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Sample records for aedes taeniorhynchus wiedemann

  1. Identification and transcription profiling of NDUFS8 in Aedes taeniorhynchus (Diptera:Culididae): developmental regulation and environmental response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cDNA of a NADH dehydrogenase -ubiquinone Fe-S protein 8 subunit (NDUFS8) gene from Aedes (Ochlerotatus) taeniorhynchus Wiedemann has been cloned and sequenced. The full-length mRNA sequence (824 bp) of AetNDUFS8 encodes an open reading region of 651 bp (i.e., 217 amino acids). To detect whether ...

  2. Evaluation of ULV naled applied simultaneously against caged adult Aedes taeniorhynchus and Culicoides furens.

    PubMed

    Linley, J R; Parsons, R E; Winner, R A

    1988-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test application of ULV naled against adult Aedes taeniorhynchus and Culicoides furens exposed simultaneously in cages hung on poles at selected heights and distances from the spray source. ULV spray was released at 0.14 oz active ingredient/acre, droplet size 13.5 micron mmd. In both experiments, insecticide largely carried over the first poles. The greatest mortality occurred at the second pole position, 18.3 and 25.7 m, respectively, from the spray origin, and diminished progressively with increasing distance. Cages at the highest elevation (183 cm) showed the greatest mortality, while those near the ground (15 cm) were substantially less affected. Regression analysis showed that 70% control or better was attained up to a distance (beyond a line 10 m from the release point) of 23 m in the case of Ae. taeniorhynchus and 18 m in the case of C. furens. ULV naled, applied as described, was not particularly effective for control of Ae. taeniorhynchus and C. furens, and was poor for insects exposed in low vegetation. PMID:3199122

  3. Susceptibility of Mosquito and Lepidopteran Cell Lines to the Mosquito Iridescent Virus (IIV-3) from Aedes taeniorhynchus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquito iridescent viruses (MIV) are members of the genus Chloriridovirus and currently contains only the type IIV-3 from Aedes taeniorhynchus. The complete genome of invertebrate iridescent virus -3 (IIV-3) has been sequenced and the availability of a tissue culture system would facilitate functi...

  4. Aerial ultra-low-volume application of naled: impact on nontarget imperiled butterfly larvae (Cyclargus thomasi bethunebakeri) and efficacy against adult mosquitoes (Aedes taeniorhynchus).

    PubMed

    Zhong, H; Hribar, L J; Daniels, J C; Feken, M A; Brock, C; Trager, M D

    2010-12-01

    We assessed the exposure and acute toxicity of naled, applied aerially as an ultra-low-volume spray for mosquito control, on late instar larvae of the Miami blue (Cyclargus thomasi bethunebakeri) (Comstock and Huntington 1943) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), an imperiled South Florida butterfly. We concurrently evaluated the control efficacy against caged adult female salt-marsh mosquitoes (Aedes taeniorhynchus) (Wiedemann 1821) (Diptera: Culicidae). This 3-yr study was conducted in north Key Largo (Monroe County, FL) beginning in 2006. The field trials incorporated 15 sampling stations: nine in the target spray zone, three in the spray drift zone at varying distances from the target zone, and three in the control zone not subjected to naled spray drift. A total of six field spray trials were completed, three at an altitude of 30.5 m (100 feet), and three at 45.7 m (150 feet). For all trials, the ultra-low-volume application of Trumpet EC insecticide (78% naled) at a rate of 54.8 ml/ha (0.75 fl. oz/acre) was effective in killing caged adult mosquitoes in the target zone. Butterfly larvae survival was significantly reduced in the spray zone compared with drift and control zones. Analysis of insecticide residue data revealed that the mortality of the late instar butterfly larvae was a result of exposure to excess residues of naled. Additional research is needed to determine mitigation strategies that can limit exposure of sensitive butterflies to naled while maintaining mosquito control efficacy. PMID:22182563

  5. Aedes Taeniorhynchus Vectorial Capacity Informs A Pre-Emptive Assessment Of West Nile Virus Establishment In Galápagos

    PubMed Central

    Eastwood, Gillian; Goodman, Simon J.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Kramer, Laura D.

    2013-01-01

    Increased connectivity with the mainland has led to the arrival of many invasive species to the Galápagos Islands, including novel pathogens, threatening the archipelago's unique fauna. Here we consider the potential role of the mosquito Aedes taeniorhynchus in maintaining the flavivirus West Nile virus [WNV] should it reach the islands. We report on three components of vectorial capacity - vector competency, distributional abundance and host-feeding. In contrast to USA strains, Galápagos A. taeniorhynchus is a competent and efficient WNV vector, capable of transmission at 5 days post-exposure. Based on 25 blood-meals, mammalian feeding suggests a potential bridge vector role should contact with key amplification taxa occur. Vector population abundance is driven primarily by climatic factors, peaking between January and March. As a ubiquitous competent vector, A. taeniorhynchus may facilitate future WNV establishment, therefore it is vital to ensure the biosecurity of Galápagos to prevent introductions of pathogens such as WNV. PMID:23519190

  6. Adaptation, isolation by distance and human-mediated transport determine patterns of gene flow among populations of the disease vector Aedes taeniorhynchus in the Galapagos Islands.

    PubMed

    Bataille, Arnaud; Cunningham, Andrew A; Cruz, Marilyn; Cedeño, Virna; Goodman, Simon J

    2011-12-01

    The black salt-marsh mosquito (Aedes taeniorhynchus) is the only native mosquito in the Galapagos Islands and potentially a major disease vector for Galapagos wildlife. Little is known about its population structure, or how its dynamics may be influenced by human presence in the archipelago. We used microsatellite data to assess the structure and patterns of A. taeniorhynchus gene flow among and within islands, to identify potential barriers to mosquito dispersal, and to investigate human-aided transport of mosquitoes across the archipelago. Our results show that inter-island migration of A. taeniorhynchus occurs frequently on an isolation by distance basis. High levels of inter-island migration were detected amongst the major ports of the archipelago, strongly suggesting the occurrence of human-aided transport of mosquitoes among islands, underlining the need for strict control measures to avoid the transport of disease vectors between islands. The prevalence of filarial nematode infection in Galapagos flightless cormorants is correlated with the population structure and migration patterns of A. taeniorhynchus, suggesting that A. taeniorhynchus is an important vector of this arthropod-borne parasite in the Galapagos Islands. Therefore mosquito population structure in Galapagos may have the potential to influence mosquito-borne parasite population dynamics, and the subsequent impacts of such pathogens on their host species in the islands.

  7. Field observation on the efficacy of Toxorhynchites splendens (Wiedemann) as a biocontrol agent against Aedes albopictus (Skuse) larvae in a cemetery.

    PubMed

    Nyamah, M A; Sulaiman, S; Omar, B

    2011-08-01

    This study explored the efficacy of Toxorhynchites splendens, predator of Aedes albopictus as a biocontrol agent. There was a negative correlation between Ae. albopictus larval population and Tx. splendens larval population in ovitraps (r=-0.287, R²=0.0821). The correlation is higher between the mean number of Ae. albopictus larvae per ovitrap and the number of Tx. splendens larvae in an ovitrap (r=-0.987, R²=0.9737). Larvae of Tx. splendens were observed to co-exist with larvae of Ae. albopictus and Culex fuscocephala in the ovitraps placed in the study area. The existence of Tx. splendens larvae in the study area coincides with their habit, preferring to breed in bamboo stumps. A total of 480 ovitraps were inspected for 30-week study period and 281 ovitraps were positive with Ae. albopictus larvae respectively. There was a significant difference between numbers of ovitrap positive for Ae. albopictus larvae with number of Tx. splendens larvae in the ovitraps (ANOVA, F((4,475)) 2.655, p<0.05). Of 281 ovitraps positive with Ae. albopictus larvae, 255 ovitraps contained only one Tx. splendens larva each. Only one ovitrap contained four, the most number of Tx. splendens larvae (p< 0.05). Thus, Tx. splendens could be utilised as an alternative for dengue vector control programme. PMID:22041750

  8. Biology and control of Taeniorhynchus (Mansonioides) uniformis Theobald, the chief vector of rural filariasis in Ceylon

    PubMed Central

    Antonipulle, P.; David, H. V.; Karunaratne, M. D. R.

    1958-01-01

    Residual spraying of DDT for the control of Taeniorhynchus (Mansonioides) uniformis, the mosquito vector of rural filariasis in Ceylon, was carried out in Induruwa, a village on the west coast of the island. The results showed that the insecticide retained its effectiveness for a period of 4-6 months. During the course of this investigation, various observations were made on the behaviour of T. (M.) uniformis. Its host plants, day-time resting-places, feeding habits, and response to light—particularly moonlight—were recorded. An increase in T. (M.) uniformis prevalence was observed to coincide with the onset of the north-east and south-west monsoons, when the paddy-fields are inundated and become overgrown with Isachne australis, the most common aquatic plant in the area and a favourite breeding-place of this mosquito species. PMID:13585075

  9. Toxic effect of citrus peel constituents on Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann and Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann immature stages.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, María J; Juárez, María L; Alzogaray, Raúl A; Arrighi, Federico; Arroyo, Lorena; Gastaminza, Gerardo; Willink, Eduardo; Bardón, Alicia del Valle; Vera, Teresa

    2014-10-15

    The toxicity of essential oils from the citrus peel has been proposed as the major resistance mechanism offered by citrus to fruit fly infestation. We evaluated the insecticidal activity of the ether extracts from the lemon (Citrus limon [L.] Burm.) and grapefruit (C. paradisi Macfadyen) peel as well as from limonene and citral against Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) immature stages. We also evaluated the toxicity of the extracts at two ripening stages. Extracts proved toxic to A. fraterculus egg and larvae. The lemon and grapefruit extracts showed the same toxicity in both fruit fly species. For A. fraterculus eggs, citral was more toxic than limonene; for larvae, they showed equal toxicity. Anastrepha fraterculus eggs were more sensitive than C. capitata eggs. In conclusion, we provide evidence of chemical resistance mechanisms that could account for the nonhost condition of lemon for A. fraterculus.

  10. Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome: Genomic imprinting revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Weksberg, R.

    1994-08-15

    In the study of genetic diseases involving genomic imprinting, Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome (WBS) has become an important paradigm. Genetic heterogeneity is demonstrated in this condition by the variety of cytogenetic and molecular alterations of the 11p15.5 region. These involve several different patient subgroups with specific parent-of-origin findings. Several lines of evidence suggest that more than one locus underlies the WBS phenotype. This was based on the assumption that the WBS phenotype is caused by a loss-of-function mutation. Although this might be true, an alternative and more parsimonious explanation can account for the autosomal dominant pedigrees using only one locus, e.g., IGF2. 15 refs.

  11. Laboratory bioassay studies to determine methoprene susceptibility in a natural population of Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus from the Florida keys.

    PubMed

    Floore, Omas G; Smith, John P; Shaffer, Kenneth R; Schreiber, Eric T

    2002-06-01

    Larvae of Florida Keys Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus collected from No Name Key were colonized and evaluated against technical S-methoprene in laboratory beaker tests. Glassware was treated with a silanizing reagent before testing to prevent methoprene attachment to the glassware. The No Name Key strain was compared with a susceptible laboratory strain of Oc. taeniorhynchus. Five serial dilutions (0.0100, 0.0050, 0.0010, 0.0005, and 0.0001 microg/ml) and an untreated control were evaluated. Tests were conducted in water baths with a constant water temperature of 27+/-1 degrees C and 250 ml of 3 per thousand salt water. Twenty-five late 3rd-stage larvae were placed in each beaker. Bioassay samples were analyzed by probit analysis and the median lethal concentration (LC50), 90% lethal concentration (LC90), and 95% lethal concentration (LC95) values; confidence limits; chi2 value; slope; and standard error were determined. The Florida Keys No Name Key strain exhibited no significant differences at the LC50, LC90, and LC95 levels from the laboratory strain in these studies.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: Stüve-Wiedemann syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... formation, leading to osteopenia, bowed legs, and other skeletal problems common in Stüve-Wiedemann syndrome . In addition, development of nerve cells, particularly those involved in the autonomic nervous system, is abnormal, leading to the problems with breathing, ...

  13. Wiedemann-Franz law for magnon transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Kouki; Simon, Pascal; Loss, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    One of the main goals of spintronics is to improve transport of information carriers and to achieve new functionalities with ultra-low dissipation. A most promising strategy for this holy grail is to use pure magnon currents created and transported in insulating magnets, in the complete absence of any conducting metallic elements. Here we propose a realistic solution to this fundamental challenge by analyzing magnon and heat transport in insulating ferromagnetic junctions. We calculate all transport coefficients for magnon transport and establish Onsager relations between them. We theoretically discover that magnon transport in junctions has a universal behavior, i.e., is independent of material parameters, and establish a magnon analog of the celebrated Wiedemann-Franz law, which governs charge transport at low temperatures. We calculate the Seebeck and Peltier coefficients, which are crucial quantities for spin caloritronics, and demonstrate that they assume universal values in the low-temperature limit. Finally, we show that our predictions are within experimental reach with current device and measurement technologies.

  14. Evaluation of equipment modifications and dosage rates of ground ULV applications of naled against Aedes taeniorhynchus in a Florida citrus grove.

    PubMed

    Curtis, G A; Mason, J

    1988-09-01

    Efficiency of ground-applied naled (Dibrom 14), based on caged mosquito bioassays in a moderately vegetated coastal southeastern Florida citrus grove, proved to be significantly associated with downwind distance. However, association analysis between wind speed, temperature or relative humidity revealed no correlation between these meteorological factors and mosquito mortality. Tests conducted with 3 of the commonly used ULV machines demonstrated no significant differences in efficiency. Equipment modifications to simulate aerial application by elevating the spray release point proved ineffective. Increasing the dosage of naled to 3 times the labeled rate for ground treatment resulted in greater than 95% mortality. PMID:3251479

  15. Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome with overlapping Perlman syndrome manifestation.

    PubMed

    Ferianec, Vladimír; Bartova, Michaela

    2014-10-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an overgrowth syndrome known as exomphalos-macroglossia - gigantism syndrome. Prognosis is good, prenatal diagnosis is important for pregnancy management but might be difficult due to clinical overlap with other syndromes. Perlman syndrome is an overgrowth syndrome with high perinatal mortality, most frequent antenatal findings include polyhydramnios, macrosomia, visceromegaly, nephromegaly and foetal ascites. Authors present a case of prenatally diagnosed BWS with severe ascites as first antenatal finding and lethal course, signs more typical of Perlman syndrome. This combination of clinical signs has not been published yet and may contribute to specification of possible prenatal manifestation of BWS. PMID:24215131

  16. The impact of industrial anthropization on mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) communities in mangrove areas of Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil).

    PubMed

    de Souza, A S; Couri, M S; Florindo, L

    2012-02-01

    The effects of industrial anthropization on species composition and community diversity of Culicidae (Diptera) were studied in a mangrove area impacted by industrial activities as compared to a preserved area, both around Guanabara Bay in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Diversity, equitability, and species richness in Culicidae community differed between the studied areas. Indicator species analysis and correspondence analysis were carried out and indicated that the Sabethini, especially Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) theobaldi Lane, Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) fuscipes (Edwards), and a non-identified species of Wyeomyia sp. were associated to the preserved area, whereas Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedemann and Aedes scapularis (Rondani) to the impacted area.

  17. Nomenclatural studies toward a world catalog of Diptera genus-group names. III. Christian Rudolph Wilhelm Wiedemann.

    PubMed

    Evenhuis, Neal L; Pont, Adrian C

    2013-01-01

    The Diptera genus-group names of Christian Rudolph Wilhelm Wiedemann are reviewed and annotated. A total of 50 available genus-group names in 25 families of Diptera are listed alphabetically for each name giving author, year and page of original publication, originally included species, type species and method of fixation, current status of the name, family placement, and a list of any emendations of it that have been found in the literature. Remarks are given to clarify nomenclatural or taxonomic information. A biography of Wiedemann is given with discussion of his works and his relationships with contemporaries. In addition, an index is given to all the species-group names of Diptera proposed by Wiedemann (1,775 of which 1,698 are available) with bibliographic reference to each original citation. An appendix gives a complete bibliography of all the known writings by Wiedemann, non-zoological as well as zoological.The following type species is designated herein: Eristalis chrysopygus Wiedemann, 1819 for Pachycephalus Wiedemann, 1830, by present designation [Syrphidae].Corrected or clarified type-species and methods of typification are given for: Colax Wiedemann, 1824 [Nemestrinidae]; Cyphomyia Wiedemann, 1819 [Stratiomyidae]; Philoliche Wiedemann, 1821 [Tabanidae]; Ropalomera Wiedemann, 1820 [Ropalomeridae]; Timia Wiedemann, 1824 [Ulidiidae].Acting as First Reviser, the following correct original spelling for multiple original spellings is selected: Maekistocera Wiedemann, 1820 [Tipulidae]. A previous First Reviser action for multiple original spellings missed by other workers is given for the following: Rhaphiorhynchus Wiedemann, 1821 [Pantophthalmidae].The following nominal genera enter into new synonymies: Ceratophyia Osten Sacken, 1858 of Ceratophya Wiedemann, 1824, n. syn. [Syrphidae]; Epopter Wiedemann, 1830 of Sphecomyia Le Peletier & Serville, 1825, n. syn. [Syrphidae]; Melophaga Wiedemann, 1830 of Melophagus Latreille, 1802, n. syn. [Hippoboscidae]; Midas

  18. Aphaereta ceratitivora sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae), a new parasitoid of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera, Tephritidae) from the Azores

    PubMed Central

    van Achterberg, Kees; Teixeira, Tânia; Oliveira, Luísa

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new gregarious larval-pupal endoparasitoid of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is described and illustrated: Aphaereta ceratitivora sp. n. (Braconidae: Alysiinae: Alysiini). PMID:23129984

  19. Monozygotic male twins concordant for Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Clemens, M.; McPherson, E.; Sherer, C. |

    1994-09-01

    The Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by macrosomia, macro glossia, visceromegaly, characteristic facies, and in some cases omphalocele, hypoglycemia, hemihypertrophy, and risk of embryonal tumors. Most cases occur sporadically in chromosomally normal individuals, but a few BWS patients have anomalies of 11p and others have evidence of microduplications or paternal isodisomy in this region. In some families with autosomal dominant transmission, BWS maps to 11p15.5, but the mechanism of transmission is not fully understood. BWS has been reported in 11 sets of MZ twins, including 10 female pairs (9 discordant and 1 partially concordant) and one male pair concordant for both BWS & dup 15q11.2-q13. We report a pair of premature male MZ twins with macroglossia, postnatal overgrowth, characteristic BWS facies, and mild developmental delay. One twin had hypoglycemia, but neither had omphalocele or hemihypertrophy and serial abdominal ultrasounds have been normal. DNA fingerprinting confirmed monozygosity. Chromosome studies showed a marker 11p14.2 in one twin only, and molecular genetic studies of the 11p15.5 region showed no evidence of duplication or isodisomy in either twin.

  20. Stüve-Wiedemann Syndrome: Update on Clinical and Genetic Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Romeo Bertola, Débora; Honjo, Rachel S.; Baratela, Wagner A.R.

    2016-01-01

    Stüve-Wiedemann syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by bowed long bones, joint restrictions, dysautonomia, and respiratory and feeding difficulties, leading to death in the neonatal period and infancy in several occasions. Since the first cases in 1971, much has been learned about this condition, including its molecular basis - mutations in the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor gene (LIFR) -, natural history and management possibilities. This review aims to highlight the clinical aspects, radiological features, molecular findings, and management strategies in Stüve-Wiedemann syndrome. PMID:27194968

  1. Stüve-Wiedemann Syndrome: Update on Clinical and Genetic Aspects.

    PubMed

    Romeo Bertola, Débora; Honjo, Rachel S; Baratela, Wagner A R

    2016-04-01

    Stüve-Wiedemann syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by bowed long bones, joint restrictions, dysautonomia, and respiratory and feeding difficulties, leading to death in the neonatal period and infancy in several occasions. Since the first cases in 1971, much has been learned about this condition, including its molecular basis - mutations in the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor gene (LIFR) -, natural history and management possibilities. This review aims to highlight the clinical aspects, radiological features, molecular findings, and management strategies in Stüve-Wiedemann syndrome. PMID:27194968

  2. Genetics of Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Rai, K S

    1986-12-01

    Aedes albopictus is an important vector of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever in Southeast Asia. Its distribution extends from Madagascar to Hawaii and is currently expanding. From its proposed origin in Southeast Asia, Ae. albopictus has migrated as far as Mauritius and Madagascar to the west and Korea, Japan, Guam, Hawaii and other Pacific Islands to the east. In the continental United States, it was originally reported in the Texas area in August 1985 and is now well established in several states. This paper reviews information on distribution, cytology and genetics of Aedes albopictus. In addition, it includes comments on its competitive interaction with several other species. Relevant information on evolutionary genetics of certain other related sibling species is also included for comparative purposes.

  3. Three Year Outcome of a Child with Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Rebecca Barsh; Prudencio, Ma. Concepcion; Russo, Sheila Daly; Estillore, Alicia; Reyes-Lee, Martha

    1998-01-01

    Presents a diminutive overview of research and a case study of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), a rare, genetically complex congenital disorder. Prenatal diagnosis of this case included omphalocele, hydonephrosis, and possible horseshoe kidney, detected by ultrasound. The characteristics of this disability and related problems are discussed.…

  4. The identity of Tachina westermanni Wiedemann, 1819 (Diptera: Calliphoridae or Tachinidae) with a solution to a nomenclatural problem.

    PubMed

    Rognes, Knut; O'Hara, James E; Cerretti, Pierfilippo

    2015-01-01

    Tachina westermanni Wiedemann, 1819 was based on four syntypes, two conspecific calliphorids and two conspecific tachinids. Two existing but contradictory lectotype fixations have resulted in confusion as to the correct application of the specific name westermanni Wiedemann. Evidence is presented showing that the lectotype fixation of Townsend in 1931 is valid and assigns westermanni Wiedemann to the Calliphoridae, with Pericallimyia westermanni as the valid binomen. The valid name for the tachinid taxon becomes Brachelia westermanni Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 and a neotype is designated for it in the interests of nomenclatural stability.

  5. Salivary vasodilators of Aedes triseriatus and Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, J M; Nussenzveig, R H; Tortorella, G

    1994-09-01

    Salivary vasodilators of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Anopheles albimanus (Wiedemann) were characterized previously as a tachykinin peptide and a catechol oxidase/peroxidase activity, respectively. To verify whether these two different vasodilators also were found in other distantly related members of each mosquito genus, we characterized the vasodilators from A. triseriatus and A. gambiae. A. triseriatus salivary gland homogenates produced a reversible, endothelium dependent vasorelaxation of rabbit aortic rings constricted with norepinephrine, and contracted an isolated guinea pig ileum preparation. Additionally, the homogenate had no activity on both smooth muscle preparations when both tissues were desensitized previously by a large dose of substance P. Taken together, these assays suggest the presence of a salivary tachykinin in A. triseriatus. A. gambiae salivary gland homogenates induced a slow vasodilation on both endothelium intact and endotheliumless preparations of aortic rings. A. gambiae homogenates also displayed catechol oxidase and peroxidase activity against o-dianisidine but not against serotonin, indicating the presence of an enzyme system slightly different from A. albimanus. We conclude that the presence of salivary tachykinins or catechol/oxidase is not unique to A. aegypti or A. albimanus. PMID:7966179

  6. Medhost: An encyclopedic bibliography of the host plants of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), version 3.0

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), causes direct damage to fruits and vegetables through oviposition and larval feeding. Rigorous quarantine procedures are currently enforced to prevent domestic and transnational spread of Medfly. Accessible and reliable informatio...

  7. Bilateral adrenal cysts and ectopic pancreatic tissue in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome: is a conservative approach acceptable?

    PubMed

    Rahmah, R; Yong, J F; Sharifa, N A; Kuhnle, U

    2004-06-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome is a common overgrowth syndrome associated with an increased risk of neoplasias which might be explained by the nature and localization of the genetic defect. While malignant tumors are often associated with hemihypertrophy, benign tumors are also found. We report a patient with the typical features of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome with two histologically different abdominal tumors, bilateral cystic adrenals and ectopic pancreatic tissue present at birth. In both tumors no malignancy could be detected. Ectopic pancreatic tissue is rarely seen and has been described in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome only once. After extirpation of the ectopic pancreatic tissue the cystic adrenals were left in situ since macroscopically no normal adrenal tissue could be identified and separated. Regular ultrasound examinations revealed complete resolution of the cystic adrenals within 24 months. Thus it seems that a conservative approach in selected tumors associated with the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome might be acceptable.

  8. Two sibs with Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome: possibilities of prenatal diagnosis by ultrasound.

    PubMed Central

    Castiñeyra, G; Panal, M; Lopez Presas, H; Goldschmidt, E; Sánchez, J M

    1992-01-01

    A girl with Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome was born to a non-consanguineous couple. During the pregnancy, growth retardation particularly in the biparietal and abdominal diameters but not the femoral length was detected through serial ultrasound scans. When the woman became pregnant again, in spite of having been assessed as having a 25% risk of recurrence, the prenatal findings seen in her previous pregnancy led us to suggest sequential echography and a similar pattern of growth retardation was shown. After termination, the male fetus was found to be affected by Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome. This case shows that ultrasound examination can be a useful tool in the prenatal diagnosis of this rare, autosomal recessive syndrome. Images PMID:1619643

  9. Oral polyp as the presenting feature of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome in a child.

    PubMed

    Kujan, Omar; Raheel, Syed Ahmed; King, David; Iqbal, Fareed

    2015-01-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a congenital growth disorder characterised by abdominal wall defects, macroglossia and somatic gigantism. A number of associated features, including gastrointestinal and urinary tract polyps, have been described, but there are no previous reports of oral polyps occurring in this syndrome. We describe the first case of BWS presenting with an oral polyp. Clinicians should be alert to the possibility of BWS if other features of the syndrome are present, in children with oral polyps. PMID:26323977

  10. Anesthetic management of tongue reduction in a case of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Batra, Meenu; Valecha, Umesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia for partial glossectomy in a premature child with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome presents as a unique challenge to the Anesthesiologist. Airway management in patients presenting with macroglossia is especially significant and requires meticulous preparation and pre-operative assessment. This report delineates the anesthetic concerns such as an anticipated difficult airway due to a large tongue, prematurity, hypoglycemia and an oral cavity surgery and their management. PMID:25425786

  11. Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch neonatal progeroid syndrome: report of three new patients.

    PubMed Central

    Arboleda, H; Quintero, L; Yunis, E

    1997-01-01

    Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch (WR) syndrome is known as a neonatal progeroid syndrome, with only few published case reports. We describe three additional patients, two of them sibs, showing the clinical features of WR syndrome. Skeletal abnormalities are reported and assays of hormones and lipids are presented in one patient. Disturbance in bone maturation and lipid and hormone metabolism appear to be involved in this neonatal progeroid syndrome. Images PMID:9152846

  12. Aedes aegypti genomics.

    PubMed

    Severson, David W; Knudson, Dennis L; Soares, Marcelo B; Loftus, Brendan J

    2004-07-01

    The mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is the primary, worldwide arthropod vector for the yellow fever and dengue viruses. As it is also one of the most tractable mosquito species for laboratory studies, it has been and remains one of the most intensively studied arthropod species. This has resulted in the development of detailed genetic and physical maps for Ae. aegypti and considerable insight into its genome organization. The research community is well-advanced in developing important molecular tools that will facilitate a whole genome sequencing effort. This includes generation of BAC clone end sequences, physical mapping of selected BAC clones and generation of EST sequences. Whole genome sequence information for Ae. aegypti will provide important insight into mosquito chromosome evolution and allow for the identification of genes and gene function. These functions may be common to all mosquitoes or perhaps unique to individual species, possibly specific to host-seeking and blood-feeding behaviors, as well as the innate immune response to pathogens encountered during blood-feeding. This information will be invaluable to the global effort to develop novel strategies for preventing arthropod-borne disease transmission.

  13. Genetic control of Aedes mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Alphey, Luke; McKemey, Andrew; Nimmo, Derric; Neira Oviedo, Marco; Lacroix, Renaud; Matzen, Kelly; Beech, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    Aedes mosquitoes include important vector species such as Aedes aegypti, the major vector of dengue. Genetic control methods are being developed for several of these species, stimulated by an urgent need owing to the poor effectiveness of current methods combined with an increase in chemical pesticide resistance. In this review we discuss the various genetic strategies that have been proposed, their present status, and future prospects. We focus particularly on those methods that are already being tested in the field, including RIDL and Wolbachia-based approaches. PMID:23816508

  14. A new record for Lispe orientalis Wiedemann, 1824 (Diptera: Muscidae) from peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chew, W K; Kurahashi, H; Nazni, W A; Heo, C C; Heah, S K; Jeffery, J; Lee, H L

    2012-09-01

    Lispe orientalis Wiedemann, 1824 is recorded for the first time in peninsular Malaysia. Specimens were collected from a mushroom cultivation farm in Genting Highlands, Pahang (3°25'18"N 101°47'48"E). Previously, this species had been recorded from Azerbaijin, India, Russia, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkey and South Korea. The male of Lispe orientalis can be determined by the following characteristics: body non-metallic, ashy gray, third antennal segment black, R5 cell not narrow apically, hind metatarsus normal, legs entirely black, femora with long bristle-like hairs on av and pv surfaces, hind tibia without av and pv seta and the palpi orangish in colour.

  15. A new record of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann) (Diptera:Fanniidae) from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Omar, B; Kurahashi, H; Jeffery, J; Yasohdha, N; Lau, S Y; John, M C; Marwi, M A; Zuha, R M; Ahmad, M S

    2007-12-01

    Fannia pusio (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Fanniidae) is newly recorded from Malaysia. This record is based on 1male symbol 1female symbol from Sarawak, east Malaysia and 1male symbol 2female symbol from Selangor, peninsular Malaysia. It is included in the pusio group of Fannia wherein are included Fannia femoralis (Stein), Fannia howardi Malloch, Fannia trimaculata (Stein), Fannia leucosticta (Meigen) and Fannia punctiventris Malloch. The male of Fannia pusio is differentiated from other members of the group by the following features: hind femur with a swelling bearing a number of setae that are usually curled at tip; squamae creamy; tergite 1+2 broadly grey dusted at sides.

  16. Microevolution of Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Louise, Caroline; Vidal, Paloma Oliveira; Suesdek, Lincoln

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research into the epidemiology of dengue frequently focuses on the microevolution and dispersion of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. One of the world’s largest urban agglomerations infested by Ae. aegypti is the Brazilian megalopolis of Sao Paulo, where >26,900 cases of dengue were reported until June 2015. Unfortunately, the dynamics of the genetic variability of Ae. aegypti in the Sao Paulo area have not been well studied. To reduce this knowledge gap, we assessed the morphogenetic variability of a population of Ae. aegypti from a densely urbanised neighbourhood of Sao Paulo. We tested if allelic patterns could vary over a short term and if wing shape could be a predictor of the genetic variation. Over a period of 14 months, we examined the variation of genetic (microsatellites loci) and morphological (wing geometry) markers in Ae. aegypti. Polymorphisms were detected, as revealed by the variability of 20 microsatellite loci (115 alleles combined; overall Fst = 0.0358) and 18 wing landmarks (quantitative estimator Qst = 0.4732). These levels of polymorphism are higher than typically expected to an exotic species. Allelic frequencies of the loci changed over time and temporal variation in the wing shape was even more pronounced, permitting high reclassification levels of chronological samples. In spite of the fact that both markers underwent temporal variation, no correlation was detected between their dynamics. We concluded that microevolution was detected despite the short observational period, but the intensities of change of the markers were discrepant. Wing shape failed from predicting allelic temporal variation. Possibly, natural selection (Qst>Fst) or variance of expressivity of wing phenotype are involved in this discrepancy. Other possibly influential factors on microevolution of Ae. aegypti are worth searching. Additionally, the implications of the rapid evolution and high polymorphism of this mosquito vector on the efficacy of control methods

  17. Microevolution of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Louise, Caroline; Vidal, Paloma Oliveira; Suesdek, Lincoln

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research into the epidemiology of dengue frequently focuses on the microevolution and dispersion of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. One of the world's largest urban agglomerations infested by Ae. aegypti is the Brazilian megalopolis of Sao Paulo, where >26,900 cases of dengue were reported until June 2015. Unfortunately, the dynamics of the genetic variability of Ae. aegypti in the Sao Paulo area have not been well studied. To reduce this knowledge gap, we assessed the morphogenetic variability of a population of Ae. aegypti from a densely urbanised neighbourhood of Sao Paulo. We tested if allelic patterns could vary over a short term and if wing shape could be a predictor of the genetic variation. Over a period of 14 months, we examined the variation of genetic (microsatellites loci) and morphological (wing geometry) markers in Ae. aegypti. Polymorphisms were detected, as revealed by the variability of 20 microsatellite loci (115 alleles combined; overall Fst = 0.0358) and 18 wing landmarks (quantitative estimator Qst = 0.4732). These levels of polymorphism are higher than typically expected to an exotic species. Allelic frequencies of the loci changed over time and temporal variation in the wing shape was even more pronounced, permitting high reclassification levels of chronological samples. In spite of the fact that both markers underwent temporal variation, no correlation was detected between their dynamics. We concluded that microevolution was detected despite the short observational period, but the intensities of change of the markers were discrepant. Wing shape failed from predicting allelic temporal variation. Possibly, natural selection (Qst>Fst) or variance of expressivity of wing phenotype are involved in this discrepancy. Other possibly influential factors on microevolution of Ae. aegypti are worth searching. Additionally, the implications of the rapid evolution and high polymorphism of this mosquito vector on the efficacy of control methods have

  18. Chikungunya Virus Infection of Aedes Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hui Vern; Chan, Yoke Fun; Sam, I-Ching; Sulaiman, Wan Yusof Wan; Vythilingam, Indra

    2016-01-01

    In vivo infection of mosquitoes is an important method to study and characterize arthropod-borne viruses. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that is transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes. In this chapter, we describe a protocol for infection of CHIKV in two species of Aedes mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, together with the isolation of CHIKV in different parts of the infected mosquito such as midgut, legs, wings, salivary gland, head, and saliva. This allows the study of viral infection, replication and dissemination within the mosquito vector. PMID:27233266

  19. Flavivirus susceptibility in Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Black, William C; Bennett, Kristine E; Gorrochótegui-Escalante, Norma; Barillas-Mury, Carolina V; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; de Lourdes Muñoz, María; Farfán-Alé, José A; Olson, Ken E; Beaty, Barry J

    2002-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of yellow fever (YF) and dengue fever (DF) flaviviruses worldwide. In this review we focus on past and present research on genetic components and environmental factors in Aedes aegypti that appear to control flavivirus transmission. We review genetic relationships among Ae. aegypti populations throughout the world and discuss how variation in vector competence is correlated with overall genetic differences among populations. We describe current research into how genetic and environmental factors jointly affect distribution of vector competence in natural populations. Based on this information, we propose a population genetic model for vector competence and discuss our recent progress in testing this model. We end with a discussion of approaches being taken to identify the genes that may control flavivirus susceptibility in Ae. aegypti.

  20. Vector competence of North American mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) for West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Turell, M J; O'Guinn, M L; Dohm, D J; Jones, J W

    2001-03-01

    We evaluated the potential for several North American mosquito species to transmit the newly introduced West Nile (WN) virus. Mosquitoes collected in the New York City metropolitan area during the recent WN virus outbreak, at the Assateague Island Wildlife Refuge, VA, or from established colonies were allowed to feed on chickens infected with WN virus isolated from a crow that died during the 1999 outbreak. These mosquitoes were tested approximately 2 wk later to determine infection, dissemination, and transmission rates. Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Aedes atropalpus (Coquillett), and Aedes japonicus (Theobald) were highly susceptible to infection, and nearly all individuals with a disseminated infection transmitted virus by bite. Culex pipiens L. and Aedes sollicitans (Walker) were moderately susceptible. In contrast, Aedes vexans (Meigen), Aedes aegypti (L.), and Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) were relatively refractory to infection, but individual mosquitoes inoculated with WN virus did transmit virus by bite. Infected female Cx. pipiens transmitted WN virus to one of 1,618 F1 progeny, indicating the potential for vertical transmission of this virus. In addition to laboratory vector competence, host-feeding preferences, relative abundance, and season of activity also determine the role that these species could play in transmitting WN virus.

  1. Fate of the Wiedemann-Franz Law near Quantum Critical Points of Electron Systems in Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodel, V. A.; Clark, J. W.; Shaginyan, V. R.; Zverev, M. V.

    2015-12-01

    We introduce and analyze two different scenarios for violation of the Wiedemann-Franz law in strongly correlated electron systems of solids, close to a topological quantum critical point (TQCP) where the density of states N(0) diverges. The first, applicable to the Fermi-liquid (FL) side of the TQCP, involves a transverse zero-sound collective mode that opens a new channel for the thermal conductivity, thereby enhancing the Lorenz number L(0) relative to the value L0 =π2 k B 2/3 e 2 dictated by conventional FL theory. The second mechanism for violation of the WF law, relevant to the non-Fermi-liquid (NFL) side of the TQCP, involves the formation of a flat band and leads instead to a reduction of the Lorenz number.

  2. Experimental validation of the interfacial form of the Wiedemann-Franz law.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R B; Cahill, David G

    2012-06-22

    The thermal conductivity of four Pd/Ir metal multilayers of total thickness 390 nm with 40, 80, 120, and 200 Pd/Ir interfaces are measured at temperatures between 78 and 295 K using time-domain thermoreflectance. The thermal interface conductance G of the Pd/Ir interface is derived from the differences in thermal conductivity between the multilayers. A comparison of G to previously reported data for the electronic specific resistance of the Pd/Ir interface at 4 K supports the validity of the interfacial form of the Wiedemann-Franz law. The Lorenz number deduced from this comparison is within 10% of the Sommerfeld value at all temperatures, well within the experimental uncertainties of ≈ 20%.

  3. Observation of the Dirac fluid and the breakdown of the Wiedemann-Franz law in graphene.

    PubMed

    Crossno, Jesse; Shi, Jing K; Wang, Ke; Liu, Xiaomeng; Harzheim, Achim; Lucas, Andrew; Sachdev, Subir; Kim, Philip; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Ohki, Thomas A; Fong, Kin Chung

    2016-03-01

    Interactions between particles in quantum many-body systems can lead to collective behavior described by hydrodynamics. One such system is the electron-hole plasma in graphene near the charge-neutrality point, which can form a strongly coupled Dirac fluid. This charge-neutral plasma of quasi-relativistic fermions is expected to exhibit a substantial enhancement of the thermal conductivity, thanks to decoupling of charge and heat currents within hydrodynamics. Employing high-sensitivity Johnson noise thermometry, we report an order of magnitude increase in the thermal conductivity and the breakdown of the Wiedemann-Franz law in the thermally populated charge-neutral plasma in graphene. This result is a signature of the Dirac fluid and constitutes direct evidence of collective motion in a quantum electronic fluid. PMID:26912362

  4. Observation of the Dirac fluid and the breakdown of the Wiedemann-Franz law in graphene.

    PubMed

    Crossno, Jesse; Shi, Jing K; Wang, Ke; Liu, Xiaomeng; Harzheim, Achim; Lucas, Andrew; Sachdev, Subir; Kim, Philip; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Ohki, Thomas A; Fong, Kin Chung

    2016-03-01

    Interactions between particles in quantum many-body systems can lead to collective behavior described by hydrodynamics. One such system is the electron-hole plasma in graphene near the charge-neutrality point, which can form a strongly coupled Dirac fluid. This charge-neutral plasma of quasi-relativistic fermions is expected to exhibit a substantial enhancement of the thermal conductivity, thanks to decoupling of charge and heat currents within hydrodynamics. Employing high-sensitivity Johnson noise thermometry, we report an order of magnitude increase in the thermal conductivity and the breakdown of the Wiedemann-Franz law in the thermally populated charge-neutral plasma in graphene. This result is a signature of the Dirac fluid and constitutes direct evidence of collective motion in a quantum electronic fluid.

  5. Globally invasive, withdrawing at home: Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus facing the rise of Aedes flavopictus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, Luis Fernando

    2016-04-01

    It has been suggested that climate change may have facilitated the global expansion of invasive disease vectors, since several species have expanded their range as temperatures have warmed. Here, we present results from observations on two major global invasive mosquito vectors (Diptera: Culicidae), Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes japonicus (Theobald), across the altitudinal range of Mt. Konpira, Nagasaki, Japan, a location within their native range, where Aedes flavopictus Yamada, formerly a rare species, has now become dominant. Spatial abundance patterns of the three species suggest that temperature is an important factor influencing their adult distribution across the altitudinal range of Mt. Konpira. Temporal abundance patterns, by contrast, were associated with rainfall and showed signals of density-dependent regulation in the three species. The spatial and temporal analysis of abundance patterns showed that Ae. flavopictus and Ae. albopictus were negatively associated, even when accounting for differential impacts of weather and other environmental factors in their co-occurrence patterns. Our results highlight a contingency in the expansion of invasive vectors, the potential emergence of changes in their interactions with species in their native communities, and raise the question of whether these changes might be useful to predict the emergence of future invasive vectors.

  6. A new species of Cyphomyia Wiedemann from the Dominican Republic with a key to Caribbean species of the genus (Diptera, Stratiomyidae, Clitellariinae)

    PubMed Central

    Woodley, Norman E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Cyphomyia Wiedemann, Cyphomyia baoruco sp. n., is described from the Dominican Republic. A key to the species of Cyphomyia known from the Caribbean islands is provided. PMID:25493061

  7. Detection of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Aedes koreicus in the Area of Sochi, Russia.

    PubMed

    Ganushkina, Ludmila A; Patraman, Ivan V; Rezza, Giovanni; Migliorini, Luigi; Litvinov, Serguei K; Sergiev, Vladimir P

    2016-01-01

    Following the identification of Aedes (Ae.) aegypti in the Sochi area in Russia at the beginning of 2000, entomological surveys were conducted during the summers of 2007, 2011, and 2012, leading to the identification of Ae. albopictus and Ae. koreicus. These findings highlight Russia as being the only country in the World Health Organization European Region with a documented presence of both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Both mosquito species are found on the coasts of the Black Sea. Control measures are needed to reduce the possible risks of importing exotic vector-borne infections, such as dengue and chikungunya.

  8. Ultrastructure of immature stages of the blowfly Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818) (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Paloma Martins; Dos Santos-Mallet, Jacenir Reis; De Carvalho Queiroz, Margareth Maria

    2012-02-01

    Forensic entomology is an area of science that serves as a tool in crime scene investigations. Usually, flies are the first insects to reach a carcass and can oviposit just a few hours after arrival. Therefore, the knowledge of immature stages is essential for correct identification of the species found on corpses. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gives detailed information about morphological characters helping to identify the immature forms of flies. Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann) is a very important fly for forensic entomology, because it has high population densities and is easily found in colonizing carcasses, moreover, it is also a possible causative agent for secondary myiasis. The aim of this study is to identify larvae and puparia of C. putoria using SEM. The first instar larvae were composed of 12 smooth segments separated by spines. Antennae and maxillary palps were visible. Anterior spiracle was absent and only one spiracular opening could be seen at the posterior spiracle. Second and third larval instars were similar to first instar, except for the presence of anterior spiracle that is composed by 11-12 spiracular ramifications. At the anal segment, two spiracular openings were found in second instars and three openings in third instar larvae. Puparia showed a retracted cephalic region and none of the head structures were visible.

  9. Silver-Russell Syndrome and Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome: Opposite Phenotypes with Heterogeneous Molecular Etiology.

    PubMed

    Õunap, Katrin

    2016-07-01

    Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) are 2 clinically opposite growth-affecting disorders belonging to the group of congenital imprinting disorders. The expression of both syndromes usually depends on the parental origin of the chromosome in which the imprinted genes reside. SRS is characterized by severe intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation with various additional clinical features such as hemihypertrophy, relative macrocephaly, fifth finger clinodactyly, and triangular facies. BWS is an overgrowth syndrome with many additional clinical features such as macroglossia, organomegaly, and an increased risk of childhood tumors. Both SRS and BWS are clinically and genetically heterogeneous, and for clinical diagnosis, different diagnostic scoring systems have been developed. Six diagnostic scoring systems for SRS and 4 for BWS have been previously published. However, neither syndrome has common consensus diagnostic criteria yet. Most cases of SRS and BWS are associated with opposite epigenetic or genetic abnormalities in the 11p15 chromosomal region leading to opposite imbalances in the expression of imprinted genes. SRS is also caused by maternal uniparental disomy 7, which is usually identified in 5-10% of the cases, and is therefore the first imprinting disorder that affects 2 different chromosomes. In this review, we describe in detail the clinical diagnostic criteria and scoring systems as well as molecular causes in both SRS and BWS. PMID:27587987

  10. Taste and speech following surgical tongue reduction in children with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maas, Saskia M; Kadouch, Daniel J; Masselink, Anne-Claire C M; Van Der Horst, Chantal M A M

    2016-06-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an overgrowth disorder in which macroglossia is one of the main signs. We investigated the long-term outcome of tongue surgery reduction (TRS) on taste and speech in patients with BWS who were more than 5 years of age and had undergone surgical anterior wedge resection of the tongue. A questionnaire was used to assess medical history and to determine some aspects of speech, taste, psychological well-being, and degree of satisfaction with regard to TRS and tongue mobility. Speech sound error pattern and degree of intelligibility were measured by a speech therapist, and taste was assessed using a validated test. The degree of both intelligibility and satisfaction with the surgery was high. There were some speech errors; especially the interdental 's', addental 't', and addental 'd' were more noticed. We conclude that anterior wedge resection is an effective technique to treat macroglossia in children with BWS, and that it has no long-term consequences for intelligibility and taste perception and only limited consequences for speech. PMID:27052941

  11. Tongue reduction for macroglossia in Beckwith Wiedemann syndrome: review and application of new technique.

    PubMed

    Heggie, A A C; Vujcich, N J; Portnof, J E; Morgan, A T

    2013-02-01

    Beckwith Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a rare, congenital overgrowth disorder that is characterized by macroglossia, anterior abdominal wall defects, visceromegaly, gigantism, and neonatal hypoglycaemia. Macroglossia may contribute to anterior open bite malocclusion with prognathism, speech articulation disturbances, drooling and the perception of intellectual disability. It was the purpose of this study to review a series of BWS patients who underwent surgical reduction of the tongue by a modified technique with respect to aesthetic and functional outcomes. Seven BWS patients, age 6 months to 21 months, had a 'stellate/anterior wedge' reduction with an anterior rotation flap and were followed up from 4 months to 9 years postoperatively. Assessment of aesthetics together with tongue morphology and mobility were recorded and a postoperative speech evaluation was performed. Minor contour deformities were present in two patients during function but all parents were satisfied with the results. The speech pathology assessment results indicated positive outcomes for speech, oral structure and function, and feeding for all children assessed. This modified technique allows for an adequate reduction of tongue volume with conservation of motor and sensory function as well as preservation of anatomical contour. PMID:23041202

  12. Tumor screening in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome-To screen or not to screen?

    PubMed

    Kalish, Jennifer M; Deardorff, Matthew A

    2016-09-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is the most common imprinting disorder and consequently, one of the most common cancer predisposition disorders. Over the past 20 years, our understanding of the genetics and epigenetics leading to BWS has evolved and genotype/phenotype correlations have become readily apparent. Clinical management of these patients is focused on omphaloceles, hypoglycemia, macroglossia, hemihypertrophy, and tumor screening. Until recently, the need for tumor screening has been thought to be largely uniform across all genetic and epigenetic causes of BWS. As tumor risk correlates with genetic and epigenetic causes of BWS, several groups have proposed alterations to tumor screening protocols based on the etiology of BWS. However, there are many challenges inherent in adapting screening protocols. Such protocols must accommodate not only the risk based on genetic and epigenetic causes but also the medical cost-benefit of screening, the psychological impact on families, and the social-legal implications of missing a treatable tumor. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27518916

  13. [Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) developmental rate on artificial diet with animal tissues for forensic purpose].

    PubMed

    Estrada, Dora A; Grella, Maicon D; Thyssen, Patricia J; Linhares, Arício X

    2009-01-01

    Forensic entomology uses biological and ecological aspects of necrophagous insects to help in criminal investigations to estimate the post-mortem interval (PMI) or to determine the cause of death. Recent papers demonstrated that the presence of toxins in decomposing tissues may alter the insect developmental rate of insects exploiting such tissues as food. Thus, preliminary tests with artificial diets in laboratory are necessary to create a database to investigate and quantify the modifications that can occur with the collected insects from a criminal scene, avoiding any errors on the PMI estimates. The present study aimed to evaluate the developmental rate of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) reared on: a) artificial diets containing animal tissues: bovine liver (D1), raw muscle (D2), stomach (D3), and chicken heart (D4); b) artificial diet without animal tissue (D5); and c) a control group (C), which had only meat. The efficiency of each substrate was assessed by immature weight gain (mg), larval developmental time, larval and pupal survival, emergence interval and adult size. D1 to D4 diets did not restrict C. albiceps development; however, larvae reared on D1 and D2 diets presented a lower adult emergence rate. D3 and control group showed similarities regarding the efficiency parameters (rate and emergence interval). Thus, the use of diet D3, artificial diet with stomach, is the most recommended.

  14. [Case of combination of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome with West syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kuzenkova, L M; Kremenchugskaya, M R; Globa, O V; Podkletnova, T V

    2014-01-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is etiologically connected with genetic/epigenetic growth dysregulation. The supposed localization of this disorder is a short arm of chromosome 11 (11p 15.5). Its prevalence is 1:13 per 700 newborns. West syndrome is an age-dependent epileptic syndrome related to a group of infantile epileptic encephalopathies and characterized by a triad of basic symptoms: series of infantile spasms, psychomotor retardation and severe paroxysmal EEG changes. The incidence of West syndrome is estimated at 1 case per 2,000-4,000 newborns. The article describes a rare clinical case: a combination of BWS with one of the types of infantile epileptic encephalopathies--West syndrome. A detailed analysis of the West syndrome progression in a female patient with BWS is given, the tactics of antiepileptic therapy is analyzed, and its complexity in terms of metabolic disorders caused by the presence of a genetic syndrome in a patient is shown. The results of a long catamnesis are described. The figures are the fragments of native electroencephalograms at the eruptive phase of West syndrome and against the background of a long-term remission. When describing the clinical case in detail, the authors actively discuss the obtained information and available literature data. The article also presents practical guidelines for the early detection of metabolic disorders in patients with infantile epileptic encephalopathies. In addition to anti-epileptic drugs, the authors propose to include a mandatory metabolic correction in the therapy complex for these patients.

  15. Torsion measurements using inverse Wiedemann effect in glass covered amorphous wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiriac, H.; Hristoforou, E.; Neagu, Maria; Barariu, Firuta; Ovari, T. A.

    1999-04-01

    This article presents results concerning inverse Wiedemann effect (IWE) dependence on the torsion applied along the Fe77.5Si7.5B15 glass covered amorphous wires tested before and after glass removal. In the absence of torsion during measurements, the IWE voltage is zero for amorphous wires tested in the as-cast state. In the same condition of measurements a small spontaneous IWE voltage appears for wires after glass removal annealed without torsion, and the voltage reaches its maximum value for torsion annealed wires both before and after glass removal. Increasing the torsion's value during measurements, for as-cast wires and wires annealed without torsion, the value of the induced voltage increases until it reaches a maximum while for torsion annealed wires a small increase is observed followed by a strong decrease down to that torsion value at which the thermal treatment was performed. In the case of torsion annealed wires a good linearity of the torsion response was obtained for a given range of torsions which depends on the sample's state (before and after glass removal). The obtained results suggest the possibility to use IWE in Fe77.5Si7.5B15 glass covered amorphous wires in torque sensors.

  16. Aedes cadherin mediates the in vivo toxicity of the Cry11Aa toxin to Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Bum; Chen, Jianwu; Aimanova, Karlygash G; Gill, Sarjeet S

    2015-06-01

    Cadherin plays an important role in the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry proteins. We previously cloned a full-length cadherin from Aedes aegypti larvae and reported this protein binds Cry11Aa toxin from B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis with high affinity, ≈16.7nM. Based on these results, we investigated if Aedes cadherin is involved in the in vivo toxicity of Cry11Aa toxin to Ae. aegypti. We established a mosquito cell line stably expressing the full-length Aedes cadherin and transgenic mosquitoes with silenced Aedes cadherin expression. Cells expressing the Aedes cadherin showed increased sensitivity to Cry11Aa toxin. Cry11Aa toxin at 400nM killed approximately 37% of the cells in 3h. Otherwise, transgenic mosquitoes with silenced Aedes cadherin expression showed increased tolerance to Cry11Aa toxin. Furthermore, cells expressing Aedes cadherin triggered Cry11Aa oligomerization. These results show the Aedes cadherin plays a pivotal role in Cry11Aa toxicity to Ae. aegypti larvae by mediating Cry11Aa oligomerization. However, since high toxicity was not obtained in cadherin-expressing cells, an additional receptor may be needed for manifestation of full toxicity. Moreover, cells expressing Aedes cadherin were sensitive to Cry4Aa and Cry11Ba, but not Cry4Ba. However transgenic mosquitoes with silenced Aedes cadherin expression showed no tolerance to Cry4Aa, Cry4Ba, and Cry11Ba toxins. These results suggest that while Aedes cadherin may mediate Cry4Aa and Cry11Ba toxicity, this cadherin but is not the main receptor of Cry4Aa, Cry4Ba and Cry11Ba toxin in Ae. aegypti.

  17. Promising new tools to fight Aedes mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    Two new tools for suppressing Aedes aegypti mosquito populations have been recommended for pilot testing. Carefully designed trials will be needed to see whether they actually reduce disease as well. Andréia Azevedo Soares reports. PMID:27516632

  18. The blowfly Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) as a new forensic indicator in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Grassberger, Martin; Friedrich, Elisabeth; Reiter, Christian

    2003-04-01

    During the summer months of the year 2001, six forensic cases (one is reported in the present paper), a pig carrion study in the city of Vienna (latitude 48 degrees 12'N, longitude 16 degrees 22'E) and several liver-baited traps north of Vienna, yielded large numbers of maggots of the blowfly Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Apart from some records from France, reports of C. albiceps from the palearctic region north of the Alps (i.e. north of a latitude of 48 degrees N) have been scarce. Our findings provided an opportunity to derive developmental schedules for C. albiceps at five different constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, 35 degrees C). The minimal duration of development from oviposition to adult was inversely related to temperature, ranging from 8.3 +/- 0.5 days at 35 degrees C to 19.2 +/- 0.92 days at 20 degrees C. Although eggs hatched after 1.9 +/- 0.16 days at 15 degrees C, larvae did not complete development and frequently died during the first instar stage. We also found a high mortality rate (up to 99%) of native L. sericata larvae caused by predation of C. albiceps larvae under laboratory conditions, indicating a high susceptibility of L. sericata to attack by C. albiceps. Apart from this, the current and possible future distribution of C. albicepsin Europe is discussed. The northward expansion of its range beyond southern Europe obviously decreases the value of C. albiceps in estimating the site of death, in that it is no longer exclusive to southern European regions. Moreover, the aggressive feeding behaviour of second and third instar larve of C. albiceps could reset the post-mortem insect clock by clearing a corpse of all earlier arrivers.

  19. Low frequency of p57KIP2 mutation in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, M P; DeBaun, M; Randhawa, G; Reichard, B A; Elledge, S J; Feinberg, A P

    1997-01-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an autosomal dominant disorder of increased prenatal growth and predisposition to embryonal cancers such as Wilms tumor. BWS is thought to involve one or more imprinted genes, since some patients show paternal uniparental disomy, and others show balanced germ-line chromosomal rearrangements involving the maternal chromosome. We previously mapped BWS, by genetic linkage analysis, to 11p15.5, which we and others also found to contain several imprinted genes; these include the gene for insulin-like growth factor II (IGF2) and H19, which show abnormal imprint-specific expression and/or methylation in 20% of BWS patients, and p57KIP2, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, which we found showed biallelic expression in one of nine BWS patients studied. In addition, p57KIP2 was recently reported to show mutations in two of nine BWS patients. We have now analyzed the entire coding sequence and intron-exon boundaries of p57KIP2 in 40 unrelated BWS patients. Of these patients, only two (5%) showed mutations, both involving frameshifts in the second exon. In one case, the mutation was transmitted to the proband's mother, who was also affected, from the maternal grandfather, suggesting that p57KIP2 is not imprinted in at least some affected tissues at a critical stage of development and that haploinsufficiency due to mutation of either parental allele may cause at least some features of BWS. The low frequency of p57KIP2 mutations, as well as our recent discovery of disruption of the K(v)LQT1 gene in patients with chromosomal rearrangements, suggest that BWS can involve disruption of multiple independent 11p15.5 genes. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9311734

  20. Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome prenatal diagnosis by methylation analysis in chorionic villi.

    PubMed

    Paganini, Leda; Carlessi, Nicole; Fontana, Laura; Silipigni, Rosamaria; Motta, Silvia; Fiori, Stefano; Guerneri, Silvana; Lalatta, Faustina; Cereda, Anna; Sirchia, Silvia; Miozzo, Monica; Tabano, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an imprinting disorder that can be prenatally suspected or diagnosed based on established clinical guidelines. Molecular confirmation is commonly performed on amniocytes. The possibility to use fresh (CVF) and cultured (CVC) chorionic villi has never been investigated. To verify whether CVF and CVC are reliable sources of DNA to study fetal methylation, we used pyrosequencing to test the methylation level of a number of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) at several imprinted loci (ICR1, ICR2, H19, PWS/AS-ICR, GNASXL, GNAS1A, ZAC/PLAGL1, and MEST) and at non-imprinted MGMT and RASSF1A promoters. We analyzed these regions in 19 healthy pregnancies and highlighted stable methylation levels between CVF and CVC at ICR1, ICR2, GNASXL, PWS/AS-ICR, and MEST. Conversely, the methylation levels at H19 promoter, GNAS1A and ZAC/PLAGL1 were different in CVC compared to fresh CV. We also investigated ICR1 and ICR2 methylation level of CVF/CVC of 2 BWS-suspected fetuses (P1 and P2). P1 showed ICR2 hypomethylation, P2 showed normal methylation at both ICR1 and ICR2. Our findings, although limited to one case of BWS fetus with an imprinting defect, can suggest that ICR1 and ICR2, but not H19, could be reliable targets for prenatal BWS diagnosis by methylation test in CVF and CVC. In addition, PWS/AS-ICR, GNASXL, and MEST, but not GNAS1A and ZAC/PLAGL1, are steadily hemimethylated in CV from healthy pregnancies, independently from culture. Thus, prenatal investigation of genomic imprinting in CV needs to be validated in a locus-specific manner. PMID:26061650

  1. Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and imprinted genes on chromosome 11p15.5

    SciTech Connect

    Weksberg, R.; Perlikowski, S.; Squire, J.

    1994-09-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a syndrome characterized by generalized and regional overgrowth as well as a predisposition to specific embryonal tumors. We have previously reported biallelic expression of insulin like growth factor 2 (IGF2) in fibroblasts from sporadic cases of BWS. In these cells, the normal expression pattern for IGF2 is allele-specific and derived from the paternal allele. To determine whether biallelic expression of IGF2 in BWS patients results from aberrant regulation of a single gene or multiple genes in an imprinted domain, we undertook the study of a second gene in the 11p15.5 imprinted region. H19 is normally stringently regulated, expressed primarily from the maternal allele, and in many tissues reciprocal expression of H19 and IGF2 has been documented. Since no protein product for H19 has been identified, the RNA itself may be biologically active and it may have a tumor suppressor function. Moreover, H19 has been suggested as a candidate gene in BWS, especially in autosomal dominant pedigrees. Using an Rsa1 polymorphism in the transcribed region of H19, we found that the expression of H19 in 8 patients with sporadic BWS is consistently nonallelic and in the informative cases is always from the maternal allele. This is also true for the two cases of BWS where biallelic IGF2 expression has been documented. We conclude that IGF2 biallelic expression does not represent a general loss of imprint control. If H19 and IGF2 do normally respond to common signals within an imprinted domain at 11p15.5, we suggest that BWS patients with biallelic IGF2 expression can escape from such imprinting constraints. To study this region in more detail, we have developed a replication timing assay for IGF2 and H19 to determine whether loss of asynchronous replication accompanies biallelic IGF2 expression.

  2. Breeding habitats of Aedes aegypti (L) and Aedes. albopictus (Skuse) in villages of Barru, South Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ishak, H; Miyagi, I; Toma, T; Kamimura, K

    1997-12-01

    The breeding habitats of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, were studied using larval collection method inside and outside houses in 6 villages of Barru, South Sulawesi, Indonesia from July 1994 to August 1995. Aedes aegypti was the dominant species, being abundant indoors especially in the coastal areas. Aedes albopictus was breeding primarily in outdoor containers in the hill and mountain areas. Earthen jar was the most common breeding habitat of Aedes aegypti in all villages surveyed. Drum can was the most common outdoor breeding habitat of Aedes albopictus in the hill and mountain areas. The high Breteau indices of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus suggests that these species may play an important role in the transmission of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Barru where epidemics of the fever occur occasionally.

  3. Twenty-one years to the right diagnosis - clinical overlap of Simpson-Golabi-Behmel and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

    PubMed

    Knopp, C; Rudnik-Schöneborn, S; Zerres, K; Gencik, M; Spengler, S; Eggermann, T

    2015-01-01

    Clinical overlap makes the diagnosis of overgrowth syndromes challenging. Clinical overlap exists between Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) which share pre- and postnatal overgrowth, macroglossia, umbilical hernia, organomegaly, ear lobe creases, and occurrence of embryonal tumors as characteristic features. Based on the clinical history of a patient, who was diagnosed with BWS shortly after birth and reassessed and rediagnosed with SGBS at age 21 years, particular attention should be paid to developing facial dysmorphia. In addition, we delineate further clinical findings that may allow differentiation between both conditions. PMID:25339544

  4. Twenty-one years to the right diagnosis - clinical overlap of Simpson-Golabi-Behmel and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

    PubMed

    Knopp, C; Rudnik-Schöneborn, S; Zerres, K; Gencik, M; Spengler, S; Eggermann, T

    2015-01-01

    Clinical overlap makes the diagnosis of overgrowth syndromes challenging. Clinical overlap exists between Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) which share pre- and postnatal overgrowth, macroglossia, umbilical hernia, organomegaly, ear lobe creases, and occurrence of embryonal tumors as characteristic features. Based on the clinical history of a patient, who was diagnosed with BWS shortly after birth and reassessed and rediagnosed with SGBS at age 21 years, particular attention should be paid to developing facial dysmorphia. In addition, we delineate further clinical findings that may allow differentiation between both conditions.

  5. On the analysis of parasite effect for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallista, Meta; Aldila, Dipo; Nuraini, Nuning; Soewono, Edy

    2014-03-01

    It has been reported in some countries that the population of Aedes aegypti has been significantly reduced by the invasion of Aedes albopictus. There has been a hypothesis explaining this phenomenon of which investigated the influence of parasites pathogenesis to the competition between these two mosquito species in the fields. Ascogregarina taiwanensis and Ascogregarina culicis are known as parasites that infect Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti, respectively. Several studies have concluded that Ascogregarina taiwanensis caused high fatality for Aedes aegypti larvae, but Ascogregarina culicis was not pathogenic to Aedes albopictus larvae. Therefore, Ascogregarina taiwanensis may contribute to reduce the number of populations Aedes aegypti in the fields. Inspired by these facts, a mathematical model depicting interaction between parasites and mosquitoes is constructed in this paper. In this model are included six dynamic mosquito compartments, i.e. egg, larvae, infected larvae, adult, infected adult and one dynamic compartment for parasite. Derivation of the existence criteria and the stability analysis of parasite-free equilibrium as well as the basic offspring for the model are presented. Numerical simulations for sensitivity analysis indicating the invasive species for variation parameters are shown.

