected to an exotic species. Allelic frequencies of the loci changed over time and temporal variation in the wing shape was even more pronounced, permitting high reclassification levels of chronological samples. In spite of the fact that both markers underwent temporal variation, no correlation was detected between their dynamics. We concluded that microevolution was detected despite the short observational period, but the intensities of change of the markers were discrepant. Wing shape failed from predicting allelic temporal variation. Possibly, natural selection (Qst>Fst) or variance of expressivity of wing phenotype are involved in this discrepancy. Other possibly influential factors on microevolution of Ae. aegypti are worth searching. Additionally, the implications of the rapid evolution and high polymorphism of this mosquito vector on the efficacy of control methods

  15. Microevolution of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Louise, Caroline; Vidal, Paloma Oliveira; Suesdek, Lincoln

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research into the epidemiology of dengue frequently focuses on the microevolution and dispersion of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. One of the world's largest urban agglomerations infested by Ae. aegypti is the Brazilian megalopolis of Sao Paulo, where >26,900 cases of dengue were reported until June 2015. Unfortunately, the dynamics of the genetic variability of Ae. aegypti in the Sao Paulo area have not been well studied. To reduce this knowledge gap, we assessed the morphogenetic variability of a population of Ae. aegypti from a densely urbanised neighbourhood of Sao Paulo. We tested if allelic patterns could vary over a short term and if wing shape could be a predictor of the genetic variation. Over a period of 14 months, we examined the variation of genetic (microsatellites loci) and morphological (wing geometry) markers in Ae. aegypti. Polymorphisms were detected, as revealed by the variability of 20 microsatellite loci (115 alleles combined; overall Fst = 0.0358) and 18 wing landmarks (quantitative estimator Qst = 0.4732). These levels of polymorphism are higher than typically expected to an exotic species. Allelic frequencies of the loci changed over time and temporal variation in the wing shape was even more pronounced, permitting high reclassification levels of chronological samples. In spite of the fact that both markers underwent temporal variation, no correlation was detected between their dynamics. We concluded that microevolution was detected despite the short observational period, but the intensities of change of the markers were discrepant. Wing shape failed from predicting allelic temporal variation. Possibly, natural selection (Qst>Fst) or variance of expressivity of wing phenotype are involved in this discrepancy. Other possibly influential factors on microevolution of Ae. aegypti are worth searching. Additionally, the implications of the rapid evolution and high polymorphism of this mosquito vector on the efficacy of control methods have

  16. Molecular genetic analysis of midgut serine proteases in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Isoe, Jun; Rascón, Alberto A; Kunz, Susan; Miesfeld, Roger L

    2009-12-01

    Digestion of blood meal proteins by midgut proteases provides anautogenous mosquitoes with the nutrients required to complete the gonotrophic cycle. Inhibition of protein digestion in the midgut of blood feeding mosquitoes could therefore provide a strategy for population control. Based on recent reports indicating that the mechanism and regulation of protein digestion in blood fed female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes is more complex than previously thought, we used a robust RNAi knockdown method to investigate the role of four highly expressed midgut serine proteases in blood meal metabolism. We show by Western blotting that the early phase trypsin protein (AaET) is maximally expressed at 3 h post-blood meal (PBM), and that AaET is not required for the protein expression of three late phase serine proteases, AaLT (late trypsin), AaSPVI (5G1), and AaSPVII. Using the trypsin substrate analog BApNA to analyze in vitro enzyme activity in midgut extracts from single mosquitoes, we found that knockdown of AaSPVI expression caused a 77.6% decrease in late phase trypsin-like activity, whereas, knockdown of AaLT and AaSPVII expression had no significant effect on BApNA activity. In contrast, injection of AaLT, AaSPVI, and AaSPVII dsRNA inhibited degradation of endogenous serum albumin protein using an in vivo protease assay, as well as, significantly decreased egg production in both the first and second gonotrophic cycles (P < 0.001). These results demonstrate that AaLT, AaSPVI, and AaSPVII all contribute to blood protein digestion and oocyte maturation, even though AaSPVI is the only abundant midgut late phase serine protease that appears to function as a classic trypsin enzyme. PMID:19883761

  17. Mosquito (Aedes aegypti) flight tones: Frequency, harmonicity, spherical spreading, and phase relationships

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Benjamin J.; Emr, Kevin S.; Wyttenbach, Robert A.; Hoy, Ronald R.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito flight produces a tone as a side effect of wing movement; this tone is also a communication signal that is frequency-modulated during courtship. Recordings of tones produced by tethered flying male and female Aedes aegypti were undertaken using pairs of pressure-gradient microphones above and below, ahead and behind, and to the left and right over a range of distances. Fundamental frequencies were close to those previously reported, although amplitudes were lower. The male fundamental frequency was higher than that of the female and males modulated it over a wider range. Analysis of harmonics shows that the first six partials were nearly always within 1 Hz of integer multiples of the fundamental, even when the fundamental was being modulated. Along the front-back axis, amplitude attenuated as a function of distance raised to the power 2.3. Front and back recordings were out of phase, as were above and below, while left and right were in phase. Recordings from ahead and behind showed quadratic phase coupling, while others did not. Finally, two methods are presented for separating simultaneous flight tones in a single recording and enhancing their frequency resolution. Implications for mosquito behavior are discussed. PMID:25234901

  18. Mariner transposition and transformation of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Coates, C J; Jasinskiene, N; Miyashiro, L; James, A A

    1998-03-31

    The mariner transposable element is capable of interplasmid transposition in the embryonic soma of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. To determine if this demonstrated mobility could be utilized to genetically transform the mosquito, a modified mariner element marked with a wild-type allele of the Drosophila melanogaster cinnabar gene was microinjected into embryos of a kynurenine hydroxylase-deficient, white-eyed recipient strain. Three of 69 fertile male founders resulting from the microinjected embryos produced families with colored-eyed progeny individuals, a transformation rate of 4%. The transgene-mediated complementation of eye color was observed to segregate in a Mendelian manner, although one insertion segregates with the recessive allele (female-determining) of the sex-determining locus, and a separate insertion is homozygous lethal. Molecular analysis of selected transformed families demonstrated that a single complete copy of the construct had integrated independently in each case and that it had done so in a transposase-mediated manner. The availability of a mariner transformation system greatly enhances our ability to study and manipulate this important vector species. PMID:9520438

  19. Antiviral Hammerhead Ribozymes Are Effective for Developing Transgenic Suppression of Chikungunya Virus in Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Priya; Furey, Colleen; Balaraman, Velmurugan; Fraser, Malcolm J

    2016-06-10

    The chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging pathogen with widespread distribution in regions of Africa, India, and Asia that threatens to spread into temperate climates with the introduction of its major vector, Aedes albopictus. CHIKV causes a disease frequently misdiagnosed as dengue fever, with potentially life-threatening symptoms that can result in a longer-term debilitating arthritis. The increasing risk of spread from endemic regions via human travel and commerce and the current absence of a vaccine put a significant proportion of the world population at risk for this disease. In this study we designed and tested hammerhead ribozymes (hRzs) targeting CHIKV structural protein genes of the RNA genome as potential antivirals both at the cellular and in vivo level. We employed the CHIKV strain 181/25, which exhibits similar infectivity rates in both Vero cell cultures and mosquitoes. Virus suppression assay performed on transformed Vero cell clones of all seven hRzs demonstrated that all are effective at inhibiting CHIKV in Vero cells, with hRz #9 and #14 being the most effective. piggyBac transformation vectors were constructed using the Ae. aegypti t-RNA(val) Pol III promoted hRz #9 and #14 effector genes to establish a total of nine unique transgenic Higgs White Eye (HWE) Ae. aegypti lines. Following confirmation of transgene expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), comparative TCID50-IFA analysis, in situ Immuno-fluorescent Assays (IFA) and analysis of salivary CHIKV titers demonstrated effective suppression of virus replication at 7 dpi in heterozygous females of each of these transgenic lines compared with control HWE mosquitoes. This report provides a proof that appropriately engineered hRzs are powerful antiviral effector genes suitable for population replacement strategies.

  20. Antiviral Hammerhead Ribozymes Are Effective for Developing Transgenic Suppression of Chikungunya Virus in Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Priya; Furey, Colleen; Balaraman, Velmurugan; Fraser, Malcolm J.

    2016-01-01

    The chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging pathogen with widespread distribution in regions of Africa, India, and Asia that threatens to spread into temperate climates with the introduction of its major vector, Aedes albopictus. CHIKV causes a disease frequently misdiagnosed as dengue fever, with potentially life-threatening symptoms that can result in a longer-term debilitating arthritis. The increasing risk of spread from endemic regions via human travel and commerce and the current absence of a vaccine put a significant proportion of the world population at risk for this disease. In this study we designed and tested hammerhead ribozymes (hRzs) targeting CHIKV structural protein genes of the RNA genome as potential antivirals both at the cellular and in vivo level. We employed the CHIKV strain 181/25, which exhibits similar infectivity rates in both Vero cell cultures and mosquitoes. Virus suppression assay performed on transformed Vero cell clones of all seven hRzs demonstrated that all are effective at inhibiting CHIKV in Vero cells, with hRz #9 and #14 being the most effective. piggyBac transformation vectors were constructed using the Ae. aegypti t-RNAval Pol III promoted hRz #9 and #14 effector genes to establish a total of nine unique transgenic Higgs White Eye (HWE) Ae. aegypti lines. Following confirmation of transgene expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), comparative TCID50-IFA analysis, in situ Immuno-fluorescent Assays (IFA) and analysis of salivary CHIKV titers demonstrated effective suppression of virus replication at 7 dpi in heterozygous females of each of these transgenic lines compared with control HWE mosquitoes. This report provides a proof that appropriately engineered hRzs are powerful antiviral effector genes suitable for population replacement strategies PMID:27294950

  1. Antiviral Hammerhead Ribozymes Are Effective for Developing Transgenic Suppression of Chikungunya Virus in Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Priya; Furey, Colleen; Balaraman, Velmurugan; Fraser, Malcolm J

    2016-01-01

    The chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging pathogen with widespread distribution in regions of Africa, India, and Asia that threatens to spread into temperate climates with the introduction of its major vector, Aedes albopictus. CHIKV causes a disease frequently misdiagnosed as dengue fever, with potentially life-threatening symptoms that can result in a longer-term debilitating arthritis. The increasing risk of spread from endemic regions via human travel and commerce and the current absence of a vaccine put a significant proportion of the world population at risk for this disease. In this study we designed and tested hammerhead ribozymes (hRzs) targeting CHIKV structural protein genes of the RNA genome as potential antivirals both at the cellular and in vivo level. We employed the CHIKV strain 181/25, which exhibits similar infectivity rates in both Vero cell cultures and mosquitoes. Virus suppression assay performed on transformed Vero cell clones of all seven hRzs demonstrated that all are effective at inhibiting CHIKV in Vero cells, with hRz #9 and #14 being the most effective. piggyBac transformation vectors were constructed using the Ae. aegypti t-RNA(val) Pol III promoted hRz #9 and #14 effector genes to establish a total of nine unique transgenic Higgs White Eye (HWE) Ae. aegypti lines. Following confirmation of transgene expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), comparative TCID50-IFA analysis, in situ Immuno-fluorescent Assays (IFA) and analysis of salivary CHIKV titers demonstrated effective suppression of virus replication at 7 dpi in heterozygous females of each of these transgenic lines compared with control HWE mosquitoes. This report provides a proof that appropriately engineered hRzs are powerful antiviral effector genes suitable for population replacement strategies. PMID:27294950

  2. Diel sugar feeding and reproductive behaviours of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in Trinidad: with implications for mass release of sterile mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Chadee, Dave D; Sutherland, Joan M; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2014-04-01

    Studies on the diel sugar feeding periodicity of male and female Aedes aegypti were conducted under laboratory conditions and monitored in single cages using the polyphagometer device and examined every 2h. Males mosquitoes displayed two peaks in sugar feeding, a small morning peak at 06.00-08.00 h (16% of sugar feeding) and a significant evening peak at 16.00-18.00 h (40% of sugar feeding). A similar pattern was observed among females: a small early morning peak (18% of sugar feeding) and a significant peak in the evening 16.00-18.00 h (42% of sugar feeding). Studies on the effects of sugar feeding on the excitation of males showed 100% erect antennal fibrillae after 36 h. In contrast, only 15% of the water-fed males responded. Laboratory studies on the effects of sugar feeding on the insemination rates of A. aegypti females showed similar inseminations rates among sugar and water fed males but after 4 days all water fed males died while the sugar fed males continued to survive and inseminate females. The synchronization of the male and female diel sugar feeding periodicity is discussed in the context of sterile insect techniques or genetic control methods.

  3. Gustatory receptor neuron responds to DEET and other insect repellents in the yellow-fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, Jillian L.; Shields, Vonnie D. C.; Dickens, Joseph C.

    2013-03-01

    Three gustatory receptor neurons were characterized for contact chemoreceptive sensilla on the labella of female yellow-fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti. The neuron with the smallest amplitude spike responded to the feeding deterrent, quinine, as well as N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide and other insect repellents. Two other neurons with differing spikes responded to salt (NaCl) and sucrose. This is the first report of a gustatory receptor neuron specific for insect repellents in mosquitoes and may provide a tool for screening chemicals to discover novel or improved feeding deterrents and repellents for use in the management of arthropod disease vectors.

  4. An in vitro bioassay for the quantitative evaluation of mosquito repellents against Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti) mosquitoes using a novel cocktail meal.

    PubMed

    Huang, T-H; Tien, N-Y; Luo, Y-P

    2015-09-01

    To assess the efficacy of new insect repellents, an efficient and safe in vitro bioassay system using a multiple-membrane blood-feeding device and a cocktail meal was developed. The multiple-membrane blood-feeding device facilitates the identification of new insect repellents by the high-throughput screening of candidate chemicals. A cocktail meal was developed as a replacement for blood for feeding females of Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti) (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). The cocktail meal consisted of a mixture of salt, albumin and dextrose, to which adenosine triphosphate was added to induce engorging. Feeding rates of St. aegypti on the cocktail meal and pig blood, respectively, did not differ significantly, but were significantly higher than the feeding rate on citrate phosphate dextrose-adenine 1 (CPDA-1) solutions, which had been used to replace bloodmeals in previous repellent assays. Dose-dependent biting inhibition rates were analysed using probit analysis. The RD(50) (the dose producing 50% repellence of mosquito feeding) values of DEET, citronella, carvacrol, geraniol, eugenol and thymol were 1.62, 14.40, 22.51, 23.29, 23.83 and 68.05 µg/cm(2), respectively. PMID:25828787

  5. Mosquito Infestation and Dengue Virus Infection in Aedes aegypti Females in Schools in Mérida, México

    PubMed Central

    García-Rejón, Julián E.; Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Farfán-Ale, José Arturo; Flores-Flores, Luis F.; López-Uribe, Mildred P.; del Rosario Najera-Vazquez, Maria; Nuñez-Ayala, Guadalupe; Beaty, Barry J.; Eisen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    We determined abundance of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and presence of dengue virus (DENV) in females collected from schools in Mérida, México, during 2008 and 2009. Backpack aspiration from 24 schools produced 468 females of Ae. aegypti and 1,676 females of another human biter, Culex quinquefasciatus. Ae. aegypti females were collected most commonly from classrooms followed by offices and bathrooms. Of these females, 24.7% were freshly fed. Examination of 118 pools of Ae. aegypti females (total of 415 females) for presence of DENV RNA produced 19 positive pools (16.1%). DENV-infected pools were detected from 11 (45.8%) of 24 schools and came from different room types, including classrooms, offices, and bathrooms. The overall rate of DENV infection per 100 Ae. aegypti females was 4.8. We conclude that schools in Mérida present a risk environment for students, teachers, and other personnel to be exposed to mosquitoes and bites of DENV-infected Ae. aegypti females. PMID:21363990

  6. Swarming mechanisms in the yellow fever mosquito: aggregation pheromones are involved in the mating behavior of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Fawaz, Emadeldin Y; Allan, Sandra A; Bernier, Ulrich R; Obenauer, Peter J; Diclaro, Joseph W

    2014-12-01

    Mosquitoes of various species mate in swarms comprised of tens of thousands of flying males. In this study, we examined Aedes aegypti swarming behavior and identified associated chemical cues. Novel evidence is provided that Ae. aegypti females aggregate by means of olfactory cues, such as aggregation pheromones. Isolation of Ae. aegypti aggregation pheromones was achieved by aeration of confined mosquitoes and collection of associated volatiles by glass filters. The collected volatiles were identified through gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). Three aggregation pheromones were collected and identified as 2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-2-ene-1,4-dione (ketoisophorone) (CAS# 1125-21-9, t(R) = 18.75), 2,2,6-trimethylcyclohexane-1,4-dione (the saturated analog of ketoisophorone) (CAS# 20547-99-3, t(R) = 20.05), and 1-(4-ethylphenyl) ethanone (CAS# 937-30-4, t(R) = 24.22). Our biological studies revealed that the identified compounds stimulated mosquito behavior under laboratory conditions. The mechanism of mosquito swarm formation is discussed in light of our behavioral study findings. A preliminary field trial demonstrated the potential application of the isolated aggregation pheromones in controlling Ae. aegypti.

  7. Fluid absorption in the isolated midgut of adult female yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti).

    PubMed

    Onken, Horst; Moffett, David F

    2015-07-01

    The transepithelial voltage (Vte) and the volume of isolated posterior midguts of adult female yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) were monitored. In all experiments, the initial Vte after filling the midgut was lumen negative, but subsequently became lumen positive at a rate of approximately 1 mV min(-1). Simultaneously, the midgut volume decreased, indicating spontaneous fluid absorption. When the midguts were filled and bathed with mosquito saline, the average rate of fluid absorption was 36.5±3.0 nl min(-1) (N=4, ±s.e.m.). In the presence of theophylline (10 mmol l(-1)), Vte reached significantly higher lumen-positive values, but the rate of fluid absorption was not affected (N=6). In the presence of NaCN (5 mmol l(-1)), Vte remained close to 0 mV (N=4) and fluid absorption was reduced (14.4±1.3 nl min(-1), N=3, ±s.e.m.). When midguts were filled with buffered NaCl (154 mmol l(-1) plus 1 mmol l(-1) HEPES) and bathed in mosquito saline with theophylline, fluid absorption was augmented (50.0±5.8 nl min(-1), N=12, ±s.e.m.). Concanamycin A (10 µmol l(-1)), ouabain (1 mmol l(-1)), and acetazolamide (1 mmol l(-1)) affected Vte in different ways, but all reduced fluid absorption by 60-70% of the value before addition of the drugs.

  8. Leucokinin mimetic elicits aversive behavior in mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) and inhibits the sugar taste neuron.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyeogsun; Ali Agha, Moutaz; Smith, Ryan C; Nachman, Ronald J; Marion-Poll, Frédéric; Pietrantonio, Patricia V

    2016-06-21

    Insect kinins (leucokinins) are multifunctional peptides acting as neurohormones and neurotransmitters. In females of the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (L.), aedeskinins are known to stimulate fluid secretion from the renal organs (Malpighian tubules) and hindgut contractions by activating a G protein-coupled kinin receptor designated "Aedae-KR." We used protease-resistant kinin analogs 1728, 1729, and 1460 to evaluate their effects on sucrose perception and feeding behavior. In no-choice feeding bioassays (capillary feeder and plate assays), the analog 1728, which contains α-amino isobutyric acid, inhibited females from feeding on sucrose. It further induced quick fly-away or walk-away behavior following contact with the tarsi and the mouthparts. Electrophysiological recordings from single long labellar sensilla of the proboscis demonstrated that mixing the analog 1728 at 1 mM with sucrose almost completely inhibited the detection of sucrose. Aedae-KR was immunolocalized in contact chemosensory neurons in prothoracic tarsi and in sensory neurons and accessory cells of long labellar sensilla in the distal labellum. Silencing Aedae-KR by RNAi significantly reduced gene expression and eliminated the feeding-aversion behavior resulting from contact with the analog 1728, thus directly implicating the Aedae-KR in the aversion response. To our knowledge, this is the first report that kinin analogs modulate sucrose perception in any insect. The aversion to feeding elicited by analog 1728 suggests that synthetic molecules targeting the mosquito Aedae-KR in the labellum and tarsi should be investigated for the potential to discover novel feeding deterrents of mosquito vectors. PMID:27274056

  9. Assessment of Local Mosquito Species Incriminates Aedes aegypti as the Potential Vector of Zika Virus in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Pyke, Alyssa T.; Moore, Peter R.; Mackay, Ian M.; McMahon, Jamie L.; Ritchie, Scott A.; Taylor, Carmel T.; Moore, Frederick A.J.; van den Hurk, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Within the last 10 years Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused unprecedented epidemics of human disease in the nations and territories of the western Pacific and South America, and continues to escalate in both endemic and non-endemic regions. We evaluated the vector competence of Australian mosquitoes for ZIKV to assess their potential role in virus transmission. Methodology/Principal Findings Mosquitoes were exposed to infectious blood meals containing the prototype African ZIKV strain. After 14 days incubation at 28°C and high relative humidity, infection, dissemination and transmission rates were assessed. Infection in Culex annulirostris and Cx. sitiens could not be detected. 8% of Cx. quinquefasciatus were infected, but the virus did not disseminate in this species. Despite having infection rates > 50%, Aedes notoscriptus and Ae. vigilax did not transmit ZIKV. In contrast, Ae. aegypti had infection and transmission rates of 57% and 27%, respectively. In susceptibility trials, the virus dose required to infect 50% (ID50) of Ae. aegypti was106.4 tissue culture infectious dose50 (TCID50)/mL. Additionally, a threshold viral load within the mosquito of at least 105.1 TCID50 equivalents/mL had to be reached before virus transmission occurred. Conclusions/Significance We confirmed Ae. aegypti to be the most likely mosquito vector of ZIKV in Australia, although the restricted distribution of this species will limit the receptive zone to northern Queensland where this species occurs. Importantly, the role in ZIKV transmission of Culex and other Aedes spp. tested will be negligible. Despite being the implicated vector, the relatively high ID50 and need for a high titer disseminated infection in Ae. aegypti suggest that high mosquito population densities will be required to facilitate epidemic ZIKV transmission among the currently immunologically naïve human population in Australia. PMID:27643685

  10. Real-time PCR Tests in Dutch Exotic Mosquito Surveys; Implementation of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Identification Tests, and the Development of Tests for the Identification of Aedes atropalpus and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    van de Vossenberg, B T L H; Ibáñez-Justicia, A; Metz-Verschure, E; van Veen, E J; Bruil-Dieters, M L; Scholte, E J

    2015-05-01

    Since 2009, The Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority carries out surveys focusing on, amongst others, the presence of invasive mosquito species (IMS). Special attention is given to exotic container-breeding Aedes species Aedes aegypti (L.), Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Aedes atropalpus (Coquillett), and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald). This study describes the implementation of real-time PCR tests described by Hill et al. (2008) for the identification of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, and the development of two novel real-time PCR tests for the identification of Ae. atropalpus and Ae. j. japonicus. Initial test showed that optimization of elements of the Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus tests was needed. Method validation tests were performed to determine if the implemented and newly developed tests are fit for routine diagnostics. Performance criteria of analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity, selectivity, repeatability, and reproducibility were determined. In addition, experiments were performed to determine the influence of environmental conditions on the usability of DNA extracted from mosquito specimens trapped in BG-Sentinel traps. The real-time PCR tests were demonstrated to be sensitive, specific, repeatable, reproducible, and are less prone to false negative results compared to partial cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequencing owing to the DNA fragmentation caused by environmental influences. PMID:26334807

  11. Real-time PCR Tests in Dutch Exotic Mosquito Surveys; Implementation of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Identification Tests, and the Development of Tests for the Identification of Aedes atropalpus and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    van de Vossenberg, B T L H; Ibáñez-Justicia, A; Metz-Verschure, E; van Veen, E J; Bruil-Dieters, M L; Scholte, E J

    2015-05-01

    Since 2009, The Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority carries out surveys focusing on, amongst others, the presence of invasive mosquito species (IMS). Special attention is given to exotic container-breeding Aedes species Aedes aegypti (L.), Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Aedes atropalpus (Coquillett), and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald). This study describes the implementation of real-time PCR tests described by Hill et al. (2008) for the identification of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, and the development of two novel real-time PCR tests for the identification of Ae. atropalpus and Ae. j. japonicus. Initial test showed that optimization of elements of the Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus tests was needed. Method validation tests were performed to determine if the implemented and newly developed tests are fit for routine diagnostics. Performance criteria of analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity, selectivity, repeatability, and reproducibility were determined. In addition, experiments were performed to determine the influence of environmental conditions on the usability of DNA extracted from mosquito specimens trapped in BG-Sentinel traps. The real-time PCR tests were demonstrated to be sensitive, specific, repeatable, reproducible, and are less prone to false negative results compared to partial cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequencing owing to the DNA fragmentation caused by environmental influences.

  12. microRNA miR-275 is indispensable for blood digestion and egg development in the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Bart; Macdonald, Warren; Raikhel, Alexander S

    2010-12-28

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the major vector of arboviral diseases, particularly of Dengue fever, of which there are more than 100 million cases annually. Mosquitoes, such as A. aegypti, serve as vectors for disease pathogens because they require vertebrate blood for their egg production. Pathogen transmission is tightly linked to repeated cycles of obligatory blood feeding and egg maturation. Thus, the understanding of mechanisms governing egg production is necessary to develop approaches that limit the spread of mosquito-borne diseases. Previous studies have identified critical roles of hormonal- and nutrition-based target of rapamycin (TOR) pathways in controlling blood-meal-mediated egg maturation in mosquitoes. In this work, we uncovered another essential regulator of blood-meal-activated processes, the microRNA miR-275. The depletion of this microRNA in A. aegypti females after injection of its specific antagomir resulted in severe defects in blood digestion, fluid excretion, and egg development, clearly demonstrating that miR-275 is indispensable for these physiological processes. miR-275 exhibits an expression profile that suggests its regulation by a steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). In vitro organ culture experiments demonstrated that miR-275 is induced by this hormone in the presence of amino acids, indicative of a dual regulation by 20E and TOR. This report has uncovered the critical importance of microRNAs in controlling blood-meal-activated physiological events required for completion of egg development in mosquito disease vectors.

  13. Hot temperatures can force delayed mosquito outbreaks via sequential changes in Aedes aegypti demographic parameters in autocorrelated environments.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Luis Fernando; Scott, Thomas W; Morrison, Amy C; Takada, Takenori

    2014-01-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a common pantropical urban mosquito, vector of dengue, Yellow Fever and chikungunya viruses. Studies have shown Ae. aegypti abundance to be associated with environmental fluctuations, revealing patterns such as the occurrence of delayed mosquito outbreaks, i.e., sudden extraordinary increases in mosquito abundance following transient extreme high temperatures. Here, we use a two-stage (larvae and adults) matrix model to propose a mechanism for environmental signal canalization into demographic parameters of Ae. aegypti that could explain delayed high temperature induced mosquito outbreaks. We performed model simulations using parameters estimated from a weekly time series from Thailand, assuming either independent or autocorrelated environments. For autocorrelated environments, we found that long delays in the association between the onset of "hot" environments and mosquito outbreaks (10 weeks, as observed in Thailand) can be generated when "hot" environments sequentially trigger a larval survival decrease and over-compensatory fecundity increase, which lasts for the whole "hot" period, in conjunction with a larval survival increase followed by a fecundity decrease when the environment returns to "normal". This result was not observed for independent environments. Finally, we discuss our results implications for prospective entomological research and vector management under changing environments.

  14. Blood-Feeding Induces Reversible Functional Changes in Flight Muscle Mitochondria of Aedes aegypti Mosquito

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Renata L. S.; Machado, Ana Carolina L.; Paiva-Silva, Gabriela O.; Sorgine, Marcos H. F.; Momoli, Marisa M.; Oliveira, Jose Henrique M.; Vannier-Santos, Marcos A.; Galina, Antonio; Oliveira, Pedro L.; Oliveira, Marcus F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Hematophagy poses a challenge to blood-feeding organisms since products of blood digestion can exert cellular deleterious effects. Mitochondria perform multiple roles in cell biology acting as the site of aerobic energy-transducing pathways, and also an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), modulating redox metabolism. Therefore, regulation of mitochondrial function should be relevant for hematophagous arthropods. Here, we investigated the effects of blood-feeding on flight muscle (FM) mitochondria from the mosquito Aedes aegypti, a vector of dengue and yellow fever. Methodology/Principal Findings Blood-feeding caused a reversible reduction in mitochondrial oxygen consumption, an event that was parallel to blood digestion. These changes were most intense at 24 h after blood meal (ABM), the peak of blood digestion, when oxygen consumption was inhibited by 68%. Cytochromes c and a+a3 levels and cytochrome c oxidase activity of the electron transport chain were all reduced at 24 h ABM. Ultrastructural and molecular analyses of FM revealed that mitochondria fuse upon blood meal, a condition related to reduced ROS generation. Consistently, BF induced a reversible decrease in mitochondrial H2O2 formation during blood digestion, reaching their lowest values at 24 h ABM where a reduction of 51% was observed. Conclusion Blood-feeding triggers functional and structural changes in hematophagous insect mitochondria, which may represent an important adaptation to blood feeding. PMID:19924237

  15. [Comparison of 2 populations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from Santiago de Cuba with different rest conduct].

    PubMed

    Bisset, Juan A; Rodríguez, Magdalena; De Armas, Yaxsier

    2005-01-01

    Two populations of Aedes aegypti that were collected in Santiago de Cuba during the epidemics of 1971 were separated for having different rest habits, some of them rested naturally on the walls up to 1 m high (Santiago de Cuba strain) and the others were found resting in the roofs of the houses (Santiago de Cuba Techo strain). These strains did not show significant differences as regards their morphological characteristics. The mosquitoes corresponding to Santiago de Cuba Techo strain presented the same patches that those of Santiago de Cuba. The resistance to organophosphate insecticides is very similar in both populations; however, the Santiago de Cuba Techo strain shows a higher resistance to pyrethroid deltamethrin than the Santiago de Cuba strain. From the biochemical point of view and by using the DEF synergist, it was proved that esterases are associated with the high resistance to clorpirifos in both strains. It was not so with the MFO, which was demonstrated by means of the piperomyl butoxide sinergist. Nevertheless, the GST enzyme seems to be responsible for the high resistance to deltamethrin detected in the Santiago de Cuba Techo strain due to the elevated frequency value of that gene in this strain. The random amplified polymorphic DNA technique was used to observe the genetic variability between the 2 populations. The results revealed that there was genetic polymorphism between the populations under study, which could have an impact on the ecology and epidemiology of the vector.

  16. Limited Specificity in the Injury and Infection Priming against Bacteria in Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Valeria; Moreno-García, Miguel; Duarte-Elguea, Erika; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    Injury and infection priming has been observed in several insect groups, reported as host immune protection against contact with a pathogen caused by a previous infection with the same. However, the specific response against a pathogen has not been demonstrated in all insect species. Investigating the specific priming response in insects is important because their immune strategies probably reflect particular selective pressures exerted by different pathogens. Here, we determined whether previous infection of Aedes aegypti would enhance survival and/or lead to greater and specific AMP expression after a second exposure to the same or a distinct bacterium. Mosquitoes previously immunized with a low dose of Escherichia coli, but not Staphylococcus aureus, showed increased survival. Although the host protection herein demonstrated was not specific, each bacterium elicited differential AMP expression. These results can be explained by the susceptible-primed-infected (SPI) epidemiological model, which poses that in the evolution of memory-like responses (priming), a pivotal role is played by pathogen virulence, associated host damage, and the host capacity of pathogen recognition. PMID:27446016

  17. Extract of Bowdichia virgilioides and maackiain as larvicidal agent against Aedes aegypti mosquito.

    PubMed

    Bezerra-Silva, Patrícia C; Santos, Jefferson C; Santos, Geanne K N; Dutra, Kamilla A; Santana, Andrea L B D; Maranhão, Claudia A; Nascimento, Márcia S; Navarro, Daniela M A F; Bieber, Lothar W

    2015-06-01

    The larvicidal activities of extracts of three hardwood species (Hymenaea stigonorcapa, Anadenanthera colubrina and Bowdichia virgilioides) against 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti were evaluated using WHO guidelines. Extracts of H. stignocarpa and A. colubrina showed weak activity. The highest larvicidal effect was obtained with the cyclohexane extract of the heartwood of B. virgilioides, which caused 100% mortality at concentrations at 50 and 100 µg/mL. Fraction toluene/EtOAc (8:2) from this extract showed larvicidal activity (LC₅₀ = 34.90 ± 1.27 µg/mL). A mixture of two compounds identified as medicarpin and maackiain exhibited a very good larvicidal activity (sub-fraction 2, LC₅₀ = 17.5 ± 1.87 µg/mL) and maackiain showed to be a strong larvicidal compound (LC₅₀ = 21.95 ± 1.34 µg/mL). This result can be of value in the search for new natural larvicidal compounds from other hardwood plant extracts and presents the first report of B. virgilioides being used to control a mosquito vector.

  18. Limited Specificity in the Injury and Infection Priming against Bacteria in Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Valeria; Moreno-García, Miguel; Duarte-Elguea, Erika; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    Injury and infection priming has been observed in several insect groups, reported as host immune protection against contact with a pathogen caused by a previous infection with the same. However, the specific response against a pathogen has not been demonstrated in all insect species. Investigating the specific priming response in insects is important because their immune strategies probably reflect particular selective pressures exerted by different pathogens. Here, we determined whether previous infection of Aedes aegypti would enhance survival and/or lead to greater and specific AMP expression after a second exposure to the same or a distinct bacterium. Mosquitoes previously immunized with a low dose of Escherichia coli, but not Staphylococcus aureus, showed increased survival. Although the host protection herein demonstrated was not specific, each bacterium elicited differential AMP expression. These results can be explained by the susceptible-primed-infected (SPI) epidemiological model, which poses that in the evolution of memory-like responses (priming), a pivotal role is played by pathogen virulence, associated host damage, and the host capacity of pathogen recognition. PMID:27446016

  19. Bicluster pattern of codon context usages between flavivirus and vector mosquito Aedes aegypti: relevance to infection and transcriptional response of mosquito genes.

    PubMed

    Behura, Susanta K; Severson, David W

    2014-10-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of dengue virus (DENV) infection in most of the subtropical and tropical countries. Besides DENV, yellow fever virus (YFV) is also transmitted by A. aegypti. Susceptibility of A. aegypti to West Nile virus (WNV) has also been confirmed. Although studies have indicated correlation of codon bias between flaviviridae and their animal/insect hosts, it is not clear if codon sequences have any relation to susceptibility of A. aegypti to DENV, YFV and WNV. In the current study, usages of codon context sequences (codon pairs for neighboring amino acids) of the vector (A. aegypti) genome as well as the flaviviral genomes are investigated. We used bioinformatics methods to quantify codon context bias in a genome-wide manner of A. aegypti as well as DENV, WNV and YFV sequences. Mutual information statistics was applied to perform bicluster analysis of codon context bias between vector and flaviviral sequences. Functional relevance of the bicluster pattern was inferred from published microarray data. Our study shows that codon context bias of DENV, WNV and YFV sequences varies in a bicluster manner with that of specific sets of genes of A. aegypti. Many of these mosquito genes are known to be differentially expressed in response to flaviviral infection suggesting that codon context sequences of A. aegypti and the flaviviruses may play a role in the susceptible interaction between flaviviruses and this mosquito. The bias in usages of codon context sequences likely has a functional association with susceptibility of A. aegypti to flaviviral infection. The results from this study will allow us to conduct hypothesis-driven tests to examine the role of codon context bias in evolution of vector-virus interactions at the molecular level.

  20. A Deep Insight into the Sialome of Male and Female Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, José M. C.; Martin-Martin, Ines; Arcà, Bruno; Calvo, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Only adult female mosquitoes feed on blood, while both genders take sugar meals. Accordingly, several compounds associated with blood feeding (i.e. vasodilators, anti-clotting, anti-platelets) are found only in female glands, while enzymes associated with sugar feeding or antimicrobials (such as lysozyme) are found in the glands of both sexes. We performed de novo assembly of reads from adult Aedes aegypti female and male salivary gland libraries (285 and 90 million reads, respectively). By mapping back the reads to the assembled contigs, plus mapping the reads from a publicly available Ae. aegypti library from adult whole bodies, we identified 360 transcripts (including splice variants and alleles) overexpressed tenfold or more in the glands when compared to whole bodies. Moreover, among these, 207 were overexpressed fivefold or more in female vs. male salivary glands, 85 were near equally expressed and 68 were overexpressed in male glands. We call in particular the attention to C-type lectins, angiopoietins, female-specific Antigen 5, the 9.7 kDa, 12–14 kDa, 23.5 kDa, 62/34 kDa, 4.2 kDa, proline-rich peptide, SG8, 8.7 kDa family and SGS fragments: these polypeptides are all of unknown function, but due to their overexpression in female salivary glands and putative secretory nature they are expected to affect host physiology. We have also found many transposons (some of which novel) and several endogenous viral transcripts (probably acquired by horizontal transfer) which are overexpressed in the salivary glands and may play some role in tissue-specific gene regulation or represent a mechanism of virus interference. This work contributes to a near definitive catalog of male and female salivary gland transcripts from Ae. aegypti, which will help to direct further studies aiming at the functional characterization of the many transcripts with unknown function and the understanding of their role in vector-host interaction and pathogen transmission. PMID:26999592

  1. Inhibition of luciferase expression in transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes by Sindbis virus expression of antisense luciferase RNA

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Barbara W.; Olson, Ken E.; Allen-Miura, Tanya; Rayms-Keller, Alfredo; Carlson, Jonathan O.; Coates, Craig J.; Jasinskiene, Nijole; James, Anthony A.; Beaty, Barry J.; Higgs, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    A rapid and reproducible method of inhibiting the expression of specific genes in mosquitoes should further our understanding of gene function and may lead to the identification of mosquito genes that determine vector competence or are involved in pathogen transmission. We hypothesized that the virus expression system based on the mosquito-borne Alphavirus, Sindbis (Togaviridae), may efficiently transcribe effector RNAs that inhibit expression of a targeted mosquito gene. To test this hypothesis, germ-line-transformed Aedes aegypti that express luciferase (LUC) from the mosquito Apyrase promoter were intrathoracically inoculated with a double subgenomic Sindbis (dsSIN) virus TE/3′2J/anti-luc (Anti-luc) that transcribes RNA complementary to the 5′ end of the LUC mRNA. LUC activity was monitored in mosquitoes infected with either Anti-luc or control dsSIN viruses expressing unrelated antisense RNAs. Mosquitoes infected with Anti-luc virus exhibited 90% reduction in LUC compared with uninfected and control dsSIN-infected mosquitoes at 5 and 9 days postinoculation. We demonstrate that a gene expressed from the mosquito genome can be inhibited by using an antisense strategy. The dsSIN antisense RNA expression system is an important tool for studying gene function in vivo. PMID:10557332

  2. Inhibition of luciferase expression in transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes by Sindbis virus expression of antisense luciferase RNA.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B W; Olson, K E; Allen-Miura, T; Rayms-Keller, A; Carlson, J O; Coates, C J; Jasinskiene, N; James, A A; Beaty, B J; Higgs, S

    1999-11-01

    A rapid and reproducible method of inhibiting the expression of specific genes in mosquitoes should further our understanding of gene function and may lead to the identification of mosquito genes that determine vector competence or are involved in pathogen transmission. We hypothesized that the virus expression system based on the mosquito-borne Alphavirus, Sindbis (Togaviridae), may efficiently transcribe effector RNAs that inhibit expression of a targeted mosquito gene. To test this hypothesis, germ-line-transformed Aedes aegypti that express luciferase (LUC) from the mosquito Apyrase promoter were intrathoracically inoculated with a double subgenomic Sindbis (dsSIN) virus TE/3'2J/anti-luc (Anti-luc) that transcribes RNA complementary to the 5' end of the LUC mRNA. LUC activity was monitored in mosquitoes infected with either Anti-luc or control dsSIN viruses expressing unrelated antisense RNAs. Mosquitoes infected with Anti-luc virus exhibited 90% reduction in LUC compared with uninfected and control dsSIN-infected mosquitoes at 5 and 9 days postinoculation. We demonstrate that a gene expressed from the mosquito genome can be inhibited by using an antisense strategy. The dsSIN antisense RNA expression system is an important tool for studying gene function in vivo. PMID:10557332

  3. Ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone requires a receptor tyrosine kinase to activate egg formation in the mosquito Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Kevin J.; Brown, Mark R.; Strand, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are major disease vectors because most species must feed on blood from a vertebrate host to produce eggs. Blood feeding by the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti triggers the release of two neurohormones, ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone (OEH) and insulin-like peptides (ILPs), which activate multiple processes required for egg formation. ILPs function by binding to the insulin receptor, which activates downstream components in the canonical insulin signaling pathway. OEH in contrast belongs to a neuropeptide family called neuroparsins, whose receptor is unknown. Here we demonstrate that a previously orphanized receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) from A. aegypti encoded by the gene AAEL001915 is an OEH receptor. Phylogenetic studies indicated that the protein encoded by this gene, designated AAEL001915, belongs to a clade of RTKs related to the insulin receptor, which are distinguished by an extracellular Venus flytrap module. Knockdown of AAEL001915 by RNAi disabled OEH-mediated egg formation in A. aegypti. AAEL001915 was primarily detected in the mosquito ovary in association with follicular epithelial cells. Both monomeric and dimeric AAEL001915 were detected in mosquito ovaries and transfected Drosophila S2 cells. Functional assays further indicated that OEH bound to dimeric AAEL001915, which resulted in downstream phosphorylation of Ak strain transforming factor (Akt). We hypothesize that orthologs of AAEL001915 in other insects are neuroparsin receptors. PMID:25848040

  4. Insecticidal and repellent activity of Clausena dentata (Rutaceae) plant extracts against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Ramkumar, Govindaraju; Karthi, Sengodan; Muthusamy, Ranganathan; Natarajan, Devarajan; Shivakumar, Muthugounder Subramanian

    2015-03-01

    Mosquito control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol agents. The present study is to evaluate adulticidal activity of Clausena dentata plant extract against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The highest mortality was found in acetone extracts against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 and LC90 4.1783 mg/ml (3.8201-7.1026), 9.3884 mg/ml (7. 8258-13.1820) and 4.2451 mg/ml (3.8547-8.0254), 12.3214 mg/ml (10.9287-16.2220), respectively. Smoke toxicity was observed at 10-min interval for 40 min, and the mortality data were recorded. Result shows that Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus are 85 ± 2 and 89 ± 1.5, respectively. A mortality of 100 % was recorded in the commercial mosquito control. These results suggest that the leaf extracts of C. dentata have a potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes.

  5. Bromeliad-inhabiting mosquitoes in an urban botanical garden of dengue endemic Rio de Janeiro. Are bromeliads productive habitats for the invasive vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus?

    PubMed Central

    Mocellin, Márcio Goulart; Simões, Taynãna César; do Nascimento, Teresa Fernandes Silva; Teixeira, Maria Lucia França; Lounibos, Leon Philip; de Oliveira, Ricardo Lourenço

    2012-01-01

    Immatures of both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have been found in water-holding bromeliad axils in Brazil. Removal of these plants or their treatment with insecticides in public and private gardens have been undertaken during dengue outbreaks in Brazil despite uncertainty as to their importance as productive habitats for dengue vectors. From March 2005-February 2006, we sampled 120 randomly selected bromeliads belonging to 10 species in a public garden less than 200 m from houses in a dengue-endemic neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro. A total of 2,816 mosquito larvae and pupae was collected, with an average of 5.87 immatures per plant per collection. Culex (Microculex) pleuristriatus and Culex spp of the Ocellatus Group were the most abundant culicid species, found in all species of bromeliads; next in relative abundance were species of the genus Wyeomyia. Only two individuals of Ae. aegypti (0.07%) and five of Ae. albopictus (0.18%) were collected from bromeliads. By contrast, immatures of Ae. aegypti were found in manmade containers in nearly 5% of nearby houses. These results demonstrate that bromeliads are not important producers of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus and, hence, should not be a focus for dengue control. However, the results of this study of only one year in a single area may not represent outcomes in other urban localities where bromeliads, Ae. aegypti and dengue coincide in more disturbed habitats. PMID:20140379

  6. Isolation and identification of mosquito (Aedes aegypti ) biting deterrent fatty acids from male inflorescences of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg).

    PubMed

    Jones, A Maxwell P; Klun, Jerome A; Cantrell, Charles L; Ragone, Diane; Chauhan, Kamlesh R; Brown, Paula N; Murch, Susan J

    2012-04-18

    Dried male inflorescences of breadfruit ( Artocarpus altilis , Moraceae) are burned in communities throughout Oceania to repel flying insects, including mosquitoes. This study was conducted to identify chemicals responsible for mosquito deterrence. Various crude extracts were evaluated, and the most active, the hydrodistillate, was used for bioassay-guided fractionation. The hydrodistillate and all fractions displayed significant deterrent activity. Exploratory GC-MS analysis revealed more than 100 distinctive peaks, and more than 30 compounds were putatively identified, including a mixture of terpenes, aldehydes, fatty acids, and aromatics. A systematic bioassay-directed study using adult Aedes aegypti females identified capric, undecanoic, and lauric acid as primary deterrent constituents. A synthetic mixture of fatty acids present in the most active fraction and individual fatty acids were all significantly more active than N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). These results provide support for this traditional practice and indicate the potential of male breadfruit flowers and fatty acids as mosquito repellents.

  7. Body Size and Wing Shape Measurements as Quality Indicators of Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes Destined for Field Release

    PubMed Central

    Yeap, Heng Lin; Endersby, Nancy M.; Johnson, Petrina H.; Ritchie, Scott A.; Hoffmann, Ary A.

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing interest in rearing modified mosquitoes for mass release to control vector-borne diseases, particularly Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti for suppression of dengue. Successful introductions require release of high quality mosquitoes into natural populations. Potential indicators of quality are body size and shape. We tested to determine if size, wing/thorax ratio, and wing shape are associated with field fitness of Wolbachia-infected Ae. aegypti. Compared with field-collected mosquitoes, released mosquitoes were larger in size, with lower size variance and different wing shape but similar in wing-thorax ratio and its associated variance. These differences were largely attributed to nutrition and to a minor extent to wMel Wolbachia infection. Survival potential of released female mosquitoes was similar to those from the field. Females at oviposition sites tended to be larger than those randomly collected from BG-Sentinel traps. Rearing conditions should thus aim for large size without affecting wing/thorax ratios. PMID:23716403

  8. Mosquito-Producing Containers, Spatial Distribution, and Relationship between Aedes aegypti Population Indices on the Southern Boundary of its Distribution in South America (Salto, Uruguay)

    PubMed Central

    Basso, César; Caffera, Ruben M.; García da Rosa, Elsa; Lairihoy, Rosario; González, Cristina; Norbis, Walter; Roche, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted in the city of Salto, Uruguay, to identify mosquito-producing containers, the spatial distribution of mosquitoes and the relationship between the different population indices of Aedes aegypti. On each of 312 premises visited, water-filled containers and immature Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were identified. The containers were counted and classified into six categories. Pupae per person and Stegomyia indices were calculated. Pupae per person were represented spatially. The number of each type of container and number of mosquitoes in each were analyzed and compared, and their spatial distribution was analyzed. No significant differences in the number of the different types of containers with mosquitoes or in the number of mosquitoes in each were found. The distribution of the containers with mosquito was random and the distribution of mosquitoes by type of container was aggregated or highly aggregated. PMID:23128295

  9. Chikungunya Virus Infection of Aedes Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hui Vern; Chan, Yoke Fun; Sam, I-Ching; Sulaiman, Wan Yusof Wan; Vythilingam, Indra

    2016-01-01

    In vivo infection of mosquitoes is an important method to study and characterize arthropod-borne viruses. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that is transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes. In this chapter, we describe a protocol for infection of CHIKV in two species of Aedes mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, together with the isolation of CHIKV in different parts of the infected mosquito such as midgut, legs, wings, salivary gland, head, and saliva. This allows the study of viral infection, replication and dissemination within the mosquito vector. PMID:27233266

  10. Workbook on Identification of Aedes Aegypti Larvae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Harry D.; And Others

    This self-instructional booklet is designed to enable yellow fever control workers to identify the larvae of "Aedes aegypti." The morphological features of mosquito larvae are illustrated in this partially programed text, and the distinguishing features of "A. aegypti" indicated. A glossary is included. (AL)

  11. Larvicidal and pupicidal activities of essential oils from Zingiberaceae plants against Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Culex quinquefasciatus say mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Phukerd, Ubol; Soonwera, Mayura

    2013-09-01

    We conducted this study to investigate the efficacy of herbal essential oils from 12 species of Zingiberaceae plants to determine their larvicidal and pupicidal activity against fourth instar larvae and pupae of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Probit analysis was used to analyze the data. Larval mortality was recorded at 1, 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 minutes and 24 hours. Pupal mortality was recorded at 15 and 30 minutes and 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours. All the essential oils tested showed larvicidal activity. Zingiber cassumunar and Amomum biflorum oils proved to have the greatest activity against Ae. aegypti larvae with LT50 of 1.4 minutes and 100% mortality at 5 and 10 minutes, respectively. Boesenbergia rotunda, Curcuma zedoaria and Hedychium coronarium essential oils had activity against Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae with LT50 of 1.7 minutes and 100% mortality at 10 minutes, 5 minutes and 15 minutes, respectively. All the herbal essential oils tested resulted in 100% mortality against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae at 60 minutes and 30 minutes, respectively. Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus pupae were susceptible to Z. ottensii oil (LT50 of 0.2 hour) and Z. zerumbet oil (LT50 of 0.6 hour) and had pupicidal activity with 100% mortality at 6 and 3 hours, respectively. All the essential oils test had pupicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus by inducing 100% mortality at 48 hours. PMID:24437311

  12. siRNA-Mediated Silencing of doublesex during Female Development of the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Mysore, Keshava; Sun, Longhua; Tomchaney, Michael; Sullivan, Gwyneth; Adams, Haley; Piscoya, Andres S.; Severson, David W.; Syed, Zainulabeuddin; Duman-Scheel, Molly

    2015-01-01

    The development of sex-specific traits, including the female-specific ability to bite humans and vector disease, is critical for vector mosquito reproduction and pathogen transmission. Doublesex (Dsx), a terminal transcription factor in the sex determination pathway, is known to regulate sex-specific gene expression during development of the dengue fever vector mosquito Aedes aegypti. Here, the effects of developmental siRNA-mediated dsx silencing were assessed in adult females. Targeting of dsx during A. aegypti development resulted in decreased female wing size, a correlate for body size, which is typically larger in females. siRNA-mediated targeting of dsx also resulted in decreased length of the adult female proboscis. Although dsx silencing did not impact female membrane blood feeding or mating behavior in the laboratory, decreased fecundity and fertility correlated with decreased ovary length, ovariole length, and ovariole number in dsx knockdown females. Dsx silencing also resulted in disruption of olfactory system development, as evidenced by reduced length of the female antenna and maxillary palp and the sensilla present on these structures, as well as disrupted odorant receptor expression. Female lifespan, a critical component of the ability of A. aegypti to transmit pathogens, was also significantly reduced in adult females following developmental targeting of dsx. The results of this investigation demonstrate that silencing of dsx during A. aegypti development disrupts multiple sex-specific morphological, physiological, and behavioral traits of adult females, a number of which are directly or indirectly linked to mosquito reproduction and pathogen transmission. Moreover, the olfactory phenotypes observed connect Dsx to development of the olfactory system, suggesting that A. aegypti will be an excellent system in which to further assess the developmental genetics of sex-specific chemosensation. PMID:26544686

  13. siRNA-Mediated Silencing of doublesex during Female Development of the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Mysore, Keshava; Sun, Longhua; Tomchaney, Michael; Sullivan, Gwyneth; Adams, Haley; Piscoya, Andres S; Severson, David W; Syed, Zainulabeuddin; Duman-Scheel, Molly

    2015-11-01

    The development of sex-specific traits, including the female-specific ability to bite humans and vector disease, is critical for vector mosquito reproduction and pathogen transmission. Doublesex (Dsx), a terminal transcription factor in the sex determination pathway, is known to regulate sex-specific gene expression during development of the dengue fever vector mosquito Aedes aegypti. Here, the effects of developmental siRNA-mediated dsx silencing were assessed in adult females. Targeting of dsx during A. aegypti development resulted in decreased female wing size, a correlate for body size, which is typically larger in females. siRNA-mediated targeting of dsx also resulted in decreased length of the adult female proboscis. Although dsx silencing did not impact female membrane blood feeding or mating behavior in the laboratory, decreased fecundity and fertility correlated with decreased ovary length, ovariole length, and ovariole number in dsx knockdown females. Dsx silencing also resulted in disruption of olfactory system development, as evidenced by reduced length of the female antenna and maxillary palp and the sensilla present on these structures, as well as disrupted odorant receptor expression. Female lifespan, a critical component of the ability of A. aegypti to transmit pathogens, was also significantly reduced in adult females following developmental targeting of dsx. The results of this investigation demonstrate that silencing of dsx during A. aegypti development disrupts multiple sex-specific morphological, physiological, and behavioral traits of adult females, a number of which are directly or indirectly linked to mosquito reproduction and pathogen transmission. Moreover, the olfactory phenotypes observed connect Dsx to development of the olfactory system, suggesting that A. aegypti will be an excellent system in which to further assess the developmental genetics of sex-specific chemosensation. PMID:26544686

  14. siRNA-Mediated Silencing of doublesex during Female Development of the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Mysore, Keshava; Sun, Longhua; Tomchaney, Michael; Sullivan, Gwyneth; Adams, Haley; Piscoya, Andres S; Severson, David W; Syed, Zainulabeuddin; Duman-Scheel, Molly

    2015-11-01

    The development of sex-specific traits, including the female-specific ability to bite humans and vector disease, is critical for vector mosquito reproduction and pathogen transmission. Doublesex (Dsx), a terminal transcription factor in the sex determination pathway, is known to regulate sex-specific gene expression during development of the dengue fever vector mosquito Aedes aegypti. Here, the effects of developmental siRNA-mediated dsx silencing were assessed in adult females. Targeting of dsx during A. aegypti development resulted in decreased female wing size, a correlate for body size, which is typically larger in females. siRNA-mediated targeting of dsx also resulted in decreased length of the adult female proboscis. Although dsx silencing did not impact female membrane blood feeding or mating behavior in the laboratory, decreased fecundity and fertility correlated with decreased ovary length, ovariole length, and ovariole number in dsx knockdown females. Dsx silencing also resulted in disruption of olfactory system development, as evidenced by reduced length of the female antenna and maxillary palp and the sensilla present on these structures, as well as disrupted odorant receptor expression. Female lifespan, a critical component of the ability of A. aegypti to transmit pathogens, was also significantly reduced in adult females following developmental targeting of dsx. The results of this investigation demonstrate that silencing of dsx during A. aegypti development disrupts multiple sex-specific morphological, physiological, and behavioral traits of adult females, a number of which are directly or indirectly linked to mosquito reproduction and pathogen transmission. Moreover, the olfactory phenotypes observed connect Dsx to development of the olfactory system, suggesting that A. aegypti will be an excellent system in which to further assess the developmental genetics of sex-specific chemosensation.

  15. Evaluation of a peridomestic mosquito trap for integration into an Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) push-pull control strategy.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Ferdinand V; Achee, Nicole L; Grieco, John P; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Eisen, Lars; Shah, Pankhil; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2012-06-01

    We determined the feasibility of using the BG-Sentinel™ mosquito trap (BGS) as the pull component in a push-pull strategy to reduce indoor biting by Aedes aegypti. This included evaluating varying numbers of traps (1-4) and mosquito release numbers (10, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250) on recapture rates under screen house conditions. Based on these variations in trap and mosquito numbers, release intervals were rotated through a completely randomized design with environmental factors (temperature, relative humidity, and light intensity) and monitored throughout each experiment. Data from four sampling time points (05:30, 09:30, 13:30, and 17:30) indicate a recapture range among treatments of 66-98%. Furthermore, 2-3 traps were as effective in recapturing mosquitoes as 4 traps for all mosquito release numbers. Time trends indicate Day 1 (the day the mosquitoes were released) as the "impact period" for recapture with peak numbers of marked mosquitoes collected at 09:30 or 4 h post-release. Information from this study will be used to guide the configuration of the BGS trap component of a push-pull vector control strategy currently in the proof-of-concept stage of development in Thailand and Peru.

  16. Distinct sets of PIWI proteins produce arbovirus and transposon-derived piRNAs in Aedes aegypti mosquito cells.

    PubMed

    Miesen, Pascal; Girardi, Erika; van Rij, Ronald P

    2015-07-27

    The PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway is essential for transposon silencing in many model organisms. Its remarkable efficiency relies on a sophisticated amplification mechanism known as the ping-pong loop. In Alphavirus-infected Aedes mosquitoes, piRNAs with sequence features that suggest ping-pong-dependent biogenesis are produced from viral RNA. The PIWI family in Aedes mosquitoes is expanded when compared to other model organisms, raising the possibility that individual PIWI proteins have functionally diversified in these insects. Here, we show that Piwi5 and Ago3, but none of the other PIWI family members, are essential for piRNA biogenesis from Sindbis virus RNA in infected Aedes aegypti cells. In contrast, the production of piRNAs from transposons relies on a more versatile set of PIWI proteins, some of which do not contribute to viral piRNA biogenesis. These results indicate that functional specialization allows distinct mosquito PIWI proteins to process RNA from different endogenous and exogenous sources. PMID:26068474

  17. Distinct sets of PIWI proteins produce arbovirus and transposon-derived piRNAs in Aedes aegypti mosquito cells.

    PubMed

    Miesen, Pascal; Girardi, Erika; van Rij, Ronald P

    2015-07-27

    The PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway is essential for transposon silencing in many model organisms. Its remarkable efficiency relies on a sophisticated amplification mechanism known as the ping-pong loop. In Alphavirus-infected Aedes mosquitoes, piRNAs with sequence features that suggest ping-pong-dependent biogenesis are produced from viral RNA. The PIWI family in Aedes mosquitoes is expanded when compared to other model organisms, raising the possibility that individual PIWI proteins have functionally diversified in these insects. Here, we show that Piwi5 and Ago3, but none of the other PIWI family members, are essential for piRNA biogenesis from Sindbis virus RNA in infected Aedes aegypti cells. In contrast, the production of piRNAs from transposons relies on a more versatile set of PIWI proteins, some of which do not contribute to viral piRNA biogenesis. These results indicate that functional specialization allows distinct mosquito PIWI proteins to process RNA from different endogenous and exogenous sources.

  18. Establishment of a Wolbachia Superinfection in Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes as a Potential Approach for Future Resistance Management

    PubMed Central

    De Bruyne, Jyotika Taneja; Kien, Duong Hue T.; Hoang, Nhat Le Thanh; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Iñaki; Simmons, Cameron P.; O’Neill, Scott L.

    2016-01-01

    Wolbachia pipientis is an endosymbiotic bacterium estimated to chronically infect between 40–75% of all arthropod species. Aedes aegypti, the principle mosquito vector of dengue virus (DENV), is not a natural host of Wolbachia. The transinfection of Wolbachia strains such as wAlbB, wMel and wMelPop-CLA into Ae. aegypti has been shown to significantly reduce the vector competence of this mosquito for a range of human pathogens in the laboratory. This has led to wMel-transinfected Ae. aegypti currently being released in five countries to evaluate its effectiveness to control dengue disease in human populations. Here we describe the generation of a superinfected Ae. aegypti mosquito line simultaneously infected with two avirulent Wolbachia strains, wMel and wAlbB. The line carries a high overall Wolbachia density and tissue localisation of the individual strains is very similar to each respective single infected parental line. The superinfected line induces unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) when crossed to each single infected parental line, suggesting that the superinfection would have the capacity to replace either of the single constituent infections already present in a mosquito population. No significant differences in fitness parameters were observed between the superinfected line and the parental lines under the experimental conditions tested. Finally, the superinfected line blocks DENV replication more efficiently than the single wMel strain when challenged with blood meals from viremic dengue patients. These results suggest that the deployment of superinfections could be used to replace single infections and may represent an effective strategy to help manage potential resistance by DENV to field deployments of single infected strains. PMID:26891349

  19. Larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of railway creeper, Ipomoea cairica Extract Against Dengue Vector Mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    AhbiRami, Rattanam; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Thiagaletchumi, Maniam; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan; Sundarasekar, Jeevandran

    2014-01-01

    Natural insecticides from plant origin against mosquito vectors have been the main concern for research due to their high level of eco-safety. Control of mosquitoes in their larval stages are an ideal method since Aedes larvae are aquatic, thus it is easier to deal with them in this habitat. The present study was specifically conducted to explore the larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of Ipomoea cairica (L.) or railway creeper crude extract obtained using two different solvents; methanol and acetone against late third-stage larvae of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Plant materials of I. cairica leaf, flower, and stem were segregated, airdried, powdered, and extracted using Soxhlet apparatus. Larvicidal bioassays were performed by using World Health Organization standard larval susceptibility test method for each species which were conducted separately for different concentration ranging from 10 to 450 ppm. Both acetone and methanol extracts showed 100% mortality at highest concentration tested (450 ppm) after 24 h of exposure. Results from factorial ANOVA indicated that there were significant differences in larvicidal effects between mosquito species, solvent used and plant parts (F=5.71, df=2, P<0.05). The acetone extract of I. cairica leaf showed the most effective larvicidal action in Ae. aegypti with LC50 of 101.94 ppm followed by Ae. albopictus with LC50 of 105.59 ppm compared with other fractions of I. cairica extract obtained from flower, stem, and when methanol are used as solvent. The larvae of Ae. aegypti appeared to be more susceptible to I. cairica extract with lower LC50 value compared with Ae. albopictus (F=8.83, df=1, P<0.05). Therefore, this study suggests that the acetone extract of I. cairica leaf can be considered as plant-derived insecticide for the control of Aedes mosquitoes. This study quantified the larvicidal property of I. cairica extract, providing information on lethal concentration that

  20. Larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of railway creeper, Ipomoea cairica Extract Against Dengue Vector Mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    AhbiRami, Rattanam; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Thiagaletchumi, Maniam; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan; Sundarasekar, Jeevandran

    2014-01-01

    Natural insecticides from plant origin against mosquito vectors have been the main concern for research due to their high level of eco-safety. Control of mosquitoes in their larval stages are an ideal method since Aedes larvae are aquatic, thus it is easier to deal with them in this habitat. The present study was specifically conducted to explore the larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of Ipomoea cairica (L.) or railway creeper crude extract obtained using two different solvents; methanol and acetone against late third-stage larvae of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Plant materials of I. cairica leaf, flower, and stem were segregated, airdried, powdered, and extracted using Soxhlet apparatus. Larvicidal bioassays were performed by using World Health Organization standard larval susceptibility test method for each species which were conducted separately for different concentration ranging from 10 to 450 ppm. Both acetone and methanol extracts showed 100% mortality at highest concentration tested (450 ppm) after 24 h of exposure. Results from factorial ANOVA indicated that there were significant differences in larvicidal effects between mosquito species, solvent used and plant parts (F=5.71, df=2, P<0.05). The acetone extract of I. cairica leaf showed the most effective larvicidal action in Ae. aegypti with LC50 of 101.94 ppm followed by Ae. albopictus with LC50 of 105.59 ppm compared with other fractions of I. cairica extract obtained from flower, stem, and when methanol are used as solvent. The larvae of Ae. aegypti appeared to be more susceptible to I. cairica extract with lower LC50 value compared with Ae. albopictus (F=8.83, df=1, P<0.05). Therefore, this study suggests that the acetone extract of I. cairica leaf can be considered as plant-derived insecticide for the control of Aedes mosquitoes. This study quantified the larvicidal property of I. cairica extract, providing information on lethal concentration that

  1. Implications of saline concentrations for the performance and competitive interactions of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) and Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopictus).

    PubMed

    Yee, D A; Himel, E; Reiskind, M H; Vamosi, S M

    2014-03-01

    Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopictus) (Diptera: Culicidae) has probably supplanted Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) throughout most of its historical range in the U.S.A., although Ae. aegypti still exists in large coastal cities in southern Florida. We measured salt concentrations in field containers along an axis perpendicular to the coast and examined intraspecific outcomes in these species under different salt concentrations in a factorial study using varying intra- and interspecific densities in different conditions of salinity to order to determine if salt could mitigate the documented competitive superiority of Ae. albopictus. Salt in field containers declined away from the coast, with maximal values similar to our lower salt concentrations. Egg hatching and short-term survival of pupae and late instars were not affected by salt concentrations; survival of early instars of both species decreased at higher concentrations. In high salt conditions, Ae. aegypti achieved higher survival. In the longterm experiment, both species displayed longer development times. Salt did not affect interactions for either species; Ae. aegypti survived in the highest salt conditions, regardless of density. The tolerance of Ae. aegypti to high salt concentrations may allow it to use coastal containers, although because salt did not mediate interspecific interactions between Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, the ultimate effects of salt on the coexistence of these species or exclusion of either species remain unknown. PMID:23607885

  2. Implications of saline concentrations for the performance and competitive interactions of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) and Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopictus).

    PubMed

    Yee, D A; Himel, E; Reiskind, M H; Vamosi, S M

    2014-03-01

    Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopictus) (Diptera: Culicidae) has probably supplanted Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) throughout most of its historical range in the U.S.A., although Ae. aegypti still exists in large coastal cities in southern Florida. We measured salt concentrations in field containers along an axis perpendicular to the coast and examined intraspecific outcomes in these species under different salt concentrations in a factorial study using varying intra- and interspecific densities in different conditions of salinity to order to determine if salt could mitigate the documented competitive superiority of Ae. albopictus. Salt in field containers declined away from the coast, with maximal values similar to our lower salt concentrations. Egg hatching and short-term survival of pupae and late instars were not affected by salt concentrations; survival of early instars of both species decreased at higher concentrations. In high salt conditions, Ae. aegypti achieved higher survival. In the longterm experiment, both species displayed longer development times. Salt did not affect interactions for either species; Ae. aegypti survived in the highest salt conditions, regardless of density. The tolerance of Ae. aegypti to high salt concentrations may allow it to use coastal containers, although because salt did not mediate interspecific interactions between Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, the ultimate effects of salt on the coexistence of these species or exclusion of either species remain unknown.

  3. Restriction fragment length polymorphism mapping of quantitative trait loci for malaria parasite susceptibility in the mosquito Aedes aegypti

    SciTech Connect

    Severson, D.W.; Thathy, V.; Mori, A.

    1995-04-01

    Susceptibility of the mosquito Aedes aegypti to the malarial parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum was investigated as a quantitative trait using restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). Two F{sub 2} populations of mosquitoes were independently prepared from pairwise matings between a highly susceptible and a refractory strain of A. aegypti. RFLP were tested for association with oocyst development on the mosquito midgut. Two putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified that significantly affect susceptibility. One QTL, pgs [2,LF98], is located on chromosome 2 and accounted for 65 and 49% of the observed phenotypic variance in the two populations, respectively. A second QTL, pgs[3,MalI], is located on chromosome 3 and accounted for 14 and 10% of the observed phenotypic variance in the two populations, respectively. Both QTL exhibit a partial dominance effect on susceptibility, wherein the dominance effect is derived from the refractory parent. No indication of epistasis between these QTL was detected. Evidence suggests that either a tightly linked cluster of independent genes or a single locus affecting susceptibility to various mosquito-borne parasites and pathogens has evolved near the LF98 locus; in addition to P. gallinaceum susceptibility, this general genome region has previously been implicated in susceptibility to the filaria nematode Brugia malayi and the yellow fever virus. 35 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Genetic structure and phylogeography of Aedes aegypti, the dengue and yellow-fever mosquito vector in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Paupy, Christophe; Le Goff, Gilbert; Brengues, Cécile; Guerra, Mabel; Revollo, Jimmy; Barja Simon, Zaïra; Hervé, Jean-Pierre; Fontenille, Didier

    2012-08-01

    Between the 16th and 18th centuries, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae), a mosquito native to Africa, invaded the Americas, where it was successively responsible for the emergence of yellow fever (YF) and dengue (DEN). The species was eradicated from numerous American countries in the mid-20th century, but re-invaded them in the 1970s and 1980s. Little is known about the precise identities of Ae. aegypti populations which successively thrived in South America, or their relation with the epidemiological changes in patterns of YF and DEN. We examined these questions in Bolivia, where Ae. aegypti, eradicated in 1943, re-appeared in the 1980s. We assessed the genetic variability and population genetics of Ae. aegypti samples in order to deduce their genetic structure and likely geographic origin. Using a 21-population set covering Bolivia, we analyzed the polymorphism at nine microsatellite loci and in two mitochondrial DNA regions (COI and ND4). Microsatellite markers revealed a significant genetic structure among geographic populations (F(ST)=0.0627, P<0.0001) in relation with the recent re-expansion of Ae. aegypti in Bolivia. Analysis of mtDNA sequences revealed the existence of two genetic lineages, one dominant lineage recovered throughout Bolivia, and the second restricted to rural localities in South Bolivia. Phylogenic analysis indicated that this minority lineage was related to West African Ae. aegypti specimens. In conclusion, our results suggested a temporal succession of Ae. aegypti populations in Bolivia, that potentially impacted the epidemiology of dengue and yellow fever.

  5. A critical role of the nuclear receptor HR3 in regulation of gonadotrophic cycles of the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Mane-Padros, Daniel; Cruz, Josefa; Cheng, Andrew; Raikhel, Alexander S

    2012-01-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor HR3 is essential for developmental switches during insect development and metamorphosis regulated by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). Reproduction of female mosquitoes of the major vector of Dengue fever, Aedes aegypti, is cyclic because of its dependence on blood feeding. 20E is an important hormone regulating vitellogenic events in this mosquito; however, any role for HR3 in 20E-driven reproductive events has not been known. Using RNA interference (RNAi) approach, we demonstrated that Aedes HR3 plays a critical role in a timely termination of expression of the vitellogenin (Vg) gene encoding the major yolk protein precursor. It is also important for downregulation of the Target-of-Rapamycin pathway and activation of programmed autophagy in the Aedes fat body at the end of vitellogenesis. HR3 is critical in activating betaFTZ-F1, EcRB and USPA, the expressions of which are highly elevated at the end of vitellogenesis. RNAi depletion of HR3 (iHR3) prior to the first gonadotrophic cycle affects a normal progression of the second gonadotrophic cycle. Most of ovaries 24 h post second blood meal from iHR3 females in the second cycle were small with follicles that were only slightly different in length from of those of resting stage. In addition, these iHR3 females laid a significantly reduced number of eggs per mosquito as compared to those of iMal and the wild type. Our results indicate an important role of HR3 in regulation of 20E-regulated developmental switches during reproductive cycles of A. aegypti females.

  6. Functional characterization of aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Lisa L.; Rodriguez, Stacy D.; Hansen, Immo A.

    2015-01-01

    After taking vertebrate blood, female mosquitoes quickly shed excess water and ions while retaining and concentrating the mostly proteinaceous nutrients. Aquaporins (AQPs) are an evolutionary conserved family of membrane transporter proteins that regulate the flow of water and in some cases glycerol and other small molecules across cellular membranes. In a previous study, we found six putative AQP genes in the genome of the yellow fever mosquito, Ae. aegypti, and demonstrated the involvement of three of them in the blood meal-induced diuresis. Here we characterized AQP expression in different tissues before and after a blood meal, explored the substrate specificity of AQPs expressed in the Malpighian tubules and performed RNAi-mediated knockdown and tested for changes in mosquito desiccation resistance. We found that AQPs are generally down-regulated 24 hrs after a blood meal. Ae. aegypti AQP 1 strictly transports water, AQP 2 and 5 demonstrate limited solute transport, but primarily function as water transporters. AQP 4 is an aquaglyceroporin with multiple substrates. Knockdown of AQPs expressed in the MTs increased survival of Ae. aegypti under dry conditions. We conclude that Malpighian tubules of adult female yellow fever mosquitoes utilize three distinct AQPs and one aquaglyceroporin in their osmoregulatory functions. PMID:25589229

  7. Investigation of environmental influences on a transcriptional assay for the prediction of age of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Leon E; Kay, Brian H; O'Neill, Scott L; Ryan, Peter A

    2010-11-01

    We examined the effects of environmental regulation of gene transcription on the accuracy of a transcriptional profiling method for determining insect age. In combined temperature/nutrition treatments, Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes were maintained in the laboratory at three different temperatures (20, 26, and 32 degrees C), and larvae were fed on low, medium, and high diet regimens. Adult mosquitoes of distinct size classes were produced. Transcription of three age-responsive genes (Ae-15848, Ae-8505, and Ae-4274) was measured from 1-, 10-, and 19-d-old specimens using a quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction method incorporating dual-labeled TaqMan probes. Temperature had a significant effect on transcript abundance for two of the model genes (Ae-15848 and Ae-8505), and transcription of model genes was unaffected by the main effect of larval diet level; however, significant temperature by diet level interactions were observed. Total RNA yield from individual mosquitoes varied according to adult age and temperature, and when combined with wing length, provided a useful predictor variable in age prediction models. More accurate age predictions were achieved from models generated at the same temperature as test mosquitoes; however, whereas significant differences in mean predicted ages were observed between 1- and 10-d-old mosquitoes, differences between 10 and 19 d were nonsignificant. This study highlights the effect of environmental regulation on gene transcription age grading and the need to identify additional gene biomarkers of age to improve the classification of older mosquitoes.

  8. Effect of confertifolin from Polygonum hydropiper L. against dengue vector mosquitoes Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Maheswaran, Rajan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2015-06-01

    The essential oil from the leaves of Polygonum hydropiper L. (Polygonaceae) was tested against Aedes aegypti L. The LC50 values were 190.72 and 234.37 ppm against second and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti, respectively. Confertifolin (6,6,9a-trimethy l-4,5,5a,6,7,8,9,9a-octahydronaphtho [1,2-c] furan-3 (1H)-one) was isolated from the essential oil of P. hydropiper leaves using silica gel column chromatography. The LC50 values were 2.90 and 2.96 ppm for second and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti, respectively. At 10 ppm, the concentration of confertifolin showed ovicidal activity of 100, 100, and 77.6 % on 0-6, 6-12, and 12-18 h old eggs; the repellent activity was 323.2 min; and oviposition deterrent activity was 97.52 % and adulticidal activity was 100 % against A. aegypti. The results were statistically significant at P < 0.05 level. The results suggested that confertifolin as an effective major constituent against A. aegypti and might be considered as a potent source for the production of superior natural mosquitocides. PMID:25523289

  9. Effect of confertifolin from Polygonum hydropiper L. against dengue vector mosquitoes Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Maheswaran, Rajan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2015-06-01

    The essential oil from the leaves of Polygonum hydropiper L. (Polygonaceae) was tested against Aedes aegypti L. The LC50 values were 190.72 and 234.37 ppm against second and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti, respectively. Confertifolin (6,6,9a-trimethy l-4,5,5a,6,7,8,9,9a-octahydronaphtho [1,2-c] furan-3 (1H)-one) was isolated from the essential oil of P. hydropiper leaves using silica gel column chromatography. The LC50 values were 2.90 and 2.96 ppm for second and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti, respectively. At 10 ppm, the concentration of confertifolin showed ovicidal activity of 100, 100, and 77.6 % on 0-6, 6-12, and 12-18 h old eggs; the repellent activity was 323.2 min; and oviposition deterrent activity was 97.52 % and adulticidal activity was 100 % against A. aegypti. The results were statistically significant at P < 0.05 level. The results suggested that confertifolin as an effective major constituent against A. aegypti and might be considered as a potent source for the production of superior natural mosquitocides.

  10. Transgene-mediated suppression of dengue viruses in the salivary glands of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Mathur, G; Sanchez-Vargas, I; Alvarez, D; Olson, K E; Marinotti, O; James, A A

    2010-12-01

    Controlled sex-, stage- and tissue-specific expression of antipathogen effector molecules is important for genetic engineering strategies to control mosquito-borne diseases. Adult female salivary glands are involved in pathogen transmission to human hosts and are target sites for expression of antipathogen effector molecules. The Aedes aegypti 30K a and 30K b genes are expressed exclusively in adult female salivary glands and are transcribed divergently from start sites separated by 263 nucleotides. The intergenic, 5'- and 3'-end untranslated regions of both genes are sufficient to express simultaneously two different transgene products in the distal-lateral lobes of the female salivary glands. An antidengue effector gene, membranes no protein (Mnp), driven by the 30K b promoter, expresses an inverted-repeat RNA with sequences derived from the premembrane protein-encoding region of the dengue virus serotype 2 genome and reduces significantly the prevalence and mean intensities of viral infection in mosquito salivary glands and saliva.

  11. Experimental assessment of bedbugs (Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus) and mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti formosus) as vectors of human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Jupp, P G; Lyons, S F

    1987-09-01

    In vitro experiments were conducted to assess whether bedbugs (Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus) and mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti formosus) could act as vectors of HIV. These insects engorged through a membrane on a blood-virus mixture. Female bedbugs were larger than males and took larger blood-meals when fed to repletion. It was determined that the full blood-meal of a female bedbug contained 0.09 x 10(5) tissue culture infectious doses (TCID) of virus and a male 0.07 x 10(5) TCID, while partial meals taken when feeding was interrupted contained 0.013 x 10(5) TCID and 0.015 x 10(5) TCID for female and male bugs, respectively. Reverse transcriptase activity was assayed after culture of insect extracts in H9 cells: this showed survival of virus in C. lectularius for up to 4 h, in C. hemipterus for up to 1, possibly 2 h, but no survival in Ae. aegypti formosus. Four attempts to transmit the virus by interrupted feeding by C. lectularius from a blood-virus mixture to uninfected blood failed. It is concluded that Ae. aegypti formosus and probably other mosquitoes are not mechanical vectors of HIV and that such transmission is also unlikely to occur in bedbugs under natural conditions.

  12. Potential of crude seed extract of celery, Apium graveolens L., against the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Choochote, Wej; Tuetun, Benjawan; Kanjanapothi, Duangta; Rattanachanpichai, Eumporn; Chaithong, Udom; Chaiwong, Prasong; Jitpakdi, Atchariya; Tippawangkosol, Pongsri; Riyong, Doungrat; Pitasawat, Benjawan

    2004-12-01

    Crude seed extract of celery, Apium graveolens, was investigated for anti-mosquito potential, including larvicidal, adulticidal, and repellent activities against Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue haemorrhagic fever. The ethanol-extracted A. graveolens possessed larvicidal activity against fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti with LD50 and LD95 values of 81.0 and 176.8 mg/L, respectively. The abnormal movement observed in treated larvae indicated that the toxic effect of A. graveolens extract was probably on the nervous system. In testing for adulticidal activity, this plant extract exhibited a slightly adulticidal potency with LD50 and LD95 values of 6.6 and 66.4 mg/cm2, respectively. It showed repellency against Ae. aegypti adult females with ED50 and ED95 values of 2.03 and 28.12 mg/cm2, respectively. It also provided biting protection time of 3 h when applied at a concentration of 25 g%. Topical application of the ethanol-extracted A. graveolens did not induce dermal irritation. No adverse effects on the skin or other parts of the body of human volunteers were observed during 3 mo of the study period or in the following 3 mo, after which time observations ceased. A. graveolens, therefore, can be considered as a probable source of some biologically active compounds used in the development of mosquito control agents, particularly repellent products.

  13. Ovicidal and Oviposition Deterrent Activities of Medicinal Plant Extracts Against Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Reegan, Appadurai Daniel; Gandhi, Munusamy Rajiv; Paulraj, Micheal Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the ovicidal and oviposition deterrent activities of five medicinal plant extracts namely Aegle marmelos (Linn.), Limonia acidissima (Linn.), Sphaeranthus indicus (Linn.), Sphaeranthus amaranthoides (burm.f), and Chromolaena odorata (Linn.) against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Three solvents, namely hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol, were used for the preparation of extracts from each plant. Methods Four different concentrations—62.5 parts per million (ppm), 125 ppm, 250 ppm, and 500 ppm—were prepared using acetone and tested for ovicidal and oviposition deterrent activities. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the significance of the treatments and means were separated by Tukey's test of comparison. Results Among the different extracts of the five plants screened, the hexane extract of L. acidissima recorded the highest ovicidal activity of 79.2% and 60% at 500 ppm concentration against the eggs of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Similarly, the same hexane extract of L. acidissima showed 100% oviposition deterrent activity at all the tested concentrations against Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti adult females. Conclusion It is concluded that the hexane extract of L. acidissima could be used in an integrated mosquito management program. PMID:25737834

  14. Potential of crude seed extract of celery, Apium graveolens L., against the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Choochote, Wej; Tuetun, Benjawan; Kanjanapothi, Duangta; Rattanachanpichai, Eumporn; Chaithong, Udom; Chaiwong, Prasong; Jitpakdi, Atchariya; Tippawangkosol, Pongsri; Riyong, Doungrat; Pitasawat, Benjawan

    2004-12-01

    Crude seed extract of celery, Apium graveolens, was investigated for anti-mosquito potential, including larvicidal, adulticidal, and repellent activities against Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue haemorrhagic fever. The ethanol-extracted A. graveolens possessed larvicidal activity against fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti with LD50 and LD95 values of 81.0 and 176.8 mg/L, respectively. The abnormal movement observed in treated larvae indicated that the toxic effect of A. graveolens extract was probably on the nervous system. In testing for adulticidal activity, this plant extract exhibited a slightly adulticidal potency with LD50 and LD95 values of 6.6 and 66.4 mg/cm2, respectively. It showed repellency against Ae. aegypti adult females with ED50 and ED95 values of 2.03 and 28.12 mg/cm2, respectively. It also provided biting protection time of 3 h when applied at a concentration of 25 g%. Topical application of the ethanol-extracted A. graveolens did not induce dermal irritation. No adverse effects on the skin or other parts of the body of human volunteers were observed during 3 mo of the study period or in the following 3 mo, after which time observations ceased. A. graveolens, therefore, can be considered as a probable source of some biologically active compounds used in the development of mosquito control agents, particularly repellent products. PMID:15707293

  15. Mosquito larvicidal activity of Aloe vera (Family: Liliaceae) leaf extract and Bacillus sphaericus, against Chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Jayapal; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Walton, William

    2012-01-01

    The bio-efficacy of Aloe vera leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, Bacillus sphaericus larvicidal activity was assessed against the first to fourth instars larvae of Aedes aegypti, under the laboratory conditions. The plant material was shade dried at room temperature and powdered coarsely. A. vera and B. sphaericus show varied degrees of larvicidal activity against various instars larvae of A. aegypti. The LC50 of A. vera against the first to fourth instars larvae were 162.74, 201.43, 253.30 and 300.05 ppm and the LC90 442.98, 518.86, 563.18 and 612.96 ppm, respectively. B. sphaericus against the first to fourth instars larvae the LC50 values were 68.21, 79.13, 93.48, and 107.05 ppm and the LC90 values 149.15, 164.67, 183.84, and 201.09 ppm, respectively. However, the combined treatment of A. vera + B. sphaericus (1:2) material shows highest larvicidal activity of the LC50 values 54.80, 63.11, 74.66 and 95.10 ppm; The LC90 values of 145.29, 160.14, 179.74 and 209.98 ppm, against A. aegypti in all the tested concentrations than the individuals and clearly established that there is a substantial amount of synergist act. The present investigation clearly exhibits that both A. vera and B. sphaericus materials could serve as a potential larvicidal agent. Since, A. aegypti is a container breeder vector mosquito this user and eco-friendly and low-cost vector control strategy could be a viable solution to the existing dengue disease burden. Therefore, this study provides first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity the combined effect of A. vera leaf extract and B. sphaericus against as target species of A. aegypti. PMID:23961212

  16. Promising new tools to fight Aedes mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    Two new tools for suppressing Aedes aegypti mosquito populations have been recommended for pilot testing. Carefully designed trials will be needed to see whether they actually reduce disease as well. Andréia Azevedo Soares reports. PMID:27516632

  17. Mosquito Larvicidal Potential of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton) Leaves Extracts against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi larvae

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Borase, Hemant P; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Suryawanshi, Rahul K; Narkhade, Chandrakant P; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Patil, Satish V

    2014-01-01

    Background: We aimed to extract the ingredients from leaves of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton) using different solvents and evaluate for potential use to control different larval stages of mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. Methods: Qualitative and quantitative estimation of ingredients from Go. hirsutum (Bt) plant extract was carried out and their inhibitory action against mosquito larvae was determined using mosquito larvicidal assay. Results: LC50 values of water, ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts for Ae. aegypti were 211.73±21.49, 241.64±19.92, 358.07±32.43, 401.03±36.19 and 232.56±26.00, 298.54±21.78, 366.50±30.59, 387.19±31.82 for 4th instar of An. stephensi, respectively. The water extract displayed lowest LC50 value followed by ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane. Owing to the comparatively better activity of water extract, its efficacy was further evaluated for mosquito larvicidal activity, which exhibited LC50 values of 133.95±12.79, 167.65±11.34 against 2nd and 3rd instars of Ae. aegypti and 145.48±11.76, 188.10±12.92 against 2nd and 3rd instars of An. stephensi, respectively. Crude protein from the water extract was precipitated using acetone and tested against 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi. It revealed further decrease in LC50 values as 105.72±25.84, 138.23±23.18, 126.19±25.65, 134.04±04 and 137.88±17.59, 154.25±16.98 for 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi, respectively. Conclusion: Leaves extracts of Go. hirsutum (Bt) is potential mosquito larvicide and can be used as a potent alternative to chemical insecticides in integrated pest management. PMID:25629069

  18. Historical environmental change in Africa drives divergence and admixture of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes: a precursor to successful worldwide colonization?

    PubMed

    Bennett, Kelly Louise; Shija, Fortunate; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Misinzo, Gerald; Kaddumukasa, Martha; Djouaka, Rousseau; Anyaele, Okorie; Harris, Angela; Irish, Seth; Hlaing, Thaung; Prakash, Anil; Lutwama, Julius; Walton, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    Increasing globalization has promoted the spread of exotic species, including disease vectors. Understanding the evolutionary processes involved in such colonizations is both of intrinsic biological interest and important to predict and mitigate future disease risks. The Aedes aegypti mosquito is a major vector of dengue, chikungunya and Zika, the worldwide spread of which has been facilitated by Ae. aegypti's adaption to human-modified environments. Understanding the evolutionary processes involved in this invasion requires characterization of the genetic make-up of the source population(s). The application of approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) to sequence data from four nuclear and one mitochondrial marker revealed that African populations of Ae. aegypti best fit a demographic model of lineage diversification, historical admixture and recent population structuring. As ancestral Ae. aegypti were dependent on forests, this population history is consistent with the effects of forest fragmentation and expansion driven by Pleistocene climatic change. Alternatively, or additionally, historical human movement across the continent may have facilitated their recent spread and mixing. ABC analysis and haplotype networks support earlier inferences of a single out-of-Africa colonization event, while a cline of decreasing genetic diversity indicates that Ae. aegypti moved first from Africa to the Americas and then to Asia. ABC analysis was unable to verify this colonization route, possibly because the genetic signal of admixture obscures the true colonization pathway. By increasing genetic diversity and forming novel allelic combinations, divergence and historical admixture within Africa could have provided the adaptive potential needed for the successful worldwide spread of Ae. aegypti. PMID:27439067

  19. Repellent and mosquitocidal effects of leaf extracts of Clausena anisata against the Aedes aegypti mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Mukandiwa, Lillian; Eloff, Jacobus Nicolaas; Naidoo, Vinny

    2016-06-01

    Mosquitoes are rapidly developing resistance to insecticides that millions of people relied on to protect themselves from the diseases they carry, thereby creating a need to develop new insecticides. Clausena anisata is used traditionally as an insect repellent by various communities in Africa and Asia. For this study, the repellency and adulticidal activities of leaf extracts and compounds isolated from this plant species were evaluated against the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. In the topical application assays, using total bites as an indicator, repellency was dose dependent, with the acetone crude extract (15 %) having 93 % repellence and the hexane fraction (7.5 %) 67 % repellence after 3 h. Fractionation resulted in a loss of total repellence. As mosquito-net treating agents, the acetone and hexane extracts of C. anisata, both at 15 %, had average repellences of 46.89 ± 2.95 and 50.13 ± 2.02 %, respectively, 3 h after exposure. The C. anisata acetone extract and its hexane fraction caused mosquito knockdown and eventually death when nebulised into the testing chamber, with an EC50 of 78.9 mg/ml (7.89 %) and 71.6 mg/ml (7.16 %) in the first 15 min after spraying. C. anisata leaf extracts have potential to be included in protection products against mosquitoes due to the repellent and cidal compounds contained therein.

  20. Repellent and mosquitocidal effects of leaf extracts of Clausena anisata against the Aedes aegypti mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Mukandiwa, Lillian; Eloff, Jacobus Nicolaas; Naidoo, Vinny

    2016-06-01

    Mosquitoes are rapidly developing resistance to insecticides that millions of people relied on to protect themselves from the diseases they carry, thereby creating a need to develop new insecticides. Clausena anisata is used traditionally as an insect repellent by various communities in Africa and Asia. For this study, the repellency and adulticidal activities of leaf extracts and compounds isolated from this plant species were evaluated against the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. In the topical application assays, using total bites as an indicator, repellency was dose dependent, with the acetone crude extract (15 %) having 93 % repellence and the hexane fraction (7.5 %) 67 % repellence after 3 h. Fractionation resulted in a loss of total repellence. As mosquito-net treating agents, the acetone and hexane extracts of C. anisata, both at 15 %, had average repellences of 46.89 ± 2.95 and 50.13 ± 2.02 %, respectively, 3 h after exposure. The C. anisata acetone extract and its hexane fraction caused mosquito knockdown and eventually death when nebulised into the testing chamber, with an EC50 of 78.9 mg/ml (7.89 %) and 71.6 mg/ml (7.16 %) in the first 15 min after spraying. C. anisata leaf extracts have potential to be included in protection products against mosquitoes due to the repellent and cidal compounds contained therein. PMID:26924698

  1. Activities of some Brazilian plants against larvae of the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    de Mendonça, Fernando A C; da Silva, K F S; dos Santos, K K; Ribeiro Júnior, K A L; Sant'Ana, A E G

    2005-12-01

    The insecticidal activities of extracts and oils of seventeen medicinal plants of Brazil have been determined using an Aedes aegypti larvicidal bioassay. Oils from Anacardium occidentalis, Copaifera langsdorffii, Carapa guianensis, Cymbopogon winterianus and Ageratum conyzoides showed high activities with LC50 values of 14.5, 41, 57, 98 and 148 microg/l, respectively. The most active ethanolic extract tested was that from the stem of Annona glabra which presented an LC50 value of 27 microg/l. The potential application of cashew nut oil, an industrial by-product with low commercial value, in the control of the vector of dengue and yellow fever, may be proposed.

  2. The effect of temperature and humidity on dengue virus propagation in Aedes aegypti mosquitos.

    PubMed

    Thu, H M; Aye, K M; Thein, S

    1998-06-01

    The effect of temperature and relative humidity on dengue virus propagation in the mosquito as one of the possible contributing factors to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) outbreaks was studied. Ae. aegypti mosquitos were reared under standard conditions and inoculated intrathoracically with dengue virus. Virus propagation in the mosquitos was determined at the temperature and relative humidity of all 3 seasons of Yangon and for the simulated temperature and relative humidity of Singapore. The virus propagation was detected by direct fluorescent antibody technique (DFAT) with mosquito head squash and the virus titer was determined by plaque forming unit test (PFUT) in baby hamster kidney-21 cells. The results show that the infected mosquitos kept under the conditions of the rainy season and under the simulated conditions of Singapore had a significantly higher virus titer (p=<0.05) when compared with the other 2 seasons of Yangon. So it is thought that the temperature and relative humidity of the rainy season of Yangon and that of Singapore favors dengue virus propagation in the mosquito and is one of the contributing factors to the occurence of DHF outbreaks.

  3. Prodigiosin produced by Serratia marcescens NMCC46 as a mosquito larvicidal agent against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Patil, Satish V; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Salunkhe, Rahul B

    2011-10-01

    Microbial control agents offer alternatives to chemical pest control as they can be more selective than chemical insecticides. The present study evaluates the mosquito larvicidal potential of microbial pigment prodigiosin produced by Serratia marcescens NMCC46 against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. The pigment of S. marcescens NMCC46 was extracted after 24 h from mannitol containing nutrient broth media. The effects of crude extracted pigment on the growth, survival, development, and other life cycle aspects were studied. The LC(50) and LC(90) values of second, third, and fourth instars of A. aegypti (LC(50) = 41.65, 139.51, 103.95; LC(90) = 117.81, 213.68, 367.82) and A. stephensi (LC(50) = 51.12, 105.52, 133.07; LC(90) = 134.81, 204.45, 285.35) were determined. At higher concentration (500 ppm), mortality starts within first 6 h of exposure. More than 50% mortality occurs within the first 24 h. The overall observed effects against A. aegypti and A. stephensi larvae after 48 h were increasing percent survival larvae, survival pupation, adult emergence with decreasing crude pigment extract concentration. These ensure that the resultant mosquito population reduction is substantial even where the larvicidal potential is minimal. The UV (λ (max) = 536 nm), TLC (Rf = 0.9), HPLC, and FTIR analysis of crude pigment shows the presence of prodigiosin as active compound. Thus, the active compound produced by this species would be more useful against vectors responsible for diseases of public health importance. This is the first report on mosquito larvicidal activity of prodigiosin produced by Serratia species.

  4. Survival and swimming behavior of insecticide-exposed larvae and pupae of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti is essentially a container-inhabiting species that is closely associated with urban areas. This species is a vector of human pathogens, including dengue and yellow fever viruses, and its control is of paramount importance for disease prevention. Insecticide use against mosquito juvenile stages (i.e. larvae and pupae) is growing in importance, particularly due to the ever-growing problems of resistance to adult-targeted insecticides and human safety concerns regarding such use in human dwellings. However, insecticide effects on insects in general and mosquitoes in particular primarily focus on their lethal effects. Thus, sublethal effects of such compounds in mosquito juveniles may have important effects on their environmental prevalence. In this study, we assessed the survival and swimming behavior of A. aegypti 4th instar larvae (L4) and pupae exposed to increasing concentrations of insecticides. We also assessed cell death in the neuromuscular system of juveniles. Methods Third instar larvae of A. aegypti were exposed to different concentrations of azadirachtin, deltamethrin, imidacloprid and spinosad. Insect survival was assessed for 10 days. The distance swam, the resting time and the time spent in slow swimming were assessed in 4th instar larvae (L4) and pupae. Muscular and nervous cells of L4 and pupae exposed to insecticides were marked with the TUNEL reaction. The results from the survival bioassays were subjected to survival analysis while the swimming behavioral data were subjected to analyses of covariance, complemented with a regression analysis. Results All insecticides exhibited concentration-dependent effects on survival of larvae and pupae of the yellow fever mosquito. The pyrethroid deltamethrin was the most toxic insecticide followed by spinosad, imidacloprid, and azadirachtin, which exhibited low potency against the juveniles. All insecticides except azadirachtin reduced L4 swimming speed and

  5. Host and viral features of human dengue cases shape the population of infected and infectious Aedes aegypti mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nguyet Minh; Thi Hue Kien, Duong; Tuan, Trung Vu; Quyen, Nguyen Than Ha; Tran, Chau N. B.; Vo Thi, Long; Thi, Dui Le; Nguyen, Hoa Lan; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Holmes, Edward C.; Rabaa, Maia A.; Bryant, Juliet E.; Nguyen, Truong Thanh; Nguyen, Huong Thi Cam; Nguyen, Lan Thi Hong; Pham, Mai Phuong; Nguyen, Hung The; Luong, Tai Thi Hue; Wills, Bridget; Nguyen, Chau Van Vinh; Wolbers, Marcel; Simmons, Cameron P.

    2013-01-01

    Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease of humans. The host and virus variables associated with dengue virus (DENV) transmission from symptomatic dengue cases (n = 208) to Aedes aegypti mosquitoes during 407 independent exposure events was defined. The 50% mosquito infectious dose for each of DENV-1–4 ranged from 6.29 to 7.52 log10 RNA copies/mL of plasma. Increasing day of illness, declining viremia, and rising antibody titers were independently associated with reduced risk of DENV transmission. High early DENV plasma viremia levels in patients were a marker of the duration of human infectiousness, and blood meals containing high concentrations of DENV were positively associated with the prevalence of infectious mosquitoes 14 d after blood feeding. Ambulatory dengue cases had lower viremia levels compared with hospitalized dengue cases but nonetheless at levels predicted to be infectious to mosquitoes. These data define serotype-specific viremia levels that vaccines or drugs must inhibit to prevent DENV transmission. PMID:23674683

  6. Identification of a major Quantitative Trait Locus determining resistance to the organophosphate temephos in the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Marcelo H S; Lovin, Diane D; Mori, Akio; Melo-Santos, Maria A V; Severson, David W; Ayres, Constância F J

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphate insecticides (OP) have extensively been used to control mosquitoes, such as the vector Aedes aegypti. Unfortunately, OP resistance has hampered control programs worldwide. We used Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) mapping to evaluate temephos resistance in two F1 intercross populations derived from crosses between a resistant Ae. aegypti strain (RecR) and two susceptible strains (MoyoD and Red). A single major effect QTL was identified on chromosome 2 of both segregating populations, named rtt1 (resistance to temephos 1). Bioinformatics analyses identified a cluster of carboxylesterase genes (CCE) within the rtt1 interval. qRT-PCR demonstrated that different CCEs were up-regulated in F2 resistant individuals from both crosses. However, none exceeded the 2-fold expression. Primary mechanisms for temephos resistance may vary between Ae. aegypti populations, yet also appear to support previous findings suggesting that multiple linked esterase genes may contribute to temephos resistance in the RecR strain as well as other populations.

  7. Human impacts have shaped historical and recent evolution in Aedes aegypti, the dengue and yellow fever mosquito.

    PubMed

    Brown, Julia E; Evans, Benjamin R; Zheng, Wei; Obas, Vanessa; Barrera-Martinez, Laura; Egizi, Andrea; Zhao, Hongyu; Caccone, Adalgisa; Powell, Jeffrey R

    2014-02-01

    Although anthropogenic impacts are often considered harmful to species, human modifications to the landscape can actually create novel niches to which other species can adapt. These "domestication" processes are especially important in the context of arthropod disease vectors, where ecological overlap of vector and human populations may lead to epidemics. Here, we present results of a global genetic study of one such species, the dengue and yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, whose evolutionary history and current distribution have been profoundly shaped by humans. We used DNA sequences of four nuclear genes and 1504 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers developed with restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing to test the hypothesis that Ae. aegypti originated in Africa, where a domestic form arose and spread throughout the tropical and subtropical world with human trade and movement. Results confirmed African ancestry of the species, and supported a single subspeciation event leading to the pantropical domestic form. In addition, genetic data strongly supported the hypothesis that human trade routes first moved domestic Ae. aegypti out of Africa into the New World, followed by a later invasion from the New World into Southeast Asia and the Pacific. These patterns of domestication and invasion are relevant to many species worldwide, as anthropogenic forces increasingly impact evolutionary processes.

  8. Pharmacological and Genetic Evidence for Gap Junctions as Potential New Insecticide Targets in the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Calkins, Travis L; Piermarini, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    The yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti is an important vector of viral diseases that impact global health. Insecticides are typically used to manage mosquito populations, but the evolution of insecticide resistance is limiting their effectiveness. Thus, identifying new molecular and physiological targets in mosquitoes is needed to facilitate insecticide discovery and development. Here we test the hypothesis that gap junctions are valid molecular and physiological targets for new insecticides. Gap junctions are intercellular channels that mediate direct communication between neighboring cells and consist of evolutionarily distinct proteins in vertebrate (connexins) and invertebrate (innexins) animals. We show that the injection of pharmacological inhibitors of gap junctions (i.e., carbenoxolone, meclofenamic acid, or mefloquine) into the hemolymph of adult female mosquitoes elicits dose-dependent toxic effects, with mefloquine showing the greatest potency. In contrast, when applied topically to the cuticle, carbenoxolone was the only inhibitor to exhibit full efficacy. In vivo urine excretion assays demonstrate that both carbenoxolone and mefloquine inhibit the diuretic output of adult female mosquitoes, suggesting inhibition of excretory functions as part of their mechanism of action. When added to the rearing water of 1st instar larvae, carbenoxolone and meclofenamic acid both elicit dose-dependent toxic effects, with meclofenamic acid showing the greatest potency. Injecting a double-stranded RNA cocktail against innexins into the hemolymph of adult female mosquitoes knock down whole-animal innexin mRNA expression and decreases survival of the mosquitoes. Taken together these data indicate that gap junctions may provide novel molecular and physiological targets for the development of insecticides.

  9. Pharmacological and Genetic Evidence for Gap Junctions as Potential New Insecticide Targets in the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Calkins, Travis L.; Piermarini, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    The yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti is an important vector of viral diseases that impact global health. Insecticides are typically used to manage mosquito populations, but the evolution of insecticide resistance is limiting their effectiveness. Thus, identifying new molecular and physiological targets in mosquitoes is needed to facilitate insecticide discovery and development. Here we test the hypothesis that gap junctions are valid molecular and physiological targets for new insecticides. Gap junctions are intercellular channels that mediate direct communication between neighboring cells and consist of evolutionarily distinct proteins in vertebrate (connexins) and invertebrate (innexins) animals. We show that the injection of pharmacological inhibitors of gap junctions (i.e., carbenoxolone, meclofenamic acid, or mefloquine) into the hemolymph of adult female mosquitoes elicits dose-dependent toxic effects, with mefloquine showing the greatest potency. In contrast, when applied topically to the cuticle, carbenoxolone was the only inhibitor to exhibit full efficacy. In vivo urine excretion assays demonstrate that both carbenoxolone and mefloquine inhibit the diuretic output of adult female mosquitoes, suggesting inhibition of excretory functions as part of their mechanism of action. When added to the rearing water of 1st instar larvae, carbenoxolone and meclofenamic acid both elicit dose-dependent toxic effects, with meclofenamic acid showing the greatest potency. Injecting a double-stranded RNA cocktail against innexins into the hemolymph of adult female mosquitoes knock down whole-animal innexin mRNA expression and decreases survival of the mosquitoes. Taken together these data indicate that gap junctions may provide novel molecular and physiological targets for the development of insecticides. PMID:26325403

  10. Examination of the genetic basis for sexual dimorphism in the Aedes aegypti (dengue vector mosquito) pupal brain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Most animal species exhibit sexually dimorphic behaviors, many of which are linked to reproduction. A number of these behaviors, including blood feeding in female mosquitoes, contribute to the global spread of vector-borne illnesses. However, knowledge concerning the genetic basis of sexually dimorphic traits is limited in any organism, including mosquitoes, especially with respect to differences in the developing nervous system. Methods Custom microarrays were used to examine global differences in female vs. male gene expression in the developing pupal head of the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti. The spatial expression patterns of a subset of differentially expressed transcripts were examined in the developing female vs. male pupal brain through in situ hybridization experiments. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown studies were used to assess the putative role of Doublesex, a terminal component of the sex determination pathway, in the regulation of sex-specific gene expression observed in the developing pupal brain. Results Transcripts (2,527), many of which were linked to proteolysis, the proteasome, metabolism, catabolic, and biosynthetic processes, ion transport, cell growth, and proliferation, were found to be differentially expressed in A. aegypti female vs. male pupal heads. Analysis of the spatial expression patterns for a subset of dimorphically expressed genes in the pupal brain validated the data set and also facilitated the identification of brain regions with dimorphic gene expression. In many cases, dimorphic gene expression localized to the optic lobe. Sex-specific differences in gene expression were also detected in the antennal lobe and mushroom body. siRNA-mediated gene targeting experiments demonstrated that Doublesex, a transcription factor with consensus binding sites located adjacent to many dimorphically expressed transcripts that function in neural development, is required for regulation of sex-specific gene

  11. microRNA-309 targets the Homeobox gene SIX4 and controls ovarian development in the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Bo; Roy, Sourav; Saha, Tusar T; Kokoza, Vladimir A; Li, Ming; Raikhel, Alexander S

    2016-08-16

    Obligatory blood-triggered reproductive strategy is an evolutionary adaptation of mosquitoes for rapid egg development. It contributes to the vectorial capacity of these insects. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying reproductive processes is of particular importance. Here, we report that microRNA-309 (miR-309) plays a critical role in mosquito reproduction. A spatiotemporal expression profile of miR-309 displayed its blood feeding-dependent onset and ovary-specific manifestation in female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Antagomir silencing of miR-309 impaired ovarian development and resulted in nonsynchronized follicle growth. Furthermore, the genetic disruption of miR-309 by CRISPR/Cas9 system led to the developmental failure of primary follicle formation. Examination of genomic responses to miR-309 depletion revealed that several pathways associated with ovarian development are down-regulated. Comparative analysis of genes obtained from the high-throughput RNA sequencing of ovarian tissue from the miR-309 antagomir-silenced mosquitoes with those from the in silico computation target prediction identified that the gene-encoding SIX homeobox 4 protein (SIX4) is a putative target of miR-309. Reporter assay and RNA immunoprecipitation confirmed that SIX4 is a direct target of miR-309. RNA interference of SIX4 was able to rescue phenotypic manifestations caused by miR-309 depletion. Thus, miR-309 plays a critical role in mosquito reproduction by targeting SIX4 in the ovary and serves as a regulatory switch permitting a stage-specific degradation of the ovarian SIX4 mRNA. In turn, this microRNA (miRNA)-targeted degradation is required for appropriate initiation of a blood feeding-triggered phase of ovarian development, highlighting involvement of this miRNA in mosquito reproduction. PMID:27489347

  12. microRNA-309 targets the Homeobox gene SIX4 and controls ovarian development in the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Bo; Roy, Sourav; Saha, Tusar T; Kokoza, Vladimir A; Li, Ming; Raikhel, Alexander S

    2016-08-16

    Obligatory blood-triggered reproductive strategy is an evolutionary adaptation of mosquitoes for rapid egg development. It contributes to the vectorial capacity of these insects. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying reproductive processes is of particular importance. Here, we report that microRNA-309 (miR-309) plays a critical role in mosquito reproduction. A spatiotemporal expression profile of miR-309 displayed its blood feeding-dependent onset and ovary-specific manifestation in female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Antagomir silencing of miR-309 impaired ovarian development and resulted in nonsynchronized follicle growth. Furthermore, the genetic disruption of miR-309 by CRISPR/Cas9 system led to the developmental failure of primary follicle formation. Examination of genomic responses to miR-309 depletion revealed that several pathways associated with ovarian development are down-regulated. Comparative analysis of genes obtained from the high-throughput RNA sequencing of ovarian tissue from the miR-309 antagomir-silenced mosquitoes with those from the in silico computation target prediction identified that the gene-encoding SIX homeobox 4 protein (SIX4) is a putative target of miR-309. Reporter assay and RNA immunoprecipitation confirmed that SIX4 is a direct target of miR-309. RNA interference of SIX4 was able to rescue phenotypic manifestations caused by miR-309 depletion. Thus, miR-309 plays a critical role in mosquito reproduction by targeting SIX4 in the ovary and serves as a regulatory switch permitting a stage-specific degradation of the ovarian SIX4 mRNA. In turn, this microRNA (miRNA)-targeted degradation is required for appropriate initiation of a blood feeding-triggered phase of ovarian development, highlighting involvement of this miRNA in mosquito reproduction.

  13. Evaluation of some aromatic plant extracts for mosquito larvicidal potential against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, M; Senthilkumar, A; Venkatesalu, V

    2015-04-01

    In the present investigation, larvicidal potential of hexane, choloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of seven aromatic plants, viz., Blumea mollis, Chloroxylon swietenia, Clausena anisata, Feronia limnonia, Lantana camera, Plectranthus amboinicus, and Tagetes erecta were screened against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The larval mortality was observed after 12 and 24 h of exposure period. The results revealed that all the extracts showed varied levels of larvicidal activity against the mosquito species tested. However, the ethyl acetate extract of Chloroxylon swietenia showed the remarkable larvicidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti, and An. stephensi. After 12 h of exposure period, the larvicidal activity was LC50 = 194.22 and LC90 = 458.83 ppm (C. quinquefasciatus), LC50 = 173.04 and LC90 = 442.73 ppm (Ae. aegypti), and LC50 = 167.28 and LC90 = 433.07 ppm (An. stephensi), and the larvicidal activity after 24-h exposure period was LC50 = 94.12 and LC90 = 249.83 ppm (C. quinquefasciatus), LC50 = 80.58 and LC90 = 200.96 ppm (Ae. aegypti), and LC50 = 76.24 and LC90 = 194.51 ppm (An. stephensi). The larvicidal potential of other plant extracts were in order of ethyl acetate extract of Clausena anisata > methanol extract of P. amboinicus > acetone extract of F. limonia > methanol extract of T. erecta > methanol extract of B. mollis > and methanol extract of L. camera. The results of the present study offer a possible way for further investigations to find out the active molecule responsible for the activity. PMID:25630696

  14. Evaluation of some aromatic plant extracts for mosquito larvicidal potential against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, M; Senthilkumar, A; Venkatesalu, V

    2015-04-01

    In the present investigation, larvicidal potential of hexane, choloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of seven aromatic plants, viz., Blumea mollis, Chloroxylon swietenia, Clausena anisata, Feronia limnonia, Lantana camera, Plectranthus amboinicus, and Tagetes erecta were screened against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The larval mortality was observed after 12 and 24 h of exposure period. The results revealed that all the extracts showed varied levels of larvicidal activity against the mosquito species tested. However, the ethyl acetate extract of Chloroxylon swietenia showed the remarkable larvicidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti, and An. stephensi. After 12 h of exposure period, the larvicidal activity was LC50 = 194.22 and LC90 = 458.83 ppm (C. quinquefasciatus), LC50 = 173.04 and LC90 = 442.73 ppm (Ae. aegypti), and LC50 = 167.28 and LC90 = 433.07 ppm (An. stephensi), and the larvicidal activity after 24-h exposure period was LC50 = 94.12 and LC90 = 249.83 ppm (C. quinquefasciatus), LC50 = 80.58 and LC90 = 200.96 ppm (Ae. aegypti), and LC50 = 76.24 and LC90 = 194.51 ppm (An. stephensi). The larvicidal potential of other plant extracts were in order of ethyl acetate extract of Clausena anisata > methanol extract of P. amboinicus > acetone extract of F. limonia > methanol extract of T. erecta > methanol extract of B. mollis > and methanol extract of L. camera. The results of the present study offer a possible way for further investigations to find out the active molecule responsible for the activity.

  15. Apoptosis-related genes control autophagy and influence DENV-2 infection in the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Eng, Matthew W; van Zuylen, Madeleine N; Severson, David W

    2016-09-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the primary urban vector for dengue virus (DENV) worldwide. Insight into interactions occurring between host and pathogen is important in understanding what factors contribute to vector competence. However, many of the molecular mechanisms for vector competence remain unknown. Our previous global transcriptional analysis suggested that differential expression of apoptotic proteins is involved in determining refractoriness vs susceptibility to DENV-2 infection in Ae. aegypti females following a DENV-infected blood meal. To determine whether DENV-refractory Ae. aegypti showed more robust apoptosis upon infection, we compared numbers of apoptotic cells from midguts of refractory and susceptible strains and observed increased numbers of apoptotic cells in only the refractory strain upon DENV-2 infection. Thereafter, we manipulated apoptosis through dsRNA interference of the initiator caspase, Aedronc. Unexpectedly, dsAedronc-treated females showed both decreased frequency of disseminated infection and decreased virus titer in infected individuals. Insect caspases have also previously been identified as regulators of the cellular recycling process known as autophagy. We observed activation of autophagy in midgut and fat body tissues following a blood meal, as well as programmed activation of several apoptosis-related genes, including the effector caspase, Casps7. To determine whether autophagy was affected by caspase knockdown, we silenced Aedronc and Casps7, and observed reduced activation of autophagy upon silencing. Our results provide evidence that apoptosis-related genes are also involved in regulating autophagy, and that Aedronc may play an important role in DENV-2 infection success in Ae. aegypti, possibly through its regulation of autophagy. PMID:27418459

  16. Histochemical and ultrastructural studies of the mosquito Aedes aegypti fat body: effects of aging and diet type

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Gustavo Ferreira; Serrão, José Eduardo; Ramalho-Ortigão, José Marcelo; Pimenta, Paulo Filemon Paolucci

    2011-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is the principal vector of dengue world wide and a major vector of urban yellow fever. Despite its epidemiological importance, not much is known regarding cellular and structural changes in the fat body in this mosquito. Here, we applied light and transmission electron microscopies in order to investigate structural changes in the fat body of three groups of A. aegypti females: newly emerged, 18-day-old sugar-fed, and 18-day-old blood-fed. The fat body consists of a layer of cells attached to the abdomen integument, formed by trophocytes and oenocytes. Trophocytes are strongly positive for carbohydrates, while oenocytes are strongly positive for proteins and lipids. Ultrastructural analyses of trophocytes from newly emerged and 18-day-old blood-fed indicate that these cells are rich in glycogen and free ribosomes. Many lipid droplets and protein granules, which are broken down after the blood meal, are also detected. In 18-day-old sugar-fed, trophocytes display a disorganized cytoplasm filled with lipid droplets, and reduced numbers of free ribosomes, glycogen, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and mitochondria. Following a blood meal, the RER and mitochondria display enlarged sizes, suggestive of increased activity. In regards to oenocytes, these cells display an electron-dense cytoplasm and plasma membrane infoldings facing the hemolymph. As the A. aegypti female ages, trophocyte and oenocyte cell nuclei become larger but decrease in diameter after blood feeding. Our findings suggest that the trophocytes and oenocytes remodeling is likely involved in functional changes of fat body that take place during aging and following a blood meal in A. aegypti females. PMID:21509905

  17. Description of the Transcriptomes of Immune Response-Activated Hemocytes from the Mosquito Vectors Aedes aegypti and Armigeres subalbatus

    PubMed Central

    Bartholomay, Lyric C.; Cho, Wen-Long; Rocheleau, Thomas A.; Boyle, Jon P.; Beck, Eric T.; Fuchs, Jeremy F.; Liss, Paul; Rusch, Michael; Butler, Katherine M.; Wu, Roy Chen-Chih; Lin, Shih-Pei; Kuo, Hang-Yen; Tsao, I-Yu; Huang, Chiung-Yin; Liu, Tze-Tze; Hsiao, Kwang-Jen; Tsai, Shih-Feng; Yang, Ueng-Cheng; Nappi, Anthony J.; Perna, Nicole T.; Chen, Chen-Cheng; Christensen, Bruce M.