  6. Thiosemicarbazones as Aedes aegypti larvicidal.

    PubMed

    da Silva, João Bosco P; Navarro, Daniela Maria do A F; da Silva, Aluizio G; Santos, Geanne K N; Dutra, Kamilla A; Moreira, Diogo Rodrigo; Ramos, Mozart N; Espíndola, José Wanderlan P; de Oliveira, Ana Daura T; Brondani, Dalci José; Leite, Ana Cristina L; Hernandes, Marcelo Zaldini; Pereira, Valéria R A; da Rocha, Lucas F; de Castro, Maria Carolina A B; de Oliveira, Beatriz C; Lan, Que; Merz, Kenneth M

    2015-07-15

    A set of aryl- and phenoxymethyl-(thio)semicarbazones were synthetized, characterized and biologically evaluated against the larvae of Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti), the vector responsible for diseases like Dengue and Yellow Fever. (Q)SAR studies were useful for predicting the activities of the compounds not included to create the QSAR model as well as to predict the features of a new compound with improved activity. Docking studies corroborated experimental evidence of AeSCP-2 as a potential target able to explain the larvicidal properties of its compounds. The trend observed between the in silico Docking scores and the in vitro pLC50 (equals -log LC50, at molar concentration) data indicated that the highest larvicidal compounds, or the compounds with the highest values for pLC50, are usually those with the higher docking scores (i.e., greater in silico affinity for the AeSCP-2 target). Determination of cytotoxicity for these compounds in mammal cells demonstrated that the top larvicide compounds are non-toxic.

  7. Thiosemicarbazones as Aedes aegypti larvicidal.

    PubMed

    da Silva, João Bosco P; Navarro, Daniela Maria do A F; da Silva, Aluizio G; Santos, Geanne K N; Dutra, Kamilla A; Moreira, Diogo Rodrigo; Ramos, Mozart N; Espíndola, José Wanderlan P; de Oliveira, Ana Daura T; Brondani, Dalci José; Leite, Ana Cristina L; Hernandes, Marcelo Zaldini; Pereira, Valéria R A; da Rocha, Lucas F; de Castro, Maria Carolina A B; de Oliveira, Beatriz C; Lan, Que; Merz, Kenneth M

    2015-07-15

    A set of aryl- and phenoxymethyl-(thio)semicarbazones were synthetized, characterized and biologically evaluated against the larvae of Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti), the vector responsible for diseases like Dengue and Yellow Fever. (Q)SAR studies were useful for predicting the activities of the compounds not included to create the QSAR model as well as to predict the features of a new compound with improved activity. Docking studies corroborated experimental evidence of AeSCP-2 as a potential target able to explain the larvicidal properties of its compounds. The trend observed between the in silico Docking scores and the in vitro pLC50 (equals -log LC50, at molar concentration) data indicated that the highest larvicidal compounds, or the compounds with the highest values for pLC50, are usually those with the higher docking scores (i.e., greater in silico affinity for the AeSCP-2 target). Determination of cytotoxicity for these compounds in mammal cells demonstrated that the top larvicide compounds are non-toxic. PMID:26087027

  8. Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of the Neotropical genus Acrochaeta Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Stratiomyidae: Sarginae).

    PubMed

    Fachin, Diego Aguilar; Amorim, Dalton De Souza

    2015-01-01

    The Neotropical genus Acrochaeta Wiedemann is revised and a cladistics analysis of the genus based on morphological characters is presented. This paper raises the total number of extant Acrochaeta species from 10 to 14 with the description of nine new species, the synonymy of one species, the transfer of five species to other genera and the transfer of one species of Merosargus to Acrochaeta. The new species described (of which eight are from Brazil and one from Bolivia and Peru) are Acrochaeta asapha nov. sp., A. balbii nov. sp., A. dichrostyla nov. sp., A. polychaeta nov. sp., A. pseudofasciata nov. sp., A. pseudopolychaeta nov. sp., A. rhombostyla nov. sp. A. ruschii nov. sp. and A. stigmata nov. sp. The primary types of all Acrochaeta species were studied at least from photos, when possible with the study of dissected male or female terminalia. A. mexicana Lindner is proposed as a junior synonym of A. flaveola Bigot. M. chalconota (Brauer) comb. nov., M. degenerata (Lindner) comb. nov., M. longiventris (Enderlein) comb. nov. and M. picta (Brauer) comb. nov. are herein transferred from Acrochaeta to Merosargus Loew, and Chrysochlorina elegans (Perty) comb. nov. is transferred from Acrochaeta to Chrysochlorina James. A. convexifrons (McFadden) comb. nov. is transferred from Merosargus to Acrochaeta. The limits of the genus and its insertion in the Sarginae are considered, and an updated generic diagnosis is provided. All species of the genus are redescribed and diagnosed, and illustrated with photos of the habitus, thorax, wing, and drawings of the antenna and male and female terminalia. Distribution maps are provided for the species, along with an identification key for adults of all species. Parsimony analyses were carried out under equal and implied weight. Our matrix includes 43 terminal taxa--of which 26 are outgroup species from four different sargine genera--and 59 adult morphological characters. The phylogenetic analysis supports the monophyly of

  9. Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of the Neotropical genus Acrochaeta Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Stratiomyidae: Sarginae).

    PubMed

    Fachin, Diego Aguilar; Amorim, Dalton De Souza

    2015-01-01

    The Neotropical genus Acrochaeta Wiedemann is revised and a cladistics analysis of the genus based on morphological characters is presented. This paper raises the total number of extant Acrochaeta species from 10 to 14 with the description of nine new species, the synonymy of one species, the transfer of five species to other genera and the transfer of one species of Merosargus to Acrochaeta. The new species described (of which eight are from Brazil and one from Bolivia and Peru) are Acrochaeta asapha nov. sp., A. balbii nov. sp., A. dichrostyla nov. sp., A. polychaeta nov. sp., A. pseudofasciata nov. sp., A. pseudopolychaeta nov. sp., A. rhombostyla nov. sp. A. ruschii nov. sp. and A. stigmata nov. sp. The primary types of all Acrochaeta species were studied at least from photos, when possible with the study of dissected male or female terminalia. A. mexicana Lindner is proposed as a junior synonym of A. flaveola Bigot. M. chalconota (Brauer) comb. nov., M. degenerata (Lindner) comb. nov., M. longiventris (Enderlein) comb. nov. and M. picta (Brauer) comb. nov. are herein transferred from Acrochaeta to Merosargus Loew, and Chrysochlorina elegans (Perty) comb. nov. is transferred from Acrochaeta to Chrysochlorina James. A. convexifrons (McFadden) comb. nov. is transferred from Merosargus to Acrochaeta. The limits of the genus and its insertion in the Sarginae are considered, and an updated generic diagnosis is provided. All species of the genus are redescribed and diagnosed, and illustrated with photos of the habitus, thorax, wing, and drawings of the antenna and male and female terminalia. Distribution maps are provided for the species, along with an identification key for adults of all species. Parsimony analyses were carried out under equal and implied weight. Our matrix includes 43 terminal taxa--of which 26 are outgroup species from four different sargine genera--and 59 adult morphological characters. The phylogenetic analysis supports the monophyly of

  10. Medhost: An encyclopedic bibliography of the host plants of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann),Version 2.0

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MEDHOST,Version 2.0 is the second revision of:"MEDHOST: An encyclopedic bibliography of the host plants of the Mediterranean fruit fly,Ceratitis capitata(Wiedemann),Version 1.0," which was released in 1998 as a Windows-based executable database and listed all plant species reported as hosts of Medit...

  11. Workbook on Identification of Aedes Aegypti Larvae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Harry D.; And Others

    This self-instructional booklet is designed to enable yellow fever control workers to identify the larvae of "Aedes aegypti." The morphological features of mosquito larvae are illustrated in this partially programed text, and the distinguishing features of "A. aegypti" indicated. A glossary is included. (AL)

  12. The clinical course of an overgrowth syndrome, from diagnosis in infancy through adulthood: the case of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pappas, John G

    2015-04-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is the most common genetic overgrowth syndrome, and it is frequently clinically recognizable because of characteristic features. These features include macrosomia, hemihypertrophy, macroglossia, facial nevus flammeus, earlobe creases and pits, omphalocele, and organomegaly. The most common molecular cause is hypomethylation of the maternal imprinting control region 2 (ICR2) in 11p15. Other molecular causes include hypermethylation of the maternal ICR1 in 11p15, mutations in CDKN1C, mosaic uniparental disomy 11p15, and chromosomal abnormalities involving 11p15. Some of these abnormalities are testable, and DNA methylation tests of 11p15 confirm about 60% of cases with BWS. The main management issues in pediatrics are hypoglycemia at birth, macroglossia, and surveillance for embryonal tumors, especially Wilms and hepatoblastoma.

  13. Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome, imprinting, IGF2, and H19: Implications for hemihyperplasia, associated neoplasms, and overgrowth

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.M. Jr.

    1994-08-15

    By now there are some 450 reported cases of the Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome (WBS). Patients generally fit into one of three categories: those that occur sporadically and who have normal chromosomes; those with chromosome anomalies, most commonly duplication involving the 11p15.5 region; and those with autosomal dominant pedigrees and expression almost exclusively in individuals born to female carriers. Linkage to the 11p15.5 region has been demonstrated in families with informative RFLP markers. Research has progressed rapidly in this area and a number of explanations for the three categories of WBS are possible. Further studies are essential. Here I review one possible explanation which, if true, raises questions about hemihyperplasia, associated neoplasms, and high birth weights in WBS. 17 refs.

  14. Nonimmune fetal hydrops and placentomegaly: Diagnosis of familial Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome with trisomy 11p15 using FISH

    SciTech Connect

    Drut, R.M.; Drut, R.

    1996-03-15

    We have studied a family in which four members of the same generation were affected with Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome (WBS). Trisomy 11p15 was demonstrated using molecular probes in interphase nuclei of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded placenta from a stillborn fetus and in peripheral blood lymphocytes from two liveborn female relatives. Clinical examination showed nonimmune hydrops and placentomegaly in two siblings and multiple phenotypic abnormalities consistent with WBS in the two other relatives. Paternal karyotype of the stillborn infants demonstrated a reciprocal translocation (46,XY,t(10;11) (q26;p15)) explaining the origin of the extra 11p15 material. This study illustrates the advantages of FISH for interphase analysis of chromosome aberrations otherwise not detected even by conventional cytogenetic analysis and documents that nonimmune hydrops associated with placentomegaly may be presenting features in familial WBS. 24 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Breeding of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in urban housing of Sibu town, Sarawak.

    PubMed

    Seng, C M; Jute, N

    1994-09-01

    An Aedes survey using various larval survey methods was conducted in 12 urban housing areas and 29 vacant lands in Sibu town proper. Aedes albopictus larvae were found in all areas surveyed while Aedes aegypti larvae were present in 10 localities and 4 vacant lands. There were no significant difference in the house index, breteau and larval density index of these two Aedes (Stegomyia) species from the survey areas. The proportion of containers positive with Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in area outside the house compound and near the house fencing were 3.2 times higher than outdoor compound. The indoor/outdoor breeding ratio for Ae. aegypti alone is 1.6:1. The most preferred breeding habitats outdoor were plastic cups and used tires while indoor habitats were ant traps and flower vases. In the vacant lands, the average number of larvae per containers was significantly higher than in houses and over 51% of the containers inspected were positive. Shared breeding between Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus larvae accounted for 9% in house surveys and 4.5% in vacant land survey. The use of various methods in Aedes larval survey may provide essential information in the study of vector epidemiology in dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever transmission.

  16. Lessons of Aedes aegypti control in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Gratz, N G

    1993-01-01

    The incidence of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) in Thailand has increased cyclically since the first recognized outbreak in 1958. Without an effective vaccine against dengue, and considering the clinical difficulty of treating DHF cases, vector control is needed to prevent dengue transmission. Since the establishment of the WHO Aedes Research Unit in 1964, continued since 1973 as the WHO Collaborating Centre at the Department of Medical Research in Bangkok, much operational research has been carried out in Thailand on the bionomics and control of dengue vectors: Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. This review shows that, as in most other countries, dengue vector control programmes in Thailand make little use of the procedures arising from research, nor have they reduced the upward trend of dengue or prevented DHF outbreaks. Implications of the reluctance to use results of operational research on vector control are considered and remedial suggestions made.

  17. Comprehensive and quantitative multilocus methylation analysis reveals the susceptibility of specific imprinted differentially methylated regions to aberrant methylation in Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome with epimutations

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Toshiyuki; Higashimoto, Ken; Jozaki, Kosuke; Yatsuki, Hitomi; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Makita, Yoshio; Tonoki, Hidefumi; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Takada, Fumio; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Migita, Makoto; Kosaki, Rika; Matsubara, Keiko; Ogata, Tsutomu; Matsuo, Muneaki; Hamasaki, Yuhei; Ohtsuka, Yasufumi; Nishioka, Kenichi; Joh, Keiichiro; Mukai, Tsunehiro; Hata, Kenichiro; Soejima, Hidenobu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Expression of imprinted genes is regulated by DNA methylation of differentially methylated regions (DMRs). Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome is an imprinting disorder caused by epimutations of DMRs at 11p15.5. To date, multiple methylation defects have been reported in Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome patients with epimutations; however, limited numbers of DMRs have been analyzed. The susceptibility of DMRs to aberrant methylation, alteration of gene expression due to aberrant methylation, and causative factors for multiple methylation defects remain undetermined. Methods: Comprehensive methylation analysis with two quantitative methods, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and bisulfite pyrosequencing, was conducted across 29 DMRs in 54 Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome patients with epimutations. Allelic expressions of three genes with aberrant methylation were analyzed. All DMRs with aberrant methylation were sequenced. Results: Thirty-four percent of KvDMR1–loss of methylation patients and 30% of H19DMR–gain of methylation patients showed multiple methylation defects. Maternally methylated DMRs were susceptible to aberrant hypomethylation in KvDMR1–loss of methylation patients. Biallelic expression of the genes was associated with aberrant methylation. Cis-acting pathological variations were not found in any aberrantly methylated DMR. Conclusion: Maternally methylated DMRs may be vulnerable to DNA demethylation during the preimplantation stage, when hypomethylation of KvDMR1 occurs, and aberrant methylation of DMRs affects imprinted gene expression. Cis-acting variations of the DMRs are not involved in the multiple methylation defects. PMID:24810686

  18. The cell type-specific IGF2 expression during early human development correlates to the pattern of overgrowth and neoplasia in the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Hedborg, F.; Holmgren, L.; Sandstedt, B.; Ohlsson, R.

    1994-01-01

    Overstimulation by insulin-like growth factor II is implied in several overgrowth conditions and childhood cancers. We have therefore studied spatial and temporal expression patterns of the insulin-like growth factor II gene (IGF2) and the insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor gene during normal human development (5.5 to 23.0 weeks postfertilization). The set of cell types with the most abundant IGF2 expression correlated strikingly to the organomegaly and tumor predisposition of the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Intrauterine growth and postnatal organ weights of a prematurely born child with a full-blown syndrome are presented. The cell type-specific IGF2 expression of these organs and of multifocal Wilms' tumors from two other children affected by the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome were also studied. The results clarify and extend previous findings concerning human prenatal IGF2 expression and are consistent with a short range overstimulatory role of locally produced IGF II ensuing after the first trimester in the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:7943172

  19. Effect of Novaluron (Rimon 10 EC) on the mosquitoes Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus from Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Arredondo-Jiménez, J I; Valdez-Delgado, K M

    2006-12-01

    Dengue fever is a serious problem in Mexico and vector control has not been effective enough at preventing outbreaks. Malaria is largely under control, but it is important that new control measures continue to be developed. Novaluron, a novel host-specific insect growth regulator and chitin synthesis inhibitor, has proved to be effective against agricultural pests, but its efficacy against larval mosquito vectors under field conditions remains unknown. In accordance with the World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme, phase I, II and III studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and residual effect of Novaluron (Rimon 10 EC, Makhteshim, Beer-Sheva, Israel) on the malaria vectors Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles pseudopunctipennis Theobald, the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti (L) and Aedes albopictus Skuse and the nuisance mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Laboratory susceptibility tests yielded diagnostic concentrations for all five target species. Field trials to identify the optimum field dosage of Novaluron against Anopheles mosquitoes were carried out under semi-natural conditions in artificial plots and in vessels with wild mosquitoes. Efficacy was measured by monitoring mortality of larvae and pupae and the percentage of inhibition of emergence from floating cages. Dosages of Novaluron for field tests were based on pupal LC(99) (lethal concentration 99%) of An. pseudopunctipennis (0.166 mg/L) in plots and average pupal LC(99) of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus (0.55 mg/L). At all dosages tested, Novaluron significantly reduced larval populations of An. albimanus, Culex coronator Dyar & Knab, Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus by approximately 90%, inhibited adult emergence of An. albimanus and An. pseudopunctipennis by approximately 97% for almost 4 months in experimental plots, and inhibited adult emergence of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus by approximately 97% for up to 14 weeks. Recommended dosages of

  20. Vertical infestation of the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in apartments in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Roslan, Muhammad Aidil; Shafie, Aziz; Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian; Sulaiman, Wan Yusoff Wan

    2013-12-01

    Dengue is a serious public health problem in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to compare the vertical infestation of Aedes population in 2 apartments in Kuala Lumpur with different status of dengue incidence (i.e., high-dengue-incidence area and area with no reported dengue cases). The study was also conducted to assess the relationship between environmental factors such as rainfall, temperature, and humidity and Aedes population that may influence Aedes infestation. Surveillance with a mosquito larvae trapping device was conducted for 28 continuous weeks (January to July 2012) in Vista Angkasa (VA) and Inderaloka (IL) apartments located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The results indicated that both Aedes spp. could be found from ground to higher floor levels of the apartments, with Aedes aegypti being more predominant than Ae. albopictus. Data based on mixed and single breeding of Aedes spp. on different floors did not show any significant difference. Both rainfall (R3; i.e., the amount of rainfall collected during the previous 3 wk before the surveillance period began) and RH data showed significant relationship with the number of Aedes larvae collected in VA and IL. No significant difference was found between the numbers of Aedes larvae in both study areas as well as maximum and minimum temperatures. Results also indicated adaptations of Ae. aegypti to the ecosystem at each elevation of high-rise buildings, with Ae. albopictus staying inside of apartment units.

  1. Laboratory evaluation of the response of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus uninfected and infected with dengue virus to deet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory studies were conducted to compare the response of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) adults, uninfected and infected with four serotypes of dengue virus, to a repellent containing 5% deet. The results showed that mosquitoes infected with the four serotypes of dengue respond i...

  2. Clinical and molecular analyses of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome: Comparison between spontaneous conception and assisted reproduction techniques.

    PubMed

    Tenorio, Jair; Romanelli, Valeria; Martin-Trujillo, Alex; Fernández, García-Moya; Segovia, Mabel; Perandones, Claudia; Pérez Jurado, Luis A; Esteller, Manel; Fraga, Mario; Arias, Pedro; Gordo, Gema; Dapía, Irene; Mena, Rocío; Palomares, María; Pérez de Nanclares, Guiomar; Nevado, Julián; García-Miñaur, Sixto; Santos-Simarro, Fernando; Martinez-Glez, Víctor; Vallespín, Elena; Monk, David; Lapunzina, Pablo

    2016-10-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an overgrowth syndrome characterized by an excessive prenatal and postnatal growth, macrosomia, macroglossia, and hemihyperplasia. The molecular basis of this syndrome is complex and heterogeneous, involving genes located at 11p15.5. BWS is correlated with assisted reproductive techniques. BWS in individuals born following assisted reproductive techniques has been found to occur four to nine times higher compared to children with to BWS born after spontaneous conception. Here, we report a series of 187 patients with to BWS born either after assisted reproductive techniques or conceived naturally. Eighty-eight percent of BWS patients born via assisted reproductive techniques had hypomethylation of KCNQ1OT1:TSS-DMR in comparison with 49% for patients with BWS conceived naturally. None of the patients with BWS born via assisted reproductive techniques had hypermethylation of H19/IGF2:IG-DMR, neither CDKN1 C mutations nor patUPD11. We did not find differences in the frequency of multi-locus imprinting disturbances between groups. Patients with BWS born via assisted reproductive techniques had an increased frequency of advanced bone age, congenital heart disease, and decreased frequency of earlobe anomalies but these differences may be explained by the different molecular background compared to those with BWS and spontaneous fertilization. We conclude there is a correlation of the molecular etiology of BWS with the type of conception. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Genome-wide paternal uniparental disomy as a cause of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome associated with recurrent virilizing adrenocortical tumors.

    PubMed

    Bertoin, F; Letouzé, E; Grignani, P; Patey, M; Rossignol, S; Libé, R; Pasqual, C; Lardière-Deguelte, S; Hoeffel-Fornes, C; Gaillard, D; Previderè, C; Delemer, B; Lalli, E

    2015-06-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an overgrowth syndrome characterized by fetal macrosomia, macroglossia, and abdominal wall defects. BWS patients are at risk to develop Wilms tumor, neuroblastoma, hepatoblastoma, and adrenal tumors. A young woman with BWS features, but with inconclusive genetic evidence for the disease, came to clinical observation for signs of virilization at the age of 16 years. An adrenocortical tumor was diagnosed and surgically resected. The tumor underwent 2 local relapses that were also surgically treated. The patient was also operated to remove a breast fibroadenoma. SNP arrays were used to analyze chromosome abnormalities in normal and tumor samples from the patient and her parents. The patient presented genome-wide mosaic paternal uniparental disomy (patUPD) both in the adrenocortical and the breast tumors, with different degrees of loss of heterozygosity (LOH). The more recent relapses of the adrenocortical tumor showed a loss of part of chromosome 17p that was absent in the first tumor. Analysis of a skin biopsy sample also showed mosaic patUPD with partial LOH, while no LOH was detected in leukocyte DNA. This case shows that virilizing adrenocortical tumors may be a clinical feature of patients with BWS. The SNP array technology is useful to diagnose genome-wide patUPD mosaicism in BWS patients with an inconclusive molecular diagnosis and underlines the tumorigenic potential of the absence of the maternal genome combined with an excess of the paternal genome.

  4. Maternal Hypomethylation of KvDMR in a Monozygotic Male Twin Pair Discordant for Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Elalaoui, S C; Garin, I; Sefiani, A; Perez de Nanclares, G

    2014-01-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS; OMIM 130650) is a heterogeneous overgrowth syndrome characterized by visceromegaly, macroglossia, tumor predisposition, and other congenital abnormalities. BWS is usually associated with abnormalities of chromosome 11p15, including (epi)genetic changes, paternal disomy and point mutations. A number of identical twin pairs, mostly female, have been reported to be clinically discordant for BWS. Studies of monozygotic twins discordant for BWS provide more information about failure in the DNA methylation maintenance machinery during very early embryonic development. Here, we report a case of monozygotic male twins discordant for BWS phenotype. Methylation analysis of the 2 imprinted domains at 11p15.5 (H19DMR and KvDMR) was performed by methylation-specific MLPA and pyrosequencing of DNA extracted from peripheral blood and buccal swabs of both twins. Hypomethylation at KvDMR was identified in both cell types of the affected twin, whereas his healthy brother presented hypomethylation only in blood cells and a normal methylation profile in buccal swab. For diagnostic purposes, it is important to remember that twins can share fetal circulation and possibly share hematopoietic stem cells early in development; therefore, the affected and unaffected twins can share an epigenotype that will resemble partial hypomethylation. If a patient is a twin, it is valuable to obtain a sample from a tissue other than blood. PMID:24550765

  5. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of the successful sterilization of Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann) utilized in maggot debridement therapy (mdt).

    PubMed

    Yeong, Y S; Nazni, W A; Santana, R L; Mohd Noor, I; Lee, H L; Mohd Sofian, A

    2011-08-01

    In Malaysia, maggot debridement therapy (MDT) utilizes maggots of Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann) to debride necrotic tissue from wound surface, reduce bacterial infection and therefore, enhance wound healing process. To evaluate the sterility of the sterile maggots produced after sterilization process before delivering onto patient wounds. Sterility of sterile maggots is crucial in ensuring the safe usage of MDT and patient's health. Eggs of L. cuprina collected from a laboratory colony were divided into treated group (sterilized) and control group (non-sterilized). Treated group underwent sterilization while eggs from control group were allowed to hatch without sterilization. Sodium hypochlorite and formaldehyde were the main disinfectants used in this sterilization process. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to examine and ascertain the sterility of sterile maggots. SEM results showed that all sterilized L. cuprina eggs and maggots achieved sterility and all were cleared from bacterial contamination. In contrast, all non-sterilized eggs and maggots were found to be colonized by microorganisms. Sterilization method employed to sterilize eggs and maggots used in Malaysia MDT was proven successful and MDT is safe to be used as wound management tools.

  6. Technical note: Development of Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) at constant temperatures: Applications in estimating postmortem interval.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong-qiang; Lyu, Zhou; Li, Xue-bo; Li, Kui; Yao, Lan; Wan, Li-hua

    2015-08-01

    Blowflies (Calliphoridae) are recognized as a powerful tool for estimating the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin). The times for blowflies to develop from oviposition to eclosion is mainly controlled by temperature, which can differ between even closely related species. Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a blowfly distributed throughout Asia and Australia. However, a systematic determination of the developmental times of H. ligurriens under constant temperature, necessary for estimating the PMImin, is lacking. Such an examination would broaden the forensic importance of the species. Thus, this study explored the growth curves of larval H. ligurriens at 7 constant temperatures (16, 19, 22, 25, 28, 31, and 34°C). Isomegalen and isomorphen diagrams were successfully constructed, depicting the time of larval length or developmental event, respectively, at different temperatures. A thermal summation model was also constructed via regression analysis, by estimating the developmental threshold temperature t and thermal summation constant K. The thermal summation model indicated that t at 8.3°C and K at 5747.5 degree-hours (°Ch) are required for complete development from oviposition to eclosion, and suggested an optimum temperature range of 16-28°C for the development of H. ligurriens. These data establish for the first time the temperature-dependent developmental time of H. ligurriens for forensic entomology application. The 3 developmental models are provided.

  7. Physical and transcript mapping in the vicinity of chromosome breakpoints associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome and a rhabdoid tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, M.J.; Sait, S.N.J.; Nowak, N.J.

    1994-09-01

    The cloning and analysis of chromosome rearrangements associated with disease have led to the identification of genes whose alterations contribute to the development of the disease phenotype. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and several cosmid markers, the 11p15.5 chromosome rearrangement breakpoints of three Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome (BWS) patients and a rhabdoid tumor were located between D11S679 and IGF2, an interval no larger than 675 kb. PFGE indicated that none of the known genes just distal to the breakpoints (i.e., TH, INS, IGF2, H19) were directly altered by these chromosome rearrangements. These four breakpoints may be affecting an unidentified gene(s) relevant to BWS or rhabdoid tumor development. Alternatively, these rearrangements might be disrupting the genomic imprinting of IGF2, H19, and/or additional unknown imprinted loci in the region. One cosmid was shown to span a BWS inversion breakpoint. This cosmid has been used in a cDNA selection protocol utilizing a pool of amplified primary cDNA corresponding to RNA isolated from seven different tissues. Six putative cDNA fragments, two of which are conserved in rodent DNA, have been identified that correctly map back to this cosmid. These clones, as well as cDNA fragments selected by other nearby cosmids and YACs, are being characterized by PFGE, Northern and Zoo blot analysis and sequencing.

  8. Technical note: Development of Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) at constant temperatures: Applications in estimating postmortem interval.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong-qiang; Lyu, Zhou; Li, Xue-bo; Li, Kui; Yao, Lan; Wan, Li-hua

    2015-08-01

    Blowflies (Calliphoridae) are recognized as a powerful tool for estimating the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin). The times for blowflies to develop from oviposition to eclosion is mainly controlled by temperature, which can differ between even closely related species. Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a blowfly distributed throughout Asia and Australia. However, a systematic determination of the developmental times of H. ligurriens under constant temperature, necessary for estimating the PMImin, is lacking. Such an examination would broaden the forensic importance of the species. Thus, this study explored the growth curves of larval H. ligurriens at 7 constant temperatures (16, 19, 22, 25, 28, 31, and 34°C). Isomegalen and isomorphen diagrams were successfully constructed, depicting the time of larval length or developmental event, respectively, at different temperatures. A thermal summation model was also constructed via regression analysis, by estimating the developmental threshold temperature t and thermal summation constant K. The thermal summation model indicated that t at 8.3°C and K at 5747.5 degree-hours (°Ch) are required for complete development from oviposition to eclosion, and suggested an optimum temperature range of 16-28°C for the development of H. ligurriens. These data establish for the first time the temperature-dependent developmental time of H. ligurriens for forensic entomology application. The 3 developmental models are provided. PMID:26046676

  9. Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib in a patient with multilocus imprinting disturbance: a female-dominant phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Sano, Shinichiro; Matsubara, Keiko; Nagasaki, Keisuke; Kikuchi, Toru; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Hata, Kenichiro; Fukami, Maki; Kagami, Masayo; Ogata, Tsutomu

    2016-08-01

    Although recent studies have often revealed the presence of multilocus imprinting disturbance (MLID) at differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in patients with imprinting disorders (IDs), most patients exhibit clinical features of the original ID only. Here we report a Japanese female patient with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib. Molecular studies revealed marked methylation defects (MDs) at the Kv-DMR and the GNAS-DMRs and variable MDs at four additional DMRs, in the absence of a mutation in ZFP57, NLRP2, NLRP7, KHDC3L and NLRP5. It is likely that the MDs at the Kv-DMR and the GNAS-DMRs were sufficient to cause clinically recognizable IDs, whereas the remaining MDs were insufficient to result in clinical consequences or took place at DMRs with no disease-causing imprinted gene(s). The development of MLID and the two IDs of this patient may be due to a mutation in a hitherto unknown gene for MLID, or to a reduced amount of DNA methyltransferase-1 (DNMT1) available for the methylation maintenance of DMRs because of the consumption of DNMT1 by the maintenance of X-inactivation. In support of the latter possibility, such co-existence of two IDs has primarily been identified in female patients, and MLID has predominantly been identified as loss of methylations.

  10. Genome-wide paternal uniparental disomy as a cause of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome associated with recurrent virilizing adrenocortical tumors.

    PubMed

    Bertoin, F; Letouzé, E; Grignani, P; Patey, M; Rossignol, S; Libé, R; Pasqual, C; Lardière-Deguelte, S; Hoeffel-Fornes, C; Gaillard, D; Previderè, C; Delemer, B; Lalli, E

    2015-06-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an overgrowth syndrome characterized by fetal macrosomia, macroglossia, and abdominal wall defects. BWS patients are at risk to develop Wilms tumor, neuroblastoma, hepatoblastoma, and adrenal tumors. A young woman with BWS features, but with inconclusive genetic evidence for the disease, came to clinical observation for signs of virilization at the age of 16 years. An adrenocortical tumor was diagnosed and surgically resected. The tumor underwent 2 local relapses that were also surgically treated. The patient was also operated to remove a breast fibroadenoma. SNP arrays were used to analyze chromosome abnormalities in normal and tumor samples from the patient and her parents. The patient presented genome-wide mosaic paternal uniparental disomy (patUPD) both in the adrenocortical and the breast tumors, with different degrees of loss of heterozygosity (LOH). The more recent relapses of the adrenocortical tumor showed a loss of part of chromosome 17p that was absent in the first tumor. Analysis of a skin biopsy sample also showed mosaic patUPD with partial LOH, while no LOH was detected in leukocyte DNA. This case shows that virilizing adrenocortical tumors may be a clinical feature of patients with BWS. The SNP array technology is useful to diagnose genome-wide patUPD mosaicism in BWS patients with an inconclusive molecular diagnosis and underlines the tumorigenic potential of the absence of the maternal genome combined with an excess of the paternal genome. PMID:25365508

  11. Observation of the hydrodynamic Dirac fluid and the breakdown of the Wiedemann-Franz law in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, Kin Chung

    Interactions between particles in quantum many-body systems can lead to collective behavior described by hydrodynamics. One such system is the electron-hole plasma in graphene near the charge neutrality point which can form a strongly coupled Dirac fluid. This charge neutral plasma of quasi-relativistic fermions is expected to exhibit a substantial enhancement of the thermal conductivity, due to decoupling of charge and heat currents within hydrodynamics. Employing high sensitivity Johnson noise thermometry, we report the breakdown of the Wiedemann-Franz law in graphene, with a thermal conductivity an order of magnitude larger than the value predicted by Fermi liquid theory. This result is a signature of the Dirac fluid, and constitutes direct evidence of collective motion in a quantum electronic fluid. This research is performed in collaboration with J. Crossno, J. K. Shi, K. Wang, X. Liu, A. Harzheim, A. Lucas, S. Sachdev, P. Kim, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, and T. A. Ohki. Funding supported by Raytheon BBN Technologies.

  12. Excess functional copy of allele at chromosomal region 11p15 may cause Wiedemann-Beckwith (EMG) syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, T.; Saitoh, S.; Jinno, Y.; Niikawa, N.; Matsumoto, T.; Narahara, K.; Fukushima, Y.

    1994-02-15

    Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome (WBS) is a genetic disorder with overgrowth and predisposition to Wilms` tumor. The putative locus of the gene responsible for this syndrome is assigned to chromosome region 11p15.5, and genomic imprinting in this region has been proposed: the paternally derived gene(s) at 11p15.5 is selectively expressed, while the maternally transmitted gene(s) is inactive. The authors examined 18 patients for the parental origin of their 11p15 regions. DNA polymorphism analyses using 6 loci on chromosome 11 showed that 2 patients with duplications of 11p15 regions from their respective fathers and one from the mother, indicating the transmission of an excessive paternal gene at 11p15 to each patient. The result, together with the previous findings in karyotypically normal or abnormal patients and in overgrowth mouse experiments, are consistent with imprinting hypothesis that overexpression of paternally derived gene(s) at 11p15.5, probably the human insulin-like growth factor II (IFG-II) gene, may cause the phenotype. Total constitutional uniparental paternal disomy (UPD) or segmental UPD for the 6 loci examined of chromosome 11 was not observed in our 12 sporadic patients. In order to explain completely the inheritance of this syndrome in patients with various chromosomal constitutions, the authors propose an alternative imprinting mechanism involving the other locus that may be paternally imprinted and may suppress the expression of this gene. 28 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Infection persistence time of Aedes breeding habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicout, D. J.; Chalvet-Monfray, K.; Sabatier, P.

    2002-03-01

    The Aedes mosquito species are capable of maintaining the circulation of viruses only by the strategy of transovarial transmission and diapause of eggs. It is found that when the transovarial transmission is inhibited, the survival time of the presence of viruses in a given mosquito habitat is limited from above by the eggs lifetime. In contrast, when the transovarial transmission is turned on, the infection persistence time may largely exceed both the eggs lifetime and flooding period depending upon the production rate of infected eggs. We present a simple model allowing the derivation of analytical expressions of the infection persistence time.

  14. Aedes aegypti resistance to temephos in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Seccacini, Emilia; Lucia, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo; Licastro, Susana; Masuh, Hector

    2008-12-01

    Monitoring of resistance of Aedes aegypti to temephos was implemented in the provinces of Formosa and Misiones, Argentina, as a response to the need to improve the vigilance for the dengue vector in areas of high risk of dengue. Eggs collected in each locality were reared, and susceptibility to temephos was assayed using larval bioassays. A weak decrease in susceptibility of larvae to temephos was observed in Clorinda and Puerto Iguazú, indicating an incipient resistance with a resistance ratio of 3. No control failures have been observed yet, and this program should allow the early detection of a real problem in our country.

  15. [Aedes albopictus: chronical of a spreading vector].

    PubMed

    Pagès, F; Corbel, V; Paupy, C

    2006-06-01

    Over the last 50 years the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes (stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) has spread to all continents in the old and new world. This anthropophilous species is able to adapt to most climates. Although long considered as a secondary disease vector, it has been shown to be competent for arbovirus transmission under laboratory conditions. In several locations that it has invaded, the tiger mosquito has played a major role in arbovirus transmission (dengue fever and chikungunya). A recent example is the outbreak of chikungunya on the Indian Ocean island of Reunion

  16. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Habitat Preferences in South Texas, USA

    PubMed Central

    Champion, Samantha R; Vitek, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    The South Texas region has a historical record of occasional dengue outbreaks. The recent introduction of chikungunya virus to the Caribbean suggests that this disease may be a concern as well. Six different cities and three field habitat types (residential, tire shops, and cemeteries) were examined for evidence of habitat and longitudinal preference of two vector species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. A. aegypti was more prevalent in tire shop sites, while A. albopictus was more prevalent in cemetery sites. In residential sites, the relative abundance of the two species varied with longitude, with A. albopictus being more abundant near the coast, and A. aegypti being more abundant inland. There was also a temporal variation, with A. aegypti declining in frequency over time in residential sites. These results have implications for control strategies and disease risk and suggest a greater need for increased surveillance and research in the region. PMID:25520559

  17. Characterising the spatial dynamics of sympatric Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus populations in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Duncombe, Jennifer; Espino, Fe; Marollano, Kristian; Velazco, Aldwin; Ritchie, Scott A; Hu, Wen-Biao; Weinstein, Philip; Clements, Archie C A

    2013-11-01

    Entomological surveillance and control are essential to the management of dengue fever (DF). Hence, understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of DF vectors, Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) and Ae. (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse), is paramount. In the Philippines, resources are limited and entomological surveillance and control are generally commenced during epidemics, when transmission is difficult to control. Recent improvements in spatial epidemiological tools and methods offer opportunities to explore more efficient DF surveillance and control solutions: however, there are few examples in the literature from resource-poor settings. The objectives of this study were to: (i) explore spatial patterns of Aedes populations and (ii) predict areas of high and low vector density to inform DF control in San Jose village, Muntinlupa city, Philippines. Fortnightly, adult female Aedes mosquitoes were collected from 50 double-sticky ovitraps (SOs) located in San Jose village for the period June-November 2011. Spatial clustering analysis was performed to identify high and low density clusters of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Spatial autocorrelation was assessed by examination of semivariograms, and ordinary kriging was undertaken to create a smoothed surface of predicted vector density in the study area. Our results show that both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were present in San Jose village during the study period. However, one Aedes species was dominant in a given geographic area at a time, suggesting differing habitat preferences and interspecies competition between vectors. Density maps provide information to direct entomological control activities and advocate the development of geographically enhanced surveillance and control systems to improve DF management in the Philippines.

  18. TGF-β/β2-spectrin/CTCF-regulated tumor suppression in human stem cell disorder Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Yao, Zhi-Xing; Chen, Jiun-Sheng; Gi, Young Jin; Muñoz, Nina M; Kundra, Suchin; Herlong, H Franklin; Jeong, Yun Seong; Goltsov, Alexei; Ohshiro, Kazufumi; Mistry, Nipun A; Zhang, Jianping; Su, Xiaoping; Choufani, Sanaa; Mitra, Abhisek; Li, Shulin; Mishra, Bibhuti; White, Jon; Rashid, Asif; Wang, Alan Yaoqi; Javle, Milind; Davila, Marta; Michaely, Peter; Weksberg, Rosanna; Hofstetter, Wayne L; Finegold, Milton J; Shay, Jerry W; Machida, Keigo; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Mishra, Lopa

    2016-02-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a human stem cell disorder, and individuals with this disease have a substantially increased risk (~800-fold) of developing tumors. Epigenetic silencing of β2-spectrin (β2SP, encoded by SPTBN1), a SMAD adaptor for TGF-β signaling, is causally associated with BWS; however, a role of TGF-β deficiency in BWS-associated neoplastic transformation is unexplored. Here, we have reported that double-heterozygous Sptbn1+/- Smad3+/- mice, which have defective TGF-β signaling, develop multiple tumors that are phenotypically similar to those of BWS patients. Moreover, tumorigenesis-associated genes IGF2 and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) were overexpressed in fibroblasts from BWS patients and TGF-β-defective mice. We further determined that chromatin insulator CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is TGF-β inducible and facilitates TGF-β-mediated repression of TERT transcription via interactions with β2SP and SMAD3. This regulation was abrogated in TGF-β-defective mice and BWS, resulting in TERT overexpression. Imprinting of the IGF2/H19 locus and the CDKN1C/KCNQ1 locus on chromosome 11p15.5 is mediated by CTCF, and this regulation is lost in BWS, leading to aberrant overexpression of growth-promoting genes. Therefore, we propose that loss of CTCF-dependent imprinting of tumor-promoting genes, such as IGF2 and TERT, results from a defective TGF-β pathway and is responsible at least in part for BWS-associated tumorigenesis as well as sporadic human cancers that are frequently associated with SPTBN1 and SMAD3 mutations.

  19. TGF-β/β2-spectrin/CTCF-regulated tumor suppression in human stem cell disorder Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian; Yao, Zhi-Xing; Chen, Jiun-Sheng; Gi, Young Jin; Muñoz, Nina M.; Kundra, Suchin; Herlong, H. Franklin; Jeong, Yun Seong; Goltsov, Alexei; Ohshiro, Kazufumi; Mistry, Nipun A.; Zhang, Jianping; Su, Xiaoping; Choufani, Sanaa; Mitra, Abhisek; Li, Shulin; Mishra, Bibhuti; White, Jon; Rashid, Asif; Wang, Alan Yaoqi; Javle, Milind; Davila, Marta; Michaely, Peter; Weksberg, Rosanna; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Finegold, Milton J.; Shay, Jerry W.; Machida, Keigo; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Mishra, Lopa

    2016-01-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a human stem cell disorder, and individuals with this disease have a substantially increased risk (~800-fold) of developing tumors. Epigenetic silencing of β2-spectrin (β2SP, encoded by SPTBN1), a SMAD adaptor for TGF-β signaling, is causally associated with BWS; however, a role of TGF-β deficiency in BWS-associated neoplastic transformation is unexplored. Here, we have reported that double-heterozygous Sptbn1+/– Smad3+/– mice, which have defective TGF-β signaling, develop multiple tumors that are phenotypically similar to those of BWS patients. Moreover, tumorigenesis-associated genes IGF2 and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) were overexpressed in fibroblasts from BWS patients and TGF-β–defective mice. We further determined that chromatin insulator CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is TGF-β inducible and facilitates TGF-β–mediated repression of TERT transcription via interactions with β2SP and SMAD3. This regulation was abrogated in TGF-β–defective mice and BWS, resulting in TERT overexpression. Imprinting of the IGF2/H19 locus and the CDKN1C/KCNQ1 locus on chromosome 11p15.5 is mediated by CTCF, and this regulation is lost in BWS, leading to aberrant overexpression of growth-promoting genes. Therefore, we propose that loss of CTCF-dependent imprinting of tumor-promoting genes, such as IGF2 and TERT, results from a defective TGF-β pathway and is responsible at least in part for BWS-associated tumorigenesis as well as sporadic human cancers that are frequently associated with SPTBN1 and SMAD3 mutations. PMID:26784546

  20. Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome and uniparental disomy 11p: fine mapping of the recombination breakpoints and evaluation of several techniques

    PubMed Central

    Romanelli, Valeria; Meneses, Heloisa N M; Fernández, Luis; Martínez-Glez, Victor; Gracia-Bouthelier, Ricardo; F Fraga, Mario; Guillén, Encarna; Nevado, Julián; Gean, Esther; Martorell, Loreto; Marfil, Victoria Esteban; García-Miñaur, Sixto; Lapunzina, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a phenotypically and genotypically heterogeneous overgrowth syndrome characterized by somatic overgrowth, macroglossia and abdominal wall defects. Other usual findings are hemihyperplasia, embryonal tumours, adrenocortical cytomegaly, ear anomalies, visceromegaly, renal abnormalities, neonatal hypoglycaemia, cleft palate, polydactyly and a positive family history. BWS is a complex, multigenic disorder associated, in up to 90% of patients, with alteration in the expression or function of one or more genes in the 11p15.5 imprinted gene cluster. There are several molecular anomalies associated with BWS and the large proportion of cases, about 85%, is sporadic and karyotypically normal. One of the major categories of BWS molecular alteration (10–20% of cases) is represented by mosaic paternal uniparental disomy (pUPD), namely patients with two paternally derived copies of chromosome 11p15 and no maternal contribution for that. In these patients, in addition to the effects of IGF2 overexpression, a decreased level of the maternally expressed gene CDKN1C may contribute to the BWS phenotype. In this paper, we reviewed a series of nine patients with BWS because of pUPD using several methods with the aim to evaluate the percentage of mosaicism, the methylation status at both loci, the extension of the pUPD at the short arm and the breakpoints of recombination. Fine mapping of mitotic recombination breakpoints by single-nucleotide polymorphism-array in individuals with UPD and fine estimation of epigenetic defects will provide a basis for understanding the aetiology of BWS, allowing more accurate prognostic predictions and facilitating management and surveillance of individuals with this disorder. PMID:21248736

  1. Single cell analysis demonstrating somatic mosaicism involving 11p in a patient with paternal isodisomy and Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Bischoff, F.Z.; McCaskill, C.; Subramanian, S.

    1994-09-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome (BWS) is characterized by numerous growth abnormalities including exomphalos, macroglossia, gigantism, and hemihypertrophy or hemihyperplasia. The {open_quotes}BWS gene{close_quotes} appears to be maternally repressed and is suspected to function as a growth factor or regulator of somatic growth, since activation of this gene through a variety of mechanisms appears to result in somatic overgrowth and tumor development. Mosaic paternal isodisomy of 11p has been observed previously by others in patients with BWS by Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA. The interpretation of these results was primarily based on the intensities of the hybridization signals for the different alleles. In our study, we demonstrate somatic mosaicism directly through PCR and single cell analysis. Peripheral blood was obtained from a patient with BWS and initial genomic DNA analysis by PCR was suggestive of somatic mosaicism for paternal isodisomy of 11p. Through micromanipulation, single cells were isolated and subjected to primer extention preamplification. Locus-specific microsatellite marker analyses by PCR were performed to determine the chromosome 11 origins in the preamplified individual cells. Two populations of cells were detected, a population of cells with normal biparental inheritance and a population of cells with paternal isodisomy of 11p and biparental disomy of 11q. Using the powerful approach of single cell analysis, the detected somatic mosaicism provides evidence for a mitotic recombinational event that has resulted in loss of the maternal 11p region and gain of a second copy of paternal 11p in some cells. The direct demonstration of mosaicism may explain the variable phenotypes and hemihypertrophy often observed in BWS.

  2. [Ecology of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in the Americas and disease transmission].

    PubMed

    Rey, Jorge R; Lounibos, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The recent range expansion of the mosquito Aedes albopictus has been associated in some areas by declines in abundance or local elimination of Aedes aegypti, but the two species still coexist in large regions of the Americas. We offer a summary of the possible mechanisms responsible for the abundance and displacement pattern observed and of their significance in terms of disease transmission. Among these mechanisms we may mention the competition for limiting resources, the differences in the ability to withstand starvation, the apparent competition through differential effects of the parasite Ascogregarina taiwanensis, and the inhibition of Ae. aegypti egg development by Ae. albopictus larvae. Habitat segregation has been proposed as a mechanism promoting the coexistence of the two species through avoidance of direct competition. Aedes aegypti predominates in urban areas, Ae. albopictus in rural ones, and both species coexist in the suburbs. There is also evidence that in certain areas, habitat segregation in terms of distance from the coast can influence the distribution of both species. Another possible cause of the rapid disappearance of Ae. aegypti is reproductive interference between the species. According to this hypothesis, asymmetric effects of interspecific mating favor Ae. albopictus. This type of reproductive interference can result in the elimination of sympatric populations of the affected species and can be one of the major causes for the swiftness with which Ae. aegypti disappeared from some places in the Americas following invasions by Ae. albopictus.

  3. Discriminable roles of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in establishment of dengue outbreaks in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao-Fu; Hou, Jion-Nun; Chen, Tien-Huang; Chen, Wei-June

    2014-02-01

    Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus were reported to be significant as vectors of dengue fever. In Taiwan, the latter is distributed throughout the island while the former appears only south of the Tropic of Cancer; i.e., 23.5°N. In the past decade, there were five outbreaks with over 1000 cases of dengue fever in Taiwan. Without exception, these outbreaks all occurred in the south where the two Aedes mosquitoes are sympartic. According to the Center for Disease Control of Taiwan, imported cases are thought to provide the seeds of dengue outbreaks every year. Mostly, the number of imported cases is greater in northern island, probably due to a larger population of travelers and imported workers from endemic countries. Looking at the example in 2002, northern, central, and southern parts of Taiwan reported 28, 11, and 13 imported cases, respectively. However, 54, 21, and 5309 total cases were confirmed in the corresponding regions over the entire year, indicating a significant skew of case distributions. A hypothesis is thus inspired that the existence of Ae. aegypti is a prerequisite to initiate a dengue outbreak, while participation of Ae. albopictus expands or maintains the scale until the de novo herd immunity reaches high level.

  4. Prenatal findings and the genetic diagnosis of fetal overgrowth disorders: Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome, Sotos syndrome, and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Ping

    2012-06-01

    With the advent of prenatal sonography, fetal overgrowth can be easily detected. Prenatal-onset overgrowth can be secondary to normal variants of familial tall stature, familial rapid maturation, diabetic macrosomia, and congenital nesidioblastosis, or prenatal-onset overgrowth can be primary due to pathological overgrowth disorders. This article provides a comprehensive review of the prenatal findings and the genetic diagnosis of some of the pathological prenatal-onset overgrowth disorders, such as Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome, Sotos syndrome, and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

  5. Spatial Stability of Adult Aedes aegypti Populations

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Vector control programs could be more efficient by identifying the location of highly productive sites of Aedes aegypti. This study explored if the number of female adults of Ae. aegypti in BG-Sentinel traps was clustered and if their spatial distribution changed in time in two neighborhoods in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Traps were uniformly distributed across each neighborhood (130 m from each other), and samples were taken every 3 weeks. Global and local spatial autocorrelations were explored. Spatial stability existed if the rank order of trap captures was kept in time. There was lack of global autocorrelation in both neighborhoods, precluding their stratification for control purposes. Hot and cold spots were identified, revealing the highly focal nature of Ae. aegypti. There was significant spatial stability throughout the study in both locations. The consistency in trap productivity in time could be used to increase the effectiveness of vector and dengue control programs. PMID:22144449

  6. History of Aedes mosquitoes in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Winchester, Jonathan C; Kapan, Durrell D

    2013-06-01

    As a geographically isolated island chain with no native mosquitoes, Hawaii is a model for examining the mechanisms behind insect vector invasions and their subsequent interactions with each other and with human populations. The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, and the Asian tiger mosquito, Ae. albopictus, have been responsible for epidemics of dengue in Hawaii. As one of the world's earliest locations to be invaded by both species, Hawaii's history is particularly relevant because both species are currently invading new areas worldwide and are implicated in outbreaks of emergent or reemergent pathogens such as dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. Here we analyze the historical records of mosquito introductions in order to understand the factors that have led to the current distribution of these 2 mosquitoes in the Hawaiian Islands.

  7. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) are the main vectors of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses worldwide. As there is still no vaccine or specific treatment for DENV and CHIKV, vector control remains the cornerstone of prevention and outbreak control. Unfortunately, vector control programs are facing operational challenges with mosquitoes becoming resistant to commonly used insecticides in several areas through the world. Throughout Central Africa no recent data are available susceptible/resistant status of either vector species since the introduction/arrival of Ae. albopictus in this area. We therefore studied the level of resistance of these two major vectors to insecticides commonly used in Africa for mosquito control. Results Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were sampled in six urban localities of Cameroon (Garoua, Bertoua, Yaoundé, Bafia, Buea) and Gabon (Libreville). Larval bioassays, carried out to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95) and resistance ratios (RR50 and RR95) suggested that both vector species were susceptible to Bti (Bacillus thuringiensis var israeliensis) and temephos. Bioassays were also performed on adults using WHO diagnostic test kits to assess phenotypic resistance to deltamethrin, DDT, fenitrothion and propoxur. These experiments showed that one population of Ae. aegypti (Libreville) and two populations of Ae. albopictus (Buea and Yaoundé) were resistant to DDT (mortality 36% to 71%). Resistance to deltamethrin was also suspected in Ae. albopictus from Yaoundé (83% mortality). All other field mosquito populations were susceptible to deltamethrin, DDT, fenitrothion and propoxur. No increase in the knockdown times (Kdt50 and Kdt95) was noted in the Yaoundé resistant population compared to other Ae. albopictus populations, suggesting the possible involvement of metabolic resistance to deltamethrin and DDT. Conclusion In view of the recent increase in dengue and

  8. Evaluation of Sumithion L-40 against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse.

    PubMed

    Loke, S R; Sing, K W; Teoh, G N; Lee, H L

    2015-03-01

    Space spraying of chemical insecticides is still an important mean of controlling Aedes mosquitoes and dengue transmission. For this purpose, the bioefficacy of space-sprayed chemical insecticide should be evaluated from time to time. A simulation field trial was conducted outdoor in an open field and indoor in unoccupied flat units in Kuala Lumpur, to evaluate the adulticidal and larvicidal effects of Sumithion L-40, a ULV formulation of fenitrothion. A thermal fogger with a discharge rate of 240 ml/min was used to disperse Sumithion L-40 at 3 different dosages (350 ml/ha, 500 ml/ha, 750 ml/ha) against lab-bred larvae and adult female Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. An average of more than 80% adult mortality was achieved for outdoor space spray, and 100% adult mortality for indoor space spray, in all tested dosages. Outdoor larvicidal effect was noted up to 14 days and 7 days at a dosage of 500 and 750 ml/ha for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, respectively. Indoor larvicidal effect was up to 21 days (500 ml/ha) and 14 days (750 ml/ha), respectively, after spraying with larval mortality > 50% against Ae. aegypti. This study concluded that the effective dosage of Sumithion L-40 thermally applied against adult Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus indoor and outdoor is 500 and 750 ml/ha. Based on these dosages, effective indoor spray volume is 0.4 - 0.6 ml/m³. Additional indoor and outdoor larvicidal effect will be observed at these application dosages, in addition to adult mortality.

  9. Allethrin-Based Mosquito Control Device Causing Knockdown, Morbidity, and Mortality in Four Species of Field-Caught Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Bibbs, Christopher S; Fulcher, Ali; Xue, Rui-De

    2015-07-01

    A mosquito control device marketed for spatial repellency, the ThermaCELL Mosquito Repellent Appliance, was evaluated in semifield trials against multiple field-caught species of mosquito. Using paper and mesh cages, mosquito test groups of at least 30 mosquitoes were suspended in a 2,337 cubic foot outdoor space while two ThermaCELL repellent devices were active. After 30 min of treatment, cages were moved to the laboratory to observe knockdown, morbidity, and mortality for 24 h. Species tested included Aedes atlanticus Dyar and Knab (98% average mortality), Psorophora ferox Humboldt (97% average mortality), Psorophora columbiae Dyar and Knab (96% average mortality), and Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedemann (84% average mortality). The repellent devices showed effectiveness with high knockdown and mortality across all species tested. Mosquito control devices like the ThermaCELL Mosquito Repellent Appliance may have further practical applications to help combat viral exposures by limiting host mosquitoes. Such devices may provide a functional alternative to DEET dependence in the current state of mosquito management.

  10. Allethrin-Based Mosquito Control Device Causing Knockdown, Morbidity, and Mortality in Four Species of Field-Caught Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Bibbs, Christopher S; Fulcher, Ali; Xue, Rui-De

    2015-07-01

    A mosquito control device marketed for spatial repellency, the ThermaCELL Mosquito Repellent Appliance, was evaluated in semifield trials against multiple field-caught species of mosquito. Using paper and mesh cages, mosquito test groups of at least 30 mosquitoes were suspended in a 2,337 cubic foot outdoor space while two ThermaCELL repellent devices were active. After 30 min of treatment, cages were moved to the laboratory to observe knockdown, morbidity, and mortality for 24 h. Species tested included Aedes atlanticus Dyar and Knab (98% average mortality), Psorophora ferox Humboldt (97% average mortality), Psorophora columbiae Dyar and Knab (96% average mortality), and Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedemann (84% average mortality). The repellent devices showed effectiveness with high knockdown and mortality across all species tested. Mosquito control devices like the ThermaCELL Mosquito Repellent Appliance may have further practical applications to help combat viral exposures by limiting host mosquitoes. Such devices may provide a functional alternative to DEET dependence in the current state of mosquito management. PMID:26335485

  11. Real-time PCR Tests in Dutch Exotic Mosquito Surveys; Implementation of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Identification Tests, and the Development of Tests for the Identification of Aedes atropalpus and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    van de Vossenberg, B T L H; Ibáñez-Justicia, A; Metz-Verschure, E; van Veen, E J; Bruil-Dieters, M L; Scholte, E J

    2015-05-01

    Since 2009, The Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority carries out surveys focusing on, amongst others, the presence of invasive mosquito species (IMS). Special attention is given to exotic container-breeding Aedes species Aedes aegypti (L.), Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Aedes atropalpus (Coquillett), and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald). This study describes the implementation of real-time PCR tests described by Hill et al. (2008) for the identification of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, and the development of two novel real-time PCR tests for the identification of Ae. atropalpus and Ae. j. japonicus. Initial test showed that optimization of elements of the Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus tests was needed. Method validation tests were performed to determine if the implemented and newly developed tests are fit for routine diagnostics. Performance criteria of analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity, selectivity, repeatability, and reproducibility were determined. In addition, experiments were performed to determine the influence of environmental conditions on the usability of DNA extracted from mosquito specimens trapped in BG-Sentinel traps. The real-time PCR tests were demonstrated to be sensitive, specific, repeatable, reproducible, and are less prone to false negative results compared to partial cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequencing owing to the DNA fragmentation caused by environmental influences. PMID:26334807

  12. Real-time PCR Tests in Dutch Exotic Mosquito Surveys; Implementation of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Identification Tests, and the Development of Tests for the Identification of Aedes atropalpus and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    van de Vossenberg, B T L H; Ibáñez-Justicia, A; Metz-Verschure, E; van Veen, E J; Bruil-Dieters, M L; Scholte, E J

    2015-05-01

    Since 2009, The Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority carries out surveys focusing on, amongst others, the presence of invasive mosquito species (IMS). Special attention is given to exotic container-breeding Aedes species Aedes aegypti (L.), Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Aedes atropalpus (Coquillett), and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald). This study describes the implementation of real-time PCR tests described by Hill et al. (2008) for the identification of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, and the development of two novel real-time PCR tests for the identification of Ae. atropalpus and Ae. j. japonicus. Initial test showed that optimization of elements of the Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus tests was needed. Method validation tests were performed to determine if the implemented and newly developed tests are fit for routine diagnostics. Performance criteria of analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity, selectivity, repeatability, and reproducibility were determined. In addition, experiments were performed to determine the influence of environmental conditions on the usability of DNA extracted from mosquito specimens trapped in BG-Sentinel traps. The real-time PCR tests were demonstrated to be sensitive, specific, repeatable, reproducible, and are less prone to false negative results compared to partial cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequencing owing to the DNA fragmentation caused by environmental influences.

  13. The phenetic structure of Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Morales Vargas, Ronald Enrique; Phumala-Morales, Noppawan; Tsunoda, Takashi; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnan; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The large and recent migrations of the main vector of the Chikungunya virus, Aedes albopictus, raise questions about the epidemiological impact of possible microevolutionary changes in new territories. Quantitative traits are suitable to detect such changes as induced by environmental adaptations, local competition and founder effects. Using landmark-based geometric morphometrics, we compared the size and shape of 22 populations (1572 females) of Ae. albopictus. The collection sites covered five countries around the world, with special emphasis on Asia, which is assumed to be the origin of the vector. Some collections came from places where an important epidemic outbreak of Chikungunya has recently occurred. Quantitative comparisons were based on 18 anatomical landmarks on the wing. To contrast geographic and possible interspecific shape variation, close species were introduced in the sample, namely five Aedes riversi and nine Ae. flavopictus from Japan. The three species had similar size, but they were clearly separated by shape. Within Ae. albopictus, there was general agreement on size variation with the available climatic data. Shape variation was less related to climatic data than to either geography or a known itinerary of past territorial expansion. Thus, two main clusters were distinguished by wing shape variation: the first one composed of the Southeast Asian sample, the second one grouping Japan, Florida, Hawaii and the Reunion Island samples. The Southeast Asian countries, assumed to be at the origin of the geographic expansion of the mosquito, had similar wings and constituted a distinct group where localities clustered into northern and southern localities. Contrasting with this homogeneous group, very distant localities such as United States (US) and Japan shared a common shape pattern. The US Ae. albopictus samples (Hawaii and Florida) were indeed very similar to the Japanese samples, with Florida behaving exactly like a northern Japanese locality

  14. Pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Janet C; Godsey, Marvin S; Scott, Mariah L

    2012-12-01

    In Port-au-Prince, Haiti, the status of insecticide resistance has not recently been evaluated for Aedes aegypti (L) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) populations. No prophylactics exist for dengue, so prevention is only through vector control methods. An earthquake occurred in Haiti on January 12, 2010, with a magnitude of 7.0 Mw that devastated the area. Dengue became a major concern for the humanitarian relief workers that entered the country. Bottle bioassays were conducted in the field on adult mosquitoes reared from larvae collected from the grounds of the U.S. Embassy and from an adjacent neighborhood in eastern Port-au-Prince, Haiti. At the CDC, Fort Collins, CO, bioassays, molecular, and biochemical assays were performed on mosquitoes reared from field-collected eggs. A small percentage of the population was able to survive the diagnostic dose in bioassays run in Haiti. Mosquitoes tested at the CDC demonstrated no phenotypic resistance. A variety of factors could be responsible for the discrepancies between the field and lab data, but temperature and larval nutrition are probably most important. Knowledge of localized resistance and underlying mechanisms helps in making rational decisions in selection of appropriate and effective insecticides in the event of a dengue outbreak.

  15. Widespread evidence for interspecific mating between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in nature.

    PubMed

    Bargielowski, I E; Lounibos, L P; Shin, D; Smartt, C T; Carrasquilla, M C; Henry, A; Navarro, J C; Paupy, C; Dennett, J A

    2015-12-01

    Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, two important vectors of the dengue and chikungunya viruses to humans, often come in contact in their invasive ranges. In these circumstances, a number of factors are thought to influence their population dynamics, including resource competition among the larval stages, prevailing environmental conditions and reproductive interference in the form of satyrization. As the distribution and abundance of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus have profound epidemiological implications, understanding the competitive interactions that influence these patterns in nature is important. While evidence for resource competition and environmental factors had been gathered from the field, the evidence for reproductive interference, though strongly inferred through laboratory trials, remained sparse (one small-scale field trial). In this paper we demonstrate that low rates (1.12-3.73%) of interspecific mating occur in nature among populations of these species that have co-existed sympatrically from 3 to 150yrs. Finally this report contributes a new species-specific primer set for identifying the paternity of sperm extracted from field collected specimens.