    2004-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases, including dengue, malaria, and lymphatic filariasis, exact a devastating toll on global health and economics, killing or debilitating millions every year (54). Mosquito innate immune responses are at the forefront of concerted research efforts aimed at defining potential target genes that could be manipulated to engineer pathogen resistance in vector populations. We aimed to describe the pivotal role that circulating blood cells (called hemocytes) play in immunity by generating a total of 11,952 Aedes aegypti and 12,790 Armigeres subalbatus expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences from immune response-activated hemocyte libraries. These ESTs collapsed into 2,686 and 2,107 EST clusters, respectively. The clusters were used to adapt the web-based interface for annotating bacterial genomes called A Systematic Annotation Package for Community Analysis of Genomes (ASAP) for analysis of ESTs. Each cluster was categorically characterized and annotated in ASAP based on sequence similarity to five sequence databases. The sequence data and annotations can be viewed in ASAP at https://asap.ahabs.wisc.edu/annotation/php/ASAP1.htm. The data presented here represent the results of the first high-throughput in vivo analysis of the transcriptome of immunocytes from an invertebrate. Among the sequences are those for numerous immunity-related genes, many of which parallel those employed in vertebrate innate immunity, that have never been described for these mosquitoes. PMID:15213157

  18. Stochastic eco-epidemiological model of dengue disease transmission by Aedes aegypti mosquito.

    PubMed

    Otero, M; Solari, H G

    2010-01-01

    We present a stochastic dynamical model for the transmission of dengue that takes into account seasonal and spatial dynamics of the vector Aedes aegypti. It describes disease dynamics triggered by the arrival of infected people in a city. We show that the probability of an epidemic outbreak depends on seasonal variation in temperature and on the availability of breeding sites. We also show that the arrival date of an infected human in a susceptible population dramatically affects the distribution of the final size of epidemics and that early outbreaks have a low probability. However, early outbreaks are likely to produce large epidemics because they have a longer time to evolve before the winter extinction of vectors. Our model could be used to estimate the risk and final size of epidemic outbreaks in regions with seasonal climatic variations.

  19. Effects of extract of soapnut Sapindus emarginatus on esterases and phosphatases of the vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Koodalingam, Arunagirinathan; Mullainadhan, Periasamy; Arumugam, Munusamy

    2011-04-01

    Our earlier investigations with kernels from the soapnut Sapindus emarginatus revealed it as a new source of botanical biocide with potent antimosquito activity, as evident from the proven unique ability of the aqueous kernel extract to kill all the developmental stages of three important vector mosquito species, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. This extract was also found to be safe for two non-target aquatic insects. As a sequel to these findings, we have further examined quantitative and qualitative changes in total proteins, esterases, and phosphatases in whole body homogenates of fourth instar larvae and pupae of A. aegypti exposed to this extract at an appropriate threshold time for its lethal effect to gain insights into the impact of the botanical biocide on biochemical characteristics of the target vector mosquito at two distinct developmental stages. The profiles of proteins, esterases (acetylcholinesterse, α- and β-carboxylesterases), and phosphatases (acid and alkaline) exhibited distinct patterns of variation during normal development of fourth instar larvae and pupae, indicating intrinsic difference in biochemical features between these two developmental stages of A. aegypti. Upon exposure of the larvae to the extract, significant reduction in the activities of acetylcholinesterse, β-carboxylesterase, and acid phosphatases were recorded, whereas the total proteins, α-carboxylesterase and alkaline phosphatase activities were unaffected. By contrast, only alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly affected in pupae exposed to the extract. Analysis of these enzymes in native PAGE revealed that they exist in isoforms in both the larvae and pupae. The alterations in the levels of enzymatic activities observed from the quantitative assays of various enzymes were reflected by the respective zymograms with perceptible differences in the intensity and the number of bands detected especially with β-carboxylesterase, acid

  20. Serosal cuticle formation and distinct degrees of desiccation resistance in embryos of the mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti, Anopheles aquasalis and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Helena Carolina Martins; Farnesi, Luana Cristina; Martins, Ademir Jesus; Valle, Denise; Rezende, Gustavo Lazzaro

    2014-03-01

    Given their medical importance, mosquitoes have been studied as vectors of parasites since the late 1800's. However, there are still many gaps concerning some aspects of their biology, such as embryogenesis. The embryonic desiccation resistance (EDR), already described in Aedes and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, is a peculiar trait. Freshly laid eggs are susceptible to water loss, a condition that can impair their viability. EDR is acquired during embryogenesis through the formation of the serosal cuticle (SC), protecting eggs from desiccation. Nevertheless, conservation of both traits (SC presence and EDR acquisition) throughout mosquito evolution is unknown. Comparative physiological studies with mosquito embryos from different genera, exhibiting distinct evolutionary histories and habits is a feasible approach. In this sense, the process of EDR acquisition of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles aquasalis and Culex quinquefasciatus at 25°C was evaluated. Completion of embryogenesis occurs in Ae. aegypti, An. aquasalis and Cx. quinquefasciatus at, respectively 77.4, 51.3 and 34.3hours after egg laying, Cx. quinquefasciatus embryonic development taking less than half the time of Ae. aegypti. In all cases, EDR is acquired in correlation with SC formation. For both Ae. aegypti and An. aquasalis, EDR and SC appear at 21% of total embryonic development, corresponding to the morphological stage of complete germ band elongation/beginning of germ band retraction. Although phylogenetically closer to Ae. aegypti than to An. aquasalis, Cx. quinquefasciatus acquires both EDR and serosal cuticle later, with 35% of total development, when the embryo already progresses to the middle of germ band retraction. EDR confers distinct egg viability in these species. While Ae. aegypti eggs demonstrated high viability when left up to 72hours in a dry environment, those of An. aquasalis and Cx. quinquefasciatus supported these conditions for only 24 and 5hours, respectively. Our data suggest that

  1. Delivery of chitosan/dsRNA nanoparticles for silencing of wing development vestigial (vg) gene in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Ramesh Kumar, D; Saravana Kumar, P; Gandhi, M Rajiv; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Paulraj, M Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, S

    2016-05-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has been used as a gene silencing strategy by the introduction of long double stranded RNA (dsRNA) for the control of pest insects. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the expression of vg gene which is responsible for wing development, can be repressed by chitosan/dsRNA based nanoparticles in Aedes aegypti. The vestigial gene (vg) was amplified from adult mosquito and cloned in pLitmus28i vector. Genetically engineered recombinant plasmid was transformed into RNase III deficient strain for synthesis of bacterially expressed dsRNA. Nanoparticles were prepared via electrostatic interaction between cationic polymer chitosan and anionic nucleic acids (dsRNA). The formation of chitosan/dsRNAnanoparticles and their size were confirmed by Atomic force microscopy (AFM). Chitosan/dsRNA mediated knockdown of Enhanced Green Fluorescence Protein (EGFP) was demonstrated in Sf21 cells. Further, we tested whether such an approach could be used to target vg gene in Ae. aegypti. The results showed that chitosan/dsRNA caused significant mortality, delayed growth development and caused adult wing-malformation. A qRT-PCR analysis confirmed that the chitosan/dsRNA mediated transcriptional level was downregulated. Our findings suggest that vg gene intervention strategies through RNAi can emerge as viable option for pest control. PMID:26794313

  2. Larvicidal action of ethanolic extracts from fruit endocarps of Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica against the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Wandscheer, Carolina B; Duque, Jonny E; da Silva, Mario A N; Fukuyama, Yoshiyasu; Wohlke, Jonathan L; Adelmann, Juliana; Fontana, José D

    2004-12-15

    Ethanolic extracts from the kernels of ripe fruits from the Indian Lilac Melia azedarach and from the well-known Neem tree, Azadirachta indica were assayed against larvae of Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue fever. The lethality bioassays were carried out according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization. Extracts were tested at doses ranging from 0.0033 to 0.05 g% in an aqueous medium for 24 and 48 h, at 25 or 30 degrees C, with or without feeding of the larvae. LC50, LC95 and LC99 were determined. Both seed extracts proved lethal for third to fourth instar larvae. Non-fed A. aegypti larvae were more susceptible to Azadirachta extracts at both temperatures. Under a more realistic environmental situation, namely with fed larvae at 25 degrees C, the death rates caused by the Melia extract were higher, although at 30 degrees C the extract of Azadirachta had an even higher lethality. Inter allia, the LC50 values for the crude extracts of these two members of the Meliaceae ranged from 0.017 to 0.034 g% while the LC99 values ranged from 0.133 to 0.189 g%. Since no downstream processing was undertaken to purify the active agents in the extracts, our findings seem very promising, suggesting that it may be possible to increase the larvicidal activity further by improving the extraction and the fractionation of the crude limonoids, for instance removing the co-extracted natural fats.

  3. From Lab to Field: The Influence of Urban Landscapes on the Invasive Potential of Wolbachia in Brazilian Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Caragata, Eric Pearce; Silva, Jéssica Barreto Lopes; Villela, Daniel Antunes Maciel; Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Moreira, Luciano Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Background The symbiotic bacterium Wolbachia is currently being trialled as a biocontrol agent in several countries to reduce dengue transmission. Wolbachia can invade and spread to infect all individuals within wild mosquito populations, but requires a high rate of maternal transmission, strong cytoplasmic incompatibility and low fitness costs in the host in order to do so. Additionally, extensive differences in climate, field-release protocols, urbanization level and human density amongst the sites where this bacterium has been deployed have limited comparison and analysis of Wolbachia’s invasive potential. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined key phenotypic effects of the wMel Wolbachia strain in laboratory Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with a Brazilian genetic background to characterize its invasive potential. We show that the wMel strain causes strong cytoplasmic incompatibility, a high rate of maternal transmission and has no evident detrimental effect on host fecundity or fertility. Next, to understand the effects of different urban landscapes on the likelihood of mosquito survival, we performed mark-release-recapture experiments using Wolbachia-uninfected Brazilian mosquitoes in two areas of Rio de Janeiro where Wolbachia will be deployed in the future. We characterized the mosquito populations in relation to the socio-demographic conditions at these sites, and at three other future release areas. We then constructed mathematical models using both the laboratory and field data, and used these to describe the influence of urban environmental conditions on the likelihood that the Wolbachia infection frequency could reach 100% following mosquito release. We predict successful invasion at all five field sites, however the conditions by which this occurs vary greatly between sites, and are strongly influenced by the size of the local mosquito population. Conclusions/Significance Through analysis of laboratory, field and mathematical data, we show that the w

  4. Rapid intraspecific evolution of miRNA and siRNA genes in the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Scott A; Simmons, Mark P; Olson, Ken E; Beaty, Barry J; Blair, Carol D; Black, William C

    2012-01-01

    RNA silencing, or RNA interference (RNAi) in metazoans mediates development, reduces viral infection and limits transposon mobility. RNA silencing involves 21-30 nucleotide RNAs classified into microRNA (miRNA), exogenous and endogenous small interfering RNAs (siRNA), and Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA). Knock-out, silencing and mutagenesis of genes in the exogenous siRNA (exo-siRNA) regulatory network demonstrate the importance of this RNAi pathway in antiviral immunity in Drosophila and mosquitoes. In Drosophila, genes encoding components for processing exo-siRNAs are among the fastest evolving 3% of all genes, suggesting that infection with pathogenic RNA viruses may drive diversifying selection in their host. In contrast, paralogous miRNA pathway genes do not evolve more rapidly than the genome average. Silencing of exo-siRNA pathway genes in mosquitoes orally infected with arboviruses leads to increased viral replication, but little is known about the comparative patterns of molecular evolution among the exo-siRNA and miRNA pathways genes in mosquitoes. We generated nearly complete sequences of all exons of major miRNA and siRNA pathway genes dicer-1 and dicer-2, argonaute-1 and argonaute-2, and r3d1 and r2d2 in 104 Aedes aegypti mosquitoes collected from six distinct geographic populations and analyzed their genetic diversity. The ratio of replacement to silent amino acid substitutions was 1.4 fold higher in dicer-2 than in dicer-1, 27.4 fold higher in argonaute-2 than in argonaute-1 and similar in r2d2 and r3d1. Positive selection was supported in 32% of non-synonymous sites in dicer-1, in 47% of sites in dicer-2, in 30% of sites in argonaute-1, in all sites in argonaute-2, in 22% of sites in r3d1 and in 55% of sites in r2d2. Unlike Drosophila, in Ae. aegypti, both exo-siRNA and miRNA pathway genes appear to be undergoing rapid, positive, diversifying selection. Furthermore, refractoriness of mosquitoes to infection with dengue virus was significantly

  5. Excretion of dengue virus RNA by Aedes aegypti allows non-destructive monitoring of viral dissemination in individual mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Albin; Jiolle, Davy; Moltini-Conclois, Isabelle; Lequime, Sebastian; Lambrechts, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Successful transmission of a vector-borne pathogen relies on a complex life cycle in the arthropod vector that requires initial infection of the digestive tract followed by systemic viral dissemination. The time interval between acquisition and subsequent transmission of the pathogen, called the extrinsic incubation period, is one of the most influential parameters of vector-borne pathogen transmission. However, the dynamic nature of this process is often ignored because vector competence assays are sacrificial and rely on end-point measurements. Here, we report that individual Aedes aegypti mosquitoes release large amounts of dengue virus (DENV) RNA in their excreta that can be non-sacrificially detected over time following oral virus exposure. Further, we demonstrate that detection of DENV RNA in excreta from individual mosquitoes is correlated to systemic viral dissemination with high specificity (0.9–1) albeit moderate sensitivity (0.64–0.89). Finally, we illustrate the potential of our finding to detect biological differences in the dynamics of DENV dissemination in a proof-of-concept experiment. Individual measurements of the time required for systemic viral dissemination, a prerequisite for transmission, will be valuable to monitor the dynamics of DENV vector competence, to carry out quantitative genetics studies, and to evaluate the risk of DENV transmission in field settings. PMID:27117953

  6. Physiological recordings and RNA sequencing of the gustatory appendages of the yellow-fever mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Jackson T; Dickens, Joseph C

    2014-01-01

    Electrophysiological recording of action potentials from sensory neurons of mosquitoes provides investigators a glimpse into the chemical perception of these disease vectors. We have recently identified a bitter sensing neuron in the labellum of female Aedes aegypti that responds to DEET and other repellents, as well as bitter quinine, through direct electrophysiological investigation. These gustatory receptor neuron responses prompted our sequencing of total mRNA from both male and female labella and tarsi samples to elucidate the putative chemoreception genes expressed in these contact chemoreception tissues. Samples of tarsi were divided into pro-, meso- and metathoracic subtypes for both sexes. We then validated our dataset by conducting qRT-PCR on the same tissue samples and used statistical methods to compare results between the two methods. Studies addressing molecular function may now target specific genes to determine those involved in repellent perception by mosquitoes. These receptor pathways may be used to screen novel repellents towards disruption of host-seeking behavior to curb the spread of harmful viruses. PMID:25590536

  7. Sindbis virus induces the production of a novel class of endogenous siRNAs in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Adelman, Z N; Anderson, M A E; Liu, M; Zhang, L; Myles, K M

    2012-06-01

    Small RNA regulatory pathways are used to control the activity of transposons, regulate gene expression and resist infecting viruses. We examined the biogenesis of mRNA-derived endogenous short-interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) in the disease vector mosquito Aedes aegypti. Under standard conditions, mRNA-derived endo-siRNAs were produced from the bidirectional transcription of tail-tail overlapping gene pairs. Upon infection with the alphavirus, Sindbis virus (SINV), another class of mRNA-derived endo-siRNAs was observed. Genes producing SINV-induced endo-siRNAs were not enriched for overlapping partners or nearby genes, but were enriched for transcripts with long 3' untranslated regions. Endo-siRNAs from this class derived uniformly from the entire length of the target transcript, and were found to regulate the transcript levels of the genes from which they were derived. Strand-specific quantitative PCR experiments demonstrated that antisense strands of targeted mRNA genes were produced to exonic, but not intronic regions. Finally, small RNAs mapped to both sense and antisense strands of exon-exon junctions, suggesting double-stranded RNA precursors to SINV-induced endo-siRNAs may be synthesized from mature mRNA templates. These results suggest additional complexity in small RNA pathways and gene regulation in the presence of an infecting virus in disease vector mosquitoes.

  8. Bioactivity of seagrass against the dengue fever mosquito Aedes aegypti larvae

    PubMed Central

    Ali, M Syed; Ravikumar, S; Beula, J Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify the larvicidal activity of the seagrass extracts. Methods Seagrass extracts, Syringodium isoetifolium (S. isoetifolium), Cymodocea serrulata and Halophila beccarii, were dissolved in DMSO to prepare a graded series of concentration. Batches of 25 early 4th instars larvae of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) were transferred to 250 mL enamel bowl containing 199 mL of distilled water and 1 mL of plant extracts (0.01 mg – 0.1 mg). After 24 h the mortality rate was identified with the formulae [(% of test mortality – % of control mortality)/(100 – % of control mortality)] × 100. Each experiment was conducted with three replicates and a concurrent control group. A control group consisted of 1 mL of DMSO and 199 mL of distilled water only. Results : The root extract of S. isoetifolium showed maximum larvicidal activity with minimum concentration of extract of LC50= 0.0 604 ± 0.0 040)µg/mL with lower confidence limit (LCL) – upper confidence limit (UCL) = (0.051–0.071) and LC90=0.0 972µg/mL followed by leaf extract of S. isoetifolium showed LC50= (0.062 ± 0.005)µg/mL. The regression equation of root and leaf extract of S. isoetifolium for 4th instar larvae were Y= 4.909 + 1.32x (R2= 0.909) and Y= 2.066 + 1.21x (R2 =0.897) respectively. The results of the preliminary phytochemical constituents shows the presence of saponin, steroids, terpenoid, phenols, protein and sugars. Conclusions From the present study the ethanolic extracts of seagrass of S. isoetifolium possesses lead compound for development of larvicidal activity. PMID:23569973

  9. Infection with a Virulent Strain of Wolbachia Disrupts Genome Wide-Patterns of Cytosine Methylation in the Mosquito Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yixin H.; Woolfit, Megan; Huttley, Gavin A.; Rancès, Edwige; Caragata, Eric P.; Popovici, Jean; O'Neill, Scott L.; McGraw, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cytosine methylation is one of several reversible epigenetic modifications of DNA that allow a greater flexibility in the relationship between genotype and phenotype. Methylation in the simplest models dampens gene expression by modifying regions of DNA critical for transcription factor binding. The capacity to methylate DNA is variable in the insects due to diverse histories of gene loss and duplication of DNA methylases. Mosquitoes like Drosophila melanogaster possess only a single methylase, DNMT2. Description Here we characterise the methylome of the mosquito Aedes aegypti and examine its relationship to transcription and test the effects of infection with a virulent strain of the endosymbiont Wolbachia on the stability of methylation patterns. Conclusion We see that methylation in the A. aegypti genome is associated with reduced transcription and is most common in the promoters of genes relating to regulation of transcription and metabolism. Similar gene classes are also methylated in aphids and honeybees, suggesting either conservation or convergence of methylation patterns. In addition to this evidence of evolutionary stability, we also show that infection with the virulent wMelPop Wolbachia strain induces additional methylation and demethylation events in the genome. While most of these changes seem random with respect to gene function and have no detected effect on transcription, there does appear to be enrichment of genes associated with membrane function. Given that Wolbachia lives within a membrane-bound vacuole of host origin and retains a large number of genes for transporting host amino acids, inorganic ions and ATP despite a severely reduced genome, these changes might represent an evolved strategy for manipulating the host environments for its own gain. Testing for a direct link between these methylation changes and expression, however, will require study across a broader range of developmental stages and tissues with methods that detect

  10. Genetic control of Aedes mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Alphey, Luke; McKemey, Andrew; Nimmo, Derric; Neira Oviedo, Marco; Lacroix, Renaud; Matzen, Kelly; Beech, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    Aedes mosquitoes include important vector species such as Aedes aegypti, the major vector of dengue. Genetic control methods are being developed for several of these species, stimulated by an urgent need owing to the poor effectiveness of current methods combined with an increase in chemical pesticide resistance. In this review we discuss the various genetic strategies that have been proposed, their present status, and future prospects. We focus particularly on those methods that are already being tested in the field, including RIDL and Wolbachia-based approaches. PMID:23816508

  11. The Influence of Diet on the Use of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Determine the Age of Female Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Liebman, Kelly; Swamidoss, Isabel; Vizcaino, Lucrecia; Lenhart, Audrey; Dowell, Floyd; Wirtz, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Interventions targeting adult mosquitoes are used to combat transmission of vector-borne diseases, including dengue. Without available vaccines, targeting the primary vector, Aedes aegypti, is essential to prevent transmission. Older mosquitoes (≥ 7 days) are of greatest epidemiological significance due to the 7-day extrinsic incubation period of the virus. Age-grading of female mosquitoes is necessary to identify post-intervention changes in mosquito population age structure. We developed models using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to age-grade adult female Ae. aegypti. To determine if diet affects the ability of NIRS models to predict age, two identical larval groups were fed either fish food or infant cereal. Adult females were separated and fed sugar water ± blood, resulting in four experimental groups. Females were killed 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, or 16 days postemergence. The head/thorax of each mosquito was scanned using a near-infrared spectrometer. Scans from each group were analyzed, and multiple models were developed using partial least squares regression. The best model included all experimental groups, and positively predicted the age group (< or ≥ 7 days) of 90.2% mosquitoes. These results suggest both larval and adult diets can affect the ability of NIRS models to accurately assign age categories to female Ae. aegypti.

  12. Mosquito larvicidal properties of Orthisiphon thymiflorus (Roth) Sleesen. (Family: Labiatae) against mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To determine the larvicidal activity of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of Orthosiphon thymiflorus leaves against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. Methods: Larvicidal activity was determined in laboratory bioassays using var...

  13. Effect of Novaluron (Rimon 10 EC) on the mosquitoes Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus from Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Arredondo-Jiménez, J I; Valdez-Delgado, K M

    2006-12-01

    Dengue fever is a serious problem in Mexico and vector control has not been effective enough at preventing outbreaks. Malaria is largely under control, but it is important that new control measures continue to be developed. Novaluron, a novel host-specific insect growth regulator and chitin synthesis inhibitor, has proved to be effective against agricultural pests, but its efficacy against larval mosquito vectors under field conditions remains unknown. In accordance with the World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme, phase I, II and III studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and residual effect of Novaluron (Rimon 10 EC, Makhteshim, Beer-Sheva, Israel) on the malaria vectors Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles pseudopunctipennis Theobald, the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti (L) and Aedes albopictus Skuse and the nuisance mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Laboratory susceptibility tests yielded diagnostic concentrations for all five target species. Field trials to identify the optimum field dosage of Novaluron against Anopheles mosquitoes were carried out under semi-natural conditions in artificial plots and in vessels with wild mosquitoes. Efficacy was measured by monitoring mortality of larvae and pupae and the percentage of inhibition of emergence from floating cages. Dosages of Novaluron for field tests were based on pupal LC(99) (lethal concentration 99%) of An. pseudopunctipennis (0.166 mg/L) in plots and average pupal LC(99) of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus (0.55 mg/L). At all dosages tested, Novaluron significantly reduced larval populations of An. albimanus, Culex coronator Dyar & Knab, Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus by approximately 90%, inhibited adult emergence of An. albimanus and An. pseudopunctipennis by approximately 97% for almost 4 months in experimental plots, and inhibited adult emergence of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus by approximately 97% for up to 14 weeks. Recommended dosages of

  14. Behavioral responses of catnip (Nepeta cataria) by two species of mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles harrisoni, in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Polsomboon, Suppaluck; Grieco, John P; Achee, Nicole L; Chauhan, Kamlesh R; Tanasinchayakul, Somchai; Pothikasikorn, Jinrapa; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2008-12-01

    An investigation of the biological effect of catnip oil (Nepeta cataria L.) on the behavioral response of field collected Aedes aegypti and Anopheles harrisoni was conducted using an automated excitorepellency test system. Aedes aegypti showed significantly higher escape rates from the contact chamber at 5% catnip oil compared to other concentrations (P < 0.05). With Anopheles harrisoni, a high escape response was seen at 2.5% catnip oil from the contact chamber, while in the noncontact chamber a higher escape response was observed at a concentration of 5%. Results showed that this compound exhibits both irritant and repellent actions.

  15. Characterization of N-linked oligosaccharides in chorion peroxidase of Aedes aegypti mosquito.

    PubMed

    Li, Junsuo S; Li, Jianyong

    2005-09-01

    A peroxidase is present in the chorion of Aedes aegypti eggs and catalyzes chorion protein cross-linking during chorion hardening, which is critical for egg survival in the environment. The unique chorion peroxidase (CPO) is a glycoprotein. This study deals with the N-glycosylation site, structures, and profile of CPO-associated oligosaccharides using mass spectrometric techniques and enzymatic digestion. CPO was isolated from chorion by solubilization and several chromatographic methods. Mono-saccharide composition was analyzed by HPLC with fluorescent detection. Our data revealed that carbohydrate (D-mannose, N-acetyl D-glucosamine, D-arabinose, N-acetyl D-galactosamine, and L-fucose) accounted for 2.24% of the CPO molecular weight. A single N-glycosylation site (Asn328-Cys- Thr) was identified by tryptic peptide mapping and de novo sequencing of native and PNGase A-deglycosylated CPO using matrix-assisted laser/desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF/MS) and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The Asn328 was proven to be a major fully glycosylated site. Potential tryptic glycopeptides and profile were first assessed by MALDI/TOF/MS and then by precursor ion scanning during LC/MS/MS. The structures of N-linked oligosaccharides were elucidated from the MS/MS spectra of glycopeptides and exoglycosidase sequencing of PNGase A-released oligosaccharides. These CPO-associated oligosaccharides had dominant Man3GlcNAc2 and Man3 (Fuc) GlcNAc2 and high mannose-type structures (Man(4-8)GlcNAc2). The truncated structures, Man2GlcNAc2 and Man2 (Fuc) GlcNAc2, were also identified. Comparison of CPO activity and Stokes radius between native and deglycosylated CPO suggests that the N-linked oligosaccharides influence the enzyme activity by stabilizing its folded state.

  16. The heterodimeric glycoprotein hormone, GPA2/GPB5, regulates ion transport across the hindgut of the adult mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Paluzzi, Jean-Paul; Vanderveken, Mark; O'Donnell, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    A family of evolutionarily old hormones is the glycoprotein cysteine knot-forming heterodimers consisting of alpha- (GPA) and beta-subunits (GPB), which assemble by noncovalent bonds. In mammals, a common glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit (GPA1) pairs with unique beta-subunits that establish receptor specificity, forming thyroid stimulating hormone (GPA1/TSHβ) and the gonadotropins luteinizing hormone (GPA1/LHβ), follicle stimulating hormone (GPA1/FSHβ), choriogonadotropin (GPA1/CGβ). A novel glycoprotein heterodimer was identified in vertebrates by genome analysis, called thyrostimulin, composed of two novel subunits, GPA2 and GPB5, and homologs occur in arthropods, nematodes and cnidarians, implying that this neurohormone system existed prior to the emergence of bilateral metazoans. In order to discern possible physiological roles of this hormonal signaling system in mosquitoes, we have isolated the glycoprotein hormone genes producing the alpha- and beta-subunits (AedaeGPA2 and AedaeGPB5) and assessed their temporal expression profiles in the yellow and dengue-fever vector, Aedes aegypti. We have also isolated a putative receptor for this novel mosquito hormone, AedaeLGR1, which contains features conserved with other glycoprotein leucine-rich repeating containing G protein-coupled receptors. AedaeLGR1 is expressed in tissues of the alimentary canal such as the midgut, Malpighian tubules and hindgut, suggesting that this novel mosquito glycoprotein hormone may regulate ionic and osmotic balance. Focusing on the hindgut in adult stage A. aegypti, where AedaeLGR1 was highly enriched, we utilized the Scanning Ion-selective Electrode Technique (SIET) to determine if AedaeGPA2/GPB5 modulated cation transport across this epithelial tissue. Our results suggest that AedaeGPA2/GPB5 does indeed participate in ionic and osmotic balance, since it appears to inhibit natriuresis and promote kaliuresis. Taken together, our findings imply this hormone may play an important

  17. Analysis of ovary-specific genes in relation to egg maturation and female nutritional condition in the mosquitoes Georgecraigius atropalpus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Telang, Aparna; Rechel, Julie A.; Brandt, Jessica R.; Donnell, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the reproductive physiology of anautogenous mosquitoes at the molecular level is complicated by the simultaneity of ovarian maturation and the digestion of a blood meal. In contrast to anautogenous mosquitoes, autogenous female mosquitoes can acquire greater nutrient stores as larvae and exhibit higher ovarian production of ecdysteroids at adult eclosion. These features essentially replace the role of a blood meal in provisioning the first batch of eggs and initiating egg development. To gain insight into the process of ovary maturation we first performed a transcript analysis of the obligatory autogenous mosquito Georgecraigius atropalpus (formerly Ochlerotatus atropalpus). We identified ESTs using suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) of transcripts from ovaries at critical times during oogenesis in the absence of blood digestion. Preliminary expression studies of genes such as apolipophorin III (APO) and oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) suggested these genes might be cued to female nutritional status. We then applied our findings to the medically important anautogenous mosquito Aedes aegypti. RNAi-based analyses of these genes in Ae. aegypti revealed a reduction in APO transcripts leads to reduced lipid levels in carcass and ovaries and that OSBP may play a role in overall lipid and sterol homeostasis. In addition to expanding our understanding of mosquito ovarian development, the continued use of a comparative approach between autogenous and anautogenous species may provide novel intervention points for the regulation of mosquito egg production. PMID:23238126

  18. Analysis of ovary-specific genes in relation to egg maturation and female nutritional condition in the mosquitoes Georgecraigius atropalpus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Telang, Aparna; Rechel, Julie A; Brandt, Jessica R; Donnell, David M

    2013-03-01

    Analysis of the reproductive physiology of anautogenous mosquitoes at the molecular level is complicated by the simultaneity of ovarian maturation and the digestion of a blood meal. In contrast to anautogenous mosquitoes, autogenous female mosquitoes can acquire greater nutrient stores as larvae and exhibit higher ovarian production of ecdysteroids at adult eclosion. These features essentially replace the role of a blood meal in provisioning the first batch of eggs and initiating egg development. To gain insight into the process of ovary maturation we first performed a transcript analysis of the obligatory autogenous mosquito Georgecraigius atropalpus (formerly Ochlerotatus atropalpus). We identified ESTs using suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) of transcripts from ovaries at critical times during oogenesis in the absence of blood digestion. Preliminary expression studies of genes such as apolipophorin III (APO) and oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) suggested these genes might be cued to female nutritional status. We then applied our findings to the medically important anautogenous mosquito Aedes aegypti. RNAi-based analyses of these genes in Ae. aegypti revealed a reduction in APO transcripts leads to reduced lipid levels in carcass and ovaries and that OSBP may play a role in overall lipid and sterol homeostasis. In addition to expanding our understanding of mosquito ovarian development, the continued use of a comparative approach between autogenous and anautogenous species may provide novel intervention points for the regulation of mosquito egg production.

  19. Mechanisms of Pyrethroid Resistance in the Dengue Mosquito Vector, Aedes aegypti: Target Site Insensitivity, Penetration, and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kasai, Shinji; Komagata, Osamu; Itokawa, Kentaro; Shono, Toshio; Ng, Lee Ching; Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Tomita, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is the major vector of yellow and dengue fevers. After 10 generations of adult selection, an A. aegypti strain (SP) developed 1650-fold resistance to permethrin, which is one of the most widely used pyrethroid insecticides for mosquito control. SP larvae also developed 8790-fold resistance following selection of the adults. Prior to the selections, the frequencies of V1016G and F1534C mutations in domains II and III, respectively, of voltage-sensitive sodium channel (Vssc, the target site of pyrethroid insecticide) were 0.44 and 0.56, respectively. In contrast, only G1016 alleles were present after two permethrin selections, indicating that G1016 can more contribute to the insensitivity of Vssc than C1534. In vivo metabolism studies showed that the SP strain excreted permethrin metabolites more rapidly than a susceptible SMK strain. Pretreatment with piperonyl butoxide caused strong inhibition of excretion of permethrin metabolites, suggesting that cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) play an important role in resistance development. In vitro metabolism studies also indicated an association of P450s with resistance. Microarray analysis showed that multiple P450 genes were over expressed during the larval and adult stages in the SP strain. Following quantitative real time PCR, we focused on two P450 isoforms, CYP9M6 and CYP6BB2. Transcription levels of these P450s were well correlated with the rate of permethrin excretion and they were certainly capable of detoxifying permethrin to 4′-HO-permethrin. Over expression of CYP9M6 was partially due to gene amplification. There was no significant difference in the rate of permethrin reduction from cuticle between SP and SMK strains. PMID:24945250

  20. Larvicidal action of ethanolic extracts from fruit endocarps of Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica against the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Wandscheer, Carolina B; Duque, Jonny E; da Silva, Mario A N; Fukuyama, Yoshiyasu; Wohlke, Jonathan L; Adelmann, Juliana; Fontana, José D

    2004-12-15

    Ethanolic extracts from the kernels of ripe fruits from the Indian Lilac Melia azedarach and from the well-known Neem tree, Azadirachta indica were assayed against larvae of Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue fever. The lethality bioassays were carried out according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization. Extracts were tested at doses ranging from 0.0033 to 0.05 g% in an aqueous medium for 24 and 48 h, at 25 or 30 degrees C, with or without feeding of the larvae. LC50, LC95 and LC99 were determined. Both seed extracts proved lethal for third to fourth instar larvae. Non-fed A. aegypti larvae were more susceptible to Azadirachta extracts at both temperatures. Under a more realistic environmental situation, namely with fed larvae at 25 degrees C, the death rates caused by the Melia extract were higher, although at 30 degrees C the extract of Azadirachta had an even higher lethality. Inter allia, the LC50 values for the crude extracts of these two members of the Meliaceae ranged from 0.017 to 0.034 g% while the LC99 values ranged from 0.133 to 0.189 g%. Since no downstream processing was undertaken to purify the active agents in the extracts, our findings seem very promising, suggesting that it may be possible to increase the larvicidal activity further by improving the extraction and the fractionation of the crude limonoids, for instance removing the co-extracted natural fats. PMID:15530964

  1. Determination of juvenile hormone titers by means of LC-MS/MS/MS and a juvenile hormone-responsive Gal4/UAS system in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bo; Hou, Yuan; Wang, Jianjun; Kokoza, Vladimir A; Saha, Tusar T; Wang, Xue-Li; Lin, Ling; Zou, Zhen; Raikhel, Alexander S

    2016-10-01

    In anautogenous mosquitoes, juvenile hormone III (JH) plays an essential role in female post-eclosion (PE) development, preparing them for subsequent blood feeding and egg growth. We re-examined the JH titer during the reproductive cycle of female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Using liquid chromatography coupled with triple tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS/MS), we have shown that it reaches its peak at 48-54 h PE in the female hemolymph and at 72 h PE in whole body extracts. This method represents an effective assay for determination of JH titers. The 2.1-kb 5' promoter region of the Early Trypsin (ET) gene, which is specifically expressed in the female midgut under the control of JH during the PE phase, was utilized to genetically engineer the Ae. aegypti mosquito line with the ET-Gal4 activator. We then established the ET-GAL4>UAS-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) system in Ae. aegypti. In ET-Gal4>UAS-EGFP female mosquitoes, the intensity of the midgut-specific EGFP signal was observed to correspond to the ET gene transcript level and follow the JH titer during the PE phase. The EGFP signal and the EGFP transcript level were significantly diminished in midguts of transgenic female mosquitoes after RNA interference depletion of the JH receptor Methoprene-tolerant (Met), providing evidence of the control of ET gene expression by Met. Topical JH application caused premature enhancement of the EGFP signal and the EGFP transcript level in midguts of newly eclosed ET-Gal4>UAS-EGFP female mosquitoes, in which endogenous JH titer is still low. Hence, this novel ET-Gal4>UAS system permits JH-dependent gene overexpression in the midgut of Ae. aegypti female mosquitoes prior to a blood meal. PMID:27530057

  2. Bioassay-guided investigation of two Monarda essential oils as repellents of yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Tabanca, Nurhayat; Bernier, Ulrich R; Ali, Abbas; Wang, Mei; Demirci, Betul; Blythe, Eugene K; Khan, Shabana I; Baser, K Husnu Can; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2013-09-11

    As part of an ongoing research program to identify active mosquito repellents, Monarda bradburiana Beck and Monarda fistulosa L. essential oils showed good repellent activity with minimum effective dosages (MED) of 0.055 ± 0.036 and 0.078 ± 0.027 mg/cm(2), respectively, compared to reference standard N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) (0.039 ± 0.014 mg/cm(2)). Systematic bioassay-guided fractionation of essential oils of both Monarda species was performed to identify the active repellent compounds, and isolated pure compounds were individually tested for repellency. Of the isolated compounds, carvacrol, thymol, eugenol, and carvacrol methyl ether were found to be the repellent compounds with MEDs in the range of 0.013-0.063 mg/cm(2). Active repellent compounds were also tested for larvicidal activity against 1-day-old Aedes aegypti larvae. Thymol was the best larvicide among the tested individual compounds (LD50 of 13.9 ppm). None of the individual compounds showed cytotoxicity against mammalian cells; however, the essential oils were toxic to all cell lines.

  3. Bioassay-guided investigation of two Monarda essential oils as repellents of yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Tabanca, Nurhayat; Bernier, Ulrich R; Ali, Abbas; Wang, Mei; Demirci, Betul; Blythe, Eugene K; Khan, Shabana I; Baser, K Husnu Can; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2013-09-11

    As part of an ongoing research program to identify active mosquito repellents, Monarda bradburiana Beck and Monarda fistulosa L. essential oils showed good repellent activity with minimum effective dosages (MED) of 0.055 ± 0.036 and 0.078 ± 0.027 mg/cm(2), respectively, compared to reference standard N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) (0.039 ± 0.014 mg/cm(2)). Systematic bioassay-guided fractionation of essential oils of both Monarda species was performed to identify the active repellent compounds, and isolated pure compounds were individually tested for repellency. Of the isolated compounds, carvacrol, thymol, eugenol, and carvacrol methyl ether were found to be the repellent compounds with MEDs in the range of 0.013-0.063 mg/cm(2). Active repellent compounds were also tested for larvicidal activity against 1-day-old Aedes aegypti larvae. Thymol was the best larvicide among the tested individual compounds (LD50 of 13.9 ppm). None of the individual compounds showed cytotoxicity against mammalian cells; however, the essential oils were toxic to all cell lines. PMID:23919579

  4. Larvicidal activity of neem and karanja oil cakes against mosquito vectors, Culex quinquefasciatus (say), Aedes aegypti (L.) and Anopheles stephensi (L.).

    PubMed

    Shanmugasundaram, R; Jeyalakshmi, T; Dutt, M Sunil; Murthy, P Balakrishna

    2008-01-01

    Larvicidal effect of neem (Azadirachta indica) and karanja (Pongamia glabra) oil cakes (individuals and combination) was studied against mosquito species. Both the oil cakes showed larvicidal activity against the mosquito species tested. The combination of neem and karanja oil cakes in equal proportion proved to have better effect than the individual treatments. The combination of the two oil cakes recorded an LC95 of 0.93, 0.54 and 0.77% against the mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi respectively The increase in efficacy of the combination treatment over individuals in all the mosquito larvae tested was found to range about 4 to 10 fold in terms of LC50 and 2 to 6 fold in terms of LC95.

  5. Reduced Incidence of Chikungunya Virus Infection in Communities with Ongoing Aedes Aegypti Mosquito Trap Intervention Studies - Salinas and Guayama, Puerto Rico, November 2015-February 2016.

    PubMed

    Lorenzi, Olga D; Major, Chelsea; Acevedo, Veronica; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Rivera, Aidsa; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge; Waterman, Stephen; Barrera, Roberto; Sharp, Tyler M

    2016-05-13

    Aedes species mosquitoes transmit chikungunya virus, as well as dengue and Zika viruses, and bite most often during the day.* Infectious mosquito bites frequently occur in and around homes (1,2). Caribbean countries first reported local transmission of chikungunya virus in December 2013, and soon after, chikungunya virus spread throughout the Americas (3). Puerto Rico reported its first laboratory-positive chikungunya case in May 2014 (4), and subsequently identified approximately 29,000 suspected cases throughout the island by the end of 2015.(†) Because conventional vector control approaches often fail to result in effective and sustainable prevention of infection with viruses transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes (5), and to improve surveillance of mosquito population densities, CDC developed an Autocidal Gravid Ovitrap (AGO) (6) to attract and capture the female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes responsible for transmission of infectious agents to humans (Figure). The AGO trap is a simple, low-cost device that requires no use of pesticides and no servicing for an extended period of time (6).

  6. Reduced Incidence of Chikungunya Virus Infection in Communities with Ongoing Aedes Aegypti Mosquito Trap Intervention Studies - Salinas and Guayama, Puerto Rico, November 2015-February 2016.

    PubMed

    Lorenzi, Olga D; Major, Chelsea; Acevedo, Veronica; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Rivera, Aidsa; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge; Waterman, Stephen; Barrera, Roberto; Sharp, Tyler M

    2016-01-01

    Aedes species mosquitoes transmit chikungunya virus, as well as dengue and Zika viruses, and bite most often during the day.* Infectious mosquito bites frequently occur in and around homes (1,2). Caribbean countries first reported local transmission of chikungunya virus in December 2013, and soon after, chikungunya virus spread throughout the Americas (3). Puerto Rico reported its first laboratory-positive chikungunya case in May 2014 (4), and subsequently identified approximately 29,000 suspected cases throughout the island by the end of 2015.(†) Because conventional vector control approaches often fail to result in effective and sustainable prevention of infection with viruses transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes (5), and to improve surveillance of mosquito population densities, CDC developed an Autocidal Gravid Ovitrap (AGO) (6) to attract and capture the female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes responsible for transmission of infectious agents to humans (Figure). The AGO trap is a simple, low-cost device that requires no use of pesticides and no servicing for an extended period of time (6). PMID:27171600

  7. Ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal properties of Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) (Family: Asparagaceae) root extracts against filariasis (Culex quinquefasciatus), dengue (Aedes aegypti) and malaria (Anopheles stephensi) vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan

    2014-04-01

    Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. The present investigation was undertaken to study the ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal activities of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform and methanol extracts of root of Asparagus racemosus were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. The methanol extract of Asparagus racemosus against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi exerted 100% mortality (zero hatchability) at 375, 300 and 225 ppm, respectively. Control eggs showed 99-100% hatchability. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of root of Asparagus racemosus against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi with the LC50 and LC90 values were 115.13, 97.71 and 90.97 ppm and 210.96, 179.92, and 168.82 ppm, respectively. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h recovery period. The plant crude extracts showed dose-dependent mortality. At higher concentrations, the adult showed restless movement for some times with abnormal wagging and then died. Among the extracts tested, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in

  8. Identity and transfer of male reproductive gland proteins of the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti: potential tools for control of female feeding and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Sirot, Laura K; Poulson, Rebecca L; McKenna, M Caitlin; Girnary, Hussein; Wolfner, Mariana F; Harrington, Laura C

    2008-02-01

    Male reproductive gland proteins (mRGPs) impact the physiology and/or behavior of mated females in a broad range of organisms. We sought to identify mRGPs of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue and yellow fever viruses. Earlier studies with Ae. aegypti demonstrated that "matrone" (a partially purified male reproductive accessory gland substance) or male accessory gland fluid injected into virgin female Ae. aegypti affect female sexual refractoriness, blood feeding and digestion, flight, ovarian development, and oviposition. Using bioinformatic comparisons to Drosophila melanogaster accessory gland proteins and mass spectrometry of proteins from Ae. aegypti male accessory glands and ejaculatory ducts (AG/ED) and female reproductive tracts, we identified 63 new putative Ae. aegypti mRGPs. Twenty-one of these proteins were found in the reproductive tract of mated females but not of virgin females suggesting that they are transferred from males to females during mating. Most of the putative mRGPs fall into the same protein classes as mRGPs in other organisms, although some appear to be evolving rapidly and lack identifiable homologs in Culex pipiens, Anopheles gambiae, and D. melanogaster. Our results identify candidate male-derived molecules that may have an important influence on behavior, survival, and reproduction of female mosquitoes.

  9. Natural odor ligands for olfactory receptor neurons of the female mosquito Aedes aegypti: use of gas chromatography-linked single sensillum recordings.

    PubMed

    Ghaninia, Majid; Larsson, Mattias; Hansson, Bill S; Ignell, Rickard

    2008-09-01

    Female Aedes aegypti are vectors of dengue and yellow fever. Odor volatiles are the predominant cues that drive the host-seeking behavior of Ae. aegypti. Odorant molecules are detected and discriminated by olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) housed in sensory hairs, sensilla, located on the antennae and maxillary palps. In a previous study, we used odor volatiles that are behaviorally and/or electrophysiologically active for Ae. aegypti and other mosquito species to show that antennal ORNs of female Ae. aegypti are divided into functionally different classes. In the present study, we have, for the first time, conducted gas chromatography-coupled single sensillum recordings (GC-SSR) from antennal trichoid and intermediate sensilla of female Ae. aegypti in order to screen for additional putative host attractants and repellents. We used headspace collections from biologically relevant sources, such as different human body parts (including feet, trunk regions and armpit), as well as a plant species used as a mosquito repellent, Nepeta faassenii. We found that a number of ORN types strongly responded to one or more of the biological extracts. GC-SSR recordings revealed several active components, which were subsequently identified through GC-linked mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Electrophysiologically active volatiles from human skin included heptanal, octanal, nonanal and decanal.

  10. Bacterial Exposure at the Larval Stage Induced Sexual Immune Dimorphism and Priming in Adult Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-García, Miguel; Vargas, Valeria; Ramírez-Bello, Inci; Hernández-Martínez, Guadalupe; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences in the immune response of insects are driven by natural selection for females and sexual selection for males. These natural forces entail a multitude of extrinsic and intrinsic factors involved in a genotype-environment interaction that results in sex-biased expression of the genes shared by males and females. However, little is known about how an infection at a particular ontogenetic stage may influence later stages, or how it may impact sexual immune dimorphism. Using Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of a bacterial exposure at the larval stage on adult immunity in males and females. The parameters measured were phenoloxidase activity, nitric oxide production, antimicrobial activity, and the antimicrobial peptide transcript response. As a measure of the immune response success, the persistence of injected bacteria was also evaluated. The results show that males, as well as females, were able to enhance survival in the adult stage as a result of being exposed at the larval stage, which indicates a priming effect. Moreover, there was a differential gender immune response, evidenced by higher PO activity in males as well as higher NO production and greater antimicrobial activity in females. The greater bacterial persistence in females suggests a gender-specific strategy for protection after a previous experience with an elicitor. Hence, this study provides a primary characterization of the complex and gender-specific immune response of male and female adults against a bacterial challenge in mosquitoes primed at an early ontogenetic stage. PMID:26181517

  11. Insecticidal potency of Aspergillus terreus against larvae and pupae of three mosquito species Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Ragavendran, Chinnasamy; Natarajan, Devarajan

    2015-11-01

    Microbial control agents offer alternatives to chemical pest control, as they can be more selective than chemical insecticides. The present study evaluates the mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal potential of fungus mycelia using ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts produced by Aspergillus terreus against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti. The A. terreus mycelia were extracted after 15 days from Sabouraud dextrose broth medium. The ethyl acetate extracts showed lethal concentration that kills 50% of the exposed larvae (LC50) and lethal concentration that kills 90% of the exposed larvae (LC90) values of the first, second, third, and fourth instar larvae of An. stephensi (LC50 = 97.410, 102.551, 29.802, and 8.907; LC90 = 767.957, 552.546, 535.474, and 195.677 μg/ml), Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 89.584, 74.689, 68.265, and 67.40; LC90 = 449.091, 337.355, 518.793, and 237.347 μg/ml), and Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 83.541, 84.418, 80.407, and 95.926; LC90 = 515.464, 443.167, 387.910, and 473.998 μg/ml). Pupicidal activity of mycelium extracts was tested against An. stephensi (LC50 = 25.228, LC90 = 140.487), Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 54.525, LC90 = 145.366), and Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 10.536, LC90 = 63.762 μg/ml). At higher concentration (500 μg/ml), mortality starts within the first 6 h of exposure. One hundred percent mortality occurs at 24-h exposure. The overall result observed that effective activity against selected mosquito larvae and pupae after 24 h was a dose and time-dependent activity. These ensure that the resultant mosquito population reduction is substantial even where the larvicidal and pupicidal potential is minimal. The FTIR spectra of ethyl acetate extract reflect prominent peaks (3448.32, 3000.36, 2914.59, 2118.73, 1668.21, 1436.87, 1409.02, 954.33, 901.13, and 704.67 cm(-1)). The spectra showed a sharp absorption band at 1314.66 cm(-1) assigned to wagging vibration of

  12. Insecticidal potency of Aspergillus terreus against larvae and pupae of three mosquito species Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Ragavendran, Chinnasamy; Natarajan, Devarajan

    2015-11-01

    Microbial control agents offer alternatives to chemical pest control, as they can be more selective than chemical insecticides. The present study evaluates the mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal potential of fungus mycelia using ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts produced by Aspergillus terreus against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti. The A. terreus mycelia were extracted after 15 days from Sabouraud dextrose broth medium. The ethyl acetate extracts showed lethal concentration that kills 50% of the exposed larvae (LC50) and lethal concentration that kills 90% of the exposed larvae (LC90) values of the first, second, third, and fourth instar larvae of An. stephensi (LC50 = 97.410, 102.551, 29.802, and 8.907; LC90 = 767.957, 552.546, 535.474, and 195.677 μg/ml), Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 89.584, 74.689, 68.265, and 67.40; LC90 = 449.091, 337.355, 518.793, and 237.347 μg/ml), and Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 83.541, 84.418, 80.407, and 95.926; LC90 = 515.464, 443.167, 387.910, and 473.998 μg/ml). Pupicidal activity of mycelium extracts was tested against An. stephensi (LC50 = 25.228, LC90 = 140.487), Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 54.525, LC90 = 145.366), and Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 10.536, LC90 = 63.762 μg/ml). At higher concentration (500 μg/ml), mortality starts within the first 6 h of exposure. One hundred percent mortality occurs at 24-h exposure. The overall result observed that effective activity against selected mosquito larvae and pupae after 24 h was a dose and time-dependent activity. These ensure that the resultant mosquito population reduction is substantial even where the larvicidal and pupicidal potential is minimal. The FTIR spectra of ethyl acetate extract reflect prominent peaks (3448.32, 3000.36, 2914.59, 2118.73, 1668.21, 1436.87, 1409.02, 954.33, 901.13, and 704.67 cm(-1)). The spectra showed a sharp absorption band at 1314.66 cm(-1) assigned to wagging vibration of

  13. Mosquito larvicidal properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Heliotropium indicum (Boraginaceae) against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan

    2014-06-01

    Mosquitoes transmit dreadful diseases to human beings wherein biological control of these vectors using plant-derived molecules would be an alternative to reduce mosquito population. In the present study activity of aqueous leaf extract and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Helitropium indicum plant leaves against late third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. The range of varying concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40 μg/mL) and aqueous leaf extract (30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 μg/mL) were tested against the larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The synthesized AgNPs from H. indicum were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract in three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and histogram. The synthesized AgNPs showed larvicidal effects after 24 h of exposure. Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of H. indicum for all three important vector mosquitoes. The LC50 and LC90 values of H. indicum aqueous leaf extract appeared to be effective against A. stephensi (LC50, 68.73 μg/mL; LC90, 121.07 μg/mL) followed by A. aegypti (LC50, 72.72 μg/mL; LC90, 126.86 μg/mL) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50, 78.74 μg/mL; LC90, 134.39 μg/mL). Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus had the following LC50 and LC90 values: A. stephensi had LC50 and LC90 values of 18.40 and 32.45 μg/mL, A. aegypti had LC50 and LC90 values of 20.10 and 35.97 μg/mL, and C. quinquefasciatus had LC50 and LC90 values of 21.84 and 38.10 μg/mL. No mortality was observed in the control. These results suggest that the leaf aqueous extracts of H. indicum and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles have the

  14. Comparative analysis of response to selection with three insecticides in the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti using mRNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mosquito control programmes using chemical insecticides are increasingly threatened by the development of resistance. Such resistance can be the consequence of changes in proteins targeted by insecticides (target site mediated resistance), increased insecticide biodegradation (metabolic resistance), altered transport, sequestration or other mechanisms. As opposed to target site resistance, other mechanisms are far from being fully understood. Indeed, insecticide selection often affects a large number of genes and various biological processes can hypothetically confer resistance. In this context, the aim of the present study was to use RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) for comparing transcription level and polymorphism variations associated with adaptation to chemical insecticides in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Biological materials consisted of a parental susceptible strain together with three child strains selected across multiple generations with three insecticides from different classes: the pyrethroid permethrin, the neonicotinoid imidacloprid and the carbamate propoxur. Results After ten generations, insecticide-selected strains showed elevated resistance levels to the insecticides used for selection. RNA-seq data allowed detecting over 13,000 transcripts, of which 413 were differentially transcribed in insecticide-selected strains as compared to the susceptible strain. Among them, a significant enrichment of transcripts encoding cuticle proteins, transporters and enzymes was observed. Polymorphism analysis revealed over 2500 SNPs showing > 50% allele frequency variations in insecticide-selected strains as compared to the susceptible strain, affecting over 1000 transcripts. Comparing gene transcription and polymorphism patterns revealed marked differences among strains. While imidacloprid selection was linked to the over transcription of many genes, permethrin selection was rather linked to polymorphism variations. Focusing on detoxification enzymes

  15. Insecticidal potential of Ocimum canum plant extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larval and adult mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Murugan, Jimmantiyur Madhappan; Ramkumar, Govindaraju; Shivakumar, Muthugoundar Subramanian

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes have developed resistance to various synthetic insecticides, making their control increasingly difficult. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable natural control. This study evaluates the toxic potential of Ocimum canum (Sims) leaf extract and powder against Anopheles stephensi (Liston), Aedes aegypti (Lin) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) larval and adult mosquitoes. Larval mortality was observed after 24 h recovery period and adult smoke toxicity observed for 40 min duration at 10 min interval. Methanol extract of O. canum showed highest larval mortality against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus LC50 = 28.3225, LC90 = 44.1150; Ae. aegypti LC50 = 43.327, LC90 = 61.249; and An. stephensi LC50 = 30.2001, LC90 = 48.2866 ppm. The smoke toxicities were 93% mortality in C. quinquefasciatus, 74% in Ae. aegypti and 79% in An. stephensi adults, respectively, whereas 100% mortality was recorded in the commercial mosquito control. Our results suggest that O. canum leaf extract and powder are natural insecticide, and ideal eco friendly approach for mosquito control.

  16. Microinjection of A. aegypti embryos to obtain transgenic mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Jasinskiene, Nijole; Juhn, Jennifer; James, Anthony A

    2007-01-01

    In this video, Nijole Jasinskiene demonstrates the methodology employed to generate transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which are vectors for dengue fever. The techniques for correctly preparing microinjection needles, desiccating embryos, and performing microinjection are demonstrated.

  17. Reappearance of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Andrade, C S; Cáceres, A G; Vaquerizo, A; Ibañez-Bernal, S; Cachay, L S

    2001-07-01

    We report here the reappearance of Aedes aegypti in the Rimac district, and summarize the history of this mosquito species in Peru since its first detection in 1852. On March 17 2000 were found Ae. aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Mariscal Castilla town, Flor de Amancaes, San Juan de Amancaes, El Altillo and Santa Rosa in the Rimac district, Lima Province. PMID:11500764

  18. SCREENING FOR MOSQUITO LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF THAI MUSHROOM EXTRACTS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO STECCHERINUM SP AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTI (L.) (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE).

    PubMed

    Thongwat, Damrongpan; Pimolsri, Urat; Somboon, Pradya

    2015-07-01

    For over 50 years, biological control of mosquito larvae has depended mainly on plant extracts, fish, bacteria, protozoa, filamentous fungi, viruses or nematodes. In this study, we screened 143 mushroom samples from 44 confirmed species in Thailand for their mosquito larvicidal activity. One g% (w/v) aqueous extracts of dried powdered mushroom samples were tested against 3rd stage Aedes aegypti larvae. Four mushroom species, namely, Thaeogyroporus porentosus, Xylaria nigripes, Chlorophyllum sp and Steccherinum sp, and two unidentified species showed larvicidal mortality ranging from 10%-70% and 18%-90% for 24- and 48-hour exposure time, respectively. Steccherinum sp aqueous crude extract, after 48-hour exposure, did not show any larvicidal activity at 1,000 ppm, whereas that from ethanol, after 24-hour exposure, had 50% and 90% lethal concentration of 203 ppm and 412 ppm, respectively, with higher levels of mortality after 48- hour exposure. This is the first report of mosquito larvicidal properties of Thai mushroom extracts.

  19. Determination and characterization of destruxin production in Metarhizium anisopliae Tk6 and formulations for Aedes aegypti mosquitoes control at the field level.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Keppanan; Akutse, Komivi Senyo; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaperumal; Wang, Liande

    2016-09-15

    Destruxins, cyclic hexadepsipeptide toxins, secreted by the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae through extracellular synthesis. The present study reports a new approach for the analysis of DTXs produced by the fungal strain Metarhizium anisoliae Tk6, using FRIR-HPLC-LC-MS and H(1) NMR. The results also showed that production of the major DTXs A, B, C, and E have to be determined in Czapek Dextrose (CD) liquid culture filtrate from 9 to 12 days post-inoculation. Purified DTX were further tested in bioassays to assess their effects of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The four major purified DTX compounds were found to cause a toxic effect on the larval developmental stages of mosquitoes with high mortality rates. However, DTX E outperformed the other three DTXs by causing the highest mortality three days after inoculation. This result gives an alternative approach of using DTXs in mosquitoes control and used as a new method for other pest management.

  20. Determination and characterization of destruxin production in Metarhizium anisopliae Tk6 and formulations for Aedes aegypti mosquitoes control at the field level.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Keppanan; Akutse, Komivi Senyo; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaperumal; Wang, Liande

    2016-09-15

    Destruxins, cyclic hexadepsipeptide toxins, secreted by the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae through extracellular synthesis. The present study reports a new approach for the analysis of DTXs produced by the fungal strain Metarhizium anisoliae Tk6, using FRIR-HPLC-LC-MS and H(1) NMR. The results also showed that production of the major DTXs A, B, C, and E have to be determined in Czapek Dextrose (CD) liquid culture filtrate from 9 to 12 days post-inoculation. Purified DTX were further tested in bioassays to assess their effects of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The four major purified DTX compounds were found to cause a toxic effect on the larval developmental stages of mosquitoes with high mortality rates. However, DTX E outperformed the other three DTXs by causing the highest mortality three days after inoculation. This result gives an alternative approach of using DTXs in mosquitoes control and used as a new method for other pest management. PMID:27452930

  1. De novo assembly and annotation of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) repeatome with dnaPipeTE from raw genomic reads and comparative analysis with the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti).