  16. A new tent trap for monitoring the daily activity of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Casas Martínez, Mauricio; Orozco Bonilla, Arnoldo; Muñoz Reyes, Miguel; Ulloa García, Armando; Bond, J Guillermo; Valle Mora, Javier; Weber, Manuel; Rojas, Julio C

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we designed a new tent trap; the BioDiVector (BDV) tent trap, consisting of two rectangular tents that use human bait without endangering the technical personnel. The daily activity pattern of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in intra, peri, and extradomiciliary sites was studied in an endemic area of dengue in southern Mexico by using the BDV tent trap. Totals of 3,128 individuals of Ae. aegypti and 833 Ae. albopictus were captured. More Ae. aegypti males than females were caught, while the opposite was true with Ae. albopictus. The activity of both mosquito species was affected by the interaction between the collection site and time of day. In general, more individuals of both mosquito species were captured at the extradomicillary sites than at the peri and intradomicillary sites. Mosquitoes showed two peaks of activity, one in the morning and the other in the afternoon, but in general this only occurred at the extradomicillary sites, whereas no peak of activity was observed at the intra and peridomicillary sites. Overall, Ae. aegypti had a higher indirect biting rate than Ae. albopictus. Finally, due to its efficiency, simplicity, and low cost, we suggest the use of this innovative tool for entomological surveillance, bionomics and vector incrimination studies in geographical areas where dengue and other arboviruses are present.

  17. Susceptibility of Florida Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus to dengue viruses from Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Alto, Barry W; Smartt, Chelsea T; Shin, Dongyoung; Bettinardi, David; Malicoate, Jolene; Anderson, Sheri L; Richards, Stephanie L

    2014-12-01

    Locally acquired dengue cases in the continental U.S. are rare. However, outbreaks of dengue-1 during 2009, 2010, and 2013 in Florida and dengue-1 and -2 in Texas suggest vulnerability to transmission. Travel and commerce between Puerto Rico and the U.S. mainland is common, which may pose a risk for traveler-imported dengue cases. Mosquitoes were collected in Florida and used to evaluate their susceptibility to dengue viruses (DENV) from Puerto Rico. Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were susceptible to virus infection with DENV-1 and -2. No significant differences were observed in rates of midgut infection or dissemination between Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus for DENV-1 (6-14%). Aedes aegypti was significantly more susceptible to midgut infection with DENV-2 than Ae. albopictus (Ae. aegypti, ∼28%; Ae. albopictus, ∼9%). The dissemination rate with dengue-2 virus for Ae. aegypti (23%) was greater than Ae. albopictus (0%), suggesting that Ae. albopictus is not likely to be an important transmitter of the DENV-2 isolate from Puerto Rico. These results are discussed in light of Florida's vulnerability to DENV transmission.

  18. Importance of ecology in Aedes aegypti control.

    PubMed

    Service, M W

    1992-12-01

    Aedes aegypti is one of the world's most widely distributed mosquitos and is of considerable medical importance as a vector of dengue and yellow fever. Not surprisingly therefore there has been more written on its biology than any other mosquito. The present paper summarizes ecological studies undertaken on this vector, including those on pre-adult mortalities, life-tables, adult dispersal and survival rates. In discussing surveillance techniques it is pointed out there are still no reliable methods for monitoring adult populations. The importance of the resting habits of adults and house construction in insecticidal control of Ae. aegypti is discussed. The question is, have ecological studies and population modeling resulted in any more understanding of the epidemiology of dengue, or helped formulate better control strategies? The answer seems to be not usually, possible because there have actually been relatively few good ecological studies on Ae. aegypti. Although mathematical modeling indicates that better control might be achieved if it were directed at the larvae, not adults, this has not usually been taken into consideration by those engaged in control. There is clearly need for greater collaboration between those practicing control, and ecologists and modelers.

  19. Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... hernia called an omphalocele (when present) An enlarged tongue (macroglossia) An increased rate of tumor growth. Wilms ... eyelids ( Nevus flammeus ) Creases in ear lobes Large tongue (macroglossia) Low blood sugar Abdominal wall defect ( umbilical ...

  20. Mathematical model of temephos resistance in Aedes aegypti mosquito population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldila, D.; Nuraini, N.; Soewono, E.; Supriatna, A. K.

    2014-03-01

    Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue disease in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Dengue became major public concern in these countries due to the unavailability of vaccine or drugs for dengue disease in the market. Hence, the only way to control the spread of DF and DHF is by controlling the vectors carrying the disease, for instance with fumigation, temephos or genetic manipulation. Many previous studies conclude that Aedes aegypti may develop resistance to many kind of insecticide, including temephos. Mathematical model for transmission of temephos resistance in Aedes aegypti population is discussed in this paper. Nontrivial equilibrium point of the system and the corresponding existence are shown analytically. The model analysis have shown epidemiological trends condition that permits the coexistence of nontrivial equilibrium is given analytically. Numerical results are given to show parameter sensitivity and some cases of worsening effect values for illustrating possible conditions in the field.

  1. Effect of temperature on the population dynamics of Aedes aegypti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusoff, Nuraini; Tokachil, Mohd Najir

    2015-10-01

    Aedes aegypti is one of the main vectors in the transmission of dengue fever. Its abundance may cause the spread of the disease to be more intense. In the study of its biological life cycle, temperature was found to increase the development rate of each stage of this species and thus, accelerate the process of the development from egg to adult. In this paper, a Lefkovitch matrix model will be used to study the stage-structured population dynamics of Aedes aegypti. In constructing the transition matrix, temperature will be taken into account. As a case study, temperature recorded at the Subang Meteorological Station for year 2006 until 2010 will be used. Population dynamics of Aedes aegypti at maximum, average and minimum temperature for each year will be simulated and compared. It is expected that the higher the temperature, the faster the mosquito will breed. The result will be compared to the number of dengue fever incidences to see their relationship.

  2. Stage-Structured Population Dynamics of AEDES AEGYPTI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusoff, Nuraini; Budin, Harun; Ismail, Salemah

    Aedes aegypti is the main vector in the transmission of dengue fever, a vector-borne disease affecting world population living in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Better understanding of the dynamics of its population growth will help in the efforts of controlling the spread of this disease. In looking at the population dynamics of Aedes aegypti, this paper explored the stage-structured modeling of the population growth of the mosquito using the matrix population model. The life cycle of the mosquito was divided into five stages: eggs, larvae, pupae, adult1 and adult2. Developmental rates were obtained for the average Malaysian temperature and these were used in constructing the transition matrix for the matrix model. The model, which was based only on temperature, projected that the population of Aedes aegypti will blow up with time, which is not realistic. For further work, other factors need to be taken into account to obtain a more realistic result.

  3. Enhanced toxicity of binary mixtures of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and three essential oil major constituents to wild Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Chang, Kyu-Sik; Shin, E-Hyun; Yoo, Dae-Hyun; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2014-07-01

    An assessment was made of the toxicity of 12 insecticides and three essential oils as well as Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) alone or in combination with the oil major constituents (E)-anethole (AN), (E) -cinnamaldehyde (CA), and eugenol (EU; 1:1 ratio) to third instars of bamboo forest-collected Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and rice paddy field-collected Anopheles sinensis Wiedemann. An. sinensis larvae were resistant to various groups of the tested insecticides. Based on 24-h LC50 values, binary mixtures of Bti and CA, AN, or EU were significantly more toxic against Ae. albopictus larvae (0.0084, 0.0134, and 0.0237 mg/liter) and An. sinensis larvae (0.0159, 0.0388, and 0.0541 mg/liter) than either Bti (1.7884 and 2.1681 mg/liter) or CA (11.46 and 18.56 mg/liter), AN (16.66 and 25.11 mg/liter), or EU (24.60 and 31.09 mg/liter) alone. As judged by cotoxicity coefficient (CC) and synergistic factor (SF), the three binary mixtures operated in a synergy pattern (CC, 140.7-368.3 and SF, 0.0007-0.0010 for Ae. albopictus; CC, 75.1-245.3 and SF, 0.0008-0.0017 for An. sinensis). Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the aquatic environment justify further studies on the binary mixtures of Bti and essential oil constituents described, in particular CA, as potential larvicides for the control of malaria vector mosquito populations. PMID:25118412

  4. Familial 1.3-Mb 11p15.5p15.4 Duplication in Three Generations Causing Silver-Russell and Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Vals, Mari-Anne; Kahre, Tiina; Mee, Pille; Muru, Kai; Kallas, Eha; Žilina, Olga; Tillmann, Vallo; Õunap, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) are 2 opposite growth-affecting disorders. The common molecular cause for both syndromes is an abnormal regulation of genes in chromosomal region 11p15, where 2 imprinting control regions (ICR) control fetal and postnatal growth. Also, many submicroscopic chromosomal disturbances like duplications in 11p15 have been described among SRS and BWS patients. Duplications involving both ICRs cause SRS or BWS, depending on which parent the aberration is inherited from. We describe to our knowledge the smallest familial pure 1.3-Mb duplication in chromosomal region 11p15.5p15.4 that involves both ICRs and is present in 3 generations causing an SRS or BWS phenotype. PMID:26732610

  5. Field validation of the gravid Aedes trap (GAT) for collection of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Scott A; Buhagiar, Tamara S; Townsend, Michael; Hoffmann, Ary; Van Den Hurk, Andrew F; McMahon, Jamie L; Eiras, Alvaro E

    2014-01-01

    Current surveillance methods for adult Aedes aegypti (L.) are expensive, require electrical power (e.g., the BG-Sentinel trap, BGS), are labor intensive (aspirators), or require difficult to use and costly adhesives (sticky ovitraps). Field trials were conducted in Cairns (Australia) to compare the efficacy of the newly designed Gravid Aedes Trap (GAT) against existing sticky ovitraps (MosquiTRAP and double sticky ovitrap) and the BGS. Latin square design trials confirmed that alarge GAT using a 9.2-liters bucket treated with Mortein Barrier Outdoor Surface Spray ([AI] 0.3 g/kg imiprothrin and 0.6 g/kg deltamethrin) outperformed a smaller 1.2-liters GAT and collected, on average, 3.7x and 2.4X more female Ae. aegypti than the MosquiTRAP and double sticky ovitrap, respectively. Field trials showed that the GAT collected 10-50% less female Ae. aegypti than the BGS trap but 30% more gravid mosquitoes than the BGS. Trials using the BGS and the GAT indicated that there was no difference in capture rates between female Ae. aegypti uninfected and infected with the wMel strain of Wolbachia, and wMel infection rates were nearly identical at >90% to field captured Ae. aegypti. The potential for the GAT to be used for dengue virus surveillance was also demonstrated with dengue virus type 3 RNA detected in five-sixths and six-sixths pools ofAe. aegypti stored in a GAT held at 28 degreeC and 60% relative humidity for 7 and 14 d, respectively. Mosquito knock down in GATs treated with Mortein surface spray set in 30, 70, and 99% shade was comparable for up to 2 mo, with only approximately 10% of adults escaping. The GAT is therefore a useful tool for capturing adult Ae. aegypti and may be suitable for other container-inhabiting species such as Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The low cost and practicality of operation make the GAT suitable for vector surveillance and projects requiring monitoring of mosquitoes for Wolbachia and arboviruses, especially in

  6. Field validation of the gravid Aedes trap (GAT) for collection of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Scott A; Buhagiar, Tamara S; Townsend, Michael; Hoffmann, Ary; Van Den Hurk, Andrew F; McMahon, Jamie L; Eiras, Alvaro E

    2014-01-01

    Current surveillance methods for adult Aedes aegypti (L.) are expensive, require electrical power (e.g., the BG-Sentinel trap, BGS), are labor intensive (aspirators), or require difficult to use and costly adhesives (sticky ovitraps). Field trials were conducted in Cairns (Australia) to compare the efficacy of the newly designed Gravid Aedes Trap (GAT) against existing sticky ovitraps (MosquiTRAP and double sticky ovitrap) and the BGS. Latin square design trials confirmed that alarge GAT using a 9.2-liters bucket treated with Mortein Barrier Outdoor Surface Spray ([AI] 0.3 g/kg imiprothrin and 0.6 g/kg deltamethrin) outperformed a smaller 1.2-liters GAT and collected, on average, 3.7x and 2.4X more female Ae. aegypti than the MosquiTRAP and double sticky ovitrap, respectively. Field trials showed that the GAT collected 10-50% less female Ae. aegypti than the BGS trap but 30% more gravid mosquitoes than the BGS. Trials using the BGS and the GAT indicated that there was no difference in capture rates between female Ae. aegypti uninfected and infected with the wMel strain of Wolbachia, and wMel infection rates were nearly identical at >90% to field captured Ae. aegypti. The potential for the GAT to be used for dengue virus surveillance was also demonstrated with dengue virus type 3 RNA detected in five-sixths and six-sixths pools ofAe. aegypti stored in a GAT held at 28 degreeC and 60% relative humidity for 7 and 14 d, respectively. Mosquito knock down in GATs treated with Mortein surface spray set in 30, 70, and 99% shade was comparable for up to 2 mo, with only approximately 10% of adults escaping. The GAT is therefore a useful tool for capturing adult Ae. aegypti and may be suitable for other container-inhabiting species such as Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The low cost and practicality of operation make the GAT suitable for vector surveillance and projects requiring monitoring of mosquitoes for Wolbachia and arboviruses, especially in

  7. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sames, W J; Bueno, R; Hayes, J; Olson, J K

    1996-09-01

    In response to a potential dengue fever outbreak in south Texas during 1995, the susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus to commonly used mosquito adulticides were assessed. Larvae collected from the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas and Mexico were reared to adults and tested against susceptible laboratory strains at Texas A&M University. Resistance ratios at both the LC50 and LC95 rates were all less than 10, indicating that adult populations of both species are still susceptible to malathion, chlorpyrifos, resmethrin, and permethrin.

  8. Burchellin: study of bioactivity against Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 is a widespread insect pest of serious medical importance. Since no effective vaccine is available for treating dengue, the eradication or control of the main mosquito vector is regarded as essential. Since conventional insecticides have limited success, plants may be an alternative source of larvicidal agents, since they contain a rich source of bioactive chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of the neolignan burchellin isolated from Ocotea cymbarum (Lauraceae), a plant from the Amazon region, against third instar larvae of A. aegypti. Methods Burchellin obtained from O. cymbarum was analyzed. The inhibitory activity against A. aegypti eggs and larvae and histological changes in the digestive system of treated L3 larvae were evaluated. In addition, nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide levels were determined, and cytotoxicity bioassays performed. Results The data showed that burchellin interfered with the development cycle of the mosquito, where its strongest toxic effect was 100% mortality in larvae (L3) at concentrations ≥ 30 ppm. This compound did not show target cell toxicity in peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice, and proved to have molecular stability when dissolved in water. The L3 and L4 larvae treated with the compound showed cellular destruction and disorganization, cell spacing, and vacuolization of epithelial cells in small regions of the midgut. Conclusion The neolignan burchellin proved to be a strong candidate for a natural, safe and stable phytolarvicidal to be used in population control of A. aegypti. PMID:24713267

  9. Differential Susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to Zika Virus

    PubMed Central

    Vazeille, Marie; Yebakima, André; Girod, Romain; Goindin, Daniella; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2016-01-01

    Background Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV) causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe), North America (southern United States), South America (Brazil, French Guiana) for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Methodology/Principal Findings Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132). Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28°±1°C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25–30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen), heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level. Conclusions/Significance This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak. PMID:26938868

  10. Urban Mosquito Fauna in Mérida City, México: Immatures Collected from Containers and Storm-water Drains/Catch Basins.

    PubMed

    Baak-Baak, Carlos M; Arana-Guardia, Roger; Cigarroa-Toledo, Nohemi; Puc-Tinal, María; Coba-Tún, Carlos; Rivero-Osorno, Víctor; Lavalle-Kantun, Damián; Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe C; Beaty, Barry J; Eisen, Lars; García-Rejón, Julián E

    2014-06-01

    We examined the species composition and temporal occurrence of immature mosquitoes in containers and storm-water drains/catch basins from November 2011 to June 2013 in Mérida City, México. A wide range of urban settings were examined, including residential premises, vacant lots, parking lots, and streets or sidewalks with storm-water drains/catch basins. In total, 111,776 specimens of 15 species were recorded. The most commonly collected species were Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) (n = 60,961) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (45,702), which together accounted for 95.4% of the immatures collected. These species were commonly encountered during both rainy and dry seasons, whereas most other mosquito species were collected primarily during the rainy season. Other species collected were Aedes (Howardina) cozumelensis Diaz Najera, Aedes (Ochlerotatus) taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann), Aedes (Ochlerotatus) trivittatus (Coquillett), Culex coronator Dyar and Knab, Culex interrogator Dyar and Knab, Culex lactator Dyar and Knab, Culex nigripalpus Theobald, Culex salinarius Coquillett, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, Culex thriambus Dyar, Haemagogus equinus Theobald, Limatus durhamii Theobald, and Toxorhynchites rutilus (Coquillett). The greatest number of species was recorded from vacant lots (n = 11), followed by storm-water drains/catch basins (nine) and residential premises (six). Our study demonstrated that the heterogeneous urban environment in Mérida City supports a wide range of mosquito species, many of which are nuisance biters of humans and/or capable of serving as vectors of pathogens affecting humans or domestic animals. We also briefly reviewed the medical importance of the encountered mosquito species.

  11. Cytochromr b expression and RNAi knockdown in Aedes aegypti.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cytochrome b, coded by mitochondrial DNA, is one of the cytochromes involved in the electron transport in the respiratory chain of mitochondria. Cytochrome b is a critical intermediate in mitoptosis, i.e. a mitochondrial death pathway. To reveal whether cytochrome b of the mosquito Aedes aegypti (Ae...

  12. Area-wide management of Aedes albopictus: lessons learned.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, is the principal vector of chikungunya fever and a critical vector of dengue. This daytime biting pest often causes the majority of service requests from urban and suburban residents in New Jersey and many other states and nations where it has spread. Ou...

  13. Pyrethroid resistance is widespread among Florida populations of Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aedes aegypti is an efficient vector of a number of diseases that affect man and is of increasing concern because of the reemergence of dengue and recent identification of locally acquired chikungunya in Florida. Pesticide resistance in this species has been demonstrated in several neighboring coun...

  14. Reappearance of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Andrade, C S; Cáceres, A G; Vaquerizo, A; Ibañez-Bernal, S; Cachay, L S

    2001-07-01

    We report here the reappearance of Aedes aegypti in the Rimac district, and summarize the history of this mosquito species in Peru since its first detection in 1852. On March 17 2000 were found Ae. aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Mariscal Castilla town, Flor de Amancaes, San Juan de Amancaes, El Altillo and Santa Rosa in the Rimac district, Lima Province. PMID:11500764

  15. USDA Research on New Strategies for Controlling Aedes aegypti.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA researchers are currently studying new methods to control Aedes aegypti. One involves molecular pesticides which target critical genes/proteins (such as inhibitors of apoptosis proteins, IAPs) in mosquitoes using RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi constructs are evaluated in vivo in adult mosquito...

  16. First Record of Aedes albopictus in Sinaloa, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Torres-Avendaño, Jose I; Castillo-Ureta, Hipolito; Torres-Montoya, Edith H; Meza-Carrillo, Elizabeth; Lopez-Mendoza, Reyna L; Vazquez-Martinez, Maria G; Rendon-Maldonado, Jose G

    2015-06-01

    We report here the discovery of Aedes albopictus for the first time in Sinaloa state, Mexico. The mosquito larvae were collected from small water containers in the urban area of Culiacan city, Sinaloa state. Identification of the species was done primarily by morphology, followed by confirmation with polymerase-chain-reaction-based molecular method.

  17. A review on symmetries for certain Aedes aegypti models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, Igor Leite; Torrisi, Mariano

    2015-04-01

    We summarize our results related with mathematical modeling of Aedes aegypti and its Lie symmetries. Moreover, some explicit, group-invariant solutions are also shown. Weak equivalence transformations of more general reaction diffusion systems are also considered. New classes of solutions are obtained.

  18. Truck-mounted area-wide application of pyriproxyfen targeting Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in northeast Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of truck-mounted ULV applications of pyriproxyfen against Aedes aegypti larvae in artificial water containers and wild adult Ae. albopictus populations in an urban setting. The study was conducted over a 3 ½ month period (Jun – Oct 2012), during wh...

  19. A novel multiple membrane blood-feeding system for investigating and maintaining Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yi-Pey

    2014-12-01

    A novel multiple membrane blood-feeding system for mosquitoes has been developed for the study and routine maintenance of Aedes aegypti L. and Aedes albopictus Skuse that require a meal of vertebrate blood to produce eggs. This blood-feeding system uses cattle collagen sausage-casing membrane to facilitate feeding. The efficiency of this blood-feeding system was compared to a live mice blood source. We observed that Ae. aegypti that fed on pig whole blood had 89.7% (w/o ATP) and 90.7% (w/ ATP) blood-feeding rates, which were not significantly different from the mice-fed ones (98.0%). Ae. albopictus fed on pig whole blood (w/ ATP) had a success rate of 84.4%, which was significantly different from the mice-fed mosquitoes (51.1%). The feeding rates did not differ between sausage-casing membrane and Parafilm-M(®). The survival rate, fecundity, pupation, and pupal emergence rates of Aedes females fed on pig whole blood were not significantly different from the mice-fed ones. The artificial blood feeder can be applied to replace live animals as blood sources. Considering that this simple, inexpensive, convenient, and efficient feeding device can be built with common laboratory materials for research on Aedes mosquitoes.

  20. The effect of photoperiod on life history and blood-feeding activity in Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Costanzo, K S; Schelble, S; Jerz, K; Keenan, M

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have examined how climatic variables such as temperature and precipitation may affect life history traits in mosquitoes that are important to disease transmission. Despite its importance as a seasonal cue in nature, studies investigating the influence of photoperiod on such traits are relatively few. This study aims to investigate how photoperiod alters life history traits, survival, and blood-feeding activity in Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus). We performed three experiments that tested the effects of day length on female survival, development time, adult size, fecundity, adult life span, and propensity to blood feed in Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti. Each experiment had three photoperiod treatments: 1) short-day (10L:14D), 2) control (12L:12D), and 3) long-day (14L:10D). Aedes albopictus adult females were consistently larger in size when reared in short-day conditions. Aedes aegypti adult females from short-day treatments lived longer and were more likely to take a blood meal compared to other treatments. We discuss how species-specific responses may reflect alternative strategies evolved to increase survival during unfavorable conditions. We review the potential impacts of these responses on seasonal transmission patterns, such as potentially increasing vectorial capacity of Ae. aegypti during periods of shorter day lengths.

  1. [Effect of lethal ovitrap on the longevity of females of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)].

    PubMed

    Gama, Renata Antonaci; Eiras, Alvaro Eduardo; Resende, Marcelo Carvalho de

    2007-01-01

    Oviposition traps with added insecticide may work as a new method for controlling the females of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Females of Aedes aegypti were placed in contact with lethal ovitraps with aging. The mortality rate ranged from 60.3% to 100%. The effect of aging the slats impregnated with deltamethrin was significant in relation to the percentage mortality among Aedes aegypti females. PMID:18200416

  2. Biogeography of the two major arbovirus mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae), in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the past ten years, the Indian Ocean region has been the theatre of severe epidemics of chikungunya and dengue. These outbreaks coincided with a high increase in populations of Aedes albopictus that outcompete its sister taxon Aedes aegypti in most islands sampled. The objective of this work was to update the entomological survey of the two Aedes species in the island of Madagascar which has to face these arboviroses. Methods The sampling of Aedes mosquitoes was conducted during two years, from October 2007 to October 2009, in fifteen localities from eight regions of contrasting climates. Captured adults were identified immediately whereas immature stages were bred until adult stage for determination. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using two mtDNA genes, COI and ND5 and trees were constructed by the maximum likelihood (ML) method with the gene time reversible (GTR) model. Experimental infections with the chikungunya virus strain 06.21 at a titer of 107.5 pfu/mL were performed to evaluate the vector competence of field-collected mosquitoes. Disseminated infection rates were measured fourteen days after infection by immunofluorescence assay performed on head squashes. Results The species Aedes aegypti was detected in only six sites in native forests and natural reserves. In contrast, the species Aedes albopictus was found in 13 out of the 15 sites sampled. Breeding sites were mostly found in man-made environments such as discarded containers, used tires, abandoned buckets, coconuts, and bamboo cuts. Linear regression models showed that the abundance of Ae. albopictus was significantly influenced by the sampling region (F = 62.00, p < 2.2 × 10-16) and period (F = 36.22, p = 2.548 × 10-13), that are associated with ecological and climate variations. Phylogenetic analysis of the invasive Ae. albopictus distinguished haplotypes from South Asia and South America from those of Madagascar, but the markers used were not discriminant enough to discern

  3. Vector Competence of French Polynesian Aedes aegypti and Aedes polynesiensis for Zika Virus

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Vaea; Paoaafaite, Tuterarii; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2013–2014, French Polynesia experienced for the first time a Zika outbreak. Two Aedes mosquitoes may have contributed to Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission in French Polynesia: the worldwide distributed Ae. aegypti and the Polynesian islands-endemic Ae. polynesiensis mosquito. Methodology/Principal Findings To evaluate their vector competence for ZIKV, mosquitoes were infected per os at viral titers of 7 logs tissue culture infectious dose 50%. At several days post-infection (dpi), saliva was collected from each mosquito and inoculated onto C6/36 mosquito cells to check for the presence of ZIKV infectious particles. Legs and body of each mosquito were also collected and submitted separately to RNA extraction and ZIKV RT-PCR. In Ae. aegypti the infection rate was high as early as 6 dpi and the dissemination efficiency get substantial from 9 dpi while the both rates remained quite low in Ae. polynesiensis. The transmission efficiency was poor in Ae. aegypti until 14 dpi and no infectious saliva was found in Ae. polynesiensis at the time points studied. Conclusions/Significance In our experimental conditions, the late ability of the French Polynesian Ae. aegypti to transmit ZIKV added by the poor competence of Ae. polynesiensis for this virus suggest the possible contribution of another vector for the propagation of ZIKV during the outbreak, in particular in remote islands where Ae. polynesiensis is predominating. PMID:27654962

  4. Proteomic identification of dengue virus binding proteins in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and Aedes albopictus cells.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Maria de Lourdes; Limón-Camacho, Gustavo; Tovar, Rosalinda; Diaz-Badillo, Alvaro; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Black, William C

    2013-01-01

    The main vector of dengue in America is the mosquito Aedes aegypti, which is infected by dengue virus (DENV) through receptors of midgut epithelial cells. The envelope protein (E) of dengue virus binds to receptors present on the host cells through its domain III that has been primarily recognized to bind cell receptors. In order to identify potential receptors, proteins from mosquito midgut tissue and C6/36 cells were purified by affinity using columns with the recombinant E protein domain III (rE-DIII) or DENV particles bound covalently to Sepharose 4B to compare and evaluate their performance to bind proteins including putative receptors from female mosquitoes of Ae. aegypti. To determine their identity mass spectrometric analysis of purified proteins separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed. Our results indicate that both viral particles and rE-DIII bound proteins with the same apparent molecular weights of 57 and 67 kDa. In addition, viral particles bound high molecular weight proteins. Purified proteins identified were enolase, beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (beta-ARK), translation elongation factor EF-1 alpha/Tu, and cadherin. PMID:24324976

  5. Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and dengue in Argentina: current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Vezzani, Darío; Carbajo, Aníbal E

    2008-02-01

    Since the reinfestation of South American countries by Ae. aegypti, dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) have become a major public health concern. The aim of this paper was to review the information related with Aedes vectors and dengue in Argentina since the reintroduction of Ae. aegypti in 1986. The geographic distribution of Ae. albopictus is restricted to the Northeast, and that of Ae. aegypti has expanded towards the South and the West in comparison with the records during the eradication campaign in the 1960s. Since 1998, 4,718 DF cases have been reported concentrated in the provinces of Salta, Formosa, Misiones, Jujuy and Corrientes. Despite the circulation of three dengue virus serotypes (DENV-1, -2 and -3) in the North of the country, DHF has not occurred until the present. The information published over the last two decades regarding mosquito abundance, temporal variations, habitat characteristics, competition, and chemical and biological control, was reviewed. Considering the available information, issues pending in Argentina are discussed. The presence of three DENV, the potential spread of Ae. albopictus, and the predicted climate change suggest that dengue situation will get worse in the region. Research efforts should be increased in the Northern provinces, where DHF is currently an actual risk.

  6. EFFICACY OF THAI NEEM OIL AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTI (L.) LARVAE.

    PubMed

    Silapanuntakul, Suthep; Keanjoom, Romnalin; Pandii, Wongdyan; Boonchuen, Supawadee; Sombatsiri, Kwanchai

    2016-05-01

    Trees with larvicidal activity may be found in Thailand. We conducted this study to evaluate the efficacy and length of efficacy of Thai neem (Azadirachta siamensis) oil emulsion and an alginate bead of Thai neem oil formulation against early fourth stage Aedes aegypti larvae using a dipping test. The Thai neem oil emulsion had significantly greater larvicidal activity than the alginate bead formulation at 12 to 60 hours post-exposure (p < 0.01). The Thai neem oil formulation resulted in 100% mortality among the early fourth stage Aedes aegypti larvae at 48 hours, while the alginate bead formulation resulted in 98% larval mortality at 84 hours and 100% mortality at 96 hours. The mean larval mortality using the Thai neem oil emulsion dropped to < 25% by 12 days and with the alginate beads dropped to < 25% by 15 days of exposure.

  7. Identification of germline transcriptional regulatory elements in Aedes aegypti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Omar S.; Papathanos, Philippos A.; Sandler, Jeremy E.; Kennedy, Katie; Hay, Bruce A.

    2014-02-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the principal vector for the yellow fever and dengue viruses, and is also responsible for recent outbreaks of the alphavirus chikungunya. Vector control strategies utilizing engineered gene drive systems are being developed as a means of replacing wild, pathogen transmitting mosquitoes with individuals refractory to disease transmission, or bringing about population suppression. Several of these systems, including Medea, UDMEL, and site-specific nucleases, which can be used to drive genes into populations or bring about population suppression, utilize transcriptional regulatory elements that drive germline-specific expression. Here we report the identification of multiple regulatory elements able to drive gene expression specifically in the female germline, or in the male and female germline, in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. These elements can also be used as tools with which to probe the roles of specific genes in germline function and in the early embryo, through overexpression or RNA interference.

  8. Identification of germline transcriptional regulatory elements in Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Omar S; Papathanos, Philippos A; Sandler, Jeremy E; Kennedy, Katie; Hay, Bruce A

    2014-02-04

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the principal vector for the yellow fever and dengue viruses, and is also responsible for recent outbreaks of the alphavirus chikungunya. Vector control strategies utilizing engineered gene drive systems are being developed as a means of replacing wild, pathogen transmitting mosquitoes with individuals refractory to disease transmission, or bringing about population suppression. Several of these systems, including Medea, UD(MEL), and site-specific nucleases, which can be used to drive genes into populations or bring about population suppression, utilize transcriptional regulatory elements that drive germline-specific expression. Here we report the identification of multiple regulatory elements able to drive gene expression specifically in the female germline, or in the male and female germline, in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. These elements can also be used as tools with which to probe the roles of specific genes in germline function and in the early embryo, through overexpression or RNA interference.

  9. EFFICACY OF THAI NEEM OIL AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTI (L.) LARVAE.

    PubMed

    Silapanuntakul, Suthep; Keanjoom, Romnalin; Pandii, Wongdyan; Boonchuen, Supawadee; Sombatsiri, Kwanchai

    2016-05-01

    Trees with larvicidal activity may be found in Thailand. We conducted this study to evaluate the efficacy and length of efficacy of Thai neem (Azadirachta siamensis) oil emulsion and an alginate bead of Thai neem oil formulation against early fourth stage Aedes aegypti larvae using a dipping test. The Thai neem oil emulsion had significantly greater larvicidal activity than the alginate bead formulation at 12 to 60 hours post-exposure (p < 0.01). The Thai neem oil formulation resulted in 100% mortality among the early fourth stage Aedes aegypti larvae at 48 hours, while the alginate bead formulation resulted in 98% larval mortality at 84 hours and 100% mortality at 96 hours. The mean larval mortality using the Thai neem oil emulsion dropped to < 25% by 12 days and with the alginate beads dropped to < 25% by 15 days of exposure. PMID:27405123

  10. French Aedes albopictus are able to transmit yellow fever virus

    PubMed Central

    Amraoui, Fadila; Vazeille, Marie; Failloux, Anna Bella

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the ability of a French population of Aedes albopictus to transmit yellow fever virus (YFV). Batches of 30 to 40 female mosquitoes were analysed at 7, 14 and 21 days post-exposure (dpe). Bodies, heads and saliva were screened for YFV. Infectious viral particles were detected in bodies and heads at 7, 14 and 21 dpe whereas the virus was found in saliva only from 14 dpe. Our results showed that Ae. albopictus can potentially transmit YFV. PMID:27719755

  11. Intraspecific Competition and Population Dynamics of Aedes aegypti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paixão, C. A.; Charret, I. C.; Lima, R. R.

    2012-04-01

    We report computational simulations for the evolution of the population of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The results suggest that controlling the mosquito population, on the basis of intraspecific competition at the larval stage, can be an efficient mechanism for controlling the spread of the epidemic. The results also show the presence of a kind of genetic evolution in vector population, which results mainly in increasing the average lifespan of individuals in adulthood.

  12. Similarity solutions for systems arising from an Aedes aegypti model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, Igor Leite; Torrisi, Mariano

    2014-04-01

    In a recent paper a new model for the Aedes aegypti mosquito dispersal dynamics was proposed and its Lie point symmetries were investigated. According to the carried group classification, the maximal symmetry Lie algebra of the nonlinear cases is reached whenever the advection term vanishes. In this work we analyze the family of systems obtained when the wind effects on the proposed model are neglected. Wide new classes of solutions to the systems under consideration are obtained.

  13. Interspecific Cross-Mating Between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Laboratory Strains: Implication of Population Density on Mating Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Marcela, P; Hassan, A Abu; Hamdan, A; Dieng, H; Kumara, T K

    2015-12-01

    Mating behavior between Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, established colony strains were examined under laboratory conditions (30-cm(3) screened cages) for 5 consecutive days. The effect of selected male densities (30, 20, 10) and female density (20) on the number of swarming, mating pairs, eggs produced, and inseminated females were evaluated. Male densities significantly increased swarming behavior, mating pairs, and egg production of heterospecific females, but female insemination was reduced. Aedes aegypti males mate more readily with heterospecific females than do Ae. albopictus males. The current study suggests that Ae. aegypti males were not species-specific in mating, and if released into the field as practiced in genetically modified mosquito techniques, they may mate with both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus females, hence reducing populations of both species by producing infertile eggs.

  14. Evaluation of Insect Growth Regulators Against Field-Collected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lau, Koon Weng; Chen, Chee Dhang; Lee, Han Lim; Norma-Rashid, Yusoff; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2015-03-01

    Susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse larvae obtained from 12 states in Malaysia were evaluated against five insect growth regulators (IGRs), namely, pyriproxyfen, methoprene, diflubenzuron, cyromazine, and novaluron under laboratory conditions. Field populations of Ae. aegypti exhibited moderate resistance toward methoprene and low resistance toward pyriproxyfen, with resistance ratios of 12.7 and 1.4, respectively, but susceptibility to diflubenzuron, cyromazine, and novaluron. On the other hand, field populations of Ae. albopictus exhibited low resistance against diflubenzuron and novaluron, with resistance ratio of 2.1 and 1.0, respectively, but susceptibility to other tested IGRs. Our study concluded that the tested IGRs provide promising results and can be used to control field population of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, especially cyromazine. The use of IGR should be considered as an alternative when larvae develop resistance to conventional insecticides.

  15. EMQN best practice guidelines for the molecular genetic testing and reporting of chromosome 11p15 imprinting disorders: Silver-Russell and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

    PubMed

    Eggermann, Katja; Bliek, Jet; Brioude, Frédéric; Algar, Elizabeth; Buiting, Karin; Russo, Silvia; Tümer, Zeynep; Monk, David; Moore, Gudrun; Antoniadi, Thalia; Macdonald, Fiona; Netchine, Irène; Lombardi, Paolo; Soellner, Lukas; Begemann, Matthias; Prawitt, Dirk; Maher, Eamonn R; Mannens, Marcel; Riccio, Andrea; Weksberg, Rosanna; Lapunzina, Pablo; Grønskov, Karen; Mackay, Deborah Jg; Eggermann, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Molecular genetic testing for the 11p15-associated imprinting disorders Silver-Russell and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (SRS, BWS) is challenging because of the molecular heterogeneity and complexity of the affected imprinted regions. With the growing knowledge on the molecular basis of these disorders and the demand for molecular testing, it turned out that there is an urgent need for a standardized molecular diagnostic testing and reporting strategy. Based on the results from the first external pilot quality assessment schemes organized by the European Molecular Quality Network (EMQN) in 2014 and in context with activities of the European Network of Imprinting Disorders (EUCID.net) towards a consensus in diagnostics and management of SRS and BWS, best practice guidelines have now been developed. Members of institutions working in the field of SRS and BWS diagnostics were invited to comment, and in the light of their feedback amendments were made. The final document was ratified in the course of an EMQN best practice guideline meeting and is in accordance with the general SRS and BWS consensus guidelines, which are in preparation. These guidelines are based on the knowledge acquired from peer-reviewed and published data, as well as observations of the authors in their practice. However, these guidelines can only provide a snapshot of current knowledge at the time of manuscript submission and readers are advised to keep up with the literature.

  16. Non-random X chromosome inactivation in an affected twin in a monozygotic twin pair discordant for Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Oestavik, R.E.; Eiklid, K.; Oerstavik, K.H.

    1995-03-27

    Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome (WBS) is a syndrome including exomphalos, macroglossia, and generalized overgrowth. The locus has been assigned to 11p15, and genomic imprinting may play a part in the expression of one or more genes involved. Most cases are sporadic. An excess of female monozygotic twins discordant for WBS have been reported, and it has been proposed that this excess could be related to the process of X chromosome inactivation. We have therefore studied X chromosome inactivation in 13-year-old monozygotic twin girls who were discordant for WBS. In addition, both twins had Tourette syndrome. The twins were monochorionic and therefore the result of a late twinning process. This has also been the case in previously reported discordant twin pairs with information on placentation. X chromosome inactivation was determined in DNA from peripheral blood cells by PCR analysis at the androgen receptor locus. The affected twin had a completely skewed X inactivation, where the paternal allele was on the active X chromosome in all cells. The unaffected twin had a moderately skewed X inactivation in the same direction, whereas the mother had a random pattern. Further studies are necessary to establish a possible association between the expression of WBS and X chromosome inactivation. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Influence of soil temperature and moisture on the infectivity of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae, Steinernematidae) against larvae of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Rohde, Cristhiane; Moino, Alcides; Silva, Marco A T da; Carvalho, Fabiano D; Ferreira, Cleidson S

    2010-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is considered one of the main pests that affect fruit production in the world. This insect spends part of its life cycle in the soil, making it a target for entomopathogenic nematodes. This work aimed at evaluating the influence of soil temperature and moisture on the infectivity of Heterorhabditis sp. RSC01 and Steinernema carpocapsae ALL to third-instars of C. capitata, and to compare the efficiency of these isolates at five different soil temperatures (19, 22, 25, 28, and 31°C) and three levels of relative soil moisture (100, 75, and 50% of field capacity). Ten C. capitata larvae were transferred to plastic jars (12 cm × 6 cm) containing 100 g soil, followed by the application of an aqueous suspension containing 125 infective juveniles (IJ)/cm². In the control treatment, 3 ml of distilled water was applied. Mortality evaluations were made five days later and were confirmed by observations of the characteristic symptoms and cadaver dissection. The infectivity was directly proportional to temperature increase, with maximum percent mortality of 86.7% and 80.0% for S. carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis sp., respectively, at 31°C. At 25°C, the highest mortality for both species was obtained at 75% of field capacity (96.7% and 26.7% for S. carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis sp., respectively).

  18. Chromosome 11 segmental paternal isodisomy in amniocytes from two fetuses with omphalocoele: new highlights on phenotype–genotype correlations in Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Grati, F R; Turolla, L; D'Ajello, P; Ruggeri, A; Miozzo, M; Bracalente, G; Baldo, D; Laurino, L; Boldorini, R; Frate, E; Surico, N; Larizza, L; Maggi, F; Simoni, G

    2007-01-01

    Background The phenotypic variability in Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) reflects the genetic heterogeneity of the mechanism which by default leads to the deregulation of genes located at 11p15.5. Genotype–phenotype correlation studies have demonstrated an association between omphalocoele and CDKN1C/p57 mutations or hypermethylation. Paternal uniparental disomy 11 (pUPD11) has been described only in the mosaic condition with both uniparental and biparental cell lines, and no association with omphalocoele has been pointed out. Methods Two cases are presented here, in which a paternal segmental UPD11 was detected by molecular investigation of amniotic fluid cell cultures after the presence of apparently isolated omphalocoele was revealed in the fetuses by ultrasound scan. Further studies were performed on additional autoptic feto‐placental tissues to characterise the distribution of the uniparental cell line and to unmask any biparental lineage in order to document in more detail the as yet unreported association between omphalocoele and pUPD11. Results Results on the UPD distribution profile showed that the abdominal organs have a predominant uniparental constitution. This condition could mimic the effect of CDKN1C/p57 inactivation, causing the omphalocoele. Conclusion New genotype–phenotype correlations emerge from the investigated cases, suggesting that molecular analysis be extended to all cases with fetal omphalocoele in order to establish the incidence of pUPD11 in complete BWS and in monosymptomatic/mild forms. PMID:17259293

  19. Wiedemann-Franz law and nonvanishing temperature scale across the field-tuned quantum critical point of YbRh2Si2

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, J.-Ph.; Tanatar, Makariy; Daou, R.; Hu, Rongwei; Petrovic, C.; Taillefer, Louis

    2014-01-23

    The in-plane thermal conductivity kappa and electrical resistivity rho of the heavy-fermion metal YbRh2Si2 were measured down to 50 mK for magnetic fields H parallel and perpendicular to the tetragonal c axis, through the field-tuned quantum critical point H-c, at which antiferromagnetic order ends. The thermal and electrical resistivities, w L0T/kappa and rho, show a linear temperature dependence below 1 K, typical of the non-Fermi-liquid behavior found near antiferromagnetic quantum critical points, but this dependence does not persist down to T = 0. Below a characteristic temperature T-star similar or equal to 0.35 K, which depends weakly on H, w(T) and rho(T) both deviate downward and converge as T -> 0. We propose that T-star marks the onset of short-range magnetic correlations, persisting beyond H-c. By comparing samples of different purity, we conclude that the Wiedemann-Franz law holds in YbRh2Si2, even at H-c, implying that no fundamental breakdown of quasiparticle behavior occurs in this material. The overall phenomenology of heat and charge transport in YbRh2Si2 is similar to that observed in the heavy-fermion metal CeCoIn5, near its own field-tuned quantum critical point.

  20. EMQN best practice guidelines for the molecular genetic testing and reporting of chromosome 11p15 imprinting disorders: Silver–Russell and Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Eggermann, Katja; Bliek, Jet; Brioude, Frédéric; Algar, Elizabeth; Buiting, Karin; Russo, Silvia; Tümer, Zeynep; Monk, David; Moore, Gudrun; Antoniadi, Thalia; Macdonald, Fiona; Netchine, Irène; Lombardi, Paolo; Soellner, Lukas; Begemann, Matthias; Prawitt, Dirk; Maher, Eamonn R; Mannens, Marcel; Riccio, Andrea; Weksberg, Rosanna; Lapunzina, Pablo; Grønskov, Karen; Mackay, Deborah JG; Eggermann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Molecular genetic testing for the 11p15-associated imprinting disorders Silver–Russell and Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome (SRS, BWS) is challenging because of the molecular heterogeneity and complexity of the affected imprinted regions. With the growing knowledge on the molecular basis of these disorders and the demand for molecular testing, it turned out that there is an urgent need for a standardized molecular diagnostic testing and reporting strategy. Based on the results from the first external pilot quality assessment schemes organized by the European Molecular Quality Network (EMQN) in 2014 and in context with activities of the European Network of Imprinting Disorders (EUCID.net) towards a consensus in diagnostics and management of SRS and BWS, best practice guidelines have now been developed. Members of institutions working in the field of SRS and BWS diagnostics were invited to comment, and in the light of their feedback amendments were made. The final document was ratified in the course of an EMQN best practice guideline meeting and is in accordance with the general SRS and BWS consensus guidelines, which are in preparation. These guidelines are based on the knowledge acquired from peer-reviewed and published data, as well as observations of the authors in their practice. However, these guidelines can only provide a snapshot of current knowledge at the time of manuscript submission and readers are advised to keep up with the literature. PMID:27165005

  1. Composition and anti-insect activity of essential oils from Tagetes L. species (Asteraceae, Helenieae) on Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann and Triatoma infestans Klug.

    PubMed

    López, Sandra B; López, María L; Aragón, Liliana M; Tereschuk, María L; Slanis, Alberto C; Feresin, Gabriela E; Zygadlo, Julio A; Tapia, Alejandro A

    2011-05-25

    Essential oils from four species of the genus Tagetes L. (Asteraceae, Helenieae) collected in Tucumán province, Argentina, were evaluated for their chemical composition, toxicity, and olfactory activity on Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann adults and for repellent properties on Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Chagas disease vector). Yields of essential oils range from 0.2 to 0.8% (v/w). The same main constituents among Tagetes minuta L., Tagestes rupestris Cabrera, and Tagetes terniflora Kunth, (cis-trans)-ocimenes, (cis-trans)-tagetones, and (cis-trans)-ocimenones showed important differences in their relative compositions. Tagetes filifolia Lag. was characterized by the recognized phenylpropanoids methylchavicol and trans-anethole as the main components. LD(50) was ≤20 μg/insect in topical bioassays. T. rupestris was the most toxic to C. capitata females, whereas the other oils presented similar toxicities against males and females. Tagetes rupestris oil attracted both sexes of C. capitata at 5 μg, whereas T. minuta showed opposite activities between males (attractant) and females (repellent). Oils from T. minuta and T. filifolia were the most repellent to T. infestans. The results suggest that compositions of essential oils influence their insecticidal and olfactory properties. The essential oils from Tagetes species show an important potential as infochemical agents on insects' behaviors. This study highlights the chemical variability of essential oils as a source of variation of anti-insect properties. PMID:21469658

  2. Oviposition Behavior in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Response to the Presence of Heterospecific and Conspecific Larvae.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Paula V; González Audino, Paola A; Masuh, Héctor M

    2016-03-01

    In mosquitoes, location of suitable sites for oviposition requires a set of visual, tactile, and olfactory cues that influences females before laying their eggs. The ability of gravid females to distinguish among potential oviposition sites that will or will not support the growth, development, and survival of their progeny is critical. Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) share ecological niches, being highly competitive in larval stage. We studied the oviposition behavior of both species in the presence of larvae of one or the other species (heterospecific or conspecific larvae). The number of eggs laid by gravid females on oviposition sites (water with different or the same species of Aedes larvae) were compared. The presence and density of heterospecific or conspecific larvae had a positive or negative effect on the ovipositional responses, measured as an oviposition activity index. For both species, the oviposition was not affected by heterospecific larvae with densities between 10 and 100 larvae in water, but a strong attractant behavior was observed for a density of 500 larvae in water. For Ae. albopictus in the presence of larvae of the same species (conspecific oviposition), we observed an attractant effect for larvae density of 10 but not for 100 or 500 larvae in water. Instead, for Ae. aegypti, we observed attraction only for 100 larvae, not for 10 or 500 larvae. Results presented here provide an additional insight about oviposition behavior responses of gravid females in the presence of conspecific and heterospecific larvae in breeding sites. PMID:26634825

  3. Long-term surveillance data and patterns of invasion by Aedes albopictus in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used GIS and long-term mosquito surveillance data from Lake County, Pasco County, Manatee County, and Sarasota County, Florida to look at patterns of invasion by Aedes albopictus with respect to changes in populations of resident Aedes aegypti. We investigated associations of rainfall with chang...

  4. Specific detection of the floodwater mosquitoes Aedes sticticus and Aedes vexans DNA in predatory diving beetles.

    PubMed

    Vinnersten, Thomas Z Persson; Halvarsson, Peter; Lundström, Jan O

    2015-08-01

    Floodwater mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are associated with periodically flooded wet meadows, marshes, and swamps in floodplains of major rivers worldwide, and their larvae are abundant in the shallow parts of flooded areas. The nuisance caused by the blood-seeking adult female mosquitoes motivates mosquito control. Larviciding with Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis is considered the most environmentally safe method. However, some concern has been raised whether aquatic predatory insects could be indirectly affected by this reduction in a potential vital prey. Top predators in the temporary wetlands in the River Dalälven floodplains are diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), and Aedes sticticus and Ae. vexans are the target species for mosquito control. For detailed studies on this aquatic predator-prey system, we developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for detection of mosquito DNA in the guts of medium-sized diving beetles. Primers were designed for amplifying short mitochondrial DNA fragments of the cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI) gene in Ae. sticticus and Ae. vexans, respectively. Primer specificity was confirmed and half-life detectability of Ae. sticticus DNA in diving beetle guts was derived from a feeding and digestion experiment. The Ae. sticticus DNA within diving beetle guts was detected up to 12 h postfeeding, and half-life detectability was estimated to 5.6 h. In addition, field caught diving beetles were screened for Ae. sticticus and Ae. vexans DNA and in 14% of the diving beetles one or both mosquito species were detected, showing that these mosquito species are utilized as food by the diving beetles.

  5. Vector Competence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes polynesiensis Populations from French Polynesia for Chikungunya Virus

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Vaea; Paoaafaite, Tuterarii; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai

    2016-01-01

    Background From October 2014 to March 2015, French Polynesia experienced for the first time a chikungunya outbreak. Two Aedes mosquitoes may have contributed to chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission in French Polynesia: the worldwide distributed Ae. aegypti and the Polynesian islands-endemic Ae. polynesiensis mosquito. Methods To investigate the vector competence of French Polynesian populations of Ae. aegypti and Ae. polynesiensis for CHIKV, mosquitoes were exposed per os at viral titers of 7 logs tissue culture infectious dose 50%. At 2, 6, 9, 14 and 21 days post-infection (dpi), saliva was collected from each mosquito and inoculated onto C6/36 mosquito cells to check for the presence of CHIKV infectious particles. Legs and body (thorax and abdomen) of each mosquito were also collected at the different dpi and submitted separately to viral RNA extraction and CHIKV real-time RT-PCR. Results CHIKV infection rate, dissemination and transmission efficiencies ranged from 7–90%, 18–78% and 5–53% respectively for Ae. aegypti and from 39–41%, 3–17% and 0–14% respectively for Ae. polynesiensis, depending on the dpi. Infectious saliva was found as early as 2 dpi for Ae. aegypti and from 6 dpi for Ae. polynesiensis. Our laboratory results confirm that the French Polynesian population of Ae. aegypti is highly competent for CHIKV and they provide clear evidence for Ae. polynesiensis to act as an efficient CHIKV vector. Conclusion As supported by our findings, the presence of two CHIKV competent vectors in French Polynesia certainly contributed to enabling this virus to quickly disseminate from the urban/peri-urban areas colonized by Ae. aegypti to the most remote atolls where Ae. polynesiensis is predominating. Ae. polynesiensis was probably involved in the recent chikungunya outbreaks in Samoa and the Cook Islands. Moreover, this vector may contribute to the risk for CHIKV to emerge in other Polynesian islands like Fiji, and more particularly Wallis where there

  6. Specific detection of the floodwater mosquitoes Aedes sticticus and Aedes vexans DNA in predatory diving beetles.

    PubMed

    Vinnersten, Thomas Z Persson; Halvarsson, Peter; Lundström, Jan O

    2015-08-01

    Floodwater mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are associated with periodically flooded wet meadows, marshes, and swamps in floodplains of major rivers worldwide, and their larvae are abundant in the shallow parts of flooded areas. The nuisance caused by the blood-seeking adult female mosquitoes motivates mosquito control. Larviciding with Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis is considered the most environmentally safe method. However, some concern has been raised whether aquatic predatory insects could be indirectly affected by this reduction in a potential vital prey. Top predators in the temporary wetlands in the River Dalälven floodplains are diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), and Aedes sticticus and Ae. vexans are the target species for mosquito control. For detailed studies on this aquatic predator-prey system, we developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for detection of mosquito DNA in the guts of medium-sized diving beetles. Primers were designed for amplifying short mitochondrial DNA fragments of the cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI) gene in Ae. sticticus and Ae. vexans, respectively. Primer specificity was confirmed and half-life detectability of Ae. sticticus DNA in diving beetle guts was derived from a feeding and digestion experiment. The Ae. sticticus DNA within diving beetle guts was detected up to 12 h postfeeding, and half-life detectability was estimated to 5.6 h. In addition, field caught diving beetles were screened for Ae. sticticus and Ae. vexans DNA and in 14% of the diving beetles one or both mosquito species were detected, showing that these mosquito species are utilized as food by the diving beetles. PMID:24895318

  7. Larval mosquito habitat utilization and community dynamics of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Unlu, Isik; Obenauer, Peter; Hughes, Tony; Healy, Sean; Crepeau, Taryn; Farajollahi, Ary; Kesavaraju, Banu; Fonseca, Dina; Schoeler, George; Gaugler, Randy; Strickman, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Ae. japonicus (Theobald) are important container-inhabiting mosquitoes that transmit disease agents, outcompete native species, and continue to expand their range in the United States. Both species deposit eggs in natural and artificial containers and thrive in peridomestic environments. The goal of our study was to examine the types and characteristics of containers that are most productive for these species in the northeastern United States. In total, 306 containers were sampled in urban, suburban, and rural areas of New Jersey. Multiple biotic and abiotic factors were recorded in an attempt to identify variables associated with the productivity of each species. Based on pupal abundance and density of container types, results showed that tires, trash cans, and planter dishes were the most important containers for Ae. albopictus, while planter dishes were the most important containers for Ae. japonicus. Container color (black and gray), material (rubber), and type (tires) were correlated with species presence for Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus. These factors may play a role in the selection of oviposition sites by female mosquitoes or in the survival of their progeny. Differences in species composition and abundance were detected between areas classified as urban, suburban, and rural. In urban and suburban areas, Ae. albopictus was more abundant in container habitats than Ae. japonicus; however, Ae. japonicus was more abundant in rural areas, and when water temperatures were below 14 degrees C. Our results suggest many variables can influence the presence of Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus in container habitats in northeastern United States.

  8. Repellent effect of plant essential oils against Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pin; Ma, Yajun

    2005-12-01

    Six essential oils: asteraceae oil, rutaceae oil, mentha piperta oil, carvacryl oil, citronella oil, and eucalyptus oil were tested for evaluation of their repellent effects against Aedes albopictus mosquitoes under laboratory conditions. Only citronella oil and eucalyptus oil were tested with human beings. There was considerable protection for mice. Carvacryl oil (7%) provided 100% protection for mice after 7 h. Eucalyptus oil (15%) gave protection to humans for least 3 h; the protection time was prolonged to 5 h after adding 5% vanillin. The mixture could be developed into a practical product after the field evaluation. PMID:16599157

  9. The dengue vector Aedes aegypti: what comes next.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Cassie C; Beebe, Nigel W

    2010-04-01

    Aedes aegypti is the urban vector of dengue viruses worldwide. While climate influences the geographical distribution of this mosquito species, other factors also determine the suitability of the physical environment. Importantly, the close association of A. aegypti with humans and the domestic environment allows this species to persist in regions that may otherwise be unsuitable based on climatic factors alone. We highlight the need to incorporate the impact of the urban environment in attempts to model the potential distribution of A. aegypti and we briefly discuss the potential for future technology to aid management and control of this widespread vector species.

  10. Detection of insemination status in live Aedes aegypti females

    PubMed Central

    Carrasquilla, María C.; Lounibos, L. Philip

    2015-01-01

    Using the technique described in this report, the presence or absence of sperm in spermathecae of female Aedes aegypti is detectable without dissection. Spermathecae of a lightly anesthetized female can be visualized by phase contrast microscopy through the distended abdomen, after the intersegmental membranes are stretched by ventral placement of a glass cover slip. Most females recovered after the procedure were capable of subsequent reproductive activities. Albeit tedious, this technique preserves the female alive for subsequent experiments or observations. Its extension to other mosquito species, or other Diptera and insects, will depend on spermathecal and sperm visibility through the distended abdomen. PMID:25721054

  11. Disruption of genomic neighbourhood at the imprinted IGF2-H19 locus in Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome and Silver–Russell syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nativio, Raffaella; Sparago, Angela; Ito, Yoko; Weksberg, Rosanna; Riccio, Andrea; Murrell, Adele

    2011-01-01

    Hyper- and hypomethylation at the IGF2-H19 imprinting control region (ICR) result in reciprocal changes in IGF2-H19 expression and the two contrasting growth disorders, Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) and Silver–Russell syndrome (SRS). DNA methylation of the ICR controls the reciprocal imprinting of IGF2 and H19 by preventing the binding of the insulator protein, CTCF. We here show that local changes in histone modifications and CTCF–cohesin binding at the ICR in BWS and SRS together with DNA methylation correlate with the higher order chromatin structure at the locus. In lymphoblastoid cells from control individuals, we found the repressive histone H3K9me3 and H4K20me3 marks associated with the methylated paternal ICR allele and the bivalent H3K4me2/H3K27me3 mark together with H3K9ac and CTCF–cohesin associated with the non-methylated maternal allele. In patient-derived cell lines, the mat/pat asymmetric distribution of these epigenetic marks was lost with H3K9me3 and H4K20me3 becoming biallelic in the BWS and H3K4me2, H3K27me3 and H3K9ac together with CTCF–cohesin becoming biallelic in the SRS. We further show that in BWS and SRS cells, there is opposing chromatin looping conformation mediated by CTCF–cohesin binding sites surrounding the locus. In normal cells, lack of CTCF–cohesin binding at the paternal ICR is associated with monoallelic interaction between two CTCF sites flanking the locus. CTCF–cohesin binding at the maternal ICR blocks this interaction by associating with the CTCF site downstream of the enhancers. The two alternative chromatin conformations are differently favoured in BWS and SRS likely predisposing the locus to the activation of IGF2 or H19, respectively. PMID:21282187

  12. Toward the gene(s) for Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome and associated tumors in two different regions of 11p15

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, J.; Chehenase, V.; Boulevin, C.

    1994-09-01

    Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome (WBS) is a malformation syndrome associated with predisposition to different types of tumors (WT, ADCC). Cytogenetic and familial studies mapped the WBS locus to 11p15.5. Genomic imprinting has been implicated in the expression of the syndrome. Using 11p15 specific markers we have determined the parental origin of both chromosomes 11 in sporadic WBS cases. Probands in 5 out of 26 informative families (25%) displayed uniparental disomy (UPD) corresponding to a paternal isodisomy for region 11p15.5. Mosaic phenotypes reflect the timing of their origin and the fate of cells involved as well as the cell-specific pattern of imprinting. Somatic mosaicism for UPD may thus explain the incomplete forms of WBS, the association of hemihypertrophy in sporadic WBS and even some cases of isolated hemihypertrophy. Moreover, the risk (60%) of developing a tumor seems higher for patients with paternal 11p UPD than for WBS patients in general (7.5%). Two different genomic libraries specific for region 11p15.5 were constructed and screened to isolate and characterize the gene(s) responsible for WBS and/or tumor progression. The characterization and and the localization of these cDNAs are in progress. 5 CA repeats genetically mapped in 11p15 were used to isolate YACs (CEPH). These CA repeats are now physically mapped using a panel of hybrids specific for the 11p15 region, and the contigs of YACs mapping in the regions of interest will be used to isolate coding sequences.

  13. Identification of Essential Containers for Aedes Larval Breeding to Control Dengue in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ferdousi, Farhana; Yoshimatsu, Shoji; Ma, Enbo; Sohel, Nazmul; Wagatsuma, Yukiko

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF), one of the most important emerging arboviral diseases, is transmitted through the bite of container breeding mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. A household entomological survey was conducted in Dhaka from August through October 2000 to inspect water-holding containers in indoor, outdoor, and rooftop locations for Aedes larvae. The objective of this study was to determine mosquito productivity of each container type and to identify some risk factors of households infested with Aedes larvae. Of 9,222 households inspected, 1,306 (14.2%) were positive for Aedes larvae. Of 38,777 wet containers examined, 2,272 (5.8%) were infested with Aedes larvae. Containers used to hold water, such as earthen jars, tanks, and drums were the most common containers for larval breeding. Tires in outdoor and rooftop locations of the households were also important for larval breeding. Although present in abundance, buckets were of less importance. Factors such as independent household, presence of a water storage system in the house, and fully/partly shaded outdoors were found to be significantly associated with household infestation of Aedes larvae. Identification and subsequent elimination of the most productive containers in a given area may potentially reduce mosquito density to below a level at which dengue transmission may be halted. PMID:26865829

  14. Identification of Essential Containers for Aedes Larval Breeding to Control Dengue in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ferdousi, Farhana; Yoshimatsu, Shoji; Ma, Enbo; Sohel, Nazmul; Wagatsuma, Yukiko

    2015-12-01

    Dengue fever (DF), one of the most important emerging arboviral diseases, is transmitted through the bite of container breeding mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. A household entomological survey was conducted in Dhaka from August through October 2000 to inspect water-holding containers in indoor, outdoor, and rooftop locations for Aedes larvae. The objective of this study was to determine mosquito productivity of each container type and to identify some risk factors of households infested with Aedes larvae. Of 9,222 households inspected, 1,306 (14.2%) were positive for Aedes larvae. Of 38,777 wet containers examined, 2,272 (5.8%) were infested with Aedes larvae. Containers used to hold water, such as earthen jars, tanks, and drums were the most common containers for larval breeding. Tires in outdoor and rooftop locations of the households were also important for larval breeding. Although present in abundance, buckets were of less importance. Factors such as independent household, presence of a water storage system in the house, and fully/partly shaded outdoors were found to be significantly associated with household infestation of Aedes larvae. Identification and subsequent elimination of the most productive containers in a given area may potentially reduce mosquito density to below a level at which dengue transmission may be halted.

  15. Seasonal abundance of Aedes albopictus in selected urban and suburban areas in Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rozilawati, H; Zairi, J; Adanan, C R

    2007-06-01

    Ovitrap surveillance was conducted in a selected urban area and suburban area, ie. Taman Permai Indah(TPI) and Kampung Pasir Gebu (KPG) in Penang for 14 months. It was found that Aedes albopictus was the most abundant Aedes species in both study areas, even though a small percentage of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus were found to breed simultaneously in the same ovitrap. This study indicated that the main dengue vector was Ae. albopictus. A strong correlation was found between rainfall and egg population in both of the study sites (r = 0.982 and r = 0.918). PMID:17568381

  16. Seasonal abundance of Aedes albopictus in selected urban and suburban areas in Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rozilawati, H; Zairi, J; Adanan, C R

    2007-06-01

    Ovitrap surveillance was conducted in a selected urban area and suburban area, ie. Taman Permai Indah(TPI) and Kampung Pasir Gebu (KPG) in Penang for 14 months. It was found that Aedes albopictus was the most abundant Aedes species in both study areas, even though a small percentage of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus were found to breed simultaneously in the same ovitrap. This study indicated that the main dengue vector was Ae. albopictus. A strong correlation was found between rainfall and egg population in both of the study sites (r = 0.982 and r = 0.918).

  17. Dengue virus detection in Aedes aegypti larvae from southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cecílio, Samyra Giarola; Júnior, Willer Ferreira Silva; Tótola, Antônio Helvécio; de Brito Magalhães, Cíntia Lopes; Ferreira, Jaqueline Maria Siqueira; de Magalhães, José Carlos

    2015-06-01

    The transmission of dengue, the most important arthropod-borne viral disease in Brazil, has been intensified over the past decades, along with the accompanying expansion and adaptation of its Aedes vectors. In the present study, we mapped dengue vectors in Ouro Preto and Ouro Branco, Minas Gerais, by installing ovitraps in 32 public schools. The traps were examined monthly between September, 2011 through July, 2012 and November, 2012 to April, 2013. The larvae were reared until the fourth stadium and identified according to species. The presence of dengue virus was detected by real time PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis. A total of 1,945 eggs was collected during the 17 months of the study. The Ovitrap Positivity Index (OPI) ranged from 0 to 28.13% and the Eggs Density Index (EDI) ranged from 0 to 59.9. The predominant species was Aedes aegypti, with 84.9% of the hatched larvae. Although the collection was low when compared to other ovitraps studies, vertical transmission could be detected. Of the 54 pools, dengue virus was detected in four Ae. aegypti pools. PMID:26047186

  18. Efficacy of topical permethrin as repellent against Aedes aegypti's bites.

    PubMed

    Miot, Hélio Amante; Ferreira, Daniela Pinho; Mendes, Fabiana Guandalini; Carrenho, Flávia Roberta Hernandes; de Oliveira Amui, Isabela; Carneiro, Carlos Augusto Sá; Madeira, Newton Goulart

    2008-01-01

    Mosquitoes are the most important vectors of infectious diseases and their bites are related to several adverse skin reactions. Permethrin impregnated clothes are an efficient strategy against arthropods' bites; however, its topical efficacy as a repellent has not been well established. We studied the response to permethrin lotion 5 percent and N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) spray 50 percent applied to the unprotected forearms of 10 volunteers. Each arm was exposed to 20 female mosquitoes of Aedes aegypti. We performed 71 bilateral comparative measurements evaluating the timing for the first bites. The average times for the arm without the product, with permethrin 5 percent, and with DEET 50 percent were: 7.9 seconds, 336.2 seconds and 7512.1 seconds. The results showed a significant difference between repellency times between either product and unprotected controls. In addition, there was a significant difference in time to first bite between permethrin and DEET treated arms (p<0.01). Permethrin affords some repellent activity against Aedes aegypti bites in this experimental setting. However, permethrin's profile of repellency was significantly inferior to that of DEET.

  19. Larvicidal Activity of Citrus Limonoids against Aedes albopictus Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Bilal, Hazrat; Akram, Waseem; Ali-Hassan, Soaib

    2012-01-01

    Background: Development of insecticide resistance occurred due to the continuous and misuse of synthetic insecticides therefore, the recent study was conducted to explore eco-friendly plant extracts that have some potential to suppress mosquito larval population. Methods: WHO recommended mosquito larval bioassay method for insecticide was used while for the analysis of citrus oils for limonin and nomilin content HPLC was used. Results: Among the two citrus cultivars tested as larvicide against Aedes albopictus, valencia late (Citrus sinensis) was the best in terms of LC50 (297 ppm), % mortality (97%) and LT50 (18.49 hours) then freutrall early (Citrus reticulate) with LC50 (377.4 ppm), % mortality (88%) and LT50 (31 hours), While nomilin gave lowest LC50 (121.04 ppm) than limonin (382.22 ppm) after 72 hours of exposure. Valencia late also had more limonin and nomilin (377 μg/ml and 21.19 μg/ml) than freutrall early (5.29 μg/ml and 3.89 μg/ml) respectively. Conclusion: Valencia late showed best results in term of LC50, LT50 and percentage mortality against Aedes albopictus as it has more amount of nomilin then freutrall early, however further evaluation in the field conditions is required. PMID:23378967

  20. Integrated proteomic and transcriptomic analysis of the Aedes aegypti eggshell

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mosquito eggshells show remarkable diversity in physical properties and structure consistent with adaptations to the wide variety of environments exploited by these insects. We applied proteomic, transcriptomic, and hybridization in situ techniques to identify gene products and pathways that participate in the assembly of the Aedes aegypti eggshell. Aedes aegypti population density is low during cold and dry seasons and increases immediately after rainfall. The survival of embryos through unfavorable periods is a key factor in the persistence of their populations. The work described here supports integrated vector control approaches that target eggshell formation and result in Ae. aegypti drought-intolerant phenotypes for public health initiatives directed to reduce mosquito-borne diseases. Results A total of 130 proteins were identified from the combined mass spectrometric analyses of eggshell preparations. Conclusions Classification of proteins according to their known and putative functions revealed the complexity of the eggshell structure. Three novel Ae. aegypti vitelline membrane proteins were discovered. Odorant-binding and cysteine-rich proteins that may be structural components of the eggshell were identified. Enzymes with peroxidase, laccase and phenoloxidase activities also were identified, and their likely involvements in cross-linking reactions that stabilize the eggshell structure are discussed. PMID:24707823

  1. Phylogeography of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) based on mitochondrial DNA variations.

    PubMed

    Mousson, Laurence; Dauga, Catherine; Garrigues, Thomas; Schaffner, Francis; Vazeille, Marie; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2005-08-01

    Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (l.) and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) are the most important vectors of the dengue and yellow-fever viruses. Both took advantage of trade developments to spread throughout the tropics from their native area: A. aegypti originated from Africa and a. albopictus from South-East Asia. We investigated the relationships between A. aegypti and A. albopictus mosquitoes based on three mitochondrial-DNA genes (cytochrome b, cytochrome oxidase I and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5). Little genetic variation was observed for a. albopictus, probably owing to the recent spreading of the species via human activities. For A. aegypti, most populations from South America were found to be genetically similar to populations from South-East Asia (Thailand and Vietnam), except for one sample from Boa Vista (northern Amazonia), which was more closely related to samples from Africa (Guinea and Ivory Coast). This suggests that African populations of A. aegypti introduced during the slave trade have persisted in Boa Vista, resisting eradication campaigns.

  2. Mosquitocidal and Oviposition Repellent Activities of the Extracts of Seaweed Bryopsis pennata on Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ke-Xin; Wong, Ching-Lee; Ahmad, Rohani; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2015-08-04

    The ever-increasing threat from infectious diseases and the development of insecticide resistance in mosquito populations drive the global search for new natural insecticides. The aims of this study were to evaluate the mosquitocidal activity of the extracts of seaweed Bryopsis pennata against dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, and determine the seaweed's toxic effect on brine shrimp nauplii (as a non-target organism). In addition, the chemical compositions of the active larvicidal extract and fraction were analyzed by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Chloroform extract exhibited strong ovicidal activity (with LC50 values of 229.3 and 250.5 µg/mL) and larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The larvicidal potential of chloroform extract was further ascertained when its A7 fraction exhibited strong toxic effect against Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 4.7 µg/mL) and Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 5.3 µg/mL). LC-MS analysis of the chloroform extract gave a tentative identification of 13 compounds; Bis-(3-oxoundecyl) tetrasulfide was identified as the major compound in A7 fraction. Methanol extract showed strong repellent effect against female oviposition, along with weak adulticidal activity against mosquito and weak toxicity against brine shrimp nauplii. The mosquitocidal results of B. pennata suggest further investigation for the development of effective insecticide.

  3. Effect of housing factors on infestation by Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse in urban Hanoi City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, Ataru; Sunahara, Toshihiko; Duoc, Vu Trong; Le Nguyen, Hoang; Higa, Yukiko; Phong, Tran Vu; Minakawa, Noboru

    2013-11-01

    To determine the effect of housing factors on infestation with Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse we conducted an entomological survey and inspection of 267 urban houses in Hanoi City, Vietnam. Two hundred ten pupae and 194 adult Ae. aegypti were collected from 19 and 88 houses, respectively. One hundred eighty-one pupae and 24 adult Ae. albopictus were collected from 21 and 14 houses, respectively. The presence of a private well was associated with increasing infestation with Ae. aegypti adults (p = 0.01) and increased the risk of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus pupal presence (p = 0.04 for Ae. aegypti, p = 0.03 for Ae. albopictus). The presence of an outdoor space in the household premises was associated with a higher risk of Ae. albopictus pupal presence (p = 0.004) and a higher risk of high levels of Ae. albopictus adults (p = 0.01); however, it had no association with infestation with Ae. aegypti. The presence of an air-conditioning unit (p = 0.03) and four or more rooms in the residence (p = 0.02) were negatively and positively associated with the risk for Ae. albopictus presence, respectively. PMID:24450235

  4. Mosquitocidal and Oviposition Repellent Activities of the Extracts of Seaweed Bryopsis pennata on Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ke-Xin; Wong, Ching-Lee; Ahmad, Rohani; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The ever-increasing threat from infectious diseases and the development of insecticide resistance in mosquito populations drive the global search for new natural insecticides. The aims of this study were to evaluate the mosquitocidal activity of the extracts of seaweed Bryopsis pennata against dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, and determine the seaweed's toxic effect on brine shrimp nauplii (as a non-target organism). In addition, the chemical compositions of the active larvicidal extract and fraction were analyzed by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Chloroform extract exhibited strong ovicidal activity (with LC50 values of 229.3 and 250.5 µg/mL) and larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The larvicidal potential of chloroform extract was further ascertained when its A7 fraction exhibited strong toxic effect against Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 4.7 µg/mL) and Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 5.3 µg/mL). LC-MS analysis of the chloroform extract gave a tentative identification of 13 compounds; Bis-(3-oxoundecyl) tetrasulfide was identified as the major compound in A7 fraction. Methanol extract showed strong repellent effect against female oviposition, along with weak adulticidal activity against mosquito and weak toxicity against brine shrimp nauplii. The mosquitocidal results of B. pennata suggest further investigation for the development of effective insecticide. PMID:26247928

  5. Behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles minimus against various synthetic and natural repellent compounds.

    PubMed

    Sathantriphop, Sunaiyana; White, Sabrina A; Achee, Nicole L; Sanguanpong, Unchalee; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2014-12-01

    The behavioral responses of colony populations of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles minimus to four essential oils (citronella, hairy basil, catnip, and vetiver), two standard repellents (DEET and picaridin), and two synthetic pyrethroids (deltamethrin and permethrin) were conducted in the laboratory using an excito-repellency test system. Results revealed that Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. minimus exhibited much stronger behavioral responses to all test compounds (65-98% escape for contact, 21.4-94.4% escape for non-contact) compared to Ae. aegypti (3.7-72.2% escape (contact), 0-31.7% (non-contact)) and Ae. albopictus (3.5-94.4% escape (contact), 11.2-63.7% (non-contact)). In brief, essential oil from vetiver elicited the greatest irritant responses in Cx. quinquefasciatus (96.6%) and An. minimus (96.5%) compared to the other compounds tested. The synthetic pyrethroids caused a stronger contact irritant response (65-97.8% escape) than non-contact repellents (0-50.8% escape for non-contact) across all four mosquito species. Picaridin had the least effect on all mosquito species. Findings from the current study continue to support the screening of essential oils from various plant sources for protective properties against field mosquitoes.

  6. Behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles minimus against various synthetic and natural repellent compounds.

    PubMed

    Sathantriphop, Sunaiyana; White, Sabrina A; Achee, Nicole L; Sanguanpong, Unchalee; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2014-12-01

    The behavioral responses of colony populations of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles minimus to four essential oils (citronella, hairy basil, catnip, and vetiver), two standard repellents (DEET and picaridin), and two synthetic pyrethroids (deltamethrin and permethrin) were conducted in the laboratory using an excito-repellency test system. Results revealed that Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. minimus exhibited much stronger behavioral responses to all test compounds (65-98% escape for contact, 21.4-94.4% escape for non-contact) compared to Ae. aegypti (3.7-72.2% escape (contact), 0-31.7% (non-contact)) and Ae. albopictus (3.5-94.4% escape (contact), 11.2-63.7% (non-contact)). In brief, essential oil from vetiver elicited the greatest irritant responses in Cx. quinquefasciatus (96.6%) and An. minimus (96.5%) compared to the other compounds tested. The synthetic pyrethroids caused a stronger contact irritant response (65-97.8% escape) than non-contact repellents (0-50.8% escape for non-contact) across all four mosquito species. Picaridin had the least effect on all mosquito species. Findings from the current study continue to support the screening of essential oils from various plant sources for protective properties against field mosquitoes. PMID:25424262

  7. Low oral receptivity for dengue type 2 viruses of Aedes albopictus from Southeast Asia compared with that of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Vazeille, Marie; Rosen, Leon; Mousson, Laurence; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2003-02-01

    Dengue hemorrhagic fever has been a major health problem in Asia since the 1950s. During this period, the former principal vector of dengue viruses in Asia, Aedes albopictus, was replaced by Aedes aegypti in most major cities of the area. Ae. aegypti is now considered the main vector of dengue viruses in Asia. Surprisingly, however, this mosquito has been described as having a relatively low oral receptivity for dengue viruses compared with Ae. albopictus. In the present study, we compared the relative oral receptivities of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus collected in southeast Asia from both sympatric and allopatric breeding sites. In all instances, the oral receptivity of Ae. aegypti to the dengue type 2 virus used was significantly higher than that of Ae. albopictus. We also compared the relative oral receptivity of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus for two other low-passage strains of dengue 2. In all instances, Ae. aegypti was significantly more receptive than Ae. albopictus. It should be noted, however, that the difference was found only for Ae. albopictus recently collected from the field (Ta Promh strain, Cambodia, 2001) and not for an Ae. albopictus strain that had been colonized for many years (Oahu strain, Hawaii, 1971). We also observed a significant increase in the infection rate of Ae. albopictus of the Ta Promh strain with increasing generations in the laboratory. These observations demonstrate the importance of considering the colonization history of mosquitoes when assessing their susceptibility to infection with dengue viruses and, perhaps, other arboviruses.

  8. Age-Stage, Two-Sex Life Table Characteristics of Aedes albopictus and Aedes Aegypti in Penang Island, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Maimusa, Hamisu A; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Kassim, Nur Faeza A; Rahim, Junaid

    2016-03-01

    The life table developmental attributes of laboratory colonies of wild strains of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti were analyzed and compared based on the age-stage, two-sex life table. Findings inclusive in this study are: adult preoviposition periods, total preoviposition period, mean intrinsic rate of increase (r), mean finite rate of increase (λ), net reproductive rates (R0), and mean generation time (T). The total preadult development time was 9.47 days for Ae. albopictus and 8.76 days for Ae. aegypti. The life expectancy was 19.01 days for Ae. albopictus and 19.94 days for Ae. aegypti. Mortality occurred mostly during the adult stage. The mean development time for each stage insignificantly correlated with temperature for Ae. albopictus (r  =  -0.208, P > 0.05) and (r  =  -0.312, P > 0.05) for Ae. aegypti. The population parameters suggest that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti populations are r-strategists characterized by a high r, a large R0, and short T. This present study provides the first report to compare the life parameters of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti strains from Penang island, Malaysia.

  9. A pictorial key to the species of the Aedes (Zavortinkius) in the Afrotropical Region (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Yiau-Min; Rueda, Leopoldo M

    2015-10-06

    Six species of the subgenus Zavortinkius of Aedes Meigen in the Afrotropical Region are treated in a pictorial key based on diagnostic morphological features. Images of the diagnostic morphological structures of the adult thorax and leg are included.

  10. Zika virus in Brazil and the danger of infestation by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, Carlos Brisola; Ximenes, Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo

    2016-02-01

    Zika virus, already widely distributed in Africa and Asia, was recently reported in two Northeastern Brazilian: State of Bahia and State of Rio Grande do Norte, and one Southeastern: State of São Paulo. This finding adds a potentially noxious virus to a list of several other viruses that are widely transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Brazil. The pathology and epidemiology, including the distribution and vectors associated with Zika virus, are reviewed. This review is focused on viruses transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes, including dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro, and yellow fever virus, to emphasize the risks of occurrence for these arboviruses in Brazil and neighboring countries. Other species of Aedes (Stegomyia) are discussed, emphasizing their involvement in arbovirus transmission and the possibility of adaptation to environments modified by human activities and introduction in Brazil.

  11. Evaluation of Quality Production Parameters and Mating Behavior of Novel Genetic Sexing Strains of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Taret, Gustavo; Haq, Ihsan Ul; Wornayporn, Viwat; Ahmad, Sohel; Sto Tomas, Ulysses; Dammalage, Thilakasiri; Gembinsky, Keke; Franz, Gerald; Cáceres, Carlos; Vreysen, Marc J B

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most important pest of fruits and vegetables in tropical and subtropical countries. The sterile insect technique (SIT) as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approaches is being used for the successful management of this pest. VIENNA 8 is a genetic sexing strain (GSS) that has a white pupae (wp) and temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation, the latter killing all female embryos when eggs are exposed to high temperatures (34°C). The use of this GSS permits production and the release of only males which has increased the cost effectiveness of the SIT several fold for this pest. An efficient method of identification of recaptured sterile males can further increase the cost effectiveness of the SIT for this pest. Therefore, VIENNA 8-Sergeant2 (Sr2) strain and the transgenic strain VIENNA 8-1260 having visible markers were constructed. All three strains were evaluated for egg production, egg hatch, and egg sterility parameters under semi mass-rearing conditions and mating competitiveness in field cages. VIENNA 8-1260 females produced significantly fewer eggs as compared with the two other strains, which produced similar numbers of eggs. However, egg hatch of all strains was similar. Egg hatch of eggs produced by untreated females that had mated with adult males that had been irradiated with 100 Gy as pupae 2 days before emergence, was different for the three strains, i.e., egg hatch of 0.63%, 0.77%, 0.89% for VIENNA 8, VIENNA 8-1260, and VIENNA 8-Sr2, respectively. Differences in male mating competitiveness of the three strains against wild-type males were gradually reduced with successive generations under semi mass-rearing conditions. However, VIENNA 8 males adapted faster to laboratory conditions as compared with VIENNA 8-Sr2 and VIENNA 8-1260 males with respect to mating competitiveness. VIENNA 8 males of the F10 generation were equally

  12. Evaluation of Quality Production Parameters and Mating Behavior of Novel Genetic Sexing Strains of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Haq, Ihsan ul; Wornayporn, Viwat; Ahmad, Sohel; Sto Tomas, Ulysses; Dammalage, Thilakasiri; Gembinsky, Keke; Franz, Gerald; Cáceres, Carlos; Vreysen, Marc J. B.

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most important pest of fruits and vegetables in tropical and subtropical countries. The sterile insect technique (SIT) as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approaches is being used for the successful management of this pest. VIENNA 8 is a genetic sexing strain (GSS) that has a white pupae (wp) and temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation, the latter killing all female embryos when eggs are exposed to high temperatures (34°C). The use of this GSS permits production and the release of only males which has increased the cost effectiveness of the SIT several fold for this pest. An efficient method of identification of recaptured sterile males can further increase the cost effectiveness of the SIT for this pest. Therefore, VIENNA 8-Sergeant2 (Sr2) strain and the transgenic strain VIENNA 8–1260 having visible markers were constructed. All three strains were evaluated for egg production, egg hatch, and egg sterility parameters under semi mass-rearing conditions and mating competitiveness in field cages. VIENNA 8–1260 females produced significantly fewer eggs as compared with the two other strains, which produced similar numbers of eggs. However, egg hatch of all strains was similar. Egg hatch of eggs produced by untreated females that had mated with adult males that had been irradiated with 100 Gy as pupae 2 days before emergence, was different for the three strains, i.e., egg hatch of 0.63%, 0.77%, 0.89% for VIENNA 8, VIENNA 8–1260, and VIENNA 8-Sr2, respectively. Differences in male mating competitiveness of the three strains against wild-type males were gradually reduced with successive generations under semi mass-rearing conditions. However, VIENNA 8 males adapted faster to laboratory conditions as compared with VIENNA 8-Sr2 and VIENNA 8–1260 males with respect to mating competitiveness. VIENNA 8 males of the F10 generation were

  13. Evaluation of Quality Production Parameters and Mating Behavior of Novel Genetic Sexing Strains of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Taret, Gustavo; Haq, Ihsan Ul; Wornayporn, Viwat; Ahmad, Sohel; Sto Tomas, Ulysses; Dammalage, Thilakasiri; Gembinsky, Keke; Franz, Gerald; Cáceres, Carlos; Vreysen, Marc J B

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most important pest of fruits and vegetables in tropical and subtropical countries. The sterile insect technique (SIT) as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approaches is being used for the successful management of this pest. VIENNA 8 is a genetic sexing strain (GSS) that has a white pupae (wp) and temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation, the latter killing all female embryos when eggs are exposed to high temperatures (34°C). The use of this GSS permits production and the release of only males which has increased the cost effectiveness of the SIT several fold for this pest. An efficient method of identification of recaptured sterile males can further increase the cost effectiveness of the SIT for this pest. Therefore, VIENNA 8-Sergeant2 (Sr2) strain and the transgenic strain VIENNA 8-1260 having visible markers were constructed. All three strains were evaluated for egg production, egg hatch, and egg sterility parameters under semi mass-rearing conditions and mating competitiveness in field cages. VIENNA 8-1260 females produced significantly fewer eggs as compared with the two other strains, which produced similar numbers of eggs. However, egg hatch of all strains was similar. Egg hatch of eggs produced by untreated females that had mated with adult males that had been irradiated with 100 Gy as pupae 2 days before emergence, was different for the three strains, i.e., egg hatch of 0.63%, 0.77%, 0.89% for VIENNA 8, VIENNA 8-1260, and VIENNA 8-Sr2, respectively. Differences in male mating competitiveness of the three strains against wild-type males were gradually reduced with successive generations under semi mass-rearing conditions. However, VIENNA 8 males adapted faster to laboratory conditions as compared with VIENNA 8-Sr2 and VIENNA 8-1260 males with respect to mating competitiveness. VIENNA 8 males of the F10 generation were equally

  14. Geographical distribution of the Aedes Triseriatus Group (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Trinidad, Adelfo; Ordoñez-Sánchez, Félix; Valdes-Perezgasga, Ma Teresa; Sánchez-Ramos, Francisco J; Zavortink, Thomas J; Cortés-Guzmán, Antonio J; Ortega-Morales, Aldo I

    2014-06-01

    Aedes brelandi Zavortink is reported for the first time outside of the United States, where it has been found in northern and central parts of Mexico. Ae. triseriatus (Say) is reported in northern and central Mexico and Ae. zoosophus Dyar and Knab is recorded in southern Mexico. Collection records for these species in northern, central, and southern Mexico showing the current distribution of the Aedes Triseriatus Group are included.

  15. Coexistence of Philodina roseola (Rotifera: Bdelloidea) with larvae of Aedes aegypti in India.

    PubMed

    Muniaraj, M; Sathish Babu, R

    2014-06-01

    The vector mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus of dengue and Chikungunya fever are closely associated with human habitations and adapted to feed on human blood. They undergo larval and pupal development in natural and artificial freshwater collections in the urban and peri-urban environment. Although reports are available about the feeding behaviour of the thriving mosquito larvae, much information is still required to understand the successful survival of Aedes mosquitoes in small and temporary water collections. This study was undertaken to determine the co-existence and prevalence of Philodina roseola and other Bdelloid rotifers in the container habitats of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. The investigation was conducted in 43 villages which belong to four districts in South India, affected by the epidemic of either dengue or Chikungunya fever. A total of 2093 houses and 12980 containers were examined for Aedes breeding and those containers with Aedes larvae were chosen for further investigation. The investigation showed that, the P. roseola was found associated in 502 (98.2%) containers, P. roseola along with other Philodina sp. in 126 containers (25%) and P. roseola along with other Philodina sp. and other Bdelloid rotifers found in 93 containers (19%). Since the members of the genus Philodina can survive desiccation, reproduce by parthenogenesis, can be transported by wind easily and more importantly, it can incorporate the genome of other organisms including viruses, understanding the co-existence and relationship of Philodina sp. with Aedes larvae would be helpful in the control of Aedes breeding and the control measures can be designed keeping the association of Bdelloids with Aedes in mind.

  16. Seasonal fluctuations of dengue fever vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R S; Kaul, S M; Sokhay, Jotna

    2005-01-01

    Studies on the seasonal fluctuation of Aedes aegypti were undertaken in different localities of Delhi, during 2000. The Aedes aegypti population was found to be prevalent in all the localities in Delhi. Water coolers and tires were found to be the preferred breeding habitats of Aedes mosquitos in the city. Aedes aegypti, being hygroscopic, showed a phenomenon of annual pulsation. It tends to move to mother foci in the central areas of the city, which are humid in the dry season, and spread out during the wet season. Out of 103,778 houses surveyed, 20,513 houses and 3,547 containers were reported positive for Aedes aegypti. The house container, and Breteau indices were very high during the post-monsoon season. The container indicies was very high (17.7%) in the defence area in September 2000. The container index in the areas of the Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) and the New Delhi Municipal Committee (NDMC) were found to be high during the same period. The house index forAedes aegypti ranged from 0.1 to 7.4, 0.1 to 11.3, and 0.1 to 11.1 in the MCD, NDMC, and Defence areas, respectively.

  17. Ovitrap surveillance of the dengue vectors, Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus Skuse in selected areas in Bentong, Pahang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Norzahira, R; Hidayatulfathi, O; Wong, H M; Cheryl, A; Firdaus, R; Chew, H S; Lim, K W; Sing, K W; Mahathavan, M; Nazni, W A; Lee, H L; Vasan, S S; McKemey, A; Lacroix, R

    2011-04-01

    Ovitrap surveillance was conducted in methodically selected areas in Bentong, Pahang, Malaysia from June 2008 till December 2009 in order to identify insular sites with stable Aedes aegypti population. Eleven sites were surveyed in Bentong district, Pahang, and one of these locations (N3º33' E101º54') was found to have an ovitrap index of Ae. aegypti and Aedes albopictus ranging from 8%-47% and 37%-78% respectively, indicating that this site could be a high-risk area for dengue outbreak. Ae. aegypti larvae were found in both indoor and outdoor ovitraps (p>0.05) while significant difference between the populations of Ae. albopictus larvae from indoors and outdoors was observed (p<0.01). Data collected in this study could provide important entomological information for designing an effective integrated vector control programme to combat Aedes mosquitoes in this area. PMID:21602768

  18. The global compendium of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Moritz U G; Sinka, Marianne E; Duda, Kirsten A; Mylne, Adrian; Shearer, Freya M; Brady, Oliver J; Messina, Jane P; Barker, Christopher M; Moore, Chester G; Carvalho, Roberta G; Coelho, Giovanini E; Van Bortel, Wim; Hendrickx, Guy; Schaffner, Francis; Wint, G R William; Elyazar, Iqbal R F; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Hay, Simon I

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the main vectors transmitting dengue and chikungunya viruses. Despite being pathogens of global public health importance, knowledge of their vectors' global distribution remains patchy and sparse. A global geographic database of known occurrences of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus between 1960 and 2014 was compiled. Herein we present the database, which comprises occurrence data linked to point or polygon locations, derived from peer-reviewed literature and unpublished studies including national entomological surveys and expert networks. We describe all data collection processes, as well as geo-positioning methods, database management and quality-control procedures. This is the first comprehensive global database of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence, consisting of 19,930 and 22,137 geo-positioned occurrence records respectively. Both datasets can be used for a variety of mapping and spatial analyses of the vectors and, by inference, the diseases they transmit.

  19. Host preferences of Aedes trivittatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in central Iowa.

    PubMed

    Pinger, R R; Rowley, W A

    1975-09-01

    The vertebrate host preferences of Aedes trivittatus mosquitoes were studied to gain an insight into the possible hosts of trivittatus (TVT) virus (California encephalitis group) in Iowa. Engorged mosquitoes were collected with a Malaise trap and Dry Ice-baited CDC miniature light traps. The origin of mosquito blood meals was determined by the capillary tube precipitin test. Of 600 A. trivittatus blood meals tested, 409 (68.2%) reacted positively with anti-rabbit serum. The incidences of mosquitoes feeding on other vertebrate species ranged from 0.2% to 2.5%. The vertebrate host preferences of A. trivittatus suggest a close association between this mosquito species and the eastern cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus) in central Iowa. Furthermore, the results indicate that the eastern cottontail rabbit may be an important host for TVT virus in Iowa.

  20. Larvicidal activity of some Cerrado plant extracts against Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, A M S; De Paula, J E; Degallier, N; Molez, J E; Espindola, L S

    2006-06-01

    One hundred ninety hexanic and ethanolic extract from 27 plant species from the Cerrado biome of Brazil were tested for larvicidal activity against 3rd-stage Aedes aegypti larvae at 500 microg/ml. Fourteen extracts from 7 species showed activity (>65% mortality) against the larvae. Of these Dugeutia furfuracea, Piptocarpha rotundifolia, Casearia sylvestris var. lingua, Serjania lethalis, and Xylopia aromatica were active at 56.6, 162.31, 232.4, 285.76, and 384.37 microg/ml, respectively. Annona crassiflora and Cybistax antisyphilitica showed activity at 23.06 and 27.61 microg/ml. The larvicidal properties of these species are described for the first time, and may prove to be promising in active chemical compound isolation.

  1. Temporal genetic stability of Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti) populations.

    PubMed

    Gloria-Soria, A; Kellner, D A; Brown, J E; Gonzalez-Acosta, C; Kamgang, B; Lutwama, J; Powell, J R

    2016-06-01

    The mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) is the primary vector of viruses that cause yellow fever, dengue and Chikungunya fever. In the absence of effective vaccines, the reduction of these diseases relies on vector control strategies. The success of these strategies is tightly linked to the population dynamics of target populations. In the present study, 14 collections from St. aegypti populations separated by periods of 1-13 years were analysed to determine their temporal genetic stability. Although temporal structure is discernible in most populations, the degree of temporal differentiation is dependent on the population and does not obscure the geographic structure of the various populations. The results suggest that performing detailed studies in the years prior to and after population reduction- or modification-based control interventions at each target field site may be useful in assessing the probability of success. PMID:26744174

  2. Larvicidal activity of some Cerrado plant extracts against Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, A M S; De Paula, J E; Degallier, N; Molez, J E; Espindola, L S

    2006-06-01

    One hundred ninety hexanic and ethanolic extract from 27 plant species from the Cerrado biome of Brazil were tested for larvicidal activity against 3rd-stage Aedes aegypti larvae at 500 microg/ml. Fourteen extracts from 7 species showed activity (>65% mortality) against the larvae. Of these Dugeutia furfuracea, Piptocarpha rotundifolia, Casearia sylvestris var. lingua, Serjania lethalis, and Xylopia aromatica were active at 56.6, 162.31, 232.4, 285.76, and 384.37 microg/ml, respectively. Annona crassiflora and Cybistax antisyphilitica showed activity at 23.06 and 27.61 microg/ml. The larvicidal properties of these species are described for the first time, and may prove to be promising in active chemical compound isolation. PMID:17019779

  3. Invasion Biology of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) has recently expanded beyond its native range of Japan and Korea into large parts of North America and Central Europe. Population genetic studies begun immediately after the species was detected in North America revealed genetically distinct introductions that subsequently merged, likely contributing to the successful expansion. Interactions, particularly in the larval stage, with other known disease vectors give this invasive subspecies the potential to influence local disease dynamics. Its successful invasion likely does not involve superior direct competitive abilities, but it is associated with the use of diverse larval habitats and a cold tolerance that allows an expanded seasonal activity range in temperate climates. We predict a continued but slower expansion of Ae. j. japonicus in North America and a continued rapid expansion into other areas as this mosquito will eventually be considered a permanent resident of much of North America, Europe, Asia, and parts of Hawaii. PMID:24397520

  4. Oviposition and olfaction responses of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to insecticides.

    PubMed

    Canyon, D V; Muller, R

    2013-12-01

    Insecticide applications are not particularly effective on Aedes aegypti mosquitoes which has been attributed to their 'closet' behaviour, or ability to rest in places that remain unexposed to insecticides. Some researchers have suggested that insecticides repel mosquitoes, which would result in less exposure and increased dispersal. If repellence due to insecticides is a fact, acquiring a vector-borne disease, such as dengue, could legitimately be attributed to local vector control efforts and this would lead to restitution claims. This study thus investigated the effect of insecticide presence on mosquito behaviour indirectly via oviposition and directly via olfactory response. In all experiments, oviposition in each insecticide compared to its water and ethanol controls was not significantly different. This indicates that Ae. aegypti mosquitoes are not affected by insecticide presence and that increased dispersal is unlikely to be caused by vector control spraying.

  5. Plaque Production by Arboviruses in Singh's Aedes albopictus Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yunker, C. E.; Cory, J.

    1975-01-01

    We report plaquing tests of 124 virus strains, mostly arboviruses of 21 serological groups, in Singh's line of Aedes albopictus cells. Thirty of these plaqued; all were arboviruses of six groups and were known or presumed to be mosquito borne. Failing to plaque were 86 strains of arboviruses, mostly tick borne, two strains of insect pathogens, and six animal viruses not classified as arboviruses. Among mosquito-borne agents, plaquing ability appeared related to serological classification. California group and most A-group viruses failed to plaque, but nearly all members of B and Bunyamwera groups readily plaqued. Within serological group B, 14 of 16 mosquito-borne agents plaqued, but none of 13 tick-borne or vector-unassociated viruses did so. Some implications of these results for recognition and classification of arboviruses are discussed. Images PMID:234160

  6. Aedes aegypti D7 Saliva Protein Inhibits Dengue Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Michael J.; Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Troupin, Andrea; Watson, Alan M.; Klimstra, William B.; Fikrig, Erol; Colpitts, Tonya M.

    2016-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of several medically relevant arboviruses including dengue virus (DENV) types 1–4. Ae. aegypti transmits DENV by inoculating virus-infected saliva into host skin during probing and feeding. Ae. aegypti saliva contains over one hundred unique proteins and these proteins have diverse functions, including facilitating blood feeding. Previously, we showed that Ae. aegypti salivary gland extracts (SGEs) enhanced dissemination of DENV to draining lymph nodes. In contrast, HPLC-fractionation revealed that some SGE components inhibited infection. Here, we show that D7 proteins are enriched in HPLC fractions that are inhibitory to DENV infection, and that recombinant D7 protein can inhibit DENV infection in vitro and in vivo. Further, binding assays indicate that D7 protein can directly interact with DENV virions and recombinant DENV envelope protein. These data reveal a novel role for D7 proteins, which inhibits arbovirus transmission to vertebrates through a direct interaction with virions. PMID:27632170

  7. Repellents Inhibit P450 Enzymes in Stegomyia (Aedes) aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo Ramirez, Gloria Isabel; Logan, James G.; Loza-Reyes, Elisa; Stashenko, Elena; Moores, Graham D.

    2012-01-01

    The primary defence against mosquitoes and other disease vectors is often the application of a repellent. Despite their common use, the mechanism(s) underlying the activity of repellents is not fully understood, with even the mode of action of DEET having been reported to be via different mechanisms; e.g. interference with olfactory receptor neurones or actively detected by olfactory receptor neurones on the antennae or maxillary palps. In this study, we discuss a novel mechanism for repellence, one of P450 inhibition. Thirteen essential oil extracts from Colombian plants were assayed for potency as P450 inhibitors, using a kinetic fluorometric assay, and for repellency using a modified World Health Organisation Pesticide Evaluations Scheme (WHOPES) arm-in cage assay with Stegomyia (Aedes) aegypti mosquitoes. Bootstrap analysis on the inhibition analysis revealed a significant correlation between P450-inhibition and repellent activity of the oils. PMID:23152795

  8. Temporal genetic stability of Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti) populations.

    PubMed

    Gloria-Soria, A; Kellner, D A; Brown, J E; Gonzalez-Acosta, C; Kamgang, B; Lutwama, J; Powell, J R

    2016-06-01

    The mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) is the primary vector of viruses that cause yellow fever, dengue and Chikungunya fever. In the absence of effective vaccines, the reduction of these diseases relies on vector control strategies. The success of these strategies is tightly linked to the population dynamics of target populations. In the present study, 14 collections from St. aegypti populations separated by periods of 1-13 years were analysed to determine their temporal genetic stability. Although temporal structure is discernible in most populations, the degree of temporal differentiation is dependent on the population and does not obscure the geographic structure of the various populations. The results suggest that performing detailed studies in the years prior to and after population reduction- or modification-based control interventions at each target field site may be useful in assessing the probability of success.

  9. Aedes aegypti D7 Saliva Protein Inhibits Dengue Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Conway, Michael J; Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Troupin, Andrea; Watson, Alan M; Klimstra, William B; Fikrig, Erol; Colpitts, Tonya M

    2016-09-01

    Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of several medically relevant arboviruses including dengue virus (DENV) types 1-4. Ae. aegypti transmits DENV by inoculating virus-infected saliva into host skin during probing and feeding. Ae. aegypti saliva contains over one hundred unique proteins and these proteins have diverse functions, including facilitating blood feeding. Previously, we showed that Ae. aegypti salivary gland extracts (SGEs) enhanced dissemination of DENV to draining lymph nodes. In contrast, HPLC-fractionation revealed that some SGE components inhibited infection. Here, we show that D7 proteins are enriched in HPLC fractions that are inhibitory to DENV infection, and that recombinant D7 protein can inhibit DENV infection in vitro and in vivo. Further, binding assays indicate that D7 protein can directly interact with DENV virions and recombinant DENV envelope protein. These data reveal a novel role for D7 proteins, which inhibits arbovirus transmission to vertebrates through a direct interaction with virions. PMID:27632170

  10. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: First Report on the Presence of the Arbovirus Mosquito Vector in Nouakchott.

    PubMed

    Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Brengues, Cécile; Faye, Ousmane; Simard, Frédéric; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital city, Nouakchott. We describe the development sites in which larvae of the two species were found, drawing attention to the risk for emergence of arbovirus transmission in the city. PMID:26335483

  11. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: First Report on the Presence of the Arbovirus Mosquito Vector in Nouakchott.

    PubMed

    Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Brengues, Cécile; Faye, Ousmane; Simard, Frédéric; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital city, Nouakchott. We describe the development sites in which larvae of the two species were found, drawing attention to the risk for emergence of arbovirus transmission in the city.

  12. Effect of triflumuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, on Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Resistance to traditional insecticides represents a threat to the control of disease vectors. The insect growth regulators (IGR) are a potential alternative to control mosquitoes, including resistant populations. The chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSI) are IGRs, which interfere with the insect molting process and represent one major class of compounds against Aedes aegypti populations resistant to the larvicide organophosphate temephos. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of the CSI triflumuron on Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes albopictus and against several Ae. aegypti field populations. Methods The efficacy of triflumuron, against Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. albopictus was evaluated with laboratory strains through dose–response assays. Additionaly, this CSI was tested against seven Ae. aegypti field populations exhibiting distinct resistance levels to both temephos and the pyrethroid deltamethrin. Aedes aegypti populations were exposed to both a dose that inhibits 99% of the adult emergence of mosquitoes from the susceptible reference strain, Rockefeller, (EI99 = 3.95 μg/L) and the diagnostic dose (DD), corresponding to twice the EI99. Results Our results indicate that triflumuron was effective in emergence inhibition (EI) of Cx. quinquefasciatus (EI50= 5.28 μg/L; EI90= 12.47 μg/L) and Ae. albopictus (EI50= 1.59 μg/L; EI90= 2.63 μg/L). Triflumuron was also effective against seven Ae. aegypti Brazilian populations resistant to both temephos and deltamethrin. Exposure of all the Ae. aegypti populations to the triflumuron EI99 of the susceptible reference strain, Rockefeller, resulted in complete inhibition of adult emergence, suggesting no cross-resistance among traditional insecticides and this CSI. However, a positive correlation between temephos resistance and tolerance to triflumuron was observed. Conclusion The results suggest that triflumuron represents a potential tool for the control of disease vectors in public

  13. Wolbachia Modulates Lipid Metabolism in Aedes albopictus Mosquito Cells

    PubMed Central

    Molloy, Jennifer C.; Sommer, Ulf; Viant, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Certain strains of the intracellular endosymbiont Wolbachia can strongly inhibit or block the transmission of viruses such as dengue virus (DENV) by Aedes mosquitoes, and the mechanisms responsible are still not well understood. Direct infusion and liquid chromatography-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry-based lipidomics analyses were conducted using Aedes albopictus Aa23 cells that were infected with the wMel and wMelPop strains of Wolbachia in comparison to uninfected Aa23-T cells. Substantial shifts in the cellular lipid profile were apparent in the presence of Wolbachia. Most significantly, almost all sphingolipid classes were depleted, and some reductions in diacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines were also observed. These lipid classes have previously been shown to be selectively enriched in DENV-infected mosquito cells, suggesting that Wolbachia may produce a cellular lipid environment that is antagonistic to viral replication. The data improve our understanding of the intracellular interactions between Wolbachia and mosquitoes. IMPORTANCE Mosquitoes transmit a variety of important viruses to humans, such as dengue virus and Zika virus. Certain strains of the intracellular bacterial genus called Wolbachia found in or introduced into mosquitoes can block the transmission of viruses, including dengue virus, but the mechanisms responsible are not well understood. We found substantial shifts in the cellular lipid profiles in the presence of these bacteria. Some lipid classes previously shown to be enriched in dengue virus-infected mosquito cells were depleted in the presence of Wolbachia, suggesting that Wolbachia may produce a cellular lipid environment that inhibits mosquito-borne viruses. PMID:26994075

  14. Aedes Mosquito Saliva Modulates Rift Valley Fever Virus Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Le Coupanec, Alain; Babin, Divya; Fiette, Laurence; Jouvion, Grégory; Ave, Patrick; Misse, Dorothee; Bouloy, Michèle; Choumet, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Background Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe mosquito-borne disease affecting humans and domestic ruminants. Mosquito saliva contains compounds that counteract the hemostatic, inflammatory, and immune responses of the host. Modulation of these defensive responses may facilitate virus infection. Indeed, Aedes mosquito saliva played a crucial role in the vector's capacity to effectively transfer arboviruses such as the Cache Valley and West Nile viruses. The role of mosquito saliva in the transmission of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) has not been investigated. Objective Using a murine model, we explored the potential for mosquitoes to impact the course of RVF disease by determining whether differences in pathogenesis occurred in the presence or absence of mosquito saliva and salivary gland extract. Methods C57BL/6NRJ male mice were infected with the ZH548 strain of RVFV via intraperitoneal or intradermal route, or via bites from RVFV-exposed mosquitoes. The virus titers in mosquitoes and mouse organs were determined by plaque assays. Findings After intraperitoneal injection, RVFV infection primarily resulted in liver damage. In contrast, RVFV infection via intradermal injection caused both liver and neurological symptoms and this route best mimicked the natural infection by mosquitoes. Co-injections of RVFV with salivary gland extract or saliva via intradermal route increased the mortality rates of mice, as well as the virus titers measured in several organs and in the blood. Furthermore, the blood cell counts of infected mice were altered compared to those of uninfected mice. Interpretation Different routes of infection determine the pattern in which the virus spreads and the organs it targets. Aedes saliva significantly increases the pathogenicity of RVFV. PMID:23785528

  15. Cumulative mortality of Aedes aegypti larvae treated with compounds

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Sandra Maria; da Cruz, Nadine Louise Nicolau; Rolim, Vitor Pereira de Matos; Cavalcanti, Maria Inês de Assis; Alves, Leucio Câmara; da Silva, Valdemiro Amaro

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the larvicidal activity of Azadirachta indica, Melaleuca alternifolia, carapa guianensis essential oils and fermented extract of Carica papaya against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae). METHODS The larvicide test was performed in triplicate with 300 larvae for each experimental group using the third larval stage, which were exposed for 24h. The groups were: positive control with industrial larvicide (BTI) in concentrations of 0.37 ppm (PC1) and 0.06 ppm (PC2); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 50.0% concentration (G1); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 25.0% concentration (G2); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 12.5% concentration (G3); and negative control group using water (NC1) and using dimethyl (NC2). The larvae were monitored every 60 min using direct visualization. RESULTS No mortality occurred in experimental groups NC1 and NC2 in the 24h exposure period, whereas there was 100% mortality in the PC1 and PC2 groups compared to NC1 and NC2. Mortality rates of 65.0%, 50.0% and 78.0% were observed in the groups G1, G2 and G3 respectively, compared with NC1 and NC2. CONCLUSIONS The association between three essential oils from Azadirachta indica, Melaleuca alternifolia, Carapa guianensis and fermented extract of Carica papaya was efficient at all concentrations. Therefore, it can be used in Aedes aegypti Liverpool third larvae stage control programs. PMID:25119939

  16. Cumulative mortality of Aedes aegypti larvae treated with compounds.

    PubMed

    Torres, Sandra Maria; Cruz, Nadine Louise Nicolau da; Rolim, Vitor Pereira de Matos; Cavalcanti, Maria Inês de Assis; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Silva Júnior, Valdemiro Amaro da

    2014-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the larvicidal activity of Azadirachta indica, Melaleuca alternifolia, carapa guianensis essential oils and fermented extract of Carica papaya against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae). METHODS The larvicide test was performed in triplicate with 300 larvae for each experimental group using the third larval stage, which were exposed for 24h. The groups were: positive control with industrial larvicide (BTI) in concentrations of 0.37 ppm (PC1) and 0.06 ppm (PC2); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 50.0% concentration (G1); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 25.0% concentration (G2); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 12.5% concentration (G3); and negative control group using water (NC1) and using dimethyl (NC2). The larvae were monitored every 60 min using direct visualization. RESULTS No mortality occurred in experimental groups NC1 and NC2 in the 24h exposure period, whereas there was 100% mortality in the PC1 and PC2 groups compared to NC1 and NC2. Mortality rates of 65.0%, 50.0% and 78.0% were observed in the groups G1, G2 and G3 respectively, compared with NC1 and NC2. CONCLUSIONS The association between three essential oils from Azadirachta indica, Melaleuca alternifolia, Carapa guianensis and fermented extract of Carica papaya was efficient at all concentrations. Therefore, it can be used in Aedes aegypti Liverpool third larvae stage control programs. PMID:25119939

  17. Cumulative mortality of Aedes aegypti larvae treated with compounds.

    PubMed

    Torres, Sandra Maria; Cruz, Nadine Louise Nicolau da; Rolim, Vitor Pereira de Matos; Cavalcanti, Maria Inês de Assis; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Silva Júnior, Valdemiro Amaro da

    2014-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the larvicidal activity of Azadirachta indica, Melaleuca alternifolia, carapa guianensis essential oils and fermented extract of Carica papaya against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae). METHODS The larvicide test was performed in triplicate with 300 larvae for each experimental group using the third larval stage, which were exposed for 24h. The groups were: positive control with industrial larvicide (BTI) in concentrations of 0.37 ppm (PC1) and 0.06 ppm (PC2); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 50.0% concentration (G1); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 25.0% concentration (G2); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 12.5% concentration (G3); and negative control group using water (NC1) and using dimethyl (NC2). The larvae were monitored every 60 min using direct visualization. RESULTS No mortality occurred in experimental groups NC1 and NC2 in the 24h exposure period, whereas there was 100% mortality in the PC1 and PC2 groups compared to NC1 and NC2. Mortality rates of 65.0%, 50.0% and 78.0% were observed in the groups G1, G2 and G3 respectively, compared with NC1 and NC2. CONCLUSIONS The association between three essential oils from Azadirachta indica, Melaleuca alternifolia, Carapa guianensis and fermented extract of Carica papaya was efficient at all concentrations. Therefore, it can be used in Aedes aegypti Liverpool third larvae stage control programs.

  18. Global distribution and continuing spread of Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, A B

    1995-12-01

    Aedes albopictus ranks second only to Ae. aegypti in importance to man as a vector of dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) which viruses place at risk a potential population of 2 billion people living in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Due to its predilection for breeding in a plethora of habitat within urban and suburban environs as well as peri-rural areas it is spreading rapidly where suitable breeding is available. It exhibits strain differences ranging from the cold-hardy to tropic loving, yet despite limited flight range, it has spread beyond the Orient to China, the Pacific, the Indian Ocean islands, the Americas, parts of continental Africa and into southern Europe. This has been done principally by means of transport of eggs in used tyres via rapid air and sea transport. Egg positive used tyres, when shipped, and later rehydrated by rainfall, produce adult mosquitoes within a few days rapidly infesting new areas. Although dengue and other vector-borne arboviral diseases have not been in Europe in epidemic form for many decades, travelers do not infrequently return from dengue endemic areas with dengue and other similar infections. Aedes albopictus is a potential vector of a number of arboviruses and can transmit them in a vertical or transvenereal manner in nature, thereby providing a means for their maintenance and transmission. Where Ae. albopictus newly occurs, the affected populace immediately are aware of a new daytime, nuisance biting mosquito and complaints addressed to local mosquito control authorities increase significantly. The biological characteristics of the mosquito make its spread within Europe highly probable. The paper offers several avenues to be pursued to reduce the global spread of Ae. albopictus, when examined within the context of Europe and the wider world community.

  19. [Detection of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, in an urban zone of the municipality of Catanduva, SP, after control of a Dengue epidemic].

    PubMed

    Cardoso Júnior, R P; Scandar, S A; de Mello, N V; Ernandes, S; Botti, M V; Nascimento, E M

    1997-01-01

    After the realization of control research that had in view the transmission of dengue virus, we started to monitor two kinds of entomological vigilance, Breteau Index and ovitrap. We intended to evaluate the necessary time elapsed before Aedes sp mosquitoes were again detected at the urban area of Catanduva s town (SP). The ovitraps showed positiveness for the Aedes aegypti two months after the control research, while the Breteau Index became positive only at the fourth month after the end of the referred research.

  20. The Efficacy of Some Commercially Available Insect Repellents for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Stacy D; Drake, Lisa L; Price, David P; Hammond, John I; Hansen, Immo A

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the number of host-vector interactions is an effective way to reduce the spread of vector-borne diseases. Repellents are widely used to protect humans from a variety of protozoans, viruses, and nematodes. DEET (N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide), a safe and effective repellent, was developed during World War II. Fear of possible side effects of DEET has created a large market for "natural" DEET-free repellents with a variety of active ingredients. We present a comparative study on the efficacy of eight commercially available products, two fragrances, and a vitamin B patch. The products were tested using a human hand as attractant in a Y-tube olfactometer setup with Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse), both major human disease vectors. We found that Ae. albopictus were generally less attracted to the test subject's hand compared with Ae, aegypti. Repellents with DEET as active ingredient had a prominent repellency effect over longer times and on both species. Repellents containing p-menthane-3,8-diol produced comparable results but for shorter time periods. Some of the DEET-free products containing citronella or geraniol did not have any significant repellency effect. Interestingly, the perfume we tested had a modest repellency effect early after application, and the vitamin B patch had no effect on either species. This study shows that the different active ingredients in commercially available mosquito repellent products are not equivalent in terms of duration and strength of repellency. Our results suggest that products containing DEET or p-menthane-3,8-diol have long-lasting repellent effects and therefore provide good protection from mosquito-borne diseases.

  1. The Efficacy of Some Commercially Available Insect Repellents for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Stacy D; Drake, Lisa L; Price, David P; Hammond, John I; Hansen, Immo A

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the number of host-vector interactions is an effective way to reduce the spread of vector-borne diseases. Repellents are widely used to protect humans from a variety of protozoans, viruses, and nematodes. DEET (N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide), a safe and effective repellent, was developed during World War II. Fear of possible side effects of DEET has created a large market for "natural" DEET-free repellents with a variety of active ingredients. We present a comparative study on the efficacy of eight commercially available products, two fragrances, and a vitamin B patch. The products were tested using a human hand as attractant in a Y-tube olfactometer setup with Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse), both major human disease vectors. We found that Ae. albopictus were generally less attracted to the test subject's hand compared with Ae, aegypti. Repellents with DEET as active ingredient had a prominent repellency effect over longer times and on both species. Repellents containing p-menthane-3,8-diol produced comparable results but for shorter time periods. Some of the DEET-free products containing citronella or geraniol did not have any significant repellency effect. Interestingly, the perfume we tested had a modest repellency effect early after application, and the vitamin B patch had no effect on either species. This study shows that the different active ingredients in commercially available mosquito repellent products are not equivalent in terms of duration and strength of repellency. Our results suggest that products containing DEET or p-menthane-3,8-diol have long-lasting repellent effects and therefore provide good protection from mosquito-borne diseases. PMID:26443777

  2. The Efficacy of Some Commercially Available Insect Repellents for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Stacy D.; Drake, Lisa L.; Price, David P.; Hammond, John I.; Hansen, Immo A.

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the number of host-vector interactions is an effective way to reduce the spread of vector-borne diseases. Repellents are widely used to protect humans from a variety of protozoans, viruses, and nematodes. DEET (N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide), a safe and effective repellent, was developed during World War II. Fear of possible side effects of DEET has created a large market for “natural” DEET-free repellents with a variety of active ingredients. We present a comparative study on the efficacy of eight commercially available products, two fragrances, and a vitamin B patch. The products were tested using a human hand as attractant in a Y-tube olfactometer setup with Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse), both major human disease vectors. We found that Ae. albopictus were generally less attracted to the test subject’s hand compared with Ae, aegypti. Repellents with DEET as active ingredient had a prominent repellency effect over longer times and on both species. Repellents containing p-menthane-3,8-diol produced comparable results but for shorter time periods. Some of the DEET-free products containing citronella or geraniol did not have any significant repellency effect. Interestingly, the perfume we tested had a modest repellency effect early after application, and the vitamin B patch had no effect on either species. This study shows that the different active ingredients in commercially available mosquito repellent products are not equivalent in terms of duration and strength of repellency. Our results suggest that products containing DEET or p-menthane-3,8-diol have long-lasting repellent effects and therefore provide good protection from mosquito-borne diseases. PMID:26443777

  3. Vector competence of Mexican and Honduran mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) for enzootic (IE) and epizootic (IC) strains of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus.

    PubMed

    Turell, Michael J; O'Guinn, Monica L; Navarro, Roberto; Romero, Guadeloupe; Estrada-Franco, José G

    2003-05-01

    Experimental studies evaluated the vector competence of Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann), Culex cancer Theobald, Culex pseudes (Dyar and Knab), Culex taeniopus Dyar and Knab, and a Culex (Culex) species, probably Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Culex nigripalpus Theobald from Chiapas, Mexico, and Tocoa, Honduras, for epizootic (IC) and enzootic (IE) strains of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus. Culex pseudes was highly susceptible to infection with both the IC and IE strains of VEE (infection rates >78%). Patterns of susceptibility to VEE were similar for Oc. taeniorhynchus collected in Mexico and Honduras. Although Oc. taeniorhynchus was highly susceptible to the epizootic IC strains (infection rates > or = 95%, n = 190), this species was less susceptible to the enzootic IE strain (infection rates < or = 35%, n = 233). The Culex (Culex) species were refractory to both subtypes of VEE, and none of 166 contained evidence of a disseminated infection. Virus-exposed Cx. pseudes that refed on susceptible hamsters readily transmitted virus, confirming that this species was an efficient vector of VEE. Although Oc. taeniorhynchus that fed on hamsters infected with the epizootic IC strain transmitted VEE efficiently, only one of six of those with a disseminated infection with the enzootic IE virus that fed on hamsters transmitted virus by bite. These data indicate that Cx. pseudes is an efficient laboratory vector of both epizootic and enzootic strains of VEE and that Oc. taeniorhynchus could be an important vector of epizootic subtypes of VEE.

  4. Vector Competence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes vittatus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Senegal and Cape Verde Archipelago for West African Lineages of Chikungunya Virus

    PubMed Central

    Diagne, Cheikh T.; Faye, Oumar; Guerbois, Mathilde; Knight, Rachel; Diallo, Diawo; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Dia, Ibrahima; Faye, Ousmane; Weaver, Scott C.; Sall, Amadou A.; Diallo, Mawlouth

    2014-01-01

    To assess the risk of emergence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in West Africa, vector competence of wild-type, urban, and non-urban Aedes aegypti and Ae. vittatus from Senegal and Cape Verde for CHIKV was investigated. Mosquitoes were fed orally with CHIKV isolates from mosquitoes (ArD30237), bats (CS13-288), and humans (HD180738). After 5, 10, and 15 days of incubation following an infectious blood meal, presence of CHIKV RNA was determined in bodies, legs/wings, and saliva using real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Aedes vittatus showed high susceptibility (50–100%) and early dissemination and transmission of all CHIKV strains tested. Aedes aegypti exhibited infection rates ranging from 0% to 50%. Aedes aegypti from Cape Verde and Kedougou, but not those from Dakar, showed the potential to transmit CHIKV in saliva. Analysis of biology and competence showed relatively high infective survival rates for Ae. vittatus and Ae. aegypti from Cape Verde, suggesting their efficient vector capacity in West Africa. PMID:25002293

  5. The effect of Piper aduncum Linn. (Family: Piperaceae) essential oil as aerosol spray against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse.

    PubMed

    Misni, Norashiqin; Othman, Hidayatulfathi; Sulaiman, Sallehudin

    2011-08-01

    The bioefficacy of Piper aduncum L. essential oil formulated in aerosol cans was evaluated against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in a simulated room. The aerosol spray test was based on the Malaysian test standard for aerosol (MS 1221:1991UDC 632.982.2 modified from WHO 2009 methodology) and examined the knockdown effect within 20 minutes of exposure. Mortality rate after 24 hour of holding period was also determined. A commercial aerosol spray (0.09% prallethrin 0.05% d-phenothrin) was also tested as a comparison. Our results showed that the knockdown effect of the commercial aerosol spray and P. aduncum essential oil spray (8% and 10% concentrations) was significantly higher in Ae. albopictus adult females, when compared with that of Ae. aegypti adult females (P<0.05). There was a significant difference in knockdown between commercial aerosol spray and essential oil spray for both Aedes spp. (P<0.05). The essential oil induced significantly higher mortality in Ae. aegypti (80%) than in Ae. albopictus (71.6%) (P<0.05). The commercial aerosol spray caused 97.7% and 86.5% mortality against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus respectively (P<0.05). Based on these data, P. aduncum essential oil has the potential to be used as an aerosol spray against Aedes spp. PMID:22041743

  6. Comparison of BG-Sentinel® Trap and Oviposition Cups for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Surveillance in Jacksonville, Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jennifer A; Larson, Ryan T; Richardson, Alec G; Cote, Noel M; Stoops, Craig A; Clark, Marah; Obenauer, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    The BG-Sentinel® (BGS) trap and oviposition cups (OCs) have both proven effective in the surveillance of Aedes species. This study aimed to determine which of the 2 traps could best characterize the relative population sizes of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti in an urban section of Jacksonville, FL. Until 1986, Ae. aegypti was considered the dominant container-breeding species in urban northeastern Florida. Since the introduction of Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti has become almost completely extirpated. In 2011, a resurgence of Ae. aegypti was detected in the urban areas of Jacksonville; thus this study initially set out to determine the extent of Ae. aegypti reintroduction to the area. We determined that the BGS captured a greater number of adult Ae. aegypti than Ae. albopictus, while OCs did not monitor significantly different numbers of either species, even in areas where the BGS traps suggested a predominance of one species over the other. Both traps were effective at detecting Aedes spp.; however, the BGS proved more diverse by detecting over 20 other species as well. Our results show that in order to accurately determine vectorborne disease threats and the impact of control operations on these 2 species, multiple trapping techniques should be utilized when studying Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus population dynamics.

  7. Vector competence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes vittatus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Senegal and Cape Verde archipelago for West African lineages of chikungunya virus.

    PubMed

    Diagne, Cheikh T; Faye, Oumar; Guerbois, Mathilde; Knight, Rachel; Diallo, Diawo; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Dia, Ibrahima; Faye, Ousmane; Weaver, Scott C; Sall, Amadou A; Diallo, Mawlouth

    2014-09-01

    To assess the risk of emergence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in West Africa, vector competence of wild-type, urban, and non-urban Aedes aegypti and Ae. vittatus from Senegal and Cape Verde for CHIKV was investigated. Mosquitoes were fed orally with CHIKV isolates from mosquitoes (ArD30237), bats (CS13-288), and humans (HD180738). After 5, 10, and 15 days of incubation following an infectious blood meal, presence of CHIKV RNA was determined in bodies, legs/wings, and saliva using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Aedes vittatus showed high susceptibility (50-100%) and early dissemination and transmission of all CHIKV strains tested. Aedes aegypti exhibited infection rates ranging from 0% to 50%. Aedes aegypti from Cape Verde and Kedougou, but not those from Dakar, showed the potential to transmit CHIKV in saliva. Analysis of biology and competence showed relatively high infective survival rates for Ae. vittatus and Ae. aegypti from Cape Verde, suggesting their efficient vector capacity in West Africa. PMID:25002293

  8. Efficacy of ovitrap colors and patterns for attracting Aedes albopictus at suburban field sites in North-Central Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We sought to visually enhance the attractiveness of a standard black ovitrap routinely used in surveillance of the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus, and now being used as lethal ovitraps in Aedes aegypti dengue control programs. Black plastic drinking cups (ovitraps) were visually altered to ...

  9. Vertical distribution of Aedes mosquitoes in multiple storey buildings in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lau, K W; Chen, C D; Lee, H L; Izzul, A A; Asri-Isa, M; Zulfadli, M; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the vertical distribution and abundance of Aedes mosquitoes in multiple storey buildings in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Ovitrap surveillance was conducted for 4 continuous weeks in multiple storey buildings in 4 residential areas located in Selangor [Kg. Baiduri (KB)] and Kuala Lumpur [Student Hostel of University of Malaya (UM), Kg. Kerinchi (KK) and Hang Tuah (HT)]. The results implied that Aedes mosquitoes could be found from ground floor to highest floor of multiple storey buildings and data from different elevation did not show significant difference. Ovitrap index for UM, KB, HT and KK ranged from 0 - 29.17%, 0 - 55.56%, 8.33 - 83.33% and 0 - 91.17% respectively. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus were found breeding in HT, KK and KB; while only Ae. albopictus was obtained from UM. The results indicate that the invasion of Aedes mosquitoes in high-rise apartments could facilitate the transmission of dengue virus and new approaches to vector control in this type of residential area should be developed. PMID:23665706

  10. Vertical distribution of Aedes mosquitoes in multiple storey buildings in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lau, K W; Chen, C D; Lee, H L; Izzul, A A; Asri-Isa, M; Zulfadli, M; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the vertical distribution and abundance of Aedes mosquitoes in multiple storey buildings in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Ovitrap surveillance was conducted for 4 continuous weeks in multiple storey buildings in 4 residential areas located in Selangor [Kg. Baiduri (KB)] and Kuala Lumpur [Student Hostel of University of Malaya (UM), Kg. Kerinchi (KK) and Hang Tuah (HT)]. The results implied that Aedes mosquitoes could be found from ground floor to highest floor of multiple storey buildings and data from different elevation did not show significant difference. Ovitrap index for UM, KB, HT and KK ranged from 0 - 29.17%, 0 - 55.56%, 8.33 - 83.33% and 0 - 91.17% respectively. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus were found breeding in HT, KK and KB; while only Ae. albopictus was obtained from UM. The results indicate that the invasion of Aedes mosquitoes in high-rise apartments could facilitate the transmission of dengue virus and new approaches to vector control in this type of residential area should be developed.