    PubMed

    Goubert, Clément; Modolo, Laurent; Vieira, Cristina; ValienteMoro, Claire; Mavingui, Patrick; Boulesteix, Matthieu

    2015-04-01

    Repetitive DNA, including transposable elements (TEs), is found throughout eukaryotic genomes. Annotating and assembling the "repeatome" during genome-wide analysis often poses a challenge. To address this problem, we present dnaPipeTE-a new bioinformatics pipeline that uses a sample of raw genomic reads. It produces precise estimates of repeated DNA content and TE consensus sequences, as well as the relative ages of TE families. We shows that dnaPipeTE performs well using very low coverage sequencing in different genomes, losing accuracy only with old TE families. We applied this pipeline to the genome of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, an invasive species of human health interest, for which the genome size is estimated to be over 1 Gbp. Using dnaPipeTE, we showed that this species harbors a large (50% of the genome) and potentially active repeatome with an overall TE class and order composition similar to that of Aedes aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito. However, intraorder dynamics show clear distinctions between the two species, with differences at the TE family level. Our pipeline's ability to manage the repeatome annotation problem will make it helpful for new or ongoing assembly projects, and our results will benefit future genomic studies of A. albopictus. PMID:25767248

  2. Bromeliad-inhabiting mosquitoes in an urban botanical garden of dengue endemic Rio de Janeiro--are bromeliads productive habitats for the invasive vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus?

    PubMed

    Mocellin, Márcio Goulart; Simões, Taynãna César; Nascimento, Teresa Fernandes Silva do; Teixeira, Maria Lucia França; Lounibos, Leon Philip; Oliveira, Ricardo Lourenço de

    2009-12-01

    Immatures of both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have been found in water-holding bromeliad axils in Brazil. Removal of these plants or their treatment with insecticides in public and private gardens have been undertaken during dengue outbreaks in Brazil despite uncertainty as to their importance as productive habitats for dengue vectors. From March 2005-February 2006, we sampled 120 randomly selected bromeliads belonging to 10 species in a public garden less than 200 m from houses in a dengue-endemic neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro. A total of 2,816 mosquito larvae and pupae was collected, with an average of 5.87 immatures per plant per collection. Culex (Microculex) pleuristriatus and Culex spp of the Ocellatus Group were the most abundant culicid species, found in all species of bromeliads; next in relative abundance were species of the genus Wyeomyia. Only two individuals of Ae. aegypti (0.07%) and five of Ae. albopictus(0.18%) were collected from bromeliads. By contrast, immatures of Ae. aegypti were found in manmade containers in nearly 5% of nearby houses. These results demonstrate that bromeliads are not important producers of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus and, hence, should not be a focus for dengue control. However, the results of this study of only one year in a single area may not represent outcomes in other urban localities where bromeliads, Ae. aegypti and dengue coincide in more disturbed habitats.

  3. USDA Research on New Strategies for Controlling Aedes aegypti.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA researchers are currently studying new methods to control Aedes aegypti. One involves molecular pesticides which target critical genes/proteins (such as inhibitors of apoptosis proteins, IAPs) in mosquitoes using RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi constructs are evaluated in vivo in adult mosquito...

  4. Toxicity of benzo(a)pyrene and pyrene in the mosquito Aedes aegypti, in the dark and in the presence of ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Kagan, J.; Kagan, E.D.

    1986-03-01

    The phototoxicity of benzo(a)pyrene constitutes a much greater risk to immature forms of the mosquito Aedes aegypti than its mutagenicity of carcinogenicity. First instar larvae, fourth instar larvae, and pupae of the mosquito Aedes aegypti were treated with benzo(a)pyrene at concentrations up to 6.7 ppm, either in the dark or in the presence of long wavelength ultraviolet light (for only 30 min). The irradiations had a profound effect on the fate of first instar larvae. Their LC/sub 50/ value for 24 h survival was about 0.002 ppm. When the adult emergence was determined, the LC/sub 50/ value was about 0.0015 ppm. The development of fourth instar larvae was also modified by the photochemical treatments, with an LC/sub 50/ value for adult emergence of 0.12 ppm. The LC/sub 50/ values for the highly carcinogenic BAP are very similar to those determined for pyrene, its non-carcinogenic parent molecule. This provides one additional proof that the carcinogenicity and the phototoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are not necessarily related.

  5. How Diverse Detrital Environments Influence Nutrient Stoichiometry between Males and Females of the Co-Occurring Container Mosquitoes Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Yee, Donald A; Kaufman, Michael G; Ezeakacha, Nnaemeka F

    2015-01-01

    Allocation patterns of carbon and nitrogen in animals are influenced by food quality and quantity, as well as by inherent metabolic and physiological constraints within organisms. Whole body stoichiometry also may vary between the sexes who differ in development rates and reproductive allocation patterns. In aquatic containers, such as tree holes and tires, detrital inputs, which vary in amounts of carbon and nitrogen, form the basis of the mosquito-dominated food web. Differences in development times and mass between male and female mosquitoes may be the result of different reproductive constraints, which could also influence patterns of nutrient allocation. We examined development time, survival, and adult mass for males and females of three co-occurring species, Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus, across environments with different ratios of animal and leaf detritus. We quantified the contribution of detritus to biomass using stable isotope analysis and measured tissue carbon and nitrogen concentrations among species and between the sexes. Development times were shorter and adults were heavier for Aedes in animal versus leaf-only environments, whereas Culex development times were invariant across detritus types. Aedes displayed similar survival across detritus types whereas C. quinquefasciatus showed decreased survival with increasing leaf detritus. All species had lower values of 15N and 13C in leaf-only detritus compared to animal, however, Aedes generally had lower tissue nitrogen compared to C. quinquefasciatus. There were no differences in the C:N ratio between male and female Aedes, however, Aedes were different than C. quinquefasciatus adults, with male C. quinquefasciatus significantly higher than females. Culex quinquefasciatus was homeostatic across detrital environments. These results allow us to hypothesize an underlying stoichiometric explanation for the variation in performance of different container species under similar

  6. Reduced survival and reproductive success generates selection pressure for the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti to evolve resistance against infection by the microsporidian parasite Vavraia culicis

    PubMed Central

    Sy, Victoria E; Agnew, Philip; Sidobre, Christine; Michalakis, Yannis

    2014-01-01

    The success and sustainability of control measures aimed at reducing the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases will depend on how they influence the fitness of mosquitoes in targeted populations. We investigated the effects of the microsporidian parasite Vavraia culicis on the survival, blood-feeding behaviour and reproductive success of female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the main vector of dengue. Infection reduced survival to adulthood and increased adult female mosquito age-dependent mortality relative to uninfected individuals; this additional mortality was closely correlated with the number of parasite spores they harboured when they died. In the first gonotrophic cycle, infected females were less likely to blood-feed, took smaller meals when they did so, and developed fewer eggs than uninfected females. Even though the conditions of this laboratory study favoured minimal developmental times, the costs of infection were already being experienced by the time females reached an age at which they could first reproduce. These results suggest there will be selection pressure for mosquitoes to evolve resistance against this pathogen if it is used as an agent in a control program to reduce the transmission of mosquito-borne human diseases. PMID:24822081

  7. Frizzled 2 is a key component in the regulation of TOR signaling-mediated egg production in the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Weng, Shih-Che; Shiao, Shin-Hong

    2015-06-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway was first discovered as a key event in embryonic development and cell polarity in Drosophila. Recently, several reports have shown that Wnt stimulates translation and cell growth by activating the mTOR pathway in mammals. Previous studies have demonstrated that the Target of Rapamycin (TOR) pathway plays an important role in mosquito vitellogenesis. However, the interactions between these two pathways are poorly understood in the mosquito. In this study, we hypothesized that factors from the TOR and Wnt signaling pathways interacted synergistically in mosquito vitellogenesis. Our results showed that silencing Aedes aegypti Frizzled 2 (AaFz2), a transmembrane receptor of the Wnt signaling pathway, decreased the fecundity of mosquitoes. We showed that AaFz2 was highly expressed at the transcriptional and translational levels in the female mosquito 6 h after a blood meal, indicating amino acid-stimulated expression of AaFz2. Notably, the phosphorylation of S6K, a downstream target of the TOR pathway, and the expression of vitellogenin were inhibited in the absence of AaFz2. A direct link was found in this study between Wnt and TOR signaling in the regulation of mosquito reproduction.

  8. Temporal genetic stability of Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti) populations.

    PubMed

    Gloria-Soria, A; Kellner, D A; Brown, J E; Gonzalez-Acosta, C; Kamgang, B; Lutwama, J; Powell, J R

    2016-06-01

    The mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) is the primary vector of viruses that cause yellow fever, dengue and Chikungunya fever. In the absence of effective vaccines, the reduction of these diseases relies on vector control strategies. The success of these strategies is tightly linked to the population dynamics of target populations. In the present study, 14 collections from St. aegypti populations separated by periods of 1-13 years were analysed to determine their temporal genetic stability. Although temporal structure is discernible in most populations, the degree of temporal differentiation is dependent on the population and does not obscure the geographic structure of the various populations. The results suggest that performing detailed studies in the years prior to and after population reduction- or modification-based control interventions at each target field site may be useful in assessing the probability of success. PMID:26744174

  9. Temporal genetic stability of Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti) populations.

    PubMed

    Gloria-Soria, A; Kellner, D A; Brown, J E; Gonzalez-Acosta, C; Kamgang, B; Lutwama, J; Powell, J R

    2016-06-01

    The mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) is the primary vector of viruses that cause yellow fever, dengue and Chikungunya fever. In the absence of effective vaccines, the reduction of these diseases relies on vector control strategies. The success of these strategies is tightly linked to the population dynamics of target populations. In the present study, 14 collections from St. aegypti populations separated by periods of 1-13 years were analysed to determine their temporal genetic stability. Although temporal structure is discernible in most populations, the degree of temporal differentiation is dependent on the population and does not obscure the geographic structure of the various populations. The results suggest that performing detailed studies in the years prior to and after population reduction- or modification-based control interventions at each target field site may be useful in assessing the probability of success.

  10. Lantana montevidensis Essential Oil: Chemical Composition and Mosquito Repellent Activity against Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The essential oil (EO) of Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Briq. (L. sellowiana Link & Otto) was investigated for its chemical composition and mosquito repellent activity. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial plant parts was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major constituents we...

  11. Modelling Aedes aegypti mosquito control via transgenic and sterile insect techniques: endemics and emerging outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Seirin Lee, S; Baker, R E; Gaffney, E A; White, S M

    2013-08-21

    The invasion of pest insects often changes or destroys a native ecosystem, and can result in food shortages and disease endemics. Issues such as the environmental effects of chemical control methods, the economic burden of maintaining control strategies and the risk of pest resistance still remain, and mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever prevail in many countries, infecting over 100 million worldwide in 2010. One environmentally friendly method for mosquito control is the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). This species-specific method of insect control relies on the mass rearing, sterilization and release of large numbers of sterile insects. An alternative transgenic method is the Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal (RIDL). Our objective is to consider contrasting control strategies for two invasive scenarios via SIT and RIDL: an endemic case and an emerging outbreak. We investigate how the release rate and size of release region influence both the potential for control success and the resources needed to achieve it, under a range of conditions and control strategies, and we discuss advantageous strategies with respect to reducing the release resources and strategy costs (in terms of control mosquito numbers) required to achieve complete eradication of wild-type mosquitoes.

  12. A lethal ovitrap-based mass trapping scheme for dengue control in Australia: II. Impact on populations of the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Rapley, L P; Johnson, P H; Williams, C R; Silcock, R M; Larkman, M; Long, S A; Russell, R C; Ritchie, S A

    2009-12-01

    In Cairns, Australia, the impacts on Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) populations of two types of 'lure & kill' (L&K) lethal ovitraps (LOs), the standard lethal ovitrap (SLO) and the biodegradable lethal ovitrap (BLO) were measured during three mass-trapping interventions. To assess the efficacy of the SLO, two interventions (one dry season and one wet season) were conducted in three discrete areas, each lasting 4 weeks, with the following treatments: (i) SLOs (>200 traps, approximately 4/premise), BG-sentinel traps (BGSs; approximately 15, 1/premise) and larval control (container reduction and methoprene treatment) and (ii) larval control alone, and (iii) untreated control. Female Ae. aegypti populations were monitored for 4 weeks pre- and post-treatment in all three areas using BGSs and sticky ovitraps (SOs) or non-lethal regular ovitraps (ROs). In the dry season, 206 SLOs and 15 BGSs set at 54 and 15 houses, respectively, caught and killed an estimated 419 and 73 female Ae. aegypti, respectively. No significant decrease in collection size of female Ae. aegypti could be attributed to the treatments. In the wet season, 243 SLOs and 15 BGSs killed approximately 993 and 119 female Ae. aegypti, respectively. The mean number of female Ae. aegypti collected after 4 weeks with SOs and BGSs was significantly less than the control (LSD post-hoc test). The third mass-trapping intervention was conducted using the BLO during the wet season in Cairns. For this trial, three treatment areas were each provided with BLOs (>500, approximately 4/premise) plus larval control, and an untreated control area was designated. Adult female Ae. aegypti were collected for 4 weeks pre- and post-treatment using 15 BGSs and 20 SOs. During this period, 53.2% of BLOs contained a total of 6654 Ae. aegypti eggs. Over the intervention period, collections of Ae. aegypti in the treatment areas were significantly less than in the control area for BGSs but not SOs. An influx of relatively large

  13. Pharmacological validation of an inward-rectifier potassium (Kir) channel as an insecticide target in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Rouhier, Matthew F; Raphemot, Rene; Denton, Jerod S; Piermarini, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    Mosquitoes are important disease vectors that transmit a wide variety of pathogens to humans, including those that cause malaria and dengue fever. Insecticides have traditionally been deployed to control populations of disease-causing mosquitoes, but the emergence of insecticide resistance has severely limited the number of active compounds that are used against mosquitoes. Thus, to improve the control of resistant mosquitoes there is a need to identify new insecticide targets and active compounds for insecticide development. Recently we demonstrated that inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels and small molecule inhibitors of Kir channels offer promising new molecular targets and active compounds, respectively, for insecticide development. Here we provide pharmacological validation of a specific mosquito Kir channel (AeKir1) in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. We show that VU590, a small-molecule inhibitor of mammalian Kir1.1 and Kir7.1 channels, potently inhibits AeKir1 but not another mosquito Kir channel (AeKir2B) in vitro. Moreover, we show that a previously identified inhibitor of AeKir1 (VU573) elicits an unexpected agonistic effect on AeKir2B in vitro. Injection of VU590 into the hemolymph of adult female mosquitoes significantly inhibits their capacity to excrete urine and kills them within 24 h, suggesting a mechanism of action on the excretory system. Importantly, a structurally-related VU590 analog (VU608), which weakly blocks AeKir1 in vitro, has no significant effects on their excretory capacity and does not kill mosquitoes. These observations suggest that the toxic effects of VU590 are associated with its inhibition of AeKir1.

  14. Purified mariner (Mos1) transposase catalyzes the integration of marked elements into the germ-line of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Coates, C J; Jasinskiene, N; Morgan, D; Tosi, L R; Beverley, S M; James, A A

    2000-11-01

    Derivatives of the mariner transposable element, Mos1, from Drosophila mauritiana, can integrate into the germ-line of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Previously, the transposase required to mobilize Mos1 was provided in trans by a helper plasmid expressing the enzyme under the control of the D. psuedoobscura heat-shock protein 82 promoter. Here we tested whether purified recombinant Mos1 transposase could increase the recovery of Ae. aegypti transformants. Mos1 transposase was injected into white-eyed, kh(w)/kh(w), Ae. aegypti embryos with a Mos1 donor plasmid containing a copy of the wild-type allele of the D. melanogaster cinnabar gene. Transformed mosquitoes were recognized by partial restoration of eye color in the G(1) animals and confirmed by Southern analyses of genomic DNA. At Mos1 transposase concentrations approaching 100 nM, the rate of germ-line transformants arising from independent insertions in G(0) animals was elevated 2-fold compared to that seen in experiments with helper plasmids. Furthermore, the recovery of total G(1) transformants was increased 7.5-fold over the frequency seen with co-injected helper plasmid. Southern blot analyses and gene amplification experiments confirmed the integration of the transposons into the mosquito genome, although not all integrations were of the expected cut-and-paste type transposition. The increased frequency of germ-line integrations obtained with purified transposase will facilitate the generation of Mos1 transgenic mosquitoes and the application of transgenic approaches to the biology of this important vector of multiple pathogens. PMID:10989286

  15. Flavivirus susceptibility in Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Black, William C; Bennett, Kristine E; Gorrochótegui-Escalante, Norma; Barillas-Mury, Carolina V; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; de Lourdes Muñoz, María; Farfán-Alé, José A; Olson, Ken E; Beaty, Barry J

    2002-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of yellow fever (YF) and dengue fever (DF) flaviviruses worldwide. In this review we focus on past and present research on genetic components and environmental factors in Aedes aegypti that appear to control flavivirus transmission. We review genetic relationships among Ae. aegypti populations throughout the world and discuss how variation in vector competence is correlated with overall genetic differences among populations. We describe current research into how genetic and environmental factors jointly affect distribution of vector competence in natural populations. Based on this information, we propose a population genetic model for vector competence and discuss our recent progress in testing this model. We end with a discussion of approaches being taken to identify the genes that may control flavivirus susceptibility in Ae. aegypti.

  16. Suppression of a Field Population of Aedes aegypti in Brazil by Sustained Release of Transgenic Male Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Danilo O; McKemey, Andrew R; Garziera, Luiza; Lacroix, Renaud; Donnelly, Christl A; Alphey, Luke; Malavasi, Aldo; Capurro, Margareth L

    2015-01-01

    The increasing burden of dengue, and the relative failure of traditional vector control programs highlight the need to develop new control methods. SIT using self-limiting genetic technology is one such promising method. A self-limiting strain of Aedes aegypti, OX513A, has already reached the stage of field evaluation. Sustained releases of OX513A Ae. aegypti males led to 80% suppression of a target wild Ae. aegypti population in the Cayman Islands in 2010. Here we describe sustained series of field releases of OX513A Ae. aegypti males in a suburb of Juazeiro, Bahia, Brazil. This study spanned over a year and reduced the local Ae. aegypti population by 95% (95% CI: 92.2%-97.5%) based on adult trap data and 81% (95% CI: 74.9-85.2%) based on ovitrap indices compared to the adjacent no-release control area. The mating competitiveness of the released males (0.031; 95% CI: 0.025-0.036) was similar to that estimated in the Cayman trials (0.059; 95% CI: 0.011-0.210), indicating that environmental and target-strain differences had little impact on the mating success of the OX513A males. We conclude that sustained release of OX513A males may be an effective and widely useful method for suppression of the key dengue vector Ae. aegypti. The observed level of suppression would likely be sufficient to prevent dengue epidemics in the locality tested and other areas with similar or lower transmission. PMID:26135160

  17. Suppression of a Field Population of Aedes aegypti in Brazil by Sustained Release of Transgenic Male Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Garziera, Luiza; Lacroix, Renaud; Donnelly, Christl A.; Alphey, Luke; Malavasi, Aldo; Capurro, Margareth L.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing burden of dengue, and the relative failure of traditional vector control programs highlight the need to develop new control methods. SIT using self-limiting genetic technology is one such promising method. A self-limiting strain of Aedes aegypti, OX513A, has already reached the stage of field evaluation. Sustained releases of OX513A Ae. aegypti males led to 80% suppression of a target wild Ae. aegypti population in the Cayman Islands in 2010. Here we describe sustained series of field releases of OX513A Ae. aegypti males in a suburb of Juazeiro, Bahia, Brazil. This study spanned over a year and reduced the local Ae. aegypti population by 95% (95% CI: 92.2%-97.5%) based on adult trap data and 81% (95% CI: 74.9-85.2%) based on ovitrap indices compared to the adjacent no-release control area. The mating competitiveness of the released males (0.031; 95% CI: 0.025-0.036) was similar to that estimated in the Cayman trials (0.059; 95% CI: 0.011 – 0.210), indicating that environmental and target-strain differences had little impact on the mating success of the OX513A males. We conclude that sustained release of OX513A males may be an effective and widely useful method for suppression of the key dengue vector Ae. aegypti. The observed level of suppression would likely be sufficient to prevent dengue epidemics in the locality tested and other areas with similar or lower transmission. PMID:26135160

  18. Suppression of a Field Population of Aedes aegypti in Brazil by Sustained Release of Transgenic Male Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Danilo O; McKemey, Andrew R; Garziera, Luiza; Lacroix, Renaud; Donnelly, Christl A; Alphey, Luke; Malavasi, Aldo; Capurro, Margareth L

    2015-01-01

    The increasing burden of dengue, and the relative failure of traditional vector control programs highlight the need to develop new control methods. SIT using self-limiting genetic technology is one such promising method. A self-limiting strain of Aedes aegypti, OX513A, has already reached the stage of field evaluation. Sustained releases of OX513A Ae. aegypti males led to 80% suppression of a target wild Ae. aegypti population in the Cayman Islands in 2010. Here we describe sustained series of field releases of OX513A Ae. aegypti males in a suburb of Juazeiro, Bahia, Brazil. This study spanned over a year and reduced the local Ae. aegypti population by 95% (95% CI: 92.2%-97.5%) based on adult trap data and 81% (95% CI: 74.9-85.2%) based on ovitrap indices compared to the adjacent no-release control area. The mating competitiveness of the released males (0.031; 95% CI: 0.025-0.036) was similar to that estimated in the Cayman trials (0.059; 95% CI: 0.011-0.210), indicating that environmental and target-strain differences had little impact on the mating success of the OX513A males. We conclude that sustained release of OX513A males may be an effective and widely useful method for suppression of the key dengue vector Ae. aegypti. The observed level of suppression would likely be sufficient to prevent dengue epidemics in the locality tested and other areas with similar or lower transmission.

  19. Diminished reproductive fitness associated with the deltamethrin resistance in an Indian strain of dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sarita; Thomas, Anita; Samuel, Thomas; Sahgal, Arunima; Verma, Anita; Pillai, M K K

    2009-08-01

    The susceptible (SS) and resistant (DLR) strains of Aedes aegypti selected with deltamethrin and combination of deltamethrin and PBO (1:5) at the larval/adult stage were studied in the laboratory for their reproductive fitness in terms of fecundity, hatchability and longevity of gonotrophic cycles. The DLR strains exhibited 73-88% reduction in the duration of gonotrophic cycles as compared to their SS counterparts. There was a considerable decrease in egg production and hatchability rates in the selected strains of Ae. aegypti, as compared to that of the SS strain. Data indicate deltamethrin being an effective insecticide against Ae. aegypti and a possible correlation between the deltamethrin resistance and disadvantages during reproduction. The most drastic and significant effect was observed in DLR1b strains exhibiting 36.7% decrease in fecundity and 32.4% reduction in hatchability. Another important observation was diminished reproductive fitness in DLR2 strains. This suggests the usefulness of synergized deltamethrin selections in reducing the frequency of resistant individuals. A significant finding was to observe the reproductive disadvantage in adult-selected strains having negligible resistance to deltamethrin implicating the efficacy of deltamethrin as an adulticide rather than as a larvicide. Various probable reasons for the reduction in the reproductive potential and the possible resistance-management strategies of Ae. aegypti are discussed. PMID:19901902

  20. Detection of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Aedes koreicus in the Area of Sochi, Russia.

    PubMed

    Ganushkina, Ludmila A; Patraman, Ivan V; Rezza, Giovanni; Migliorini, Luigi; Litvinov, Serguei K; Sergiev, Vladimir P

    2016-01-01

    Following the identification of Aedes (Ae.) aegypti in the Sochi area in Russia at the beginning of 2000, entomological surveys were conducted during the summers of 2007, 2011, and 2012, leading to the identification of Ae. albopictus and Ae. koreicus. These findings highlight Russia as being the only country in the World Health Organization European Region with a documented presence of both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Both mosquito species are found on the coasts of the Black Sea. Control measures are needed to reduce the possible risks of importing exotic vector-borne infections, such as dengue and chikungunya.

  1. Phylogeography of Aedes aegypti (yellow fever mosquito) in South Florida: mtDNA evidence for human-aided dispersal.

    PubMed

    Damal, Kavitha; Murrell, Ebony G; Juliano, Steven A; Conn, Jan E; Loew, Sabine S

    2013-09-01

    The invasive dengue vector Aedes aegypti has persisted for > 200 years in South Florida in the United States. We tested the hypotheses that Florida's landscape creates dispersal barriers and corridors and that long-distance human-aided dispersal structures populations of Ae. aegypti. We evaluated the phylogeography of 362 individuals from Florida's East and West Coasts with a 760-bp (418- and 342-bp fragments of ND5 and ND4, respectively) mitochondrial sequence. Populations from these two coasts were not significantly differentiated, suggesting that limited urbanization in central Florida is not a strong barrier to gene flow. Evidence for long-distance dispersal between Ft. Lauderdale and the West and Ft. Myers and the East indicates the importance of human-aided dispersal. West Coast populations showed no genetic differentiation, indicating that West Coast rivers and bays did not significantly impede gene flow. Phylogeographic analysis of haplotypes showed two distinct matrilines with no geographic patterns, suggesting multiple introductions or balancing selection.

  2. Insecticidal activity of isobutylamides derived from Piper nigrum against adult of two mosquito species, Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Kwon

    2012-01-01

    The insecticidal activity of Piper nigrum fruit-derived piperidine alkaloid (piperine) and N-isobutylamide alkaloids (pellitorine, guineensine, pipercide and retrofractamide A) against female adults of Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes aegypti was examined. On the basis of 24-h LD(50) values, the compound most toxic to female C. pipiens pallens was pellitorine (0.4 µg/♀) followed by guineensine (1.9 µg/♀), retrofractamide A (2.4 µg/♀) and pipercide (3.2 µg/♀). LD(50) value of chlorpyrifos was 0.03 µg/♀. Against female A. aegypti, the insecticidal activity was more pronounced in pellitorine (0.17 µg/♀) than in retrofractamide A (1.5 µg/♀), guineensine (1.7 µg/♀), and pipercide (2.0 µg/♀). LD(50) value of chlorpyrifos was 0.0014 µg/♀.

  3. Mosquito larvicidal potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Chomelia asiatica (Rubiaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan

    2015-03-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Mosquito control is to enhance the health and quality of life of county residents and visitors through the reduction of mosquito populations. Mosquito control is a serious concern in developing countries like India due to the lack of general awareness, development of resistance, and socioeconomic reasons. Today, nanotechnology is a promising research domain which has a wide ranging application in vector control programs. These are nontoxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable, and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. In the present study, larvicidal activity of aqueous leaf extract and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using C. asiatica plant leaves against late third instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The range of varying concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40 μg/mL) and aqueous leaf extract (40, 80, 120, 160, and 200 μg/mL) were tested against the larvae of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The synthesized AgNPs from C. asiatica were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract in three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX). Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of C. asiatica for all three important vector mosquitoes. The LC50 and LC90 values of C. asiatica aqueous leaf extract appeared to be effective against An. stephensi (LC50, 90.17 μg/mL; LC90, 165.18 μg/mL) followed by Ae. aegypti (LC50, 96.59 μg/mL; LC90, 173.83 μg/mL) and Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50, 103.08 μg/mL; LC90, 183.16 μg/mL). Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus had the following LC50 and LC90

  4. Mosquito larvicidal potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Chomelia asiatica (Rubiaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan

    2015-03-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Mosquito control is to enhance the health and quality of life of county residents and visitors through the reduction of mosquito populations. Mosquito control is a serious concern in developing countries like India due to the lack of general awareness, development of resistance, and socioeconomic reasons. Today, nanotechnology is a promising research domain which has a wide ranging application in vector control programs. These are nontoxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable, and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. In the present study, larvicidal activity of aqueous leaf extract and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using C. asiatica plant leaves against late third instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The range of varying concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40 μg/mL) and aqueous leaf extract (40, 80, 120, 160, and 200 μg/mL) were tested against the larvae of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The synthesized AgNPs from C. asiatica were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract in three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX). Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of C. asiatica for all three important vector mosquitoes. The LC50 and LC90 values of C. asiatica aqueous leaf extract appeared to be effective against An. stephensi (LC50, 90.17 μg/mL; LC90, 165.18 μg/mL) followed by Ae. aegypti (LC50, 96.59 μg/mL; LC90, 173.83 μg/mL) and Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50, 103.08 μg/mL; LC90, 183.16 μg/mL). Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus had the following LC50 and LC90

  5. [Effect of lethal ovitrap on the longevity of females of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)].

    PubMed

    Gama, Renata Antonaci; Eiras, Alvaro Eduardo; Resende, Marcelo Carvalho de

    2007-01-01

    Oviposition traps with added insecticide may work as a new method for controlling the females of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Females of Aedes aegypti were placed in contact with lethal ovitraps with aging. The mortality rate ranged from 60.3% to 100%. The effect of aging the slats impregnated with deltamethrin was significant in relation to the percentage mortality among Aedes aegypti females. PMID:18200416

  6. Spectral and HRTEM analyses of Annona muricata leaf extract mediated silver nanoparticles and its Larvicidal efficacy against three mosquito vectors Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Shanthi Bhupathi; Ragavendran, Chinnasamy; Natarajan, Devarajan

    2015-12-01

    Mosquitoes transmit various diseases which mainly affect the human beings and every year cause millions of deaths globally. Currently available chemical and synthetic mosquitocidal agents pose severe side effects, pollute the environment vigorously, and become resistance. There is an urgent need to identify and develop the cost effective, compatible and eco-friendly product for mosquito control. The present study was aimed to find out the larvicidal potential of aqueous crude extract and green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from Annona muricata leaves were tested against fourth instar larvae of three important mosquitoes i.e. Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti using different concentrations of AgNPs (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ppm) and the aqueous leaf extract (100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm) for 24 and 48 h. The maximum mortality was noticed in AgNPs than aqueous leaf extract of A. muricata against tested mosquitoes with least LC50 values of 37.70, 31.29, and 20.65 ppm (24h) and 546.7, 516.2, and 618.4 ppm (48 h), respectively. All tested concentrations of AgNps exhibited 100% mortality in A. aegypti larvae at 48 hour observation. In addition, the plant mediated AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, particle size analyser, X-ray diffraction, high resonance transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis for confirmation of nanoparticle synthesis. Based on the findings of the study suggests that the use of A. muricata plant mediated AgNPs can act as an alternate insecticidal agents for controlling target mosquitoes.

  7. Spectral and HRTEM analyses of Annona muricata leaf extract mediated silver nanoparticles and its Larvicidal efficacy against three mosquito vectors Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Shanthi Bhupathi; Ragavendran, Chinnasamy; Natarajan, Devarajan

    2015-12-01

    Mosquitoes transmit various diseases which mainly affect the human beings and every year cause millions of deaths globally. Currently available chemical and synthetic mosquitocidal agents pose severe side effects, pollute the environment vigorously, and become resistance. There is an urgent need to identify and develop the cost effective, compatible and eco-friendly product for mosquito control. The present study was aimed to find out the larvicidal potential of aqueous crude extract and green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from Annona muricata leaves were tested against fourth instar larvae of three important mosquitoes i.e. Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti using different concentrations of AgNPs (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ppm) and the aqueous leaf extract (100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm) for 24 and 48 h. The maximum mortality was noticed in AgNPs than aqueous leaf extract of A. muricata against tested mosquitoes with least LC50 values of 37.70, 31.29, and 20.65 ppm (24h) and 546.7, 516.2, and 618.4 ppm (48 h), respectively. All tested concentrations of AgNps exhibited 100% mortality in A. aegypti larvae at 48 hour observation. In addition, the plant mediated AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, particle size analyser, X-ray diffraction, high resonance transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis for confirmation of nanoparticle synthesis. Based on the findings of the study suggests that the use of A. muricata plant mediated AgNPs can act as an alternate insecticidal agents for controlling target mosquitoes. PMID:26410042

  8. Analysis of molecular markers for metamorphic competency and their response to starvation or feeding in the mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Telang, A; Peterson, B; Frame, L; Baker, E; Brown, M R

    2010-12-01

    The nutritional condition of fourth instar larvae of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, governs female longevity and egg production, both are key determinants of pathogen transmission. As well, nutrition provisions larval growth and development and attains its greatest pace in the last larval instar in preparation for metamorphosis to an adult. These developmental processes are regulated by a complex endocrine interplay of juvenile hormone, neuropeptides, and ecdysteroids that is nutrition sensitive. We previously determined that feeding for only 24h post-ecdysis was sufficient for fourth instar Ae. aegypti larvae to reach critical weight and accumulate sufficient nutritional stores to commit to metamorphosis. To understand the genetic basis of metamorphic commitment in Ae. aegypti, we profiled the expression of 16 genes known to be involved in the endocrine and nutritional regulation of insect metamorphosis in two ways. The first set is a developmental profile from the beginning of the fourth instar to early pupae, and the second set is for fourth instars starved or fed for up to 36 h. By comparing the two sets, we found that seven of the genes (AaegCYP302, AaegJHE43357, AaegBrCZ4, AaegCPF1-2, AaegCPR-7, AaegPpl, and AaegSlif) were expressed during metamorphic commitment in fourth instars and in fed but not starved larvae. Based on these results, the seven genes alone or in combination may serve as molecular indicators of nutritional and metamorphic status of fourth instar Ae. aegypti larvae and possibly other mosquito species in field and laboratory studies to gauge sub-lethal effects of novel and traditional cultural or chemical controls.

  9. Identification of a polymorphic mucin-like gene expressed in the midgut of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti, using an integrated bulked segregant and differential display analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Morlais, I; Severson, D W

    2001-01-01

    The identification of putative differentially expressed genes within genome regions containing QTL determining susceptibility of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti, to the malarial parasite, Plasmodium gallinaceum, was investigated using an integrated, targeted approach based on bulked segregant and differential display analysis. A mosquito F2 population was obtained from pairwise matings between the parasite-susceptible RED strain and the resistant MOYO-R substrain. DNA from female carcasses was used to genotype individuals at RFLP markers of known chromosomal position around the major QTL (pgs 1). Midguts, dissected 48 hr after an infected blood meal, were used to prepare two RNA bulks, each representing one of the parental genotypes at the QTL interval. The RNA bulks were compared by differential display PCR. A mucin-like protein gene (AeIMUC1) was isolated and characterized. The gene maps within the pgs 1 QTL interval and is expressed in the adult female midgut. AeIMUC1 RNA abundance decreased with time after blood meal ingestion. No differential expression was observed between the two mosquito strains but three different alleles with inter- and intrastrain allelic polymorphisms including indels and SNPs were characterized. The AeIMUC1 gene chromosome location and allelic polymorphisms raise the possibility that the protein might be involved in parasite-mosquito interactions. PMID:11454761

  10. Intensive Linkage Mapping in a Wasp (Bracon Hebetor) and a Mosquito (Aedes Aegypti) with Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism Analysis of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers

    PubMed Central

    Antolin, M. F.; Bosio, C. F.; Cotton, J.; Sweeney, W.; Strand, M. R.; Black-IV, W. C.

    1996-01-01

    The use of random amplified polymorphic DNA from the polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) allows efficient construction of saturated linkage maps. However, when analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis, most RAPD-PCR markers segregate as dominant alleles, reducing the amount of linkage information obtained. We describe the use of single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of RAPD markers to generate linkage maps in a haplodiploid parasitic wasp Bracon (Habrobracon) hebetor and a diploid mosquito, Aedes aegypti. RAPD-SSCP analysis revealed segregation of codominant alleles at markers that appeared to segregate as dominant (band presence/band absence) markers or appeared invariant on agarose gels. Our SSCP protocol uses silver staining to detect DNA fractionated on large thin polyacrylamide gels and reveals more polymorphic markers than agarose gel electrophoresis. In B. hebetor, 79 markers were mapped with 12 RAPD primers in six weeks; in A. aegypti, 94 markers were mapped with 10 RAPD primers in five weeks. Forty-five percent of markers segregated as codominant loci in B. hebetor, while 11% segregated as codominant loci in A. aegypti. SSCP analysis of RAPD-PCR markers offers a rapid and inexpensive means of constructing intensive linkage maps of many species. PMID:8844159

  11. Synergistic action of octopamine receptor agonists on the activity of selected novel insecticides for control of dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mohamed Ahmed Ibrahim; Vogel, Christoph Franz Adam

    2015-05-01

    Studying insecticide resistance in mosquitoes has attracted the attention of many scientists to elucidate the pathways of resistance development and to design novel strategies in order to prevent or minimize the spread and evolution of resistance. Here, we tested the synergistic action of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and two octopamine receptor (OR) agonists, amitraz (AMZ) and chlordimeform (CDM) on selected novel insecticides to increase their lethal action on the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. However, chlorfenapyr was the most toxic insecticide (LC50 = 193, 102, and 48 ng/ml, after 24, 48, and 72 h exposure, respectively) tested. Further, PBO synergized all insecticides and the most toxic combinatorial insecticide was nitenpyram even after 48 and 72 h exposure. In addition, OR agonists significantly synergized most of the selected insecticides especially after 48 and 72 h exposure. The results imply that the synergistic effects of amitraz are a promising approach in increasing the potency of certain insecticides in controlling the dengue vector Ae. aegypti mosquito.

  12. Effect of Quorum Sensing by Staphylococcus epidermidis on the Attraction Response of Female Adult Yellow Fever Mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae), to a Blood-Feeding Source.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyang; Crippen, Tawni L; Coates, Craig J; Wood, Thomas K; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of yellow fever and dengue fever, is responsible for more than 30,000 deaths annually. Compounds such as carbon dioxide, amino acids, fatty acids and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been widely studied for their role in attracting Ae. aegypti to hosts. Many VOCs from humans are produced by associated skin microbiota. Staphyloccocus epidermidis, although not the most abundant bacteria according to surveys of relative 16S ribosomal RNA abundance, commonly occurs on human skin. Bacteria demonstrate population level decision-making through quorum sensing. Many quorum sensing molecules, such as indole, volatilize and become part of the host odor plum. To date, no one has directly demonstrated the link between quorum sensing (i.e., decision-making) by bacteria associated with a host as a factor regulating arthropod vector attraction. This study examined this specific question with regards to S. epidermidis and Ae. aegypti. Pairwise tests were conducted to examine the response of female Ae. aegypti to combinations of tryptic soy broth (TSB) and S. epidermidis wildtype and agr- strains. The agr gene expresses an accessory gene regulator for quorum sensing; therefore, removing this gene inhibits quorum sensing of the bacteria. Differential attractiveness of mosquitoes to the wildtype and agr- strains was observed. Both wildtype and the agr- strain of S. epidermidis with TSB were marginally more attractive to Ae. aegypti than the TSB alone. Most interestingly, the blood-feeder treated with wildtype S. epidermidis/TSB attracted 74% of Ae. aegypti compared to the agr- strain of S. epidermidis/TSB (P ≤ 0.0001). This study is the first to suggest a role for interkingdom communication between host symbiotic bacteria and mosquitoes. This may have implications for mosquito decision-making with regards to host detection, location and acceptance. We speculate that mosquitoes "eavesdrop" on the chemical discussions occurring between

  13. Effect of Quorum Sensing by Staphylococcus epidermidis on the Attraction Response of Female Adult Yellow Fever Mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae), to a Blood-Feeding Source

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinyang; Crippen, Tawni L.; Coates, Craig J.; Wood, Thomas K.; Tomberlin, Jeffery K.

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of yellow fever and dengue fever, is responsible for more than 30,000 deaths annually. Compounds such as carbon dioxide, amino acids, fatty acids and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been widely studied for their role in attracting Ae. aegypti to hosts. Many VOCs from humans are produced by associated skin microbiota. Staphyloccocus epidermidis, although not the most abundant bacteria according to surveys of relative 16S ribosomal RNA abundance, commonly occurs on human skin. Bacteria demonstrate population level decision-making through quorum sensing. Many quorum sensing molecules, such as indole, volatilize and become part of the host odor plum. To date, no one has directly demonstrated the link between quorum sensing (i.e., decision-making) by bacteria associated with a host as a factor regulating arthropod vector attraction. This study examined this specific question with regards to S. epidermidis and Ae. aegypti. Pairwise tests were conducted to examine the response of female Ae. aegypti to combinations of tryptic soy broth (TSB) and S. epidermidis wildtype and agr- strains. The agr gene expresses an accessory gene regulator for quorum sensing; therefore, removing this gene inhibits quorum sensing of the bacteria. Differential attractiveness of mosquitoes to the wildtype and agr- strains was observed. Both wildtype and the agr- strain of S. epidermidis with TSB were marginally more attractive to Ae. aegypti than the TSB alone. Most interestingly, the blood-feeder treated with wildtype S. epidermidis/TSB attracted 74% of Ae. aegypti compared to the agr- strain of S. epidermidis/TSB (P ≤ 0.0001). This study is the first to suggest a role for interkingdom communication between host symbiotic bacteria and mosquitoes. This may have implications for mosquito decision-making with regards to host detection, location and acceptance. We speculate that mosquitoes “eavesdrop” on the chemical discussions occurring

  14. Stage-Structured Population Dynamics of AEDES AEGYPTI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusoff, Nuraini; Budin, Harun; Ismail, Salemah

    Aedes aegypti is the main vector in the transmission of dengue fever, a vector-borne disease affecting world population living in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Better understanding of the dynamics of its population growth will help in the efforts of controlling the spread of this disease. In looking at the population dynamics of Aedes aegypti, this paper explored the stage-structured modeling of the population growth of the mosquito using the matrix population model. The life cycle of the mosquito was divided into five stages: eggs, larvae, pupae, adult1 and adult2. Developmental rates were obtained for the average Malaysian temperature and these were used in constructing the transition matrix for the matrix model. The model, which was based only on temperature, projected that the population of Aedes aegypti will blow up with time, which is not realistic. For further work, other factors need to be taken into account to obtain a more realistic result.

  15. Synthesis, depletion and cell-type expression of a protein from the male accessory glands of the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Alfonso-Parra, Catalina; Avila, Frank W; Deewatthanawong, Prasit; Sirot, Laura K; Wolfner, Mariana F; Harrington, Laura C

    2014-11-01

    Aedes aegypti males transfer sperm and seminal fluid proteins (Sfps), primarily produced by male accessory glands (AGs), to females during mating. When collectively injected or transplanted into females, AG tissues and/or seminal fluid homogenates have profound effects on Aedes female physiology and behavior. To identify targets and design new strategies for vector control, it is important to understand the biology of the AGs. Thus, we examined characteristics of AG secretion and development in A. aegypti, using the AG-specific seminal fluid protein, AAEL010824, as a marker. We showed that AAEL010824 is first detectable by 12h post-eclosion, and increases in amount over the first 3 days of adult life. We then showed that the amount of AAEL0010824 in the AG decreases after mating, with each successive mating depleting it further; by 5 successive matings with no time for recovery, its levels are very low. AAEL010824 levels in a depleted male are replenished by 48 h post-mating. In addition to examining the level of AAEL010824 protein, we also characterized the expression of its gene. We did this by making a transgenic mosquito line that carries an Enhanced Green Fluorescence Protein (EGFP) fused to the AAEL0010824 promoter that we defined here. We showed that AAEL010824 is expressed in the anterior cells of the accessory glands, and that its RNA levels also respond to mating. In addition to further characterizing AAEL010824 expression, our results with the EGFP fusion provide a promoter for driving AG expression. By providing this information on the biology of an important male reproductive tissue and the production of one of its seminal proteins, our results lay the foundation for future work aimed at identifying novel targets for mosquito population control.

  16. On the analysis of parasite effect for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallista, Meta; Aldila, Dipo; Nuraini, Nuning; Soewono, Edy

    2014-03-01

    It has been reported in some countries that the population of Aedes aegypti has been significantly reduced by the invasion of Aedes albopictus. There has been a hypothesis explaining this phenomenon of which investigated the influence of parasites pathogenesis to the competition between these two mosquito species in the fields. Ascogregarina taiwanensis and Ascogregarina culicis are known as parasites that infect Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti, respectively. Several studies have concluded that Ascogregarina taiwanensis caused high fatality for Aedes aegypti larvae, but Ascogregarina culicis was not pathogenic to Aedes albopictus larvae. Therefore, Ascogregarina taiwanensis may contribute to reduce the number of populations Aedes aegypti in the fields. Inspired by these facts, a mathematical model depicting interaction between parasites and mosquitoes is constructed in this paper. In this model are included six dynamic mosquito compartments, i.e. egg, larvae, infected larvae, adult, infected adult and one dynamic compartment for parasite. Derivation of the existence criteria and the stability analysis of parasite-free equilibrium as well as the basic offspring for the model are presented. Numerical simulations for sensitivity analysis indicating the invasive species for variation parameters are shown.

  17. Aedes cadherin mediates the in vivo toxicity of the Cry11Aa toxin to Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Bum; Chen, Jianwu; Aimanova, Karlygash G; Gill, Sarjeet S

    2015-06-01

    Cadherin plays an important role in the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry proteins. We previously cloned a full-length cadherin from Aedes aegypti larvae and reported this protein binds Cry11Aa toxin from B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis with high affinity, ≈16.7nM. Based on these results, we investigated if Aedes cadherin is involved in the in vivo toxicity of Cry11Aa toxin to Ae. aegypti. We established a mosquito cell line stably expressing the full-length Aedes cadherin and transgenic mosquitoes with silenced Aedes cadherin expression. Cells expressing the Aedes cadherin showed increased sensitivity to Cry11Aa toxin. Cry11Aa toxin at 400nM killed approximately 37% of the cells in 3h. Otherwise, transgenic mosquitoes with silenced Aedes cadherin expression showed increased tolerance to Cry11Aa toxin. Furthermore, cells expressing Aedes cadherin triggered Cry11Aa oligomerization. These results show the Aedes cadherin plays a pivotal role in Cry11Aa toxicity to Ae. aegypti larvae by mediating Cry11Aa oligomerization. However, since high toxicity was not obtained in cadherin-expressing cells, an additional receptor may be needed for manifestation of full toxicity. Moreover, cells expressing Aedes cadherin were sensitive to Cry4Aa and Cry11Ba, but not Cry4Ba. However transgenic mosquitoes with silenced Aedes cadherin expression showed no tolerance to Cry4Aa, Cry4Ba, and Cry11Ba toxins. These results suggest that while Aedes cadherin may mediate Cry4Aa and Cry11Ba toxicity, this cadherin but is not the main receptor of Cry4Aa, Cry4Ba and Cry11Ba toxin in Ae. aegypti.

  18. Structure of an Odorant-Vinding Protein form the Mosquito Aedes aegypti Suggests a Binding Pocket Covered by a pH-Sensitive

    SciTech Connect

    N Leite; R Krogh; W Xu; Y Ishida; J Iulek; W Leal; G Oliva

    2011-12-31

    The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is the primary vector for the viruses that cause yellow fever, mostly in tropical regions of Africa and in parts of South America, and human dengue, which infects 100 million people yearly in the tropics and subtropics. A better understanding of the structural biology of olfactory proteins may pave the way for the development of environmentally-friendly mosquito attractants and repellents, which may ultimately contribute to reduction of mosquito biting and disease transmission. Previously, we isolated and cloned a major, female-enriched odorant-binding protein (OBP) from the yellow fever mosquito, AaegOBP1, which was later inadvertently renamed AaegOBP39. We prepared recombinant samples of AaegOBP1 by using an expression system that allows proper formation of disulfide bridges and generates functional OBPs, which are indistinguishable from native OBPs. We crystallized AaegOBP1 and determined its three-dimensional structure at 1.85 {angstrom} resolution by molecular replacement based on the structure of the malaria mosquito OBP, AgamOBP1, the only mosquito OBP structure known to date. The structure of AaegOBP1 (= AaegOBP39) shares the common fold of insect OBPs with six {alpha}-helices knitted by three disulfide bonds. A long molecule of polyethylene glycol (PEG) was built into the electron-density maps identified in a long tunnel formed by a crystallographic dimer of AaegOBP1. Circular dichroism analysis indicated that delipidated AaegOBP1 undergoes a pH-dependent conformational change, which may lead to release of odorant at low pH (as in the environment in the vicinity of odorant receptors). A C-terminal loop covers the binding cavity and this 'lid' may be opened by disruption of an array of acid-labile hydrogen bonds thus explaining reduced or no binding affinity at low pH.

  19. Identifying genomic changes associated with insecticide resistance in the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti by deep targeted sequencing.

    PubMed

    Faucon, Frederic; Dusfour, Isabelle; Gaude, Thierry; Navratil, Vincent; Boyer, Frederic; Chandre, Fabrice; Sirisopa, Patcharawan; Thanispong, Kanutcharee; Juntarajumnong, Waraporn; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Girod, Romain; Corbel, Vincent; Reynaud, Stephane; David, Jean-Philippe

    2015-09-01

    The capacity of mosquitoes to resist insecticides threatens the control of diseases such as dengue and malaria. Until alternative control tools are implemented, characterizing resistance mechanisms is crucial for managing resistance in natural populations. Insecticide biodegradation by detoxification enzymes is a common resistance mechanism; however, the genomic changes underlying this mechanism have rarely been identified, precluding individual resistance genotyping. In particular, the role of copy number variations (CNVs) and polymorphisms of detoxification enzymes have never been investigated at the genome level, although they can represent robust markers of metabolic resistance. In this context, we combined target enrichment with high-throughput sequencing for conducting the first comprehensive screening of gene amplifications and polymorphisms associated with insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. More than 760 candidate genes were captured and deep sequenced in several populations of the dengue mosquito Ae. aegypti displaying distinct genetic backgrounds and contrasted resistance levels to the insecticide deltamethrin. CNV analysis identified 41 gene amplifications associated with resistance, most affecting cytochrome P450s overtranscribed in resistant populations. Polymorphism analysis detected more than 30,000 variants and strong selection footprints in specific genomic regions. Combining Bayesian and allele frequency filtering approaches identified 55 nonsynonymous variants strongly associated with resistance. Both CNVs and polymorphisms were conserved within regions but differed across continents, confirming that genomic changes underlying metabolic resistance to insecticides are not universal. By identifying novel DNA markers of insecticide resistance, this study opens the way for tracking down metabolic changes developed by mosquitoes to resist insecticides within and among populations.

  20. Identifying genomic changes associated with insecticide resistance in the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti by deep targeted sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Faucon, Frederic; Dusfour, Isabelle; Gaude, Thierry; Navratil, Vincent; Boyer, Frederic; Chandre, Fabrice; Sirisopa, Patcharawan; Thanispong, Kanutcharee; Juntarajumnong, Waraporn; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Girod, Romain; Corbel, Vincent; Reynaud, Stephane; David, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The capacity of mosquitoes to resist insecticides threatens the control of diseases such as dengue and malaria. Until alternative control tools are implemented, characterizing resistance mechanisms is crucial for managing resistance in natural populations. Insecticide biodegradation by detoxification enzymes is a common resistance mechanism; however, the genomic changes underlying this mechanism have rarely been identified, precluding individual resistance genotyping. In particular, the role of copy number variations (CNVs) and polymorphisms of detoxification enzymes have never been investigated at the genome level, although they can represent robust markers of metabolic resistance. In this context, we combined target enrichment with high-throughput sequencing for conducting the first comprehensive screening of gene amplifications and polymorphisms associated with insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. More than 760 candidate genes were captured and deep sequenced in several populations of the dengue mosquito Ae. aegypti displaying distinct genetic backgrounds and contrasted resistance levels to the insecticide deltamethrin. CNV analysis identified 41 gene amplifications associated with resistance, most affecting cytochrome P450s overtranscribed in resistant populations. Polymorphism analysis detected more than 30,000 variants and strong selection footprints in specific genomic regions. Combining Bayesian and allele frequency filtering approaches identified 55 nonsynonymous variants strongly associated with resistance. Both CNVs and polymorphisms were conserved within regions but differed across continents, confirming that genomic changes underlying metabolic resistance to insecticides are not universal. By identifying novel DNA markers of insecticide resistance, this study opens the way for tracking down metabolic changes developed by mosquitoes to resist insecticides within and among populations. PMID:26206155

  1. The genetic architecture of a complex trait: Resistance to multiple toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis in the dengue and yellow fever vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Aurélie; Paris, Margot; Frérot, Hélène; Bianco, Erica; Tetreau, Guillaume; Després, Laurence

    2015-10-01

    The bacterial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is an increasingly popular alternative to chemical insecticides for controlling mosquito populations. Because Bti toxicity relies on the action of four main toxins, resistance to Bti is very likely a complex phenotype involving several genes simultaneously. Dissecting the underlying genetic basis thus requires associating a quantitative measure of resistance to genetic variation at many loci in a segregating population. Here, we undertake this task using the dengue and yellow fever vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti, as a study model. We conducted QTL (Quantitative Trait Locus) and admixture mapping analyses on two controlled crosses and on an artificial admixed population, respectively, all obtained from resistant and susceptible lab strains. We detected 16 QTL regions, among which four QTLs were revealed by different analysis methods. These four robust QTLs explained altogether 29.2% and 62.2% of the total phenotypic variance in the two QTL crosses, respectively. They also all showed a dominant mode of action. In addition, we found six loci showing statistical association with Bti resistance in the admixed population. Five of the supercontigs highlighted in this study contained candidate genes as suggested by their function, or by prior evidence from expression and/or outlier analyses. These genomic regions are thus good starting points for fine mapping of resistance to Bti or functional analyses aiming at identifying the underlying genes and mutations. Moreover, for the purpose of this work, we built the first Ae. aegypti genetic map based on markers associated with genes expressed in larvae. This genetic map harbors 229 SNP markers mapped across the three chromosomes for a total length of 311.9cM. It brought to light several assembly discrepancies with the reference genome, suggesting a high level of genome plasticity in Ae. aegypti.

  2. Cytochromr b expression and RNAi knockdown in Aedes aegypti.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cytochrome b, coded by mitochondrial DNA, is one of the cytochromes involved in the electron transport in the respiratory chain of mitochondria. Cytochrome b is a critical intermediate in mitoptosis, i.e. a mitochondrial death pathway. To reveal whether cytochrome b of the mosquito Aedes aegypti (Ae...

  3. Physical features and chitin content of eggs from the mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti, Anopheles aquasalis and Culex quinquefasciatus: Connection with distinct levels of resistance to desiccation.

    PubMed

    Farnesi, Luana Cristina; Menna-Barreto, Rubem Figueiredo Sadok; Martins, Ademir Jesus; Valle, Denise; Rezende, Gustavo Lazzaro

    2015-12-01

    Mosquito eggs are laid in water but freshly laid eggs are susceptible to dehydration, if their surroundings dry out at the first hours of development. During embryogenesis of different mosquito vectors the serosal cuticle, an extracellular matrix, is produced; it wraps the whole embryo and becomes part of the eggshell. This cuticle is an essential component of the egg resistance to desiccation (ERD). However, ERD is variable among species, sustaining egg viability for different periods of time. While Aedes aegypti eggs can survive for months in a dry environment (high ERD), those of Anopheles aquasalis and Culex quinquefasciatus in the same condition last, respectively, for one day (medium ERD) or a few hours (low ERD). Resistance to desiccation is determined by the rate of water loss, dehydration tolerance and total amount of water of a given organism. The ERD variability observed among mosquitoes probably derives from diverse traits. We quantified several attributes of whole eggs, potentially correlated with the rate of water loss: length, width, area, volume, area/volume ratio and weight. In addition, some eggshell aspects were also evaluated, such as absolute and relative weight, weight/area relationship (herein called surface density) and chitin content. Presence of chitin specifically in the serosal cuticle as well as aspects of endochorion external surface were also investigated. Three features could be related to differences on ERD levels: chitin content, directly related to ERD, the increase in the egg volume during embryogenesis and the eggshell surface density, which were both inversely related to ERD. Although data suggest that the amount of chitin in the eggshell is relevant for egg impermeability, the participation of other yet unidentified eggshell attributes must be considered in order to account for the differences in the ERD levels observed among Ae. aegypti, An. aquasalis and Cx. quinquefasciatus. PMID:26514070

  4. Temephos resistance and esterase activity in the mosquito Aedes aegypti in Havana, Cuba increased dramatically between 2006 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Bisset, J A; Rodríguez, M M; Ricardo, Y; Ranson, H; Pérez, O; Moya, M; Vázquez, A

    2011-09-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) control programmes in Cuba rely on the application of the organophosphate temephos for larval control. Hence, the monitoring of resistance to this insecticide is an essential component of such programmes. Here, 15 field populations from different municipalities of Havana City were assayed for resistance to temephos. High levels of resistance were detected in all strains and resistance ratios were highly correlated with esterase activity (P = 0.00001). Populations from three municipalities were tested in both 2006 and 2008; resistance and esterase activities both significantly increased during this 2-year period. Synergist studies demonstrated that neither glutathione transferases nor monooxygenases were associated with the increase in resistance to temephos in this period. The duration of the efficacy of commercial formulations of temephos in controlling Ae. aegypti populations in Havana City was reduced by the high level of temephos resistance observed; hence these data are of clear operational significance for the dengue control programme in Cuba. New integrated strategies to avoid further increases in temephos resistance in Cuba are necessary.

  5. Behavioral responses of catnip (Nepeta cataria l.)by two species of mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (l.) and Anopheles harrisoni harbach and manguin, in Thailand.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An investigation of the biological effect of catnip oil (Nepeta cataria L.) on the behavioral response of field collected Ae. aegypti and An. harrisoni were conducted using an automated excito-repellency test system. Aedes aegypti showed significant higher escape rates from the contact chamber at 5%...

  6. Comparative repellency of commercial formulations of deet, permethrin and citronellal against the mosquito Aedes aegypti, using a collagen membrane technique compared with human arm tests.

    PubMed

    Cockcroft, A; Cosgrove, J B; Wood, R J

    1998-07-01

    A collagen membrane technique, based on the membrane blood-feeding system of Cosgrove et al. (1994), was used to compare repellents against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Repellency was defined in terms of inhibition of probing (ED50 and ED90) after 5 min exposure. A direct comparison was made with repellency from probing after 5 min on five male volunteers. Four repellent products were compared with technical DEET as the standard. The liquid formulations tested were: Autan (20% deet; Bayer); Repel Plus (20% deet plus 0.05% permethrin; Boots); permethrin (Zeneca) and citronellal (Sigma). Membrane and arm tests gave similar results. Deet formulations required less active compound than citronellal for the same degree of repellency. Pure deet and Autan gave similar results, dose for dose. Permethrin was highly repellent at very low doses, but Repel Plus did not enhance the immediate repellency of deet. A technique using the same membrane system was developed to evaluate persistence of Autan, which declined to 75% after 1 h against Ae. aegypti, and to about 50% after 2-4 h.

  7. Importance of ecology in Aedes aegypti control.

    PubMed

    Service, M W

    1992-12-01

    Aedes aegypti is one of the world's most widely distributed mosquitos and is of considerable medical importance as a vector of dengue and yellow fever. Not surprisingly therefore there has been more written on its biology than any other mosquito. The present paper summarizes ecological studies undertaken on this vector, including those on pre-adult mortalities, life-tables, adult dispersal and survival rates. In discussing surveillance techniques it is pointed out there are still no reliable methods for monitoring adult populations. The importance of the resting habits of adults and house construction in insecticidal control of Ae. aegypti is discussed. The question is, have ecological studies and population modeling resulted in any more understanding of the epidemiology of dengue, or helped formulate better control strategies? The answer seems to be not usually, possible because there have actually been relatively few good ecological studies on Ae. aegypti. Although mathematical modeling indicates that better control might be achieved if it were directed at the larvae, not adults, this has not usually been taken into consideration by those engaged in control. There is clearly need for greater collaboration between those practicing control, and ecologists and modelers.

  8. Intraspecific Competition and Population Dynamics of Aedes aegypti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paixão, C. A.; Charret, I. C.; Lima, R. R.

    2012-04-01

    We report computational simulations for the evolution of the population of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The results suggest that controlling the mosquito population, on the basis of intraspecific competition at the larval stage, can be an efficient mechanism for controlling the spread of the epidemic. The results also show the presence of a kind of genetic evolution in vector population, which results mainly in increasing the average lifespan of individuals in adulthood.

  9. Burchellin: study of bioactivity against Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 is a widespread insect pest of serious medical importance. Since no effective vaccine is available for treating dengue, the eradication or control of the main mosquito vector is regarded as essential. Since conventional insecticides have limited success, plants may be an alternative source of larvicidal agents, since they contain a rich source of bioactive chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of the neolignan burchellin isolated from Ocotea cymbarum (Lauraceae), a plant from the Amazon region, against third instar larvae of A. aegypti. Methods Burchellin obtained from O. cymbarum was analyzed. The inhibitory activity against A. aegypti eggs and larvae and histological changes in the digestive system of treated L3 larvae were evaluated. In addition, nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide levels were determined, and cytotoxicity bioassays performed. Results The data showed that burchellin interfered with the development cycle of the mosquito, where its strongest toxic effect was 100% mortality in larvae (L3) at concentrations ≥ 30 ppm. This compound did not show target cell toxicity in peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice, and proved to have molecular stability when dissolved in water. The L3 and L4 larvae treated with the compound showed cellular destruction and disorganization, cell spacing, and vacuolization of epithelial cells in small regions of the midgut. Conclusion The neolignan burchellin proved to be a strong candidate for a natural, safe and stable phytolarvicidal to be used in population control of A. aegypti. PMID:24713267

  10. Gravid females of the mosquito Aedes aegypti avoid oviposition on m-cresol in the presence of the deterrent isomer p-cresol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background p-cresol (4-methylphenol) and its isomer m-cresol (3-methylphenol) have been shown to activate the same sensilla in Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) mosquitoes. Whereas p-cresol has been suggested to play a role in oviposition site choice, the behavioral significance of m-cresol is unknown. Methods Here, we assayed the oviposition behavior of Aedes aegypti towards p-cresol and m-cresol using cage assay. Specifically we tested different concentrations of p-cresol (10-12-103 ppm) and m-cresol (10-1-103 ppm), the 1:1 mixture of the two compounds at 102 ppm, and the two individual compounds at 102 ppm together in the same cage. Results We show that (1) p-cresol is a stimulant at a low concentration and deterrent over a broad range of higher concentrations (10-8-103 ppm), while m-cresol was behaviorally ineffective, except for a deterrent effect at the highest concentration (103 ppm) (2) in concentration choice tests (different concentrations tested against each other), both compounds were deterrent only at the highest concentration (3) a 1:1 mixture of both compounds exhibited a deterrent effect on oviposition (4) when presented in separate cups but together in the same cage, p-cresol and m-cresol (102 ppm) both received significantly less eggs than water alone. Conclusions Our results suggest that p-cresol is a strong oviposition deterrent with a stimulant effect at only a very low concentration, while m-cresol is not a deterrent per se. However, in the presence of p-cresol in the vicinity, m-cresol acts as a deterrent. This finding adds a new twist to the possible interactions of different odors in oviposition site choice: not only the source itself, but nearby odors also influence a mosquito’s choice. PMID:25008201

  11. History of Aedes mosquitoes in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Winchester, Jonathan C; Kapan, Durrell D

    2013-06-01

    As a geographically isolated island chain with no native mosquitoes, Hawaii is a model for examining the mechanisms behind insect vector invasions and their subsequent interactions with each other and with human populations. The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, and the Asian tiger mosquito, Ae. albopictus, have been responsible for epidemics of dengue in Hawaii. As one of the world's earliest locations to be invaded by both species, Hawaii's history is particularly relevant because both species are currently invading new areas worldwide and are implicated in outbreaks of emergent or reemergent pathogens such as dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. Here we analyze the historical records of mosquito introductions in order to understand the factors that have led to the current distribution of these 2 mosquitoes in the Hawaiian Islands.

  12. Performance of the plant-based repellent TT-4302 against mosquitoes in the laboratory and field and comparative efficacy to 16 mosquito repellents against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Bissinger, B W; Schmidt, J P; Owens, J J; Mitchell, S M; Kennedy, M K

    2014-03-01

    Repellent efficacy of the plant-based repellent, TT-4302 (5% geraniol), was compared with 16 other products in laboratory arm-in-cage trials against Aedes aegypti (L). Eight repellents (Badger, BioUD, Burt's bees, California Baby, Cutter Natural, EcoSMART, Herbal Armor, and SkinSmart) exhibited a mean repellency below 90% to Ae. aegypti at 0.5 h after application. Three repellents (Buzz Away Extreme, Cutter Advanced, and OFF! Botanicals lotion) fell below 90% repellency 1.5 h after application. TT-4302 exhibited 94.7% repellency 5 h posttreatment, which was a longer duration than any of the other repellents tested. The positive control, 15% DEET (OFF! Active), was repellent for 3 h before activity dropped below 90%. Additional arm-in-cage trials comparing TT-4302 with 15% DEET were carried out against Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. At 6 h after treatment, TT-4302 provided 95.2% repellency while DEET exhibited 72.2%. In North Carolina field trials, TT-4302 provided 100% repellency 5 h after application against Aedes albopictus Skuse while DEET provided 77.6% repellency. These results demonstrate that TT-4302 is an efficacious plant-based repellent that provides an extended duration of protection compared with many other commercially available products.

  13. Performance of the plant-based repellent TT-4302 against mosquitoes in the laboratory and field and comparative efficacy to 16 mosquito repellents against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Bissinger, B W; Schmidt, J P; Owens, J J; Mitchell, S M; Kennedy, M K

    2014-03-01

    Repellent efficacy of the plant-based repellent, TT-4302 (5% geraniol), was compared with 16 other products in laboratory arm-in-cage trials against Aedes aegypti (L). Eight repellents (Badger, BioUD, Burt's bees, California Baby, Cutter Natural, EcoSMART, Herbal Armor, and SkinSmart) exhibited a mean repellency below 90% to Ae. aegypti at 0.5 h after application. Three repellents (Buzz Away Extreme, Cutter Advanced, and OFF! Botanicals lotion) fell below 90% repellency 1.5 h after application. TT-4302 exhibited 94.7% repellency 5 h posttreatment, which was a longer duration than any of the other repellents tested. The positive control, 15% DEET (OFF! Active), was repellent for 3 h before activity dropped below 90%. Additional arm-in-cage trials comparing TT-4302 with 15% DEET were carried out against Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. At 6 h after treatment, TT-4302 provided 95.2% repellency while DEET exhibited 72.2%. In North Carolina field trials, TT-4302 provided 100% repellency 5 h after application against Aedes albopictus Skuse while DEET provided 77.6% repellency. These results demonstrate that TT-4302 is an efficacious plant-based repellent that provides an extended duration of protection compared with many other commercially available products. PMID:24724289

  14. Creams Formulated with Ocimum gratissimum L. and Lantana camara L. Crude Extracts and Fractions as Mosquito Repellents Against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Keziah, Ezeike Amarachi; Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan; Danga, Simon Pierre Yinyang; Younoussa, Lame; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are the most deadly vectors of parasites that cause diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, and filariasis. In view of the recent increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticides, the objective of this study was to determine the repellent activity of creams formulated with methanol crude extract (MCE), hexane fraction (HF), and ethyl acetate fractions (EAFs) of Ocimum gratissimum and Lantana camara leaves in single and combined actions against female Aedes aegypti. Evaluation was carried out in the net cages (30 by 30 by 30 cm) containing 60 blood-starved female mosquitoes each and were assayed in the laboratory condition following World Health Organization 2009 protocol. All formulations (single and mixture) were applied at 2, 4, 6, and 8 mg/cm2 in the exposed area of human hands. Only acetone + white soft paraffin served as negative control and odomos (12% DEET) as positive control. All the formulations presented good protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction by the human volunteers. The repellent activity was dependent on the strength of the extracts and fractions. Among the tested formulations, the maximum protection time was observed in MCE (120 min) and EAF (150 min) of O. gratissimum; MCE:MCE (150 min) and HF:HF (120 min) mixtures of both plants. In addition, MCE:MCE and HF:HF mixtures from both plants showed possible synergistic effect. From the results, the combination of O. gratissimum and L. camara to formulate natural mosquito repellent using small amount of extracts can be encouraging to be an alternative to conventional DEET. PMID:25881633

  15. Creams formulated with Ocimum gratissimum L. and Lantana camara L. crude extracts and fractions as mosquito repellents against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Keziah, Ezeike Amarachi; Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan; Danga, Simon Pierre Yinyang; Younoussa, Lame; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are the most deadly vectors of parasites that cause diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, and filariasis. In view of the recent increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticides, the objective of this study was to determine the repellent activity of creams formulated with methanol crude extract (MCE), hexane fraction (HF), and ethyl acetate fractions (EAFs) of Ocimum gratissimum and Lantana camara leaves in single and combined actions against female Aedes aegypti. Evaluation was carried out in the net cages (30 by 30 by 30 cm) containing 60 blood-starved female mosquitoes each and were assayed in the laboratory condition following World Health Organization 2009 protocol. All formulations (single and mixture) were applied at 2, 4, 6, and 8 mg/cm(2) in the exposed area of human hands. Only acetone + white soft paraffin served as negative control and odomos (12% DEET) as positive control. All the formulations presented good protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction by the human volunteers. The repellent activity was dependent on the strength of the extracts and fractions. Among the tested formulations, the maximum protection time was observed in MCE (120 min) and EAF (150 min) of O. gratissimum; MCE:MCE (150 min) and HF:HF (120 min) mixtures of both plants. In addition, MCE:MCE and HF:HF mixtures from both plants showed possible synergistic effect. From the results, the combination of O. gratissimum and L. camara to formulate natural mosquito repellent using small amount of extracts can be encouraging to be an alternative to conventional DEET.

  16. Molecular Analysis of Aedes aegypti Classical Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases Uncovers an Ortholog of Mammalian PTP-1B Implicated in the Control of Egg Production in Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Debora Monteiro; Ahuja, Lalima Gagan; Nunes, Rodrigo Dutra; Cudischevitch, Cecília Oliveira; Daumas-Filho, Carlos Renato Oliveira; Medeiros-Castro, Priscilla; Ventura-Martins, Guilherme; Jablonka, Willy; Gazos-Lopes, Felipe; Senna, Raquel; Sorgine, Marcos Henrique Ferreira; Hartfelder, Klaus; Capurro, Margareth; Atella, Georgia Correa; Mesquita, Rafael Dias; Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso

    2014-01-01

    Background Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases (PTPs) are enzymes that catalyze phosphotyrosine dephosphorylation and modulate cell differentiation, growth and metabolism. In mammals, PTPs play a key role in the modulation of canonical pathways involved in metabolism and immunity. PTP1B is the prototype member of classical PTPs and a major target for treating human diseases, such as cancer, obesity and diabetes. These signaling enzymes are, hence, targets of a wide array of inhibitors. Anautogenous mosquitoes rely on blood meals to lay eggs and are vectors of the most prevalent human diseases. Identifying the mosquito ortholog of PTP1B and determining its involvement in egg production is, therefore, important in the search for a novel and crucial target for vector control. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted an analysis to identify the ortholog of mammalian PTP1B in the Aedes aegypti genome. We identified eight genes coding for classical PTPs. In silico structural and functional analyses of proteins coded by such genes revealed that four of these code for catalytically active enzymes. Among the four genes coding for active PTPs, AAEL001919 exhibits the greatest degree of homology with the mammalian PTP1B. Next, we evaluated the role of this enzyme in egg formation. Blood feeding largely affects AAEL001919 expression, especially in the fat body and ovaries. These tissues are critically involved in the synthesis and storage of vitellogenin, the major yolk protein. Including the classical PTP inhibitor sodium orthovanadate or the PTP substrate DiFMUP in the blood meal decreased vitellogenin synthesis and egg production. Similarly, silencing AAEL001919 using RNA interference (RNAi) assays resulted in 30% suppression of egg production. Conclusions/Significance The data reported herein implicate, for the first time, a gene that codes for a classical PTP in mosquito egg formation. These findings raise the possibility that this class of enzymes may be used as novel

  17. Creams formulated with Ocimum gratissimum L. and Lantana camara L. crude extracts and fractions as mosquito repellents against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Keziah, Ezeike Amarachi; Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan; Danga, Simon Pierre Yinyang; Younoussa, Lame; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are the most deadly vectors of parasites that cause diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, and filariasis. In view of the recent increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticides, the objective of this study was to determine the repellent activity of creams formulated with methanol crude extract (MCE), hexane fraction (HF), and ethyl acetate fractions (EAFs) of Ocimum gratissimum and Lantana camara leaves in single and combined actions against female Aedes aegypti. Evaluation was carried out in the net cages (30 by 30 by 30 cm) containing 60 blood-starved female mosquitoes each and were assayed in the laboratory condition following World Health Organization 2009 protocol. All formulations (single and mixture) were applied at 2, 4, 6, and 8 mg/cm(2) in the exposed area of human hands. Only acetone + white soft paraffin served as negative control and odomos (12% DEET) as positive control. All the formulations presented good protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction by the human volunteers. The repellent activity was dependent on the strength of the extracts and fractions. Among the tested formulations, the maximum protection time was observed in MCE (120 min) and EAF (150 min) of O. gratissimum; MCE:MCE (150 min) and HF:HF (120 min) mixtures of both plants. In addition, MCE:MCE and HF:HF mixtures from both plants showed possible synergistic effect. From the results, the combination of O. gratissimum and L. camara to formulate natural mosquito repellent using small amount of extracts can be encouraging to be an alternative to conventional DEET. PMID:25881633

  18. Evaluation of 15 Local Plant Species as Larvicidal Agents Against an Indian Strain of Dengue Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sarita; Wahab, Naim; Mishra, Monika; Warikoo, Radhika

    2012-01-01

    The adverse effects of chemical insecticides-based intervention measures for the control of mosquito vectors have received wide public apprehension because of several problems like insecticide resistance, resurgence of pest species, environmental pollution, toxic hazards to humans, and non-target organisms. These problems have necessitated the need to explore and develop alternative strategies using eco-friendly, environmentally safe, bio-degradable plant products which are non-toxic to non-target organisms too. In view of this, 15 plant species were collected from local areas in New Delhi, India. Different parts of these plants were separated, dried, mechanically grinded, and sieved to get fine powder. The 200 g of each part was soaked in 1000 mL of different solvents separately and the crude extracts, thus formed, were concentrated using a vacuum evaporator at 45°C under low pressure. Each extract was screened to explore its potential as a mosquito larvicidal agent against early fourth instars of dengue vector, Aedes aegypti using WHO protocol. The preliminary screening showed that only 10 plants possessed larvicidal potential as they could result in 100% mortality at 1000 ppm. Further evaluation of the potential larvicidal extracts established the hexane leaf extract of Lantana camara to be most effective extract exhibiting a significant LC50 value of 30.71 ppm while the Phyllanthus emblica fruit extract was found to be least effective with an LC50 value of 298.93 ppm. The extracts made from different parts of other five plants; Achyranthes aspera, Zingiber officinalis, Ricinus communis, Trachyspermum ammi, and Cassia occidentalis also possessed significant larvicidal potential with LC50 values ranging from 55.0 to 74.67 ppm. Other three extracts showed moderate toxicity against A. aegypti larvae. Further investigations would be needed to isolate and identify the primary component responsible for the larvicidal efficiency of the effective plants

  19. The dengue vector Aedes aegypti: what comes next.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Cassie C; Beebe, Nigel W

    2010-04-01

    Aedes aegypti is the urban vector of dengue viruses worldwide. While climate influences the geographical distribution of this mosquito species, other factors also determine the suitability of the physical environment. Importantly, the close association of A. aegypti with humans and the domestic environment allows this species to persist in regions that may otherwise be unsuitable based on climatic factors alone. We highlight the need to incorporate the impact of the urban environment in attempts to model the potential distribution of A. aegypti and we briefly discuss the potential for future technology to aid management and control of this widespread vector species.

  20. Effect of temperature on the population dynamics of Aedes aegypti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusoff, Nuraini; Tokachil, Mohd Najir

    2015-10-01

    Aedes aegypti is one of the main vectors in the transmission of dengue fever. Its abundance may cause the spread of the disease to be more intense. In the study of its biological life cycle, temperature was found to increase the development rate of each stage of this species and thus, accelerate the process of the development from egg to adult. In this paper, a Lefkovitch matrix model will be used to study the stage-structured population dynamics of Aedes aegypti. In constructing the transition matrix, temperature will be taken into account. As a case study, temperature recorded at the Subang Meteorological Station for year 2006 until 2010 will be used. Population dynamics of Aedes aegypti at maximum, average and minimum temperature for each year will be simulated and compared. It is expected that the higher the temperature, the faster the mosquito will breed. The result will be compared to the number of dengue fever incidences to see their relationship.

  1. Identification of germline transcriptional regulatory elements in Aedes aegypti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Omar S.; Papathanos, Philippos A.; Sandler, Jeremy E.; Kennedy, Katie; Hay, Bruce A.

    2014-02-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the principal vector for the yellow fever and dengue viruses, and is also responsible for recent outbreaks of the alphavirus chikungunya. Vector control strategies utilizing engineered gene drive systems are being developed as a means of replacing wild, pathogen transmitting mosquitoes with individuals refractory to disease transmission, or bringing about population suppression. Several of these systems, including Medea, UDMEL, and site-specific nucleases, which can be used to drive genes into populations or bring about population suppression, utilize transcriptional regulatory elements that drive germline-specific expression. Here we report the identification of multiple regulatory elements able to drive gene expression specifically in the female germline, or in the male and female germline, in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. These elements can also be used as tools with which to probe the roles of specific genes in germline function and in the early embryo, through overexpression or RNA interference.

  2. Identification of germline transcriptional regulatory elements in Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Omar S; Papathanos, Philippos A; Sandler, Jeremy E; Kennedy, Katie; Hay, Bruce A

    2014-02-04

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the principal vector for the yellow fever and dengue viruses, and is also responsible for recent outbreaks of the alphavirus chikungunya. Vector control strategies utilizing engineered gene drive systems are being developed as a means of replacing wild, pathogen transmitting mosquitoes with individuals refractory to disease transmission, or bringing about population suppression. Several of these systems, including Medea, UD(MEL), and site-specific nucleases, which can be used to drive genes into populations or bring about population suppression, utilize transcriptional regulatory elements that drive germline-specific expression. Here we report the identification of multiple regulatory elements able to drive gene expression specifically in the female germline, or in the male and female germline, in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. These elements can also be used as tools with which to probe the roles of specific genes in germline function and in the early embryo, through overexpression or RNA interference.

  3. Laboratory evaluation of the response of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus uninfected and infected with dengue virus to deet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory studies were conducted to compare the response of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) adults, uninfected and infected with four serotypes of dengue virus, to a repellent containing 5% deet. The results showed that mosquitoes infected with the four serotypes of dengue respond i...

  4. Dynamics of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in septic tanks.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Andrew J; Amador, Manuel; Diaz, Annette; Smith, Josh; Barrera, Roberto

    2009-12-01

    Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus were found in large numbers emerging from septic tanks in southern Puerto Rico during the dry season. Previous studies suggested that Ae. aegypti uses subterranean aquatic habitats only during dry periods when surface containers do not have water. This research investigated whether septic tanks are alternative aquatic habitats that this mosquito uses during unfavorable times of the year, or whether Ae. aegypti uses this aquatic habitat throughout the year. To assess temporal change, exit traps were used to collect mosquitoes emerging from septic tanks in Playa/Playita, southern Puerto Rico, from November 2006 to October 2007. We also investigated the hypotheses that (1) the production of Ae. aegypti in septic tanks was larger than in surface containers and (2) adult mosquitoes emerging from septic tanks were larger than those emerging from surface containers. This study demonstrated that unsealed septic tanks produced large numbers of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus throughout the year, without any significant relationship with rainfall. The number of adult Ae. aegypti emerging per day from septic tanks in each community was 3 to 9 times larger than those produced in surface containers. It was also demonstrated that Ae. aegypti emerging from septic tanks were significantly larger than those emerging from surface container habitats. It is recommended that dengue prevention programs include regular inspection and maintenance of septic tanks in communities lacking sewerage.

  5. Nanoparticles in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases: bioactivity of Bruguiera cylindrica-synthesized nanoparticles against dengue virus DEN-2 (in vitro) and its mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Dinesh, Devakumar; Paulpandi, Manickam; Althbyani, Abdulaziz Dakhellah Meqbel; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Wang, Lan; Suresh, Udaiyan; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Mohan, Jagathish; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Wei, Hui; Kalimuthu, Kandasamy; Parajulee, Megha N; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects serving as the most important vectors for spreading human pathogens and parasites. Dengue is a viral disease mainly vectored through the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Its transmission has recently increased in urban and semi-urban areas of tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. There is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention and control solely depend on effective vector control measures. Mangrove plants have been used in Indian traditional medicine for a wide array of purposes. In this research, we proposed a method for biosynthesis of antiviral and mosquitocidal silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the aqueous extract of Bruguiera cylindrica leaves. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical analyses, including UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Bruguiera cilyndrica aqueous extract and green-synthesized AgNP were tested against the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti. AgNP were the most effective. LC50 values ranged from 8.93 ppm (larva I) to 30.69 ppm (pupa). In vitro experiments showed that 30 μg/ml of AgNP significantly inhibited the production of dengue viral envelope (E) protein in vero cells and downregulated the expression of dengue viral E gene. Concerning nontarget effects, we observed that the predation efficiency of Carassius auratus against A. aegypti was not affected by exposure at sublethal doses of AgNP. Predation in the control was 71.81 % (larva II) and 50.43 % (larva III), while in an AgNP-treated environment, predation was boosted to 90.25 and 76.81 %, respectively. Overall, this study highlights the concrete potential of green-synthesized AgNP in the fight against dengue virus. Furthermore, B. cylindrica-synthesized AgNP can be employed at low doses to reduce larval and pupal population of A. aegypti, without detrimental

  6. Similarity solutions for systems arising from an Aedes aegypti model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, Igor Leite; Torrisi, Mariano

    2014-04-01

    In a recent paper a new model for the Aedes aegypti mosquito dispersal dynamics was proposed and its Lie point symmetries were investigated. According to the carried group classification, the maximal symmetry Lie algebra of the nonlinear cases is reached whenever the advection term vanishes. In this work we analyze the family of systems obtained when the wind effects on the proposed model are neglected. Wide new classes of solutions to the systems under consideration are obtained.

  7. Swarming mechanisms in the yellow fever mosquito: aggregation pheromones involved in the mating behavior of Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquitoes of various species mate in swarms comprised of tens to thousands flying males. Yet little information is known about mosquito swarming mechanism. Discovering chemical cues involved in mosquito biology leads to better adaptation of disease control interventions. In this study, we aimed ...

  8. A novel in vitro bioassay to explore the repellent effects of compounds against mosquito Aedes Aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquitoes are vectors for many pathogens that can cause human diseases which can result in high rates of human morbidity and mortality at significant levels of transmission. Repellents play an important role in reducing mosquito bites and hence the risk of spread of mosquito borne diseases. Current...

  9. Thiosemicarbazones as Aedes aegypti larvicidal.

    PubMed

    da Silva, João Bosco P; Navarro, Daniela Maria do A F; da Silva, Aluizio G; Santos, Geanne K N; Dutra, Kamilla A; Moreira, Diogo Rodrigo; Ramos, Mozart N; Espíndola, José Wanderlan P; de Oliveira, Ana Daura T; Brondani, Dalci José; Leite, Ana Cristina L; Hernandes, Marcelo Zaldini; Pereira, Valéria R A; da Rocha, Lucas F; de Castro, Maria Carolina A B; de Oliveira, Beatriz C; Lan, Que; Merz, Kenneth M

    2015-07-15

    A set of aryl- and phenoxymethyl-(thio)semicarbazones were synthetized, characterized and biologically evaluated against the larvae of Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti), the vector responsible for diseases like Dengue and Yellow Fever. (Q)SAR studies were useful for predicting the activities of the compounds not included to create the QSAR model as well as to predict the features of a new compound with improved activity. Docking studies corroborated experimental evidence of AeSCP-2 as a potential target able to explain the larvicidal properties of its compounds. The trend observed between the in silico Docking scores and the in vitro pLC50 (equals -log LC50, at molar concentration) data indicated that the highest larvicidal compounds, or the compounds with the highest values for pLC50, are usually those with the higher docking scores (i.e., greater in silico affinity for the AeSCP-2 target). Determination of cytotoxicity for these compounds in mammal cells demonstrated that the top larvicide compounds are non-toxic.

  10. Thiosemicarbazones as Aedes aegypti larvicidal.

    PubMed

    da Silva, João Bosco P; Navarro, Daniela Maria do A F; da Silva, Aluizio G; Santos, Geanne K N; Dutra, Kamilla A; Moreira, Diogo Rodrigo; Ramos, Mozart N; Espíndola, José Wanderlan P; de Oliveira, Ana Daura T; Brondani, Dalci José; Leite, Ana Cristina L; Hernandes, Marcelo Zaldini; Pereira, Valéria R A; da Rocha, Lucas F; de Castro, Maria Carolina A B; de Oliveira, Beatriz C; Lan, Que; Merz, Kenneth M

    2015-07-15

    A set of aryl- and phenoxymethyl-(thio)semicarbazones were synthetized, characterized and biologically evaluated against the larvae of Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti), the vector responsible for diseases like Dengue and Yellow Fever. (Q)SAR studies were useful for predicting the activities of the compounds not included to create the QSAR model as well as to predict the features of a new compound with improved activity. Docking studies corroborated experimental evidence of AeSCP-2 as a potential target able to explain the larvicidal properties of its compounds. The trend observed between the in silico Docking scores and the in vitro pLC50 (equals -log LC50, at molar concentration) data indicated that the highest larvicidal compounds, or the compounds with the highest values for pLC50, are usually those with the higher docking scores (i.e., greater in silico affinity for the AeSCP-2 target). Determination of cytotoxicity for these compounds in mammal cells demonstrated that the top larvicide compounds are non-toxic. PMID:26087027

  11. Differential Susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to Zika Virus

    PubMed Central

    Vazeille, Marie; Yebakima, André; Girod, Romain; Goindin, Daniella; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2016-01-01

    Background Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV) causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe), North America (southern United States), South America (Brazil, French Guiana) for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Methodology/Principal Findings Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132). Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28°±1°C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25–30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen), heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level. Conclusions/Significance This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak. PMID:26938868

  12. The maxillary palp of aedes aegypti, a model of multisensory integration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Female yellow-fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti, are obligate blood-feeders and vectors of the pathogens that cause dengue fever, yellow fever and Chikungunya. This feeding behavior concludes a series of multisensory events guiding the mosquito to its host from a distance. The antennae and maxillary...

  13. Gustatory receptor expression in the labella and legs of aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yellow-fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is a dangerous disease vector, infecting a growing number of people every year with dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya viruses. Contact chemoreception in mosquitoes influences a number of behaviors including host-selection, oviposition and feeding. While...

  14. Aerial ULV application of Dibrom against Aedes aegypti in simulated urban and rural residences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reaching endophilic Aedes aegypti mosquito vectors of dengue located in human residences with aerial ULV pesticide applications is a prominent complication in operational wide area public health mosquito control activities. We conducted separate trials with a military C-130 fixed wing aircraft fitte...

  15. Vector Competence of French Polynesian Aedes aegypti and Aedes polynesiensis for Zika Virus

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Vaea; Paoaafaite, Tuterarii; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2013–2014, French Polynesia experienced for the first time a Zika outbreak. Two Aedes mosquitoes may have contributed to Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission in French Polynesia: the worldwide distributed Ae. aegypti and the Polynesian islands-endemic Ae. polynesiensis mosquito. Methodology/Principal Findings To evaluate their vector competence for ZIKV, mosquitoes were infected per os at viral titers of 7 logs tissue culture infectious dose 50%. At several days post-infection (dpi), saliva was collected from each mosquito and inoculated onto C6/36 mosquito cells to check for the presence of ZIKV infectious particles. Legs and body of each mosquito were also collected and submitted separately to RNA extraction and ZIKV RT-PCR. In Ae. aegypti the infection rate was high as early as 6 dpi and the dissemination efficiency get substantial from 9 dpi while the both rates remained quite low in Ae. polynesiensis. The transmission efficiency was poor in Ae. aegypti until 14 dpi and no infectious saliva was found in Ae. polynesiensis at the time points studied. Conclusions/Significance In our experimental conditions, the late ability of the French Polynesian Ae. aegypti to transmit ZIKV added by the poor competence of Ae. polynesiensis for this virus suggest the possible contribution of another vector for the propagation of ZIKV during the outbreak, in particular in remote islands where Ae. polynesiensis is predominating. PMID:27654962

  16. Efficacy of essential oil from Cananga odorata (Lamk.) Hook.f. & Thomson (Annonaceae) against three mosquito species Aedes aegypti (L.), Anopheles dirus (Peyton and Harrison), and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say).

    PubMed

    Soonwera, Mayura

    2015-12-01

    The essential oil of Cananga odorata flowers was evaluated for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, insecticidal, and repellent activities toward three mosquito species: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles dirus, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Oviposition deterrence of the oil was evaluated on gravid females using oviposition deterrence bioassay. The results showed that 10 % Ca. odorata exhibited high percent effective repellency against oviposition at 99.4 % to Ae. aegypti, 97.1 % to An. dirus, and 100 % to Cx. quinquefasciatus. Ca. odorata oil was tested for ovicidal activity. Regression equations revealed that the ovicidal rates were positively correlated with the concentrations of the essential oil. As the concentration of essential oil increased from 1, 5, and up to 10 % concentration, the ovicidal rate increased accordingly. Larvicidal activity of the oils was used on immature stages (third and fourth instar lavae and pupae). The maximum larval mortality was found with 10 % Ca. odorata against immature stages, and there were LC50 values ranged from 10.4 to 10.5 % (for Ae. aegypti), <1 % (for An. dirus), and <1 % (for Cx. quinquefasciatus). Adulticidal properties were evaluated with unfed females. Ten percent Ca. odorata oil had high knockdown rates against the three mosquito species at 96 % (for Ae. aegypti), 98.4 % (for An. dirus), and 100 % (for Cx. quinquefasciatus), with EC50 values of 6.2, 4.7, and 5.4 %, respectively. It gave moderate mortality rates after 24 and 48 h of exposure. Ca. odorata oil was assessed for repellency to females by using the modified K&D module. Ten percent Ca. odorata oil gave the strongest value against Ae. aegypti, An. dirus, and Cx. quinquefasciatus, with percentage repellency of 66, 92, and 90 %, respectively. This study demonstrates the potential for the essential oil of Ca. odorata essential oil to be used as a botanical insecticide against three mosquito species.

  17. Efficacy of essential oil from Cananga odorata (Lamk.) Hook.f. & Thomson (Annonaceae) against three mosquito species Aedes aegypti (L.), Anopheles dirus (Peyton and Harrison), and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say).

    PubMed

    Soonwera, Mayura

    2015-12-01

    The essential oil of Cananga odorata flowers was evaluated for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, insecticidal, and repellent activities toward three mosquito species: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles dirus, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Oviposition deterrence of the oil was evaluated on gravid females using oviposition deterrence bioassay. The results showed that 10 % Ca. odorata exhibited high percent effective repellency against oviposition at 99.4 % to Ae. aegypti, 97.1 % to An. dirus, and 100 % to Cx. quinquefasciatus. Ca. odorata oil was tested for ovicidal activity. Regression equations revealed that the ovicidal rates were positively correlated with the concentrations of the essential oil. As the concentration of essential oil increased from 1, 5, and up to 10 % concentration, the ovicidal rate increased accordingly. Larvicidal activity of the oils was used on immature stages (third and fourth instar lavae and pupae). The maximum larval mortality was found with 10 % Ca. odorata against immature stages, and there were LC50 values ranged from 10.4 to 10.5 % (for Ae. aegypti), <1 % (for An. dirus), and <1 % (for Cx. quinquefasciatus). Adulticidal properties were evaluated with unfed females. Ten percent Ca. odorata oil had high knockdown rates against the three mosquito species at 96 % (for Ae. aegypti), 98.4 % (for An. dirus), and 100 % (for Cx. quinquefasciatus), with EC50 values of 6.2, 4.7, and 5.4 %, respectively. It gave moderate mortality rates after 24 and 48 h of exposure. Ca. odorata oil was assessed for repellency to females by using the modified K&D module. Ten percent Ca. odorata oil gave the strongest value against Ae. aegypti, An. dirus, and Cx. quinquefasciatus, with percentage repellency of 66, 92, and 90 %, respectively. This study demonstrates the potential for the essential oil of Ca. odorata essential oil to be used as a botanical insecticide against three mosquito species. PMID:26337270

  18. Vector Competence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes polynesiensis Populations from French Polynesia for Chikungunya Virus

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Vaea; Paoaafaite, Tuterarii; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai

    2016-01-01

    Background From October 2014 to March 2015, French Polynesia experienced for the first time a chikungunya outbreak. Two Aedes mosquitoes may have contributed to chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission in French Polynesia: the worldwide distributed Ae. aegypti and the Polynesian islands-endemic Ae. polynesiensis mosquito. Methods To investigate the vector competence of French Polynesian populations of Ae. aegypti and Ae. polynesiensis for CHIKV, mosquitoes were exposed per os at viral titers of 7 logs tissue culture infectious dose 50%. At 2, 6, 9, 14 and 21 days post-infection (dpi), saliva was collected from each mosquito and inoculated onto C6/36 mosquito cells to check for the presence of CHIKV infectious particles. Legs and body (thorax and abdomen) of each mosquito were also collected at the different dpi and submitted separately to viral RNA extraction and CHIKV real-time RT-PCR. Results CHIKV infection rate, dissemination and transmission efficiencies ranged from 7–90%, 18–78% and 5–53% respectively for Ae. aegypti and from 39–41%, 3–17% and 0–14% respectively for Ae. polynesiensis, depending on the dpi. Infectious saliva was found as early as 2 dpi for Ae. aegypti and from 6 dpi for Ae. polynesiensis. Our laboratory results confirm that the French Polynesian population of Ae. aegypti is highly competent for CHIKV and they provide clear evidence for Ae. polynesiensis to act as an efficient CHIKV vector. Conclusion As supported by our findings, the presence of two CHIKV competent vectors in French Polynesia certainly contributed to enabling this virus to quickly disseminate from the urban/peri-urban areas colonized by Ae. aegypti to the most remote atolls where Ae. polynesiensis is predominating. Ae. polynesiensis was probably involved in the recent chikungunya outbreaks in Samoa and the Cook Islands. Moreover, this vector may contribute to the risk for CHIKV to emerge in other Polynesian islands like Fiji, and more particularly Wallis where there

  19. Distribution of Aedes mosquitoes in the Kilimanjaro Region of northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Julian T; Lyaruu, Lucille J; Ooi, Eng Eong; Mosha, Franklin W; Crump, John A

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the presence and distribution of Aedes mosquitoes in northern Tanzania despite the occurence of viruses transmitted by these mosquitoes such as Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) in the region. Adult and larval mosquitoes were collected from rural and urban settings across a wide range of altitudes in the Kilimanjaro Region using the Mosquito Magnet CO2 Trap for collection of adults and old tires for breeding of larvae. Polymerase chain reaction assays were performed on captured adult mosquitoes to detect the presence of CHIKV and DENV. A total of 2609 Aedes aegypti adult mosquitoes were collected; no other Aedes species larvae were found. Mosquito yields were significantly higher in urban settings than rural settings (26.5 vs. 1.9 mosquitoes per day, p = 0.037). A total of 6570 Ae. aegypti larvae were collected from old tires; no other Aedes species larvae were found. Of the 2609 adult mosquitoes collected, none tested positive for CHIKV or DENV. As far as we are aware, this paper reports for the first time the presence of Ae. aegypti in the Kilimanjaro Region of northern Tanzania. Although CHIKV and DENV were not isolated from any of the collected mosquitoes in this study, the apparent absence of other Aedes species in the area suggests that Ae. aegypti is the primary local vector of these infections.

  20. Distribution of Aedes mosquitoes in the Kilimanjaro Region of northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Julian T; Lyaruu, Lucille J; Ooi, Eng Eong; Mosha, Franklin W; Crump, John A

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the presence and distribution of Aedes mosquitoes in northern Tanzania despite the occurence of viruses transmitted by these mosquitoes such as Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) in the region. Adult and larval mosquitoes were collected from rural and urban settings across a wide range of altitudes in the Kilimanjaro Region using the Mosquito Magnet CO2 Trap for collection of adults and old tires for breeding of larvae. Polymerase chain reaction assays were performed on captured adult mosquitoes to detect the presence of CHIKV and DENV. A total of 2609 Aedes aegypti adult mosquitoes were collected; no other Aedes species larvae were found. Mosquito yields were significantly higher in urban settings than rural settings (26.5 vs. 1.9 mosquitoes per day, p = 0.037). A total of 6570 Ae. aegypti larvae were collected from old tires; no other Aedes species larvae were found. Of the 2609 adult mosquitoes collected, none tested positive for CHIKV or DENV. As far as we are aware, this paper reports for the first time the presence of Ae. aegypti in the Kilimanjaro Region of northern Tanzania. Although CHIKV and DENV were not isolated from any of the collected mosquitoes in this study, the apparent absence of other Aedes species in the area suggests that Ae. aegypti is the primary local vector of these infections. PMID:27376502

  1. Integrated proteomic and transcriptomic analysis of the Aedes aegypti eggshell

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mosquito eggshells show remarkable diversity in physical properties and structure consistent with adaptations to the wide variety of environments exploited by these insects. We applied proteomic, transcriptomic, and hybridization in situ techniques to identify gene products and pathways that participate in the assembly of the Aedes aegypti eggshell. Aedes aegypti population density is low during cold and dry seasons and increases immediately after rainfall. The survival of embryos through unfavorable periods is a key factor in the persistence of their populations. The work described here supports integrated vector control approaches that target eggshell formation and result in Ae. aegypti drought-intolerant phenotypes for public health initiatives directed to reduce mosquito-borne diseases. Results A total of 130 proteins were identified from the combined mass spectrometric analyses of eggshell preparations. Conclusions Classification of proteins according to their known and putative functions revealed the complexity of the eggshell structure. Three novel Ae. aegypti vitelline membrane proteins were discovered. Odorant-binding and cysteine-rich proteins that may be structural components of the eggshell were identified. Enzymes with peroxidase, laccase and phenoloxidase activities also were identified, and their likely involvements in cross-linking reactions that stabilize the eggshell structure are discussed. PMID:24707823

  2. Investigating the Potential Range Expansion of the Vector Mosquito Aedes Aegypti in Mexico with NASA Earth Science Remote Sensing Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Sue M.

    2011-01-01

    Dengue (Breakbone) fever is caused by one of four viruses carried by mosquitoes in tropical and subtropical areas. Cases have increased dramatically in the past few decades; there are currently approximately 100 million infections annually around the globe. Our project will integrate environmental observations, including weather, land use, vegetation type, amount and greenness, soil moisture, and mosquito populations with investigations of the human dynamics of the system via household surveys.

  3. A new tent trap for monitoring the daily activity of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Casas Martínez, Mauricio; Orozco Bonilla, Arnoldo; Muñoz Reyes, Miguel; Ulloa García, Armando; Bond, J Guillermo; Valle Mora, Javier; Weber, Manuel; Rojas, Julio C

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we designed a new tent trap; the BioDiVector (BDV) tent trap, consisting of two rectangular tents that use human bait without endangering the technical personnel. The daily activity pattern of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in intra, peri, and extradomiciliary sites was studied in an endemic area of dengue in southern Mexico by using the BDV tent trap. Totals of 3,128 individuals of Ae. aegypti and 833 Ae. albopictus were captured. More Ae. aegypti males than females were caught, while the opposite was true with Ae. albopictus. The activity of both mosquito species was affected by the interaction between the collection site and time of day. In general, more individuals of both mosquito species were captured at the extradomicillary sites than at the peri and intradomicillary sites. Mosquitoes showed two peaks of activity, one in the morning and the other in the afternoon, but in general this only occurred at the extradomicillary sites, whereas no peak of activity was observed at the intra and peridomicillary sites. Overall, Ae. aegypti had a higher indirect biting rate than Ae. albopictus. Finally, due to its efficiency, simplicity, and low cost, we suggest the use of this innovative tool for entomological surveillance, bionomics and vector incrimination studies in geographical areas where dengue and other arboviruses are present.

  4. [Ecology of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in the Americas and disease transmission].

    PubMed

    Rey, Jorge R; Lounibos, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The recent range expansion of the mosquito Aedes albopictus has been associated in some areas by declines in abundance or local elimination of Aedes aegypti, but the two species still coexist in large regions of the Americas. We offer a summary of the possible mechanisms responsible for the abundance and displacement pattern observed and of their significance in terms of disease transmission. Among these mechanisms we may mention the competition for limiting resources, the differences in the ability to withstand starvation, the apparent competition through differential effects of the parasite Ascogregarina taiwanensis, and the inhibition of Ae. aegypti egg development by Ae. albopictus larvae. Habitat segregation has been proposed as a mechanism promoting the coexistence of the two species through avoidance of direct competition. Aedes aegypti predominates in urban areas, Ae. albopictus in rural ones, and both species coexist in the suburbs. There is also evidence that in certain areas, habitat segregation in terms of distance from the coast can influence the distribution of both species. Another possible cause of the rapid disappearance of Ae. aegypti is reproductive interference between the species. According to this hypothesis, asymmetric effects of interspecific mating favor Ae. albopictus. This type of reproductive interference can result in the elimination of sympatric populations of the affected species and can be one of the major causes for the swiftness with which Ae. aegypti disappeared from some places in the Americas following invasions by Ae. albopictus.

  5. A Novel in vitro Bioassay to Explore the Repellent Effects of Compounds Against Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Rehman, Junaid U; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes are vectors for many pathogens resulting in many deaths of humans. Repellents play an important role in reducing mosquito bites and the spread of mosquito-borne diseases. Currently, Klun & Debboun (K & D) and human-arm-based bioassay systems are used to identify repellent properties of compounds, extracts, and essential oils. Risks involved with human-arm-based systems are allergic reactions and limited replicates. We are reporting an in vitro bioassay method “NCNPR repellent bioassay (NCNPR-RB)” that can closely simulate the results of the cloth patch bioassay system used to determine repellency against mosquitoes. The NCNPRRB method uses heat to attract mosquito and edible collagen sheets as an alternate to human skin. Multiple plant compounds with documented repellency were tested. DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) was used as a positive control. Treatments were prepared in EtOH and applied in dosages ranging from 0.011–1.5mg/cm2 to a 20-cm2 collagen sheet. The number of mosquitoes commencing to bite per probe was recorded visually for 1 min. The minimum effective dosage (mg/cm2) of compounds: DEET (0.021), carvacrol (0.011), thymol (0.013), undecanoic acid (0.023), thymol methyl ether (0.269), and 2-nonanone (>0.375 mg/cm2) determined in NCNPRRB were similar to those reported in literature using a cloth patch bioassay system. The NCNPR-RB can be used to screen compounds with reasonable reproducibility of the data at a faster rate than the cloth patch bioassay, which involves the use of human subjects.

  6. A Novel in vitro Bioassay to Explore the Repellent Effects of Compounds Against Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Rehman, Junaid U; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes are vectors for many pathogens resulting in many deaths of humans. Repellents play an important role in reducing mosquito bites and the spread of mosquito-borne diseases. Currently, Klun & Debboun (K & D) and human-arm-based bioassay systems are used to identify repellent properties of compounds, extracts, and essential oils. Risks involved with human-arm-based systems are allergic reactions and limited replicates. We are reporting an in vitro bioassay method “NCNPR repellent bioassay (NCNPR-RB)” that can closely simulate the results of the cloth patch bioassay system used to determine repellency against mosquitoes. The NCNPRRB method uses heat to attract mosquito and edible collagen sheets as an alternate to human skin. Multiple plant compounds with documented repellency were tested. DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) was used as a positive control. Treatments were prepared in EtOH and applied in dosages ranging from 0.011–1.5mg/cm2 to a 20-cm2 collagen sheet. The number of mosquitoes commencing to bite per probe was recorded visually for 1 min. The minimum effective dosage (mg/cm2) of compounds: DEET (0.021), carvacrol (0.011), thymol (0.013), undecanoic acid (0.023), thymol methyl ether (0.269), and 2-nonanone (>0.375 mg/cm2) determined in NCNPRRB were similar to those reported in literature using a cloth patch bioassay system. The NCNPR-RB can be used to screen compounds with reasonable reproducibility of the data at a faster rate than the cloth patch bioassay, which involves the use of human subjects. PMID:26590191

  7. First Report of Aedes aegypti Transmission of Chikungunya Virus in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Díaz-González, Esteban E; Kautz, Tiffany F; Dorantes-Delgado, Alicia; Malo-García, Iliana R; Laguna-Aguilar, Maricela; Langsjoen, Rose M; Chen, Rubing; Auguste, Dawn I; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa M; Danis-Lozano, Rogelio; Weaver, Scott C; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso

    2015-12-01

    During a chikungunya fever outbreak in late 2014 in Chiapas, Mexico, entomovirological surveillance was performed to incriminate the vector(s). In neighborhoods, 75 households with suspected cases were sampled for mosquitoes, of which 80% (60) harbored Aedes aegypti and 2.7% (2) Aedes albopictus. A total of 1,170 Ae. aegypti and three Ae. albopictus was collected and 81 pools were generated. Although none of the Ae. albopictus pools were chikungunya virus (CHIKV)-positive, 18 Ae. aegypti pools (22.8%) contained CHIKV, yielding an infection rate of 32.3/1,000 mosquitoes. A lack of herd immunity in conjunction with high mosquito populations, poor vector control services in this region, and targeted collections in locations of human cases may explain the high infection rate in this vector. Consistent with predictions from experimental studies, Ae. aegypti appears to be the principal vector of CHIKV in southern Mexico, while the role of Ae. albopictus remains unknown.

  8. Repellent activity of selected essential oils against Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Choochote, W; Chaithong, U; Kamsuk, K; Jitpakdi, A; Tippawangkosol, P; Tuetun, B; Champakaew, D; Pitasawat, B

    2007-07-01

    Essential oils extracted from ten plant species were screened for repellency against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Three oils; Zanthoxylum piperitum, Anethum graveolens and Kaempferia galanga, exerted protection against A. aegypti, with median complete-protection times of 1, 0.5 and 0.25 h, respectively. The protection times were increased significantly by incorporating 10% vanillin. The highest potential was established from Z. piperitum oil +10% vanillin (2.5 h, range=1-2.5 h). Mixtures from pairs of the effective oils possessed slight repellency that ranged from 0-0.5 h. None of the oil combinations repelled A. aegypti for longer than their constituent oil alone. With vanillin added, however, each oil mixture provided improved protection, which was approximately equal to oil on its own. GC/MS analysis revealed that the main component of Z. piperitum fruit oil was limonene (37.99%), with minor amounts of sabinene (13.30%) and beta-myrcene (7.17%). Repellent testing of stored samples of Z. piperitum fruit oil against A. aegypti demonstrated that repellent activity of those kept at -20 degrees C or 4 degrees C was present for a period of at least 3 months. Therefore, the essential oil of Z. piperitum fruit may prove useful in the development of mosquito repellents as an effective personal protection measure against mosquito bites. PMID:17512681

  9. Spatial and temporal patterns of abundance of Aedes aegypti L. (Stegomyia aegypti) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) [Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse)] in southern Florida.

    PubMed

    Reiskind, M H; Lounibos, L P

    2013-12-01

    Invasion by mosquito vectors of disease may impact the distribution of resident mosquitoes, resulting in novel patterns of vectors and concomitant risk for disease. One example of such an impact is the invasion by Aedes albopictus (Skuse) [Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse)] (Diptera: Culicidae) of North America and this species' interaction with Aedes aegypti L. (Stegomyia aegypti L). We hypothesized that Ae. aegypti would be found in urban, coastal areas that experience hotter and drier conditions, whereas Ae. albopictus would be more commonly found in suburban and rural areas that are cooler and wetter. In addition, we hypothesized that Ae. aegypti would be more abundant early in the wet season, whereas Ae. albopictus would be more abundant later in the wet season. Urban areas were drier, hotter and contained more Ae. aegypti than suburban or rural areas. Aedes aegypti was relatively more abundant early in the wet season, whereas Ae. albopictus was more abundant in both the late wet season and the dry season. The spatial patterns of inter- and intraspecific encounters between these species were also described. The distribution of these mosquitoes is correlated with abiotic conditions, and with temperature, humidity and the relative availability of rain-filled containers. Understanding the ecological determinants of species distribution can provide insight into the biology of these vectors and important information for their appropriate control.

  10. Comparison of Vector Competence of Aedes mediovittatus and Aedes aegypti for Dengue Virus: Implications for Dengue Control in the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Poole-Smith, B. Katherine; Hemme, Ryan R.; Delorey, Mark; Felix, Gilberto; Gonzalez, Andrea L.; Amador, Manuel; Hunsperger, Elizabeth A.; Barrera, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Background Aedes mediovittatus mosquitoes are found throughout the Greater Antilles in the Caribbean and often share the same larval habitats with Ae. Aegypti, the primary vector for dengue virus (DENV). Implementation of vector control measures to control dengue that specifically target Ae. Aegypti may not control DENV transmission in Puerto Rico (PR). Even if Ae. Aegypti is eliminated or DENV refractory mosquitoes are released, DENV transmission may not cease when other competent mosquito species like Ae. Mediovittatus are present. To compare vector competence of Ae. Mediovittatus and Ae. Aegypti mosquitoes, we studied relative infection and transmission rates for all four DENV serotypes. Methods To compare the vector competence of Ae. Mediovittatus and Ae. Aegypti, mosquitoes were exposed to DENV 1–4 per os at viral titers of 5–6 logs plaque-forming unit (pfu) equivalents. At 14 days post infectious bloodmeal, viral RNA was extracted and tested by qRT-PCR to determine infection and transmission rates. Infection and transmission rates were analyzed with a generalized linear model assuming a binomial distribution. Results Ae. Aegypti had significantly higher DENV-4 infection and transmission rates than Ae. mediovittatus. Conclusions This study determined that Ae. Mediovittatus is a competent DENV vector. Therefore dengue prevention programs in PR and the Caribbean should consider both Ae. Mediovittatus and Ae. Aegypti mosquitoes in their vector control programs. PMID:25658951

  11. [Oral receptivity of Aedes aegypti formosus from Franceville (Gabon, central Africa) for type 2 dengue virus].

    PubMed

    Vazeille-Falcoz, M; Failloux, A B; Mousson, L; Elissa, N; Rodhain, F

    1999-12-01

    Dengue is widely distributed in the tropics but epidemic activity was rarely reported in Africa before the 1980's. In the past 15 years, increased epidemic dengue fever has been reported both in East and West Africa, raising concern about the ability of local populations of Aedes aegypti to transmit dengue viruses. Ae. aegypti is present in two forms in Africa: Ae. aegypti aegypti and Ae. aegypti formosus. This latter form, much darker, was not originally a local species but is now colonizing artificial breeding sites within cities. We have been able to demonstrate the oral susceptibility for dengue type 2 virus of Ae. aegypti formosus collected in Franceville, Gabon (Central Africa). However, these mosquitoes sampled exhibited lower infection rates than those of a control colony of Ae. aegypti aegypti originating from French Polynesia.

  12. Larvicidal and ovicidal properties of leaf and seed extracts of Delonix elata (L.) Gamble (family: Fabaceae) against malaria (Anopheles stephensi Liston) and dengue (Aedes aegypti Linn.) (Diptera: Culicidae) vector mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Marimuthu, Govindarajan; Rajamohan, Sivakumar; Mohan, Rajeswari; Krishnamoorthy, Yogalakshmi

    2012-07-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases with an economic impact create loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates. Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Extracts from plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents because they constitute a rich source of bioactive compounds that are biodegradable into nontoxic products and potentially suitable for use to control mosquitoes. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Delonix elata against the medically important mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of D. elata against the larvae of A. stephensi and A. aegypti with the LC(50) and LC(90) values being 93.59 and 111.83, and 163.69 and 202.77 ppm, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seeds have low potency against two mosquitoes with the LC(50) and LC(90) values being 115.28 and 139.04, and 225.07 and 273.03 ppm, respectively. The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. One hundred percent mortality was observed at 300 ppm for leaf methanol extract and 500 ppm for seed

  13. The wMel strain of Wolbachia Reduces Transmission of Zika virus by Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Aliota, Matthew T.; Peinado, Stephen A.; Velez, Ivan Dario; Osorio, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is causing an explosive outbreak of febrile disease in the Americas. There are no effective antiviral therapies or licensed vaccines for this virus, and mosquito control strategies have not been adequate to contain the virus. A promising candidate for arbovirus control and prevention relies on the introduction of the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia into Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. This primarily has been proposed as a tool to control dengue virus (DENV) transmission; however, evidence suggests Wolbachia infections confer protection for Ae. aegypti against other arboviruses. At present, it is unknown whether or not ZIKV can infect, disseminate, and be transmitted by Wolbachia-infected Ae. aegypti. Using Ae. aegypti infected with the wMel strain of Wolbachia that are being released in Medellin, Colombia, we report that these mosquitoes have reduced vector competence for ZIKV. These results support the use of Wolbachia biocontrol as a multivalent strategy against Ae. aegypti-transmitted viruses. PMID:27364935

  14. The wMel strain of Wolbachia Reduces Transmission of Zika virus by Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Aliota, Matthew T; Peinado, Stephen A; Velez, Ivan Dario; Osorio, Jorge E

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is causing an explosive outbreak of febrile disease in the Americas. There are no effective antiviral therapies or licensed vaccines for this virus, and mosquito control strategies have not been adequate to contain the virus. A promising candidate for arbovirus control and prevention relies on the introduction of the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia into Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. This primarily has been proposed as a tool to control dengue virus (DENV) transmission; however, evidence suggests Wolbachia infections confer protection for Ae. aegypti against other arboviruses. At present, it is unknown whether or not ZIKV can infect, disseminate, and be transmitted by Wolbachia-infected Ae. aegypti. Using Ae. aegypti infected with the wMel strain of Wolbachia that are being released in Medellin, Colombia, we report that these mosquitoes have reduced vector competence for ZIKV. These results support the use of Wolbachia biocontrol as a multivalent strategy against Ae. aegypti-transmitted viruses.

  15. The wMel strain of Wolbachia Reduces Transmission of Zika virus by Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Aliota, Matthew T; Peinado, Stephen A; Velez, Ivan Dario; Osorio, Jorge E

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is causing an explosive outbreak of febrile disease in the Americas. There are no effective antiviral therapies or licensed vaccines for this virus, and mosquito control strategies have not been adequate to contain the virus. A promising candidate for arbovirus control and prevention relies on the introduction of the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia into Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. This primarily has been proposed as a tool to control dengue virus (DENV) transmission; however, evidence suggests Wolbachia infections confer protection for Ae. aegypti against other arboviruses. At present, it is unknown whether or not ZIKV can infect, disseminate, and be transmitted by Wolbachia-infected Ae. aegypti. Using Ae. aegypti infected with the wMel strain of Wolbachia that are being released in Medellin, Colombia, we report that these mosquitoes have reduced vector competence for ZIKV. These results support the use of Wolbachia biocontrol as a multivalent strategy against Ae. aegypti-transmitted viruses. PMID:27364935

  16. Transport of H(+), Na(+) and K(+) across the posterior midgut of blood-fed mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti).