  11. Detection of a new insect flavivirus and isolation of Aedes flavivirus in Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During recent years, numerous novel ‘insect flaviviruses’ have been discovered in natural mosquito populations. In a previous study we described the presence of flavivirus DNA sequences integrated in Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito) populations from Northern Italy in 2007. Methods During 2008 we collected and tested Aedes females for flavivirus presence and developed phylogenetic analysis, virus isolation, electron microscopy studies and RNAse treatments. Results We detected a high prevalence of flavivirus in Ae. albopictus (77.5%). The phylogenetic analysis identified the insect flavivirus sequences as Aedes flavivirus (AEFV) recently described in Japan, and that may have been introduced in Italy travelling with the tiger mosquito. Some of these pools grew in C6/36 cells, producing cytopathic effects, and the RNase treatment results showed the presence of the detected sequences in RNA forms. Furthermore, we detected a new insect flavivirus in one pool of Aedes cinereus/geminus mosquitoes. Phylogenetic analysis of this virus shows that it forms a distinct cluster within the clade of insect flavivirus. Conclusions This is the first study to report a high prevalence, to describe the seasonal activity and an isolation of the insect flavivirus Aedes flavivirus in Europe. Moreover we describe the detection of a new insect flavivirus detected from Ae. cinereus mosquitoes from Italy. These flavivirus may be common, ubiquitous and diverse in nature and we discuss the implications of the insect flavivirus group in virus evolution and transmission. PMID:23043958

  12. Distribution of Aedes mosquitoes in the Kilimanjaro Region of northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Julian T; Lyaruu, Lucille J; Ooi, Eng Eong; Mosha, Franklin W; Crump, John A

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the presence and distribution of Aedes mosquitoes in northern Tanzania despite the occurence of viruses transmitted by these mosquitoes such as Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) in the region. Adult and larval mosquitoes were collected from rural and urban settings across a wide range of altitudes in the Kilimanjaro Region using the Mosquito Magnet CO2 Trap for collection of adults and old tires for breeding of larvae. Polymerase chain reaction assays were performed on captured adult mosquitoes to detect the presence of CHIKV and DENV. A total of 2609 Aedes aegypti adult mosquitoes were collected; no other Aedes species larvae were found. Mosquito yields were significantly higher in urban settings than rural settings (26.5 vs. 1.9 mosquitoes per day, p = 0.037). A total of 6570 Ae. aegypti larvae were collected from old tires; no other Aedes species larvae were found. Of the 2609 adult mosquitoes collected, none tested positive for CHIKV or DENV. As far as we are aware, this paper reports for the first time the presence of Ae. aegypti in the Kilimanjaro Region of northern Tanzania. Although CHIKV and DENV were not isolated from any of the collected mosquitoes in this study, the apparent absence of other Aedes species in the area suggests that Ae. aegypti is the primary local vector of these infections.

  13. Observations on the breeding habitat of Aedes species in the steel township, Rourkela.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S K; Padhan, K; Rath, Y; Rao, S K

    2001-03-01

    Prompted by report of large number of dengue fever cases in township of Rourkela steel plant, entomological surveys were carried out to know the distribution and extent of Aedes breeding in and around the dengue fever affected areas. Out of 2062 water containers searched, 819 were positive for Aedes larvae. The house index (HI), container index (CI) and Breteau index (BI) were 53.4, 39.7 and 118.5 respectively. 27.9% of the houses had single breeding habitats. The breateau index of single storeyed houses and double storeyed buildings was 149.8 and 54.6 respectively, showing that the single storeyed houses have more potential for Aedes breeding. The breeding preference ratio (BPR) was highest for plastic containers. Three species of Aedes were found breeding in different habitats and Aedes aegypti was found breeding in coolers, cement tanks, tyres and miscellaneous containers with a prevalence rate of 13.2%. The role of entomological surveillance and health education has been highlighted for the control of disease through community participation.

  14. Distribution of Aedes mosquitoes in the Kilimanjaro Region of northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Julian T; Lyaruu, Lucille J; Ooi, Eng Eong; Mosha, Franklin W; Crump, John A

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the presence and distribution of Aedes mosquitoes in northern Tanzania despite the occurence of viruses transmitted by these mosquitoes such as Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) in the region. Adult and larval mosquitoes were collected from rural and urban settings across a wide range of altitudes in the Kilimanjaro Region using the Mosquito Magnet CO2 Trap for collection of adults and old tires for breeding of larvae. Polymerase chain reaction assays were performed on captured adult mosquitoes to detect the presence of CHIKV and DENV. A total of 2609 Aedes aegypti adult mosquitoes were collected; no other Aedes species larvae were found. Mosquito yields were significantly higher in urban settings than rural settings (26.5 vs. 1.9 mosquitoes per day, p = 0.037). A total of 6570 Ae. aegypti larvae were collected from old tires; no other Aedes species larvae were found. Of the 2609 adult mosquitoes collected, none tested positive for CHIKV or DENV. As far as we are aware, this paper reports for the first time the presence of Ae. aegypti in the Kilimanjaro Region of northern Tanzania. Although CHIKV and DENV were not isolated from any of the collected mosquitoes in this study, the apparent absence of other Aedes species in the area suggests that Ae. aegypti is the primary local vector of these infections. PMID:27376502

  15. Identification of AaCASPS7, an effector caspase in Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lingyan; Liu, Hao; Li, Xiaomei; Qiao, Jialu; Wang, Shengya; Guo, Deyin; Liu, Qingzhen

    2016-11-15

    Aedes albopictus mosquito is a vector of various arboviruses and is becoming a significant threat to public health due to its rapid global expansion. Several reports suggest that apoptosis could be a factor limiting arbovirus infection in mosquitoes. Thus, it is significant to identify apoptosis pathway and study the correlation between apoptosis and virus infection in mosquitoes. Apoptosis is a type of programmed cell death that plays a vital role in immunity, development, and tissue homeostasis. Caspases are a family of conserved proteases playing important roles in apoptosis. In this study, we identified Aedes albopictus AaCASPS7, a caspase shared high identity with dipteran insect drICE orthologs. Phylogenetic analysis showed the closest relative of AaCASPS7 was Aedes aegypti AeCASPS7. AaCASPS7 displayed several features that were typical of an effector caspase and showed significant activity to effector caspase substrates. Aacasps7 transcripts were expressed ubiquitously in developmental and adult stages in Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Transient expression of AaCASPS7 induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in C6/36 cells. Taken together the above data, this study identified a novel caspase, AaCASPS7, which might function as an apoptotic caspase. Further study the function of AaCASPS7 would facilitate better understanding the apoptotic mechanism in Aedes albopictus mosquito. PMID:27502418

  16. Aedes albopictus and Its Environmental Limits in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Cunze, Sarah; Kochmann, Judith; Koch, Lisa K.; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, native to South East Asia, is listed as one of the worst invasive vector species worldwide. In Europe the species is currently restricted to Southern Europe, but due to the ongoing climate change, Ae. albopictus is expected to expand its potential range further northwards. In addition to modelling the habitat suitability for Ae. albopictus under current and future climatic conditions in Europe by means of the maximum entropy approach, we here focused on the drivers of the habitat suitability prediction. We explored the most limiting factors for Aedes albopictus in Europe under current and future climatic conditions, a method which has been neglected in species distribution modelling so far. Ae. albopictus is one of the best-studied mosquito species, which allowed us to evaluate the applied Maxent approach for most limiting factor mapping. We identified three key limiting factors for Ae. albopictus in Europe under current climatic conditions: winter temperature in Eastern Europe, summer temperature in Southern Europe. Model findings were in good accordance with commonly known establishment thresholds in Europe based on climate chamber experiments and derived from the geographical distribution of the species. Under future climatic conditions low winter temperature were modelled to remain the most limiting factor in Eastern Europe, whereas in Central Europe annual mean temperature and summer temperatures were modelled to be replaced by summer precipitation, respectively, as most limiting factors. Changes in the climatic conditions in terms of the identified key limiting factors will be of great relevance regarding the invasive potential of the Ae. albopictus. Thus, our results may help to understand the key drivers of the suggested range expansion under climate change and may help to improve monitoring programmes. The applied approach of investigating limiting factors has proven to yield valuable results and may also provide

  17. Aedes albopictus and Its Environmental Limits in Europe.

    PubMed

    Cunze, Sarah; Kochmann, Judith; Koch, Lisa K; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, native to South East Asia, is listed as one of the worst invasive vector species worldwide. In Europe the species is currently restricted to Southern Europe, but due to the ongoing climate change, Ae. albopictus is expected to expand its potential range further northwards. In addition to modelling the habitat suitability for Ae. albopictus under current and future climatic conditions in Europe by means of the maximum entropy approach, we here focused on the drivers of the habitat suitability prediction. We explored the most limiting factors for Aedes albopictus in Europe under current and future climatic conditions, a method which has been neglected in species distribution modelling so far. Ae. albopictus is one of the best-studied mosquito species, which allowed us to evaluate the applied Maxent approach for most limiting factor mapping. We identified three key limiting factors for Ae. albopictus in Europe under current climatic conditions: winter temperature in Eastern Europe, summer temperature in Southern Europe. Model findings were in good accordance with commonly known establishment thresholds in Europe based on climate chamber experiments and derived from the geographical distribution of the species. Under future climatic conditions low winter temperature were modelled to remain the most limiting factor in Eastern Europe, whereas in Central Europe annual mean temperature and summer temperatures were modelled to be replaced by summer precipitation, respectively, as most limiting factors. Changes in the climatic conditions in terms of the identified key limiting factors will be of great relevance regarding the invasive potential of the Ae. albopictus. Thus, our results may help to understand the key drivers of the suggested range expansion under climate change and may help to improve monitoring programmes. The applied approach of investigating limiting factors has proven to yield valuable results and may also provide

  18. Field evaluation of boric acid and fipronil based bait stations against adult mosquitoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of boric acid (1%) and fipronil (0.1%) bait stations in reducing the number of laboratory-reared female Aedes aegypti and Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus mosquitoes released in outdoor screened cages was evaluated. Both toxicants reduced landing rates of the two mosquito species on a ...

  19. The ferritin light-chain homologue promoter in Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Pham, D Q-D; Chavez, C A

    2005-06-01

    Promoters that direct the expression of antipathogenic molecules to primary sites of pathogenic invasions provide a means to interfere with these invasions. Thus, they have the potential to be used in mosquito control. However, exogenous elements are known to lower the fitness of most insects, and given the ability of insects to evolve rapidly, all currently known promoters could be rendered useless. As transgenic mosquitoes may be a major component in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases, the identification of new mosquito promoters is needed. The promoter of the Aedes aegypti ferritin light-chain homologue (LCH) gene, a gene whose expression is induced in gut tissues during blood feeding has been identified and mapped. Transfection data indicate that the ferritin LCH promoter is a strong promoter. DNase I footprinting data and Transfac analyses suggest that the ferritin LCH promoter contains putative GATA, E2F, NIT2, TATA and DPE sites. These data together provide the first detailed map of a known ferritin LCH gene.

  20. Structure comparisons of Aedes albopictus densovirus with other parvoviruses.

    PubMed

    Cheng, LingPeng; Chen, SenXiong; Zhou, Z H; Zhang, JingQiang

    2007-02-01

    Parvoviridae is a family of the smallest viruses known with a wide variety of hosts. The capsid structure of the Aedes albopictus C6/36 cell densovirus (C6/36 DNV) at 1.2-nm resolution was obtained by electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction. Structure comparisons between the C6/36 DNV and other parvoviruses reveal that the degree of structural similarity between C6/36 DNV and the human parvovirus B19 is higher than that between C6/36 DNV and other insect parvoviruses. The amino acid sequence comparisons of structural and non-structural proteins also reveal higher levels of similarity between C6/36 DNV and parvovirus B19 than those between C6/36 DNV and other parvoviruses. These findings indicate that C6/36 DNV is closely related to the human virus B19, and the former might evolve from the human species other than from other insect viruses.

  1. Mutualistic Wolbachia infection in Aedes albopictus: accelerating cytoplasmic drive.

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Stephen L; Marsland, Eric J; Rattanadechakul, Wanchai

    2002-01-01

    Maternally inherited rickettsial symbionts of the genus Wolbachia occur commonly in arthropods, often behaving as reproductive parasites by manipulating host reproduction to enhance the vertical transmission of infections. One manipulation is cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), which causes a significant reduction in brood hatch and promotes the spread of the maternally inherited Wolbachia infection into the host population (i.e., cytoplasmic drive). Here, we have examined a Wolbachia superinfection in the mosquito Aedes albopictus and found the infection to be associated with both cytoplasmic incompatibility and increased host fecundity. Relative to uninfected females, infected females live longer, produce more eggs, and have higher hatching rates in compatible crosses. A model describing Wolbachia infection dynamics predicts that increased fecundity will accelerate cytoplasmic drive rates. To test this hypothesis, we used population cages to examine the rate at which Wolbachia invades an uninfected Ae. albopictus population. The observed cytoplasmic drive rates were consistent with model predictions for a CI-inducing Wolbachia infection that increases host fecundity. We discuss the relevance of these results to both the evolution of Wolbachia symbioses and proposed applied strategies for the use of Wolbachia infections to drive desired transgenes through natural populations (i.e., population replacement strategies). PMID:11901124

  2. Dengue virus-infected Aedes aegypti in the home environment.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Rejon, Julian; Loroño-Pino, Maria Alba; Farfan-Ale, Jose Arturo; Flores-Flores, Luis; Del Pilar Rosado-Paredes, Elsy; Rivero-Cardenas, Nubia; Najera-Vazquez, Rosario; Gomez-Carro, Salvador; Lira-Zumbardo, Victor; Gonzalez-Martinez, Pedro; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Elizondo-Quiroga, Darwin; Beaty, Barry J; Eisen, Lars

    2008-12-01

    We determined abundance of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and presence of dengue virus (DENV) in females collected from premises of laboratory-confirmed dengue patients over a 12-month period (March 2007 to February 2008) in Merida, Mexico. Backpack aspiration from 880 premises produced 1,836 females and 1,292 males indoors (predominantly from bedrooms) and 102 females and 108 males from patios/backyards. The mean weekly indoor catch rate per home peaked at 7.8 females in late August. Outdoor abundances of larvae or pupae were not predictive of female abundance inside the home. DENV-infected Ae. aegypti females were recovered from 34 premises. Collection of DENV-infected females from homes of dengue patients up to 27 days after the onset of symptoms (median, 14 days) shows the usefulness of indoor insecticide application in homes of suspected dengue patients to prevent their homes from becoming sources for dispersal of DENV by persons visiting and being bitten by infected mosquitoes. PMID:19052309

  3. Standardized Laboratory Feeding of Larval Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Bock, Friederike; Kuch, Ulrich; Pfenninger, Markus; Müller, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The Asian bush mosquito (Aedes japonicus japonicus, Theobald 1901) is an invasive culicid species which originates in Asia but is nowadays present in northern America and Europe. It is a competent vector for several human disease pathogens. In addition to the public health threat, this invasive species may also be an ecological threat for native container-breeding mosquitoes which share a similar larval habitat. Therefore, it is of importance to gain knowledge on ecological and eco-toxicological features of the Asian bush mosquito. However, optimal laboratory feeding conditions have not yet been established. Standardized feeding methods will be needed in assessing the impact of insecticides or competitional strength of this species. To fill this gap, we performed experiments on food quality and quantity for Ae. j. japonicus larvae. We found out that the commercial fish food TetraMin (Tetra, Melle, Germany) in a dose of 10 mg per larva is the most suitable food tested. We also suggest a protocol with a feeding sequence of seven portions for all larval stages of this species. PMID:26452522

  4. Population Genetic Structure of Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Multini, Laura Cristina; Suesdek, Lincoln; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2016-01-01

    Although Aedes fluviatilis is an anthropophilic mosquito found abundantly in urban environments, its biology, epidemiological potential and genetic characteristics are poorly understood. Climate change and urbanization processes that result in environmental modifications benefit certain anthropophilic mosquito species such as Ae. fluviatilis, greatly increasing their abundance in urban areas. To gain a better understanding of whether urbanization processes modulate the genetic structure of this species in the city of São Paulo, we used eight microsatellite loci to genetically characterize Ae. fluviatilis populations collected in nine urban parks in the city of São Paulo. Our results show that there is high gene flow among the populations of this species, heterozygosity deficiency and low genetic structure and that the species may have undergone a recent population expansion. There are two main hypotheses to explain these findings: (i) Ae. fluviatilis populations have undergone a population expansion as a result of urbanization; and (ii) as urbanization of the city of São Paulo occurred recently and was quite intense, the structuring of these populations cannot be observed yet, apart from in the populations of Ibirapuera and Piqueri parks, where the first signs of structuring have appeared. We believe that the expansion found in Ae. fluviatilis populations is probably correlated with the unplanned urbanization of the city of São Paulo, which transformed green areas into urbanized areas, as well as the increasing population density in the city. PMID:27598889

  5. Macroclimate determines the global range limit of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Capinha, César; Rocha, Jorge; Sousa, Carla A

    2014-09-01

    Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue and a number of other diseases worldwide. Because of the domestic nature of this mosquito, the relative importance of macroclimate in shaping its distribution has been a controversial issue. We have captured here the worldwide macroclimatic conditions occupied by A. aegypti in the last century. We assessed the ability of this information to predict the species' observed distribution using supra-continental spatially-uncorrelated data. We further projected the distribution of the colonized climates in the near future (2010-2039) under two climate-change scenarios. Our results indicate that the macroclimate is largely responsible for setting the maximum range limit of A. aegypti worldwide and that in the near future, relatively wide areas beyond this limit will receive macroclimates previously occupied by the species. By comparing our projections, with those from a previous model based strictly on species-climate relationships (i.e., excluding human influence), we also found support for the hypothesis that much of the species' range in temperate and subtropical regions is being sustained by artificial environments. Altogether, these findings suggest that, if the domestic environments commonly exploited by this species are available in the newly suitable areas, its distribution may expand considerably in the near future. PMID:24643859

  6. Oxime derivatives with larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Lima, Tamires Cardoso; Santos, Sandra Regina Lima; Uliana, Marciana P; Santos, Roseli La Corte; Brocksom, Timothy John; Cavalcanti, Sócrates Cabral de Holanda; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino

    2015-08-01

    Oximes containing secondary metabolites constitute an important group of bioactive compounds and have been described and frequently updated in the literature due to their pharmacological properties. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of a series of fourteen structurally related [1,4]-Benzoquinone mono-oximes on third-instar Aedes aegypti larvae and to investigate structure-activity relationships (SAR) of these compounds. Results of larvicidal assay revealed that all oximes were found to have larvicidal activity. Compound 2,6-dimethyl-[1,4]-benzoquinone oxime tosylate (11) was the most bioactive (LC50 = 9.858 ppm), followed by 2-methyl-[1,4]-benzoquinone oxime tosylate (9) (LC50 = 14.450 ppm). [1,4]-benzoquinone oxime (1) exhibited the lowest potency, with an LC50 = 121.181 ppm. The molecular characteristics which may help to understand the assayed compounds larvicidal activity were identified. SAR indicates that the addition of alkyl groups attached to the ring, number, position in the unsaturated cyclic structure, and size of these groups influence the larvicidal activity. Moreover, the lipophilicity seems to play an important role in increasing the larvicidal effect, because, in general, tosyl-containing products were more potent than products containing free OH. PMID:25956398

  7. Intriguing olfactory proteins from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Yuko; Chen, Angela M.; Tsuruda, Jennifer M.; Cornel, Anthon J.; Debboun, Mustapha; Leal, Walter S.

    2004-09-01

    Four antennae-specific proteins (AaegOBP1, AaegOBP2, AaegOBP3, and AaegASP1) were isolated from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti and their full-length cDNAs were cloned. RT-PCR indicated that they are expressed in female and, to a lesser extent, in male antennae, but not in control tissues (legs). AaegOBP1 and AaegOBP3 showed significant similarity to previously identified mosquito odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) in cysteine spacing pattern and sequence. Two of the isolated proteins have a total of eight cysteine residues. The similarity of the spacing pattern of the cysteine residues and amino acid sequence to those of previously identified olfactory proteins suggests that one of the cysteine-rich proteins (AaegOBP2) is an OBP. The other (AaegASP1) did not belong to any group of known OBPs. Structural analyses indicate that six of the cysteine residues in AaegOBP2 are linked in a similar pattern to the previously known cysteine pairing in OBPs, i.e., Cys-24 Cys-55, Cys-51 Cys-104, Cys-95 Cys-113. The additional disulfide bridge, Cys-38 Cys-125, knits the extended C-terminal segment of the protein to a predicted α2-helix. As indicated by circular dichroism (CD) spectra, the extra rigidity seems to prevent the predicted formation of a C-terminal α-helix at low pH.

  8. Larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti of pacharin from Bauhinia acuruana.

    PubMed

    da Silva Góis, Roberto Wagner; de Sousa, Leôncio Mesquita; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro; Romero, Nirla Rodrigues; Lemos, Telma Leda Gomes; Arriaga, Angela Martha Campos; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the activity of pacharin isolated from the ethanol extract from roots of Bauhinia acuruana on third-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae). The crude ethanol extract showed larvicidal activity at the concentration of 500 μg/mL. Given this larvicidal activity, this extract was submitted to chromatographic fractionation on a silica gel column eluted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl ether, ethyl acetate, and methanol in order to isolate the active compound(s). Pacharin, obtained in pure form from fraction eluted with ethyl ether, was evaluated for their larvicidal effects against A. aegypti. In these bioassays, the larvae were exposed at concentrations of 500, 250, 100, 50, and 25 μg/mL of the crude ethanol extract or pacharin. After 24 h, the number of dead larvae was counted and the LC₅₀ values for larval mortality were calculated. Pacharin showed LC50 value of 78.9 ± 1.8 μg/mL. The structure of isolated compound was identified on the basis of their spectral data (IR, 1D- and 2D-NMR) and by comparison with literature spectral data. The results indicate pacharin as a potential natural larvicide.

  9. Germline excision of transgenes in Aedes aegypti by homing endonucleases.

    PubMed

    Aryan, Azadeh; Anderson, Michelle A E; Myles, Kevin M; Adelman, Zach N

    2013-01-01

    Aedes (Ae.) aegypti is the primary vector for dengue viruses (serotypes1-4) and chikungunya virus. Homing endonucleases (HEs) are ancient selfish elements that catalyze double-stranded DNA breaks (DSB) in a highly specific manner. In this report, we show that the HEs Y2-I-AniI, I-CreI and I-SceI are all capable of catalyzing the excision of genomic segments from the Ae. aegypti genome in a heritable manner. Y2-I-AniI demonstrated the highest efficiency at two independent genomic targets, with 20-40% of Y2-I-AniI-treated individuals producing offspring that had lost the target transgene. HE-induced DSBs were found to be repaired via the single-strand annealing (SSA) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathways in a manner dependent on the availability of direct repeat sequences in the transgene. These results support the development of HE-based gene editing and gene drive strategies in Ae. aegypti, and confirm the utility of HEs in the manipulation and modification of transgenes in this important vector.

  10. Origin of the Dengue Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti, in California

    PubMed Central

    Gloria-Soria, Andrea; Brown, Julia E.; Kramer, Vicki; Hardstone Yoshimizu, Melissa; Powell, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever is among the most widespread vector-borne infectious diseases. The primary vector of dengue is the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Ae. aegypti is prevalent in the tropics and sub-tropics and is closely associated with human habitats outside its native range of Africa. While long established in the southeastern United States of America where dengue is re-emerging, breeding populations have never been reported from California until the summer of 2013. Using 12 highly variable microsatellite loci and a database of reference populations, we have determined that the likely source of the California introduction is the southeastern United States, ruling out introductions from abroad, from the geographically closer Arizona or northern Mexico populations, or an accidental release from a research laboratory. The power to identify the origin of new introductions of invasive vectors of human disease relies heavily on the availability of a panel of reference populations. Our work demonstrates the importance of generating extensive reference databases of genetically fingerprinted human-disease vector populations to aid public health efforts to prevent the introduction and spread of vector-borne diseases. PMID:25077804

  11. Formulas of components of citronella oil against mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti).

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wey-Shin; Yen, Jui-Hung; Wang, Yei-Shung

    2013-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is an epidemic vector of several diseases such as dengue fever and yellow fever. Several pesticides are used to control the mosquito population. Because of their frequent use, some mosquitoes have developed resistance. In this study, we used the Y-tube olfactometer to test essential oils of Cymbopogon species and screened specific formulas of components as repellents against Ae. aegypti. At 400 μL, the extracted oil of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) and myrcene produced a low-active response by inhibiting mosquito host-seeking activity. Citronella grass, lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), citral and myrcene also produced a low-treatment response to repellents, for more potential to affect host-seeking behavior. Furthermore, the mixture of citral, myrcene, and citronellal oil (C:M:Ci = 6:4:1) greatly affected and inhibited host-seeking behavior (76% active response; 26% treatment response with 40 μL; 42.5%, 18% with 400 μL; and 19%, 23% with 1000 μL). As compared with the result for N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET; 44%, 22% with 400 μL), adjusting the composition formulas of citronella oil had a synergistic effect, for more effective repellent against Ae. aegypti. PMID:23998314

  12. Oxime derivatives with larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Lima, Tamires Cardoso; Santos, Sandra Regina Lima; Uliana, Marciana P; Santos, Roseli La Corte; Brocksom, Timothy John; Cavalcanti, Sócrates Cabral de Holanda; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino

    2015-08-01

    Oximes containing secondary metabolites constitute an important group of bioactive compounds and have been described and frequently updated in the literature due to their pharmacological properties. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of a series of fourteen structurally related [1,4]-Benzoquinone mono-oximes on third-instar Aedes aegypti larvae and to investigate structure-activity relationships (SAR) of these compounds. Results of larvicidal assay revealed that all oximes were found to have larvicidal activity. Compound 2,6-dimethyl-[1,4]-benzoquinone oxime tosylate (11) was the most bioactive (LC50 = 9.858 ppm), followed by 2-methyl-[1,4]-benzoquinone oxime tosylate (9) (LC50 = 14.450 ppm). [1,4]-benzoquinone oxime (1) exhibited the lowest potency, with an LC50 = 121.181 ppm. The molecular characteristics which may help to understand the assayed compounds larvicidal activity were identified. SAR indicates that the addition of alkyl groups attached to the ring, number, position in the unsaturated cyclic structure, and size of these groups influence the larvicidal activity. Moreover, the lipophilicity seems to play an important role in increasing the larvicidal effect, because, in general, tosyl-containing products were more potent than products containing free OH.

  13. Population Genetic Structure of Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Multini, Laura Cristina; Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Suesdek, Lincoln; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2016-01-01

    Although Aedes fluviatilis is an anthropophilic mosquito found abundantly in urban environments, its biology, epidemiological potential and genetic characteristics are poorly understood. Climate change and urbanization processes that result in environmental modifications benefit certain anthropophilic mosquito species such as Ae. fluviatilis, greatly increasing their abundance in urban areas. To gain a better understanding of whether urbanization processes modulate the genetic structure of this species in the city of São Paulo, we used eight microsatellite loci to genetically characterize Ae. fluviatilis populations collected in nine urban parks in the city of São Paulo. Our results show that there is high gene flow among the populations of this species, heterozygosity deficiency and low genetic structure and that the species may have undergone a recent population expansion. There are two main hypotheses to explain these findings: (i) Ae. fluviatilis populations have undergone a population expansion as a result of urbanization; and (ii) as urbanization of the city of São Paulo occurred recently and was quite intense, the structuring of these populations cannot be observed yet, apart from in the populations of Ibirapuera and Piqueri parks, where the first signs of structuring have appeared. We believe that the expansion found in Ae. fluviatilis populations is probably correlated with the unplanned urbanization of the city of São Paulo, which transformed green areas into urbanized areas, as well as the increasing population density in the city. PMID:27598889

  14. New Candidates for Plant-Based Repellents Against Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Misni, Norashiqin; Nor, Zurainee Mohamed; Ahmad, Rohani

    2016-06-01

    Based on an ethnobotanical study on use for plant species against mosquito bites in the Kota Tinggi District, Johor State, Malaysia, 3 plants selected for study, Citrus aurantifolia (leaves), Citrus grandis (fruit peel), and Alpinia galanga (rhizome), were extracted using hydrodistillation to produce essential oils. These essential oils were then formulated as a lotion using a microencapsulation process and then tested for their repellent effect against Aedes aegypti. N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet) was also prepared in the same formulation and tested for repellency as controls. Four commercial plant-based repellent (KAPS(®), MozAway(®), BioZ Natural(®), and Mosiquard(®)) also were incorporated in the bioassay for comparison purposes. Bioassays revealed that at 20% concentration all repellent formulations demonstrated complete protection for 2 h and >90% for 4 h post-application. The A. galanga-based formulation provided the greatest level of protection (98.91%), which extended for 4 h post-application and was not significantly different from deet at similar concentration. When compared with commercial plant-based repellents (KAPS(®), MozAway(®), and BioZ Natural(®)), the 3 lotion formulations showed significantly better protection against Ae. aegypti bites, providing >90% protection for 4 h. In conclusion, our 3 plant-based lotion formulations provided acceptable levels of protection against host-seeking Ae. aegypti and should be developed.

  15. Temporal variation of wing geometry in Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Paloma Oliveira; Carvalho, Eneas; Suesdek, Lincoln

    2012-12-01

    Although native to the tropical and subtropical areas of Southeast Asia, Aedes albopictus is now found on five continents, primarily due to its great capacity to adapt to different environments. This species is considered a secondary vector of dengue virus in several countries. Wing geometric morphometrics is widely used to furnish morphological markers for the characterisation and identification of species of medical importance and for the assessment of population dynamics. In this work, we investigated the metric differentiation of the wings of Ae. albopictus samples collected over a four-year period (2007-2010) in São Paulo, Brazil. Wing size significantly decreased during this period for both sexes and the wing shape also changed over time, with the wing shapes of males showing greater differences after 2008 and those of females differing more after 2009. Given that the wings play sex-specific roles, these findings suggest that the males and females could be affected by differential evolutionary pressures. Consistent with this hypothesis, a sexually dimorphic pattern was detected and quantified: the females were larger than the males (with respect to the mean) and had a distinct wing shape, regardless of allometric effects. In conclusion, wing alterations, particularly those involving shape, are a sensitive indicator of microevolutionary processes in this species.

  16. The lethal effects of Cyperus iria on Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, A M; Paskewitz, S M; Orth, A P; Tesch, M J; Toong, Y C; Goodman, W G

    1998-03-01

    The sedge Cyperus iria, a common weed in rice, contains large amounts of the insect hormone (10R) juvenile hormone III (JH III). Given its widespread distribution in Asia and Africa, we examined the possibility that C. iria could be used as a safe, inexpensive, and readily available mosquito larvicide. Plants of varying ages were harvested and leaves tested for lethal effects on larvae of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. The median lethal doses (LD50s) for frozen leaves from 1- and 2-month-old plants were 267 and 427 mg/100 ml of water, respectively. Leaves from 1-month-old C. iria contained 193 micrograms JH III/g fresh weight, whereas leaves from 2-month-old plants contained 143 micrograms JH III/g fresh weight. Larval sensitivity to the plant differed with age; 4-day-old larvae displayed the greatest mortality followed in decreasing sensitivity by larvae 5, 6, 3, and 2 days old. Six Cyperus species (C. albostriatus, C. alternifolius, C. esculentus, C. iria, C. miliifolius, and C. papyrus) of similar developmental stage were assayed for JH III content. Only C. iria was found to contain significant levels of JH III. PMID:9599328

  17. Experimental Transmission of Mayaro Virus by Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Long, Kanya C.; Ziegler, Sarah A.; Thangamani, Saravanan; Hausser, Nicole L.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Higgs, Stephen; Tesh, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Outbreaks of Mayaro fever have been associated with a sylvatic cycle of Mayaro virus (MAYV) transmission in South America. To evaluate the potential for a common urban mosquito to transmit MAYV, laboratory vector competence studies were performed with Aedes aegypti from Iquitos, Peru. Oral infection in Ae. aegypti ranged from 0% (0/31) to 84% (31/37), with blood meal virus titers between 3.4 log10 and 7.3 log10 plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL. Transmission of MAYV by 70% (21/30) of infected mosquitoes was shown by saliva collection and exposure to suckling mice. Amount of viral RNA in febrile humans, determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction, ranged from 2.7 to 5.3 log10 PFU equivalents/mL. Oral susceptibility of Ae. aegypti to MAYV at titers encountered in viremic humans may limit opportunities to initiate an urban cycle; however, transmission of MAYV by Ae. aegypti shows the vector competence of this species and suggests potential for urban transmission. PMID:21976583

  18. Innate Cellular Immune Responses in Aedes caspius (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Soliman, D E; Farid, H A; Hammad, R E; Gad, A M; Bartholomay, L C

    2016-03-01

    Mosquitoes transmit a variety of pathogens that have devastating consequences for global public and veterinary health. Despite their capacity to serve as vectors, these insects have a robust capacity to respond to invading organisms with strong cellular and humoral immune responses. In Egypt, Aedes caspius (Pallas, 1771) has been suspected to act as a bridge vector of Rift Valley Fever virus between animals and humans. Microscopic analysis of Ae. caspius hemolymph revealed the presence of phagocytic cells called granulocytes. We further evaluated cellular immune responses produced by Ae. caspius as a result of exposure to a Gram-negative, and Gram-positive bacterium, and to latex beads. After challenge, a rapid and strong phagocytic response against either a natural or synthetic invader was evident. Hemocyte integrity in bacteria-inoculated mosquitoes was not morphologically affected. The number of circulating granulocytes decreased with age, reducing the overall phagocytic capacity of mosquitoes over time. The magnitude and speed of the phagocytic response suggested that granulocytes act as an important force in the battle against foreign invaders, as has been characterized in other important mosquito vector species.

  19. [Oviposition and dispersion of Aedes aegypti in an urban environment].

    PubMed

    Reiter, P

    1996-01-01

    It is generally accepted that female Aedes aegypti do not fly more than 50-100 m in their entire lifetime, yet the rapidity with which this species colonizes new areas, and the explosive nature of dengue and yellow fever epidemics appear to contradict this. Using molecular methods, we have confirmed that the Ae. aegypti females lay small numbers of eggs at many sites. The distribution of available sites implies that the female may fly a considerable distance to deposit her whole egg batch. We developed a method of monitor dispersal during oviposition by labelling the eggs of the mosquito with rubidium, a relatively rare, non-radioactive element. Eggs laid by females fed in the laboratory on blood containing rubidium were collected in the field with ovitraps and assayed by atomic emission spectroscopy. Our study revealed rapid dispersal over our entire study area, more than 800 m in diameter. We conclude that dispersal may be driven by the availability of oviposition sites. Marked eggs were collected for up to 7 days after feeding, suggesting that the gonotrophic cycle in the field is longer than generally assumed. This implies that calculations of longevity based on ovarian dissection and estimates of the duration of the gonotrophic cycle may need to be revised. Novel studies on sugar feeding and blood feeding are also mentioned.

  20. Origin of the dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, in California.

    PubMed

    Gloria-Soria, Andrea; Brown, Julia E; Kramer, Vicki; Hardstone Yoshimizu, Melissa; Powell, Jeffrey R

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever is among the most widespread vector-borne infectious diseases. The primary vector of dengue is the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Ae. aegypti is prevalent in the tropics and sub-tropics and is closely associated with human habitats outside its native range of Africa. While long established in the southeastern United States of America where dengue is re-emerging, breeding populations have never been reported from California until the summer of 2013. Using 12 highly variable microsatellite loci and a database of reference populations, we have determined that the likely source of the California introduction is the southeastern United States, ruling out introductions from abroad, from the geographically closer Arizona or northern Mexico populations, or an accidental release from a research laboratory. The power to identify the origin of new introductions of invasive vectors of human disease relies heavily on the availability of a panel of reference populations. Our work demonstrates the importance of generating extensive reference databases of genetically fingerprinted human-disease vector populations to aid public health efforts to prevent the introduction and spread of vector-borne diseases.

  1. Morphological and genetic variability within Aedes aegypti in Niakhar, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Paupy, Christophe; Brengues, Cécile; Ndiath, Ousmane; Toty, Céline; Hervé, Jean-Pierre; Simard, Frédéric

    2010-05-01

    Aedes aegypti (Linné, 1762) is a major vector of arboviruses such as Yellow Fever, Dengue and Chikungunya. In Africa, where the species exhibits major variations in morphology, ecology, behavior and vector competence, two subspecies have been described: a light form, named Ae. aegypti aegypti (Aaa) with highly domestic and anthropophilic habits and a cosmotropical distribution; and a dark form, referred to as Ae. aegypti formosus (Aaf), which is endemic to Africa and thrives in sylvan environments. In East Africa, both forms were described to occur in sympatry whereas only Aaf was reported from Central/West Africa. However, recent findings suggest Aaa was also common in Senegal. Here, we report on a longitudinal survey of morphological and genetic variability of Ae. aegypti sampled in the rural environment of Niakhar, Senegal. In agreement with recent findings, most of specimens we analyzed were classified as Aaa suggesting typical Aaf was scarce in the studied area. Among Aaa, significant temporal variations in abdominal pale scales pattern were detected. Depending on the season and the nature of larval breeding places, the specimens (particularly females) tend to segregate in two main morphological groups. Microsatellite-based estimates of genetic differentiation did not provide any clear evidence that the two groups were genetically distinct. Overall, these results improve our understanding of the diversity of Ae. aegypti in West Africa, where data are crucially lacking.

  2. Genetic structure of Aedes aegypti populations determined using pairwise comparisons.

    PubMed

    Patarro, T de F; Guirado, M M; Ravazzi, L M; Bicudo, H E M de C

    2013-01-01

    The biological characteristics of Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae), which is a vector of dengue and yellow fever, make this organism a good model for studying population structure and the events that may influence it under the effect of human activity. We assessed the genetic variability of five A. aegypti populations using RAPD-PCR technique and six primers. Four populations were from Brazil and one was from the USA. A total of 165 polymorphic DNA loci were generated. Considering the six primers and the five populations, the mean value of inter-population genetic diversity (Gst) was 0.277, which is considered high according to the Wright classification. However, pairwise comparisons of the populations gave variable Gst values ranging from 0.044 to 0.289. This variation followed the population's geographic distance to some extent but was also influenced by human activity. The lowest Gst values were obtained in the comparison of populations from cities with intensive commercial and medical contacts. These mosquito populations were previously classified as insecticide resistant, susceptible, or with decreased susceptibility; this parameter apparently had an effect on the Gst values obtained in the pairwise comparisons.

  3. Aedes aegypti disregard humidity-related conditions with adequate nutrition.

    PubMed

    Canyon, D V; Muller, R; Hii J, L K

    2013-03-01

    Weather variations have clear associations with the epidemiology of dengue fever and populations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Data on humidity associations, however, lags with respect to its effect on host-biting, nectar-seeking and survival. This experimental study on Ae. aegypti, sourced from the arid tropics, investigated the effect of low and high relative humidity and diet in relation to host-biting, temporal variations in feeding frequency, and mosquito mortality. In each environmental setting, 10 replicates, containing one male and five female mosquitoes, were challenged with different nutritional sources every six hours over 12 days. Results showed that host-biting did not diminish in low humidity and was six times higher than expected. Sucrose feeding was observed to significantly moderate host-biting and water alone was inadequate for survival. The high host-biting rates help to explain the intensity of dengue epidemics, while the ability of the mosquito to disregard adverse humidity-related conditions helps to explain how dengue epidemics in arid tropical regions can be just as devastating as those in the wet tropics.

  4. [Detection of Aedes (Stegomyia) Aegypti L. mosquitoes in Sochi city].

    PubMed

    Riabova, T E; Iunicheva, Iu V; Markovich, N Ia; Ganushkina, L A; Orabeĭ, V G; Sergiev, V P

    2005-01-01

    Few Aedes aegypti females were found when collecting the mosquitoes attacking human beings in the Central District of Sochi in August to September 2001-2004. Ae. aegypti, a vector of dangerous causative agents of diseases, such as yellow and Aden fevers, appeared on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus is recorded after its long absence. By taking into account the potential epidemic value of Ae. aegypti, it is necessary to make a monitoring in the cities, towns, and settlements to establish the spread, number, and the breading sites of mosquitoes in the given area and to prevent their mass reproduction. The effectiveness of Ae. albopictus as a vector of Aden fever has been established in different regions of the world. Entomological surveys for Ae. albopictus should be made in the areas of Russia where Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were distributed early in the past century, particularly in the southern port towns and settlements of Russia. Ae. albopictus is potentially able to spread to the north further than is Ae. aegypti.

  5. Aedes aegypti larval indices and risk for dengue epidemics.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Lizet; Vanlerberghe, Veerle; Alfonso, Lázara; Marquetti, Maria del Carmen; Guzman, Maria Guadalupe; Bisset, Juan; van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2006-05-01

    We assessed in a case-control study the test-validity of Aedes larval indices for the 2000 Havana outbreak. "Cases" were blocks where a dengue fever patient lived during the outbreak. "Controls" were randomly sampled blocks. Before, during, and after the epidemic, we calculated Breteau index (BI) and house index at the area, neighborhood, and block level. We constructed receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to determine their performance as predictors of dengue transmission. We observed a pronounced effect of the level of measurement. The BI(max) (maximum block BI in a radius of 100 m) at 2-month intervals had an area under the ROC curve of 71%. At a cutoff of 4.0, it significantly (odds ratio 6.00, p<0.05) predicted transmission with 78% sensitivity and 63% specificity. Analysis of BI at the local level, with human-defined boundaries, could be introduced in control programs to identify neighborhoods at high risk for dengue transmission.

  6. Nectar feeding by the early-spring mosquito Aedes provocans.

    PubMed

    Smith, S M; Gadawski, R M

    1994-07-01

    Nectar feeding by males and females of the mosquito Aedes provocans was studied at a site near Belleville, Ontario, Canada. Canada plum, Prunus nigra, and especially pin cherry, P. pensylvanica, bloomed contemporaneously with the emergence of Ae. provocans and were important nectar sources for adult mosquitoes during their first week of life. Blossoms of P. pensylvanica shielded for 24 h from foragers produced an average of 0.14 mg of sugar (approximately 2.3J). This nectar was avidly sought by both sexes of Ae. provocans; > 97% of the blossoms were visited by mosquitoes in the first few days of blooming. Young adult mosquitoes were found on blossoms at all hours of the day and night; feeding on P. nigra was strongly eocrepuscular, whereas on P. pensylvanica feeding was much less strongly periodic. Adults foraged for nectar in an energy-conserving, pedestrian strategy, devoting 56% (females) and 68% (males) of their time on blossoms to nectar feeding during foraging bouts that lasted a median of 5.3 min. Both sexes sought nectar soon after emergence--males before they had completed hypopygial rotation or swarmed, and females before mating or host seeking. Female Ae. provocans sought nectar in all stages of oogenesis, but primarily at the initiation of a gonotrophic cycle. Energy stores in the crop averaged 18J per female, with a distribution that depended on gonotrophic age and parity.

  7. Population genetic structure of Aedes albopictus in Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zawani, M K N; Abu, H A; Sazaly, A B; Zary, S Y; Darlina, M N

    2014-10-07

    The mosquito Aedes albopictus is indigenous to Southeast Asian and is a vector for arbovirus diseases. Studies examining the population genetics structure of A. albopictus have been conducted worldwide; however, there are no documented reports on the population genetic structure of A. albopictus in Malaysia, particularly in Penang. We examined the population genetics of A. albopictus based on a 445-base pair segment of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase 1 gene among 77 individuals from 9 localities representing 4 regions (Seberang Perai Utara, Seberang Perai Tengah, Northeast, and Southwest) of Penang. A total of 37 haplotypes were detected, including 28 unique haplotypes. The other 9 haplotypes were shared among various populations. These shared haplotypes reflect the weak population genetic structure of A. albopictus. The phylogenetic tree showed a low bootstrap value with no genetic structure, which was supported by minimum spanning network analysis. Analysis of mismatch distribution showed poor fit of equilibrium distribution. The genetic distance showed low genetic variation, while pairwise FST values showed no significant difference between all regions in Penang except for some localities. High haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity was observed for cytochrome oxidase 1 mtDNA. We conclude that there is no population genetic structure of A. albopictus mosquitoes in the Penang area.

  8. Dynamics of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in septic tanks.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Andrew J; Amador, Manuel; Diaz, Annette; Smith, Josh; Barrera, Roberto

    2009-12-01

    Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus were found in large numbers emerging from septic tanks in southern Puerto Rico during the dry season. Previous studies suggested that Ae. aegypti uses subterranean aquatic habitats only during dry periods when surface containers do not have water. This research investigated whether septic tanks are alternative aquatic habitats that this mosquito uses during unfavorable times of the year, or whether Ae. aegypti uses this aquatic habitat throughout the year. To assess temporal change, exit traps were used to collect mosquitoes emerging from septic tanks in Playa/Playita, southern Puerto Rico, from November 2006 to October 2007. We also investigated the hypotheses that (1) the production of Ae. aegypti in septic tanks was larger than in surface containers and (2) adult mosquitoes emerging from septic tanks were larger than those emerging from surface containers. This study demonstrated that unsealed septic tanks produced large numbers of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus throughout the year, without any significant relationship with rainfall. The number of adult Ae. aegypti emerging per day from septic tanks in each community was 3 to 9 times larger than those produced in surface containers. It was also demonstrated that Ae. aegypti emerging from septic tanks were significantly larger than those emerging from surface container habitats. It is recommended that dengue prevention programs include regular inspection and maintenance of septic tanks in communities lacking sewerage.

  9. New Candidates for Plant-Based Repellents Against Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Misni, Norashiqin; Nor, Zurainee Mohamed; Ahmad, Rohani

    2016-06-01

    Based on an ethnobotanical study on use for plant species against mosquito bites in the Kota Tinggi District, Johor State, Malaysia, 3 plants selected for study, Citrus aurantifolia (leaves), Citrus grandis (fruit peel), and Alpinia galanga (rhizome), were extracted using hydrodistillation to produce essential oils. These essential oils were then formulated as a lotion using a microencapsulation process and then tested for their repellent effect against Aedes aegypti. N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet) was also prepared in the same formulation and tested for repellency as controls. Four commercial plant-based repellent (KAPS(®), MozAway(®), BioZ Natural(®), and Mosiquard(®)) also were incorporated in the bioassay for comparison purposes. Bioassays revealed that at 20% concentration all repellent formulations demonstrated complete protection for 2 h and >90% for 4 h post-application. The A. galanga-based formulation provided the greatest level of protection (98.91%), which extended for 4 h post-application and was not significantly different from deet at similar concentration. When compared with commercial plant-based repellents (KAPS(®), MozAway(®), and BioZ Natural(®)), the 3 lotion formulations showed significantly better protection against Ae. aegypti bites, providing >90% protection for 4 h. In conclusion, our 3 plant-based lotion formulations provided acceptable levels of protection against host-seeking Ae. aegypti and should be developed. PMID:27280349

  10. Repellent activity of selected essential oils against Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Choochote, W; Chaithong, U; Kamsuk, K; Jitpakdi, A; Tippawangkosol, P; Tuetun, B; Champakaew, D; Pitasawat, B

    2007-07-01

    Essential oils extracted from ten plant species were screened for repellency against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Three oils; Zanthoxylum piperitum, Anethum graveolens and Kaempferia galanga, exerted protection against A. aegypti, with median complete-protection times of 1, 0.5 and 0.25 h, respectively. The protection times were increased significantly by incorporating 10% vanillin. The highest potential was established from Z. piperitum oil +10% vanillin (2.5 h, range=1-2.5 h). Mixtures from pairs of the effective oils possessed slight repellency that ranged from 0-0.5 h. None of the oil combinations repelled A. aegypti for longer than their constituent oil alone. With vanillin added, however, each oil mixture provided improved protection, which was approximately equal to oil on its own. GC/MS analysis revealed that the main component of Z. piperitum fruit oil was limonene (37.99%), with minor amounts of sabinene (13.30%) and beta-myrcene (7.17%). Repellent testing of stored samples of Z. piperitum fruit oil against A. aegypti demonstrated that repellent activity of those kept at -20 degrees C or 4 degrees C was present for a period of at least 3 months. Therefore, the essential oil of Z. piperitum fruit may prove useful in the development of mosquito repellents as an effective personal protection measure against mosquito bites. PMID:17512681

  11. [Anti-Aedes aegypti campaign in French Guiana].

    PubMed

    Cebret, A; Désiré, R

    1996-01-01

    The history of vector control in French Guiana started in 1947 when a small team was recruited for that purpose. In 1949, the first DDT treatments were implemented and Aedes aegypti could not be found until 1960. Between 1966 and 1972 an eradication campaign was carried out which resulted in the elimination of Ae. aegypti from all the department except the city of Cayenne. Malathion and orthodibrom were used as adulticides and temephos (Abate) was sprayed against the larvae. Nevertheless, in 1980, Ae. aegypti was still infesting Cayenne and its surroundings. The pilot project of the "Cité Grant" was developed, but never gave the expected results. In 1986, the vector control agency called "Service départmental de désinfection" was restructured and extended. During the 1990s, collaborations were developed between the different health participants of French Guiana, to improve disease control. Actually, the vector control activities include house inspections, mainly to detect, treat or eliminate the breeding-sources, and also to set up entomological indices. Furthermore, investigations are made on the laboratory confirmed dengue cases to find and treat the place of infection, spatial sprayings are made against the adults, and the community health education has being reinforced. The situation in French Guiana is not optimistic for climatic and logistical reasons, and the lack of participation from the community. The perspectives are to improve vector control through education, collaborations with local authorities, reorganisation of the control teams and regional exchanges.

  12. Relationship between rainfall and Aedes larval population at two insular sites in Pulau Ketam, Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Wee, Lim Kwee; Weng, Sit Nam; Raduan, Norzahira; Wah, Sing Kong; Ming, Wong Hong; Shi, Chew Hwai; Rambli, Firdaus; Ahok, Cheryl Jacyln; Marlina, Suria; Ahmad, Nazni Wasi; Mckemy, Andrew; Vasan, S S; Lim, Lee Han

    2013-03-01

    Two insular settlements (Kampung Pulau Ketam and Kampung Sungai Lima) were selected to study the population dynamics of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, vectors of dengue and chikungunya infections. Ovitrap surveillance was conducted between October 2007 and October 2008. There was an inverse negative association between ovitrap index and rainfall at the time of collection, probably because rainfall increased the number of available oviposition sites. Rainfall and ovitrap index were positively associates the 25th day after rainfall occurred. A minor, second peak was observed from the 38th to the 42nd day. The first peak was consistent with the minimum 18-day period between the hatching of eggs to the first oviposition. The second minor peak could be due to the second gonotrophic cycle of the female mosquitoes. Rainfall is an important environmental factor associated with Aedes breeding at the study sites. PMID:23691624

  13. Surveillance of Aedes albopictus Skuse breeding preference in selected dengue outbreak localities, peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rozilawati, H; Tanaselvi, K; Nazni, W A; Mohd Masri, S; Zairi, J; Adanan, C R; Lee, H L

    2015-03-01

    Entomological surveillance was conducted in order to determine the abundance and to evaluate any changes of biological vectors or ecology, especially in the dengue outbreak areas. The abundance and breeding preference of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti were conducted in selected dengue outbreak localities in three states of peninsular Malaysia namely Selangor, Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, and Penang Island using ovitraps and larval survey method. It was determined that Ae. albopictus was predominant in most of the localities and found to breed more outdoor than indoor. A wide range of breeding foci were recorded in this study. It was also determined that ovitrap method was more effective to detect the presence of Aedes mosquitoes when the larval survey was at low rate of infestation. The abundance of Ae. albopictus in dengue outbreak localities emphasis that the vector control programme should also target this species together with the primary dengue vector, Ae. aegypti. PMID:25801254

  14. Winter Refuge for Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus Mosquitoes in Hanoi during Winter

    PubMed Central

    Tsunoda, Takashi; Cuong, Tran Chi; Dong, Tran Duc; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Le, Nguyen Hoang; Phong, Tran Vu; Minakawa, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    Dengue occurs throughout the year in Hanoi, Vietnam, despite winter low temperatures <10°C. During July 2010 to March 2012, we surveyed monthly for Aedes larvae and pupae in 120 houses in 8 Hanoi districts. Aedes albopictus preferred discarded containers in summer and pupal density drastically decreased in winter. Aedes aegypti preferred concrete tanks and this preference increased in winter. Even in winter, the lowest water temperature found in concrete tanks was >14°C, exceeding the developmental zero point of Ae. aegypti. Although jars, drums and concrete tanks were the dominant containers previously (1994–97) in Hanoi, currently the percentage of residences with concrete tanks was still high while jars and drums were quite low. Our study showed that concrete tanks with broken lids allowing mosquitoes access were important winter refuge for Ae. aegypti. We also indicate a concern about concrete tanks serving as foci for Ae. aegypti to expand their distribution in cooler regions. PMID:24752230

  15. Prior Hydrologic Disturbance Affects Competition between Aedes Mosquitoes via Changes in Leaf Litter.

    PubMed

    Smith, Cassandra D; Freed, T Zachary; Leisnham, Paul T

    2015-01-01

    Allochthonous leaf litter is often the main resource base for invertebrate communities in ephemeral water-filled containers, and detritus quality can be affected by hydrologic conditions. The invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus utilizes container habitats for its development where it competes as larvae for detritus and associated microorganisms with the native Aedes triseriatus. Different hydrologic conditions that containers are exposed to prior to mosquito utilization affect litter decay and associated water quality. We tested the hypothesis that larval competition between A. albopictus and A. triseriatus would be differentially affected by prior hydrologic conditions. Experimental microcosms provisioned with Quercus alba L. litter were subjected to one of three different hydrologic treatments prior to the addition of water and mosquito larvae: dry, flooded, and a wet/dry cycle. Interspecific competition between A. albopictus and A. triseriatus was mediated by hydrologic treatment, and was strongest in the dry treatment vs. the flooded or wet/dry treatments. Aedes triseriatus estimated rate of population change (λ') was lowest in the dry treatment. Aedes albopictus λ' was unaffected by hydrologic treatment, and was on average always increasing (i.e., > 1). Aedes triseriatus λ' was affected by the interaction of hydrologic treatment with interspecific competition, and was on average declining (i.e., < 1.0), at the highest interspecific densities in the dry treatment. Dry treatment litter had the slowest decay rate and leached the highest concentration of tannin-lignin, but supported more total bacteria than the other treatments. These results suggest that dry conditions negatively impact A. triseriatus population performance and may result in the competitive exclusion of A. triseriatus by A. albopictus, possibly by reducing microbial taxa that Aedes species browse. Changing rainfall patterns with climate change are likely to affect competition between A

  16. Prior Hydrologic Disturbance Affects Competition between Aedes Mosquitoes via Changes in Leaf Litter.

    PubMed

    Smith, Cassandra D; Freed, T Zachary; Leisnham, Paul T

    2015-01-01

    Allochthonous leaf litter is often the main resource base for invertebrate communities in ephemeral water-filled containers, and detritus quality can be affected by hydrologic conditions. The invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus utilizes container habitats for its development where it competes as larvae for detritus and associated microorganisms with the native Aedes triseriatus. Different hydrologic conditions that containers are exposed to prior to mosquito utilization affect litter decay and associated water quality. We tested the hypothesis that larval competition between A. albopictus and A. triseriatus would be differentially affected by prior hydrologic conditions. Experimental microcosms provisioned with Quercus alba L. litter were subjected to one of three different hydrologic treatments prior to the addition of water and mosquito larvae: dry, flooded, and a wet/dry cycle. Interspecific competition between A. albopictus and A. triseriatus was mediated by hydrologic treatment, and was strongest in the dry treatment vs. the flooded or wet/dry treatments. Aedes triseriatus estimated rate of population change (λ') was lowest in the dry treatment. Aedes albopictus λ' was unaffected by hydrologic treatment, and was on average always increasing (i.e., > 1). Aedes triseriatus λ' was affected by the interaction of hydrologic treatment with interspecific competition, and was on average declining (i.e., < 1.0), at the highest interspecific densities in the dry treatment. Dry treatment litter had the slowest decay rate and leached the highest concentration of tannin-lignin, but supported more total bacteria than the other treatments. These results suggest that dry conditions negatively impact A. triseriatus population performance and may result in the competitive exclusion of A. triseriatus by A. albopictus, possibly by reducing microbial taxa that Aedes species browse. Changing rainfall patterns with climate change are likely to affect competition between A

  17. Introduction and Establishment of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Managua, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Belli, Alejandro; Arostegui, Jorge; Garcia, Jorge; Aguilar, Carlos; Lugo, Emperatriz; Lopez, Damaris; Valle, Sonia; Lopez, Mercedes; Harris, Eva; Coloma, Josefina

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) is the main vector of dengue virus and more recently chikungunya virus in Latin America. However, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) is expanding its global range and increasing its role in transmission of these diseases. In this report, we suggest that Ae. albopictus was introduced to the Department of Managua, Nicaragua, in 2010 via two independent routes and demonstrate its dissemination and establishment in urban neighborhoods by 2012. The coexistence of two competent vector species could alter the epidemiology of dengue and chikungunya as well as indicate the need for new strategies aimed at vector control. PMID:26335479

  18. Introduction and Establishment of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Managua, Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Belli, Alejandro; Arostegui, Jorge; Garcia, Jorge; Aguilar, Carlos; Lugo, Emperatriz; Lopez, Damaris; Valle, Sonia; Lopez, Mercedes; Harris, Eva; Coloma, Josefina

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) is the main vector of dengue virus and more recently chikungunya virus in Latin America. However, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) is expanding its global range and increasing its role in transmission of these diseases. In this report, we suggest that Ae. albopictus was introduced to the Department of Managua, Nicaragua, in 2010 via two independent routes and demonstrate its dissemination and establishment in urban neighborhoods by 2012. The coexistence of two competent vector species could alter the epidemiology of dengue and chikungunya as well as indicate the need for new strategies aimed at vector control. PMID:26335479

  19. Laboratory and semi-field evaluation of Mosquito Dunks against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larvae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Fansiri, Thanyalak; Thavara, Usavadee; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Krasaesub, Somporn; Sithiprasasna, Ratana

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory bioassays and semi-field studies were conducted on the efficacy and longevity of Mosquito Dunks (7,000 ITU/mg Bti) in order to determine the concentration-response relationship and the effectiveness on the potency of the Bti product against Aedes mosquito species based on the WHO protocol standard methods and to determine the longevity of release for this product against Ae. aegypti mosquito larvae in water storage containers. This bio-potency study with the late 3rd instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus was carried out according to WHO standard protocols. The six concentrations of the Bti product used in each test were replicated 4 times with 25 mosquito larvae. Probit analysis was then used to determine the LC50 and LC95 which was equated with dosages of 1.02 and 1.86 ppm for Ae. aegypti; and 0.39 and 0.84 ppm for Ae. albopictus, which reveals a potency of 382.95 and 303.74 ITU/mg, respectively. The semi-field evaluation of this product in 200-liter earthen jars against 3rd instar larvae of Ae. aegypti showed satisfactory control of greater than 80% at 11 weeks post-treatment.

  20. Comparison of Vector Competence of Aedes mediovittatus and Aedes aegypti for Dengue Virus: Implications for Dengue Control in the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Poole-Smith, B. Katherine; Hemme, Ryan R.; Delorey, Mark; Felix, Gilberto; Gonzalez, Andrea L.; Amador, Manuel; Hunsperger, Elizabeth A.; Barrera, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Background Aedes mediovittatus mosquitoes are found throughout the Greater Antilles in the Caribbean and often share the same larval habitats with Ae. Aegypti, the primary vector for dengue virus (DENV). Implementation of vector control measures to control dengue that specifically target Ae. Aegypti may not control DENV transmission in Puerto Rico (PR). Even if Ae. Aegypti is eliminated or DENV refractory mosquitoes are released, DENV transmission may not cease when other competent mosquito species like Ae. Mediovittatus are present. To compare vector competence of Ae. Mediovittatus and Ae. Aegypti mosquitoes, we studied relative infection and transmission rates for all four DENV serotypes. Methods To compare the vector competence of Ae. Mediovittatus and Ae. Aegypti, mosquitoes were exposed to DENV 1–4 per os at viral titers of 5–6 logs plaque-forming unit (pfu) equivalents. At 14 days post infectious bloodmeal, viral RNA was extracted and tested by qRT-PCR to determine infection and transmission rates. Infection and transmission rates were analyzed with a generalized linear model assuming a binomial distribution. Results Ae. Aegypti had significantly higher DENV-4 infection and transmission rates than Ae. mediovittatus. Conclusions This study determined that Ae. Mediovittatus is a competent DENV vector. Therefore dengue prevention programs in PR and the Caribbean should consider both Ae. Mediovittatus and Ae. Aegypti mosquitoes in their vector control programs. PMID:25658951

  1. Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in Singapore City. 5. Observations in relation to dengue haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Chan, Y C; Ho, B C; Chan, K L

    1971-01-01

    Dengue haemorrhagic fever in Singapore was a disease of the urban human population, with concentrations of cases occurring in areas of high population density. Mosquito surveys revealed that these areas also had high population densities of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus.The disease occurred throughout the year but the incidence of cases appeared to follow a seasonal pattern. Observations from 1966 to 1968 showed that the number of cases increased in April, reached a peak in November, and, thereafter, decreased until the next increase in April of the following year. The epidemic curve generally agreed with the fluctuations of both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus populations, although the latter species appeared to show a better correspondence with the incidence of cases.Six dengue viruses were isolated from the two Aedes species during 1966. One dengue type 2 virus was isolated from a pool of Ae. aegypti and 1 dengue type 1 virus and 4 dengue type 2 viruses were recovered from 5 pools of Ae. albopictus. These viruses were isolated from mosquitos collected during the period of increase in the incidence of cases and in 4 different areas of the city. The dengue virus infection rates per 1 000 mosquitos estimated in the present study were 0.51 for Ae. aegypti and 0.59 for Ae. albopictus.The data obtained in the present study suggest that both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus are involved in the transmission of dengue haemorrhagic fever in Singapore.

  2. Evaluation of Simultaneous Transmission of Chikungunya Virus and Dengue Virus Type 2 in Infected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Nuckols, J. T.; Huang, Y.-J. S.; Higgs, S.; Miller, A. L.; Pyles, R. B.; Spratt, H. m.; Horne, K. M.; Vanlandingham, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    The simultaneous transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and dengue viruses (DENV) has been a major public health concern because of their sympatric distribution and shared mosquito vectors. Groups of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were orally infected with 1.5 × 105 PFU/ml of CHIKV and 3.2 × 106 FFU/ml of DENV-2 simultaneously or separately in inverse orders and evaluated for dissemination and transmission by qRT-PCR. Simultaneous dissemination of both viruses was detected for all groups in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus while cotransmission of CHIKV and DENV-2 only occurred at low rates after sequential but not simultaneous infection. PMID:26334820

  3. Evaluation of Simultaneous Transmission of Chikungunya Virus and Dengue Virus Type 2 in Infected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Nuckols, J T; Huang, Y-J S; Higgs, S; Miller, A L; Pyles, R B; Spratt, H M; Horne, K M; Vanlandingham, D L

    2015-05-01

    The simultaneous transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and dengue viruses (DENV) has been a major public health concern because of their sympatric distribution and shared mosquito vectors. Groups of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were orally infected with 1.5 × 10(5) PFU/ml of CHIKV and 3.2 × 10(6) FFU/ml of DENV-2 simultaneously or separately in inverse orders and evaluated for dissemination and transmission by qRT-PCR. Simultaneous dissemination of both viruses was detected for all groups in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus while cotransmission of CHIKV and DENV-2 only occurred at low rates after sequential but not simultaneous infection.

  4. Comparative Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti to Dengue Virus Infection After Feeding on Blood of Viremic Humans: Implications for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Whitehorn, James; Kien, Duong Thi Hue; Nguyen, Nguyet Minh; Nguyen, Hoa L.; Kyrylos, Peter P.; Carrington, Lauren B.; Tran, Chau Nguyen Bich; Quyen, Nguyen Thanh Ha; Thi, Long Vo; Le Thi, Dui; Truong, Nguyen Thanh; Luong, Tai Thi Hue; Nguyen, Chau Van Vinh; Wills, Bridget; Wolbers, Marcel; Simmons, Cameron P.

    2015-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is secondary to Aedes aegypti as a vector of dengue viruses (DENVs) in settings of endemicity, but it plays an important role in areas of dengue emergence. This study compared the susceptibility of these 2 species to DENV infection by performing 232 direct blood-feeding experiments on 118 viremic patients with dengue in Vietnam. Field-derived A. albopictus acquired DENV infections as readily as A. aegypti after blood feeding. Once infected, A. albopictus permitted higher concentrations of DENV RNA to accumulate in abdominal tissues, compared with A. aegypti. However, the odds of A. albopictus having infectious saliva were lower than the odds observed for A. aegypti (odds ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, .52–.93). These results quantitate the susceptibility of A. albopictus to DENV infection and will assist parameterization of models for predicting disease risk in settings where A. albopictus is present. PMID:25784733

  5. Comparative Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti to Dengue Virus Infection After Feeding on Blood of Viremic Humans: Implications for Public Health.

    PubMed

    Whitehorn, James; Kien, Duong Thi Hue; Nguyen, Nguyet Minh; Nguyen, Hoa L; Kyrylos, Peter P; Carrington, Lauren B; Tran, Chau Nguyen Bich; Quyen, Nguyen Thanh Ha; Thi, Long Vo; Le Thi, Dui; Truong, Nguyen Thanh; Luong, Tai Thi Hue; Nguyen, Chau Van Vinh; Wills, Bridget; Wolbers, Marcel; Simmons, Cameron P

    2015-10-15

    Aedes albopictus is secondary to Aedes aegypti as a vector of dengue viruses (DENVs) in settings of endemicity, but it plays an important role in areas of dengue emergence. This study compared the susceptibility of these 2 species to DENV infection by performing 232 direct blood-feeding experiments on 118 viremic patients with dengue in Vietnam. Field-derived A. albopictus acquired DENV infections as readily as A. aegypti after blood feeding. Once infected, A. albopictus permitted higher concentrations of DENV RNA to accumulate in abdominal tissues, compared with A. aegypti. However, the odds of A. albopictus having infectious saliva were lower than the odds observed for A. aegypti (odds ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, .52-.93). These results quantitate the susceptibility of A. albopictus to DENV infection and will assist parameterization of models for predicting disease risk in settings where A. albopictus is present.

  6. Understanding productivity, a key to Aedes aegypti surveillance.

    PubMed

    Tun-Lin, W; Kay, B H; Barnes, A

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this work was to define criteria that could be applied to achieve faster, more economical, and accurate assessment of vector populations for control of dengue viruses. During 1989-1990, 1,349 premises were surveyed in Townsville, Charters Towers and Mingela/Ravenswood, Queensland, Australia. In each locality, 1.9-8.4% of premises contained three or more containers with Aedes aegypti immature forms and were designated as key premises. Comparison of surveys in Townsville from 1989 to 1990 indicated that positive premises (i.e., those with at least one container with Ae. aegypti present) were 3.22 times more likely to remain positive than negative houses to become positive the following year. The Ae. aegypti population in Townsville was seen to be totally associated with garden receptacles, discarded household items, and trash but one well and one rainwater tank were responsible for 28% of all immature forms recorded in the 1,349 premises inspected. These breeding sites of high productivity were designated as key containers. At Charters Towers, Mingela, and Ravenswood, rainwater tanks were seen as the most important key container because although they constituted 13-29% of positive containers, they supported 60-63% of the immature forms. This study demonstrates that there is a certain degree of stability with regard to positive premises and that some of these, or some container types, contribute disproportionately to the Ae. aegypti population. Control programs could be made more efficient if efforts were concentrated on these sites of key vector productivity.

  7. Seasonal Synchronization of Diapause Phases in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Lacour, Guillaume; Chanaud, Lionel; L’Ambert, Grégory; Hance, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    In temperate areas, population dynamics of the invasive Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus are strongly affected by winter. The work we present here analyzes the adaptive synchronization of the diapause process in the wintry generation of A. albopictus, where the egg stage is exposed to adverse winter conditions. The seasonal pattern of egg laying activity of a French Mediterranean population of the Asian tiger mosquito was monitored weekly for 2 years with ovitraps. The field diapause incidence and the critical photoperiod (CPP, i.e. the maternal day length inducing diapause in 50% of the eggs), were determined by hatching experiments on the collected eggs. The period of diapause termination was estimated by a field survey of the first hatchings for both years. The CPP is equal to 13.5 hours of light and occurs in the field on the 25th of August. Thus, it is on September 11th, 17 days after the CPP, that 50% of the eggs are in a prediapause stage in the field. The egg diapause rate increases rapidly during September, whereas the mean number of eggs laid decreases sharply after mid-September. Surprisingly, after having reached a peak of 95% at the end of September, from mid-October the diapause incidence declined and stayed below 50%. Indeed, both years the diapause initiates before the rapid decrease of the environmental temperature. This leaves a sufficient period of time to the complete development of one generation of A. albopictus with effective induction of diapause in the laid eggs. The very first larvae hatched were sampled both years in the first half of March. With 20 to 26 weeks in the egg stage and about 7 weeks in the larval stages, the first annual generation spends a long time in immature stages. On a practical point of view, this long development time represents a wide window for eggs and larvae control in early spring. PMID:26683460

  8. Factors influencing stakeholders attitudes toward genetically modified aedes mosquito.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Hashim, Hasrizul

    2015-06-01

    Dengue fever is a debilitating and infectious disease that could be life-threatening. It is caused by the dengue virus which affects millions of people in the tropical area. Currently, there is no cure for the disease as there is no vaccine available. Thus, prevention of the vector population using conventional methods is by far the main strategy but has been found ineffective. A genetically modified (GM) mosquito is among the favoured alternatives to curb dengue fever in Malaysia. Past studies have shown that development and diffusion of gene technology products depends heavily upon public acceptance. The purpose of this study is to identify the relevant factors influencing stakeholders' attitudes toward the GM Aedes mosquito and to analyse the relationships between all the factors using the structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 509 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Results of the survey have confirmed that public perception towards complex issues such as gene technology should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The perceived benefit-perceived risk balance is very important in determining the most predominant predictor of attitudes toward a GM mosquito. In this study the stakeholders perceived the benefit of the GM mosquito as outweighing its risk, translating perceived benefit as the most important direct predictor of attitudes toward the GM mosquito. Trust in key players has a direct influence on attitudes toward the GM mosquito while moral concern exhibited an indirect influence through perceived benefits. Other factors such as attitudes toward technology and nature were also indirect predictors of attitudes toward the GM mosquito while religiosity and engagement did not exhibited any significant roles. The research findings serve as a useful database to understand public acceptance and the social construct of public attitudes towards the GM mosquito to combat dengue. PMID:24906652

  9. Resistance of Aedes aegypti to temephos and adaptive disadvantages

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Morgana Michele Cavalcanti de Souza Leal; Henriques, Alleksandra Dias da Silva; Leandro, Renata da Silva; Aguiar, Dalvanice Leal; Beserra, Eduardo Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the resistance of Aedes aegypti to temephos Fersol 1G (temephos 1% w/w) associated with the adaptive disadvantage of insect populations in the absence of selection pressure. METHODS A diagnostic dose of 0.28 mg a.i./L and doses between 0.28 mg a.i./L and 1.40 mg a.i./L were used. Vector populations collected between 2007 and 2008 in the city of Campina Grande, state of Paraíba, were evaluated. To evaluate competition in the absence of selection pressure, insect populations with initial frequencies of 20.0%, 40.0%, 60.0%, and 80.0% resistant individuals were produced and subjected to the diagnostic dose for two months. Evaluation of the development of aquatic and adult stages allowed comparison of the life cycles in susceptible and resistant populations and construction of fertility life tables. RESULTS No mortality was observed in Ae. aegypti populations subjected to the diagnostic dose of 0.28 mg a.i./L. The decreased mortality observed in populations containing 20.0%, 40.0%, 60.0%, and 80.0% resistant insects indicates that temephos resistance is unstable in the absence of selection pressure. A comparison of the life cycles indicated differences in the duration and viability of the larval phase, but no differences were observed in embryo development, sex ratio, adult longevity, and number of eggs per female. CONCLUSIONS The fertility life table results indicated that some populations had reproductive disadvantages compared with the susceptible population in the absence of selection pressure, indicating the presence of a fitness cost in populations resistant to temephos. PMID:25372168

  10. Seasonal Synchronization of Diapause Phases in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Lacour, Guillaume; Chanaud, Lionel; L'Ambert, Grégory; Hance, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    In temperate areas, population dynamics of the invasive Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus are strongly affected by winter. The work we present here analyzes the adaptive synchronization of the diapause process in the wintry generation of A. albopictus, where the egg stage is exposed to adverse winter conditions. The seasonal pattern of egg laying activity of a French Mediterranean population of the Asian tiger mosquito was monitored weekly for 2 years with ovitraps. The field diapause incidence and the critical photoperiod (CPP, i.e. the maternal day length inducing diapause in 50% of the eggs), were determined by hatching experiments on the collected eggs. The period of diapause termination was estimated by a field survey of the first hatchings for both years. The CPP is equal to 13.5 hours of light and occurs in the field on the 25th of August. Thus, it is on September 11th, 17 days after the CPP, that 50% of the eggs are in a prediapause stage in the field. The egg diapause rate increases rapidly during September, whereas the mean number of eggs laid decreases sharply after mid-September. Surprisingly, after having reached a peak of 95% at the end of September, from mid-October the diapause incidence declined and stayed below 50%. Indeed, both years the diapause initiates before the rapid decrease of the environmental temperature. This leaves a sufficient period of time to the complete development of one generation of A. albopictus with effective induction of diapause in the laid eggs. The very first larvae hatched were sampled both years in the first half of March. With 20 to 26 weeks in the egg stage and about 7 weeks in the larval stages, the first annual generation spends a long time in immature stages. On a practical point of view, this long development time represents a wide window for eggs and larvae control in early spring. PMID:26683460

  11. Crystal Structures of Aedes Aegypt Alanine Glyoxylate Aminotransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Han,Q.; Robinson, H.; Gao, Y.; Vogelaar, N.; Wilson, S.; Rizzi, M.; Li, J.

    2006-01-01

    Mosquitoes are unique in having evolved two alanine glyoxylate aminotransferases (AGTs). One is 3-hydroxykynurenine transaminase (HKT), which is primarily responsible for catalyzing the transamination of 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) to xanthurenic acid (XA). Interestingly, XA is used by malaria parasites as a chemical trigger for their development within the mosquito. This 3-HK to XA conversion is considered the major mechanism mosquitoes use to detoxify the chemically reactive and potentially toxic 3-HK. The other AGT is a typical dipteran insect AGT and is specific for converting glyoxylic acid to glycine. Here we report the 1.75{angstrom} high-resolution three-dimensional crystal structure of AGT from the mosquito Aedes aegypti (AeAGT) and structures of its complexes with reactants glyoxylic acid and alanine at 1.75 and 2.1{angstrom} resolution, respectively. This is the first time that the three-dimensional crystal structures of an AGT with its amino acceptor, glyoxylic acid, and amino donor, alanine, have been determined. The protein is dimeric and adopts the type I-fold of pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-dependent aminotransferases. The PLP co-factor is covalently bound to the active site in the crystal structure, and its binding site is similar to those of other AGTs. The comparison of the AeAGT-glyoxylic acid structure with other AGT structures revealed that these glyoxylic acid binding residues are conserved in most AGTs. Comparison of the AeAGT-alanine structure with that of the Anopheles HKT-inhibitor complex suggests that a Ser-Asn-Phe motif in the latter may be responsible for the substrate specificity of HKT enzymes for 3-HK.

  12. Gene flow pattern among Aedes aegypti populations in Mexico.

    PubMed

    de Lourdes Muñoz, Maria; Mercado-Curiel, Ricardo F; Diaz-Badillo, Alvaro; Pérez Ramirez, Gerardo; Black, William C

    2013-03-01

    Patterns of gene flow vary greatly among Aedes aegypti populations throughout Mexico. The populations are panmictic along the Pacific coast, isolated by distance in northeast Mexico, and exhibit moderate gene flow across the Yucatan peninsula. Nine Ae. aegypti collections from 6 cities in Oaxaca, Mexico, were taken to examine the local patterns of gene flow. Genetic variation was examined in a 387-bp region of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 4 mitochondrial gene (ND4) using single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis, and 3 haplotypes were detected. Cluster analysis on the linearized FST genetic distances failed to group collections in geographic proximity. Regression analysis of linear or road distances on linearized F(ST) indicated that proximal collections were as diverse as distant collections across an approximately 800-km range. The geographical distribution of the Mexican mosquito haplotype frequencies was determined for the ND4 sequences from 524 individuals from Oaxaca (this study) and 2,043 individuals from our previous studies. Herein, we report on yet another pattern dominated by genetic drift among 9 Ae. aegypti collections from 6 cities in Oaxaca, Mexico, and compare it to those reported in other regions of Mexico. Molecular analysis of variance showed that there was as much genetic variation among collections 4 km apart as there was among all collections. The numbers of haplotypes and the amount of genetic diversity among the collections from Oaxaca were much lower than detected in previous studies in other regions of Mexico and may reflect the effects of control efforts or adaptations to the altitudinal limits (1,500 m) of the species in Mexico. The geographical distribution of mosquito haplotypes in Mexico is also reported. Furthermore, based on the distribution of the mosquito haplotypes in America, we suggest that mosquito dispersion is very efficient, most likely due to commercial transportation.

  13. Dengue cases and Aedes aegypti indices in Trinidad, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Chadee, D D

    2009-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether any relationships exist between Aedes aegypti indices, dengue seroprevalence and dengue transmission in County Victoria, Trinidad, West Indies. The cardinal points surveillance method was used to evaluate 50 suspected dengue fever (DF) cases. Thirty-three (33) confirmed DF cases were fully investigated within 48h of clinical diagnosis. Using retrospective data collected during the previous year (2003-2004) and study data, key premises and key containers were determined. Ninety-two percent of the houses were considered key premises, and 66% (22/33) of the houses with dengue positive cases harboured Ae. aegypti immature stages. These results showed that significantly (P<0.001) more adults (1050 vs 493) and immatures were collected during dengue case investigations than during routine inspection and treatment cycles. In addition, when the DF diagnosis was made the pupae per person rates increased from 0.65 to 1.35 with significantly (P<0.001) larger numbers of Ae. aegypti females emerging daily, increasing from 221 to 472.5. That is, the mosquito density required for DF transmission may be high for Trinidad given the high seroprevalence rates (94% among pregnant women). These results suggest that dengue transmission occurs, not at a fixed entomologic figure/quantity but rather at a variable level based on numerous factors including seroprevalence, mosquito density and climate. These findings have implications for effective programs: by combining cardinal points and the key premises approaches; vector control programs can now target the most productive containers in key premises thus reducing dengue transmission levels.

  14. On the Seasonal Occurrence and Abundance of the Zika Virus Vector Mosquito Aedes Aegypti in the Contiguous United States

    PubMed Central

    Monaghan, Andrew J.; Morin, Cory W.; Steinhoff, Daniel F.; Wilhelmi, Olga; Hayden, Mary; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Reiskind, Michael; Lloyd, Alun L.; Smith, Kirk; Schmidt, Chris A.; Scalf, Paige E.; Ernst, Kacey

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: An ongoing Zika virus pandemic in Latin America and the Caribbean has raised concerns that travel-related introduction of Zika virus could initiate local transmission in the United States (U.S.) by its primary vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Methods: We employed meteorologically driven models for 2006-2015 to simulate the potential seasonal abundance of adult Aedes aegypti for fifty cities within or near the margins of its known U.S. range. Mosquito abundance results were analyzed alongside travel and socioeconomic factors that are proxies of viral introduction and vulnerability to human-vector contact.     Results: Meteorological conditions are largely unsuitable for Aedes aegypti over the U.S. during winter months (December-March), except in southern Florida and south Texas where comparatively warm conditions can sustain low-to-moderate potential mosquito abundance. Meteorological conditions are suitable for Aedes aegypti across all fifty cities during peak summer months (July-September), though the mosquito has not been documented in all cities. Simulations indicate the highest mosquito abundance occurs in the Southeast and south Texas where locally acquired cases of Aedes-transmitted viruses have been reported previously. Cities in southern Florida and south Texas are at the nexus of high seasonal suitability for Aedes aegypti and strong potential for travel-related virus introduction. Higher poverty rates in cities along the U.S.-Mexico border may correlate with factors that increase human exposure to Aedes aegypti.     Discussion: Our results can inform baseline risk for local Zika virus transmission in the U.S. and the optimal timing of vector control activities, and underscore the need for enhanced surveillance for Aedes mosquitoes and Aedes-transmitted viruses. PMID:27066299

  15. First isolation of Aedes flavivirus in the Western Hemisphere and evidence of vertical transmission in the mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Haddow, Andrew D.; Guzman, Hilda; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Wood, Thomas G.; Widen, Steven G.; Haddow, Alastair D.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2013-06-05

    We report here the first evidence of vertical transmission of Aedes flavivirus (AEFV) and its first isolation in the Western Hemisphere. AEFV strain SPFLD-MO-2011-MP6 was isolated in C6/36 cells from a pool of male Aedes albopictus mosquitoes that were reared to adults from larvae collected in southwest Missouri, USA, in 2011. Electron micrographs of the virus showed virions of approximately 45 nm in diameter with morphological characteristics associated with flaviviruses. The genomic sequence demonstrated that AEFV-SPFLD-MO-2011-MP6 shares a high degree of nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity with the AEFV Narita-21 strain, isolated in Japan in 2003. Intracerebral inoculation of newborn mice with the virus failed to produce observable illness or death and the virus did not replicate in vertebrate cells, consistent with a lack of vertebrate host range. - Highlights: ► The first report of Aedes flavivirus (AEFV) in the Western Hemisphere. ► The first evidence of vertical transmission of AEFV in mosquitoes. ► The first electron micrograph of AEFV. ► The first attempt to infect animals with AEFV.

  16. Spatial and temporal patterns of abundance of Aedes aegypti L. (Stegomyia aegypti) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) [Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse)] in southern Florida.

    PubMed

    Reiskind, M H; Lounibos, L P

    2013-12-01

    Invasion by mosquito vectors of disease may impact the distribution of resident mosquitoes, resulting in novel patterns of vectors and concomitant risk for disease. One example of such an impact is the invasion by Aedes albopictus (Skuse) [Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse)] (Diptera: Culicidae) of North America and this species' interaction with Aedes aegypti L. (Stegomyia aegypti L). We hypothesized that Ae. aegypti would be found in urban, coastal areas that experience hotter and drier conditions, whereas Ae. albopictus would be more commonly found in suburban and rural areas that are cooler and wetter. In addition, we hypothesized that Ae. aegypti would be more abundant early in the wet season, whereas Ae. albopictus would be more abundant later in the wet season. Urban areas were drier, hotter and contained more Ae. aegypti than suburban or rural areas. Aedes aegypti was relatively more abundant early in the wet season, whereas Ae. albopictus was more abundant in both the late wet season and the dry season. The spatial patterns of inter- and intraspecific encounters between these species were also described. The distribution of these mosquitoes is correlated with abiotic conditions, and with temperature, humidity and the relative availability of rain-filled containers. Understanding the ecological determinants of species distribution can provide insight into the biology of these vectors and important information for their appropriate control.

  17. The importance of oxidases in the tolerance of deciduous leaf infusions by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Lampman, Richard L; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Muturi, Ephantus J

    2014-01-01

    Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) larvae rely on oxidases to reduce toxicity of water soluble toxins from some senescent tree leaf infusions. The mortality of third instar Ae. aegypti larvae in live oak and pin oak leaf infusions increased significantly in the presence of piperonyl butoxide (PBO), a broad inhibitor of cytochrome P450s (CYPs). In contrast, PBO treatment did not increase mortality in water controls or infusions of northern red oak or sugar maple leaf infusions for Ae. aegypti larvae. A similar pattern was observed for Ae. albopictus larvae, that is, an increase in mortality when CYPs were inhibited in live oak leaf infusions and no increase in sugar maple leaf infusions or water controls. However, the fresh live oak leaf infusion (5 d old) was the most toxic infusion to Ae. aegypti, but appeared less toxic to Ae. albopictus than the older infusions. A direct comparison of survival between the two Aedes species revealed Ae. aegypti exhibited a greater mortality than Ae. albopictus in PBO-treated live oak leaf infusions. These findings suggest that toxic components of some leaf litter in larval habitats may impose cryptic energy costs (detoxification). PMID:24605455

  18. Effects of Cohabitation on the Population Performance and Survivorship of the Invasive Mosquito Aedes albopictus and the Resident Mosquito Aedes notoscriptus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, J; Ritchie, S A; Russell, R C; Webb, C E; Cook, A; Zalucki, M P; Williams, C R; Ward, P; van den Hurk, A F

    2015-05-01

    The presence of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in the Torres Strait of northern Australia increases the potential for colonization and establishment on the mainland. However, there is a possibility that native species that occupy the same habitats may influence the population performance of Ae. albopictus, potentially affecting the establishment of this species in Australia. Cohabitation experiments were performed with the endemic Aedes notoscriptus (Skuse), which has been found occupying the same larval habitats as Ae. albopictus in the Torres Strait and is the most widespread container-inhabiting Aedes species in Australia. The influence of environmental factors and cohabitation between the two species was examined using different climates, food resource levels, food resource types, and species densities. Survivorship proportions and a population performance index (λ') were calculated and compared. The consequences of increased Ae. notoscriptus densities were reduced survivorship and λ' for Ae. albopictus. Despite this, the mean λ' of Ae. albopictus and Ae. notoscriptus was consistently ≥ 1.06, indicating both species could increase under all conditions, potentially due to increasing conspecific densities negatively affecting Ae. notoscriptus. The outcomes from this study suggest that the preexisting presence of Ae. notoscriptus may not prevent the establishment of Ae. albopictus in Australia.

  19. Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Oviposition Response to Organic Infusions from Common Flora of Suburban Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the oviposition response of Aedes albopictus to six organic infusions. Laboratory and field placed ovitraps baited with water oak (Quercus nigra L.), longleaf pine (Pinus palustris P. Mill) and St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze), as well as two-species mixture...

  20. La Crosse Virus in Aedes japonicus japonicus Mosquitoes in the Appalachian Region, United States

    PubMed Central

    Dotseth, Eric J.; Jackson, Bryan T.; Zink, Steven D.; Marek, Paul E.; Kramer, Laura D.; Paulson, Sally L.; Hawley, Dana M.

    2015-01-01

    La Crosse virus (LACV), a leading cause of arboviral encephalitis in children in the United States, is emerging in Appalachia. For local arboviral surveillance, mosquitoes were tested. LACV RNA was detected and isolated from Aedes japonicus mosquitoes. These invasive mosquitoes may significantly affect LACV range expansion and dynamics. PMID:25811131

  1. First record of genus Coelomomyces in Macau (China): Coelomomyces stegomyiae var. stegomyiae parasitizing Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Ramos, H C; Ribeiro, H; Novo, T; Bizarro, J; Easton, E R

    1996-09-01

    During a mosquito survey carried out in 1994-95, in Macau, southern China, Coelomomyces stegomyiae var. stegomyiae was found parasitizing Aedes albopictus. This constitutes the first record of this genus as potential agents of mosquito control in the area. PMID:8887236

  2. Dengue virus 3 genotype I in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and eggs, Brazil, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Ana P P; Figueiredo, Leandra B; dos Santos, João R; Eiras, Alvaro E; Bonjardim, Cláudio A; Ferreira, Paulo C P; Kroon, Erna G

    2010-06-01

    Dengue virus type 3 genotype I was detected in Brazil during epidemics in 2002-2004. To confirm this finding, we identified this virus genotype in naturally infected field-caught Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and eggs. Results showed usefulness of virus investigations in vectors as a component of active epidemiologic surveillance. PMID:20507754

  3. Chikungunya Virus in Febrile Humans and Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes, Yucatan, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Cigarroa-Toledo, Nohemi; Blitvich, Bradley J.; Cetina-Trejo, Rosa C.; Talavera-Aguilar, Lourdes G.; Baak-Baak, Carlos M.; Torres-Chablé, Oswaldo M.; Hamid, Md-Nafiz; Friedberg, Iddo; González-Martinez, Pedro; Alonzo-Salomon, Gabriela; Rosado-Paredes, Elsy P.; Rivero-Cárdenas, Nubia; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe C.; Farfan-Ale, Jose A.; Garcia-Rejon, Julian E.

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was isolated from 12 febrile humans in Yucatan, Mexico, in 2015. One patient was co-infected with dengue virus type 1. Two additional CHIKV isolates were obtained from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes collected in the homes of patients. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the CHIKV isolates belong to the Asian lineage. PMID:27347760

  4. Mating status and body size in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) affect host finding and DEET repellency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variations in the conditions accompanying mosquito development and mating can result in females of variable size that have not been inseminated. In this study, we compared the host finding activity of mated and unmated large and small Aedes albopictus and the repellency to these mosquitoes of 25% D...

  5. The maxillary palp of aedes aegypti, a model of multisensory integration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Female yellow-fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti, are obligate blood-feeders and vectors of the pathogens that cause dengue fever, yellow fever and Chikungunya. This feeding behavior concludes a series of multisensory events guiding the mosquito to its host from a distance. The antennae and maxillary...

  6. Insecticide resistance status of United States populations of Aedes albopictus and mechanisms involved

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) is an invasive mosquito that has become an important vector of chikungunya and dengue viruses. Immature Ae. albopictus thrive in backyard household containers that require treatment with larvicides and when adult populations reach pest levels or disease transmission is ongoi...

  7. Gustatory receptor expression in the labella and legs of aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yellow-fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is a dangerous disease vector, infecting a growing number of people every year with dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya viruses. Contact chemoreception in mosquitoes influences a number of behaviors including host-selection, oviposition and feeding. While...

  8. The effects of larval habitat quality on Aedes albopictus skip oviposition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aedes albopictus, an invasive mosquito species that transmits disease-causing pathogens, oviposits in containers in resource-limited habitats. To mitigate larval competition, Ae. albopictus females may choose to distribute eggs from a single gonotrophic cycle among multiple containers through skip o...

  9. La Crosse Virus in Aedes japonicus japonicus mosquitoes in the Appalachian Region, United States.

    PubMed

    Harris, M Camille; Dotseth, Eric J; Jackson, Bryan T; Zink, Steven D; Marek, Paul E; Kramer, Laura D; Paulson, Sally L; Hawley, Dana M

    2015-04-01

    La Crosse virus (LACV), a leading cause of arboviral encephalitis in children in the United States, is emerging in Appalachia. For local arboviral surveillance, mosquitoes were tested. LACV RNA was detected and isolated from Aedes japonicus mosquitoes. These invasive mosquitoes may significantly affect LACV range expansion and dynamics.

  10. Potential use of Piper nigrum ethanol extract against pyrethroid-resistant Aedes aegypti larvae.

    PubMed

    Simas, Naomi Kato; Lima, Elisangela da Costa; Kuster, Ricardo Machado; Lage, Celso Luiz Salgueiro; de Oliveira Filho, Alfredo Martins

    2007-01-01

    Fractionation of Piper nigrum ethanol extract, biomonitored by assays on pyrethroid-resistant Aedes aegypti larvae yielded isolation of the larvicidal amides piperolein-A and piperine. Comparing LC50 values, the ethanol extract (0.98 ppm) was the most toxic, followed by piperolein-A (1.46 ppm) and piperine (1.53 ppm).

  11. Developmental and environmental regulation of AaeIAP1 transcript in Aedes aegypti.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apoptosis (programmed cell death) is a tightly regulated physiological process. The inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) are key regulators for apoptosis. An inhibitor of apoptosis protein gene IAP1 was recently cloned from Aedes aegypti (AaeIAP1, Genbank accession no. DQ993355), however, it is n...

  12. Ovicidal activity of Ageratina adenophora (Family: Asteraceae) against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the ovicidal efficacy of different solvent leaf extracts of Ageratina adenophora against dengue vector Aedes aegypti . Methods: The ovicidal efficacy of the crude leaf extracts of A. adenophora with five different solvents (hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol) and was ...

  13. Synthesis and larvicidal and adult topical activity of some hydrazide-hydrazone derivatives against Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of novel hydrazide-hydrazone derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their larvicidal and adult topical activity against Aedes aegypti. The proposed structures of all the synthesized compounds were confirmed using elemental analysis, UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectroscopy. Com...

  14. Mosquito activity of a series of chalcones and 2-pyrazoline derivatives against Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) transmit pathogens to humans, leading to diseases such as yellow fever and dengue fever. Repellents and insecticides are two common interventions to reduce mosquito biting and thereby disease risk. However, overreliance on a chemical or class of chemicals c...

  15. Comparative study of four membranes for evaluation of new insect/arthropod repellents using Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four different membranes: Baudruche; Hemotek, sausage, and silicone-based membrane were evaluated as human skin substitute for an in vitro repellent study using Aedes aegypti. No significant difference was observed in repellent activity (ED50) of DEET among the membranes. Sausage membrane was selec...

  16. Changes in host-seeking behavior of Puerto Rican Aedes aegypti (L.) following colonization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of colonization on host-seeking behavior of mosquitoes was examined by comparing attraction responses of newly colonized Aedes aegypti (L.) from field-collected eggs in Puerto Rico to that of the Gainesville (Florida) strain, originally from Orlando (Florida) and in colony since 1952. Fe...

  17. Different repellents for Aedes aegypti against blood-feeding and oviposition.

    PubMed

    Afify, Ali; Horlacher, Bérénice; Roller, Johannes; Galizia, C Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Methyl N,N-dimethyl anthranilate (MDA), ethyl anthranilate (EA) and butyl anthranilate (BA) were previously shown to repel Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from landing on human skin. However, the effect of these compounds on the orientation of flying mosquitoes in a choice situation and their effect on mosquito oviposition are not yet known. Here, we used a modified Y-tube olfactometer to test the effect of these compounds on the orientation of Aedes aegypti flying towards skin odor (human fingers), and we tested their effect on Aedes aegypti oviposition choice in a cage assay. In both behavioral situations we compared the effect to the well-documented repellent N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET). MDA, EA, and DEET inhibited Aedes aegypti from flying towards skin odor while BA had no such effect. Conversely, MDA had no effect on oviposition while EA, BA, and DEET deterred oviposition, with the strongest effect observed for BA. Thus, we confirm that EA and DEET are generally repellent, while MDA is repellent only in a host-seeking context, and BA is deterrent only in an oviposition context. These compounds appear of potential use in mosquito control programs. PMID:25079819

  18. Toxicity of Cephalaria species and their individual constituents against Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crude acetone and ethanol extracts of the aerial parts of 21 Cephalaria species collected from Turkey were investigated for larvicidal and adult topical activity against Aedes aegypti. The ethanol extracts from C. elazigensis var. purpurea, C. anatolica, and C. elmaliensis possessed the highest mort...

  19. Dengue-2 virus carrying capacity of Thai Aedes aegypti strains with different susceptibility to deltamethrin.

    PubMed

    Phanpoowong, Theerawit; Lek-Uthai, Usa; Thongrungkiat, Supatra; Komalamisra, Narumon; Srisawat, Raweewan; Russell, Bruce; Renia, Laurent

    2012-05-01

    Deltamethrin-resistant Aedes aegypti currently threatens the effectiveness of dengue hemorrhagic fever control operations in Thailand. Although a previous study has suggested that insecticide resistance may increase Ae. aegypti susceptibility to dengue-2 virus infection, our experimental data showed no significant association between laboratory-induced deltamethrin-resistance in a Thai Ae. aegypti isolate and its susceptibility to dengue -2 infection.

  20. Public Health Response to Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus Mosquitoes Invading California, USA.

    PubMed

    Porse, Charsey Cole; Kramer, Vicki; Yoshimizu, Melissa Hardstone; Metzger, Marco; Hu, Renjie; Padgett, Kerry; Vugia, Duc J

    2015-10-01

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, primary vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses, were recently detected in California, USA. The threat of potential local transmission of these viruses increases as more infected travelers arrive from affected areas. Public health response has included enhanced human and mosquito surveillance, education, and intensive mosquito control.

  1. Assessment of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) clutch size in wild and laboratory populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) is an invasive mosquito species found across the southern U.S. and has undergone range expansion into many northern states. Although primarily pestiferous, it is a capable vector of many disease-causing pathogens. Intra- and interspecific larval competition have been evalu...

  2. Different Repellents for Aedes aegypti against Blood-Feeding and Oviposition

    PubMed Central

    Afify, Ali; Horlacher, Bérénice; Roller, Johannes; Galizia, C. Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Methyl N,N-dimethyl anthranilate (MDA), ethyl anthranilate (EA) and butyl anthranilate (BA) were previously shown to repel Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from landing on human skin. However, the effect of these compounds on the orientation of flying mosquitoes in a choice situation and their effect on mosquito oviposition are not yet known. Here, we used a modified Y-tube olfactometer to test the effect of these compounds on the orientation of Aedes aegypti flying towards skin odor (human fingers), and we tested their effect on Aedes aegypti oviposition choice in a cage assay. In both behavioral situations we compared the effect to the well-documented repellent N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET). MDA, EA, and DEET inhibited Aedes aegypti from flying towards skin odor while BA had no such effect. Conversely, MDA had no effect on oviposition while EA, BA, and DEET deterred oviposition, with the strongest effect observed for BA. Thus, we confirm that EA and DEET are generally repellent, while MDA is repellent only in a host-seeking context, and BA is deterrent only in an oviposition context. These compounds appear of potential use in mosquito control programs. PMID:25079819

  3. The tale of two buckets and associated containers: impact on aedes albopictus oviposition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aedes albopictus is an invasive species. Its oviposition behavior is the subject of several projects in our research unit. The main emphasis of this presentation is a study which utilizes two five gallon buckets, one heated and one with ambient temperature. The heat is provided by an aquarium hea...

  4. Aerial ULV application of Dibrom against Aedes aegypti in simulated urban and rural residences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reaching endophilic Aedes aegypti mosquito vectors of dengue located in human residences with aerial ULV pesticide applications is a prominent complication in operational wide area public health mosquito control activities. We conducted separate trials with a military C-130 fixed wing aircraft fitte...

  5. Promising Aedes aegypti repellent chemotypes identified through integrated QSAE, virtual screening, synthesis, and bioassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular field topology analysis, scaffold hopping, and molecular docking were used as complementary computational tools for the design of repellents for Aedes aegypti, the insect vector for yellow fever, West Nile fever, and dengue fever. A large number of analogues were evaluated by virtual scree...

  6. Chikungunya Virus in Febrile Humans and Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes, Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cigarroa-Toledo, Nohemi; Blitvich, Bradley J; Cetina-Trejo, Rosa C; Talavera-Aguilar, Lourdes G; Baak-Baak, Carlos M; Torres-Chablé, Oswaldo M; Hamid, Md-Nafiz; Friedberg, Iddo; González-Martinez, Pedro; Alonzo-Salomon, Gabriela; Rosado-Paredes, Elsy P; Rivero-Cárdenas, Nubia; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe C; Farfan-Ale, Jose A; Garcia-Rejon, Julian E; Machain-Williams, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was isolated from 12 febrile humans in Yucatan, Mexico, in 2015. One patient was co-infected with dengue virus type 1. Two additional CHIKV isolates were obtained from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes collected in the homes of patients. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the CHIKV isolates belong to the Asian lineage. PMID:27347760

  7. Ovicidal activity of Metarhizium brunneum (Mb F52) on dengue fever vector, Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ovicidal activity of Metarhizium brunneum F52 (Mb F52) grown from granules was evaluated against Aedes aegypti eggs over time. Survival of larvae from treated eggs was significantly less when compared with untreated eggs at 7, 10 and 14 days post treatment. Only 27 % of treated eggs produced vi...

  8. Influence of multiple blood meals on gonotrophic dissociation and fecundity in Aedes albopictus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Female Aedes albopictus blood fed on guinea pig and human hosts produced significantly (P < 0.05) higher number of eggs (80 and 82/female, respectively) than females fed on chicken (67 eggs/female). Fecundity in mosquitoes that took a double blood meal (chicken and guinea pig), a triple blood meal ...

  9. Influence of multiple blood meals on gonotrophic dissociation and fecundity in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Female Aedes albopictus mosquitoes fed on Guinea pigs (82 eggs/female) and humans (82 eggs/female) produced significantly (p<0.05) more eggs than mosquitoes fed on chickens (67 eggs/female). Fecundity in mosquitoes with two blood meals from two different host types (chicken and Guinea pig), three b...

  10. Sublethal effects of atrazine and glyphosate on life history traits of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Bara, Jeffrey J; Montgomery, Allison; Muturi, Ephantus J

    2014-08-01

    Although exposure of mosquito larvae to agricultural chemicals such as herbicides is common and widespread, our understanding of how these chemicals affect mosquito ecology and behavior is limited. This study investigated how an environmentally relevant concentration of two herbicides, atrazine and glyphosate, affects mosquito life history traits. One hundred and fifty (150) first instar Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) or Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) larvae were reared in 1.6 L of live oak leaf (Quercus virginiana) infusion in the presence (5 mg/L) or absence (0 mg/L) of atrazine or glyphosate. The containers were monitored daily to determine the emergence rates, sex ratio, male and female emergence times, and female body size. Emergence rates of A. aegypti from atrazine treatment were significantly higher relative to either glyphosate or control treatments (A. aegypti: atrazine = 93 ± 6% (±95% CI), glyphosate = 82 ± 5%, control = 78 ± 5%), while emergence rates of A. albopictus in atrazine treatments were significantly higher than in glyphosate treatments but not in controls (A. albopictus: atrazine = 84 ± 5 %, glyphosate = 76 ± 4%, control = 78 ± 4%). For both mosquito species, a sex ratio distortion with male bias was observed in control and glyphosate treatments, but not in atrazine treatments (A. aegypti: atrazine = 0.90 ± 0.17 (±SE), glyphosate = 1.63 ± 0.21, control = 1.69 ± 0.26; A. albopictus: atrazine = 1.09 ± 0.08, glyphosate = 1.88 ± 0.12, control = 1.37 ± 0.11). Emergence times for both sexes of the two mosquito species were significantly longer in atrazine treatments compared to glyphosate or control treatments (A. aegypti: females: atrazine = 11.20 ± 0.50 (days ± 95 % CI), glyphosate = 9.71 ± 0.23, control = 9.87 ± 0.21; males: atrazine = 9.46 ± 0.27, glyphosate = 8.80 ± 0.25, control

  11. [The risk of urban yellow fever outbreaks in Brazil by dengue vectors. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus].

    PubMed

    Mondet, B; da Rosa, A P; Vasconcelos, P F

    1996-01-01

    Urban yellow fever (YF) epidemics have disappeared from Brazil since about 50 years, but a selvatic cycle still exist. In many States, cases are more or less numerous each year. Ae. aegypti was eradicated in 1954, re-appeared temporarily in 1967, and then definitively in 1976-1977. Ae. aegypti is a vector of yellow few (YF), but also of dengue, whose first cases were reported in 1982. Today, dengue is endemic in many regions. A second Flavivirus vector, Aedes albopictus is present since about ten years in some States, from which Säo Paulo. The analysis of the YF cases between 1972 and 1994 allowed us to determine the epidemiologic regions. In the first region, the endemic area, the YF virus is circulating "silently" among monkeys, and the emergence of human cases is rare. In the second region, the epidemic area, some epizootics occur in a more or less cyclic way, and human cases can be numerous. Nevertheless, these outbreaks are considered "selvatic" epidemics, as long as Ae. aegypti is not concerned. From the Amazonian region, the virus moves forward along the forest galleries of the Amazone tributaries, from North to South. Actually, dengue epidemics appear in quite all States, and reflect the geographical distribution of Ae. aegypti. Recently, Ae. aegypti was found in the southern part of the Pará State, in the Carajás region considered to be the source of the main YF epidemics. In another hand, Ae. albopictus is now increasing its distribution area, specially in the suburban zones. The ecology of this potential vector, which seems to have a great adaptative capacity, give this vector an intermediate position between the forest galleries, where the YF virus circulates, and the agglomerations infested with Ae. aegypti. Since a few years, the possibility of urban YF is threatening Brazil, it is more and more predictable and we must survey very carefully the epidemiological situation in some regions of the country.

  12. Larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of railway creeper, Ipomoea cairica Extract Against Dengue Vector Mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    AhbiRami, Rattanam; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Thiagaletchumi, Maniam; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan; Sundarasekar, Jeevandran

    2014-01-01

    Natural insecticides from plant origin against mosquito vectors have been the main concern for research due to their high level of eco-safety. Control of mosquitoes in their larval stages are an ideal method since Aedes larvae are aquatic, thus it is easier to deal with them in this habitat. The present study was specifically conducted to explore the larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of Ipomoea cairica (L.) or railway creeper crude extract obtained using two different solvents; methanol and acetone against late third-stage larvae of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Plant materials of I. cairica leaf, flower, and stem were segregated, airdried, powdered, and extracted using Soxhlet apparatus. Larvicidal bioassays were performed by using World Health Organization standard larval susceptibility test method for each species which were conducted separately for different concentration ranging from 10 to 450 ppm. Both acetone and methanol extracts showed 100% mortality at highest concentration tested (450 ppm) after 24 h of exposure. Results from factorial ANOVA indicated that there were significant differences in larvicidal effects between mosquito species, solvent used and plant parts (F=5.71, df=2, P<0.05). The acetone extract of I. cairica leaf showed the most effective larvicidal action in Ae. aegypti with LC50 of 101.94 ppm followed by Ae. albopictus with LC50 of 105.59 ppm compared with other fractions of I. cairica extract obtained from flower, stem, and when methanol are used as solvent. The larvae of Ae. aegypti appeared to be more susceptible to I. cairica extract with lower LC50 value compared with Ae. albopictus (F=8.83, df=1, P<0.05). Therefore, this study suggests that the acetone extract of I. cairica leaf can be considered as plant-derived insecticide for the control of Aedes mosquitoes. This study quantified the larvicidal property of I. cairica extract, providing information on lethal concentration that

  13. Larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of railway creeper, Ipomoea cairica Extract Against Dengue Vector Mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    AhbiRami, Rattanam; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Thiagaletchumi, Maniam; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan; Sundarasekar, Jeevandran

    2014-01-01

    Natural insecticides from plant origin against mosquito vectors have been the main concern for research due to their high level of eco-safety. Control of mosquitoes in their larval stages are an ideal method since Aedes larvae are aquatic, thus it is easier to deal with them in this habitat. The present study was specifically conducted to explore the larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of Ipomoea cairica (L.) or railway creeper crude extract obtained using two different solvents; methanol and acetone against late third-stage larvae of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Plant materials of I. cairica leaf, flower, and stem were segregated, airdried, powdered, and extracted using Soxhlet apparatus. Larvicidal bioassays were performed by using World Health Organization standard larval susceptibility test method for each species which were conducted separately for different concentration ranging from 10 to 450 ppm. Both acetone and methanol extracts showed 100% mortality at highest concentration tested (450 ppm) after 24 h of exposure. Results from factorial ANOVA indicated that there were significant differences in larvicidal effects between mosquito species, solvent used and plant parts (F=5.71, df=2, P<0.05). The acetone extract of I. cairica leaf showed the most effective larvicidal action in Ae. aegypti with LC50 of 101.94 ppm followed by Ae. albopictus with LC50 of 105.59 ppm compared with other fractions of I. cairica extract obtained from flower, stem, and when methanol are used as solvent. The larvae of Ae. aegypti appeared to be more susceptible to I. cairica extract with lower LC50 value compared with Ae. albopictus (F=8.83, df=1, P<0.05). Therefore, this study suggests that the acetone extract of I. cairica leaf can be considered as plant-derived insecticide for the control of Aedes mosquitoes. This study quantified the larvicidal property of I. cairica extract, providing information on lethal concentration that

  14. Zika Virus in Gabon (Central Africa) – 2007: A New Threat from Aedes albopictus?

    PubMed Central

    Grard, Gilda; Caron, Mélanie; Mombo, Illich Manfred; Nkoghe, Dieudonné; Mboui Ondo, Statiana; Jiolle, Davy; Fontenille, Didier; Paupy, Christophe; Leroy, Eric Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Background Chikungunya and dengue viruses emerged in Gabon in 2007, with large outbreaks primarily affecting the capital Libreville and several northern towns. Both viruses subsequently spread to the south-east of the country, with new outbreaks occurring in 2010. The mosquito species Aedes albopictus, that was known as a secondary vector for both viruses, recently invaded the country and was the primary vector involved in the Gabonese outbreaks. We conducted a retrospective study of human sera and mosquitoes collected in Gabon from 2007 to 2010, in order to identify other circulating arboviruses. Methodology/Principal Findings Sample collections, including 4312 sera from patients presenting with painful febrile disease, and 4665 mosquitoes belonging to 9 species, split into 247 pools (including 137 pools of Aedes albopictus), were screened with molecular biology methods. Five human sera and two Aedes albopictus pools, all sampled in an urban setting during the 2007 outbreak, were positive for the flavivirus Zika (ZIKV). The ratio of Aedes albopictus pools positive for ZIKV was similar to that positive for dengue virus during the concomitant dengue outbreak suggesting similar mosquito infection rates and, presumably, underlying a human ZIKV outbreak. ZIKV sequences from the envelope and NS3 genes were amplified from a human serum sample. Phylogenetic analysis placed the Gabonese ZIKV at a basal position in the African lineage, pointing to ancestral genetic diversification and spread. Conclusions/Significance We provide the first direct evidence of human ZIKV infections in Gabon, and its first occurrence in the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus. These data reveal an unusual natural life cycle for this virus, occurring in an urban environment, and potentially representing a new emerging threat due to this novel association with a highly invasive vector whose geographic range is still expanding across the globe. PMID:24516683

  15. Surveillance of Aedes mosquitoes in a university campus in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Wan Norafikah, O; Chen, C D; Soh, H N; Lee, H L; Nazni, W A; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2009-08-01

    Ovitrap surveillance was initiated for eight continuous weeks to determine the distribution and abundance of Aedes sp. mosquitoes in the University of Malaya campus, Kuala Lumpur, and the impact of meteorological conditions on the Aedes populations. Two study areas within the campus were selected: Varsity Lake and Seventh Residential College. The abundance of Aedes populations in Varsity Lake was indicated by ovitrap index (OI) which ranged from 60.00%-90.00%. The mean number of larvae per ovitrap of Aedes albopictus in Varsity Lake ranged from 11.23+/-2.42-43.80+/-6.22. On the other hand, the outdoor OI for Seventh Residential College ranged from 73.33%-93.33%, respectively, while the mean number larvae per ovitrap for this area ranged from 19.33+/-4.55-35.27+/-5.46, respectively. In addition, the indoor OI of Seventh Residential College ranged from 0.00%-30.00%, while the mean number of larvae per ovitrap for Ae. albopictus ranged from 0-5.90+/-3.55. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) of Ae. albopictus population between Varsity Lake and Seventh Residential College. The studies showed a correlation between OI and mean number of larvae per ovitrap for outdoor Ae. albopictus populations in Varsity Lake and Seventh Residential College (r=0.794). There was also a correlation between the mean larvae number per ovitrap of Ae. albopictus obtained from eight weeks indoor ovitrap surveillance in Seventh Residential College with rainfall (r=0.584). However, there was no correlation between the mean larvae number per ovitrap of Ae. albopictus in both study areas with temperature and relative humidity. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were found neither indoor nor outdoor in both study areas. This study indicated that the principal dengue vector in the university campus was most likely Ae. albopictus. PMID:19901907

  16. The risk of Aedes aegypti breeding and premises condition in South Mexico.

    PubMed

    Manrique-Saide, Pablo; Davies, Clive R; Coleman, Paul G; Che-Mendoza, Azael; Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Barrera-Pérez, Mario; Hernández-Betancourt, Silvia; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe; Pinkus-Rendón, Miguel; Burciaga-Zúñiga, Pierre; Sánchez Tejeda, Gustavo; Arredondo-Jiménez, Juan I

    2013-12-01

    A recent innovation instrumented for the Dengue Prevention and Control program in Mexico is the use of the premises condition index (PCI) as an indicator of risk for the vector Aedes aegypti infestation in dengue-endemic localities of Mexico. This paper addresses whether further improvements for the dengue control program could be made if the prevalence and productivity of Ae. aegypti populations could be reliably predicted using PCI at the household level, as well as medium-sized neighborhoods. We evaluated the use of PCI to predict the infestation with Aedes aegypti (breeding sites and immature productivity) in Merida, Mexico. The study consisted of a cross-sectional survey based on a cluster-randomized sampling design. We analyzed the statistical association between Aedes infestation and PCI, the extent to which the 3 components of PCI (house maintenance, and tidiness and shading of the patio) contributed to the association between PCI and infestation and whether infestation in a given premises was also affected by the PCI of the surrounding ones. Premises with the lowest PCI had significantly lower Aedes infestation and productivity; and as PCI scores increased infestation levels also tended to increase. Household PCI was significantly associated with Ae. aegypti breeding, largely due to the effect of patio untidiness and patio shade. The mean PCI within the surroundings premises also had a significant and independent explanatory power to predict the risk for infestation, in addition to individual PCI. This is the 1st study in Mexico showing evidence that premises condition as measured by the PCI is related to Ae. aegypti breeding sites and immature productivity. Results suggest that PCI could be used to streamline surveys to inform control efforts at least where Ae. aegypti breeds outdoors, as in Merida. The effect of individual premises, neighborhood condition, and the risk of Aedes infestation imply that the risk for dengue vector infestation can only be

  17. Electrical coupling between cells of the insect Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed Central

    Bukauskas, F; Kempf, C; Weingart, R

    1992-01-01

    1. Cell pairs of an insect cell line (Aedes albopictus, clone C6/36) were used to study the electrical properties of intercellular junctions. A double voltage-clamp approach was adopted to control the voltage gradient between the cells and measure the intracellular current flow. 2. Determinations of junctional conductance (gj) revealed two types of intercellular contacts, gap junctions and cytoplasmic bridges. Identification occurred by means of functional criteria, i.e. the dependency of gj on (i) junctional membrane potential, (ii) non-junctional membrane potential, and (iii) heptanol. 3. In cell pairs with putative gap junctions, gj was dependent on the junctional membrane potential (Vj). When determined at the beginning of voltage pulses, gj was insensitive to Vj; when determined at the end of 15 s pulses, it depended on Vj in a bell-shaped manner (70% decrease for a change in Vj of +/- 75 mV). 4. These cell pairs also showed a dependency of gj on the non-junctional membrane potential (Vm). When determined immediately after changing the non-junctional membrane potential in both cells, gj was not affected by Vm; when determined 30 s later, gj was modified by Vm in a S-shaped fashion (100% decrease when Vm was depolarized to +50 mV). 5. Exposure to 3 mM-heptanol gave rise to complete and reversible block of gj in cell pairs with putative gap junctions. 6. Cell pairs susceptible to uncoupling by heptanol revealed junctional currents indicative of the operation of gap junction channels. The single-channel conductance, determined at a Vm of -50 to -70 mV, was 133 pS. 7. In the case of putative cytoplasmic bridges, gj was insensitive to the junctional and non-junctional membrane potential. In addition, it was not affected by 3 mM-heptanol. 8. While most cell pairs showed functional properties characteristic of gap junctions or cytoplasmic bridges, few cell pairs exhibited junctional currents compatible with the co-existence of both junctional structures. PMID:1593470

  18. Developing Exon-Primed Intron-Crossing (EPIC) markers for population genetic studies in three Aedes disease vectors.

    PubMed

    White, Vanessa Linley; Endersby, Nancy Margaret; Chan, Janice; Hoffmann, Ary Anthony; Weeks, Andrew Raymond

    2015-03-01

    Aedes aegypti, Aedes notoscriptus, and Aedes albopictus are important vectors of many arboviruses implicated in human disease such as dengue fever. Genetic markers applied across vector species can provide important information on population structure, gene flow, insecticide resistance, and taxonomy, however, robust microsatellite markers have proven difficult to develop in these species and mosquitoes generally. Here we consider the utility and transferability of 15 Ribosome protein (Rp) Exon-Primed Intron-Crossing (EPIC) markers for population genetic studies in these 3 Aedes species. Rp EPIC markers designed for Ae. aegypti also successfully amplified populations of the sister species, Ae. albopictus, as well as the distantly related species, Ae. notoscriptus. High SNP and good indel diversity in sequenced alleles plus support for amplification of the same regions across populations and species were additional benefits of these markers. These findings point to the general value of EPIC markers in mosquito population studies.

  19. [A rapid assay of Sindbis virus infectivity by counting immunofluorescence foci in "Aedes albopictus" cell culture (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Digoutte, J P; Tignor, G H; Smith, A L; Knudson, D L

    1976-01-01

    The Aedes albopictus cell line is susceptible to numerous arboviruses but the appearance of cytopathic effect is observed mostly with flavivirus. A method of rapid titration of Sindbis virus by counting immunofluorescent foci is described, using this cell line.

  20. Comparison of Mosquito Magnet and Biogents Sentinel Traps for Operational Surveillance of Container-Inhabiting Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) Species.

    PubMed

    Rochlin, Ilia; Kawalkowski, Margaret; Ninivaggi, Dominick V

    2016-03-01

    Container-inhabiting Aedes are among the most medically important mosquito vectors of diseases. They also impact health and quality of life by their persistent and severe biting. Monitoring of container-inhabiting Aedes species is challenging due to the need for specialized traps and lures. Biogents Sentinel (BGS) trap has become a standard for Aedes albopictus (Skuse) surveillance; however, it has substantial problems with durability, quality of construction, and sample exposure to the elements. The goal of this study was to develop a methodology for collecting medically important container-inhabiting Aedes species in numbers sufficient for population trend analysis, control efficacy studies, and pathogen testing. Mosquito Magnets (MM) baited with BG lure and R-octenol were selected as the most practical alternative to BGS, collecting significantly more Ae. albopictus (32.1 ± 0.7 vs. 5.6 ± 0.1), Aedes japonicus (Theobald) (10.1 ± 0.4 vs. 1.2 ± 0.02), and Aedes triseriatus (Say) (0.9 ± 0.04 vs. 0.04 ± 0.004) females on average per trapping under a variety of weather conditions. MM can be particularly useful for long-term surveillance or when large numbers of specimens are required for pathogen isolation, such as at the sites with suspected dengue or chikungunya transmission. PMID:26520482

  1. Comparison of Mosquito Magnet and Biogents Sentinel Traps for Operational Surveillance of Container-Inhabiting Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) Species.

    PubMed

    Rochlin, Ilia; Kawalkowski, Margaret; Ninivaggi, Dominick V

    2016-03-01

    Container-inhabiting Aedes are among the most medically important mosquito vectors of diseases. They also impact health and quality of life by their persistent and severe biting. Monitoring of container-inhabiting Aedes species is challenging due to the need for specialized traps and lures. Biogents Sentinel (BGS) trap has become a standard for Aedes albopictus (Skuse) surveillance; however, it has substantial problems with durability, quality of construction, and sample exposure to the elements. The goal of this study was to develop a methodology for collecting medically important container-inhabiting Aedes species in numbers sufficient for population trend analysis, control efficacy studies, and pathogen testing. Mosquito Magnets (MM) baited with BG lure and R-octenol were selected as the most practical alternative to BGS, collecting significantly more Ae. albopictus (32.1 ± 0.7 vs. 5.6 ± 0.1), Aedes japonicus (Theobald) (10.1 ± 0.4 vs. 1.2 ± 0.02), and Aedes triseriatus (Say) (0.9 ± 0.04 vs. 0.04 ± 0.004) females on average per trapping under a variety of weather conditions. MM can be particularly useful for long-term surveillance or when large numbers of specimens are required for pathogen isolation, such as at the sites with suspected dengue or chikungunya transmission.

  2. Host-seeking activity and avian host preferences of mosquitoes associated with West Nile virus transmission in the northeastern U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suom, Channsotha; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Bernick, Andrew; Klein, Coby; Buckley, P.A.; Salvatore, Christa; LeBrun, Roger A.

    2010-01-01

    Mosquito host-seeking activity was studied using a custom-designed trap to explore: (1) at which time interval of the night adult mosquito abatement would be most effective, and (2) if there exists an avian-specific host-seeking preference. Overnight trials using traps baited with dry ice showed that Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) was most active at dusk and was then captured throughout the night. In contrast, Culex spp. (Cx. pipiens (Linnaeus) and Cx. restuans (Theobald) delayed most activity until about two h after dusk and were then captured through the night. This pattern suggests that management activities directed at adult Culex spp. would be most effective if initiated well after sunset. Mosquito capture rates in traps baited with birds in net bags were significantly greater than those with empty net bags, indicating that mosquitoes were attracted to the birds and not incidentally being sucked in by the custom trap's strong fan motor (Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test, n = 24, t = 30, p 2 = 0.21, p = 0.02). Trials with paired traps that contained different native bird species showed that Gray Catbirds, Dumatella carolinensis, attracted more mosquitoes than the heavier Northern Cardinals, Cardinalis cardinalis (paired samples t-test, t = 2.58, df = 7, p = 0.04). However, attractiveness did not differ substantially among bird species, and Gray Catbirds did not attract more mosquitoes than all other birds combined as a group. American Robins, Turdus migratorius (n = 4) were comparable in attractiveness to other bird species, but not enough American Robins were captured for a comprehensive study of mosquito avian preference.

  3. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Numbers in the Yogyakarta Area of Java, Indonesia, With Implications for Wolbachia Releases.

    PubMed

    Tantowijoyo, W; Arguni, E; Johnson, P; Budiwati, N; Nurhayati, P I; Fitriana, I; Wardana, S; Ardiansyah, H; Turley, A P; Ryan, P; O'Neill, S L; Hoffmann, A A

    2016-01-01

    of mosquito vector populations, particularly through Wolbachia endosymbionts. The success of these strategies depends on understanding the dynamics of vector populations. In preparation for Wolbachia releases around Yogyakarta, we have studied Aedes populations in five hamlets. Adult monitoring with BioGent- Sentinel (BG-S) traps indicated that hamlet populations had different dynamics across the year; while there was an increase in Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) numbers in the wet season, species abundance remained relatively stable in some hamlets but changed markedly (>2 fold) in others. Local rainfall a month prior to monitoring partly predicted numbers of Ae. aegypti but not Ae. albopictus. Site differences in population size indicated by BG-S traps were also evident in ovitrap data. Egg or larval collections with ovitraps repeated at the same location suggested spatial autocorrelation (<250 m) in the areas of the hamlets where Ae. aegypti numbers were high. Overall, there was a weak negative association (r<0.43) between Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus numbers in ovitraps when averaged across collections. Ae. albopictus numbers in ovitraps and BG-S traps were positively correlated with vegetation around areas where traps were placed, while Ae. aegypti were negatively correlated with this feature. These data inform intervention strategies by defining periods when mosquito densities are high, highlighting the importance of local site characteristics on populations, and suggesting relatively weak interactions between Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. They also indicate local areas within hamlets where consistently high mosquito densities may influence Wolbachia invasions and other interventions. PMID:26576934

  4. Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Howardina) cozumelensis in Yucatán State, México, with a summary of published collection records for Ae. cozumelensis.

    PubMed

    García-Rejón, Julián E; López-Uribe, Mildred P; Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Arana-Guardia, Roger; Puc-Tinal, Maria; López-Uribe, Genny M; Coba-Tún, Carlos; Baak-Baak, Carlos M; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe C; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Black, William C; Beaty, Barry J; Eisen, Lars

    2012-12-01

    We collected mosquito immatures from artificial containers during 2010-2011 from 26 communities, ranging in size from small rural communities to large urban centers, located in different parts of Yucatán State in southeastern México. The arbovirus vector Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti was collected from all 26 examined communities, and nine of the communities also yielded another container-inhabiting Aedes mosquito: Aedes (Howardina) cozumelensis. The communities from which Ae. cozumelensis were collected were all small rural communities (<6,000 inhabitants) in the north-central part of Yucatán State. These new collection records for Ae. cozumelensis demonstrate that this mosquito has a far broader geographic range in the Yucatán Peninsula than previously known. Ae. cozumelensis immatures were collected from both residential premises and cemeteries, with specimens recovered from rock holes as well as various artificial containers including metal cans, flower vases, buckets, tires, and a water storage tank. The co-occurrence with Ae. aegypti in small rural communities poses intriguing questions regarding linkages between these mosquitoes, including the potential for direct competition for larval development sites. Additional studies are needed to determine how commonly Ae. cozumelensis feeds on human blood and whether it is naturally infected with arboviruses or other pathogens of medical or veterinary importance. We also summarize the published records for Ae. cozumelensis, which are restricted to collections from México's Yucatán Peninsula and Belize, and uniformly represent geographic locations where Ae. aegypti can be expected to occur.

  5. Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Howardina) cozumelensis in Yucatán State, México, with a summary of published collection records for Ae. cozumelensis

    PubMed Central

    García-Rejón, Julián E.; López-Uribe, Mildred P.; Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Arana-Guardia, Roger; Puc-Tinal, Maria; López-Uribe, Genny M.; Coba-Tún, Carlos; Baak-Baak, Carlos M.; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe C.; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Black IV, William C.; Beaty, Barry J.; Eisen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    We collected mosquito immatures from artificial containers during 2010–2011 from 26 communities, ranging in size from small rural communities to large urban centers, located in different parts of Yucatán State in southeastern México. The arbovirus vector Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti was collected from all 26 examined communities, and nine of the communities also yielded another container-inhabiting Aedes mosquito: Aedes (Howardina) cozumelensis. The communities from which Ae. cozumelensis were collected were all small, rural communities (<6,000 inhabitants) in the north-central part of Yucatán State. These new collection records for Ae. cozumelensis demonstrate that this mosquito has a far broader geographic range in the Yucatán Peninsula than previously known. Ae. cozumelensis immatures were collected from both residential premises and cemeteries, with specimens recovered from rock holes as well as various artificial containers including metal cans, flower vases, buckets, tires and a water storage tank. The co-occurrence with Ae. aegypti in small rural communities poses intriguing questions regarding linkages between these mosquitoes, including the potential for direct competition for larval development sites. Additional studies are needed to determine how commonly Ae. cozumelensis feeds on human blood and whether it is naturally infected with arboviruses or other pathogens of medical or veterinary importance. We also summarize the published records for Ae. cozumelensis, which are restricted to collections from México’s Yucatán Peninsula and Belize, and uniformly represent geographic locations where Ae. aegypti can be expected to occur. PMID:23181861

  6. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Numbers in the Yogyakarta Area of Java, Indonesia, With Implications for Wolbachia Releases.

    PubMed

    Tantowijoyo, W; Arguni, E; Johnson, P; Budiwati, N; Nurhayati, P I; Fitriana, I; Wardana, S; Ardiansyah, H; Turley, A P; Ryan, P; O'Neill, S L; Hoffmann, A A

    2016-01-01

    of mosquito vector populations, particularly through Wolbachia endosymbionts. The success of these strategies depends on understanding the dynamics of vector populations. In preparation for Wolbachia releases around Yogyakarta, we have studied Aedes populations in five hamlets. Adult monitoring with BioGent- Sentinel (BG-S) traps indicated that hamlet populations had different dynamics across the year; while there was an increase in Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) numbers in the wet season, species abundance remained relatively stable in some hamlets but changed markedly (>2 fold) in others. Local rainfall a month prior to monitoring partly predicted numbers of Ae. aegypti but not Ae. albopictus. Site differences in population size indicated by BG-S traps were also evident in ovitrap data. Egg or larval collections with ovitraps repeated at the same location suggested spatial autocorrelation (<250 m) in the areas of the hamlets where Ae. aegypti numbers were high. Overall, there was a weak negative association (r<0.43) between Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus numbers in ovitraps when averaged across collections. Ae. albopictus numbers in ovitraps and BG-S traps were positively correlated with vegetation around areas where traps were placed, while Ae. aegypti were negatively correlated with this feature. These data inform intervention strategies by defining periods when mosquito densities are high, highlighting the importance of local site characteristics on populations, and suggesting relatively weak interactions between Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. They also indicate local areas within hamlets where consistently high mosquito densities may influence Wolbachia invasions and other interventions.