    PubMed

    Pacey, Evan K; O'Donnell, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    Following ingestion of a blood meal, the adult female mosquito undergoes a massive diuresis during which Na(+), Cl(-) and water are secreted at high rates by the Malpighian tubules. In the hours following completion of diuresis, digestion of the K(+)-rich blood cells provides a source of energy as well as amino acids for proteins in the developing eggs. Although the transport of inorganic ions by the Malpighian tubules of blood-fed mosquitoes has been extensively characterized, relatively little is known of the epithelial transport mechanisms responsible for movement of Na(+), H(+), and K(+) across the posterior midgut. In this paper we have used the Scanning Ion-selective Electrode Technique (SIET) to measure the basal (unstimulated) rates of transport of K(+), Na(+) and H(+) across the isolated posterior midgut at intervals after the blood meal. We have also measured luminal concentrations of Na(+) and K(+) and the transepithelial electrical potential at the same time points and have calculated the electrochemical potentials for Na(+), K(+) and H(+) across the midgut. SIET measurements reveal absorption (lumen to bath) of Na(+) and H(+) and secretion of K(+) for the first 2h after blood-feeding. By 24h after the meal, absorption of Na(+) and H(+) remains active while there is an electrochemical gradient favouring absorption of K(+). Inhibition by ouabain and Ba(2+) suggest a role for the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and K(+) channels in absorption of Na(+) and K(+), respectively. Inhibition of H(+) absorption by acetazolamide implicates carbonic anhydrase in transepithelial H(+) transport.

  17. Detection of insemination status in live Aedes aegypti females

    PubMed Central

    Carrasquilla, María C.; Lounibos, L. Philip

    2015-01-01

    Using the technique described in this report, the presence or absence of sperm in spermathecae of female Aedes aegypti is detectable without dissection. Spermathecae of a lightly anesthetized female can be visualized by phase contrast microscopy through the distended abdomen, after the intersegmental membranes are stretched by ventral placement of a glass cover slip. Most females recovered after the procedure were capable of subsequent reproductive activities. Albeit tedious, this technique preserves the female alive for subsequent experiments or observations. Its extension to other mosquito species, or other Diptera and insects, will depend on spermathecal and sperm visibility through the distended abdomen. PMID:25721054

  18. Susceptibility of Florida Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus to dengue viruses from Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Alto, Barry W; Smartt, Chelsea T; Shin, Dongyoung; Bettinardi, David; Malicoate, Jolene; Anderson, Sheri L; Richards, Stephanie L

    2014-12-01

    Locally acquired dengue cases in the continental U.S. are rare. However, outbreaks of dengue-1 during 2009, 2010, and 2013 in Florida and dengue-1 and -2 in Texas suggest vulnerability to transmission. Travel and commerce between Puerto Rico and the U.S. mainland is common, which may pose a risk for traveler-imported dengue cases. Mosquitoes were collected in Florida and used to evaluate their susceptibility to dengue viruses (DENV) from Puerto Rico. Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were susceptible to virus infection with DENV-1 and -2. No significant differences were observed in rates of midgut infection or dissemination between Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus for DENV-1 (6-14%). Aedes aegypti was significantly more susceptible to midgut infection with DENV-2 than Ae. albopictus (Ae. aegypti, ∼28%; Ae. albopictus, ∼9%). The dissemination rate with dengue-2 virus for Ae. aegypti (23%) was greater than Ae. albopictus (0%), suggesting that Ae. albopictus is not likely to be an important transmitter of the DENV-2 isolate from Puerto Rico. These results are discussed in light of Florida's vulnerability to DENV transmission.

  19. Experimental Transmission of Mayaro Virus by Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Long, Kanya C.; Ziegler, Sarah A.; Thangamani, Saravanan; Hausser, Nicole L.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Higgs, Stephen; Tesh, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Outbreaks of Mayaro fever have been associated with a sylvatic cycle of Mayaro virus (MAYV) transmission in South America. To evaluate the potential for a common urban mosquito to transmit MAYV, laboratory vector competence studies were performed with Aedes aegypti from Iquitos, Peru. Oral infection in Ae. aegypti ranged from 0% (0/31) to 84% (31/37), with blood meal virus titers between 3.4 log10 and 7.3 log10 plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL. Transmission of MAYV by 70% (21/30) of infected mosquitoes was shown by saliva collection and exposure to suckling mice. Amount of viral RNA in febrile humans, determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction, ranged from 2.7 to 5.3 log10 PFU equivalents/mL. Oral susceptibility of Ae. aegypti to MAYV at titers encountered in viremic humans may limit opportunities to initiate an urban cycle; however, transmission of MAYV by Ae. aegypti shows the vector competence of this species and suggests potential for urban transmission. PMID:21976583

  20. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) are the main vectors of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses worldwide. As there is still no vaccine or specific treatment for DENV and CHIKV, vector control remains the cornerstone of prevention and outbreak control. Unfortunately, vector control programs are facing operational challenges with mosquitoes becoming resistant to commonly used insecticides in several areas through the world. Throughout Central Africa no recent data are available susceptible/resistant status of either vector species since the introduction/arrival of Ae. albopictus in this area. We therefore studied the level of resistance of these two major vectors to insecticides commonly used in Africa for mosquito control. Results Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were sampled in six urban localities of Cameroon (Garoua, Bertoua, Yaoundé, Bafia, Buea) and Gabon (Libreville). Larval bioassays, carried out to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95) and resistance ratios (RR50 and RR95) suggested that both vector species were susceptible to Bti (Bacillus thuringiensis var israeliensis) and temephos. Bioassays were also performed on adults using WHO diagnostic test kits to assess phenotypic resistance to deltamethrin, DDT, fenitrothion and propoxur. These experiments showed that one population of Ae. aegypti (Libreville) and two populations of Ae. albopictus (Buea and Yaoundé) were resistant to DDT (mortality 36% to 71%). Resistance to deltamethrin was also suspected in Ae. albopictus from Yaoundé (83% mortality). All other field mosquito populations were susceptible to deltamethrin, DDT, fenitrothion and propoxur. No increase in the knockdown times (Kdt50 and Kdt95) was noted in the Yaoundé resistant population compared to other Ae. albopictus populations, suggesting the possible involvement of metabolic resistance to deltamethrin and DDT. Conclusion In view of the recent increase in dengue and

  1. Larvicidal activity of ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ) and Peru balsam ( Myroxylon pereira ) oils and blends of their constituents against mosquito, Aedes aegypti , acute toxicity on water flea, Daphnia magna , and aqueous residue.

    PubMed

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Park, Hye-Mi; Park, Il-Kwon

    2012-06-13

    This study evaluated the larvicidal activity of 20 plant essential oils and components from ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ) and Peru balsam ( Myroxylon pereira ) oils against the mosquito, Aedes aegypti . Of the 20 plant essential oils, ajowan and Peru balsam oils at 0.1 mg/mL exhibited 100 and 97.5% larval mortality, respectively. At this same concentration, the individual constituents, (+)-camphene, benzoic acid, thymol, carvacrol, benzyl benzonate, and benzyl trans-cinnamate, caused 100% mortality. The toxicity of blends of constituents identified in two active oils indicated that thymol and benzyl benzoate were major contributors to the larvicidal activity of the artificial blend. This study also tested the acute toxicity of these two active oils and their major constituents against the water flea, Daphnia magna . Peru balsam oil and benzyl trans-cinnamate were the most toxic to D. magna. Two days after the treatment, residues of ajowan and Peru balsalm oils in water were 36.2 and 85.1%, respectively. Less than 50% of benzyl trans-cinnamate and thymol were detected in the water at 2 days after treatment. The results show that the essential oils of ajowan and Peru balsam and some of their constituents have potential as botanical insecticides against Ae. aegypti mosquito larvae. PMID:22620984

  2. Larvicidal Potential of the Halogenated Sesquiterpene (+)-Obtusol, Isolated from the Alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh (Ceramiales: Rhodomelaceae), against the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Salvador-Neto, Orlando; Gomes, Simone Azevedo; Soares, Angélica Ribeiro; Machado, Fernanda Lacerda da Silva; Samuels, Richard Ian; Nunes da Fonseca, Rodrigo; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Moraes, Jorge Luiz da Cunha; Campos, Eldo; Mury, Flávia Borges; Silva, José Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is considered a serious public health problem in many tropical regions of the world including Brazil. At the moment, there is no viable alternative to reduce dengue infections other than controlling the insect vector, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus. In the continuing search for new sources of chemicals targeted at vector control, natural products are a promising alternative to synthetic pesticides. In our work, we investigated the toxicity of a bioactive compound extracted from the red alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh. The initial results demonstrated that crude extracts, at a concentration of 5 ppm, caused pronounced mortality of second instar A. aegypti larvae. Two molecules, identified as (−)-elatol and (+)-obtusol were subsequently isolated from crude extract and further evaluated. Assays with (−)-elatol showed moderate larvicidal activity, whereas (+)-obtusol presented higher toxic activity than (−)-elatol, with a LC50 value of 3.5 ppm. Histological analysis of the larvae exposed to (+)-obtusol revealed damage to the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, (+)-obtusol-treated larvae incubated with 2 µM CM-H2DCFDA showed the presence of reactive oxygen species, leading us to suggest that epithelial damage might be related to redox imbalance. These results demonstrate the potential of (+)-obtusol as a larvicide for use against A. aegypti and the possible mode of action of this compound. PMID:26821032

  3. Larvicidal Potential of the Halogenated Sesquiterpene (+)-Obtusol, Isolated from the Alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh (Ceramiales: Rhodomelaceae), against the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Salvador-Neto, Orlando; Gomes, Simone Azevedo; Soares, Angélica Ribeiro; Machado, Fernanda Lacerda da Silva; Samuels, Richard Ian; Nunes da Fonseca, Rodrigo; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Moraes, Jorge Luiz da Cunha; Campos, Eldo; Mury, Flávia Borges; Silva, José Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Dengue is considered a serious public health problem in many tropical regions of the world including Brazil. At the moment, there is no viable alternative to reduce dengue infections other than controlling the insect vector, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus. In the continuing search for new sources of chemicals targeted at vector control, natural products are a promising alternative to synthetic pesticides. In our work, we investigated the toxicity of a bioactive compound extracted from the red alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh. The initial results demonstrated that crude extracts, at a concentration of 5 ppm, caused pronounced mortality of second instar A. aegypti larvae. Two molecules, identified as (-)-elatol and (+)-obtusol were subsequently isolated from crude extract and further evaluated. Assays with (-)-elatol showed moderate larvicidal activity, whereas (+)-obtusol presented higher toxic activity than (-)-elatol, with a LC50 value of 3.5 ppm. Histological analysis of the larvae exposed to (+)-obtusol revealed damage to the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, (+)-obtusol-treated larvae incubated with 2 µM CM-H₂DCFDA showed the presence of reactive oxygen species, leading us to suggest that epithelial damage might be related to redox imbalance. These results demonstrate the potential of (+)-obtusol as a larvicide for use against A. aegypti and the possible mode of action of this compound.

  4. The role of octopamine receptor agonists in the synergistic toxicity of certain insect growth regulators (IGRs) in controlling Dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mohamed Ahmed Ibrahim; Vogel, Christoph Franz Adam

    2016-03-01

    The synergistic action of octopamine receptor agonists (OR agonists) on many insecticide classes (e.g., organophosphorus, pyrethroids, and neonicotinoids) on Aedes aegypti L. has been reported recently. An investigation of OR agonist's effect on insect growth regulators (IGRs) was undertaken to provide a better understanding of the mechanism of action. Based on the IGR bioassay, pyriproxyfen was the most potent IGR insecticide tested (EC50=0.0019ng/ml). However, the lethal toxicity results indicate that diafenthiuron was the most potent insecticide (LC50=56ng/cm(2)) on A. aegypti adults after 24h of exposure. The same trend was true after 48 and 72h of exposure. Further, the synergistic effects of OR agonists plus amitraz (AMZ) or chlordimeform (CDM) was significant on adults. Among the tested synergists, AMZ increased the potency of the selected IGRs on adults the greatest. As results, OR agonists were largely synergistic with the selected IGRs. OR agonists enhanced the lethal toxicity of IGRs, which is a valuable new tool in the field of A. aegypti control. However, further field experiments need to be done to understand the unique potential role of OR agonists and their synergistic action on IGRs.

  5. Sustained, Area-Wide Control of Aedes aegypti Using CDC Autocidal Gravid Ovitraps

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, Roberto; Amador, Manuel; Acevedo, Verónica; Hemme, Ryan R.; Félix, Gilberto

    2014-01-01

    We have shown that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) autocidal gravid ovitraps (AGO trap) reduced the Aedes aegypti population and prevented mosquito outbreaks in southern Puerto Rico. After showing treatment efficacy for 1 year, we deployed three traps per home in an area that formerly did not have traps and in a site that served as the intervention area. Two new areas were selected as reference sites to compare the density of Ae. aegypti without traps. We monitored mosquitoes and weather every week in all four sites. The hypotheses were the density of Ae. aegypti in the former reference area converges to the low levels observed in the intervention area, and mosquito density in both areas having control traps is lower than in the new reference areas. Mosquito density in the former reference area decreased 79% and mosquito density in the new reference areas was 88% greater than in the intervention areas. PMID:25223937

  6. Interspecific Cross-Mating Between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Laboratory Strains: Implication of Population Density on Mating Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Marcela, P; Hassan, A Abu; Hamdan, A; Dieng, H; Kumara, T K

    2015-12-01

    Mating behavior between Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, established colony strains were examined under laboratory conditions (30-cm(3) screened cages) for 5 consecutive days. The effect of selected male densities (30, 20, 10) and female density (20) on the number of swarming, mating pairs, eggs produced, and inseminated females were evaluated. Male densities significantly increased swarming behavior, mating pairs, and egg production of heterospecific females, but female insemination was reduced. Aedes aegypti males mate more readily with heterospecific females than do Ae. albopictus males. The current study suggests that Ae. aegypti males were not species-specific in mating, and if released into the field as practiced in genetically modified mosquito techniques, they may mate with both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus females, hence reducing populations of both species by producing infertile eggs.

  7. Field validation of the gravid Aedes trap (GAT) for collection of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Scott A; Buhagiar, Tamara S; Townsend, Michael; Hoffmann, Ary; Van Den Hurk, Andrew F; McMahon, Jamie L; Eiras, Alvaro E

    2014-01-01

    Current surveillance methods for adult Aedes aegypti (L.) are expensive, require electrical power (e.g., the BG-Sentinel trap, BGS), are labor intensive (aspirators), or require difficult to use and costly adhesives (sticky ovitraps). Field trials were conducted in Cairns (Australia) to compare the efficacy of the newly designed Gravid Aedes Trap (GAT) against existing sticky ovitraps (MosquiTRAP and double sticky ovitrap) and the BGS. Latin square design trials confirmed that alarge GAT using a 9.2-liters bucket treated with Mortein Barrier Outdoor Surface Spray ([AI] 0.3 g/kg imiprothrin and 0.6 g/kg deltamethrin) outperformed a smaller 1.2-liters GAT and collected, on average, 3.7x and 2.4X more female Ae. aegypti than the MosquiTRAP and double sticky ovitrap, respectively. Field trials showed that the GAT collected 10-50% less female Ae. aegypti than the BGS trap but 30% more gravid mosquitoes than the BGS. Trials using the BGS and the GAT indicated that there was no difference in capture rates between female Ae. aegypti uninfected and infected with the wMel strain of Wolbachia, and wMel infection rates were nearly identical at >90% to field captured Ae. aegypti. The potential for the GAT to be used for dengue virus surveillance was also demonstrated with dengue virus type 3 RNA detected in five-sixths and six-sixths pools ofAe. aegypti stored in a GAT held at 28 degreeC and 60% relative humidity for 7 and 14 d, respectively. Mosquito knock down in GATs treated with Mortein surface spray set in 30, 70, and 99% shade was comparable for up to 2 mo, with only approximately 10% of adults escaping. The GAT is therefore a useful tool for capturing adult Ae. aegypti and may be suitable for other container-inhabiting species such as Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The low cost and practicality of operation make the GAT suitable for vector surveillance and projects requiring monitoring of mosquitoes for Wolbachia and arboviruses, especially in

  8. Field validation of the gravid Aedes trap (GAT) for collection of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Scott A; Buhagiar, Tamara S; Townsend, Michael; Hoffmann, Ary; Van Den Hurk, Andrew F; McMahon, Jamie L; Eiras, Alvaro E

    2014-01-01

    Current surveillance methods for adult Aedes aegypti (L.) are expensive, require electrical power (e.g., the BG-Sentinel trap, BGS), are labor intensive (aspirators), or require difficult to use and costly adhesives (sticky ovitraps). Field trials were conducted in Cairns (Australia) to compare the efficacy of the newly designed Gravid Aedes Trap (GAT) against existing sticky ovitraps (MosquiTRAP and double sticky ovitrap) and the BGS. Latin square design trials confirmed that alarge GAT using a 9.2-liters bucket treated with Mortein Barrier Outdoor Surface Spray ([AI] 0.3 g/kg imiprothrin and 0.6 g/kg deltamethrin) outperformed a smaller 1.2-liters GAT and collected, on average, 3.7x and 2.4X more female Ae. aegypti than the MosquiTRAP and double sticky ovitrap, respectively. Field trials showed that the GAT collected 10-50% less female Ae. aegypti than the BGS trap but 30% more gravid mosquitoes than the BGS. Trials using the BGS and the GAT indicated that there was no difference in capture rates between female Ae. aegypti uninfected and infected with the wMel strain of Wolbachia, and wMel infection rates were nearly identical at >90% to field captured Ae. aegypti. The potential for the GAT to be used for dengue virus surveillance was also demonstrated with dengue virus type 3 RNA detected in five-sixths and six-sixths pools ofAe. aegypti stored in a GAT held at 28 degreeC and 60% relative humidity for 7 and 14 d, respectively. Mosquito knock down in GATs treated with Mortein surface spray set in 30, 70, and 99% shade was comparable for up to 2 mo, with only approximately 10% of adults escaping. The GAT is therefore a useful tool for capturing adult Ae. aegypti and may be suitable for other container-inhabiting species such as Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The low cost and practicality of operation make the GAT suitable for vector surveillance and projects requiring monitoring of mosquitoes for Wolbachia and arboviruses, especially in

  9. Changes in host-seeking behavior of Puerto Rican Aedes aegypti (L.) following colonization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of colonization on host-seeking behavior of mosquitoes was examined by comparing attraction responses of newly colonized Aedes aegypti (L.) from field-collected eggs in Puerto Rico to that of the Gainesville (Florida) strain, originally from Orlando (Florida) and in colony since 1952. Fe...

  10. Different repellents for Aedes aegypti against blood-feeding and oviposition.

    PubMed

    Afify, Ali; Horlacher, Bérénice; Roller, Johannes; Galizia, C Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Methyl N,N-dimethyl anthranilate (MDA), ethyl anthranilate (EA) and butyl anthranilate (BA) were previously shown to repel Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from landing on human skin. However, the effect of these compounds on the orientation of flying mosquitoes in a choice situation and their effect on mosquito oviposition are not yet known. Here, we used a modified Y-tube olfactometer to test the effect of these compounds on the orientation of Aedes aegypti flying towards skin odor (human fingers), and we tested their effect on Aedes aegypti oviposition choice in a cage assay. In both behavioral situations we compared the effect to the well-documented repellent N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET). MDA, EA, and DEET inhibited Aedes aegypti from flying towards skin odor while BA had no such effect. Conversely, MDA had no effect on oviposition while EA, BA, and DEET deterred oviposition, with the strongest effect observed for BA. Thus, we confirm that EA and DEET are generally repellent, while MDA is repellent only in a host-seeking context, and BA is deterrent only in an oviposition context. These compounds appear of potential use in mosquito control programs. PMID:25079819

  11. Different Repellents for Aedes aegypti against Blood-Feeding and Oviposition

    PubMed Central

    Afify, Ali; Horlacher, Bérénice; Roller, Johannes; Galizia, C. Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Methyl N,N-dimethyl anthranilate (MDA), ethyl anthranilate (EA) and butyl anthranilate (BA) were previously shown to repel Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from landing on human skin. However, the effect of these compounds on the orientation of flying mosquitoes in a choice situation and their effect on mosquito oviposition are not yet known. Here, we used a modified Y-tube olfactometer to test the effect of these compounds on the orientation of Aedes aegypti flying towards skin odor (human fingers), and we tested their effect on Aedes aegypti oviposition choice in a cage assay. In both behavioral situations we compared the effect to the well-documented repellent N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET). MDA, EA, and DEET inhibited Aedes aegypti from flying towards skin odor while BA had no such effect. Conversely, MDA had no effect on oviposition while EA, BA, and DEET deterred oviposition, with the strongest effect observed for BA. Thus, we confirm that EA and DEET are generally repellent, while MDA is repellent only in a host-seeking context, and BA is deterrent only in an oviposition context. These compounds appear of potential use in mosquito control programs. PMID:25079819

  12. Aedes aegypti disregard humidity-related conditions with adequate nutrition.

    PubMed

    Canyon, D V; Muller, R; Hii J, L K

    2013-03-01

    Weather variations have clear associations with the epidemiology of dengue fever and populations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Data on humidity associations, however, lags with respect to its effect on host-biting, nectar-seeking and survival. This experimental study on Ae. aegypti, sourced from the arid tropics, investigated the effect of low and high relative humidity and diet in relation to host-biting, temporal variations in feeding frequency, and mosquito mortality. In each environmental setting, 10 replicates, containing one male and five female mosquitoes, were challenged with different nutritional sources every six hours over 12 days. Results showed that host-biting did not diminish in low humidity and was six times higher than expected. Sucrose feeding was observed to significantly moderate host-biting and water alone was inadequate for survival. The high host-biting rates help to explain the intensity of dengue epidemics, while the ability of the mosquito to disregard adverse humidity-related conditions helps to explain how dengue epidemics in arid tropical regions can be just as devastating as those in the wet tropics.

  13. Using GARP to predict the range of Aedes aegypti in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Zhang, Hengduan; Cao, Xin; Zhang, Xiaolong; Wang, Guolong; He, Zhihong; Yu, Changhui; Zhao, Tongyan

    2014-03-01

    Dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever are common mosquito-borne diseases in tropical and subtropical regions, and are mainly transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The international trade of used tires, coupled with its anthropophilic habit, has enabled Ae. aegypti to colonise new areas in China. We used Genetic Algorithum Rule-Set Production (GARP) to predict the putative current distribution of Ae. aegypti based on data on its distribution 20 years ago and compared this predicted distribution with the known current distribution. The putative distribution corresponded perfectly to the existing distribution. We conclude that GARP is a valid method to predict the putative future distribution of Ae. aegypti, and therefore is an important tool for the surveillance of mosquito-borne diseases in general.

  14. Efficacy of topical permethrin as repellent against Aedes aegypti's bites.

    PubMed

    Miot, Hélio Amante; Ferreira, Daniela Pinho; Mendes, Fabiana Guandalini; Carrenho, Flávia Roberta Hernandes; de Oliveira Amui, Isabela; Carneiro, Carlos Augusto Sá; Madeira, Newton Goulart

    2008-01-01

    Mosquitoes are the most important vectors of infectious diseases and their bites are related to several adverse skin reactions. Permethrin impregnated clothes are an efficient strategy against arthropods' bites; however, its topical efficacy as a repellent has not been well established. We studied the response to permethrin lotion 5 percent and N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) spray 50 percent applied to the unprotected forearms of 10 volunteers. Each arm was exposed to 20 female mosquitoes of Aedes aegypti. We performed 71 bilateral comparative measurements evaluating the timing for the first bites. The average times for the arm without the product, with permethrin 5 percent, and with DEET 50 percent were: 7.9 seconds, 336.2 seconds and 7512.1 seconds. The results showed a significant difference between repellency times between either product and unprotected controls. In addition, there was a significant difference in time to first bite between permethrin and DEET treated arms (p<0.01). Permethrin affords some repellent activity against Aedes aegypti bites in this experimental setting. However, permethrin's profile of repellency was significantly inferior to that of DEET.

  15. Seasonal fluctuations of dengue fever vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R S; Kaul, S M; Sokhay, Jotna

    2005-01-01

    Studies on the seasonal fluctuation of Aedes aegypti were undertaken in different localities of Delhi, during 2000. The Aedes aegypti population was found to be prevalent in all the localities in Delhi. Water coolers and tires were found to be the preferred breeding habitats of Aedes mosquitos in the city. Aedes aegypti, being hygroscopic, showed a phenomenon of annual pulsation. It tends to move to mother foci in the central areas of the city, which are humid in the dry season, and spread out during the wet season. Out of 103,778 houses surveyed, 20,513 houses and 3,547 containers were reported positive for Aedes aegypti. The house container, and Breteau indices were very high during the post-monsoon season. The container indicies was very high (17.7%) in the defence area in September 2000. The container index in the areas of the Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) and the New Delhi Municipal Committee (NDMC) were found to be high during the same period. The house index forAedes aegypti ranged from 0.1 to 7.4, 0.1 to 11.3, and 0.1 to 11.1 in the MCD, NDMC, and Defence areas, respectively.

  16. Characterising the spatial dynamics of sympatric Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus populations in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Duncombe, Jennifer; Espino, Fe; Marollano, Kristian; Velazco, Aldwin; Ritchie, Scott A; Hu, Wen-Biao; Weinstein, Philip; Clements, Archie C A

    2013-11-01

    Entomological surveillance and control are essential to the management of dengue fever (DF). Hence, understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of DF vectors, Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) and Ae. (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse), is paramount. In the Philippines, resources are limited and entomological surveillance and control are generally commenced during epidemics, when transmission is difficult to control. Recent improvements in spatial epidemiological tools and methods offer opportunities to explore more efficient DF surveillance and control solutions: however, there are few examples in the literature from resource-poor settings. The objectives of this study were to: (i) explore spatial patterns of Aedes populations and (ii) predict areas of high and low vector density to inform DF control in San Jose village, Muntinlupa city, Philippines. Fortnightly, adult female Aedes mosquitoes were collected from 50 double-sticky ovitraps (SOs) located in San Jose village for the period June-November 2011. Spatial clustering analysis was performed to identify high and low density clusters of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Spatial autocorrelation was assessed by examination of semivariograms, and ordinary kriging was undertaken to create a smoothed surface of predicted vector density in the study area. Our results show that both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were present in San Jose village during the study period. However, one Aedes species was dominant in a given geographic area at a time, suggesting differing habitat preferences and interspecies competition between vectors. Density maps provide information to direct entomological control activities and advocate the development of geographically enhanced surveillance and control systems to improve DF management in the Philippines.

  17. Repellents Inhibit P450 Enzymes in Stegomyia (Aedes) aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo Ramirez, Gloria Isabel; Logan, James G.; Loza-Reyes, Elisa; Stashenko, Elena; Moores, Graham D.

    2012-01-01

    The primary defence against mosquitoes and other disease vectors is often the application of a repellent. Despite their common use, the mechanism(s) underlying the activity of repellents is not fully understood, with even the mode of action of DEET having been reported to be via different mechanisms; e.g. interference with olfactory receptor neurones or actively detected by olfactory receptor neurones on the antennae or maxillary palps. In this study, we discuss a novel mechanism for repellence, one of P450 inhibition. Thirteen essential oil extracts from Colombian plants were assayed for potency as P450 inhibitors, using a kinetic fluorometric assay, and for repellency using a modified World Health Organisation Pesticide Evaluations Scheme (WHOPES) arm-in cage assay with Stegomyia (Aedes) aegypti mosquitoes. Bootstrap analysis on the inhibition analysis revealed a significant correlation between P450-inhibition and repellent activity of the oils. PMID:23152795

  18. Spatial Stability of Adult Aedes aegypti Populations

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Vector control programs could be more efficient by identifying the location of highly productive sites of Aedes aegypti. This study explored if the number of female adults of Ae. aegypti in BG-Sentinel traps was clustered and if their spatial distribution changed in time in two neighborhoods in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Traps were uniformly distributed across each neighborhood (130 m from each other), and samples were taken every 3 weeks. Global and local spatial autocorrelations were explored. Spatial stability existed if the rank order of trap captures was kept in time. There was lack of global autocorrelation in both neighborhoods, precluding their stratification for control purposes. Hot and cold spots were identified, revealing the highly focal nature of Ae. aegypti. There was significant spatial stability throughout the study in both locations. The consistency in trap productivity in time could be used to increase the effectiveness of vector and dengue control programs. PMID:22144449

  19. Rapid and non-destructive detection and identification two strains of Wolbachia in Aedes aegypti by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the potential of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to detect the presence of Wolbachia pipientis (wMel) in male and female laboratory-reared Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The release of Wolbachia transinfected mosquitoes is likely to form a key component of disease control strategi...

  20. Gene flow pattern among Aedes aegypti populations in Mexico.

    PubMed

    de Lourdes Muñoz, Maria; Mercado-Curiel, Ricardo F; Diaz-Badillo, Alvaro; Pérez Ramirez, Gerardo; Black, William C

    2013-03-01

    Patterns of gene flow vary greatly among Aedes aegypti populations throughout Mexico. The populations are panmictic along the Pacific coast, isolated by distance in northeast Mexico, and exhibit moderate gene flow across the Yucatan peninsula. Nine Ae. aegypti collections from 6 cities in Oaxaca, Mexico, were taken to examine the local patterns of gene flow. Genetic variation was examined in a 387-bp region of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 4 mitochondrial gene (ND4) using single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis, and 3 haplotypes were detected. Cluster analysis on the linearized FST genetic distances failed to group collections in geographic proximity. Regression analysis of linear or road distances on linearized F(ST) indicated that proximal collections were as diverse as distant collections across an approximately 800-km range. The geographical distribution of the Mexican mosquito haplotype frequencies was determined for the ND4 sequences from 524 individuals from Oaxaca (this study) and 2,043 individuals from our previous studies. Herein, we report on yet another pattern dominated by genetic drift among 9 Ae. aegypti collections from 6 cities in Oaxaca, Mexico, and compare it to those reported in other regions of Mexico. Molecular analysis of variance showed that there was as much genetic variation among collections 4 km apart as there was among all collections. The numbers of haplotypes and the amount of genetic diversity among the collections from Oaxaca were much lower than detected in previous studies in other regions of Mexico and may reflect the effects of control efforts or adaptations to the altitudinal limits (1,500 m) of the species in Mexico. The geographical distribution of mosquito haplotypes in Mexico is also reported. Furthermore, based on the distribution of the mosquito haplotypes in America, we suggest that mosquito dispersion is very efficient, most likely due to commercial transportation.

  1. Low oral receptivity for dengue type 2 viruses of Aedes albopictus from Southeast Asia compared with that of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Vazeille, Marie; Rosen, Leon; Mousson, Laurence; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2003-02-01

    Dengue hemorrhagic fever has been a major health problem in Asia since the 1950s. During this period, the former principal vector of dengue viruses in Asia, Aedes albopictus, was replaced by Aedes aegypti in most major cities of the area. Ae. aegypti is now considered the main vector of dengue viruses in Asia. Surprisingly, however, this mosquito has been described as having a relatively low oral receptivity for dengue viruses compared with Ae. albopictus. In the present study, we compared the relative oral receptivities of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus collected in southeast Asia from both sympatric and allopatric breeding sites. In all instances, the oral receptivity of Ae. aegypti to the dengue type 2 virus used was significantly higher than that of Ae. albopictus. We also compared the relative oral receptivity of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus for two other low-passage strains of dengue 2. In all instances, Ae. aegypti was significantly more receptive than Ae. albopictus. It should be noted, however, that the difference was found only for Ae. albopictus recently collected from the field (Ta Promh strain, Cambodia, 2001) and not for an Ae. albopictus strain that had been colonized for many years (Oahu strain, Hawaii, 1971). We also observed a significant increase in the infection rate of Ae. albopictus of the Ta Promh strain with increasing generations in the laboratory. These observations demonstrate the importance of considering the colonization history of mosquitoes when assessing their susceptibility to infection with dengue viruses and, perhaps, other arboviruses.

  2. History of domestication and spread of Aedes aegypti--a review.

    PubMed

    Powell, Jeffrey R; Tabachnick, Walter J

    2013-01-01

    The adaptation of insect vectors of human diseases to breed in human habitats (domestication) is one of the most important phenomena in medical entomology. Considerable data are available on the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti in this regard and here we integrate the available information including genetics, behaviour, morphology, ecology and biogeography of the mosquito, with human history. We emphasise the tremendous amount of variation possessed by Ae. aegypti for virtually all traits considered. Typological thinking needs to be abandoned to reach a realistic and comprehensive understanding of this important vector of yellow fever, dengue and Chikungunya.

  3. Role in diuresis of a calcitonin receptor (GPRCAL1) expressed in a distal-proximal gradient in renal organs of the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.).

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyeogsun; Lu, Hsiao-Ling; Longnecker, Michael T; Pietrantonio, Patricia V

    2012-01-01

    Evolution of anthropophilic hematophagy in insects resulted in the coordination of various physiological processes for survival. In female mosquitoes, a large blood meal provides proteins for egg production and as a trade-off, rapid elimination of the excess water and solutes (Na(+), Cl(-)) is critical for maintaining homeostasis and removing excess weight to resume flight and avoid predation. This post-prandial excretion is achieved by the concerted action of multiple hormones. Diuresis and natriuresis elicited by the calcitonin-like diuretic hormone 31 (DH(31)) are believed to be mediated by a yet uncharacterized calcitonin receptor (GPRCAL) in the mosquito Malpighian tubules (MTs), the renal organs. To contribute knowledge on endocrinology of mosquito diuresis we cloned GPRCAL1 from MT cDNA. This receptor is the ortholog of the DH(31) receptor from Drosophila melanogaster that is expressed in principal cells of the fruit fly MT. Immunofluorescence similarly showed AaegGPRCAL1 is present in MT principal cells in A. aegypti, however, exhibiting an overall gradient-like pattern along the tubule novel for a GPCR in insects. Variegated, cell-specific receptor expression revealed a subpopulation of otherwise phenotypically similar principal cells. To investigate the receptor contribution to fluid elimination, RNAi was followed by urine measurement assays. In vitro, MTs from females that underwent AaegGPRcal1 knock-down exhibited up to 57% decrease in the rate of fluid secretion in response to DH(31). Live females treated with AaegGPRcal1 dsRNA exhibited 30% reduction in fluid excreted after a blood meal. The RNAi-induced phenotype demonstrates the critical contribution of this single secretin-like family B GPCR to fluid excretion in invertebrates and highlights its relevance for the blood feeding adaptation. Our results with the mosquito AaegGPRCAL1 imply that the regulatory function of calcitonin-like receptors for ion and fluid transport in renal organs arose early

  4. Vertical infestation of the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in apartments in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Roslan, Muhammad Aidil; Shafie, Aziz; Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian; Sulaiman, Wan Yusoff Wan

    2013-12-01

    Dengue is a serious public health problem in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to compare the vertical infestation of Aedes population in 2 apartments in Kuala Lumpur with different status of dengue incidence (i.e., high-dengue-incidence area and area with no reported dengue cases). The study was also conducted to assess the relationship between environmental factors such as rainfall, temperature, and humidity and Aedes population that may influence Aedes infestation. Surveillance with a mosquito larvae trapping device was conducted for 28 continuous weeks (January to July 2012) in Vista Angkasa (VA) and Inderaloka (IL) apartments located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The results indicated that both Aedes spp. could be found from ground to higher floor levels of the apartments, with Aedes aegypti being more predominant than Ae. albopictus. Data based on mixed and single breeding of Aedes spp. on different floors did not show any significant difference. Both rainfall (R3; i.e., the amount of rainfall collected during the previous 3 wk before the surveillance period began) and RH data showed significant relationship with the number of Aedes larvae collected in VA and IL. No significant difference was found between the numbers of Aedes larvae in both study areas as well as maximum and minimum temperatures. Results also indicated adaptations of Ae. aegypti to the ecosystem at each elevation of high-rise buildings, with Ae. albopictus staying inside of apartment units.

  5. Repellent activity of herbal essential oils against Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say.)

    PubMed Central

    Sritabutra, Duangkamon; Soonwera, Mayura

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the mosquito repellent activity of herbal essential oils against female Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods On a volunteer's forearm, 0.1 mL of each essential oil was applied to 3 cm×10 cm of exposed skin. The protection time was recorded for 3 min after every 30 min. Results Essential oil from clove oil in olive oil and in coconut oil gave the longest lasting period of 76.50 min and 96.00 min respectively against Aedes aegypti. The citronella grass oil in olive oil, citronella grass oil in coconut oil and lemongrass oil in coconut oil exhibited protection against Culex quinquefasciatus at 165.00, 105.00, and 112.50 min respectively. Conclusions The results clearly indicated that clove, citronella and lemongrass oil were the most promising for repellency against mosquito species. These oils could be used to develop a new formulation to control mosquitoes.

  6. Evaluation of Sumithion L-40 against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse.

    PubMed

    Loke, S R; Sing, K W; Teoh, G N; Lee, H L

    2015-03-01

    Space spraying of chemical insecticides is still an important mean of controlling Aedes mosquitoes and dengue transmission. For this purpose, the bioefficacy of space-sprayed chemical insecticide should be evaluated from time to time. A simulation field trial was conducted outdoor in an open field and indoor in unoccupied flat units in Kuala Lumpur, to evaluate the adulticidal and larvicidal effects of Sumithion L-40, a ULV formulation of fenitrothion. A thermal fogger with a discharge rate of 240 ml/min was used to disperse Sumithion L-40 at 3 different dosages (350 ml/ha, 500 ml/ha, 750 ml/ha) against lab-bred larvae and adult female Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. An average of more than 80% adult mortality was achieved for outdoor space spray, and 100% adult mortality for indoor space spray, in all tested dosages. Outdoor larvicidal effect was noted up to 14 days and 7 days at a dosage of 500 and 750 ml/ha for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, respectively. Indoor larvicidal effect was up to 21 days (500 ml/ha) and 14 days (750 ml/ha), respectively, after spraying with larval mortality > 50% against Ae. aegypti. This study concluded that the effective dosage of Sumithion L-40 thermally applied against adult Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus indoor and outdoor is 500 and 750 ml/ha. Based on these dosages, effective indoor spray volume is 0.4 - 0.6 ml/m³. Additional indoor and outdoor larvicidal effect will be observed at these application dosages, in addition to adult mortality.

  7. In silico models for predicting vector control chemicals targeting Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Devillers, J.; Lagneau, C.; Lattes, A.; Garrigues, J.C.; Clémenté, M.M.; Yébakima, A.

    2014-01-01

    Human arboviral diseases have emerged or re-emerged in numerous countries worldwide due to a number of factors including the lack of progress in vaccine development, lack of drugs, insecticide resistance in mosquitoes, climate changes, societal behaviours, and economical constraints. Thus, Aedes aegypti is the main vector of the yellow fever and dengue fever flaviviruses and is also responsible for several recent outbreaks of the chikungunya alphavirus. As for the other mosquito species, the A. aegypti control relies heavily on the use of insecticides. However, because of increasing resistance to the different families of insecticides, reduction of Aedes populations is becoming increasingly difficult. Despite the unquestionable utility of insecticides in fighting mosquito populations, there are very few new insecticides developed and commercialized for vector control. This is because the high cost of the discovery of an insecticide is not counterbalanced by the ‘low profitability’ of the vector control market. Fortunately, the use of quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) modelling allows the reduction of time and cost in the discovery of new chemical structures potentially active against mosquitoes. In this context, the goal of the present study was to review all the existing QSAR models on A. aegypti. The homology and pharmacophore models were also reviewed. Specific attention was paid to show the variety of targets investigated in Aedes in relation to the physiology and ecology of the mosquito as well as the diversity of the chemical structures which have been proposed, encompassing man-made and natural substances. PMID:25275884

  8. In silico models for predicting vector control chemicals targeting Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Devillers, J; Lagneau, C; Lattes, A; Garrigues, J C; Clémenté, M M; Yébakima, A

    2014-01-01

    Human arboviral diseases have emerged or re-emerged in numerous countries worldwide due to a number of factors including the lack of progress in vaccine development, lack of drugs, insecticide resistance in mosquitoes, climate changes, societal behaviours, and economical constraints. Thus, Aedes aegypti is the main vector of the yellow fever and dengue fever flaviviruses and is also responsible for several recent outbreaks of the chikungunya alphavirus. As for the other mosquito species, the A. aegypti control relies heavily on the use of insecticides. However, because of increasing resistance to the different families of insecticides, reduction of Aedes populations is becoming increasingly difficult. Despite the unquestionable utility of insecticides in fighting mosquito populations, there are very few new insecticides developed and commercialized for vector control. This is because the high cost of the discovery of an insecticide is not counterbalanced by the 'low profitability' of the vector control market. Fortunately, the use of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modelling allows the reduction of time and cost in the discovery of new chemical structures potentially active against mosquitoes. In this context, the goal of the present study was to review all the existing QSAR models on A. aegypti. The homology and pharmacophore models were also reviewed. Specific attention was paid to show the variety of targets investigated in Aedes in relation to the physiology and ecology of the mosquito as well as the diversity of the chemical structures which have been proposed, encompassing man-made and natural substances.

  9. Atmospheric control of Aedes aegypti populations in Buenos Aires (Argentina) and its variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Garín, A.; Bejarán, R. A.; Carbajo, A. E.; de Casas, S. C.; Schweigmann, N. J.

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main urban vector responsible for the transmission of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. The city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, is located at the southern end of the world distribution of the species. The population abundance of Ae. aegypti is mainly regulated by environmental factors. We calculated the potential number of times that a female could lay eggs during its mean life expectancy, based on potential egg production and daily meteorological records. The model considers those variables implying physical hazard to the survival of Ae. aegypti, mosquito flying activity and oviposition. The results, obtained after calibration and validation of the model with field observations, show significant correlation (P<0.001) for different lags depending on the life stage. From these results, more favorable atmospheric conditions for Ae. aegypti reproduction (linked to the urban climatic change) can be observed. The climatic variability in the last decade resembles conditions at the end of 19th century.

  10. Discriminable roles of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in establishment of dengue outbreaks in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao-Fu; Hou, Jion-Nun; Chen, Tien-Huang; Chen, Wei-June

    2014-02-01

    Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus were reported to be significant as vectors of dengue fever. In Taiwan, the latter is distributed throughout the island while the former appears only south of the Tropic of Cancer; i.e., 23.5°N. In the past decade, there were five outbreaks with over 1000 cases of dengue fever in Taiwan. Without exception, these outbreaks all occurred in the south where the two Aedes mosquitoes are sympartic. According to the Center for Disease Control of Taiwan, imported cases are thought to provide the seeds of dengue outbreaks every year. Mostly, the number of imported cases is greater in northern island, probably due to a larger population of travelers and imported workers from endemic countries. Looking at the example in 2002, northern, central, and southern parts of Taiwan reported 28, 11, and 13 imported cases, respectively. However, 54, 21, and 5309 total cases were confirmed in the corresponding regions over the entire year, indicating a significant skew of case distributions. A hypothesis is thus inspired that the existence of Ae. aegypti is a prerequisite to initiate a dengue outbreak, while participation of Ae. albopictus expands or maintains the scale until the de novo herd immunity reaches high level.

  11. An animal homolog of plant Mep/Amt transporters promotes ammonia excretion by the anal papillae of the disease vector mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Chasiotis, Helen; Ionescu, Adrian; Misyura, Lidiya; Bui, Phuong; Fazio, Kimberly; Wang, Jason; Patrick, Marjorie; Weihrauch, Dirk; Donini, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    The transcripts of three putative ammonia (NH3/NH4 (+)) transporters, Rhesus-like glycoproteins AeRh50-1, AeRh50-2 and Amt/Mep-like AeAmt1 were detected in the anal papillae of larval Aedes aegypti Quantitative PCR studies revealed 12-fold higher transcript levels of AeAmt1 in anal papillae relative to AeRh50-1, and levels of AeRh50-2 were even lower. Immunoblotting revealed AeAmt1 in anal papillae as a pre-protein with putative monomeric and trimeric forms. AeAmt1 was immunolocalized to the basal side of the anal papillae epithelium where it co-localized with Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Ammonium concentration gradients were measured adjacent to anal papillae using the scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET) and used to calculate ammonia efflux by the anal papillae. dsRNA-mediated reductions in AeAmt1 decreased ammonia efflux at larval anal papillae and significantly increased ammonia levels in hemolymph, indicating a principal role for AeAmt1 in ammonia excretion. Pharmacological characterization of ammonia transport mechanisms in the anal papillae suggests that, in addition to AeAmt1, the ionomotive pumps V-type H(+)-ATPase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase as well as NHE3 are involved in ammonia excretion at the anal papillae.

  12. Aedes aegypti resistance to temephos in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Seccacini, Emilia; Lucia, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo; Licastro, Susana; Masuh, Hector

    2008-12-01

    Monitoring of resistance of Aedes aegypti to temephos was implemented in the provinces of Formosa and Misiones, Argentina, as a response to the need to improve the vigilance for the dengue vector in areas of high risk of dengue. Eggs collected in each locality were reared, and susceptibility to temephos was assayed using larval bioassays. A weak decrease in susceptibility of larvae to temephos was observed in Clorinda and Puerto Iguazú, indicating an incipient resistance with a resistance ratio of 3. No control failures have been observed yet, and this program should allow the early detection of a real problem in our country.

  13. Lessons of Aedes aegypti control in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Gratz, N G

    1993-01-01

    The incidence of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) in Thailand has increased cyclically since the first recognized outbreak in 1958. Without an effective vaccine against dengue, and considering the clinical difficulty of treating DHF cases, vector control is needed to prevent dengue transmission. Since the establishment of the WHO Aedes Research Unit in 1964, continued since 1973 as the WHO Collaborating Centre at the Department of Medical Research in Bangkok, much operational research has been carried out in Thailand on the bionomics and control of dengue vectors: Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. This review shows that, as in most other countries, dengue vector control programmes in Thailand make little use of the procedures arising from research, nor have they reduced the upward trend of dengue or prevented DHF outbreaks. Implications of the reluctance to use results of operational research on vector control are considered and remedial suggestions made.

  14. The ferritin light-chain homologue promoter in Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Pham, D Q-D; Chavez, C A

    2005-06-01

    Promoters that direct the expression of antipathogenic molecules to primary sites of pathogenic invasions provide a means to interfere with these invasions. Thus, they have the potential to be used in mosquito control. However, exogenous elements are known to lower the fitness of most insects, and given the ability of insects to evolve rapidly, all currently known promoters could be rendered useless. As transgenic mosquitoes may be a major component in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases, the identification of new mosquito promoters is needed. The promoter of the Aedes aegypti ferritin light-chain homologue (LCH) gene, a gene whose expression is induced in gut tissues during blood feeding has been identified and mapped. Transfection data indicate that the ferritin LCH promoter is a strong promoter. DNase I footprinting data and Transfac analyses suggest that the ferritin LCH promoter contains putative GATA, E2F, NIT2, TATA and DPE sites. These data together provide the first detailed map of a known ferritin LCH gene.

  15. Macroclimate determines the global range limit of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Capinha, César; Rocha, Jorge; Sousa, Carla A

    2014-09-01

    Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue and a number of other diseases worldwide. Because of the domestic nature of this mosquito, the relative importance of macroclimate in shaping its distribution has been a controversial issue. We have captured here the worldwide macroclimatic conditions occupied by A. aegypti in the last century. We assessed the ability of this information to predict the species' observed distribution using supra-continental spatially-uncorrelated data. We further projected the distribution of the colonized climates in the near future (2010-2039) under two climate-change scenarios. Our results indicate that the macroclimate is largely responsible for setting the maximum range limit of A. aegypti worldwide and that in the near future, relatively wide areas beyond this limit will receive macroclimates previously occupied by the species. By comparing our projections, with those from a previous model based strictly on species-climate relationships (i.e., excluding human influence), we also found support for the hypothesis that much of the species' range in temperate and subtropical regions is being sustained by artificial environments. Altogether, these findings suggest that, if the domestic environments commonly exploited by this species are available in the newly suitable areas, its distribution may expand considerably in the near future. PMID:24643859

  16. New Candidates for Plant-Based Repellents Against Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Misni, Norashiqin; Nor, Zurainee Mohamed; Ahmad, Rohani

    2016-06-01

    Based on an ethnobotanical study on use for plant species against mosquito bites in the Kota Tinggi District, Johor State, Malaysia, 3 plants selected for study, Citrus aurantifolia (leaves), Citrus grandis (fruit peel), and Alpinia galanga (rhizome), were extracted using hydrodistillation to produce essential oils. These essential oils were then formulated as a lotion using a microencapsulation process and then tested for their repellent effect against Aedes aegypti. N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet) was also prepared in the same formulation and tested for repellency as controls. Four commercial plant-based repellent (KAPS(®), MozAway(®), BioZ Natural(®), and Mosiquard(®)) also were incorporated in the bioassay for comparison purposes. Bioassays revealed that at 20% concentration all repellent formulations demonstrated complete protection for 2 h and >90% for 4 h post-application. The A. galanga-based formulation provided the greatest level of protection (98.91%), which extended for 4 h post-application and was not significantly different from deet at similar concentration. When compared with commercial plant-based repellents (KAPS(®), MozAway(®), and BioZ Natural(®)), the 3 lotion formulations showed significantly better protection against Ae. aegypti bites, providing >90% protection for 4 h. In conclusion, our 3 plant-based lotion formulations provided acceptable levels of protection against host-seeking Ae. aegypti and should be developed.

  17. New Candidates for Plant-Based Repellents Against Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Misni, Norashiqin; Nor, Zurainee Mohamed; Ahmad, Rohani

    2016-06-01

    Based on an ethnobotanical study on use for plant species against mosquito bites in the Kota Tinggi District, Johor State, Malaysia, 3 plants selected for study, Citrus aurantifolia (leaves), Citrus grandis (fruit peel), and Alpinia galanga (rhizome), were extracted using hydrodistillation to produce essential oils. These essential oils were then formulated as a lotion using a microencapsulation process and then tested for their repellent effect against Aedes aegypti. N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet) was also prepared in the same formulation and tested for repellency as controls. Four commercial plant-based repellent (KAPS(®), MozAway(®), BioZ Natural(®), and Mosiquard(®)) also were incorporated in the bioassay for comparison purposes. Bioassays revealed that at 20% concentration all repellent formulations demonstrated complete protection for 2 h and >90% for 4 h post-application. The A. galanga-based formulation provided the greatest level of protection (98.91%), which extended for 4 h post-application and was not significantly different from deet at similar concentration. When compared with commercial plant-based repellents (KAPS(®), MozAway(®), and BioZ Natural(®)), the 3 lotion formulations showed significantly better protection against Ae. aegypti bites, providing >90% protection for 4 h. In conclusion, our 3 plant-based lotion formulations provided acceptable levels of protection against host-seeking Ae. aegypti and should be developed. PMID:27280349

  18. The effect of photoperiod on life history and blood-feeding activity in Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Costanzo, K S; Schelble, S; Jerz, K; Keenan, M

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have examined how climatic variables such as temperature and precipitation may affect life history traits in mosquitoes that are important to disease transmission. Despite its importance as a seasonal cue in nature, studies investigating the influence of photoperiod on such traits are relatively few. This study aims to investigate how photoperiod alters life history traits, survival, and blood-feeding activity in Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus). We performed three experiments that tested the effects of day length on female survival, development time, adult size, fecundity, adult life span, and propensity to blood feed in Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti. Each experiment had three photoperiod treatments: 1) short-day (10L:14D), 2) control (12L:12D), and 3) long-day (14L:10D). Aedes albopictus adult females were consistently larger in size when reared in short-day conditions. Aedes aegypti adult females from short-day treatments lived longer and were more likely to take a blood meal compared to other treatments. We discuss how species-specific responses may reflect alternative strategies evolved to increase survival during unfavorable conditions. We review the potential impacts of these responses on seasonal transmission patterns, such as potentially increasing vectorial capacity of Ae. aegypti during periods of shorter day lengths.

  19. Occurrence of Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar Knab) in oviposition trap of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Honório, Nildimar A; de Barros, Fábio S M; Tsouris, Pantelis; Rosa-Freitas, Maria G

    2007-01-01

    Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar Knab), a poorly known mosquito species, was observed preying upon Aedes aegypti (L.) larvae, in an oviposition trap placed for routine dengue entomological surveillance, during 2003-2004 in the urban area of Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil. This is the first report for Tx. guadeloupensis using Ae. aegypti oviposition traps as breeding places. This finding may have important consequences in the epidemiology and local dengue control since Ae. aegypti density is a basic variable in dengue prediction. Whether predation of Ae aegypti by Tx. guadeloupensis in the Amazon is of significance, is a question to be examined. Also, larval predation may be a cause for underestimation of the actual Ae aegypti numbers. Together these hypotheses need to be better investigated as they are directly related to dengue epidemiology, to the success of any outbreak prediction and surveillance program.

  20. Dengue virus-infected Aedes aegypti in the home environment.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Rejon, Julian; Loroño-Pino, Maria Alba; Farfan-Ale, Jose Arturo; Flores-Flores, Luis; Del Pilar Rosado-Paredes, Elsy; Rivero-Cardenas, Nubia; Najera-Vazquez, Rosario; Gomez-Carro, Salvador; Lira-Zumbardo, Victor; Gonzalez-Martinez, Pedro; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Elizondo-Quiroga, Darwin; Beaty, Barry J; Eisen, Lars

    2008-12-01

    We determined abundance of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and presence of dengue virus (DENV) in females collected from premises of laboratory-confirmed dengue patients over a 12-month period (March 2007 to February 2008) in Merida, Mexico. Backpack aspiration from 880 premises produced 1,836 females and 1,292 males indoors (predominantly from bedrooms) and 102 females and 108 males from patios/backyards. The mean weekly indoor catch rate per home peaked at 7.8 females in late August. Outdoor abundances of larvae or pupae were not predictive of female abundance inside the home. DENV-infected Ae. aegypti females were recovered from 34 premises. Collection of DENV-infected females from homes of dengue patients up to 27 days after the onset of symptoms (median, 14 days) shows the usefulness of indoor insecticide application in homes of suspected dengue patients to prevent their homes from becoming sources for dispersal of DENV by persons visiting and being bitten by infected mosquitoes. PMID:19052309

  1. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sames, W J; Bueno, R; Hayes, J; Olson, J K

    1996-09-01

    In response to a potential dengue fever outbreak in south Texas during 1995, the susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus to commonly used mosquito adulticides were assessed. Larvae collected from the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas and Mexico were reared to adults and tested against susceptible laboratory strains at Texas A&M University. Resistance ratios at both the LC50 and LC95 rates were all less than 10, indicating that adult populations of both species are still susceptible to malathion, chlorpyrifos, resmethrin, and permethrin.

  2. Evidence for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Oviposition on Boats in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Guagliardo, Sarah Anne; Morrison, Amy C; Luis Barboza, Jose; Wesson, Dawn M; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Astete, Helvio; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Kitron, Uriel

    2015-07-01

    Dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. is invading peri-urban and rural areas throughout Latin America. Our previous research in the Peruvian Amazon has shown that river boats are heavily infested with immature and adult Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, likely playing a major role in their long-distance dispersal and successful invasion. However, the presence of immature mosquitoes provides no information about the timing of oviposition, and whether it took place in the boats. Here, we used baited ovitraps deployed on river boats to test the hypothesis that Ae. aegypti oviposition occurs during boat travel. We deployed 360 ovitraps on 60 different barges during August and October of 2013, and February 2014 (with 20 barges sampled during each month). We found that Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in 22 individual ovitraps from 15 of the 60 barges (premise index 25%) across all sampling dates. Further, the distribution of Ae. aegypti egg abundance was highly aggregated: 2.6% of traps (N=7) were responsible for 71.8% of eggs found, and 1.5% of traps (N=4) were responsible for all (100%) of the larvae found. Similarly, 5% of boats were responsible for the 71.47% of eggs. Our results provide strong evidence that Ae. aegypti oviposition commonly occurs during boat travel. Baited ovitraps could represent a cost-effective means of monitoring and controlling mosquito populations on boats. PMID:26335482

  3. Evidence for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Oviposition on Boats in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Guagliardo, Sarah Anne; Morrison, Amy C; Luis Barboza, Jose; Wesson, Dawn M; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Astete, Helvio; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Kitron, Uriel

    2015-07-01

    Dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. is invading peri-urban and rural areas throughout Latin America. Our previous research in the Peruvian Amazon has shown that river boats are heavily infested with immature and adult Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, likely playing a major role in their long-distance dispersal and successful invasion. However, the presence of immature mosquitoes provides no information about the timing of oviposition, and whether it took place in the boats. Here, we used baited ovitraps deployed on river boats to test the hypothesis that Ae. aegypti oviposition occurs during boat travel. We deployed 360 ovitraps on 60 different barges during August and October of 2013, and February 2014 (with 20 barges sampled during each month). We found that Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in 22 individual ovitraps from 15 of the 60 barges (premise index 25%) across all sampling dates. Further, the distribution of Ae. aegypti egg abundance was highly aggregated: 2.6% of traps (N=7) were responsible for 71.8% of eggs found, and 1.5% of traps (N=4) were responsible for all (100%) of the larvae found. Similarly, 5% of boats were responsible for the 71.47% of eggs. Our results provide strong evidence that Ae. aegypti oviposition commonly occurs during boat travel. Baited ovitraps could represent a cost-effective means of monitoring and controlling mosquito populations on boats.