  7. ABSENCE OF AEDES AEGYPTI (L.) ON AN ECOLOGICAL ISLAND: COMPETITIVE EXCLUSION?

    PubMed

    Afizah, A Noor; Mahirah, M N; Azahari, A H; Asuad, M Khairul; Nazni, W A; Lee, H L

    2015-09-01

    Ovitrap surveillance was conducted in 2012 and 2006 in Malay and Aboriginal Villages on Carey Island. In each village, standard ovitraps were placed indoors and outdoors at randomly selected houses/locations. All L3 larvae recovered were identified up to species level. Results demonstrated that only larvae of Aedes albopictus were found in all the positive ovitraps placed indoors and outdoors. In 2012, a high ovitrap index (OI) of 66.7% indoor and 84.0% outdoor in the Malay Village; and 62.5% indoor and 88.0% outdoor in Aboriginal Village with an apparent absence of Aedes aegypti. In 2006, a 100% OI was recorded in all ovitraps set indoors and outdoors in both villages. PMID:26863856

  8. First Report of Aedes aegypti Transmission of Chikungunya Virus in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Díaz-González, Esteban E; Kautz, Tiffany F; Dorantes-Delgado, Alicia; Malo-García, Iliana R; Laguna-Aguilar, Maricela; Langsjoen, Rose M; Chen, Rubing; Auguste, Dawn I; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa M; Danis-Lozano, Rogelio; Weaver, Scott C; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso

    2015-12-01

    During a chikungunya fever outbreak in late 2014 in Chiapas, Mexico, entomovirological surveillance was performed to incriminate the vector(s). In neighborhoods, 75 households with suspected cases were sampled for mosquitoes, of which 80% (60) harbored Aedes aegypti and 2.7% (2) Aedes albopictus. A total of 1,170 Ae. aegypti and three Ae. albopictus was collected and 81 pools were generated. Although none of the Ae. albopictus pools were chikungunya virus (CHIKV)-positive, 18 Ae. aegypti pools (22.8%) contained CHIKV, yielding an infection rate of 32.3/1,000 mosquitoes. A lack of herd immunity in conjunction with high mosquito populations, poor vector control services in this region, and targeted collections in locations of human cases may explain the high infection rate in this vector. Consistent with predictions from experimental studies, Ae. aegypti appears to be the principal vector of CHIKV in southern Mexico, while the role of Ae. albopictus remains unknown.

  9. Wolbachia Blocks Currently Circulating Zika Virus Isolates in Brazilian Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Heverton Leandro Carneiro; Rocha, Marcele Neves; Dias, Fernando Braga Stehling; Mansur, Simone Brutman; Caragata, Eric Pearce; Moreira, Luciano Andrade

    2016-06-01

    The recent association of Zika virus with cases of microcephaly has sparked a global health crisis and highlighted the need for mechanisms to combat the Zika vector, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Wolbachia pipientis, a bacterial endosymbiont of insect, has recently garnered attention as a mechanism for arbovirus control. Here we report that Aedes aegypti harboring Wolbachia are highly resistant to infection with two currently circulating Zika virus isolates from the recent Brazilian epidemic. Wolbachia-harboring mosquitoes displayed lower viral prevalence and intensity and decreased disseminated infection and, critically, did not carry infectious virus in the saliva, suggesting that viral transmission was blocked. Our data indicate that the use of Wolbachia-harboring mosquitoes could represent an effective mechanism to reduce Zika virus transmission and should be included as part of Zika control strategies. PMID:27156023

  10. Site-Specific Cassette Exchange Systems in the Aedes aegypti Mosquito and the Plutella xylostella Moth

    PubMed Central

    Haghighat-Khah, Roya Elaine; Scaife, Sarah; Martins, Sara; St John, Oliver; Matzen, Kelly Jean; Morrison, Neil; Alphey, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Genetically engineered insects are being evaluated as potential tools to decrease the economic and public health burden of mosquitoes and agricultural pest insects. Here we describe a new tool for the reliable and targeted genome manipulation of pest insects for research and field release using recombinase mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) mechanisms. We successfully demonstrated the established ΦC31-RMCE method in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, which is the first report of RMCE in mosquitoes. A new variant of this RMCE system, called iRMCE, combines the ΦC31-att integration system and Cre or FLP-mediated excision to remove extraneous sequences introduced as part of the site-specific integration process. Complete iRMCE was achieved in two important insect pests, Aedes aegypti and the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, demonstrating the transferability of the system across a wide phylogenetic range of insect pests. PMID:25830287

  11. Immunotoxicity activity of the major essential oils of Valeriana fauriei Briq against Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Kim, Eun-Hye; Moon, Hyung-In

    2011-03-01

    The rhizomes and roots of Valeriana fauriei were extracted and the major essential oil composition and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The analyses were conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed that the essential oils of V. fauriei. The V. fauriei essential oil (VFEO) yield was 1.93%, and GC/MS analysis revealed that its major constituents were bornyl acetate (32.83%), terpinyl acetate (3.82%), bornyl isovalerate (2.11%), β-sesquiphellandrene (2.21%), sesquiterpene alcohol (7.32%), and cedrol (2.45%). The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with an LC(50) value of 30.44 ppm and an LC(90) value of 82.64 ppm. The results could be useful in search for newer, safer, and more effective natural immunotoxicity agents against Aedes aegypti L. PMID:20462349

  12. Insecticidal and repellent activity of Siparuna guianensis Aubl. (Negramina) against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Raimundo Wagner Souza; dos Santos, Suetonio Fernandes; da Silva Morgado, Fabricio; Ascencio, Sergio Donizeti; de Mendonça Lopes, Magnólia; Viana, Kelvinson Fernandes; Didonet, Julcemar; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the toxic effects of essential oils isolated from Siparuna guianensis against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus (eggs, larvae, pupae, and adult) and Aedes albopictus (C6/36) cells. The oviposition-deterring activity, egg viability, and repellence activity in the presence of different essential oils concentrations were determined. The essential oils showed high toxicity to all developmental stages of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. Furthermore, the oils also showed high repellent activity towards the adult stage of mosquitoes (0.025 to 0.550 μg/cm2 skin conferred 100% repellence up to 120 min) and in contact with cultured insect cells (C6/36) induced death possibly by necrosis. The results presented in this work show the potential of S. guianensis essential oils for the development of an alternative and effective method for the natural control of mosquitoes in homes and urban areas.

  13. Wolbachia Blocks Currently Circulating Zika Virus Isolates in Brazilian Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Heverton Leandro Carneiro; Rocha, Marcele Neves; Dias, Fernando Braga Stehling; Mansur, Simone Brutman; Caragata, Eric Pearce; Moreira, Luciano Andrade

    2016-06-01

    The recent association of Zika virus with cases of microcephaly has sparked a global health crisis and highlighted the need for mechanisms to combat the Zika vector, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Wolbachia pipientis, a bacterial endosymbiont of insect, has recently garnered attention as a mechanism for arbovirus control. Here we report that Aedes aegypti harboring Wolbachia are highly resistant to infection with two currently circulating Zika virus isolates from the recent Brazilian epidemic. Wolbachia-harboring mosquitoes displayed lower viral prevalence and intensity and decreased disseminated infection and, critically, did not carry infectious virus in the saliva, suggesting that viral transmission was blocked. Our data indicate that the use of Wolbachia-harboring mosquitoes could represent an effective mechanism to reduce Zika virus transmission and should be included as part of Zika control strategies.

  14. Insecticidal and repellent activity of Siparuna guianensis Aubl. (Negramina) against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Raimundo Wagner Souza; dos Santos, Suetonio Fernandes; da Silva Morgado, Fabricio; Ascencio, Sergio Donizeti; de Mendonça Lopes, Magnólia; Viana, Kelvinson Fernandes; Didonet, Julcemar; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the toxic effects of essential oils isolated from Siparuna guianensis against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus (eggs, larvae, pupae, and adult) and Aedes albopictus (C6/36) cells. The oviposition-deterring activity, egg viability, and repellence activity in the presence of different essential oils concentrations were determined. The essential oils showed high toxicity to all developmental stages of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. Furthermore, the oils also showed high repellent activity towards the adult stage of mosquitoes (0.025 to 0.550 μg/cm2 skin conferred 100% repellence up to 120 min) and in contact with cultured insect cells (C6/36) induced death possibly by necrosis. The results presented in this work show the potential of S. guianensis essential oils for the development of an alternative and effective method for the natural control of mosquitoes in homes and urban areas. PMID:25646797

  15. A draft genome sequence of an invasive mosquito: an Italian Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Dritsou, Vicky; Topalis, Pantelis; Windbichler, Nikolai; Simoni, Alekos; Hall, Ann; Lawson, Daniel; Hinsley, Malcolm; Hughes, Daniel; Napolioni, Valerio; Crucianelli, Francesca; Deligianni, Elena; Gasperi, Giuliano; Gomulski, Ludvik M; Savini, Grazia; Manni, Mosè; Scolari, Francesca; Malacrida, Anna R; Arcà, Bruno; Ribeiro, José M; Lombardo, Fabrizio; Saccone, Giuseppe; Salvemini, Marco; Moretti, Riccardo; Aprea, Giuseppe; Calvitti, Maurizio; Picciolini, Matteo; Papathanos, Philippos Aris; Spaccapelo, Roberta; Favia, Guido; Crisanti, Andrea; Louis, Christos

    2015-07-01

    The draft genome sequence of Italian specimens of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) was determined using a standard NGS (next generation sequencing) approach. The size of the assembled genome is comparable to that of Aedes aegypti; the two mosquitoes are also similar as far as the high content of repetitive DNA is concerned, most of which is made up of transposable elements. Although, based on BUSCO (Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologues) analysis, the genome assembly reported here contains more than 99% of protein-coding genes, several of those are expected to be represented in the assembly in a fragmented state. We also present here the annotation of several families of genes (tRNA genes, miRNA genes, the sialome, genes involved in chromatin condensation, sex determination genes, odorant binding proteins and odorant receptors). These analyses confirm that the assembly can be used for the study of the biology of this invasive vector of disease.

  16. [The role of the Aedes aegypti vector in the epidemiology of dengue in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Salas, I; Flores-Leal, A

    1995-01-01

    The role of Aedes aegypti (Lineo) in the epidemiology of dengue fever in Mexico is herein discussed based on the vectorial capacity model. Comments on the advantages and disadvantages of each model component at the time of field determinations are also presented. Emphasis is made on the impact of sampling and method bias on the results of vectorial capacity studies. The paper also addresses the need to increase vector biology knowledge as an input for epidemiological work to explain and predict dengue fever outbreaks. Comments on potential entomological variables not considered by the quantitative model are included. Finally, we elaborate on the introduction of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in Mexico as a new risk factor and on its implications for the understanding of dengue fever transmission in Mexico.

  17. Insecticidal and Repellent Activity of Siparuna guianensis Aubl. (Negramina) against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar, Raimundo Wagner Souza; dos Santos, Suetonio Fernandes; da Silva Morgado, Fabricio; Ascencio, Sergio Donizeti; de Mendonça Lopes, Magnólia; Viana, Kelvinson Fernandes; Didonet, Julcemar; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the toxic effects of essential oils isolated from Siparuna guianensis against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus (eggs, larvae, pupae, and adult) and Aedes albopictus (C6/36) cells. The oviposition-deterring activity, egg viability, and repellence activity in the presence of different essential oils concentrations were determined. The essential oils showed high toxicity to all developmental stages of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. Furthermore, the oils also showed high repellent activity towards the adult stage of mosquitoes (0.025 to 0.550 μg/cm2 skin conferred 100% repellence up to 120 min) and in contact with cultured insect cells (C6/36) induced death possibly by necrosis. The results presented in this work show the potential of S. guianensis essential oils for the development of an alternative and effective method for the natural control of mosquitoes in homes and urban areas. PMID:25646797

  18. Repellent activity of herbal essential oils against Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say.)

    PubMed Central

    Sritabutra, Duangkamon; Soonwera, Mayura

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the mosquito repellent activity of herbal essential oils against female Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods On a volunteer's forearm, 0.1 mL of each essential oil was applied to 3 cm×10 cm of exposed skin. The protection time was recorded for 3 min after every 30 min. Results Essential oil from clove oil in olive oil and in coconut oil gave the longest lasting period of 76.50 min and 96.00 min respectively against Aedes aegypti. The citronella grass oil in olive oil, citronella grass oil in coconut oil and lemongrass oil in coconut oil exhibited protection against Culex quinquefasciatus at 165.00, 105.00, and 112.50 min respectively. Conclusions The results clearly indicated that clove, citronella and lemongrass oil were the most promising for repellency against mosquito species. These oils could be used to develop a new formulation to control mosquitoes.

  19. Experimental studies of susceptibility of Italian Aedes albopictus to Zika virus.

    PubMed

    Di Luca, Marco; Severini, Francesco; Toma, Luciano; Boccolini, Daniela; Romi, Roberto; Remoli, Maria Elena; Sabbatucci, Michela; Rizzo, Caterina; Venturi, Giulietta; Rezza, Giovanni; Fortuna, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    We report a study on vector competence of an Italian population of Aedes albopictus for Zika virus (ZIKV). Ae. albopictus was susceptible to ZIKV infection (infection rate: 10%), and the virus could disseminate and was secreted in the mosquito's saliva (dissemination rate: 29%; transmission rate: 29%) after an extrinsic incubation period of 11 days. The observed vector competence was lower than that of an Ae. aegypti colony tested in parallel.

  20. [Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti L. and associated culicidae fauna in a urban area of southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lopes, J; da Silva, M A; Borsato, A M; de Oliveira, V D; Oliveira, F J

    1993-10-01

    Some aspects of the ecology of eleven species of Culicidae that were found breeding in recipients in an urban area of Southern Brazil are presented. A great variety of recipients were listed as efficient breeding sites. Apparently Aedes aegypti has been recently introduced into the region and was limited to two areas of the city. Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. coronator, Ae. aegypti, Ae. fluviatilis e Limatus durhamii were the predominant species.

  1. The developmental transcriptome of the mosquito Aedes aegypti, an invasive species and major arbovirus vector.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Omar S; Antoshechkin, Igor; Amrhein, Henry; Williams, Brian; Diloreto, Race; Sandler, Jeremy; Hay, Bruce A

    2013-09-04

    Mosquitoes are vectors of a number of important human and animal diseases. The development of novel vector control strategies requires a thorough understanding of mosquito biology. To facilitate this, we used RNA-seq to identify novel genes and provide the first high-resolution view of the transcriptome throughout development and in response to blood feeding in a mosquito vector of human disease, Aedes aegypti, the primary vector for Dengue and yellow fever. We characterized mRNA expression at 34 distinct time points throughout Aedes development, including adult somatic and germline tissues, by using polyA+ RNA-seq. We identify a total of 14,238 novel new transcribed regions corresponding to 12,597 new loci, as well as many novel transcript isoforms of previously annotated genes. Altogether these results increase the annotated fraction of the transcribed genome into long polyA+ RNAs by more than twofold. We also identified a number of patterns of shared gene expression, as well as genes and/or exons expressed sex-specifically or sex-differentially. Expression profiles of small RNAs in ovaries, early embryos, testes, and adult male and female somatic tissues also were determined, resulting in the identification of 38 new Aedes-specific miRNAs, and ~291,000 small RNA new transcribed regions, many of which are likely to be endogenous small-interfering RNAs and Piwi-interacting RNAs. Genes of potential interest for transgene-based vector control strategies also are highlighted. Our data have been incorporated into a user-friendly genome browser located at www.Aedes.caltech.edu, with relevant links to Vectorbase (www.vectorbase.org).

  2. Easily seen characters to identify the pupa of Aedes albopictus in the United States.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Bruce A

    2005-12-01

    Pupal paddle characters of Aedes albopictus that will quickly differentiate this species from other container-inhabiting species in the United States are described, illustrated, and compared with 2 other container species that have somewhat similar paddles, but with very different characters. Additional noncontainer species that possess slightly similar characters are also discussed. Citations for other published illustrations of the characters, pupal sexing methods, and published keys to pupae are provided, as are laboratory methods and the distributions for the species.

  3. Updated Distribution of Aedes albopictus in Oklahoma, and Implications in Arbovirus Transmission.

    PubMed

    Noden, Bruce H; Coburn, Lisa; Wright, Russell; Bradley, Kristy

    2015-03-01

    A series of statewide surveys were conducted in Oklahoma in the summers between 1991 and 2004 to identify the distribution of Aedes albopictus. Adult mosquitoes were identified in 63 counties, bringing the currently known distribution of Ae. albopictus in the state to 69 of 77 counties. The widespread presence of Ae. albopictus in Oklahoma has important current and future public and veterinary health implications for surveillance and control efforts.

  4. Chikungunya Virus Replication in Salivary Glands of the Mosquito Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Vega-Rúa, Anubis; Schmitt, Christine; Bonne, Isabelle; Krijnse Locker, Jacomine; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2015-11-17

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging arbovirus transmitted to humans by mosquitoes such as Aedes albopictus. To be transmitted, CHIKV must replicate in the mosquito midgut, then disseminate in the hemocele and infect the salivary glands before being released in saliva. We have developed a standardized protocol to visualize viral particles in the mosquito salivary glands using transmission electron microscopy. Here we provide direct evidence for CHIKV replication and storage in Ae. albopictus salivary glands.

  5. An invasive mosquito species Aedes albopictus found in the Czech Republic, 2012.

    PubMed

    Šebesta, O; Rudolf, I; Betášová, L; Peško, J; Hubálek, Z

    2012-01-01

    Between July and September 2012, seventeen larvae of the invasive mosquito species Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) were discovered using 60 ovitraps at four study sites alongside two main road exits in South Moravia, Czech Republic. This is the first report of imported Ae. albopictus in the Czech Republic. The findings highlight the need for a regular surveillance programme to monitor this invasive species throughout western and central Europe. PMID:23137465

  6. Surveillance and control of Aedes aegypti in epidemic areas of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, T H

    1994-12-01

    Aedes aegypti is the main, if not the only, vector of dengue fever in Taiwan. The dengue epidemics that have occurred in Taiwan correlate with the distribution of Aedes aegypti which is limited to south of the Tropic of Cancer. During the 1987 outbreak of dengue fever in Taiwan, the average larval density for the months July-December in the five cities and counties of southern Taiwan was 2,284 larvae per 100 households. After control measures were taken, the average annual larval density in the years from 1988 to 1993 declined to 1,580, 671, 442, 178, 110, and 88 larvae per 100 households, respectively. During 1987-1988, the number of confirmed cases and the Breteau index of Aedes aegypti showed an obvious positive relationship (r = 0.74) in the most heavily infected 25 cities and towns. Our Institute has conducted eight training courses since 1989 for 176 health workers who serve in their respective areas as local scouts for monitoring Aedes larval density. The number of cities and towns surveyed by them in the years 1990-1993 was 116, 149, 254, and 156, respectively. The number of households covered by space spraying with permethrin was 43, 183 in 1991, 11,186 in 1992 and 4,856 in 1993. Residual spraying with alphacypermethrin was applied to houses in areas where the Breteau index was above 35. The number of houses treated in the years 1990-1993 was 4,735, 32,279, 33,726 and 17,848, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Assessing the potential risk of Zika virus epidemics in temperate areas with established Aedes albopictus populations.

    PubMed

    Guzzetta, Giorgio; Poletti, Piero; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Baldacchino, Frederic; Capelli, Gioia; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Rosà, Roberto; Merler, Stefano

    2016-04-14

    Based on 2015 abundance of Aedes albopictus in nine northern Italian municipalities with temperate continental/oceanic climate, we estimated the basic reproductive number R0 for Zika virus (ZIKV) to be systematically below the epidemic threshold in most scenarios. Results were sensitive to the value of the probability of mosquito infection after biting a viraemic host. Therefore, further studies are required to improve models and predictions, namely evaluating vector competence and potential non-vector transmissions.

  8. A novel autocidal ovitrap for the surveillance and control of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Roberto; Mackay, Andrew J; Amador, Manuel

    2013-09-01

    We describe an inexpensive autocidal ovitrap for Aedes aegypti that uses cross-linked polyacrylamide (PAM) gel as the oviposition substrate. Aedes aegypti females readily laid eggs on PAM gel that had been hydrated with either hay infusion or water. Aedes aegypti larvae that hatched from their eggs desiccated on the surface of the PAM gel. We tested the effects of gel hydration, texture, and type of attractant on trap performance, and compared the capture rates of standard ovitraps with those of PAM gel ovitraps in the field. The results showed that the number of eggs did not vary over a range of gel hydration levels (40-100%) and that more eggs were recovered from ovitraps containing coarse gel than from those containing homogenized gel. The PAM gel hydrated with hay infusion was more attractive to gravid female mosquitoes than gel hydrated with water. In the field, the number of eggs recovered from autocidal ovitraps with PAM gel was similar to that recovered from standard ovitraps with hay infusion. PMID:24199506

  9. The global distribution of the arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus

    PubMed Central

    Kraemer, Moritz UG; Sinka, Marianne E; Duda, Kirsten A; Mylne, Adrian QN; Shearer, Freya M; Barker, Christopher M; Moore, Chester G; Carvalho, Roberta G; Coelho, Giovanini E; Van Bortel, Wim; Hendrickx, Guy; Schaffner, Francis; Elyazar, Iqbal RF; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Brady, Oliver J; Messina, Jane P; Pigott, David M; Scott, Thomas W; Smith, David L; Wint, GR William; Golding, Nick; Hay, Simon I

    2015-01-01

    Dengue and chikungunya are increasing global public health concerns due to their rapid geographical spread and increasing disease burden. Knowledge of the contemporary distribution of their shared vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus remains incomplete and is complicated by an ongoing range expansion fuelled by increased global trade and travel. Mapping the global distribution of these vectors and the geographical determinants of their ranges is essential for public health planning. Here we compile the largest contemporary database for both species and pair it with relevant environmental variables predicting their global distribution. We show Aedes distributions to be the widest ever recorded; now extensive in all continents, including North America and Europe. These maps will help define the spatial limits of current autochthonous transmission of dengue and chikungunya viruses. It is only with this kind of rigorous entomological baseline that we can hope to project future health impacts of these viruses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08347.001 PMID:26126267

  10. [Larvicidal activity of Anacardium humile Saint Hill oil on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera, Culicidae)].

    PubMed

    Porto, Karla Rejane de Andrade; Roel, Antonia Railda; Silva, Márcia Marlene da; Coelho, Rosemary Matias; Scheleder, Eloty Justina Dias; Jeller, Alex Haroldo

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Anacardium humile (monkey nuts) against Aedes aegypti larvae. Hexane, ethanol and aqueous extracts and oil from leaves were obtained from plant material collected from the Brazilian savanna. These were tested at concentrations of 1%, 0.5%, 0.25%, 0.125%, 0.05% and 0.0125%, diluted in 1% dimethyl sulfoxide. The dead larvae were counted 24 hours later. The Probit analysis method was used to obtain the LC(50) and the respective confidence intervals. The conclusion was that only the oil extracted from Anacardium humile leaves caused 100% mortality among fourth-instar Aedes aegypti larvae, using concentrations of up to 0.125%. This seems to indicate that the active ingredients are present in the most apolar phase. This indicates that this plant has potential use as a larvicide against Aedes aegypti. However, new tests should be carried out using other plant organs, as well as using other methods and solvents for the extraction.

  11. In silico models for predicting vector control chemicals targeting Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Devillers, J.; Lagneau, C.; Lattes, A.; Garrigues, J.C.; Clémenté, M.M.; Yébakima, A.

    2014-01-01

    Human arboviral diseases have emerged or re-emerged in numerous countries worldwide due to a number of factors including the lack of progress in vaccine development, lack of drugs, insecticide resistance in mosquitoes, climate changes, societal behaviours, and economical constraints. Thus, Aedes aegypti is the main vector of the yellow fever and dengue fever flaviviruses and is also responsible for several recent outbreaks of the chikungunya alphavirus. As for the other mosquito species, the A. aegypti control relies heavily on the use of insecticides. However, because of increasing resistance to the different families of insecticides, reduction of Aedes populations is becoming increasingly difficult. Despite the unquestionable utility of insecticides in fighting mosquito populations, there are very few new insecticides developed and commercialized for vector control. This is because the high cost of the discovery of an insecticide is not counterbalanced by the ‘low profitability’ of the vector control market. Fortunately, the use of quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) modelling allows the reduction of time and cost in the discovery of new chemical structures potentially active against mosquitoes. In this context, the goal of the present study was to review all the existing QSAR models on A. aegypti. The homology and pharmacophore models were also reviewed. Specific attention was paid to show the variety of targets investigated in Aedes in relation to the physiology and ecology of the mosquito as well as the diversity of the chemical structures which have been proposed, encompassing man-made and natural substances. PMID:25275884

  12. Reactive Oxygen Species Production and Brugia pahangi Survivorship in Aedes polynesiensis with Artificial Wolbachia Infection Types

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Elizabeth S.; Crain, Philip R.; Fu, Yuqing; Howe, Daniel K.; Dobson, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    Heterologous transinfection with the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia has been shown previously to induce pathogen interference phenotypes in mosquito hosts. Here we examine an artificially infected strain of Aedes polynesiensis, the primary vector of Wuchereria bancrofti, which is the causative agent of Lymphatic filariasis (LF) throughout much of the South Pacific. Embryonic microinjection was used to transfer the wAlbB infection from Aedes albopictus into an aposymbiotic strain of Ae. polynesiensis. The resulting strain (designated “MTB”) experiences a stable artificial infection with high maternal inheritance. Reciprocal crosses of MTB with naturally infected wild-type Ae. polynesiensis demonstrate strong bidirectional incompatibility. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the MTB strain differ significantly relative to that of the wild-type, indicating an impaired ability to regulate oxidative stress. Following a challenge with Brugia pahangi, the number of filarial worms achieving the infective stage is significantly reduced in MTB as compared to the naturally infected and aposymbiotic strains. Survivorship of MTB differed significantly from that of the wild-type, with an interactive effect between survivorship and blood feeding. The results demonstrate a direct correlation between decreased ROS levels and decreased survival of adult female Aedes polynesiensis. The results are discussed in relation to the interaction of Wolbachia with ROS production and antioxidant expression, iron homeostasis and the insect immune system. We discuss the potential applied use of the MTB strain for impacting Ae. polynesiensis populations and strategies for reducing LF incidence in the South Pacific. PMID:23236284

  13. Efficacy of alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin applications to prevent Aedes breeding in tires.

    PubMed

    Pettit, William J; Whelan, Peter I; McDonnell, Joseph; Jacups, Susan P

    2010-12-01

    The efficacy of alpha-cypermethrin (Cyperthor) and lambda-cyhalothrin (Demand) to prevent mosquito larval colonization of water-containing receptacles was investigated using 2 differing applications in disused car tires in Darwin, Australia. Insecticide treatments were applied uniformly to the inside surfaces of 2 categories of tires: 1) dry tires that were partially filled with water 24 h after spraying and 2) wet tires partially filled with water prior to spraying. All mosquito larvae, pupae, and dead adults were collected from the treatment and control tires weekly over the 24-wk study period and were later identified to species in the laboratory. Control tires were colonized by Aedes notoscriptus in wk 2 and by Culex quinquefasciatus in wk 4. Aedes notoscriptus failed to colonize any alpha-cypermethrin-treated tires until wk 22 and did not colonize any lambda-cyhalothrin-treated tires during the 24-wk trial. Culex quinquefasciatus colonized alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin-treated tires from wk 11 and wk 15, respectively. These results indicate both insecticides using either application method can prevent colonization of Ae. notoscriptus for at least 20 wk and demonstrate great potential for the prevention of breeding in receptacles for other receptacle-breeding Aedes species, such as the dengue vectors, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus.

  14. In silico models for predicting vector control chemicals targeting Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Devillers, J; Lagneau, C; Lattes, A; Garrigues, J C; Clémenté, M M; Yébakima, A

    2014-01-01

    Human arboviral diseases have emerged or re-emerged in numerous countries worldwide due to a number of factors including the lack of progress in vaccine development, lack of drugs, insecticide resistance in mosquitoes, climate changes, societal behaviours, and economical constraints. Thus, Aedes aegypti is the main vector of the yellow fever and dengue fever flaviviruses and is also responsible for several recent outbreaks of the chikungunya alphavirus. As for the other mosquito species, the A. aegypti control relies heavily on the use of insecticides. However, because of increasing resistance to the different families of insecticides, reduction of Aedes populations is becoming increasingly difficult. Despite the unquestionable utility of insecticides in fighting mosquito populations, there are very few new insecticides developed and commercialized for vector control. This is because the high cost of the discovery of an insecticide is not counterbalanced by the 'low profitability' of the vector control market. Fortunately, the use of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modelling allows the reduction of time and cost in the discovery of new chemical structures potentially active against mosquitoes. In this context, the goal of the present study was to review all the existing QSAR models on A. aegypti. The homology and pharmacophore models were also reviewed. Specific attention was paid to show the variety of targets investigated in Aedes in relation to the physiology and ecology of the mosquito as well as the diversity of the chemical structures which have been proposed, encompassing man-made and natural substances.

  15. [Relationship of dengue fever epidemic to aedes density changed by climate factors in Guangdong Province].

    PubMed

    Yi, Bintang; Zhang, Zhiying; Xu, Dezhong; Xi, Yunzhen

    2003-03-01

    In order to explore and quantify the relation between probability of dengue episode and aedes density, and climate factors, and also, to provide scientific approach for prevention and supervision of dengue fever, data on dengue fever cases, aedes vector's supervision and climate factors such as average air temperature, lowest air temperature, highest air temperature, sunlight, rainfall and relative humidity were collected and, were analyzed by correlation analysis, stepwise regression and logistic regression method. The results showed that the logistic regression equation: p (1) = 1/[1 + e-(-7.750 + 0.391 BI)], indicating that meteorology parameter correlating with breteau index(BI) were rainfall, sunlight, average air temperature, lowest average air temperature and relative humidity; by stepwise regression analysis, the regression equation: viz.: YBI = 24.800 + 0.826 X1 + 0.020 X2 - 0.418X3, X1 representing lowest average air temperature, and X2 representing rainfall and X3 representing relative humidity. It is suggested that the influence of climate factor on vector aedes density is complicated. But its primary influence factors are lowest average air temperature, rainfall and relative humidity. The primary influence factors of dengue episode are breteau index.

  16. Identification of dengue virus in Aedes mosquitoes and patients' sera from Si Sa Ket Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Teerasut, Chai; Petphuwadee, Udom; Thammapalo, Suwich; Jampangern, Wipawee; Limkittikul, Kriengsak

    2012-05-01

    Dengue fever (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) are the re-emerging infectious diseases caused by dengue (DEN) virus, transmitted by Aedes mosquito. There are more than 100,000 cases of dengue infection and more than 100 deaths annually in Thailand. Virological surveillance for DEN viruses is used as an early warning system to predict outbreaks. The seroprevalence of infection and serotypes of DEN virus in 116 pediatric patients at Si Sa Ket Province, Thailand were analyzed during June to September 2004. At the same period, Aedes mosquitoes were caught from patients' and their neighbors' houses, from control houses, located in villages with no report of dengue infection during the previous 3 years. The majority of DHF cases were secondary infections of DEN-2 and DEN-4 serotypes. Of the 1,652 Aedes mosquitoes collected 1,583 were Ae. aegypti and 69 Ae. albopictus. Ten mosquitoes from each house were pooled and dengue viruses were determined using RT-PCR assay; only 1 positive pooled was found. Although the dengue infection rate in the field caught mosquitoes was low, the existing dengue virus control program in transmission areas by aerial spraying to destroy the larva breeding sites should be continued.

  17. Toxicological assessment of spinosad: Implications for integrated control of Aedes aegypti using larvicides and larvivorous fish.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Boscolli Barbosa; Caixeta, Evelyn Siqueira; Freitas, Priscila Costa; Santos, Vanessa Santana Vieira; Limongi, Jean Ezequiel; de Campos Júnior, Edimar Olegário; Campos, Carlos Fernando; Souto, Henrique Nazareth; Rodrigues, Tamiris Sabrina; Morelli, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Integration of larvivorous fish and biolarvicides at low concentrations to control of mosquito larvae in field situations may result in a safer and more effective tool. However, the usefulness of integrated approach depends upon survival and ecological fitness of fish employed. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the genotoxic effects of combining different sublethal concentrations of spinosad, a naturally occurring neurotoxic insecticide, with male adult poecilid larvivorous guppy (Poecilia reticulata) and platy (Xiphophorus maculatus) fish on Aedes larvae mosquitos. Both fish species have been used for biological control of Aedes larvae in Brazil. Sublethal spinosad exposures were predetermined based on CL50-96hr. Nuclear abnormalities (NA) and micronucleus (MN) frequency in gill cells were measured after 14 d of exposure. Behavioral changes were monitored over 96 h. Although genotoxic effects were not markedly different from control, behavioral changes evaluated based upon the no-observable-effect concentration (NOEC) and lowest-observable-effect concentration (LOEC). Adverse effects were noted at concentrations of 12.6 mg/L (NOEC) and 25.3 mg/L (LOEC) spinosad. Therefore, these insecticide concentrations may be considered as being safe to these fish species and have important implications for integrated approach to control Aedes larvae using natural larvicides and larvivorous fish. PMID:27294296

  18. Contributions of temporal segregation, oviposition choice, and non-additive effects of competitors to invasion success of Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in North America

    PubMed Central

    Murrell, Ebony G.; Noden, Bruce H.; Juliano, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) has spread rapidly through North America since its introduction in the 1990s. The mechanisms underlying its establishment in container communities occupied by competitors Aedes triseriatus and Aedes albopictus are unclear. Possibilities include (A) temporal separation of A. japonicus from other Aedes, (B) oviposition avoidance by A. japonicus of sites containing heterospecific Aedes larvae, and (C) non-additive competitive effects in assemblages of multiple Aedes. Containers sampled throughout the summer in an oak-hickory forest near Eureka, MO showed peak abundance for A. japonicus occurring significantly earlier in the season than either of the other Aedes species. Despite this, A. japonicus co-occurred with one other Aedes species in 53 % of samples when present, and co-occurred with both other Aedes in 18 % of samples. In a field oviposition experiment, A. japonicus laid significantly more eggs in forest edge containers than in forest interior containers, but did not avoid containers with low or high densities of larvae of A. triseriatus, A. albopictus, or both, compared to containers without larvae. Interspecific competitive effects (measured as decrease in the index of performance, λ′) of A. triseriatus or A. albopictus alone on A. japonicus larvae were not evident at the densities used, but the effect of both Aedes combined was significantly negative and super-additive of effects of individual interspecific competitors. Thus, neither oviposition avoidance of competitors nor non-additive competitive effects contribute to the invasion success of A. japonicus in North America. Distinct seasonal phenology may reduce competitive interactions with resident Aedes. PMID:26101466

  19. Host-feeding pattern of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in heterogeneous landscapes of South Andaman, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India.

    PubMed

    Sivan, Arun; Shriram, A N; Sunish, I P; Vidhya, P T

    2015-09-01

    Mosquito foraging behavior is a determinant of host-vector contact and has an impact on the risk of arboviral epidemics. Therefore, blood-feeding patterns is a useful tool for assessing the role in pathogen transmission by vector mosquitoes. Competent vectors of dengue and chikungunya viz. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are widely prevalent in the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago. Considering the vector potential, medical importance of both these mosquito species and lack of information on host-feeding patterns, blood meal analysis of both these vector mosquitoes was undertaken. Biogents Sentinel traps were used for sampling blooded mosquitoes, for identifying the source of blood meal by agar gel-precipitin test. We identified vertebrate source of 147 and 104 blood meals in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus from heterogeneous landscapes in South Andaman district. Results revealed that Ae. aegypti (88 %) and Ae. albopictus (49 %) fed on human and a small proportion on mammals and fowls, indicative of predominance of anthropophilism. Ae. aegypti predominantly fed on human blood (94.2 %-densely built urban, 89.8 %-low vegetation coverage, and 78.3 %-medium vegetation coverage). Anthropophilism in Ae. albopictus was maximal in densely built urban (90.5 %) and progressively decreased from low vegetation-vegetation/forested continuum (66.7, 36.4, and 8.7 %), indicating plasticity in feeding across these landscapes. Epidemiological significance of the findings is discussed. PMID:26220560

  20. A novel insect-specific flavivirus replicates only in Aedes-derived cells and persists at high prevalence in wild Aedes vigilax populations in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    McLean, Breeanna J; Hobson-Peters, Jody; Webb, Cameron E; Watterson, Daniel; Prow, Natalie A; Nguyen, Hong Duyen; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Warrilow, David; Johansen, Cheryl A; Jansen, Cassie C; van den Hurk, Andrew F; Beebe, Nigel W; Schnettler, Esther; Barnard, Ross T; Hall, Roy A

    2015-12-01

    To date, insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs) have only been isolated from mosquitoes and increasing evidence suggests that ISFs may affect the transmission of pathogenic flaviviruses. To investigate the diversity and prevalence of ISFs in Australian mosquitoes, samples from various regions were screened for flaviviruses by ELISA and RT-PCR. Thirty-eight pools of Aedes vigilax from Sydney in 2007 yielded isolates of a novel flavivirus, named Parramatta River virus (PaRV). Sequencing of the viral RNA genome revealed it was closely related to Hanko virus with 62.3% nucleotide identity over the open reading frame. PaRV failed to grow in vertebrate cells, with only Aedes-derived mosquito cell lines permissive to replication, suggesting a narrow host range. 2014 collections revealed that PaRV had persisted in A. vigilax populations in Sydney, with 88% of pools positive. Further investigations into its mode of transmission and potential to influence vector competence of A. vigilax for pathogenic viruses are warranted. PMID:26519596

  1. Implications of saline concentrations for the performance and competitive interactions of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) and Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopictus).

    PubMed

    Yee, D A; Himel, E; Reiskind, M H; Vamosi, S M

    2014-03-01

    Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopictus) (Diptera: Culicidae) has probably supplanted Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) throughout most of its historical range in the U.S.A., although Ae. aegypti still exists in large coastal cities in southern Florida. We measured salt concentrations in field containers along an axis perpendicular to the coast and examined intraspecific outcomes in these species under different salt concentrations in a factorial study using varying intra- and interspecific densities in different conditions of salinity to order to determine if salt could mitigate the documented competitive superiority of Ae. albopictus. Salt in field containers declined away from the coast, with maximal values similar to our lower salt concentrations. Egg hatching and short-term survival of pupae and late instars were not affected by salt concentrations; survival of early instars of both species decreased at higher concentrations. In high salt conditions, Ae. aegypti achieved higher survival. In the longterm experiment, both species displayed longer development times. Salt did not affect interactions for either species; Ae. aegypti survived in the highest salt conditions, regardless of density. The tolerance of Ae. aegypti to high salt concentrations may allow it to use coastal containers, although because salt did not mediate interspecific interactions between Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, the ultimate effects of salt on the coexistence of these species or exclusion of either species remain unknown. PMID:23607885

  2. Bromeliad-inhabiting mosquitoes in an urban botanical garden of dengue endemic Rio de Janeiro. Are bromeliads productive habitats for the invasive vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus?

    PubMed Central

    Mocellin, Márcio Goulart; Simões, Taynãna César; do Nascimento, Teresa Fernandes Silva; Teixeira, Maria Lucia França; Lounibos, Leon Philip; de Oliveira, Ricardo Lourenço

    2012-01-01

    Immatures of both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have been found in water-holding bromeliad axils in Brazil. Removal of these plants or their treatment with insecticides in public and private gardens have been undertaken during dengue outbreaks in Brazil despite uncertainty as to their importance as productive habitats for dengue vectors. From March 2005-February 2006, we sampled 120 randomly selected bromeliads belonging to 10 species in a public garden less than 200 m from houses in a dengue-endemic neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro. A total of 2,816 mosquito larvae and pupae was collected, with an average of 5.87 immatures per plant per collection. Culex (Microculex) pleuristriatus and Culex spp of the Ocellatus Group were the most abundant culicid species, found in all species of bromeliads; next in relative abundance were species of the genus Wyeomyia. Only two individuals of Ae. aegypti (0.07%) and five of Ae. albopictus (0.18%) were collected from bromeliads. By contrast, immatures of Ae. aegypti were found in manmade containers in nearly 5% of nearby houses. These results demonstrate that bromeliads are not important producers of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus and, hence, should not be a focus for dengue control. However, the results of this study of only one year in a single area may not represent outcomes in other urban localities where bromeliads, Ae. aegypti and dengue coincide in more disturbed habitats. PMID:20140379

  3. Implications of saline concentrations for the performance and competitive interactions of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) and Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopictus).

    PubMed

    Yee, D A; Himel, E; Reiskind, M H; Vamosi, S M

    2014-03-01

    Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopictus) (Diptera: Culicidae) has probably supplanted Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) throughout most of its historical range in the U.S.A., although Ae. aegypti still exists in large coastal cities in southern Florida. We measured salt concentrations in field containers along an axis perpendicular to the coast and examined intraspecific outcomes in these species under different salt concentrations in a factorial study using varying intra- and interspecific densities in different conditions of salinity to order to determine if salt could mitigate the documented competitive superiority of Ae. albopictus. Salt in field containers declined away from the coast, with maximal values similar to our lower salt concentrations. Egg hatching and short-term survival of pupae and late instars were not affected by salt concentrations; survival of early instars of both species decreased at higher concentrations. In high salt conditions, Ae. aegypti achieved higher survival. In the longterm experiment, both species displayed longer development times. Salt did not affect interactions for either species; Ae. aegypti survived in the highest salt conditions, regardless of density. The tolerance of Ae. aegypti to high salt concentrations may allow it to use coastal containers, although because salt did not mediate interspecific interactions between Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, the ultimate effects of salt on the coexistence of these species or exclusion of either species remain unknown.

  4. Larval development of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in peri-urban brackish water and its implications for transmission of arboviral diseases.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Ranjan; Surendran, Sinnathamby N; Jude, Pavilupillai J; Dharshini, Sangaralingam; Vinobaba, Muthuladchumy

    2011-11-01

    Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedes albopictus Skuse mosquitoes transmit serious human arboviral diseases including yellow fever, dengue and chikungunya in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Females of the two species have adapted to undergo preimaginal development in natural or artificial collections of freshwater near human habitations and feed on human blood. While there is an effective vaccine against yellow fever, the control of dengue and chikungunya is mainly dependent on reducing freshwater preimaginal development habitats of the two vectors. We show here that Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus lay eggs and their larvae survive to emerge as adults in brackish water (water with <0.5 ppt or parts per thousand, 0.5-30 ppt and >30 ppt salt are termed fresh, brackish and saline respectively). Brackish water with salinity of 2 to 15 ppt in discarded plastic and glass containers, abandoned fishing boats and unused wells in coastal peri-urban environment were found to contain Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus larvae. Relatively high incidence of dengue in Jaffna city, Sri Lanka was observed in the vicinity of brackish water habitats containing Ae. aegypti larvae. These observations raise the possibility that brackish water-adapted Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus may play a hitherto unrecognized role in transmitting dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever in coastal urban areas. National and international health authorities therefore need to take the findings into consideration and extend their vector control efforts, which are presently focused on urban freshwater habitats, to include brackish water larval development habitats.

  5. Midgut fungal and bacterial microbiota of Aedes triseriatus and Aedes japonicus shift in response to La Crosse virus infection.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Bara, Jeffrey J; Rooney, Alejandro P; Hansen, Allison K

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how midgut microbial communities of field-collected mosquitoes interact with pathogens is critical for controlling vector infection and disease. We used 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer sequencing to characterize the midgut bacterial and fungal communities of adult females of Aedes triseriatus and Aedes japonicus collected as pupae in tree holes, plastic bins and waste tires and their response to La Crosse virus (LACV) infection. For both mosquito species and across all habitat and virus treatments, a total of 62 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from six phyla and 21 fungal OTUs from two phyla were identified. The majority of bacterial (92%) and fungal (71%) OTUs were shared between the mosquito species; however, several OTUs were unique to each species. Bacterial and fungal communities of individuals that took either infectious or noninfectious bloodmeals were less diverse and more homogeneous compared to those of newly emerged adults. Interestingly, LACV-infected A. triseriatus and A. japonicus had higher bacterial richness and lower fungal richness compared to individuals that took a noninfectious bloodmeal, suggesting that viral infection was associated with an increase in bacterial OTUs and a decrease in fungal OTUs. For both mosquito species, several OTUs were identified that had both high fidelity and specificity to mosquito midguts that were infected with LACV. Overall, these findings demonstrate that bacterial and fungal communities that reside in mosquito midguts respond to host diet and viral infection and could play a role in modulating vector susceptibility to LACV. PMID:27357374

  6. Evaluation of the Human IgG Antibody Response to Aedes albopictus Saliva as a New Specific Biomarker of Exposure to Vector Bites

    PubMed Central

    Doucoure, Souleymane; Mouchet, François; Cornelie, Sylvie; DeHecq, Jean Sébastien; Rutee, Abdul Hamid; Roca, Yelin; Walter, Annie; Hervé, Jean Pierre; Misse, Dorothée; Favier, François; Gasque, Philippe; Remoue, Franck

    2012-01-01

    Background The spread of Aedes albopictus, a vector for re-emergent arbovirus diseases like chikungunya and dengue, points up the need for better control strategies and new tools to evaluate transmission risk. Human antibody (Ab) responses to mosquito salivary proteins could represent a reliable biomarker for evaluating human-vector contact and the efficacy of control programs. Methodology/Principal Findings We used ELISA tests to evaluate specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to salivary gland extracts (SGE) in adults exposed to Aedes albopictus in Reunion Island. The percentage of immune responders (88%) and levels of anti-SGE IgG Abs were high in exposed individuals. At an individual level, our results indicate heterogeneity of the exposure to Aedes albopictus bites. In addition, low-level immune cross-reactivity between Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti SGEs was observed, mainly in the highest responders. Conclusion/Significance Ab responses to saliva could be used as an immuno-epidemiological tool for evaluating exposure to Aedes albopictus bites. Combined with entomological and epidemiological methods, a “salivary” biomarker of exposure to Aedes albopictus could enhance surveillance of its spread and the risk of arbovirus transmission, and could be used as a direct tool for the evaluation of Aedes albopictus control strategies. PMID:22363823

  7. Evaluation of six mosquito traps for collection of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and associated mosquito species in a suburban setting in North Central Florida.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared six adult mosquito traps for effectiveness in collecting Aedes albopictus from suburban backyards with the goal of finding a more suitable surveillance replacement for the CDC light trap. Trap selection included two commercial propane traps, two Aedes-specific traps, one experimental tr...

  8. Evaluation of Six Mosquito Traps for Collection of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Associated Mosquito Species in a Suburban Setting in North Central Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared six adult mosquito traps for effectiveness in collecting Aedes albopictus from suburban backyards with the goal of finding a more suitable surveillance replacement for the CDC light trap. Trap selection included two commercial propane traps, two Aedes-specific traps, one experimental tr...

  9. A stochastic population dynamics model for Aedes aegypti: formulation and application to a city with temperate climate.

    PubMed

    Otero, Marcelo; Solari, Hernán G; Schweigmann, Nicolás

    2006-11-01

    Aedes aegypti is the main vector for dengue and urban yellow fever. It is extended around the world not only in the tropical regions but also beyond them, reaching temperate climates. Because of its importance as a vector of deadly diseases, the significance of its distribution in urban areas and the possibility of breeding in laboratory facilities, Aedes aegypti is one of the best-known mosquitoes. In this work the biology of Aedes aegypti is incorporated into the framework of a stochastic population dynamics model able to handle seasonal and total extinction as well as endemic situations. The model incorporates explicitly the dependence with temperature. The ecological parameters of the model are tuned to the present populations of Aedes aegypti in Buenos Aires city, which is at the border of the present day geographical distribution in South America. Temperature thresholds for the mosquito survival are computed as a function of average yearly temperature and seasonal variation as well as breeding site availability. The stochastic analysis suggests that the southern limit of Aedes aegypti distribution in South America is close to the 15 degrees C average yearly isotherm, which accounts for the historical and current distribution better than the traditional criterion of the winter (July) 10 degrees C isotherm. PMID:16832731

  10. A Multipurpose, High-Throughput Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Chip for the Dengue and Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Evans, Benjamin R; Gloria-Soria, Andrea; Hou, Lin; McBride, Carolyn; Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Zhao, Hongyu; Powell, Jeffrey R

    2015-05-01

    The dengue and yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, contributes significantly to global disease burden. Genetic study of Aedes aegypti is essential to understanding its evolutionary history, competence as a disease vector, and the effects and efficacy of vector control methods. The prevalence of repeats and transposable elements in the Aedes aegypti genome complicates marker development and makes genome-wide genetic study challenging. To overcome these challenges, we developed a high-throughput genotyping chip, Axiom_aegypti1. This chip screens for 50,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms present in Aedes aegypti populations from around the world. The array currently used genotypes 96 samples simultaneously. To ensure that these markers satisfy assumptions commonly made in many genetic analyses, we tested for Mendelian inheritance and linkage disequilibrium in laboratory crosses and a wild population, respectively. We have validated more than 25,000 of these markers to date, and expect this number to increase with more sampling. We also present evidence of the chip's efficacy in distinguishing populations throughout the world. The markers on this chip are ideal for applications ranging from population genetics to genome-wide association studies. This tool makes rapid, cost-effective, and comparable genotype data attainable to diverse sets of Aedes aegypti researchers, from those interested in potential range shifts due to climate change to those characterizing the genetic underpinnings of its competence to transmit disease. PMID:25721127

  11. A Multipurpose, High-Throughput Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Chip for the Dengue and Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Evans, Benjamin R; Gloria-Soria, Andrea; Hou, Lin; McBride, Carolyn; Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Zhao, Hongyu; Powell, Jeffrey R

    2015-02-26

    The dengue and yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, contributes significantly to global disease burden. Genetic study of Aedes aegypti is essential to understanding its evolutionary history, competence as a disease vector, and the effects and efficacy of vector control methods. The prevalence of repeats and transposable elements in the Aedes aegypti genome complicates marker development and makes genome-wide genetic study challenging. To overcome these challenges, we developed a high-throughput genotyping chip, Axiom_aegypti1. This chip screens for 50,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms present in Aedes aegypti populations from around the world. The array currently used genotypes 96 samples simultaneously. To ensure that these markers satisfy assumptions commonly made in many genetic analyses, we tested for Mendelian inheritance and linkage disequilibrium in laboratory crosses and a wild population, respectively. We have validated more than 25,000 of these markers to date, and expect this number to increase with more sampling. We also present evidence of the chip's efficacy in distinguishing populations throughout the world. The markers on this chip are ideal for applications ranging from population genetics to genome-wide association studies. This tool makes rapid, cost-effective, and comparable genotype data attainable to diverse sets of Aedes aegypti researchers, from those interested in potential range shifts due to climate change to those characterizing the genetic underpinnings of its competence to transmit disease.

  12. Sialic acid expression in the mosquito Aedes aegypti and its possible role in dengue virus-vector interactions.

    PubMed

    Cime-Castillo, Jorge; Delannoy, Philippe; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Monroy-Martínez, Verónica; Harduin-Lepers, Anne; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto; Hernández-Hernández, Fidel de la Cruz; Zenteno, Edgar; Cabello-Gutiérrez, Carlos; Ruiz-Ordaz, Blanca H

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral disease which affects humans. DF is caused by the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes, which are transmitted to the host by the mosquito Aedes aegypti that has key roles in DENV infection, replication, and viral transmission (vector competence). Mosquito saliva also plays an important role during DENV transmission. In this study, we detected the presence of sialic acid (Sia) in Aedes aegypti tissues, which may have an important role during DENV-vector competence. We also identified genome sequences encoding enzymes involved in Sia pathways. The cDNA for Aedes aegypti CMP-Sia synthase (CSAS) was amplified, cloned, and functionally evaluated via the complementation of LEC29.Lec32 CSAS-deficient CHO cells. AedesCSAS-transfected LEC29.Lec32 cells were able to express Sia moieties on the cell surface. Sequences related to α-2,6-sialyltransferase were detected in the Aedes aegypti genome. Likewise, we identified Sia-α-2,6-DENV interactions in different mosquito tissues. In addition, we evaluated the possible role of sialylated molecules in a salivary gland extract during DENV internalization in mammalian cells. The knowledge of early DENV-host interactions could facilitate a better understanding of viral tropism and pathogenesis to allow the development of new strategies for controlling DENV transmission.

  13. Sialic Acid Expression in the Mosquito Aedes aegypti and Its Possible Role in Dengue Virus-Vector Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Cime-Castillo, Jorge; Delannoy, Philippe; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Monroy-Martínez, Verónica; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto; Hernández-Hernández, Fidel de la Cruz; Cabello-Gutiérrez, Carlos; Ruiz-Ordaz, Blanca H.

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral disease which affects humans. DF is caused by the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes, which are transmitted to the host by the mosquito Aedes aegypti that has key roles in DENV infection, replication, and viral transmission (vector competence). Mosquito saliva also plays an important role during DENV transmission. In this study, we detected the presence of sialic acid (Sia) in Aedes aegypti tissues, which may have an important role during DENV-vector competence. We also identified genome sequences encoding enzymes involved in Sia pathways. The cDNA for Aedes aegypti CMP-Sia synthase (CSAS) was amplified, cloned, and functionally evaluated via the complementation of LEC29.Lec32 CSAS-deficient CHO cells. AedesCSAS-transfected LEC29.Lec32 cells were able to express Sia moieties on the cell surface. Sequences related to α-2,6-sialyltransferase were detected in the Aedes aegypti genome. Likewise, we identified Sia-α-2,6-DENV interactions in different mosquito tissues. In addition, we evaluated the possible role of sialylated molecules in a salivary gland extract during DENV internalization in mammalian cells. The knowledge of early DENV-host interactions could facilitate a better understanding of viral tropism and pathogenesis to allow the development of new strategies for controlling DENV transmission. PMID:25874215

  14. A stochastic population dynamics model for Aedes aegypti: formulation and application to a city with temperate climate.

    PubMed

    Otero, Marcelo; Solari, Hernán G; Schweigmann, Nicolás

    2006-11-01

    Aedes aegypti is the main vector for dengue and urban yellow fever. It is extended around the world not only in the tropical regions but also beyond them, reaching temperate climates. Because of its importance as a vector of deadly diseases, the significance of its distribution in urban areas and the possibility of breeding in laboratory facilities, Aedes aegypti is one of the best-known mosquitoes. In this work the biology of Aedes aegypti is incorporated into the framework of a stochastic population dynamics model able to handle seasonal and total extinction as well as endemic situations. The model incorporates explicitly the dependence with temperature. The ecological parameters of the model are tuned to the present populations of Aedes aegypti in Buenos Aires city, which is at the border of the present day geographical distribution in South America. Temperature thresholds for the mosquito survival are computed as a function of average yearly temperature and seasonal variation as well as breeding site availability. The stochastic analysis suggests that the southern limit of Aedes aegypti distribution in South America is close to the 15 degrees C average yearly isotherm, which accounts for the historical and current distribution better than the traditional criterion of the winter (July) 10 degrees C isotherm.

  15. Human Antibody Response to Aedes aegypti Saliva in an Urban Population in Bolivia: A New Biomarker of Exposure to Dengue Vector Bites

    PubMed Central

    Doucoure, Souleymane; Mouchet, François; Cournil, Amandine; Le Goff, Gilbert; Cornelie, Sylvie; Roca, Yelin; Giraldez, Mabel Guerra; Simon, Zaira Barja; Loayza, Roxanna; Misse, Dorothée; Flores, Jorge Vargas; Walter, Annie; Rogier, Christophe; Herve, Jean Pierre; Remoue, Franck

    2012-01-01

    Aedes mosquitoes are important vectors of re-emerging diseases in developing countries, and increasing exposure to Aedes in the developed world is currently a source of concern. Given the limitations of current entomologic methods, there is a need for a new effective way for evaluating Aedes exposure. Our objective was to evaluate specific antibody responses to Aedes aegypti saliva as a biomarker for vector exposure in a dengue-endemic urban area. IgG responses to saliva were strong in young children and steadily waned with age. Specific IgG levels were significantly higher in persons living in sites with higher Ae. aegypti density, as measured by using entomologic parameters. Logistic regression showed a significant correlation between IgG to saliva and exposure level, independently of either age or sex. These results suggest that antibody responses to saliva could be used to monitor human exposure to Aedes bites. PMID:22848099

  16. Human antibody response to Aedes aegypti saliva in an urban population in Bolivia: a new biomarker of exposure to Dengue vector bites.

    PubMed

    Doucoure, Souleymane; Mouchet, François; Cournil, Amandine; Le Goff, Gilbert; Cornelie, Sylvie; Roca, Yelin; Giraldez, Mabel Guerra; Simon, Zaira Barja; Loayza, Roxanna; Misse, Dorothée; Flores, Jorge Vargas; Walter, Annie; Rogier, Christophe; Herve, Jean Pierre; Remoue, Franck

    2012-09-01

    Aedes mosquitoes are important vectors of re-emerging diseases in developing countries, and increasing exposure to Aedes in the developed world is currently a source of concern. Given the limitations of current entomologic methods, there is a need for a new effective way for evaluating Aedes exposure. Our objective was to evaluate specific antibody responses to Aedes aegypti saliva as a biomarker for vector exposure in a dengue-endemic urban area. IgG responses to saliva were strong in young children and steadily waned with age. Specific IgG levels were significantly higher in persons living in sites with higher Ae. aegypti density, as measured by using entomologic parameters. Logistic regression showed a significant correlation between IgG to saliva and exposure level, independently of either age or sex. These results suggest that antibody responses to saliva could be used to monitor human exposure to Aedes bites.

  17. Historical inability to control Aedes aegypti as a main contributor of fast dispersal of chikungunya outbreaks in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Danis-Lozano, Rogelio; Casas-Martínez, Mauricio; Ulloa, Armando; Bond, J Guillermo; Marina, Carlos F; Lopez-Ordóñez, Teresa; Elizondo-Quiroga, Armando; Torres-Monzón, Jorge A; Díaz-González, Esteban E

    2015-12-01

    The arrival of chikungunya fever (CHIKF) in Latin American countries has been expected to trigger epidemics and challenge health systems. Historically considered as dengue-endemic countries, abundant Aedes aegypti populations make this region highly vulnerable to chikungunya virus (CHIKV) circulation. This review describes the current dengue and CHIKF epidemiological situations, as well as the role of uncontrolled Ae. aegypti and Aedes albopictus vectors in spreading the emerging CHIKV. Comments are included relating to the vector competence of both species and failures of surveillance and vector control measures. Dengue endemicity is a reflection of these abundant and persistent Aedes populations that are now spreading CHIKV in the Americas. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on "Chikungunya discovers the New World."

  18. Importance of socioeconomic status and tree holes in distribution of Aedes mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Vinod; Sharma, R C; Sharma, Yogesh; Adha, Sandeep; Sharma, Keerti; Singh, Himmat; Purohit, Anil; Singhi, Manju

    2006-03-01

    Immature Aedes mosquitoes were found in domestic, peridomestic, and tree hole habitats within three socioeconomic strata of Jodhpur, a city within an arid area of Rajasthan, India, endemic for dengue. Peridomestic habitats served as a persistent source of Aedes vectors, especially those used for watering cows for religious reasons that were located within high socioeconomic areas. Domestic (indoor) containers within low socioeconomic strata showed a higher container index (27.0%) than periurban areas with cattle sheds (14.3%) or high socioeconomic areas (18.1%). Mosquitoes were collected in tree holes at zoos and gardens supporting several species of monkeys. Six of 67 Aedes albopictus Skuse reared from immatures collected in tree holes tested positive for dengue antigen acquired through vertical transmission, possibly indicating a persistence mechanism for dengue virus within an urban environment. PMID:16619619

  19. Behavioral responses of catnip (Nepeta cataria) by two species of mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles harrisoni, in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Polsomboon, Suppaluck; Grieco, John P; Achee, Nicole L; Chauhan, Kamlesh R; Tanasinchayakul, Somchai; Pothikasikorn, Jinrapa; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2008-12-01

    An investigation of the biological effect of catnip oil (Nepeta cataria L.) on the behavioral response of field collected Aedes aegypti and Anopheles harrisoni was conducted using an automated excitorepellency test system. Aedes aegypti showed significantly higher escape rates from the contact chamber at 5% catnip oil compared to other concentrations (P < 0.05). With Anopheles harrisoni, a high escape response was seen at 2.5% catnip oil from the contact chamber, while in the noncontact chamber a higher escape response was observed at a concentration of 5%. Results showed that this compound exhibits both irritant and repellent actions.

  20. Outbreak of chikungunya fever in Thailand and virus detection in field population of vector mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Thavara, Usavadee; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Pengsakul, Theerakamol; Bhakdeenuan, Payu; Chanama, Sumalee; Anantapreecha, Surapee; Molito, Chusak; Chompoosri, Jakkrawarn; Thammapalo, Suwich; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom; Siriyasatien, Padet

    2009-09-01

    We investigated chikungunya fever outbreak in the southern part of Thailand. Human plasma specimens obtained from suspected patients and adult wild-caught mosquitoes were detected for chikungunya virus employing reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction technique. Chikungunya virus was detected in about half of the blood specimens whereas a range of 5.5 to 100% relative infection rate was found in both sexes of the vector mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Ae. albopictus Skuse. The infection rate in Ae. albopictus was higher than in Ae. aegypti, with relative infection rate in male of both species being higher than in female. The appearance of chikungunya virus in adult male mosquitoes of both species reveals a role of transovarial transmission of the virus in field population of the mosquito vectors. These findings have provided further understanding of the relationship among mosquito vectors, chikungunya virus and epidemiology of chikungunya fever in Thailand.

  1. Seasonal Differences in Density But Similar Competitive Impact of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) on Aedes aegypti (L.) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Camara, Daniel Cardoso Portela; Codeço, Claudia Torres; Juliano, Steven A.; Lounibos, L. Philip; Riback, Thais Irene Souza; Pereira, Glaucio Rocha; Honorio, Nildimar Alves

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the negative effects of density of Ae. albopictus on Ae. aegypti exceed those of Ae. aegypti on Ae. albopictus for population growth, adult size, survivorship, and developmental rate. This competitive superiority has been invoked to explain the displacement of Ae. aegypti by Ae. albopictus in the southeastern USA. In Brazil, these species coexist in many vegetated suburban and rural areas. We investigated a related, but less-well-studied question: do effects of Ae. albopictus on Ae. aegypti larval development and survival occur under field conditions at realistic densities across multiple seasons in Brazil? We conducted additive competition experiments in a vegetated area of Rio de Janeiro where these species coexist. We tested the hypothesis that Ae. aegypti (the focal species, at a fixed density) suffers negative effects on development and survivorship across a gradient of increasing densities of Ae. albopictus (the associate species) in three seasons. The results showed statistically significant effects of both season and larval density on Ae. aegypti survivorship, and significant effects of season on development rate, with no significant season-density interactions. Densities of Aedes larvae in these habitats differed among seasons by a factor of up to 7x. Overall, Spring was the most favorable season for Ae. aegypti survivorship and development. Results showed that under natural conditions the negative competitive effects of Ae. albopictus on Ae. aegypti were expressed primarily as lower survivorship. Coexistence between Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in vegetated areas is likely affected by seasonal environmental differences, such as detrital resource levels or egg desiccation, which can influence competition between these species. Interactions between these Aedes are important in Brazil, where both species are well established and widely distributed and vector dengue, Zika and chikungunya viruses. PMID:27322537

  2. Studies on insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti (Linn) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) vectors of dengue and chikungunya in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India.