  4. Evidence for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Oviposition on Boats in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Guagliardo, Sarah Anne; Morrison, Amy C.; Luis Barboza, Jose; Wesson, Dawn M.; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Astete, Helvio; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Kitron, Uriel

    2015-01-01

    Dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. is invading peri-urban and rural areas throughout Latin America. Our previous research in the Peruvian Amazon has shown that river boats are heavily infested with immature and adult Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, likely playing a major role in their long-distance dispersal and successful invasion. However, the presence of immature mosquitoes provides no information about the timing of oviposition, and whether it took place in the boats. Here, we used baited ovitraps deployed on river boats to test the hypothesis that Ae. aegypti oviposition occurs during boat travel. We deployed 360 ovitraps on 60 different barges during August and October of 2013, and February 2014 (with 20 barges sampled during each month). We found that Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in 22 individual ovitraps from 15 of the 60 barges (premise index 25%) across all sampling dates. Further, the distribution of Ae. aegypti egg abundance was highly aggregated: 2.6% of traps (N = 7) were responsible for 71.8% of eggs found, and 1.5% of traps (N = 4) were responsible for all (100%) of the larvae found. Similarly, 5% of boats were responsible for the 71.47% of eggs. Our results provide strong evidence that Ae. aegypti oviposition commonly occurs during boat travel. Baited ovitraps could represent a cost-effective means of monitoring and controlling mosquito populations on boats. PMID:26335482

  5. Coexistence of Philodina roseola (Rotifera: Bdelloidea) with larvae of Aedes aegypti in India.

    PubMed

    Muniaraj, M; Sathish Babu, R

    2014-06-01

    The vector mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus of dengue and Chikungunya fever are closely associated with human habitations and adapted to feed on human blood. They undergo larval and pupal development in natural and artificial freshwater collections in the urban and peri-urban environment. Although reports are available about the feeding behaviour of the thriving mosquito larvae, much information is still required to understand the successful survival of Aedes mosquitoes in small and temporary water collections. This study was undertaken to determine the co-existence and prevalence of Philodina roseola and other Bdelloid rotifers in the container habitats of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. The investigation was conducted in 43 villages which belong to four districts in South India, affected by the epidemic of either dengue or Chikungunya fever. A total of 2093 houses and 12980 containers were examined for Aedes breeding and those containers with Aedes larvae were chosen for further investigation. The investigation showed that, the P. roseola was found associated in 502 (98.2%) containers, P. roseola along with other Philodina sp. in 126 containers (25%) and P. roseola along with other Philodina sp. and other Bdelloid rotifers found in 93 containers (19%). Since the members of the genus Philodina can survive desiccation, reproduce by parthenogenesis, can be transported by wind easily and more importantly, it can incorporate the genome of other organisms including viruses, understanding the co-existence and relationship of Philodina sp. with Aedes larvae would be helpful in the control of Aedes breeding and the control measures can be designed keeping the association of Bdelloids with Aedes in mind.

  6. Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus Larvae to gedunin-related limonoids.

    PubMed

    Gurulingappa, Hallur; Tare, Vrushali; Pawar, Pushpa; Tungikar, Vijay; Jorapur, Yogesh R; Madhavi, Sriram; Bhat, Sujata V

    2009-06-01

    The major non-azadirachtin limonoids such as gedunin (1), epoxyazadiradione (3), nimbocinol (4), and nimolicinol (5) from Azadirachta indica A. Juss ('neem') and their derivatives were evaluated for their toxic action against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Gedunin exhibited 100% toxic action against both the mosquito larvae at 50 and 10 ppm. Epoxyazadiradione and epoxynimolicinol also showed significant toxicities (> or =50%) against larvae of both mosquito species at 50 ppm. These neem limonoids can have benefits in mosquito-control programs. PMID:19551731

  7. Pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Janet C; Godsey, Marvin S; Scott, Mariah L

    2012-12-01

    In Port-au-Prince, Haiti, the status of insecticide resistance has not recently been evaluated for Aedes aegypti (L) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) populations. No prophylactics exist for dengue, so prevention is only through vector control methods. An earthquake occurred in Haiti on January 12, 2010, with a magnitude of 7.0 Mw that devastated the area. Dengue became a major concern for the humanitarian relief workers that entered the country. Bottle bioassays were conducted in the field on adult mosquitoes reared from larvae collected from the grounds of the U.S. Embassy and from an adjacent neighborhood in eastern Port-au-Prince, Haiti. At the CDC, Fort Collins, CO, bioassays, molecular, and biochemical assays were performed on mosquitoes reared from field-collected eggs. A small percentage of the population was able to survive the diagnostic dose in bioassays run in Haiti. Mosquitoes tested at the CDC demonstrated no phenotypic resistance. A variety of factors could be responsible for the discrepancies between the field and lab data, but temperature and larval nutrition are probably most important. Knowledge of localized resistance and underlying mechanisms helps in making rational decisions in selection of appropriate and effective insecticides in the event of a dengue outbreak.

  8. Attraction and trapping of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) with host odors in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    McCall, P J; Harding, G; Roberts, J; Auty, B

    1996-01-01

    Volatile constituents of mouse odor were eluted from an adsorbent after collection within a closed-air system, and offered to host-seeking yellowfever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (L.), in the laboratory. Gas chromatographic analysis showed that individual mouse odors varied in blend, both quantitatively and qualitatively. In a 2-choice bioassay, sticky traps baited with individual mouse odors caught more female mosquitoes than controls (69% caught on baited traps) in all cases. When 2 traps baited with volatiles from the empty collection system were used, no preference occurred (46 and 54%), and fewer mosquitoes (22% of total) were caught overall than when a baited trap was present (46% of total). Equal numbers of male mosquitoes were caught on baited and control traps. Results demonstrated that Ae. aegypti can be attracted to entrained and eluted host odor without the addition of other attractants.

  9. Repellence of essential oils of aromatic plants growing in Argentina against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Gleiser, Raquel M; Bonino, Maria A; Zygadlo, Julio A

    2011-01-01

    Mosquitoes are vectors of pathogens to humans and domestic animals and may also have economical impacts. One approach to prevent mosquito-borne diseases is bite deterrence through the application of repellents. Currently, there is an interest to search for alternative bioactive products to the synthetic active ingredients most widely used in insect repellents. Repellence against Aedes aegypti of essential oils extracted from Acantholippia salsoloides, Aloysia catamarcensis, Aloysia polystachya, Lippia integrifolia, Lippia junelliana (Verbenaceae), Baccharis salicifolia, Euphatorium buniifolium, and Tagetes filifolia (Asteraceae) were assessed. Tests were conducted by alternatively exposing untreated and treated forehand to the mosquitoes and counting probing attempts. All essential oils tested were significantly repellent against A. aegypti when compared to untreated controls; L. junelliana was the most repellent and T. filifolia was the least based on the response of the mosquitoes to different concentrations of the essential oils (EO). Repellence may be attributed to the respective main components of each EO. PMID:20838809

  10. Patterns of Geographic Expansion of Aedes aegypti in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Guagliardo, Sarah Anne; Barboza, José Luis; Morrison, Amy C.; Astete, Helvio; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Kitron, Uriel

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives In the Peruvian Amazon, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti is abundant in large urban centers such as Iquitos. In recent years, it has also been found in a number of neighboring rural communities with similar climatic and socioeconomic conditions. To better understand Ae. aegypti spread, we compared characteristics of communities, houses, and containers in infested and uninfested communities. Methods We conducted pupal-demographic surveys and deployed ovitraps in 34 communities surrounding the city of Iquitos. Communities surveyed were located along two transects: the Amazon River and a 95km highway. We calculated entomological indices, mapped Ae. aegypti presence, and developed univariable and multivariable logistic regression models to predict Ae. aegypti presence at the community, household, or container level. Results Large communities closer to Iquitos were more likely to be infested with Ae. aegypti. Within infested communities, houses with Ae. aegypti had more passively-filled containers and were more often infested with other mosquito genera than houses without Ae. aegypti. For containers, large water tanks/drums and containers with solar exposure were more likely to be infested with Ae. aegypti. Maps of Ae. aegypti presence revealed a linear pattern of infestation along the highway, and a scattered pattern along the Amazon River. We also identified the geographical limit of Ae. aegypti expansion along the highway at 19.3 km south of Iquitos. Conclusion In the Peruvian Amazon, Ae. aegypti geographic spread is driven by human transportation networks along rivers and highways. Our results suggest that urban development and oviposition site availability drive Ae. aegypti colonization along roads. Along rivers, boat traffic is likely to drive long-distance dispersal via unintentional transport of mosquitoes on boats. PMID:25101786

  11. THAP and ATF-2 Regulated Sterol Carrier Protein-2 Promoter Activities in the Larval Midgut of the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Rong; Fu, Qiang; Hong, Huazhu; Schwaegler, Tyler; Lan, Que

    2012-01-01

    Expression of sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) in Aedes aegypti shows a distinct temporal/spatial pattern throughout the life cycle. In order to identify the transcription factors responsible for the larval temporal/spatial regulation of AeSCP-2 transcription, AeSCP-2 promoter activities were studied in vivo via transient transfection of promoter/reporter gene assays. Regulatory sequences upstream −1.3 kb of the transcription start site of AeSCP-2 were found to be critical for the in vivo temporal/spatial promoter activity. Interestingly, the −1.6 kb promoter sequence efficiently drove the larval midgut-specific siRNA expression, indicating that the −1.6 kb upstream sequence is sufficient for temporal/spatial AeSCP-2 transcriptional activity. Four transcription factors were identified in the midgut nuclear extract from feeding larvae via labeled −1.6/−1.3 kb DNA probe pull-down and proteomic analysis. Co-transfection of the promoter/reporter gene with inducible siRNA expression of each transcription factor was performed to confirm the regulatory function of individual transcription factor on AeSCP-2 transcriptional activities in the larval midgut. The results indicate that two of the identified transcription factors, Thanatos-associated protein (THAP) and activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2), antagonistically control AeSCP-2 transcriptional activity in the midgut of feeding larvae via the regulatory sequences between −1.6 to −1.3 kb 5′ upstream of the transcription start site. In vivo expression knockdown of THAP and ATF-2 resulted in significant changes in developmental progression, which may be partially due to their effects on AeSCP-2 expression. PMID:23056538

  12. THAP and ATF-2 regulated sterol carrier protein-2 promoter activities in the larval midgut of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Peng, Rong; Fu, Qiang; Hong, Huazhu; Schwaegler, Tyler; Lan, Que

    2012-01-01

    Expression of sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) in Aedes aegypti shows a distinct temporal/spatial pattern throughout the life cycle. In order to identify the transcription factors responsible for the larval temporal/spatial regulation of AeSCP-2 transcription, AeSCP-2 promoter activities were studied in vivo via transient transfection of promoter/reporter gene assays. Regulatory sequences upstream -1.3 kb of the transcription start site of AeSCP-2 were found to be critical for the in vivo temporal/spatial promoter activity. Interestingly, the -1.6 kb promoter sequence efficiently drove the larval midgut-specific siRNA expression, indicating that the -1.6 kb upstream sequence is sufficient for temporal/spatial AeSCP-2 transcriptional activity. Four transcription factors were identified in the midgut nuclear extract from feeding larvae via labeled -1.6/-1.3 kb DNA probe pull-down and proteomic analysis. Co-transfection of the promoter/reporter gene with inducible siRNA expression of each transcription factor was performed to confirm the regulatory function of individual transcription factor on AeSCP-2 transcriptional activities in the larval midgut. The results indicate that two of the identified transcription factors, Thanatos-associated protein (THAP) and activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2), antagonistically control AeSCP-2 transcriptional activity in the midgut of feeding larvae via the regulatory sequences between -1.6 to -1.3 kb 5' upstream of the transcription start site. In vivo expression knockdown of THAP and ATF-2 resulted in significant changes in developmental progression, which may be partially due to their effects on AeSCP-2 expression. PMID:23056538

  13. Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in Singapore City. 5. Observations in relation to dengue haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Chan, Y C; Ho, B C; Chan, K L

    1971-01-01

    Dengue haemorrhagic fever in Singapore was a disease of the urban human population, with concentrations of cases occurring in areas of high population density. Mosquito surveys revealed that these areas also had high population densities of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus.The disease occurred throughout the year but the incidence of cases appeared to follow a seasonal pattern. Observations from 1966 to 1968 showed that the number of cases increased in April, reached a peak in November, and, thereafter, decreased until the next increase in April of the following year. The epidemic curve generally agreed with the fluctuations of both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus populations, although the latter species appeared to show a better correspondence with the incidence of cases.Six dengue viruses were isolated from the two Aedes species during 1966. One dengue type 2 virus was isolated from a pool of Ae. aegypti and 1 dengue type 1 virus and 4 dengue type 2 viruses were recovered from 5 pools of Ae. albopictus. These viruses were isolated from mosquitos collected during the period of increase in the incidence of cases and in 4 different areas of the city. The dengue virus infection rates per 1 000 mosquitos estimated in the present study were 0.51 for Ae. aegypti and 0.59 for Ae. albopictus.The data obtained in the present study suggest that both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus are involved in the transmission of dengue haemorrhagic fever in Singapore.

  14. Dengue cases and Aedes aegypti indices in Trinidad, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Chadee, D D

    2009-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether any relationships exist between Aedes aegypti indices, dengue seroprevalence and dengue transmission in County Victoria, Trinidad, West Indies. The cardinal points surveillance method was used to evaluate 50 suspected dengue fever (DF) cases. Thirty-three (33) confirmed DF cases were fully investigated within 48h of clinical diagnosis. Using retrospective data collected during the previous year (2003-2004) and study data, key premises and key containers were determined. Ninety-two percent of the houses were considered key premises, and 66% (22/33) of the houses with dengue positive cases harboured Ae. aegypti immature stages. These results showed that significantly (P<0.001) more adults (1050 vs 493) and immatures were collected during dengue case investigations than during routine inspection and treatment cycles. In addition, when the DF diagnosis was made the pupae per person rates increased from 0.65 to 1.35 with significantly (P<0.001) larger numbers of Ae. aegypti females emerging daily, increasing from 221 to 472.5. That is, the mosquito density required for DF transmission may be high for Trinidad given the high seroprevalence rates (94% among pregnant women). These results suggest that dengue transmission occurs, not at a fixed entomologic figure/quantity but rather at a variable level based on numerous factors including seroprevalence, mosquito density and climate. These findings have implications for effective programs: by combining cardinal points and the key premises approaches; vector control programs can now target the most productive containers in key premises thus reducing dengue transmission levels.

  15. Insecticidal and repellent activity of Siparuna guianensis Aubl. (Negramina) against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Raimundo Wagner Souza; dos Santos, Suetonio Fernandes; da Silva Morgado, Fabricio; Ascencio, Sergio Donizeti; de Mendonça Lopes, Magnólia; Viana, Kelvinson Fernandes; Didonet, Julcemar; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the toxic effects of essential oils isolated from Siparuna guianensis against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus (eggs, larvae, pupae, and adult) and Aedes albopictus (C6/36) cells. The oviposition-deterring activity, egg viability, and repellence activity in the presence of different essential oils concentrations were determined. The essential oils showed high toxicity to all developmental stages of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. Furthermore, the oils also showed high repellent activity towards the adult stage of mosquitoes (0.025 to 0.550 μg/cm2 skin conferred 100% repellence up to 120 min) and in contact with cultured insect cells (C6/36) induced death possibly by necrosis. The results presented in this work show the potential of S. guianensis essential oils for the development of an alternative and effective method for the natural control of mosquitoes in homes and urban areas.

  16. Insecticidal and repellent activity of Siparuna guianensis Aubl. (Negramina) against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Raimundo Wagner Souza; dos Santos, Suetonio Fernandes; da Silva Morgado, Fabricio; Ascencio, Sergio Donizeti; de Mendonça Lopes, Magnólia; Viana, Kelvinson Fernandes; Didonet, Julcemar; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the toxic effects of essential oils isolated from Siparuna guianensis against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus (eggs, larvae, pupae, and adult) and Aedes albopictus (C6/36) cells. The oviposition-deterring activity, egg viability, and repellence activity in the presence of different essential oils concentrations were determined. The essential oils showed high toxicity to all developmental stages of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. Furthermore, the oils also showed high repellent activity towards the adult stage of mosquitoes (0.025 to 0.550 μg/cm2 skin conferred 100% repellence up to 120 min) and in contact with cultured insect cells (C6/36) induced death possibly by necrosis. The results presented in this work show the potential of S. guianensis essential oils for the development of an alternative and effective method for the natural control of mosquitoes in homes and urban areas. PMID:25646797

  17. Insecticidal and Repellent Activity of Siparuna guianensis Aubl. (Negramina) against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar, Raimundo Wagner Souza; dos Santos, Suetonio Fernandes; da Silva Morgado, Fabricio; Ascencio, Sergio Donizeti; de Mendonça Lopes, Magnólia; Viana, Kelvinson Fernandes; Didonet, Julcemar; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the toxic effects of essential oils isolated from Siparuna guianensis against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus (eggs, larvae, pupae, and adult) and Aedes albopictus (C6/36) cells. The oviposition-deterring activity, egg viability, and repellence activity in the presence of different essential oils concentrations were determined. The essential oils showed high toxicity to all developmental stages of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. Furthermore, the oils also showed high repellent activity towards the adult stage of mosquitoes (0.025 to 0.550 μg/cm2 skin conferred 100% repellence up to 120 min) and in contact with cultured insect cells (C6/36) induced death possibly by necrosis. The results presented in this work show the potential of S. guianensis essential oils for the development of an alternative and effective method for the natural control of mosquitoes in homes and urban areas. PMID:25646797

  18. Why do female Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) feed preferentially and frequently on human blood?

    PubMed

    Harrington, L C; Edman, J D; Scott, T W

    2001-05-01

    Adult female Aedes aegypti (L.), the vector of dengue and yellow fever viruses, have an affinity for feeding on human blood and a tendency to forego feeding on sugar. This observation challenges two tenets of mosquito biology: (1) mosquitoes imbibe plant carbohydrates for synthesis of energy reserves and blood for reproduction and (2) egg production is reduced when mosquitoes feed on human blood compared with blood from other species. Sub-optimal amounts of the amino acid isoleucine in human blood (particularly free isoleucine in plasma) are thought to be responsible for lowered egg production when human blood is ingested. We tested the hypothesis that feeding on human blood is associated with a selective advantage for Ae. aegypti and is an underlying reason for this mosquito's intimate and epidemiologically important relationship with human beings. Our five experiments examined the effects of different isoleucine concentrations on accumulated energy reserves, frequency of host contact, survival, and egg production. When mosquitoes imbibed blood meals over a 7- to 10-d period and were not fed sugar, increased isoleucine concentration decreased energy reserves and did not increase egg production. Aedes aegypti took smaller but more frequent blood meals when feeding on a low-isoleucine human host daily compared with a high-isoleucine mouse host. Previous reports that isoleucine enhances egg production were confirmed only when females were fed sugar, an unusual behavior for most domestic Ae. aegypti populations. Females fed human blood and water had greater age-specific survival (l(x)), reproductive output (m(x)), and cumulative net replacement (R0) than cohorts fed human blood plus sugar or isoleucine-rich mouse blood with or without access to sugar. The unique isoleucine concentration of human blood is associated with Ae. aegypti's unusual propensity to feed preferentially and frequently on humans--a behavior that increases this mosquito's fitness, synthesis of

  19. Dengue Virus Infection of Aedes aegypti Requires a Putative Cysteine Rich Venom Protein

    PubMed Central

    Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Troupin, Andrea; Conway, Michael J; Vesely, Diana; Ledizet, Michael; Roundy, Christopher M.; Cloherty, Erin; Jameson, Samuel; Vanlandingham, Dana; Higgs, Stephen; Fikrig, Erol; Colpitts, Tonya M.

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes serious human disease and mortality worldwide. There is no specific antiviral therapy or vaccine for DENV infection. Alterations in gene expression during DENV infection of the mosquito and the impact of these changes on virus infection are important events to investigate in hopes of creating new treatments and vaccines. We previously identified 203 genes that were ≥5-fold differentially upregulated during flavivirus infection of the mosquito. Here, we examined the impact of silencing 100 of the most highly upregulated gene targets on DENV infection in its mosquito vector. We identified 20 genes that reduced DENV infection by at least 60% when silenced. We focused on one gene, a putative cysteine rich venom protein (SeqID AAEL000379; CRVP379), whose silencing significantly reduced DENV infection in Aedes aegypti cells. Here, we examine the requirement for CRVP379 during DENV infection of the mosquito and investigate the mechanisms surrounding this phenomenon. We also show that blocking CRVP379 protein with either RNAi or specific antisera inhibits DENV infection in Aedes aegypti. This work identifies a novel mosquito gene target for controlling DENV infection in mosquitoes that may also be used to develop broad preventative and therapeutic measures for multiple flaviviruses. PMID:26491875

  20. Aedes aegypti on Madeira Island (Portugal): genetic variation of a recently introduced dengue vector.

    PubMed

    Seixas, Gonçalo; Salgueiro, Patrícia; Silva, Ana Clara; Campos, Melina; Spenassatto, Carine; Reyes-Lugo, Matías; Novo, Maria Teresa; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; Silva Pinto, João Pedro Soares da; Sousa, Carla Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The increasing population of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes on Madeira Island (Portugal) resulted in the first autochthonous dengue outbreak, which occurred in October 2012. Our study establishes the first genetic evaluation based on the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes [cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4)] and knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations exploring the colonisation history and the genetic diversity of this insular vector population. We included mosquito populations from Brazil and Venezuela in the analysis as putative geographic sources. The Ae. aegypti population from Madeira showed extremely low mtDNA genetic variability, with a single haplotype for COI and ND4. We also detected the presence of two important kdr mutations and the quasi-fixation of one of these mutations (F1534C). These results are consistent with a unique recent founder event that occurred on the island of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes that carry kdr mutations associated with insecticide resistance. Finally, we also report the presence of the F1534C kdr mutation in the Brazil and Venezuela populations. To our knowledge, this is the first time this mutation has been found in South American Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. Given the present risk of Ae. aegypti re-invading continental Europe from Madeira and the recent dengue outbreaks on the island, this information is important to plan surveillance and control measures.

  1. Cyt1A from Bacillus thuringiensis Synergizes Activity of Bacillus sphaericus against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Margaret C.; Federici, Brian A.; Walton, William E.

    2000-01-01

    Bacillus sphaericus is a mosquitocidal bacterium recently developed as a commercial larvicide that is used worldwide to control pestiferous and vector mosquitoes. Whereas B. sphaericus is highly active against larvae of Culex and Anopheles mosquitoes, it is virtually nontoxic to Aedes aegypti, an important vector species. In the present study, we evaluated the capacity of the cytolytic protein Cyt1A from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis to enhance the toxicity of B. sphaericus toward A. aegypti. Various combinations of these two materials were evaluated, and all were highly toxic. A ratio of 10:1 of B. sphaericus to Cyt1A was 3,600-fold more toxic to A. aegypti than B. sphaericus alone. Statistical analysis showed this high activity was due to synergism between the Cyt1A toxin and B. sphaericus. These results suggest that Cyt1A could be useful in expanding the host range of B. sphaericus. PMID:10698776

  2. Regulation of Aedes aegypti Population Dynamics in Field Systems: Quantifying Direct and Delayed Density Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Rachael K.; Aguilar, Cristobal L.; Facchinelli, Luca; Valerio, Laura; Ramsey, Janine M.; Scott, Thomas W.; Lloyd, Alun L.; Gould, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic strains of Aedes aegypti have been engineered to help control transmission of dengue virus. Although resources have been invested in developing the strains, we lack data on the ecology of mosquitoes that could impact the success of this approach. Although studies of intra-specific competition have been conducted using Ae. aegypti larvae, none of these studies examine mixed age cohorts at densities that occur in the field, with natural nutrient levels. Experiments were conducted in Mexico to determine the impact of direct and delayed density dependence on Ae. aegypti populations. Natural water, food, and larval densities were used to estimate the impacts of density dependence on larval survival, development, and adult body size. Direct and delayed density-dependent factors had a significant impact on larval survival, larval development, and adult body size. These results indicate that control methods attempting to reduce mosquito populations may be counteracted by density-dependent population regulation. PMID:23669230

  3. Finding Aedes aegypti in a natural breeding site in an urban zone, Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes; Urbinatti, Paulo Roberto; Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This is the description of how nine Aedes aegypti larvae were found in a natural breeding site in the Pinheiros neighborhood, city of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. The record was conducted in December 2014, during an entomological surveillance program of dengue virus vectors, with an active search of potential breeding sites, either artificial or natural. Finding Ae. aegypti larvae in a tree hole shows this species’ ability to use both artificial and natural environments as breeding sites and habitats, which points towards the importance of maintaining continuous surveillance on this mosquito in all kinds of water-holding containers. PMID:26982959

  4. A stochastic population dynamics model for Aedes aegypti: formulation and application to a city with temperate climate.

    PubMed

    Otero, Marcelo; Solari, Hernán G; Schweigmann, Nicolás

    2006-11-01

    Aedes aegypti is the main vector for dengue and urban yellow fever. It is extended around the world not only in the tropical regions but also beyond them, reaching temperate climates. Because of its importance as a vector of deadly diseases, the significance of its distribution in urban areas and the possibility of breeding in laboratory facilities, Aedes aegypti is one of the best-known mosquitoes. In this work the biology of Aedes aegypti is incorporated into the framework of a stochastic population dynamics model able to handle seasonal and total extinction as well as endemic situations. The model incorporates explicitly the dependence with temperature. The ecological parameters of the model are tuned to the present populations of Aedes aegypti in Buenos Aires city, which is at the border of the present day geographical distribution in South America. Temperature thresholds for the mosquito survival are computed as a function of average yearly temperature and seasonal variation as well as breeding site availability. The stochastic analysis suggests that the southern limit of Aedes aegypti distribution in South America is close to the 15 degrees C average yearly isotherm, which accounts for the historical and current distribution better than the traditional criterion of the winter (July) 10 degrees C isotherm. PMID:16832731

  5. A stochastic population dynamics model for Aedes aegypti: formulation and application to a city with temperate climate.

    PubMed

    Otero, Marcelo; Solari, Hernán G; Schweigmann, Nicolás

    2006-11-01

    Aedes aegypti is the main vector for dengue and urban yellow fever. It is extended around the world not only in the tropical regions but also beyond them, reaching temperate climates. Because of its importance as a vector of deadly diseases, the significance of its distribution in urban areas and the possibility of breeding in laboratory facilities, Aedes aegypti is one of the best-known mosquitoes. In this work the biology of Aedes aegypti is incorporated into the framework of a stochastic population dynamics model able to handle seasonal and total extinction as well as endemic situations. The model incorporates explicitly the dependence with temperature. The ecological parameters of the model are tuned to the present populations of Aedes aegypti in Buenos Aires city, which is at the border of the present day geographical distribution in South America. Temperature thresholds for the mosquito survival are computed as a function of average yearly temperature and seasonal variation as well as breeding site availability. The stochastic analysis suggests that the southern limit of Aedes aegypti distribution in South America is close to the 15 degrees C average yearly isotherm, which accounts for the historical and current distribution better than the traditional criterion of the winter (July) 10 degrees C isotherm.

  6. Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and dengue in Argentina: current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Vezzani, Darío; Carbajo, Aníbal E

    2008-02-01

    Since the reinfestation of South American countries by Ae. aegypti, dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) have become a major public health concern. The aim of this paper was to review the information related with Aedes vectors and dengue in Argentina since the reintroduction of Ae. aegypti in 1986. The geographic distribution of Ae. albopictus is restricted to the Northeast, and that of Ae. aegypti has expanded towards the South and the West in comparison with the records during the eradication campaign in the 1960s. Since 1998, 4,718 DF cases have been reported concentrated in the provinces of Salta, Formosa, Misiones, Jujuy and Corrientes. Despite the circulation of three dengue virus serotypes (DENV-1, -2 and -3) in the North of the country, DHF has not occurred until the present. The information published over the last two decades regarding mosquito abundance, temporal variations, habitat characteristics, competition, and chemical and biological control, was reviewed. Considering the available information, issues pending in Argentina are discussed. The presence of three DENV, the potential spread of Ae. albopictus, and the predicted climate change suggest that dengue situation will get worse in the region. Research efforts should be increased in the Northern provinces, where DHF is currently an actual risk.

  7. Field evaluations of disposable sticky lures for surveillance of Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) and Culex quinquefasciatus in Jakarta.

    PubMed

    Kay, B H; Brown, M D; Siti, Z; Bangs, M J

    2013-09-01

    From December 1997 to April 1998, disposable sticky lures (1608 lure days) were trialled in homes in north Jakarta, Indonesia as surveillance tools for Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae), referenced to indoor resting adult collections (92 × 10 min). The lures collected 89.4% of the total of 1339 Ae. aegypti and 92.1% of the total of 1272 Cx. quinquefasciatus collected by all methods. Because there were no significant differences with respect to numbers collected in bedrooms, living rooms and kitchens, bedrooms were selected for subsequent trials for reasons of convenience. The main trials involved a replicated complete block design with L-lysine and sodium carbonate. Lures without attractant or with four different dilutions of L-lysine collected 3.4-8.5 times more Ae. aegypti and 4.2-8.1 times more Cx. quinquefasciatus than were collected by mouth aspirator. Lures with or without dilutions of sodium carbonate collected 2.7-5.0 times more Ae. aegypti and 1.8-4.2 times more Cx. quinquefasciatus than aspirator collections. The precision associated with catches of sticky lures was better than that for aspirator collections. Although olfactants generally improved the numbers of mosquitoes collected, the differences in catch between lures with and without attractants were usually non-significant. Any deficit in catch may be offset by increasing the surveillance period to ≥30 days to detect all four dengue serotypes from infected mosquitoes.

  8. Phylogeography of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) based on mitochondrial DNA variations.

    PubMed

    Mousson, Laurence; Dauga, Catherine; Garrigues, Thomas; Schaffner, Francis; Vazeille, Marie; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2005-08-01

    Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (l.) and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) are the most important vectors of the dengue and yellow-fever viruses. Both took advantage of trade developments to spread throughout the tropics from their native area: A. aegypti originated from Africa and a. albopictus from South-East Asia. We investigated the relationships between A. aegypti and A. albopictus mosquitoes based on three mitochondrial-DNA genes (cytochrome b, cytochrome oxidase I and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5). Little genetic variation was observed for a. albopictus, probably owing to the recent spreading of the species via human activities. For A. aegypti, most populations from South America were found to be genetically similar to populations from South-East Asia (Thailand and Vietnam), except for one sample from Boa Vista (northern Amazonia), which was more closely related to samples from Africa (Guinea and Ivory Coast). This suggests that African populations of A. aegypti introduced during the slave trade have persisted in Boa Vista, resisting eradication campaigns.

  9. Genetics and morphology of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in septic tanks in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Somers, Gerard; Brown, Julia E; Barrera, Roberto; Powell, Jeffrey R

    2011-11-01

    Dengue viruses, primarily transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.), affect an estimated 50-100 million people yearly. Traditional approaches to control mosquito population numbers, such as the use of pesticides, have had only limited success. Atypical mosquito behavior may be one reason why current vector control efforts have been less efficacious than expected. In Puerto Rico, for example, adult Ae. aegypti have been observed emerging from septic tanks. Interestingly, adults emerging from septic tanks are larger on average than adults collected from surface containers. To determine whether adults colonizing septic tanks constitute a separate Ae. aegypti population, we used 12 previously validated microsatellite loci to examine adult mosquitoes collected from both septic tanks and surface containers, but found no evidence to suggest genetic differentiation. Size differences between septic tank and surface mosquitoes were reduced when nutrient levels were held constant across experimental groups. Despite the absence of evidence suggesting a genetic difference between experimental groups in this study, Ae. aegypti emerging from septic tanks may still represent a more dangerous phenotype and should be given special consideration when developing vector control programs and designing public health interventions in the future. PMID:22238867

  10. Genetics and morphology of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in septic tanks in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Somers, Gerard; Brown, Julia E; Barrera, Roberto; Powell, Jeffrey R

    2011-11-01

    Dengue viruses, primarily transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.), affect an estimated 50-100 million people yearly. Traditional approaches to control mosquito population numbers, such as the use of pesticides, have had only limited success. Atypical mosquito behavior may be one reason why current vector control efforts have been less efficacious than expected. In Puerto Rico, for example, adult Ae. aegypti have been observed emerging from septic tanks. Interestingly, adults emerging from septic tanks are larger on average than adults collected from surface containers. To determine whether adults colonizing septic tanks constitute a separate Ae. aegypti population, we used 12 previously validated microsatellite loci to examine adult mosquitoes collected from both septic tanks and surface containers, but found no evidence to suggest genetic differentiation. Size differences between septic tank and surface mosquitoes were reduced when nutrient levels were held constant across experimental groups. Despite the absence of evidence suggesting a genetic difference between experimental groups in this study, Ae. aegypti emerging from septic tanks may still represent a more dangerous phenotype and should be given special consideration when developing vector control programs and designing public health interventions in the future.

  11. [Oviposition and dispersion of Aedes aegypti in an urban environment].

    PubMed

    Reiter, P

    1996-01-01

    It is generally accepted that female Aedes aegypti do not fly more than 50-100 m in their entire lifetime, yet the rapidity with which this species colonizes new areas, and the explosive nature of dengue and yellow fever epidemics appear to contradict this. Using molecular methods, we have confirmed that the Ae. aegypti females lay small numbers of eggs at many sites. The distribution of available sites implies that the female may fly a considerable distance to deposit her whole egg batch. We developed a method of monitor dispersal during oviposition by labelling the eggs of the mosquito with rubidium, a relatively rare, non-radioactive element. Eggs laid by females fed in the laboratory on blood containing rubidium were collected in the field with ovitraps and assayed by atomic emission spectroscopy. Our study revealed rapid dispersal over our entire study area, more than 800 m in diameter. We conclude that dispersal may be driven by the availability of oviposition sites. Marked eggs were collected for up to 7 days after feeding, suggesting that the gonotrophic cycle in the field is longer than generally assumed. This implies that calculations of longevity based on ovarian dissection and estimates of the duration of the gonotrophic cycle may need to be revised. Novel studies on sugar feeding and blood feeding are also mentioned.

  12. Genetic structure of Aedes aegypti populations determined using pairwise comparisons.

    PubMed

    Patarro, T de F; Guirado, M M; Ravazzi, L M; Bicudo, H E M de C

    2013-01-01

    The biological characteristics of Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae), which is a vector of dengue and yellow fever, make this organism a good model for studying population structure and the events that may influence it under the effect of human activity. We assessed the genetic variability of five A. aegypti populations using RAPD-PCR technique and six primers. Four populations were from Brazil and one was from the USA. A total of 165 polymorphic DNA loci were generated. Considering the six primers and the five populations, the mean value of inter-population genetic diversity (Gst) was 0.277, which is considered high according to the Wright classification. However, pairwise comparisons of the populations gave variable Gst values ranging from 0.044 to 0.289. This variation followed the population's geographic distance to some extent but was also influenced by human activity. The lowest Gst values were obtained in the comparison of populations from cities with intensive commercial and medical contacts. These mosquito populations were previously classified as insecticide resistant, susceptible, or with decreased susceptibility; this parameter apparently had an effect on the Gst values obtained in the pairwise comparisons.

  13. Shifting Patterns of Aedes aegypti Fine Scale Spatial Clustering in Iquitos, Peru

    PubMed Central

    LaCon, Genevieve; Morrison, Amy C.; Astete, Helvio; Stoddard, Steven T.; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.; Elder, John P.; Halsey, Eric S.; Scott, Thomas W.; Kitron, Uriel; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Empiric evidence shows that Aedes aegypti abundance is spatially heterogeneous and that some areas and larval habitats produce more mosquitoes than others. There is a knowledge gap, however, with regards to the temporal persistence of such Ae. aegypti abundance hotspots. In this study, we used a longitudinal entomologic dataset from the city of Iquitos, Peru, to (1) quantify the spatial clustering patterns of adult Ae. aegypti and pupae counts per house, (2) determine overlap between clusters, (3) quantify the temporal stability of clusters over nine entomologic surveys spaced four months apart, and (4) quantify the extent of clustering at the household and neighborhood levels. Methodologies/Principal Findings Data from 13,662 household entomological visits performed in two Iquitos neighborhoods differing in Ae. aegypti abundance and dengue virus transmission was analyzed using global and local spatial statistics. The location and extent of Ae. aegypti pupae and adult hotspots (i.e., small groups of houses with significantly [p<0.05] high mosquito abundance) were calculated for each of the 9 entomologic surveys. The extent of clustering was used to quantify the probability of finding spatially correlated populations. Our analyses indicate that Ae. aegypti distribution was highly focal (most clusters do not extend beyond 30 meters) and that hotspots of high vector abundance were common on every survey date, but they were temporally unstable over the period of study. Conclusions/Significance Our findings have implications for understanding Ae. aegypti distribution and for the design of surveillance and control activities relying on household-level data. In settings like Iquitos, where there is a relatively low percentage of Ae. aegypti in permanent water-holding containers, identifying and targeting key premises will be significantly challenged by shifting hotspots of Ae. aegypti infestation. Focusing efforts in large geographic areas with historically

  14. Isolation and identification of mosquito (Aedes aegypti) biting deterrent fatty acids from male inflorescences of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson)Fosberg)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dried male inflorescences of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae) are burned in communities throughout Oceania to repel flying insects, including mosquitoes. This study was conducted to identify chemicals responsible for mosquito deterrence. Various crude extracts were evaluated, and the most a...

  15. Ovitrap surveillance of the dengue vectors, Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus Skuse in selected areas in Bentong, Pahang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Norzahira, R; Hidayatulfathi, O; Wong, H M; Cheryl, A; Firdaus, R; Chew, H S; Lim, K W; Sing, K W; Mahathavan, M; Nazni, W A; Lee, H L; Vasan, S S; McKemey, A; Lacroix, R

    2011-04-01

    Ovitrap surveillance was conducted in methodically selected areas in Bentong, Pahang, Malaysia from June 2008 till December 2009 in order to identify insular sites with stable Aedes aegypti population. Eleven sites were surveyed in Bentong district, Pahang, and one of these locations (N3º33' E101º54') was found to have an ovitrap index of Ae. aegypti and Aedes albopictus ranging from 8%-47% and 37%-78% respectively, indicating that this site could be a high-risk area for dengue outbreak. Ae. aegypti larvae were found in both indoor and outdoor ovitraps (p>0.05) while significant difference between the populations of Ae. albopictus larvae from indoors and outdoors was observed (p<0.01). Data collected in this study could provide important entomological information for designing an effective integrated vector control programme to combat Aedes mosquitoes in this area. PMID:21602768

  16. The wMel Strain of Wolbachia Reduces Transmission of Chikungunya Virus in Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Aliota, Matthew T.; Walker, Emma C.; Uribe Yepes, Alexander; Dario Velez, Ivan; Christensen, Bruce M.; Osorio, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Background New approaches to preventing chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are needed because current methods are limited to controlling mosquito populations, and they have not prevented the invasion of this virus into new locales, nor have they been sufficient to control the virus upon arrival. A promising candidate for arbovirus control and prevention relies on the introduction of the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia into Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. This primarily has been proposed as a tool to control dengue virus (DENV) transmission; however, evidence suggests Wolbachia infections confer protection for Ae. aegypti against CHIKV. Although this approach holds much promise for limiting virus transmission, at present our understanding of the ability of CHIKV to infect, disseminate, and be transmitted by wMel-infected Ae. aegypti currently being used at Wolbachia release sites is limited. Methodology/Principal Findings Using Ae. aegypti infected with the wMel strain of Wolbachia that are being released in Medellin, Colombia, we report that these mosquitoes have reduced vector competence for CHIKV, even with extremely high viral titers in the bloodmeal. In addition, we examined the dynamics of CHIKV infection over the course of four to seven days post feeding. Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes remained non-infective over the duration of seven days, i.e., no infectious virus was detected in the saliva when exposed to bloodmeals of moderate viremia, but CHIKV-exposed, wild type mosquitoes did have viral loads in the saliva consistent with what has been reported elsewhere. Finally, the presence of wMel infection had no impact on the lifespan of mosquitoes as compared to wild type mosquitoes following CHIKV infection. Conclusions/Significance These results could have an impact on vector control strategies in areas where Ae. aegypti are transmitting both DENV and CHIKV; i.e., they argue for further exploration, both in the laboratory and the field, on the feasibility of expanding this

  17. Oral Susceptibility of Singapore Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus) to Zika Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Lee Ching; Tan, Cheong Huat

    2012-01-01

    Background Zika virus (ZIKV) is a little known flavivirus that caused a major outbreak in 2007, in the South-western Pacific Island of Yap. It causes dengue-like syndromes but with milder symptoms. In Africa, where it was first isolated, ZIKV is mainly transmitted by sylvatic Aedes mosquitoes. The virus has also been isolated from Ae. aegypti and it is considered to be the vector involved in the urban transmission of the virus. Transmission of the virus by an African strain of Ae. aegypti has also been demonstrated under laboratory conditions. The aim of the present study is to describe the oral susceptibility of a Singapore strain of Ae. aegypti to ZIKV, under conditions that simulate local climate. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess the receptivity of Singapore's Ae. aegypti to the virus, we orally exposed a local mosquito strain to a Ugandan strain of ZIKV. Upon exposure, fully engorged mosquitoes were maintained in an environmental chamber set at 29°C and 70–75% RH. Eight mosquitoes were then sampled daily from day 1 to day 7, and subsequently on days 10 and 14 post exposure (pe). The virus titer of the midgut and salivary glands of each mosquito were determined using a tissue culture infectious dose50 (TCID50) assay. High midgut infection and salivary gland dissemination rates were observed. By day 5 after the infectious blood meal, ZIKV was found in the salivary glands of more than half of the mosquitoes tested (62%); and by day 10, all mosquitoes were potentially infective. Conclusions/Significance This study showed that Singapore's urban Ae. aegypti are susceptible and are potentially capable of transmitting ZIKV. The virus could be established in Singapore should it be introduced. Nevertheless, Singapore's current dengue control strategy is applicable to control ZIKV. PMID:22953014

  18. The endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia induces resistance to dengue virus in Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Bian, Guowu; Xu, Yao; Lu, Peng; Xie, Yan; Xi, Zhiyong

    2010-04-01

    Genetic strategies that reduce or block pathogen transmission by mosquitoes have been proposed as a means of augmenting current control measures to reduce the growing burden of vector-borne diseases. The endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia has long been promoted as a potential vehicle for introducing disease-resistance genes into mosquitoes, thereby making them refractory to the human pathogens they transmit. Given the large overlap in tissue distribution and intracellular localization between Wolbachia and dengue virus in mosquitoes, we conducted experiments to characterize their interactions. Our results show that Wolbachia inhibits viral replication and dissemination in the main dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. Moreover, the virus transmission potential of Wolbachia-infected Ae. aegypti was significantly diminished when compared to wild-type mosquitoes that did not harbor Wolbachia. At 14 days post-infection, Wolbachia completely blocked dengue transmission in at least 37.5% of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. We also observed that this Wolbachia-mediated viral interference was associated with an elevated basal immunity and increased longevity in the mosquitoes. These results underscore the potential usefulness of Wolbachia-based control strategies for population replacement. PMID:20368968

  19. Engineering RNA interference-based resistance to dengue virus type 2 in genetically modified Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Franz, Alexander W E; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Adelman, Zach N; Blair, Carol D; Beaty, Barry J; James, Anthony A; Olson, Ken E

    2006-03-14

    Mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) were genetically modified to exhibit impaired vector competence for dengue type 2 viruses (DENV-2). We exploited the natural antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in the mosquito midgut by constructing an effector gene that expresses an inverted-repeat (IR) RNA derived from the premembrane protein coding region of the DENV-2 RNA genome. The A. aegypti carboxypeptidase A promoter was used to express the IR RNA in midgut epithelial cells after ingestion of a bloodmeal. The promoter and effector gene were inserted into the genome of a white-eye Puerto Rico Rexville D (Higgs' white eye) strain by using the nonautonomous mariner MosI transformation system. A transgenic family, Carb77, expressed IR RNA in the midgut after a bloodmeal. Carb77 mosquitoes ingesting an artificial bloodmeal containing DENV-2 exhibited marked reduction of viral envelope antigen in midguts and salivary glands after infection. DENV-2 titration of individual mosquitoes showed that most Carb77 mosquitoes poorly supported virus replication. Transmission in vitro of virus from the Carb77 line was significantly diminished when compared to control mosquitoes. The presence of DENV-2-derived siRNAs in RNA extracts from midguts of Carb77 and the loss of the resistance phenotype when the RNAi pathway was interrupted proved that DENV-2 resistance was caused by a RNAi response. Engineering of transgenic A. aegypti that show a high level of resistance against DENV-2 provides a powerful tool for developing population replacement strategies to control transmission of dengue viruses.

  20. Age and body size influence male sperm capacity of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Ponlawat, Alongkot; Harrington, Laura C

    2007-05-01

    Understanding mosquito mating biology is essential for studies of mosquito behavior, gene flow, population structure, and genetic control. In the current study, we examine the effect of age and body size on spermatozoa number in two laboratory strains of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (L.), Thailand and Rockefeller (ROCK), and in wild-collected mosquitoes from Thailand. Body size was a major predictor of total spermatozoa number, with significantly greater sperm numbers in large (2.27-mm wing length) versus small males (1.85-mm wing length) within the same age group. Total sperm capacity also varied by male age. Spermatozoa numbers in virgin Ae. aegypti males increased significantly up to 10 d after emergence and then leveled off until 20 d. Significant variations in sperm number were detected among Ae. aegypti strains, with wild-collected mosquitoes having the greatest total number of sperm. Our study provides the first evidence of spermatogenesis in adult mosquitoes and indicates high rates of spermatogenesis in male mosquitoes up to 10 d of age (3.3 degree-days). Our results emphasize the potential role of body size and age on the mating capacity of this important vector of dengue and yellow fever viruses.

  1. The lethal effects of Cyperus iria on Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, A M; Paskewitz, S M; Orth, A P; Tesch, M J; Toong, Y C; Goodman, W G

    1998-03-01

    The sedge Cyperus iria, a common weed in rice, contains large amounts of the insect hormone (10R) juvenile hormone III (JH III). Given its widespread distribution in Asia and Africa, we examined the possibility that C. iria could be used as a safe, inexpensive, and readily available mosquito larvicide. Plants of varying ages were harvested and leaves tested for lethal effects on larvae of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. The median lethal doses (LD50s) for frozen leaves from 1- and 2-month-old plants were 267 and 427 mg/100 ml of water, respectively. Leaves from 1-month-old C. iria contained 193 micrograms JH III/g fresh weight, whereas leaves from 2-month-old plants contained 143 micrograms JH III/g fresh weight. Larval sensitivity to the plant differed with age; 4-day-old larvae displayed the greatest mortality followed in decreasing sensitivity by larvae 5, 6, 3, and 2 days old. Six Cyperus species (C. albostriatus, C. alternifolius, C. esculentus, C. iria, C. miliifolius, and C. papyrus) of similar developmental stage were assayed for JH III content. Only C. iria was found to contain significant levels of JH III. PMID:9599328

  2. Tackling the growing threat of dengue: Phyllanthus niruri-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their mosquitocidal properties against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquitoes transmit pathogens that cause millions of human deaths each year. Dengue virus is transmitted to humans in tropical and subtropical areas by Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The use of synthetic insecticides to control this mosquito is accompanied by high operational costs and adverse...

  3. Stormwater Drains and Catch Basins as Sources for Production of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Arana-Guardia, Roger; Baak-Baak, Carlos M.; Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Beaty, Barry J.; Eisen, Lars; García-Rejón, Julián E.

    2014-01-01

    We present data showing that structures serving as drains and catch basins for stormwater are important sources for production of the mosquito arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Mérida City, México. We examined 1,761 stormwater drains – located in 45 different neighborhoods spread across the city – over dry and wet seasons from March 2012–March 2013. Of the examined stormwater drains, 262 (14.9%) held water at the time they were examined and 123 yielded mosquito immatures. In total, we collected 64,560 immatures representing nine species. The most commonly encountered species were Cx. quinquefasciatus (n=39,269) and Ae. aegypti (n=23,313). Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were collected during all 11 months when we found water-filled stormwater drains, and both were found in stormwater drains located throughout Mérida City. We also present data for associations between structural characteristics of stormwater drains or water-related characteristics and the abundance of mosquito immatures. In conclusion, stormwater drains produce massive numbers of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus across Mérida City, both in the wet and dry seasons, and represent non-residential development sites that should be strongly considered for inclusion in the local mosquito surveillance and control program. PMID:24582840

  4. Stormwater drains and catch basins as sources for production of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Arana-Guardia, Roger; Baak-Baak, Carlos M; Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Beaty, Barry J; Eisen, Lars; García-Rejón, Julián E

    2014-06-01

    We present data showing that structures serving as drains and catch basins for stormwater are important sources for production of the mosquito arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Mérida City, México. We examined 1761 stormwater drains - located in 45 different neighborhoods spread across the city - over dry and wet seasons from March 2012 to March 2013. Of the examined stormwater drains, 262 (14.9%) held water at the time they were examined and 123 yielded mosquito immatures. In total, we collected 64,560 immatures representing nine species. The most commonly encountered species were Cx. quinquefasciatus (n=39,269) and Ae. aegypti (n=23,313). Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were collected during all 11 months when we found water-filled stormwater drains, and both were found in stormwater drains located throughout Mérida City. We also present data for associations between structural characteristics of stormwater drains or water-related characteristics and the abundance of mosquito immatures. In conclusion, stormwater drains produce massive numbers of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus across Mérida City, both in the wet and dry seasons, and represent non-residential development sites that should be strongly considered for inclusion in the local mosquito surveillance and control program.

  5. Mosquitocidal and Oviposition Repellent Activities of the Extracts of Seaweed Bryopsis pennata on Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ke-Xin; Wong, Ching-Lee; Ahmad, Rohani; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2015-08-04

    The ever-increasing threat from infectious diseases and the development of insecticide resistance in mosquito populations drive the global search for new natural insecticides. The aims of this study were to evaluate the mosquitocidal activity of the extracts of seaweed Bryopsis pennata against dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, and determine the seaweed's toxic effect on brine shrimp nauplii (as a non-target organism). In addition, the chemical compositions of the active larvicidal extract and fraction were analyzed by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Chloroform extract exhibited strong ovicidal activity (with LC50 values of 229.3 and 250.5 µg/mL) and larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The larvicidal potential of chloroform extract was further ascertained when its A7 fraction exhibited strong toxic effect against Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 4.7 µg/mL) and Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 5.3 µg/mL). LC-MS analysis of the chloroform extract gave a tentative identification of 13 compounds; Bis-(3-oxoundecyl) tetrasulfide was identified as the major compound in A7 fraction. Methanol extract showed strong repellent effect against female oviposition, along with weak adulticidal activity against mosquito and weak toxicity against brine shrimp nauplii. The mosquitocidal results of B. pennata suggest further investigation for the development of effective insecticide.

  6. Mosquitocidal and Oviposition Repellent Activities of the Extracts of Seaweed Bryopsis pennata on Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ke-Xin; Wong, Ching-Lee; Ahmad, Rohani; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The ever-increasing threat from infectious diseases and the development of insecticide resistance in mosquito populations drive the global search for new natural insecticides. The aims of this study were to evaluate the mosquitocidal activity of the extracts of seaweed Bryopsis pennata against dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, and determine the seaweed's toxic effect on brine shrimp nauplii (as a non-target organism). In addition, the chemical compositions of the active larvicidal extract and fraction were analyzed by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Chloroform extract exhibited strong ovicidal activity (with LC50 values of 229.3 and 250.5 µg/mL) and larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The larvicidal potential of chloroform extract was further ascertained when its A7 fraction exhibited strong toxic effect against Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 4.7 µg/mL) and Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 5.3 µg/mL). LC-MS analysis of the chloroform extract gave a tentative identification of 13 compounds; Bis-(3-oxoundecyl) tetrasulfide was identified as the major compound in A7 fraction. Methanol extract showed strong repellent effect against female oviposition, along with weak adulticidal activity against mosquito and weak toxicity against brine shrimp nauplii. The mosquitocidal results of B. pennata suggest further investigation for the development of effective insecticide. PMID:26247928

  7. Population Dynamics of Aedes aegypti and Dengue as Influenced by Weather and Human Behavior in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, Roberto; Amador, Manuel; MacKay, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies on the influence of weather on Aedes aegypti dynamics in Puerto Rico suggested that rainfall was a significant driver of immature mosquito populations and dengue incidence, but mostly in the drier areas of the island. We conducted a longitudinal study of Ae. aegypti in two neighborhoods of the metropolitan area of San Juan city, Puerto Rico where rainfall is more uniformly distributed throughout the year. We assessed the impacts of rainfall, temperature, and human activities on the temporal dynamics of adult Ae. aegypti and oviposition. Changes in adult mosquitoes were monitored with BG-Sentinel traps and oviposition activity with CDC enhanced ovitraps. Pupal surveys were conducted during the drier and wetter parts of the year in both neighborhoods to determine the contribution of humans and rains to mosquito production. Mosquito dynamics in each neighborhood was compared with dengue incidence in their respective municipalities during the study. Our results showed that: 1. Most pupae were produced in containers managed by people, which explains the prevalence of adult mosquitoes at times when rainfall was scant; 2. Water meters were documented for the first time as productive habitats for Ae. aegypti; 3. Even though Puerto Rico has a reliable supply of tap water and an active tire recycling program, water storage containers and discarded tires were important mosquito producers; 4. Peaks in mosquito density preceded maximum dengue incidence; and 5. Ae. aegypti dynamics were driven by weather and human activity and oviposition was significantly correlated with dengue incidence. PMID:22206021

  8. Host-feeding pattern of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in heterogeneous landscapes of South Andaman, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India.

    PubMed

    Sivan, Arun; Shriram, A N; Sunish, I P; Vidhya, P T

    2015-09-01

    Mosquito foraging behavior is a determinant of host-vector contact and has an impact on the risk of arboviral epidemics. Therefore, blood-feeding patterns is a useful tool for assessing the role in pathogen transmission by vector mosquitoes. Competent vectors of dengue and chikungunya viz. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are widely prevalent in the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago. Considering the vector potential, medical importance of both these mosquito species and lack of information on host-feeding patterns, blood meal analysis of both these vector mosquitoes was undertaken. Biogents Sentinel traps were used for sampling blooded mosquitoes, for identifying the source of blood meal by agar gel-precipitin test. We identified vertebrate source of 147 and 104 blood meals in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus from heterogeneous landscapes in South Andaman district. Results revealed that Ae. aegypti (88 %) and Ae. albopictus (49 %) fed on human and a small proportion on mammals and fowls, indicative of predominance of anthropophilism. Ae. aegypti predominantly fed on human blood (94.2 %-densely built urban, 89.8 %-low vegetation coverage, and 78.3 %-medium vegetation coverage). Anthropophilism in Ae. albopictus was maximal in densely built urban (90.5 %) and progressively decreased from low vegetation-vegetation/forested continuum (66.7, 36.4, and 8.7 %), indicating plasticity in feeding across these landscapes. Epidemiological significance of the findings is discussed. PMID:26220560

  9. Solution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of Sterol Carrier Protein 2 Like 2 (SCP2L2) Reveal the Insecticide Specific Structural Characteristics of SCP2 Proteins in Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Singarapu, Kiran Kumar; Ahuja, Ashish; Potula, Purushotam Reddy; Ummanni, Ramesh

    2016-09-01

    Sterol carrier protein 2 like 2 from Aedes aegypti (AeSCP2L2) plays an important role in lipid transport in mosquitoes for its routine metabolic processes. Repeated unsuccessful attempts to crystallize ligand free SCP2L2 prompted us to undertake nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to determine its three-dimensional structure. We report here the three-dimensional structures and dynamics of apo-AeSCP2L2 and its complex with palmitate. The (15)N heteronuclear single-quantum coherence spectrum of apo-AeSCP2L2 displayed multiple peaks for some of the amide resonances, implying the presence of multiple conformations in solution, which are transformed to a single conformation upon formation of the complex with plamitate. The three-dimensional structures of apo-AeSCP2L2 and palmitated AeSCP2L2 reveal an α/β mixed fold, with five β-strands and four α-helices, very similar to the other SCP2 protein structures. Unlike the crystal structure of palmitated AeSCP2L2, both solution structures are monomeric. It is further confirmed by the rotational correlation times determined by NMR relaxation times (T1 and T2) of the amide protons. In addition, the palmitated AeSCP2L2 structure contains two palmitate ligands, bound in the binding pocket, unlike the three palmitates bound in the dimeric form of AeSCP2L2 in the crystals. The relaxation experiments revealed that complex formation significantly reduces the dynamics of the protein in solution.

  10. Solution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of Sterol Carrier Protein 2 Like 2 (SCP2L2) Reveal the Insecticide Specific Structural Characteristics of SCP2 Proteins in Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Singarapu, Kiran Kumar; Ahuja, Ashish; Potula, Purushotam Reddy; Ummanni, Ramesh

    2016-09-01

    Sterol carrier protein 2 like 2 from Aedes aegypti (AeSCP2L2) plays an important role in lipid transport in mosquitoes for its routine metabolic processes. Repeated unsuccessful attempts to crystallize ligand free SCP2L2 prompted us to undertake nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to determine its three-dimensional structure. We report here the three-dimensional structures and dynamics of apo-AeSCP2L2 and its complex with palmitate. The (15)N heteronuclear single-quantum coherence spectrum of apo-AeSCP2L2 displayed multiple peaks for some of the amide resonances, implying the presence of multiple conformations in solution, which are transformed to a single conformation upon formation of the complex with plamitate. The three-dimensional structures of apo-AeSCP2L2 and palmitated AeSCP2L2 reveal an α/β mixed fold, with five β-strands and four α-helices, very similar to the other SCP2 protein structures. Unlike the crystal structure of palmitated AeSCP2L2, both solution structures are monomeric. It is further confirmed by the rotational correlation times determined by NMR relaxation times (T1 and T2) of the amide protons. In addition, the palmitated AeSCP2L2 structure contains two palmitate ligands, bound in the binding pocket, unlike the three palmitates bound in the dimeric form of AeSCP2L2 in the crystals. The relaxation experiments revealed that complex formation significantly reduces the dynamics of the protein in solution. PMID:27508310

  11. Development and evaluation of a pyriproxyfen-treated device to control the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera:Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Ponlawat, Alongkot; Fansiri, Thanyalak; Kurusarttra, Somwang; Pongsiri, Arissara; McCardle, Patrick W; Evans, Brian P; Evans, Brain P; Richardson, Jason H

    2013-03-01

    The resurgence of dengue fever and the chikungunya epidemic make the control of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the vectors of these diseases, critically important. We developed and evaluated an Ae. aegypti control device that is visually-attractive to mosquitoes. This pyriproxyfen-treated device was evaluated for its impact on Ae. aegypti egg production and population dynamics in dengue-endemic areas in Thailand. The device consists of a "high rise" shaped ovitrap/ resting station covered with black cotton cloth. The device is easily collapsible and transportable. Ae. aegypti are generally drawn towards darker, shadier areas making this device physically attractive as a resting station to mosquitoes of all physiological stages. The results show this device suppressed Ae. aegypti populations after it was introduced into a village. The observed effect was primarily the result of the Ae. aegypti exposure to pyriproxyfen shortly after adult emergence or after taking a blood meal resulting in decreased egg production. We believe the device may be further improved physically and the formulation should be replaced to provide even better efficacy for controlling Ae. aegypti mosquito, populations. PMID:23691625

  12. Behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles minimus against various synthetic and natural repellent compounds.

    PubMed

    Sathantriphop, Sunaiyana; White, Sabrina A; Achee, Nicole L; Sanguanpong, Unchalee; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2014-12-01

    The behavioral responses of colony populations of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles minimus to four essential oils (citronella, hairy basil, catnip, and vetiver), two standard repellents (DEET and picaridin), and two synthetic pyrethroids (deltamethrin and permethrin) were conducted in the laboratory using an excito-repellency test system. Results revealed that Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. minimus exhibited much stronger behavioral responses to all test compounds (65-98% escape for contact, 21.4-94.4% escape for non-contact) compared to Ae. aegypti (3.7-72.2% escape (contact), 0-31.7% (non-contact)) and Ae. albopictus (3.5-94.4% escape (contact), 11.2-63.7% (non-contact)). In brief, essential oil from vetiver elicited the greatest irritant responses in Cx. quinquefasciatus (96.6%) and An. minimus (96.5%) compared to the other compounds tested. The synthetic pyrethroids caused a stronger contact irritant response (65-97.8% escape) than non-contact repellents (0-50.8% escape for non-contact) across all four mosquito species. Picaridin had the least effect on all mosquito species. Findings from the current study continue to support the screening of essential oils from various plant sources for protective properties against field mosquitoes.

  13. Behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles minimus against various synthetic and natural repellent compounds.

    PubMed

    Sathantriphop, Sunaiyana; White, Sabrina A; Achee, Nicole L; Sanguanpong, Unchalee; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2014-12-01

    The behavioral responses of colony populations of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles minimus to four essential oils (citronella, hairy basil, catnip, and vetiver), two standard repellents (DEET and picaridin), and two synthetic pyrethroids (deltamethrin and permethrin) were conducted in the laboratory using an excito-repellency test system. Results revealed that Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. minimus exhibited much stronger behavioral responses to all test compounds (65-98% escape for contact, 21.4-94.4% escape for non-contact) compared to Ae. aegypti (3.7-72.2% escape (contact), 0-31.7% (non-contact)) and Ae. albopictus (3.5-94.4% escape (contact), 11.2-63.7% (non-contact)). In brief, essential oil from vetiver elicited the greatest irritant responses in Cx. quinquefasciatus (96.6%) and An. minimus (96.5%) compared to the other compounds tested. The synthetic pyrethroids caused a stronger contact irritant response (65-97.8% escape) than non-contact repellents (0-50.8% escape for non-contact) across all four mosquito species. Picaridin had the least effect on all mosquito species. Findings from the current study continue to support the screening of essential oils from various plant sources for protective properties against field mosquitoes. PMID:25424262

  14. Vector Competence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes vittatus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Senegal and Cape Verde Archipelago for West African Lineages of Chikungunya Virus

    PubMed Central

    Diagne, Cheikh T.; Faye, Oumar; Guerbois, Mathilde; Knight, Rachel; Diallo, Diawo; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Dia, Ibrahima; Faye, Ousmane; Weaver, Scott C.; Sall, Amadou A.; Diallo, Mawlouth

    2014-01-01

    To assess the risk of emergence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in West Africa, vector competence of wild-type, urban, and non-urban Aedes aegypti and Ae. vittatus from Senegal and Cape Verde for CHIKV was investigated. Mosquitoes were fed orally with CHIKV isolates from mosquitoes (ArD30237), bats (CS13-288), and humans (HD180738). After 5, 10, and 15 days of incubation following an infectious blood meal, presence of CHIKV RNA was determined in bodies, legs/wings, and saliva using real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Aedes vittatus showed high susceptibility (50–100%) and early dissemination and transmission of all CHIKV strains tested. Aedes aegypti exhibited infection rates ranging from 0% to 50%. Aedes aegypti from Cape Verde and Kedougou, but not those from Dakar, showed the potential to transmit CHIKV in saliva. Analysis of biology and competence showed relatively high infective survival rates for Ae. vittatus and Ae. aegypti from Cape Verde, suggesting their efficient vector capacity in West Africa. PMID:25002293

  15. Vector competence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes vittatus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Senegal and Cape Verde archipelago for West African lineages of chikungunya virus.

    PubMed

    Diagne, Cheikh T; Faye, Oumar; Guerbois, Mathilde; Knight, Rachel; Diallo, Diawo; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Dia, Ibrahima; Faye, Ousmane; Weaver, Scott C; Sall, Amadou A; Diallo, Mawlouth

    2014-09-01

    To assess the risk of emergence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in West Africa, vector competence of wild-type, urban, and non-urban Aedes aegypti and Ae. vittatus from Senegal and Cape Verde for CHIKV was investigated. Mosquitoes were fed orally with CHIKV isolates from mosquitoes (ArD30237), bats (CS13-288), and humans (HD180738). After 5, 10, and 15 days of incubation following an infectious blood meal, presence of CHIKV RNA was determined in bodies, legs/wings, and saliva using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Aedes vittatus showed high susceptibility (50-100%) and early dissemination and transmission of all CHIKV strains tested. Aedes aegypti exhibited infection rates ranging from 0% to 50%. Aedes aegypti from Cape Verde and Kedougou, but not those from Dakar, showed the potential to transmit CHIKV in saliva. Analysis of biology and competence showed relatively high infective survival rates for Ae. vittatus and Ae. aegypti from Cape Verde, suggesting their efficient vector capacity in West Africa. PMID:25002293

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on the hemocyte-mediated immune response of Aedes aegypti against microfilariae

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, B.M.; Huff, B.M.; Li, J. )

    1990-07-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the melanotic encapsulation response of Aedes aegypti black eye Liverpool strain against inoculated Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae (mff) was assessed at 1, 2, 3, and 6 days postinoculation (PI). Mosquitoes received 6000 rad from a 137Cs source (Shepard Mark I irradiator) at 3 days postemergence and were inoculated with 15-20 mff 24 hr later. These mosquitoes were compared to nonirradiated controls that also were inoculated with 15-20 mff at 3 days postemergence. The immune response was significantly reduced in irradiated mosquitoes as compared with controls at all days PI. Although the response was significantly inhibited compared with controls, irradiated mosquitoes were still capable of eliciting a response against 69% of recovered mff at 6 days PI. External gamma irradiation did not significantly affect the proliferation of hemocytes associated with the melanotic encapsulation response of A. aegypti. The number of circulating hemocytes increased in irradiated mosquitoes in response to inoculated mff in a manner similar to nonirradiated, inoculated controls. Hemocyte monophenol oxidase activity, however, was significantly reduced in gamma-irradiated mosquitoes at 12 hr PI as compared with controls. The reduced immunological capacity of irradiated mosquitoes might be related to an interference with gene activity required for the synthesis or activation of enzymes that are directly or indirectly involved in the biochemical processes associated with the production of melanotic substances that sequester mff.

  17. Gene Flow, Subspecies Composition, and Dengue Virus-2 Susceptibility among Aedes aegypti Collections in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Sylla, Massamba; Bosio, Christopher; Urdaneta-Marquez, Ludmel; Ndiaye, Mady; Black, William C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti, the “yellow fever mosquito”, is the primary vector to humans of the four serotypes of dengue viruses (DENV1-4) and yellow fever virus (YFV) and is a known vector of Chikungunya virus. There are two recognized subspecies of Ae. aegypti sensu latu (s.l.): the presumed ancestral form, Ae. aegypti formosus (Aaf), a primarily sylvan mosquito in sub-Saharan Africa, and Ae. aegypti aegypti (Aaa), found globally in tropical and subtropical regions typically in association with humans. The designation of Ae. aegypti s.l. subspecies arose from observations made in East Africa in the late 1950s that the frequency of pale “forms” of Ae. aegypti was higher in populations in and around human dwellings than in those of the nearby bush. But few studies have been made of Ae. aegypti s.l. in West Africa. To address this deficiency we have been studying the population genetics, subspecies composition and vector competence for DENV-2 of Ae. aegypti s.l. in Senegal. Methods and Findings A population genetic analysis of gene flow was conducted among 1,040 Aedes aegypti s.l. from 19 collections distributed across the five phytogeographic regions of Senegal. Adults lacking pale scales on their first abdominal tergite were classified as Aedes aegypti formosus (Aaf) following the original description of the subspecies and the remainder were classified as Aedes aegypti aegypti (Aaa). There was a clear northwest–southeast cline in the abundance of Aaa and Aaf. Collections from the northern Sahelian region contained only Aaa while southern Forest gallery collections contained only Aaf. The two subspecies occurred in sympatry in four collections north of the Gambia in the central Savannah region and Aaa was a minor component of two collections from the Forest gallery area. Mosquitoes from 11 collections were orally challenged with DENV-2 virus. In agreement with the early literature, Aaf had significantly lower vector competence than Aaa. Among pure Aaa

  18. Changing Domesticity of Aedes aegypti in Northern Peninsular Malaysia: Reproductive Consequences and Potential Epidemiological Implications

    PubMed Central

    Saifur, Rahman G. M.; Dieng, Hamady; Hassan, Ahmad Abu; Salmah, Md Rawi Che; Satho, Tomomitsu; Miake, Fumio; Hamdan, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Background The domestic dengue vector Aedes aegypti mosquitoes breed in indoor containers. However, in northern peninsular Malaysia, they show equal preference for breeding in both indoor and outdoor habitats. To evaluate the epidemiological implications of this peridomestic adaptation, we examined whether Ae. aegypti exhibits decreased survival, gonotrophic activity, and fecundity due to lack of host availability and the changing breeding behavior. Methodology/Principal Findings This yearlong field surveillance identified Ae. aegypti breeding in outdoor containers on an enormous scale. Through a sequence of experiments incorporating outdoors and indoors adapting as well as adapted populations, we observed that indoors provided better environment for the survival of Ae. aegypti and the observed death patterns could be explained on the basis of a difference in body size. The duration of gonotrophic period was much shorter in large-bodied females. Fecundity tended to be greater in indoor acclimated females. We also found increased tendency to multiple feeding in outdoors adapted females, which were smaller in size compared to their outdoors breeding counterparts. Conclusion/Significance The data presented here suggest that acclimatization of Ae. aegypti to the outdoor environment may not decrease its lifespan or gonotrophic activity but rather increase breeding opportunities (increased number of discarded containers outdoors), the rate of larval development, but small body sizes at emergence. Size is likely to be correlated with disease transmission. In general, small size in Aedes females will favor increased blood-feeding frequency resulting in higher population sizes and disease occurrence. PMID:22363516

  19. Heme Signaling Impacts Global Gene Expression, Immunity and Dengue Virus Infectivity in Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Bottino-Rojas, Vanessa; Talyuli, Octávio A. C.; Jupatanakul, Natapong; Sim, Shuzhen; Dimopoulos, George; Venancio, Thiago M.; Bahia, Ana C.; Sorgine, Marcos H.; Oliveira, Pedro L.; Paiva-Silva, Gabriela O.

    2015-01-01

    Blood-feeding mosquitoes are exposed to high levels of heme, the product of hemoglobin degradation. Heme is a pro-oxidant that influences a variety of cellular processes. We performed a global analysis of heme-regulated Aedes aegypti (yellow fever mosquito) transcriptional changes to better understand influence on mosquito physiology at the molecular level. We observed an iron- and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-independent signaling induced by heme that comprised genes related to redox metabolism. By modulating the abundance of these transcripts, heme possibly acts as a danger signaling molecule. Furthermore, heme triggered critical changes in the expression of energy metabolism and immune response genes, altering the susceptibility towards bacteria and dengue virus. These findings seem to have implications on the adaptation of mosquitoes to hematophagy and consequently on their ability to transmit diseases. Altogether, these results may also contribute to the understanding of heme cell biology in eukaryotic cells. PMID:26275150

  20. Heme Signaling Impacts Global Gene Expression, Immunity and Dengue Virus Infectivity in Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Bottino-Rojas, Vanessa; Talyuli, Octávio A C; Jupatanakul, Natapong; Sim, Shuzhen; Dimopoulos, George; Venancio, Thiago M; Bahia, Ana C; Sorgine, Marcos H; Oliveira, Pedro L; Paiva-Silva, Gabriela O

    2015-01-01

    Blood-feeding mosquitoes are exposed to high levels of heme, the product of hemoglobin degradation. Heme is a pro-oxidant that influences a variety of cellular processes. We performed a global analysis of heme-regulated Aedes aegypti (yellow fever mosquito) transcriptional changes to better understand influence on mosquito physiology at the molecular level. We observed an iron- and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-independent signaling induced by heme that comprised genes related to redox metabolism. By modulating the abundance of these transcripts, heme possibly acts as a danger signaling molecule. Furthermore, heme triggered critical changes in the expression of energy metabolism and immune response genes, altering the susceptibility towards bacteria and dengue virus. These findings seem to have implications on the adaptation of mosquitoes to hematophagy and consequently on their ability to transmit diseases. Altogether, these results may also contribute to the understanding of heme cell biology in eukaryotic cells.

  1. The Drosophila melanogaster cinnabar gene is a cell autonomous genetic marker in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Sethuraman, Nagaraja; O'Brochta, David A

    2005-07-01

    The cinnabar gene of Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen) encodes for kynurenine hydroxylase, an enzyme involved in ommochrome biosynthesis. This gene is commonly included as a visible genetic marker in gene vectors used to create transgenic Aedes aegypti (L.) that are homozygous for the khw allele, the mosquito homolog of cinnabar. Unexpectedly, the phenotype of cells expressing kynurenine hydroxylase in transgenic Ae. aegypti is cell autonomous as demonstrated by the recovery of insects heterozygous for the kynurenine hydroxylase transgene with mosaic eye color patterns. In addition, a transgenic gynandromorph was recovered in which one-half of the insect was expressing the kynurenine hydroxylase transgene, including one eye with red pigmentation, whereas the other half of the insect was homozygous khw and included a white eye. The cell autonomous behavior of cinnabar in transgenic Ae. aegypti is unexpected and increases the utility of this genetic marker. PMID:16119567

  2. Larvicide and oviposition deterrent effects of fruit and leaf extracts from Melia azedarach L. on Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Coria, C; Almiron, W; Valladares, G; Carpinella, C; Ludueña, F; Defago, M; Palacios, S

    2008-05-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), the main urban vector of dengue, has developed resistance to various insecticides, making its control increasingly difficult. We explored the effects of Argentine Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) fruit and senescent leaf extracts on Ae. aegypti larval development and survival, by rearing cohorts of first instar mosquitoes in water with different extract concentrations. We also analysed oviposition deterrent activity in choice tests with extract-treated ovitraps. The leaf extract showed a strong larvicide activity, with all larvae dying before pupation, and significantly delayed development time. It strongly inhibited oviposition by Ae. aegypti females. The fruit extract showed much weaker effects. This first report of highly effective larvicidal, growth regulating and oviposition deterrent activity of a senescent leaf extract of M. azedarach against Ae. aegypti, suggests that such extract could represent a promising tool in the management of this mosquito pest.

  3. Aedes aegypti Global Suitability Maps Using a Water Container Energy Balance Model for Dengue Risk Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhoff, D.

    2015-12-01

    Dengue infections are estimated to total nearly 400 million per year worldwide, with both the geographic range and the magnitude of infections having increased in the past 50 years. The primary dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti is closely associated with humans. It lives exclusively in urban and semi-urban areas, preferentially bites humans, and spends its developmental stages in artificial water containers. Climate regulates the development of Ae. aegypti immature mosquitoes in artificial containers. Potential containers for Ae. aegypti immature development include, but are not limited to, small sundry items (e.g., bottles, cans, plastic containers), buckets, tires, barrels, tanks, and cisterns. Successful development of immature mosquitoes from eggs to larvae, pupae, and eventually adults is largely dependent on the availability of water and the thermal properties of the water in the containers. Recent work has shown that physics-based approaches toward modeling container water properties are promising for resolving the complexities of container water dynamics and the effects on immature mosquito development. An energy balance container model developed by the author, termed the Water Height And Temperature in Container Habitats Energy Model (WHATCH'EM), solves for water temperature and height for user-specified containers with readily available weather data. Here we use WHATCH'EM with NASA Earth Science products used as input to construct global suitability maps based on established water temperature ranges for immature Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. A proxy for dengue risk is provided from habitat suitability, but also population estimates, as Ae. aegypti is closely associated with human activity. NASA gridded Global Population of the World data is used to mask out rural areas with low dengue risk. Suitability maps are illustrated for a variety of containers (size, material, color) and shading scenarios.

  4. Oviposition and Embryotoxicity of Indigofera suffruticosa on Early Development of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Jeymesson Raphael Cardoso; Leite, Roberta Maria Pereira; Lima, Izabela Rangel; Navarro, Daniela do Amaral Ferraz; Bianco, Everson Miguel; Leite, Sônia Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Aqueous extract of Indigofera suffruticosa leaves obtained by infusion was used to evaluate the oviposition, its effect on development of eggs and larvae, and morphological changes in larvae of Aedes aegypti. The bioassays were carried out with aqueous extract in different concentrations on eggs, larvae, and female mosquitoes, and the morphological changes were observed in midgut of larvae. The extract showed repellent activity on A. aegypti mosquitoes, reducing significantly the egg laying by females with control substrate (343 (185–406)) compared with the treated substrate (88 (13–210)). No eclosion of A. aegypti eggs at different concentrations studied was observed. The controleclodedin 35%. At concentration of 250 μg/mL, 93.3% of larvae remained in the second instar of development and at concentrations of 500, 750, and 1000 μg/mL the inhibitory effect was lower with percentages of 20%, 53.3%, and 46.6%, respectively. Morphological changes like disruption on the peritrophic envelope (PE), discontinued underlying epithelium, increased gut lumen, and segments with hypertrophic aspects were observed in anterior region of medium midgut of larvae of A. aegypti. The results showed repellent activity, specific embryotoxicity, and general growth retardation in A. aegypti by medium containing aqueous extract of I. suffruticosa leaves. PMID:21822443

  5. STUDIES ON AEDES AEGYPTI RESISTANCE TO SOME INSECTICIDES IN THE JAZAN DISTRICT, SAUDI ARABIA.

    PubMed

    Alsheikh, Adel A; Mohammed, W S; Noureldin, E M; Daffalla, O M; Shrwani, Y A; Hobani, K J; Alsheikh, F A; Alzahrani, M H; Binsaeed, A A

    2016-04-01

    The present study provided information on the susceptibility status of the adult and larvae of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in Jazan region of Saudi Arabia. Bioassay tests were performed on adults and larvae by using WHO recommended concentrations and test kits. Adults of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were exposed to test papers impregnated with Lambda-cyhalothrin (0.05%), Cyfluthrin (0.15%), Deltamethrin (0.05%), Permethrin (0.75%), Fenitrothion (1%), Bendiocarb (0.1%) and DDT (4%) insecticides. Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were found to be susceptible only to Cyfluthrin; (mortality rate was 100%), whereas variable resistances were observed from the rest of the other insecticides tested (mortality rates ranged between 93.6 and 17%). Larvae were subjected to different concentrations of Diflubenzuron, Methoprene (IGRs) and Temephos (Organophosphate). Adult emergence inhibition (IE₅₀ & IE₉₅) values for the IGRs and the (LC₅₀ & LC₉₅) for Temephos were determined by log-probit regression analysis. Ae. aegypti larvae were resistant to Temephos (LC₅₀ 61.8-LC₉₅ 35600.1 mg/l) and showed high susceptibility to Methoprene than Diflubenzuron (IE₅₀ 0.49-IE₉₅ 10.9 mg/l) and (IE₅₀ 0.86 and IE₉₅ 93.8 mg/l), respectively. Larvae were more susceptible to Methoprene than Diflubenzuron by 1.8 folds.

  6. STUDIES ON AEDES AEGYPTI RESISTANCE TO SOME INSECTICIDES IN THE JAZAN DISTRICT, SAUDI ARABIA.

    PubMed

    Alsheikh, Adel A; Mohammed, W S; Noureldin, E M; Daffalla, O M; Shrwani, Y A; Hobani, K J; Alsheikh, F A; Alzahrani, M H; Binsaeed, A A

    2016-04-01

    The present study provided information on the susceptibility status of the adult and larvae of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in Jazan region of Saudi Arabia. Bioassay tests were performed on adults and larvae by using WHO recommended concentrations and test kits. Adults of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were exposed to test papers impregnated with Lambda-cyhalothrin (0.05%), Cyfluthrin (0.15%), Deltamethrin (0.05%), Permethrin (0.75%), Fenitrothion (1%), Bendiocarb (0.1%) and DDT (4%) insecticides. Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were found to be susceptible only to Cyfluthrin; (mortality rate was 100%), whereas variable resistances were observed from the rest of the other insecticides tested (mortality rates ranged between 93.6 and 17%). Larvae were subjected to different concentrations of Diflubenzuron, Methoprene (IGRs) and Temephos (Organophosphate). Adult emergence inhibition (IE₅₀ & IE₉₅) values for the IGRs and the (LC₅₀ & LC₉₅) for Temephos were determined by log-probit regression analysis. Ae. aegypti larvae were resistant to Temephos (LC₅₀ 61.8-LC₉₅ 35600.1 mg/l) and showed high susceptibility to Methoprene than Diflubenzuron (IE₅₀ 0.49-IE₉₅ 10.9 mg/l) and (IE₅₀ 0.86 and IE₉₅ 93.8 mg/l), respectively. Larvae were more susceptible to Methoprene than Diflubenzuron by 1.8 folds. PMID:27363057

  7. Breeding habitats of Aedes aegypti (L) and Aedes. albopictus (Skuse) in villages of Barru, South Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ishak, H; Miyagi, I; Toma, T; Kamimura, K

    1997-12-01

    The breeding habitats of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, were studied using larval collection method inside and outside houses in 6 villages of Barru, South Sulawesi, Indonesia from July 1994 to August 1995. Aedes aegypti was the dominant species, being abundant indoors especially in the coastal areas. Aedes albopictus was breeding primarily in outdoor containers in the hill and mountain areas. Earthen jar was the most common breeding habitat of Aedes aegypti in all villages surveyed. Drum can was the most common outdoor breeding habitat of Aedes albopictus in the hill and mountain areas. The high Breteau indices of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus suggests that these species may play an important role in the transmission of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Barru where epidemics of the fever occur occasionally.

  8. Food availability alters the effects of larval temperature on Aedes aegypti growth.

    PubMed

    Padmanabha, H; Bolker, B; Lord, C C; Rubio, C; Lounibos, L P

    2011-09-01

    Variation in temperature and food availability in larval habitats can influence the abundance, body size, and vector competence of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Although increased temperature has energetic costs for growing larvae, how food resources influence the developmental response of this mosquito species to thermal conditions is unknown. We explored how rearing temperature and food affect allometric scaling between wing size and epidermal cell size in Ae. aegypti. Mosquitoes were reared at 22 and 28 degrees C across a gradient of field-collected detritus designed to simulate commonly observed natural larval food resources. Overall, reduced temperature and increased food level increased wing size, but only temperature affected cell size. Females fed the least food had the longest time to maturation, and their increases in wing size induced by cold temperature were associated with larger, rather than more, cells. By contrast, males fed the most food had the shortest time to maturation, and their increases in wing size induced by cold temperature were associated with more, rather than larger, cells. Therefore, food levels can alter the underlying physiological mechanisms generating temperature-size patterns in mosquitoes, suggesting that the control of development is sensitive to the combination of nutrient and thermal conditions, rather than each independently. Conditions prolonging development time may favor increased cell division over growth. We suggest that understanding the effects of climate change on Ae. aegypti vectorial capacity requires an improved knowledge of how water temperature interacts with limited food resources and competition in aquatic container habitats.

  9. Spatial and temporal country-wide survey of temephos resistance in Brazilian populations of Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Chediak, Mateus; G Pimenta, Fabiano; Coelho, Giovanini E; Braga, Ima A; Lima, José Bento P; Cavalcante, Karina Ribeiro LJ; de Sousa, Lindemberg C; de Melo-Santos, Maria Alice V; Macoris, Maria de Lourdes da G; de Araújo, Ana Paula; Ayres, Constância Flávia J; Andrighetti, Maria Teresa M; Gomes, Ricristhi Gonçalves de A; Campos, Kauara B; Guedes, Raul Narciso C

    2016-01-01

    The organophosphate temephos has been the main insecticide used against larvae of the dengue and yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) in Brazil since the mid-1980s. Reports of resistance date back to 1995; however, no systematic reports of widespread temephos resistance have occurred to date. As resistance investigation is paramount for strategic decision-making by health officials, our objective here was to investigate the spatial and temporal spread of temephos resistance in Ae. aegypti in Brazil for the last 12 years using discriminating temephos concentrations and the bioassay protocols of the World Health Organization. The mortality results obtained were subjected to spatial analysis for distance interpolation using semi-variance models to generate maps that depict the spread of temephos resistance in Brazil since 1999. The problem has been expanding. Since 2002-2003, approximately half the country has exhibited mosquito populations resistant to temephos. The frequency of temephos resistance and, likely, control failures, which start when the insecticide mortality level drops below 80%, has increased even further since 2004. Few parts of Brazil are able to achieve the target 80% efficacy threshold by 2010/2011, resulting in a significant risk of control failure by temephos in most of the country. The widespread resistance to temephos in Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations greatly compromise effective mosquito control efforts using this insecticide and indicates the urgent need to identify alternative insecticides aided by the preventive elimination of potential mosquito breeding sites. PMID:27143489

  10. Biocontrol evaluation of extracts and a major component, clusianone, from Clusia fluminensis Planch. & Triana against Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Anholeti, Maria C; Duprat, Rodrigo C; Figueiredo, Maria R; Kaplan, Maria AC; Santos, Marcelo Guerra; Gonzalez, Marcelo S; Ratcliffe, Norman A; Feder, Denise; Paiva, Selma R; Mello, Cicero B

    2015-01-01

    Studies evaluated the effects of hexanic extracts from the fruits and flowers ofClusia fluminensis and the main component of the flower extract, a purified benzophenone (clusianone), against Aedes aegypti. The treatment of larvae with the crude fruit or flower extracts from C. fluminensis did not affect the survival ofAe. aegypti (50 mg/L), however, the flower extracts significantly delayed development of Ae. aegypti. In contrast, the clusianone (50 mg/L) isolate from the flower extract, representing 54.85% of this sample composition, showed a highly significant inhibition of survival, killing 93.3% of the larvae and completely blocking development of Ae. aegypti. The results showed, for the first time, high activity of clusianone against Ae. aegypti that both killed and inhibited mosquito development. Therefore, clusianone has potential for development as a biopesticide for controlling insect vectors of tropical diseases. Future work will elucidate the mode of action of clusianone isolated from C. fluminensis. PMID:26200711

  11. Effect of triflumuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, on Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Resistance to traditional insecticides represents a threat to the control of disease vectors. The insect growth regulators (IGR) are a potential alternative to control mosquitoes, including resistant populations. The chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSI) are IGRs, which interfere with the insect molting process and represent one major class of compounds against Aedes aegypti populations resistant to the larvicide organophosphate temephos. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of the CSI triflumuron on Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes albopictus and against several Ae. aegypti field populations. Methods The efficacy of triflumuron, against Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. albopictus was evaluated with laboratory strains through dose–response assays. Additionaly, this CSI was tested against seven Ae. aegypti field populations exhibiting distinct resistance levels to both temephos and the pyrethroid deltamethrin. Aedes aegypti populations were exposed to both a dose that inhibits 99% of the adult emergence of mosquitoes from the susceptible reference strain, Rockefeller, (EI99 = 3.95 μg/L) and the diagnostic dose (DD), corresponding to twice the EI99. Results Our results indicate that triflumuron was effective in emergence inhibition (EI) of Cx. quinquefasciatus (EI50= 5.28 μg/L; EI90= 12.47 μg/L) and Ae. albopictus (EI50= 1.59 μg/L; EI90= 2.63 μg/L). Triflumuron was also effective against seven Ae. aegypti Brazilian populations resistant to both temephos and deltamethrin. Exposure of all the Ae. aegypti populations to the triflumuron EI99 of the susceptible reference strain, Rockefeller, resulted in complete inhibition of adult emergence, suggesting no cross-resistance among traditional insecticides and this CSI. However, a positive correlation between temephos resistance and tolerance to triflumuron was observed. Conclusion The results suggest that triflumuron represents a potential tool for the control of disease vectors in public

  12. Binding of a fluorescence reporter and a ligand to an odorant-binding protein of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Gabriel M.; Leal, Walter S.

    2015-01-01

    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), also named pheromone-binding proteins when the odorant is a pheromone, are essential for insect olfaction. They solubilize odorants that reach the port of entry of the olfactory system, the pore tubules in antennae and other olfactory appendages. Then, OBPs transport these hydrophobic compounds through an aqueous sensillar lymph to receptors embedded on dendritic membranes of olfactory receptor neurons. Structures of OBPs from mosquito species have shed new light on the mechanism of transport, although there is considerable debate on how they deliver odorant to receptors. An OBP from the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, binds the hydrophobic moiety of a mosquito oviposition pheromone (MOP) on the edge of its binding cavity. Likewise, it has been demonstrated that the orthologous protein from the malaria mosquito binds the insect repellent DEET on a similar edge of its binding pocket. A high school research project was aimed at testing whether the orthologous protein from the yellow fever mosquito, AaegOBP1, binds DEET and other insect repellents, and MOP was used as a positive control. Binding assays using the fluorescence reporter N-phenyl-1-naphtylamine (NPN) were inconclusive. However, titration of NPN fluorescence emission in AaegOBP1 solution with MOP led to unexpected and intriguing results. Quenching was observed in the initial phase of titration, but addition of higher doses of MOP led to a stepwise increase in fluorescence emission coupled with a blue shift, which can be explained at least in part by formation of MOP micelles to house stray NPN molecules. PMID:25671088

  13. A novel autocidal ovitrap for the surveillance and control of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Roberto; Mackay, Andrew J; Amador, Manuel

    2013-09-01

    We describe an inexpensive autocidal ovitrap for Aedes aegypti that uses cross-linked polyacrylamide (PAM) gel as the oviposition substrate. Aedes aegypti females readily laid eggs on PAM gel that had been hydrated with either hay infusion or water. Aedes aegypti larvae that hatched from their eggs desiccated on the surface of the PAM gel. We tested the effects of gel hydration, texture, and type of attractant on trap performance, and compared the capture rates of standard ovitraps with those of PAM gel ovitraps in the field. The results showed that the number of eggs did not vary over a range of gel hydration levels (40-100%) and that more eggs were recovered from ovitraps containing coarse gel than from those containing homogenized gel. The PAM gel hydrated with hay infusion was more attractive to gravid female mosquitoes than gel hydrated with water. In the field, the number of eggs recovered from autocidal ovitraps with PAM gel was similar to that recovered from standard ovitraps with hay infusion. PMID:24199506

  14. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Numbers in the Yogyakarta Area of Java, Indonesia, With Implications for Wolbachia Releases.

    PubMed

    Tantowijoyo, W; Arguni, E; Johnson, P; Budiwati, N; Nurhayati, P I; Fitriana, I; Wardana, S; Ardiansyah, H; Turley, A P; Ryan, P; O'Neill, S L; Hoffmann, A A

    2016-01-01

    of mosquito vector populations, particularly through Wolbachia endosymbionts. The success of these strategies depends on understanding the dynamics of vector populations. In preparation for Wolbachia releases around Yogyakarta, we have studied Aedes populations in five hamlets. Adult monitoring with BioGent- Sentinel (BG-S) traps indicated that hamlet populations had different dynamics across the year; while there was an increase in Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) numbers in the wet season, species abundance remained relatively stable in some hamlets but changed markedly (>2 fold) in others. Local rainfall a month prior to monitoring partly predicted numbers of Ae. aegypti but not Ae. albopictus. Site differences in population size indicated by BG-S traps were also evident in ovitrap data. Egg or larval collections with ovitraps repeated at the same location suggested spatial autocorrelation (<250 m) in the areas of the hamlets where Ae. aegypti numbers were high. Overall, there was a weak negative association (r<0.43) between Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus numbers in ovitraps when averaged across collections. Ae. albopictus numbers in ovitraps and BG-S traps were positively correlated with vegetation around areas where traps were placed, while Ae. aegypti were negatively correlated with this feature. These data inform intervention strategies by defining periods when mosquito densities are high, highlighting the importance of local site characteristics on populations, and suggesting relatively weak interactions between Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. They also indicate local areas within hamlets where consistently high mosquito densities may influence Wolbachia invasions and other interventions. PMID:26576934

  15. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Numbers in the Yogyakarta Area of Java, Indonesia, With Implications for Wolbachia Releases.

    PubMed

    Tantowijoyo, W; Arguni, E; Johnson, P; Budiwati, N; Nurhayati, P I; Fitriana, I; Wardana, S; Ardiansyah, H; Turley, A P; Ryan, P; O'Neill, S L; Hoffmann, A A

    2016-01-01

    of mosquito vector populations, particularly through Wolbachia endosymbionts. The success of these strategies depends on understanding the dynamics of vector populations. In preparation for Wolbachia releases around Yogyakarta, we have studied Aedes populations in five hamlets. Adult monitoring with BioGent- Sentinel (BG-S) traps indicated that hamlet populations had different dynamics across the year; while there was an increase in Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) numbers in the wet season, species abundance remained relatively stable in some hamlets but changed markedly (>2 fold) in others. Local rainfall a month prior to monitoring partly predicted numbers of Ae. aegypti but not Ae. albopictus. Site differences in population size indicated by BG-S traps were also evident in ovitrap data. Egg or larval collections with ovitraps repeated at the same location suggested spatial autocorrelation (<250 m) in the areas of the hamlets where Ae. aegypti numbers were high. Overall, there was a weak negative association (r<0.43) between Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus numbers in ovitraps when averaged across collections. Ae. albopictus numbers in ovitraps and BG-S traps were positively correlated with vegetation around areas where traps were placed, while Ae. aegypti were negatively correlated with this feature. These data inform intervention strategies by defining periods when mosquito densities are high, highlighting the importance of local site characteristics on populations, and suggesting relatively weak interactions between Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. They also indicate local areas within hamlets where consistently high mosquito densities may influence Wolbachia invasions and other interventions.

  16. Pyrethroid resistance is widespread among Florida populations of Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aedes aegypti is an efficient vector of a number of diseases that affect man and is of increasing concern because of the reemergence of dengue and recent identification of locally acquired chikungunya in Florida. Pesticide resistance in this species has been demonstrated in several neighboring coun...

  17. A review on symmetries for certain Aedes aegypti models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, Igor Leite; Torrisi, Mariano

    2015-04-01

    We summarize our results related with mathematical modeling of Aedes aegypti and its Lie symmetries. Moreover, some explicit, group-invariant solutions are also shown. Weak equivalence transformations of more general reaction diffusion systems are also considered. New classes of solutions are obtained.

  18. A Novel GATA Factor Transcriptionally Represses Yolk Protein Precursor Genes in the Mosquito Aedes aegypti via Interaction with the CtBP Corepressor

    PubMed Central

    Martín, David; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors; Raikhel, Alexander S.

    2001-01-01

    In anautogenous mosquitoes, vitellogenesis, the key event in egg maturation, requires a blood meal. Consequently, mosquitoes are vectors of many devastating human diseases. An important adaptation for anautogenicity is the previtellogenic arrest (the state of arrest) preventing the activation of the yolk protein precursor (YPP) genes Vg and VCP prior to blood feeding. A novel GATA factor (AaGATAr) that recognizes GATA binding motifs (WGATAR) in the upstream region of the YPP genes serves as a transcriptional repressor at the state of arrest. Importantly, AaGATAr can override the 20-hydroxyecdysone transactivation of YPP genes, and its transcriptional repression involves the recruitment of CtBP, one of the universal corepressors. AaGATAr transcript is present only in the adult female fat body. Furthermore, in nuclear extracts of previtellogenic fat bodies with transcriptionally repressed YPP genes, there is a GATA binding protein forming a band with mobility similar to that of AaGATAr. The specific repression of YPP genes by AaGATAr in the fat body of the female mosquito during the state of arrest represents an important molecular adaptation for anautogenicity. PMID:11113191

  19. Oviposition Behavior in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Response to the Presence of Heterospecific and Conspecific Larvae.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Paula V; González Audino, Paola A; Masuh, Héctor M

    2016-03-01

    In mosquitoes, location of suitable sites for oviposition requires a set of visual, tactile, and olfactory cues that influences females before laying their eggs. The ability of gravid females to distinguish among potential oviposition sites that will or will not support the growth, development, and survival of their progeny is critical. Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) share ecological niches, being highly competitive in larval stage. We studied the oviposition behavior of both species in the presence of larvae of one or the other species (heterospecific or conspecific larvae). The number of eggs laid by gravid females on oviposition sites (water with different or the same species of Aedes larvae) were compared. The presence and density of heterospecific or conspecific larvae had a positive or negative effect on the ovipositional responses, measured as an oviposition activity index. For both species, the oviposition was not affected by heterospecific larvae with densities between 10 and 100 larvae in water, but a strong attractant behavior was observed for a density of 500 larvae in water. For Ae. albopictus in the presence of larvae of the same species (conspecific oviposition), we observed an attractant effect for larvae density of 10 but not for 100 or 500 larvae in water. Instead, for Ae. aegypti, we observed attraction only for 100 larvae, not for 10 or 500 larvae. Results presented here provide an additional insight about oviposition behavior responses of gravid females in the presence of conspecific and heterospecific larvae in breeding sites. PMID:26634825

  20. An eco-physiological model of the impact of temperature on Aedes aegypti life history traits.

    PubMed

    Padmanabha, Harish; Correa, Fabio; Legros, Mathieu; Nijhout, H Fredrick; Lord, Cynthia; Lounibos, L Philip

    2012-12-01

    Physiological processes mediate the impact of ecological conditions on the life histories of insect vectors. For the dengue/chikungunya mosquito, Aedes aegypti, three life history traits that are critical to urban population dynamics and control are: size, development rate and starvation mortality. In this paper we make use of prior laboratory experiments on each of these traits at 2°C intervals between 20 and 30°C, in conjunction with eco-evolutionary theory and studies on A.aegypti physiology, in order to develop a conceptual and mathematical framework that can predict their thermal sensitivity. Our model of reserve dependent growth (RDG), which considers a potential tradeoff between the accumulation of reserves and structural biomass, was able to robustly predict laboratory observations, providing a qualitative improvement over the approach most commonly used in other A.aegypti models. RDG predictions of reduced size at higher temperatures, but increased reserves relative to size, are supported by the available evidence in Aedes spp. We offer the potentially general hypothesis that temperature-size patterns in mosquitoes are driven by a net benefit of finishing the growing stage with proportionally greater reserves relative to structure at warmer temperatures. By relating basic energy flows to three fundamental life history traits, we provide a mechanistic framework for A.aegypti development to which ecological complexity can be added. Ultimately, this could provide a framework for developing and field testing hypotheses on how processes such as climate variation, density dependent regulation, human behavior or control strategies may influence A.aegypti population dynamics and disease risk.

  1. Costs of Three Wolbachia Infections on the Survival of Aedes aegypti Larvae under Starvation Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Perran A.; Endersby, Nancy M.; Hoffmann, Ary A.

    2016-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of dengue virus, has recently been infected experimentally with Wolbachia: intracellular bacteria that possess potential as dengue biological control agents. Wolbachia depend on their hosts for nutrients they are unable to synthesize themselves. Consequently, competition between Wolbachia and their host for resources could reduce host fitness under the competitive conditions commonly experienced by larvae of Ae. aegypti in the field, hampering the invasion of Wolbachia into natural mosquito populations. We assess the survival and development of Ae. aegypti larvae under starvation conditions when infected with each of three experimentally-generated Wolbachia strains: wMel, wMelPop and wAlbB, and compare their fitness to wild-type uninfected larvae. We find that all three Wolbachia infections reduce the survival of larvae relative to those that are uninfected, and the severity of the effect is concordant with previously characterized fitness costs to other life stages. We also investigate the ability of larvae to recover from extended food deprivation and find no effect of Wolbachia on this trait. Aedes aegypti larvae of all infection types were able to resume their development after one month of no food, pupate rapidly, emerge at a large size, and exhibit complete cytoplasmic incompatibility and maternal transmission. A lowered ability of Wolbachia-infected larvae to survive under starvation conditions will increase the threshold infection frequency required for Wolbachia to establish in highly competitive natural Ae. aegypti populations and will also reduce the speed of invasion. This study also provides insights into survival strategies of larvae when developing in stressful environments. PMID:26745630

  2. Germ band retraction as a landmark in glucose metabolism during Aedes aegypti embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The mosquito A. aegypti is vector of dengue and other viruses. New methods of vector control are needed and can be achieved by a better understanding of the life cycle of this insect. Embryogenesis is a part of A. aegypty life cycle that is poorly understood. In insects in general and in mosquitoes in particular energetic metabolism is well studied during oogenesis, when the oocyte exhibits fast growth, accumulating carbohydrates, lipids and proteins that will meet the regulatory and metabolic needs of the developing embryo. On the other hand, events related with energetic metabolism during A. aegypti embryogenesis are unknown. Results Glucose metabolism was investigated throughout Aedes aegypti (Diptera) embryonic development. Both cellular blastoderm formation (CBf, 5 h after egg laying - HAE) and germ band retraction (GBr, 24 HAE) may be considered landmarks regarding glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) destination. We observed high levels of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity at the very beginning of embryogenesis, which nevertheless decreased up to 5 HAE. This activity is correlated with the need for nucleotide precursors generated by the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), of which G6PDH is the key enzyme. We suggest the synchronism of egg metabolism with carbohydrate distribution based on the decreasing levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity and on the elevation observed in protein content up to 24 HAE. Concomitantly, increasing levels of hexokinase (HK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) activity were observed, and PEPCK reached a peak around 48 HAE. Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3) activity was also monitored and shown to be inversely correlated with glycogen distribution during embryogenesis. Conclusions The results herein support the hypothesis that glucose metabolic fate changes according to developmental embryonic stages. Germ band retraction is a moment that was characterized as a landmark in glucose metabolism during Aedes

  3. Dual African Origins of Global Aedes aegypti s.l. Populations Revealed by Mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Michelle; Sylla, Massamba; Goss, Laura; Burugu, Marion Warigia; Sang, Rosemary; Kamau, Luna W.; Kenya, Eucharia Unoma; Bosio, Chris; Munoz, Maria de Lourdes; Sharakova, Maria; Black, William Cormack

    2013-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti is the primary global vector to humans of yellow fever and dengue flaviviruses. Over the past 50 years, many population genetic studies have documented large genetic differences among global populations of this species. These studies initially used morphological polymorphisms, followed later by allozymes, and most recently various molecular genetic markers including microsatellites and mitochondrial markers. In particular, since 2000, fourteen publications and four unpublished datasets have used sequence data from the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 mitochondrial gene to compare Ae. aegypti collections and collectively 95 unique mtDNA haplotypes have been found. Phylogenetic analyses in these many studies consistently resolved two clades but no comprehensive study of mtDNA haplotypes have been made in Africa, the continent in which the species originated. Methods and Findings ND4 haplotypes were sequenced in 426 Ae. aegypti s.l. from Senegal, West Africa and Kenya, East Africa. In Senegal 15 and in Kenya 7 new haplotypes were discovered. When added to the 95 published haplotypes and including 6 African Aedes species as outgroups, phylogenetic analyses showed that all but one Senegal haplotype occurred in a basal clade while most East African haplotypes occurred in a second clade arising from the basal clade. Globally distributed haplotypes occurred in both clades demonstrating that populations outside Africa consist of mixtures of mosquitoes from both clades. Conclusions Populations of Ae. aegypti outside Africa consist of mosquitoes arising from one of two ancestral clades. One clade is basal and primarily associated with West Africa while the second arises from the first and contains primarily mosquitoes from East Africa PMID:23638196

  4. Late-instar Behavior of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae in Different Thermal and Nutritive Environments.

    PubMed

    Reiskind, Michael H; Janairo, M Shawn

    2015-09-01

    The effects of temperature on ectotherm growth have been well documented. How temperature affects foraging behavior is less well explored, and has not been studied in larval mosquitoes. We hypothesized that temperature changes foraging behavior in the aquatic larval phase of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. Based on empirical results in other systems, we predicted that foraging effort would increase at higher temperatures in these insects. We tested this prediction over three temperature conditions at two food levels. We measured behaviors by video recording replicated cohorts of fourth-instar mosquitoes and assessing individual behavior and time budgets using an ethogram. We found both food level and temperature had significant impacts on larval foraging behavior, with more time spent actively foraging at low food levels and at low temperatures, and more occurrences of active foraging at both temperature extremes. These results are contrary to some of our predictions, but fit into theoretical responses to temperature based upon dynamic energy budget models.

  5. Late-instar Behavior of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae in Different Thermal and Nutritive Environments.

    PubMed

    Reiskind, Michael H; Janairo, M Shawn

    2015-09-01

    The effects of temperature on ectotherm growth have been well documented. How temperature affects foraging behavior is less well explored, and has not been studied in larval mosquitoes. We hypothesized that temperature changes foraging behavior in the aquatic larval phase of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. Based on empirical results in other systems, we predicted that foraging effort would increase at higher temperatures in these insects. We tested this prediction over three temperature conditions at two food levels. We measured behaviors by video recording replicated cohorts of fourth-instar mosquitoes and assessing individual behavior and time budgets using an ethogram. We found both food level and temperature had significant impacts on larval foraging behavior, with more time spent actively foraging at low food levels and at low temperatures, and more occurrences of active foraging at both temperature extremes. These results are contrary to some of our predictions, but fit into theoretical responses to temperature based upon dynamic energy budget models. PMID:26336228

  6. Repellent activity of constituents identified in Foeniculum vulgare fruit against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hyoung; Kim, Soon-Il; Chang, Kyu-Sik; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2002-11-20

    The repellent activity of materials derived from the methanol extract of fruits from Foeniculum vulgareagainst hungry Aedes aegypti females was examined using skin and patch tests and compared with that of the commercial N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet) and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid. The biologically active constituents of the Foeniculum fruits were characterized as (+)-fenchone and (E)-9-octadecenoic acid by spectroscopic analyses. Responses varied according to compound, dose, and exposure time. In a skin test with female mosquitoes, at a dose of 0.4 mg/cm(2), (+)-fenchone and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid exhibited moderate repellent activity at 30 min after treatment, whereas deet provided >1 h of protection against adult mosquitoes at 0.2 mg/cm(2). (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid was a more potent repellent agent than (E)-9-octadecenoic acid. (+)-Fenchone and (E)-9-octadecenoic acid merit further study as potential mosquito repellent agents or as lead compounds. PMID:12428949

  7. Breeding Sites of Aedes aegypti: Potential Dengue Vectors in Dire Dawa, East Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Getachew, Dejene; Tekie, Habte; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Balkew, Meshesha; Mesfin, Akalu

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Entomological survey was carried out from May-June to September-October 2014 to investigate the presence of dengue vectors in discarded tires and artificial water containers in houses and peridomestic areas. Methods. A cross-sectional immature stage survey was done indoors and outdoors in 301 houses. Mosquito larval sampling was conducted using pipette or dipper depending on container types. Larvae were identified morphologically and larval indices were also calculated. Results. A total of 750 containers were inspected, and of these 405 were positive for mosquito larvae. A total of 1,873 larvae were collected and morphologically identified as Aedes aegypti (n = 1580: 84.4%) and Culex (n = 293: 15.6%). The larval indices, house index, container index, and breteau index, varied from 33.3 to 86.2, from 23.2 to 73.9, and from 56.5 to 188.9, respectively. Conclusion. Aedes aegypti is breeding in a wide range of artificial containers. To control these mosquitoes, the integration of different methods should be taken into consideration. PMID:26435712

  8. Oral receptivity of Aedes aegypti from Cape Verde for yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses.

    PubMed

    Vazeille, Marie; Yébakima, André; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Andriamahefazafy, Barrysson; Correira, Artur; Rodrigues, Julio Monteiro; Veiga, Antonio; Moreira, Antonio; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Grandadam, Marc; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2013-01-01

    At the end of 2009, 21,313 cases of dengue-3 virus (DENV-3) were reported in the islands of Cape Verde, an archipelago located in the Atlantic Ocean 570 km from the coast of western Africa. It was the first dengue outbreak ever reported in Cape Verde. Mosquitoes collected in July 2010 in the city of Praia, on the island of Santiago, were identified morphologically as Aedes aegypti formosus. Using experimental oral infections, we found that this vector showed a moderate ability to transmit the epidemic dengue-3 virus, but was highly susceptible to chikungunya and yellow fever viruses.

  9. The effects of plant essential oils on escape response and mortality rate of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles minimus.

    PubMed

    Sathantriphop, Sunaiyana; Achee, Nicole L; Sanguanpong, Unchalee; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2015-12-01

    The High Throughput Screening System (HITSS) has been applied in insecticide behavioral response studies with various mosquito species. In general, chemical or natural compounds can produce a range of insect responses: contact irritancy, spatial repellency, knock-down, and toxicity. This study characterized these actions in essential oils derived from citronella, hairy basil, catnip, and vetiver in comparison to DEET and picaridin against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles minimus mosquito populations. Results indicated the two mosquito species exhibited significantly different (P<0.05) contact irritant escape responses between treatment and control for all tested compound concentrations, except with the minimum dose of picaridin (P>0.05) against Ae. aegypti. Spatial repellency responses were elicited in both mosquito species when exposed to all compounds, but the strength of the repellent response was dependent on compound and concentration. Data show that higher test concentrations had greatest toxic effects on both mosquito populations, but vetiver had no toxic effect on Ae. aegypti and picaridin did not elicit toxicity in either Ae. aegypti or An. minimus at any test concentration. Ultimately, this study demonstrates the ability of the HITSS assay to guide selection of effective plant essential oils for repelling, irritating, and killing mosquitoes. PMID:26611967

  10. The effects of plant essential oils on escape response and mortality rate of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles minimus.

    PubMed

    Sathantriphop, Sunaiyana; Achee, Nicole L; Sanguanpong, Unchalee; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2015-12-01

    The High Throughput Screening System (HITSS) has been applied in insecticide behavioral response studies with various mosquito species. In general, chemical or natural compounds can produce a range of insect responses: contact irritancy, spatial repellency, knock-down, and toxicity. This study characterized these actions in essential oils derived from citronella, hairy basil, catnip, and vetiver in comparison to DEET and picaridin against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles minimus mosquito populations. Results indicated the two mosquito species exhibited significantly different (P<0.05) contact irritant escape responses between treatment and control for all tested compound concentrations, except with the minimum dose of picaridin (P>0.05) against Ae. aegypti. Spatial repellency responses were elicited in both mosquito species when exposed to all compounds, but the strength of the repellent response was dependent on compound and concentration. Data show that higher test concentrations had greatest toxic effects on both mosquito populations, but vetiver had no toxic effect on Ae. aegypti and picaridin did not elicit toxicity in either Ae. aegypti or An. minimus at any test concentration. Ultimately, this study demonstrates the ability of the HITSS assay to guide selection of effective plant essential oils for repelling, irritating, and killing mosquitoes.

  11. Using Wolbachia Releases to Estimate Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Population Size and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Gabriela de Azambuja; dos Santos, Lilha Maria Barbosa; Villela, Daniel Antunes Maciel; Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes carrying the endosymbiont bacterium Wolbachia have been deployed in field trials as a biological control intervention due to Wolbachia effects on reducing transmission of arboviruses. We performed mark, release and recapture (MRR) experiments using Wolbachia as an internal marker with daily collections with BG-Traps during the first two weeks of releases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The MRR design allowed us to investigate two critical parameters that determine whether Wolbachia would successful invade a field population: the probability of daily survival (PDS) of Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti females, and the wild population density during releases. Released females had a PDS of 0.82 and 0.89 in the first and second weeks, respectively, immediately after releases, which is well within the range of previous estimates of survivorship of wild mosquitoes in Rio de Janeiro. Abundance estimation of wild population varied up to 10-fold higher depending on the estimation method used (634–3565 females on the average-difference model to 6365–16188 females according to Lincoln-Petersen). Wolbachia-released mosquitoes were lower than the density estimation of their wild counterparts, irrespectively of the model used. Individually screening mosquitoes for the presence of Wolbachia reduced uncertainty on abundance estimations due to fluctuation in capturing per week. A successful invasion into local population requires Ae. aegypti fitness is unaffected by Wolbachia presence, but also reliable estimates on the population size of wild mosquitoes. PMID:27479050

  12. A chitin-like component in Aedes aegypti eggshells, eggs and ovaries.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Mônica F; Dos Santos, Amanda S; Marotta, Humberto R; Mansur, Juliana F; Ramos, Isabela B; Machado, Ednildo A; Souza, Gustavo H M F; Eberlin, Marcos N; Kaiser, Carlos R; Kramer, Karl J; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Vasconcellos, Ana Maria H

    2007-12-01

    An insoluble white substance was prepared from extracts of eggshells of Aedes aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito and dengue vector. Its infrared and proton NMR spectra were similar to that of standard commercial chitin. This putative chitin-like material, also obtained from ovaries, newly laid and dark eggs, was hydrolyzed in acid and a major product was identified by HPLC to be glucosamine. The eggshell acid hydrolysate was also analyzed by ESI-MS and an ion identical to a glucosamine monoprotonated species was detected. The presence of chitin was also analyzed during different developmental stages of the ovary using a fluorescent microscopy technique and probes specific for chitin. The results showed that a chitin-like material accumulates in oocytes during oogenesis. Streptomyces griseus chitinase pre-treatment of oocytes greatly reduced the chitin-derived fluorescence. Chitinase activity was detected in newborn larvae and eggs prior to hatching. Feeding experiments indicated that the chitin synthesis inhibitor lufenuron inhibited chitin synthesis, either when mosquitoes were allowed to feed directly on lufenuron-treated chickens or when an artificial feeding system was used. Lufenuron inhibited egg hatch, larval development and reduced mosquito viability. These data demonstrate for the first time that (1) a chitin-like material is present in A. aegypti eggs, ovaries and eggshells; (2) a chitin synthesis inhibitor can be used to inhibit mosquito oogenesis; and (3) chitin synthesis inhibitors have potential for controlling mosquito populations. PMID:17967344

  13. Using Wolbachia Releases to Estimate Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Population Size and Survival.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Gabriela de Azambuja; Dos Santos, Lilha Maria Barbosa; Villela, Daniel Antunes Maciel; Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes carrying the endosymbiont bacterium Wolbachia have been deployed in field trials as a biological control intervention due to Wolbachia effects on reducing transmission of arboviruses. We performed mark, release and recapture (MRR) experiments using Wolbachia as an internal marker with daily collections with BG-Traps during the first two weeks of releases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The MRR design allowed us to investigate two critical parameters that determine whether Wolbachia would successful invade a field population: the probability of daily survival (PDS) of Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti females, and the wild population density during releases. Released females had a PDS of 0.82 and 0.89 in the first and second weeks, respectively, immediately after releases, which is well within the range of previous estimates of survivorship of wild mosquitoes in Rio de Janeiro. Abundance estimation of wild population varied up to 10-fold higher depending on the estimation method used (634-3565 females on the average-difference model to 6365-16188 females according to Lincoln-Petersen). Wolbachia-released mosquitoes were lower than the density estimation of their wild counterparts, irrespectively of the model used. Individually screening mosquitoes for the presence of Wolbachia reduced uncertainty on abundance estimations due to fluctuation in capturing per week. A successful invasion into local population requires Ae. aegypti fitness is unaffected by Wolbachia presence, but also reliable estimates on the population size of wild mosquitoes. PMID:27479050

  14. Heterogeneous Feeding Patterns of the Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti, on Individual Human Hosts in Rural Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Laura C.; Fleisher, Andrew; Ruiz-Moreno, Diego; Vermeylen, Francoise; Wa, Chrystal V.; Poulson, Rebecca L.; Edman, John D.; Clark, John M.; Jones, James W.; Kitthawee, Sangvorn; Scott, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mosquito biting frequency and how bites are distributed among different people can have significant epidemiologic effects. An improved understanding of mosquito vector-human interactions would refine knowledge of the entomological processes supporting pathogen transmission and could reveal targets for minimizing risk and breaking pathogen transmission cycles. Methodology and principal findings We used human DNA blood meal profiling of the dengue virus (DENV) vector, Aedes aegypti, to quantify its contact with human hosts and to infer epidemiologic implications of its blood feeding behavior. We determined the number of different people bitten, biting frequency by host age, size, mosquito age, and the number of times each person was bitten. Of 3,677 engorged mosquitoes collected and 1,186 complete DNA profiles, only 420 meals matched people from the study area, indicating that Ae. aegypti feed on people moving transiently through communities to conduct daily business. 10–13% of engorged mosquitoes fed on more than one person. No biting rate differences were detected between high- and low-dengue transmission seasons. We estimate that 43–46% of engorged mosquitoes bit more than one person within each gonotrophic cycle. Most multiple meals were from residents of the mosquito collection house or neighbors. People ≤25 years old were bitten less often than older people. Some hosts were fed on frequently, with three hosts bitten nine times. Interaction networks for mosquitoes and humans revealed biologically significant blood feeding hotspots, including community marketplac