    PubMed

    Sivan, Arun; Shriram, A N; Sunish, I P; Vidhya, P T

    2015-12-01

    Dengue and chikungunya are important arboviral infections in the Andaman Islands. Competent vectors viz. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are widely prevalent. The most effective proven method for interrupting the transmission of these arboviruses is vector control, mediated through insecticides. Currently, DDT and temephos are the insecticides used for vector control in these islands. Lack of information on susceptibility necessitated assessing the susceptibility profile of A. aegypti and A. albopictus. F1 generation of adult and larvae were assayed, and LT50 and LT90 values were interpreted following the World Health Organization (WHO) protocol. Adults were found resistant to DDT-4 % while susceptible to dieldrin-0.4 %. Against organophosphates, both showed resistance to fenitrothion but susceptible to malathion-5 %. Both species showed resistance to carbamate and bendiocarb-0.1 % while susceptible to propoxur-0.1 %. Of the four synthetic pyrethroids, both were susceptible to deltamethrin-0.05 %, while resistant to permethrin-0.75 %, lambdacyhalothrin-0.05 % and cyfluthrin-0.15 %. Larvae of both species showed resistance to temephos at 0.02 mg/L but susceptible to malathion at 1 mg/L and fenthion at 0.05 mg/L. Currently, there is no prescribed WHO dose for adult-insecticide susceptibility testing. The emergence of resistance to DDT and temephos in the vector population poses a challenge to the on-going vector control measures. The results highlight the need for monitoring resistance to insecticides in the vector population. Impetus for source reduction and alternative choices of control measures are discussed for tackling future threat of arboviral infections in these islands.

  3. Risk Factors for the Presence of Chikungunya and Dengue Vectors (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus), Their Altitudinal Distribution and Climatic Determinants of Their Abundance in Central Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Dhimal, Meghnath; Gautam, Ishan; Joshi, Hari Datt; O’Hara, Robert B.; Ahrens, Bodo; Kuch, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Background The presence of the recently introduced primary dengue virus vector mosquito Aedes aegypti in Nepal, in association with the likely indigenous secondary vector Aedes albopictus, raises public health concerns. Chikungunya fever cases have also been reported in Nepal, and the virus causing this disease is also transmitted by these mosquito species. Here we report the results of a study on the risk factors for the presence of chikungunya and dengue virus vectors, their elevational ceiling of distribution, and climatic determinants of their abundance in central Nepal. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected immature stages of mosquitoes during six monthly cross-sectional surveys covering six administrative districts along an altitudinal transect in central Nepal that extended from Birgunj (80 m above sea level [asl]) to Dhunche (highest altitude sampled: 2,100 m asl). The dengue vectors Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were commonly found up to 1,350 m asl in Kathmandu valley and were present but rarely found from 1,750 to 2,100 m asl in Dhunche. The lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus was commonly found throughout the study transect. Physiographic region, month of collection, collection station and container type were significant predictors of the occurrence and co-occurrence of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The climatic variables rainfall, temperature, and relative humidity were significant predictors of chikungunya and dengue virus vectors abundance. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that chikungunya and dengue virus vectors have already established their populations up to the High Mountain region of Nepal and that this may be attributed to the environmental and climate change that has been observed over the decades in Nepal. The rapid expansion of the distribution of these important disease vectors in the High Mountain region, previously considered to be non-endemic for dengue and chikungunya fever, calls for urgent actions to

  4. Larval Development of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Peri-Urban Brackish Water and Its Implications for Transmission of Arboviral Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Ranjan; Surendran, Sinnathamby N.; Jude, Pavilupillai J.; Dharshini, Sangaralingam; Vinobaba, Muthuladchumy

    2011-01-01

    Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedes albopictus Skuse mosquitoes transmit serious human arboviral diseases including yellow fever, dengue and chikungunya in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Females of the two species have adapted to undergo preimaginal development in natural or artificial collections of freshwater near human habitations and feed on human blood. While there is an effective vaccine against yellow fever, the control of dengue and chikungunya is mainly dependent on reducing freshwater preimaginal development habitats of the two vectors. We show here that Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus lay eggs and their larvae survive to emerge as adults in brackish water (water with <0.5 ppt or parts per thousand, 0.5–30 ppt and >30 ppt salt are termed fresh, brackish and saline respectively). Brackish water with salinity of 2 to 15 ppt in discarded plastic and glass containers, abandoned fishing boats and unused wells in coastal peri-urban environment were found to contain Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus larvae. Relatively high incidence of dengue in Jaffna city, Sri Lanka was observed in the vicinity of brackish water habitats containing Ae. aegypti larvae. These observations raise the possibility that brackish water-adapted Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus may play a hitherto unrecognized role in transmitting dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever in coastal urban areas. National and international health authorities therefore need to take the findings into consideration and extend their vector control efforts, which are presently focused on urban freshwater habitats, to include brackish water larval development habitats. PMID:22132243

  5. Vector competence of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) for DEN2-43 and New Guinea C virus strains of dengue 2 virus.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Xia; Zhu, Xiao-Juan; Li, Chun-Xiao; Dong, Yan-De; Zhang, Ying-Mei; Xing, Dan; Xue, Rui-De; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2013-12-01

    The vector competence of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti with regard to DEN2-43 and New Guinea C (NGC) virus strains of Dengue 2 viruses was assessed and compared. The infection and dissemination rate and distribution of DEN2-43 antigens in orally infected Ae. albopictus was investigated using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and an indirect immunofluorescence assay. To better understand the initial infection, dissemination and transmission of these viral strains in vector mosquitoes, Ae. albopoictus and Ae. aegypti were fed an artificial blood meal containing either the DEN2-43 or NGC strain. There was no significant difference in the infection and dissemination rates of DEN2-43 and NGC virus strains in Ae. albopictus, however, Ae. aegypti was more susceptible to infection by NGC than DEN2-43 vrius strain. Ae. albopictus mosquitoes infected with the NGC strain developed a higher percentage of midgut infections than those infected with the DEN2-43 strain (t=2.893, df=7, P=0.024). Approximately 26.7% of midgut samples were positive for the NGC antigen 5 days after infection, and 80% of mosquitoes had infected midgets after 15 days. The NGC antigen first became evident in mosquito salivary glands on Day 5, and 40% of mosquitoes had infected salivary by Day 9. In contrast, the DEN2-43 antigen first became evident in salivary glands on Day 7. The infection rate of NGC and DEN2-43 virus strains in salivary glands were similar. These results indicate that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti are moderately competent vectors for the DEN2-43 virus, which could provide basic data for the epidemiology study of dengue fever in China.

  6. Seasonal Differences in Density But Similar Competitive Impact of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) on Aedes aegypti (L.) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Camara, Daniel Cardoso Portela; Codeço, Claudia Torres; Juliano, Steven A; Lounibos, L Philip; Riback, Thais Irene Souza; Pereira, Glaucio Rocha; Honorio, Nildimar Alves

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the negative effects of density of Ae. albopictus on Ae. aegypti exceed those of Ae. aegypti on Ae. albopictus for population growth, adult size, survivorship, and developmental rate. This competitive superiority has been invoked to explain the displacement of Ae. aegypti by Ae. albopictus in the southeastern USA. In Brazil, these species coexist in many vegetated suburban and rural areas. We investigated a related, but less-well-studied question: do effects of Ae. albopictus on Ae. aegypti larval development and survival occur under field conditions at realistic densities across multiple seasons in Brazil? We conducted additive competition experiments in a vegetated area of Rio de Janeiro where these species coexist. We tested the hypothesis that Ae. aegypti (the focal species, at a fixed density) suffers negative effects on development and survivorship across a gradient of increasing densities of Ae. albopictus (the associate species) in three seasons. The results showed statistically significant effects of both season and larval density on Ae. aegypti survivorship, and significant effects of season on development rate, with no significant season-density interactions. Densities of Aedes larvae in these habitats differed among seasons by a factor of up to 7x. Overall, Spring was the most favorable season for Ae. aegypti survivorship and development. Results showed that under natural conditions the negative competitive effects of Ae. albopictus on Ae. aegypti were expressed primarily as lower survivorship. Coexistence between Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in vegetated areas is likely affected by seasonal environmental differences, such as detrital resource levels or egg desiccation, which can influence competition between these species. Interactions between these Aedes are important in Brazil, where both species are well established and widely distributed and vector dengue, Zika and chikungunya viruses. PMID:27322537

  7. Urbanization Increases Aedes albopictus Larval Habitats and Accelerates Mosquito Development and Survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yiji; Kamara, Fatmata; Zhou, Guofa; Puthiyakunnon, Santhosh; Li, Chunyuan; Liu, Yanxia; Zhou, Yanhe; Yao, Lijie; Yan, Guiyun; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Aedes albopictus is a very invasive and aggressive insect vector that causes outbreaks of dengue fever, chikungunya disease, and yellow fever in many countries. Vector ecology and disease epidemiology are strongly affected by environmental changes. Urbanization is a worldwide trend and is one of the most ecologically modifying phenomena. The purpose of this study is to determine how environmental changes due to urbanization affect the ecology of Aedes albopictus. Methods Aquatic habitats and Aedes albopictus larval population surveys were conducted from May to November 2013 in three areas representing rural, suburban, and urban settings in Guangzhou, China. Ae. albopictus adults were collected monthly using BG-Sentinel traps. Ae. albopictus larva and adult life-table experiments were conducted with 20 replicates in each of the three study areas. Results The urban area had the highest and the rural area had the lowest number of aquatic habitats that tested positive for Ae. albopictus larvae. Densities in the larval stages varied among the areas, but the urban area had almost two-fold higher densities in pupae and three-fold higher in adult populations compared with the suburban and rural areas. Larvae developed faster and the adult emergence rate was higher in the urban area than in suburban and rural areas. The survival time of adult mosquitoes was also longer in the urban area than it was in suburban and rural areas. Study regions, surface area, water depth, water clearance, surface type, and canopy coverage were important factors associated with the presence of Ae. albopictus larvae. Conclusions Urbanization substantially increased the density, larval development rate, and adult survival time of Ae. albopictus, which in turn potentially increased the vector capacity, and therefore, disease transmissibility. Mosquito ecology and its correlation with dengue virus transmission should be compared in different environmental settings. PMID:25393814

  8. Global temperature constraints on Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus persistence and competence for dengue virus transmission

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue is a disease that has undergone significant expansion over the past hundred years. Understanding what factors limit the distribution of transmission can be used to predict current and future limits to further dengue expansion. While not the only factor, temperature plays an important role in defining these limits. Previous attempts to analyse the effect of temperature on the geographic distribution of dengue have not considered its dynamic intra-annual and diurnal change and its cumulative effects on mosquito and virus populations. Methods Here we expand an existing modelling framework with new temperature-based relationships to model an index proportional to the basic reproductive number of the dengue virus. This model framework is combined with high spatial and temporal resolution global temperature data to model the effects of temperature on Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus persistence and competence for dengue virus transmission. Results Our model predicted areas where temperature is not expected to permit transmission and/or Aedes persistence throughout the year. By reanalysing existing experimental data our analysis indicates that Ae. albopictus, often considered a minor vector of dengue, has comparable rates of virus dissemination to its primary vector, Ae. aegypti, and when the longer lifespan of Ae. albopictus is considered its competence for dengue virus transmission far exceeds that of Ae. aegypti. Conclusions These results can be used to analyse the effects of temperature and other contributing factors on the expansion of dengue or its Aedes vectors. Our finding that Ae. albopictus has a greater capacity for dengue transmission than Ae. aegypti is contrary to current explanations for the comparative rarity of dengue transmission in established Ae. albopictus populations. This suggests that the limited capacity of Ae. albopictus to transmit DENV is more dependent on its ecology than vector competence. The recommendations, which we

  9. Aedes aegypti susceptibility to insecticide from Abidjan City, Cote D'ivoire.

    PubMed

    Konan, Lucien Yao; Coulibaly, Ibrahima Zanakoungo; Kone, Blaise Atioumounan; Ziogba, Jean-Claude Tokou; Diallo, Adama; Ekra, Daniel Kouadio; Traoré, Karim Sory; Doannio, Marie Christian Julien; Paul, Odehouri-Koudou

    2012-04-01

    The susceptibility of Aedes aegypti adults of three places in Abidjan city selected for an entomological surveillance of potential arbovirus vectors to permethrin, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, and propoxur was determined using WHO standard procedures. The wild populations of A. aegypti were susceptible to permethrin, deltamethirn, and lambdacyhalothin. Resistance to propoxur was detected in strains collected at the Autonomous Port of Abidjan and at Koumassi (mortality rate: 77%) but possibly resistance to this insecticide at the national zoological park (mortality rate: 90.8%). Populations of the national zoological park were possibly resistant to propoxur whereas those of the Autonomous port of Abidjan and of Koumassi were resistant.

  10. Germline transformation of Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera:Culicidae) with the piggyBac transposable element.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Flávia Guimarães; Oliveira, Sabrina Barbosa; Rocha, Bruno Coelho; Moreira, Luciano Andrade

    2006-11-01

    The technique to generate transgenic mosquitoes requires adaptation for each target species because of aspects related to species biology, sensitivity to manipulation and rearing conditions. Here we tested different parameters on the microinjection procedure in order to obtain a transgenic Neotropical mosquito species. By using a transposon-based strategy we were able to successfully transform Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz), which can be used as an avian malaria model. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the piggyBac transposable element as a transformation vector for Neotropical mosquito species and opens up new research frontiers for South American mosquito vectors. PMID:17160283

  11. Finding Aedes aegypti in a natural breeding site in an urban zone, Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes; Urbinatti, Paulo Roberto; Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This is the description of how nine Aedes aegypti larvae were found in a natural breeding site in the Pinheiros neighborhood, city of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. The record was conducted in December 2014, during an entomological surveillance program of dengue virus vectors, with an active search of potential breeding sites, either artificial or natural. Finding Ae. aegypti larvae in a tree hole shows this species’ ability to use both artificial and natural environments as breeding sites and habitats, which points towards the importance of maintaining continuous surveillance on this mosquito in all kinds of water-holding containers. PMID:26982959

  12. Promising Aedes aegypti repellent chemotypes identified through integrated QSAR, virtual screening, synthesis, and bioassay.

    PubMed

    Oliferenko, Polina V; Oliferenko, Alexander A; Poda, Gennadiy I; Osolodkin, Dmitry I; Pillai, Girinath G; Bernier, Ulrich R; Tsikolia, Maia; Agramonte, Natasha M; Clark, Gary G; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Katritzky, Alan R

    2013-01-01

    Molecular field topology analysis, scaffold hopping, and molecular docking were used as complementary computational tools for the design of repellents for Aedes aegypti, the insect vector for yellow fever, chikungunya, and dengue fever. A large number of analogues were evaluated by virtual screening with Glide molecular docking software. This produced several dozen hits that were either synthesized or procured from commercial sources. Analysis of these compounds by a repellent bioassay resulted in a few highly active chemicals (in terms of minimum effective dosage) as viable candidates for further hit-to-lead and lead optimization effort.

  13. Promising Aedes aegypti Repellent Chemotypes Identified through Integrated QSAR, Virtual Screening, Synthesis, and Bioassay

    PubMed Central

    Oliferenko, Polina V.; Oliferenko, Alexander A.; Poda, Gennadiy I.; Osolodkin, Dmitry I.; Pillai, Girinath G.; Bernier, Ulrich R.; Tsikolia, Maia; Agramonte, Natasha M.; Clark, Gary G.; Linthicum, Kenneth J.; Katritzky, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular field topology analysis, scaffold hopping, and molecular docking were used as complementary computational tools for the design of repellents for Aedes aegypti, the insect vector for yellow fever, chikungunya, and dengue fever. A large number of analogues were evaluated by virtual screening with Glide molecular docking software. This produced several dozen hits that were either synthesized or procured from commercial sources. Analysis of these compounds by a repellent bioassay resulted in a few highly active chemicals (in terms of minimum effective dosage) as viable candidates for further hit-to-lead and lead optimization effort. PMID:24039693

  14. History of domestication and spread of Aedes aegypti--a review.

    PubMed

    Powell, Jeffrey R; Tabachnick, Walter J

    2013-01-01

    The adaptation of insect vectors of human diseases to breed in human habitats (domestication) is one of the most important phenomena in medical entomology. Considerable data are available on the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti in this regard and here we integrate the available information including genetics, behaviour, morphology, ecology and biogeography of the mosquito, with human history. We emphasise the tremendous amount of variation possessed by Ae. aegypti for virtually all traits considered. Typological thinking needs to be abandoned to reach a realistic and comprehensive understanding of this important vector of yellow fever, dengue and Chikungunya.

  15. Multiple glucose phosphate isomerase alleles in Aedes albopictus (Diptera:Culicidae) from Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yong, H S; Dhaliwal, S S; Cheong, W H; Chiagng, G L

    1982-01-01

    1. Three natural populations and a laboratory strain of Aedes albopictus were analysed for glucose phosphate isomerase by means of horizontal starch-gel electrophoresis. 2. The electrophoretic phenotypes were governed by five codominant Gpi alleles. 3. The commonest allele in all the four population samples was GpiC which encoded an electrophoretic band with intermediate mobility. 4. The distributions of GPI phenotypes were in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg expectations. 5. The four population samples could be differentiated by the presence of a unique Gpi allele or the absence of a particular Gpi allele.

  16. Activities of some Brazilian plants against larvae of the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    de Mendonça, Fernando A C; da Silva, K F S; dos Santos, K K; Ribeiro Júnior, K A L; Sant'Ana, A E G

    2005-12-01

    The insecticidal activities of extracts and oils of seventeen medicinal plants of Brazil have been determined using an Aedes aegypti larvicidal bioassay. Oils from Anacardium occidentalis, Copaifera langsdorffii, Carapa guianensis, Cymbopogon winterianus and Ageratum conyzoides showed high activities with LC50 values of 14.5, 41, 57, 98 and 148 microg/l, respectively. The most active ethanolic extract tested was that from the stem of Annona glabra which presented an LC50 value of 27 microg/l. The potential application of cashew nut oil, an industrial by-product with low commercial value, in the control of the vector of dengue and yellow fever, may be proposed.

  17. Aedes aegypti in south Vietnam: ecology, genetic structure, vectorial competence and resistance to insecticides.

    PubMed

    Huber, Karine; Le Loan, Luu; Hoang, Tran Huu; Tien, Tran Khanh; Rodhain, François; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2003-03-01

    In Vietnam, dengue hemorrhagic fever has been detected since the 1950s. In Southeast Asia, urban centers expanded rapidly in an uncontrolled and unplanned way. The Aedes aegypti populations and dengue viruses thrived in these new ecological and demographic settings. The result of these changes was a greatly extended geographic distribution, increased densities of Ae. aegypti and the maintenance of the four dengue serotypes leading to a dramatic increase in dengue transmission. To assess the role of the vector in the changing pattern of the disease in Southeast Asia, we studied the ecology of Ae. aegypti, genetic differentiation, variability in competence as a vector for dengue 2 virus, and resistance to insecticides.

  18. Oral receptivity of Aedes aegypti from Cape Verde for yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses.

    PubMed

    Vazeille, Marie; Yébakima, André; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Andriamahefazafy, Barrysson; Correira, Artur; Rodrigues, Julio Monteiro; Veiga, Antonio; Moreira, Antonio; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Grandadam, Marc; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2013-01-01

    At the end of 2009, 21,313 cases of dengue-3 virus (DENV-3) were reported in the islands of Cape Verde, an archipelago located in the Atlantic Ocean 570 km from the coast of western Africa. It was the first dengue outbreak ever reported in Cape Verde. Mosquitoes collected in July 2010 in the city of Praia, on the island of Santiago, were identified morphologically as Aedes aegypti formosus. Using experimental oral infections, we found that this vector showed a moderate ability to transmit the epidemic dengue-3 virus, but was highly susceptible to chikungunya and yellow fever viruses.

  19. Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus Larvae to gedunin-related limonoids.

    PubMed

    Gurulingappa, Hallur; Tare, Vrushali; Pawar, Pushpa; Tungikar, Vijay; Jorapur, Yogesh R; Madhavi, Sriram; Bhat, Sujata V

    2009-06-01

    The major non-azadirachtin limonoids such as gedunin (1), epoxyazadiradione (3), nimbocinol (4), and nimolicinol (5) from Azadirachta indica A. Juss ('neem') and their derivatives were evaluated for their toxic action against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Gedunin exhibited 100% toxic action against both the mosquito larvae at 50 and 10 ppm. Epoxyazadiradione and epoxynimolicinol also showed significant toxicities (> or =50%) against larvae of both mosquito species at 50 ppm. These neem limonoids can have benefits in mosquito-control programs. PMID:19551731

  20. Effects of methoprene on oviposition by Aedes japonicus and Culex spp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, M.; Suom, C.; LeBrun, R.A.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Gettman, A.D.

    2006-01-01

    The mosquito larvicide methoprene is a juvenile growth hormone mimic that is widely used to control mosquitoes. This chemical disrupts normal mosquito development, drastically inhibiting emergence from the pupal to the adult stage. If the presence of methoprene attracts or deters mosquitoes from ovipositing it could have implications for mosquito control. This study evaluates whether methoprene attracts or deters mosquitoes likely to oviposit in catch basins. In a field experiment, methoprene formulated as liquid larvicide did not affect oviposition of either Culex spp. or Aedes japonicus in 19 liter plastic buckets.

  1. Methods for TALEN evaluation, use, and mutation detection in the mosquito Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Sanjay; Aryan, Azadeh; Haac, Mary Etna; Myles, Kevin M.; Adelman, Zach N.

    2016-01-01

    The generation and study of transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes provides an essential tool for elucidating the complex molecular biology of this important vector. Within the field, genetic manipulation has now surpassed the proof of principle stage and is now utilised in both applied and theoretical vector control strategies. The application of new instruments, technologies and techniques allows ever more controlled experiments to be conducted. In this text we describe microinjection of Ae. aegypti embryos in the context of evaluating and performing genomic editing with transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). PMID:26443221

  2. Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Mosquito-Borne Viruses in the United States.

    PubMed

    Vanlandingham, Dana L; Higgs, Stephen; Huang, Yan-Jang S

    2016-09-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse), is a highly invasive species that continues to expand its geographic distribution both in the United States and in countries on other continents. Studies have demonstrated its susceptibility to infection with at least 32 viruses, including 13 that are present in the United States. Despite this susceptibility, its role as a significant competent vector in natural transmission cycles of arboviruses, has been limited. However, with the recent introductions of chikungunya and Zika viruses into the Americas, for which Ae. albopictus is a recognized vector, it is possible that the species may contribute to the transmission of these viruses to humans and perhaps other susceptible vertebrates.

  3. Intermolecular interaction of thiosemicarbazone derivatives to solvents and a potential Aedes aegypti target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, João Bosco P.; Hallwass, Fernando; da Silva, Aluizio G.; Moreira, Diogo Rodrigo; Ramos, Mozart N.; Espíndola, José Wanderlan P.; de Oliveira, Ana Daura T.; Brondani, Dalci José; Leite, Ana Cristina L.; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2015-08-01

    DFT calculations were used to access information about structure, energy and electronic properties of series of phenyl- and phenoxymethyl-(thio)semicarbazone derivatives with demonstrated activity against the larvae of Aedes aegypti in stage L4. The way as the thiosemicarbazone derivatives can interact with solvents like DMSO and water were analyzed from the comparison between calculated and experimental 1H NMR chemical shifts. The evidences of thiosemicarbazone derivatives making H-bond interaction to solvent have provide us insights on how they can interact with a potential A. aegypti's biological target, the Sterol Carrier Protein-2.

  4. [Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) breeding sites in native bromeliads in Vitória City, ES].

    PubMed

    Varejão, José Benedito Malta; Santos, Claudiney Biral dos; Rezende, Helder Ricas; Bevilacqua, Luiz Carlos; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2005-01-01

    Some insects that are vectors of human diseases have accompanied man in his migrations throughout the world and breed exclusively in the proximity of human dwellings. The mosquito Aedes aegypti has been responsible for epidemics of dengue in Brazil and its presence also constitutes a serious risk for future outbreaks of urban yellow fever. The failure of campaigns to eradicate this species justifies the search for alternative breeding sites, which may be beyond the reach of present control measures. In this study the occurrence of Aedes aegypti breeding sites in native bromeliads on rocky slopes was investigated in five areas of Vitória, capital of the Brazilian State of Espírito Santo, ES. Water contained in the bromeliads was collected with the aid of a suction apparatus to search for culicid larvae. The degree of infestation of buildings in adjacent urban areas was evaluated simultaneously. Culicid larvae were found in bromeliads in four of the five areas investigated, Aedes aegypti being present in two areas. The presence of breeding sites in bromeliads was not related to indices of infestation of buildings in adjacent areas. Further studies are necessary to define whether breeding sites in bromeliads constitute primary foci of Aedes aegypti, or are a consequence of high infestation levels in urban areas.

  5. Ovitrap Efficacy Using Plant Infusions to Monitor Vertical Distribution of Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) in North-Central Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The response of Aedes albopictus to ovitraps containing water, oak or oak-pine was evaluated in four suburban and four sylvatic habitats in North-Central Florida to ascertain potential egg-laying heights. A total of 48 ovitraps were suspended at 1 and 6 meters and monitored weekly for five months....

  6. Effect of application rate and persistence of boric acid sugar baits applied to plants control of Aedes albopictus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of toxic baits to kill adult Aedes albopictus (Skuse) mosquitoes is a safe and potentially effective alternative to the use of synthetic chemical insecticides. This study was made to identify effective application rates for boric acid-sugar solution baits sprayed onto plant surfaces and to ...

  7. A rapid identification guide for larvae of the most common North American container-inhabiting Aedes species of medical importance.

    PubMed

    Farajollahi, Ary; Price, Dana C

    2013-09-01

    Mosquitoes are the single most important taxon of arthropods affecting human health globally, and container-inhabiting Aedes are important vectors of arthropod-borne viruses. Desiccation-resistant eggs of container Aedes have facilitated their invasion into new areas, primarily through transportation via the international trade in used tires. The public health threat from an introduced exotic species into a new area is imminent, and proactive measures are needed to identify significant vectors before onset of epidemic disease. In many cases, vector control is the only means to combat exotic diseases. Accurate identification of vectors is crucial to initiate aggressive control measures; however, many vector control personnel are not properly trained to identify introduced species in new geographic areas. We provide updated geographical ranges and a rapid identification guide with detailed larval photographs of the most common container-inhabiting Aedes in North America. Our key includes 5 native species (Aedes atropalpus, Ae. epactius, Ae. hendersoni, Ae. sierrensis, Ae. triseriatus) and 3 invasive species (Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Ae. japonicus).

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Chikungunya Virus Isolated from an Aedes aegypti Mosquito during an Outbreak in Yemen, 2011.

    PubMed

    Fahmy, Nermeen T; Klena, John D; Mohamed, Amr S; Zayed, Alia; Villinski, Jeffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus is recognized as a serious public health problem. The complete genome was sequenced for a chikungunya virus isolated from the mosquito Aedes aegypti during a 2011 outbreak in Al Hodayda, Yemen, which resulted in significant human fatalities. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this Yemeni isolate is most closely related to Indian Ocean strains of the east/central/south African genotype. PMID:26184944

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Chikungunya Virus Isolated from an Aedes aegypti Mosquito during an Outbreak in Yemen, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Klena, John D.; Mohamed, Amr S.; Zayed, Alia; Villinski, Jeffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus is recognized as a serious public health problem. The complete genome was sequenced for a chikungunya virus isolated from the mosquito Aedes aegypti during a 2011 outbreak in Al Hodayda, Yemen, which resulted in significant human fatalities. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this Yemeni isolate is most closely related to Indian Ocean strains of the east/central/south African genotype. PMID:26184944

  10. Physiological recordings and RNA sequencing of the gustatory appendages of the yellow-fever mosquito Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electrophysiological recording of action potentials from sensory neurons of mosquitoes provides investigators a glimpse into the chemical perception of these disease vectors. We have recently identified a bitter sensing neuron in the labellum of female Aedes aegypti that responds to DEET and other ...

  11. Gustatory receptor neuron responds to DEET and other insect repellents in the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three gustatory receptor neurons were characterized for contact chemoreceptive sensilla on the labella of female yellow fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti. The neuron with the smallest amplitude spike responded to the feeding deterrent, quinine, as well as DEET and other insect repellents. Two other ...

  12. The USDA-ARS area-wide project for management of the asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is among the most invasive species in the world. Established in the U.S. since 1985, this species now infests 30 states and continues to spread internationally. Concerned public health officials recognize this species as an important vector of chikunguny...

  13. Outcomes from the USDA/ARS area-wide project for management of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, became established in the continental US in 1985 and now infests 30 states. In 2007 the USDA Agricultural Research Service funded an “area-wide” project focused on the management of this species. The project was a unique federal, state, local collaborati...

  14. Chapter 3. Integration of botanicals and microbial pesticides for the control of dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquitoes are the single most important group of insects in terms of public health significance and causing diseases such as malaria, filariasis, dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis and other fevers. There has been an outbreak of Chikungunya and dengue all over the India from 2006 – 2009. Aedes ae...

  15. H+ V-ATPase-Energized Transporters in Brush Border Membrane Vesicles from Whole Larvae of Aedes Aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brush Border Membrane vesicles (BBMVs) from Whole larvae of Aedes aegypti (AeBBMVWs ) contain an H+ V-ATPase (V), a Na+/H+ antiporter, NHA1 (A) and a Na+-coupled, nutrient amino acid transporter, NAT8 (N), VAN for short. All V-ATPase subunits are present in the Ae. aegypti genome and in the vesicles...

  16. A leucokinin mimic elicits aversive behavior in mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) and inhibits the sugar taste neuron

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect kinins (leucokinins) are multifunctional peptides acting as neurohormones and neurotransmitters. In females of the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (L.), aedeskinins are known to stimulate fluid secretion from the renal organs (Malpighian tubules) and hindgut contractions by activating a G prot...

  17. Efficacy of Ovitrap Colors and Patterns for Attracting Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) at Suburban Field Sites in North Central Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We sought to visually enhance the attractiveness of a standard black ovitrap routinely used in surveillance of the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse), and now being used as lethal ovitraps in Ae. aegypti (L.) dengue control programs. Black plastic drinking cups (ovitraps) were visually ...

  18. Papyracillic acid and its derivatives as biting deterrents against Aedes aegypti(Diptera: Culicidae): structure–activity relationships

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aedes aegypti L. is the major vector of the arboviruses responsible for dengue fever, one of the most devastating human diseases. Papyracillic acid, the main phytotoxin produced by Ascochyta agropyrina var. nana, was evaluated in a preliminary screening together with other fungal phytotoxins, cyclo...

  19. Rapid and non-destructive detection and identification two strains of Wolbachia in Aedes aegypti by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the potential of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to detect the presence of Wolbachia pipientis (wMel) in male and female laboratory-reared Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The release of Wolbachia transinfected mosquitoes is likely to form a key component of disease control strategi...

  20. Interspecific Competition between Aedes albopictus and A. sierrensis: potential for Competitive Displacement in the Western United States.

    PubMed

    Kesavaraju, Banugopan; Leisnham, Paul T; Keane, Samantha; Delisi, Nicholas; Pozatti, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, was first detected in North America twenty five years ago. It utilizes water-holding container habitats as immature development sites, and has rapidly spread throughout the eastern United States. Aedes albopictus has occasionally been detected in the western United States, but until recently no established populations of A. albopictus were reported. The western tree-hole mosquito, Aedes sierrensis, is the most common tree-hole mosquito throughout the western United States, and is expected to more frequently encounter A. albopictus. In this study, competition between A. albopictus from the eastern United States and A. sierrensis from the western United States was tested in order to better understand the potential for either competitive displacement of A. sierrensis by A. albopictus or competitive resistance of A. sierrensis to A. albopictus. Varying densities of each species were reared with limited resources in a response surface design. Consistent with a prior study, we found that A. albopictus was clearly a superior larval competitor than A. sierrensis. Aedes sierrensis λ' (finite rate of increase) decreased with increasing A. albopictus density, but in contrast, A. albopictus λ' actually increased with increasing A. sierrensis density; a result that was not reflected by individual fitness parameters. These results indicate that A. sierrensis will not be an effective barrier to A. albopictus invasion into tree-holes in the western United States.

  1. Laboratory studies of selected ketones, sulfides, and chloroalkanes on the host-seeking behavior of Aedes aegypti.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synthetic attractant blends formulated from L-lactic acid and several synergists elicit significant attraction of Aedes aegypti (L.) and An. albimanus (Weidemann) in olfactometer bioassays using a triple-cage dual-port olfactometer. The synergists in these blends are commonly acetone and/or dimeth...

  2. Heritable CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shengzhang; Lin, Jingyi; Held, Nicole L; Clem, Rollie J; Passarelli, A Lorena; Franz, Alexander W E

    2015-01-01

    In vivo targeted gene disruption is a powerful tool to study gene function. Thus far, two tools for genome editing in Aedes aegypti have been applied, zinc-finger nucleases (ZFN) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN). As a promising alternative to ZFN and TALEN, which are difficult to produce and validate using standard molecular biological techniques, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated sequence 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system has recently been discovered as a "do-it-yourself" genome editing tool. Here, we describe the use of CRISPR/Cas9 in the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. In a transgenic mosquito line expressing both Dsred and enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP) from the eye tissue-specific 3xP3 promoter in separated but tightly linked expression cassettes, we targeted the ECFP nucleotide sequence for disruption. When supplying the Cas9 enzyme and two sgRNAs targeting different regions of the ECFP gene as in vitro transcribed mRNAs for germline transformation, we recovered four different G1 pools (5.5% knockout efficiency) where individuals still expressed DsRed but no longer ECFP. PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing of PCR amplicons revealed indels in the ECFP target gene ranging from 2-27 nucleotides. These results show for the first time that CRISPR/Cas9 mediated gene editing is achievable in Ae. aegypti, paving the way for further functional genomics related studies in this mosquito species. PMID:25815482

  3. Socioeconomic and Ecological Factors Influencing Aedes aegypti Prevalence, Abundance, and Distribution in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Dhar-Chowdhury, Parnali; Haque, C. Emdad; Lindsay, Robbin; Hossain, Shakhawat

    2016-01-01

    This study examined household risk factors and prevalence, abundance, and distribution of immature Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, and their association with socioeconomic and ecological factors at urban zonal and household levels in the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. During the 2011 monsoon, 826 households in 12 randomly selected administrative wards were surveyed for vector mosquitoes. Results revealed that the abundance and distribution of immature Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, and pupae-per-person indices did not vary significantly among the zones with varied socioeconomic status. Of 35 different types of identified wet containers, 30 were infested, and among the 23 pupae-positive container types, nine were defined as the “most productive” for pupae including: disposable plastic containers (12.2% of 550), sealable plastic barrels (12.0%), tires (10.4%), abandoned plastic buckets (9.6%), flower tub and trays (8.5%), refrigerator trays (6.5%), plastic bottles (6.4%), clay pots (4.9%), and water tanks (1.6%). When the function of the containers was assessed, ornamental, discarded, and household repairing and reconstruction-related container categories were found significantly associated with the number of pupae in the households. The purpose of storing water and income variables were significant predictors of possession of containers that were infested by vector mosquitoes. PMID:27022149

  4. Targeting gene expression to the female larval fat body of transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Totten, D C; Vuong, M; Litvinova, O V; Jinwal, U K; Gulia-Nuss, M; Harrell, R A; Beneš, H

    2013-02-01

    As the fat body is a critical tissue for mosquito development, metamorphosis, immune and reproductive system function, the characterization of regulatory modules targeting gene expression to the female mosquito fat body at distinct life stages is much needed for multiple, varied strategies for controlling vector-borne diseases such as dengue and malaria. The hexameric storage protein, Hexamerin-1.2, of the mosquito Aedes atropalpus is female-specific and uniquely expressed in the fat body of fourth instar larvae and young adults. We have identified in the Hex-1.2 gene, a short regulatory module that directs female-, tissue-, and stage-specific lacZ reporter gene expression using a heterologous promoter in transgenic lines of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. Male transgenic larvae and pupae of one line expressed no Escherichia coli β-galactosidase or transgene product; in two other lines reporter gene activity was highly female-biased. All transgenic lines expressed the reporter only in the fat body; however, lacZ mRNA levels were no different in males and females at any stage examined, suggesting that the gene regulatory module drives female-specific expression by post-transcriptional regulation in the heterologous mosquito. This regulatory element from the Hex-1.2 gene thus provides a new molecular tool for transgenic mosquito control as well as functional genetic analysis in aedine mosquitoes.

  5. DNA barcoding and wing morphometrics to distinguish three Aedes vectors in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sumruayphol, Suchada; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn; Ruangsittichai, Jiraporn; Sriwichai, Patchara; Attrapadung, Siriluck; Samung, Yudthana; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre

    2016-07-01

    Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) (L.), Ae. albopictus (Skuse), and Ae. scutellaris (Walker) are important mosquito vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses. They are morphologically similar and sympatric in some parts of their distribution; therefore, there is a risk of incorrect morphological identification. Any confusion could have a negative impact on epidemiological studies or control strategies. Therefore, we explored two modern tools to supplement current morphological identification: DNA barcoding and geometric morphometric analyses. Field larvae were reared to adults and carefully classified based on morphological traits. The genetic analysis was based on the 658bp each of 30COI sequences. Some Culex spp., Mansonia bonneae, were included as outgroups, and inclusion of a few other Aedes spp. facilitated phylogenetic inference of the relationship between Ae. albopictus and Ae. scutellaris. The two species were separated by an average interspecific divergence of 0.123 (0.119-0.127). Morphometric examination included landmark- (392 specimens) and outline-based (317 specimens) techniques. The shape of the wing showed different discriminating power based on sex and digitizing technique. This is the first time that Ae. scutellaris and Ae. albopictus have been compared using these two techniques. We confirm that these morphologically close species are valid, and that geometric morphometrics can considerably increase the reliability of morphological identification. PMID:26987285

  6. Mosquito larvicidal activity of seaweeds extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohamed Yacoob Syed; Ravikumar, Sundaram; Beula, Johanson Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify the larvicidal activity of the seaweed extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus Methods Seaweed extracts of Ulva lactuca, Caulerpa racemosa (C. racemosa), Sargassum microystum, Caulerpa scalpelliformis, Gracilaria corticata, Turbinaria decurrens, Turbinaria conoides and Caulerpa toxifolia were dissolved in DMSO to prepare a graded series of concentration. The test for the larvicidal effect of seaweeds against mosquitos larvae was conducted in accordance with the WHO standard method. Batches of 25 early 4th instar larvae of three mosquitoes were transferred to 250 mL enamel bowl containing 199 mL of distilled water and 1 mL of plant extracts (10-100 µg). Each experiment was conducted with triplicate with concurrent a control group. Results Among the seaweeds extract, C. racemosa showed toxicity against 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi with equivalent LC50 value (0.055 6±0.010 3) µg/mL, (0.067 5±0.136 0) µg/mL and (0.066 1±0.007 6) µg/mL, respectively. Conclusions The present study concluded that, the mosquito larvicidal property of C. racemosa might be the prospective alternative source to control the mosquitoes.

  7. Changing Domesticity of Aedes aegypti in Northern Peninsular Malaysia: Reproductive Consequences and Potential Epidemiological Implications

    PubMed Central

    Saifur, Rahman G. M.; Dieng, Hamady; Hassan, Ahmad Abu; Salmah, Md Rawi Che; Satho, Tomomitsu; Miake, Fumio; Hamdan, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Background The domestic dengue vector Aedes aegypti mosquitoes breed in indoor containers. However, in northern peninsular Malaysia, they show equal preference for breeding in both indoor and outdoor habitats. To evaluate the epidemiological implications of this peridomestic adaptation, we examined whether Ae. aegypti exhibits decreased survival, gonotrophic activity, and fecundity due to lack of host availability and the changing breeding behavior. Methodology/Principal Findings This yearlong field surveillance identified Ae. aegypti breeding in outdoor containers on an enormous scale. Through a sequence of experiments incorporating outdoors and indoors adapting as well as adapted populations, we observed that indoors provided better environment for the survival of Ae. aegypti and the observed death patterns could be explained on the basis of a difference in body size. The duration of gonotrophic period was much shorter in large-bodied females. Fecundity tended to be greater in indoor acclimated females. We also found increased tendency to multiple feeding in outdoors adapted females, which were smaller in size compared to their outdoors breeding counterparts. Conclusion/Significance The data presented here suggest that acclimatization of Ae. aegypti to the outdoor environment may not decrease its lifespan or gonotrophic activity but rather increase breeding opportunities (increased number of discarded containers outdoors), the rate of larval development, but small body sizes at emergence. Size is likely to be correlated with disease transmission. In general, small size in Aedes females will favor increased blood-feeding frequency resulting in higher population sizes and disease occurrence. PMID:22363516

  8. Socioeconomic and Ecological Factors Influencing Aedes aegypti Prevalence, Abundance, and Distribution in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Dhar-Chowdhury, Parnali; Haque, C Emdad; Lindsay, Robbin; Hossain, Shakhawat

    2016-06-01

    This study examined household risk factors and prevalence, abundance, and distribution of immature Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, and their association with socioeconomic and ecological factors at urban zonal and household levels in the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. During the 2011 monsoon, 826 households in 12 randomly selected administrative wards were surveyed for vector mosquitoes. Results revealed that the abundance and distribution of immature Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, and pupae-per-person indices did not vary significantly among the zones with varied socioeconomic status. Of 35 different types of identified wet containers, 30 were infested, and among the 23 pupae-positive container types, nine were defined as the "most productive" for pupae including: disposable plastic containers (12.2% of 550), sealable plastic barrels (12.0%), tires (10.4%), abandoned plastic buckets (9.6%), flower tub and trays (8.5%), refrigerator trays (6.5%), plastic bottles (6.4%), clay pots (4.9%), and water tanks (1.6%). When the function of the containers was assessed, ornamental, discarded, and household repairing and reconstruction-related container categories were found significantly associated with the number of pupae in the households. The purpose of storing water and income variables were significant predictors of possession of containers that were infested by vector mosquitoes. PMID:27022149

  9. A draft genome sequence of an invasive mosquito: an Italian Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    Dritsou, Vicky; Topalis, Pantelis; Windbichler, Nikolai; Simoni, Alekos; Hall, Ann; Lawson, Daniel; Hinsley, Malcolm; Hughes, Daniel; Napolioni, Valerio; Crucianelli, Francesca; Deligianni, Elena; Gasperi, Giuliano; Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Savini, Grazia; Manni, Mosè; Scolari, Francesca; Malacrida, Anna R.; Arcà, Bruno; Ribeiro, José M.; Lombardo, Fabrizio; Saccone, Giuseppe; Salvemini, Marco; Moretti, Riccardo; Aprea, Giuseppe; Calvitti, Maurizio; Picciolini, Matteo; Papathanos, Philippos Aris; Spaccapelo, Roberta; Favia, Guido; Crisanti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Italian specimens of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) was determined using a standard NGS (next generation sequencing) approach. The size of the assembled genome is comparable to that of Aedes aegypti; the two mosquitoes are also similar as far as the high content of repetitive DNA is concerned, most of which is made up of transposable elements. Although, based on BUSCO (Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologues) analysis, the genome assembly reported here contains more than 99% of protein-coding genes, several of those are expected to be represented in the assembly in a fragmented state. We also present here the annotation of several families of genes (tRNA genes, miRNA genes, the sialome, genes involved in chromatin condensation, sex determination genes, odorant binding proteins and odorant receptors). These analyses confirm that the assembly can be used for the study of the biology of this invasive vector of disease. PMID:26369436

  10. [Periodicity of oviposition of females of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae) in laboratory and field].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Adriana Dos Santos; de Sá Sciavico, Célia J; Eiras, Alvaro Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    The object of this work was to determine of gonotrophic diel pattern of female Aedes aegypti in laboratory and field conditions. Three day-old female mosquitoes were the fed on chicken blood and transferred to bioassay cages. Four oviposition substrates were offered: paper sulfite, filter, butter and towel. The results showed that filter paper received a significantly higher (40.4%) percentage of deposited eggs than the other oviposition substrates. After their first blood meal, females started to oviposit on the 3rd model day; 35.7% of the total number of eggs deposited. The oviposition diel patterns of females were observed every two hours during the photoperiod in the laboratory and in the field. In the laboratory, the periodicity of oviposition showed that the highest egg deposition occurred during the 9th- 12th h of photophase and 1st - 2nd h of scotophase. In the field, the highest egg deposition occurred during the 9th - 12th h of photophase and 1st - 4th h of scotophase. These results point out that Aedes aegypti showed an oviposition periodicity pattern that can subsidize monitoring and or control of vector insect. itis suggested that ovitraps should be placed in the field during the morning hours since the captures occur during afternoon. PMID:17119745

  11. Seasonal prevalence and container preferences of Aedes albopictus in Santo Domingo City, Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Pena, Carlos J; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Chadee, Dave D

    2003-12-01

    The seasonal prevalence and container preferences of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were studied in the park, Parque Mirador del Norte in Santo Domingo City, Dominican Republic, from January to December 1994. Tire ovitraps were set along a transect through the park and monitored weekly while two larval surveys were conducted in both the park and surrounding houses using standard entomological methodology. No seasonal pattern of oviposition was observed with similar numbers of positive tire traps collected in the wet and dry season. Most of the positive ovitraps were located in the middle of the park. Within ovitraps, Aedes aegypti (L.), Ae. albopictus, Culex corniger (Theobald), Ochlerotatus albonotatus (Coquillett), and Toxorhynchites sp. were collected. The larval surveys found 7 associated mosquito species, including Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Ochleotatus mediovittatus (Coquillett), Anopheles albimanus (Weidemann), Culex nigripalpus (Theobald), and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The Ae. albopictus breeding sites were plastic buckets (4), rock holes (3), and Styrofoam lunch containers (3). We suggest that further studies should be conducted to determine its geographic distribution and vector potential in the Dominican Republic.

  12. Peculiar liquid-feeding and pathogen transmission behavior of Aedes togoi and comparison with Anopheles sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Joon; Kang, Dooho; Lee, Seung Chul; Ha, Young-Ran

    2016-01-01

    Female mosquitoes transmit various diseases as vectors during liquid-feeding. Identifying the determinants of vector efficiency is a major scientific challenge in establishing strategies against these diseases. Infection rate and transmission efficiency are interconnected with the mosquito-induced liquid-feeding flow as main indexes of vector efficiency. However, the relationship between liquid-feeding characteristics and pathogen remains poorly understood. The liquid-feeding behavior of Aedes togoi and Anopheles sinensis was comparatively investigated in conjunction with vector efficiency via micro-particle image velocimetry. The flow rates and ratio of the ejection volume of Aedes togoi were markedly higher than those of Anophels sinensis. These differences would influence pathogen re-ingestion. Wall shear stresses of these mosquito species were also clearly discriminatory affecting the infective rates of vector-borne diseases. The variations in volume of two pump chambers and diameter of proboscis of these mosquito species were compared to determine the differences in the liquid-feeding process. Liquid-feeding characteristics influence vector efficiency; hence, this study can elucidate the vector efficiency of mosquitoes and the vector-pathogen interactions and contribute to the development of strategies against vector-borne diseases. PMID:26839008

  13. Breeding Sites of Aedes aegypti: Potential Dengue Vectors in Dire Dawa, East Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Getachew, Dejene; Tekie, Habte; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Balkew, Meshesha; Mesfin, Akalu

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Entomological survey was carried out from May-June to September-October 2014 to investigate the presence of dengue vectors in discarded tires and artificial water containers in houses and peridomestic areas. Methods. A cross-sectional immature stage survey was done indoors and outdoors in 301 houses. Mosquito larval sampling was conducted using pipette or dipper depending on container types. Larvae were identified morphologically and larval indices were also calculated. Results. A total of 750 containers were inspected, and of these 405 were positive for mosquito larvae. A total of 1,873 larvae were collected and morphologically identified as Aedes aegypti (n = 1580: 84.4%) and Culex (n = 293: 15.6%). The larval indices, house index, container index, and breteau index, varied from 33.3 to 86.2, from 23.2 to 73.9, and from 56.5 to 188.9, respectively. Conclusion. Aedes aegypti is breeding in a wide range of artificial containers. To control these mosquitoes, the integration of different methods should be taken into consideration. PMID:26435712

  14. Socioeconomic and Ecological Factors Influencing Aedes aegypti Prevalence, Abundance, and Distribution in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Dhar-Chowdhury, Parnali; Haque, C Emdad; Lindsay, Robbin; Hossain, Shakhawat

    2016-06-01

    This study examined household risk factors and prevalence, abundance, and distribution of immature Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, and their association with socioeconomic and ecological factors at urban zonal and household levels in the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. During the 2011 monsoon, 826 households in 12 randomly selected administrative wards were surveyed for vector mosquitoes. Results revealed that the abundance and distribution of immature Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, and pupae-per-person indices did not vary significantly among the zones with varied socioeconomic status. Of 35 different types of identified wet containers, 30 were infested, and among the 23 pupae-positive container types, nine were defined as the "most productive" for pupae including: disposable plastic containers (12.2% of 550), sealable plastic barrels (12.0%), tires (10.4%), abandoned plastic buckets (9.6%), flower tub and trays (8.5%), refrigerator trays (6.5%), plastic bottles (6.4%), clay pots (4.9%), and water tanks (1.6%). When the function of the containers was assessed, ornamental, discarded, and household repairing and reconstruction-related container categories were found significantly associated with the number of pupae in the households. The purpose of storing water and income variables were significant predictors of possession of containers that were infested by vector mosquitoes.

  15. Peculiar liquid-feeding and pathogen transmission behavior of Aedes togoi and comparison with Anopheles sinensis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Joon; Kang, Dooho; Lee, Seung Chul; Ha, Young-Ran

    2016-01-01

    Female mosquitoes transmit various diseases as vectors during liquid-feeding. Identifying the determinants of vector efficiency is a major scientific challenge in establishing strategies against these diseases. Infection rate and transmission efficiency are interconnected with the mosquito-induced liquid-feeding flow as main indexes of vector efficiency. However, the relationship between liquid-feeding characteristics and pathogen remains poorly understood. The liquid-feeding behavior of Aedes togoi and Anopheles sinensis was comparatively investigated in conjunction with vector efficiency via micro-particle image velocimetry. The flow rates and ratio of the ejection volume of Aedes togoi were markedly higher than those of Anophels sinensis. These differences would influence pathogen re-ingestion. Wall shear stresses of these mosquito species were also clearly discriminatory affecting the infective rates of vector-borne diseases. The variations in volume of two pump chambers and diameter of proboscis of these mosquito species were compared to determine the differences in the liquid-feeding process. Liquid-feeding characteristics influence vector efficiency; hence, this study can elucidate the vector efficiency of mosquitoes and the vector-pathogen interactions and contribute to the development of strategies against vector-borne diseases. PMID:26839008

  16. Dengue Virus Infection of Aedes aegypti Requires a Putative Cysteine Rich Venom Protein

    PubMed Central

    Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Troupin, Andrea; Conway, Michael J; Vesely, Diana; Ledizet, Michael; Roundy, Christopher M.; Cloherty, Erin; Jameson, Samuel; Vanlandingham, Dana; Higgs, Stephen; Fikrig, Erol; Colpitts, Tonya M.

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes serious human disease and mortality worldwide. There is no specific antiviral therapy or vaccine for DENV infection. Alterations in gene expression during DENV infection of the mosquito and the impact of these changes on virus infection are important events to investigate in hopes of creating new treatments and vaccines. We previously identified 203 genes that were ≥5-fold differentially upregulated during flavivirus infection of the mosquito. Here, we examined the impact of silencing 100 of the most highly upregulated gene targets on DENV infection in its mosquito vector. We identified 20 genes that reduced DENV infection by at least 60% when silenced. We focused on one gene, a putative cysteine rich venom protein (SeqID AAEL000379; CRVP379), whose silencing significantly reduced DENV infection in Aedes aegypti cells. Here, we examine the requirement for CRVP379 during DENV infection of the mosquito and investigate the mechanisms surrounding this phenomenon. We also show that blocking CRVP379 protein with either RNAi or specific antisera inhibits DENV infection in Aedes aegypti. This work identifies a novel mosquito gene target for controlling DENV infection in mosquitoes that may also be used to develop broad preventative and therapeutic measures for multiple flaviviruses. PMID:26491875

  17. Peculiar liquid-feeding and pathogen transmission behavior of Aedes togoi and comparison with Anopheles sinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Joon; Kang, Dooho; Lee, Seung Chul; Ha, Young-Ran

    2016-02-01

    Female mosquitoes transmit various diseases as vectors during liquid-feeding. Identifying the determinants of vector efficiency is a major scientific challenge in establishing strategies against these diseases. Infection rate and transmission efficiency are interconnected with the mosquito-induced liquid-feeding flow as main indexes of vector efficiency. However, the relationship between liquid-feeding characteristics and pathogen remains poorly understood. The liquid-feeding behavior of Aedes togoi and Anopheles sinensis was comparatively investigated in conjunction with vector efficiency via micro-particle image velocimetry. The flow rates and ratio of the ejection volume of Aedes togoi were markedly higher than those of Anophels sinensis. These differences would influence pathogen re-ingestion. Wall shear stresses of these mosquito species were also clearly discriminatory affecting the infective rates of vector-borne diseases. The variations in volume of two pump chambers and diameter of proboscis of these mosquito species were compared to determine the differences in the liquid-feeding process. Liquid-feeding characteristics influence vector efficiency; hence, this study can elucidate the vector efficiency of mosquitoes and the vector-pathogen interactions and contribute to the development of strategies against vector-borne diseases.

  18. Effects of essential oils on Aedes aegypti larvae: alternatives to environmentally safe insecticides.

    PubMed

    Silva, W J; Dória, G A A; Maia, R T; Nunes, R S; Carvalho, G A; Blank, A F; Alves, P B; Marçal, R M; Cavalcanti, S C H

    2008-05-01

    The essential oils from leaves of Hyptis fruticosa (Lamiaceae) Salzm., H. pectinata (Lamiaceae) Poit., and Lippia gracilis (Verbenaceae) HBK were investigated for their larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti and analyzed by GC/MS. Fifty-nine compounds, representing 91.28-98.39% of the essential oils, have been identified. A standard solution was used to make 20 mL solutions ranging from 30 to 2000 ppm. Twenty larvae between third and fourth stages were added to the essential oil solution. A mortality count was conducted 24 h after treatment. Essential oils LC50 and their confidence limits at 95% probability were calculated by the methods of Reed-Muench and Pizzi, respectively. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis showed potent insecticidal effect against Aedes aegypti larvae, the vector of dengue fever. Carvacrol and caryophyllene oxide were the main responsible for the activity of L. gracilis and H. pectinata. Minor compounds are probably acting synergistically to achieve H. fruticosa activity. PMID:17662602

  19. Winter Activity and Diapause of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Hanoi, Northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, Takashi; Chaves, Luis Fernando; Nguyen, Giang Thi Tra; Nguyen, Yen Thi; Takagi, Masahiro

    2015-11-01

    We studied the winter activity of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) from November 2008 to April 2009 in Bat Trang village of Hanoi, Vietnam. We selected 12 houses and collected: 1) adults with BG sentinel traps, 2) pupae from household water containers, and 3) eggs with ovitraps. Aedes albopictus adults, pupae, and eggs were not collected from early January to early February. Though the egg hatching probability tended to be initially high at longer day length, the maximum probability gradually shifted to shorter day length, as the observation period elapsed. When females were reared under long day length and their eggs were immersed 1 or 5 wk after oviposition, >50% of eggs hatched within 20 days. However, when females were reared under short day length and their eggs were immersed after 1 wk, hatching was suppressed for 60 days. When females were reared under short day length, the median hatching day occurred earlier in eggs kept dry for 5 and 10 wk after oviposition than in those dried for only 1 wk. This indicates that the extended dry periods accelerate egg hatching. Our results showed that hatchability gradually changed with day length, suggesting that selection for overwintering is not as strong relative to Ae. albopictus living in the temperate zone, where winter conditions are less favorable than in tropical and subtropical areas.

  20. Efficacy of photodynamic therapy against larvae of Aedes aegypti: confocal microscopy and fluorescence-lifetime imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, L. M.; Pratavieira, S.; Inada, N. M.; Kurachi, C.; Corbi, J.; Guimarães, F. E. G.; Bagnato, V. S.

    2014-03-01

    Recently a few demonstration on the use of Photodynamic Reaction as possibility to eliminate larvae that transmit diseases for men has been successfully demonstrated. This promising tool cannot be vastly used due to many problems, including the lake of investigation concerning the mechanisms of larvae killing as well as security concerning the use of photosensitizers in open environment. In this study, we investigate some of the mechanisms in which porphyrin (Photogem) is incorporated on the Aedes aegypti larvae previously to illumination and killing. Larvae at second instar were exposed to the photosensitizer and after 30 minutes imaged by a confocal fluorescence microscope. It was observed the presence of photosensitizer in the gut and at the digestive tract of the larva. Fluorescence-Lifetime Imaging showed greater photosensitizer concentration in the intestinal wall of the samples, which produces a strong decrease of the Photogem fluorescence lifetime. For Photodynamic Therapy exposition to different light doses and concentrations of porphyrin were employed. Three different light sources (LED, Fluorescent lamp, Sun light) also were tested. Sun light and fluorescent lamp shows close to 100% of mortality after 24 hrs. of illumination. These results indicate the potential use of photodynamic effect against the LARVAE of Aedes aegypti.

  1. Could Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) become established in California tree holes?

    PubMed

    Washburn, J O; Hartmann, E U

    1992-11-01

    The ability of temperate zone-adapted Aedes albopictus (Skuse) to survive and complete development in California tree holes was evaluated in laboratory experiments that assessed development under simulated wet-season conditions, larval competition with Aedes sierrensis at different food levels, temporal survivorship of eggs stored under different humidities and temperatures, and suitability of larvae as hosts for the indigenous parasite Lambornella clarki. At all resource levels, Ae. albopictus completed development at temperatures similar to those in natural tree hole water in spring and early summer (> or = 16 degrees C), but not those during the rainy winter months (4-11 degrees C). In competition studies at 21 degrees C, the population performance (i.e., survivorship, pupation time, and adult size) of Ae. albopictus at all resource levels was as good or better when larvae developed with Ae. sierrensis compared with when reared with only conspecifics. Egg survivorship declined with increased storage time, increased temperature, and decreased humidity; > 55% of eggs hatched following 24-wk storage at 11 degrees C with relative humidities > 78%. In host suitability tests, parasitic theronts of L. clarki consistently attacked Ae. albopictus larvae at rates significantly lower than Ae. sierrensis. L. clarki that successfully invaded Ae. albopictus larvae failed to multiply and kill their hosts; thus, Ae. albopictus is not a suitable host for L. clarki. The protracted drying of most tree holes and low water temperatures during the rainy season will hinder but not preclude establishment of Ae. albopictus in California.

  2. Identification and Characterization of Seminal Fluid Proteins in the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    Boes, Kathryn E.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Wong, Alex; Harrington, Laura C.; Wolfner, Mariana F.; Sirot, Laura K.

    2014-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is an important vector for pathogens that affect human health, including the viruses that cause dengue and Chikungunya fevers. It is also one of the world's fastest-spreading invasive species. For these reasons, it is crucial to identify strategies for controlling the reproduction and spread of this mosquito. During mating, seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) are transferred from male mosquitoes to females, and these Sfps modulate female behavior and physiology in ways that influence reproduction. Despite the importance of Sfps on female reproductive behavior in mosquitoes and other insects, the identity of Sfps in Ae. albopictus has not previously been reported. We used transcriptomics and proteomics to identify 198 Sfps in Ae. albopictus. We discuss possible functions of these Sfps in relation to Ae. albopictus reproduction-related biology. We additionally compare the sequences of these Sfps with proteins (including reported Sfps) in several other species, including Ae. aegypti. While only 72 (36.4%) of Ae. albopictus Sfps have putative orthologs in Ae. aegypti, suggesting low conservation of the complement of Sfps in these species, we find no evidence for an elevated rate of evolution or positive selection in the Sfps that are shared between the two Aedes species, suggesting high sequence conservation of those shared Sfps. Our results provide a foundation for future studies to investigate the roles of individual Sfps on feeding and reproduction in this mosquito. Functional analysis of these Sfps could inform strategies for managing the rate of pathogen transmission by Ae. albopictus. PMID:24945155

  3. The Premise Condition Index: a tool for streamlining surveys of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Tun-Lin, W; Kay, B H; Barnes, A

    1995-12-01

    Premise inspections and treatment of the larval habitats of container-breeding Aedes aegypti are extremely labor intensive. Since this means of control is the only one available in relation to dengue fever, this report presents an effective approach for streamlining premise surveys in north Queensland, Australia. From a survey of 877 premises in Townsville, Charters Towers, and Mingela/Ravenswood in 1990, occupier and premise variables were collected to examine any relationships with the presence of Ae. aegypti. Statistical modeling of these parameters using multiple and simple Poisson regression indicated that for both adjusted and unadjusted models respectively, the degree of shade and tidiness of the yard had strong correlations with both the proportion of positive premises and the numbers of infested containers therein. Condition of the house was also a significant variable in the unadjusted model. On this basis, the Premise Condition Index is proposed as a rapid assessment tool that can increase efficiency of detecting positive premises and containers by 270-370%. Although habitat selection by Aedes varies throughout the world, this approach could be used as a model for control of vectors of both dengue and yellow fever.

  4. [Aedes aegypti (L.): importance of its bioecology in the transmission of dengue and other arboviruses. I].

    PubMed

    Dégallier, N; Hervé, J P; Travassos da Rosa, A P; Sa, G C

    1988-01-01

    The bioecological parameters which are of special importance in the epidemiology of Dengue, Yellow Fever, and other arboviruses are discussed. Three levels are retained: the nature of Aedes aegypti-man contacts, the susceptibility of the mosquito to the pathogen and multiplication of the latter, and the transmission. The trophic preferences, the density variations, the daily survival rate, the egg diapause, and man influences are the main vector-dependent ecological factors. Temperature and genetical nature of viral and mosquito strains are particularly important in susceptibility and multiplication studies. Efficacy of the oral transmission is also temperature-dependent and mainly genetically determined. The true natural role of transovarial transmission is not yet well understood. Thus, the breaking up and/or prevention of epidemics would be possible only with a thorough knowledge of the relation between the above biological factors and the epidemiological situation. A list is provided of the naturally or experimentally Aedes aegypti transmitted arboviruses (103), protozoans (5) and filaria (20).

  5. Established Population of the Invasive Mosquito Species Aedes albopictus in Romania, 2012-14.

    PubMed

    Prioteasa, Liviu F; Dinu, Sorin; Fălcuţă, Elena; Ceianu, Cornelia S

    2015-06-01

    During an entomological investigation carried out in Bucharest and surroundings in fall of 2012, 45 adult mosquitoes (38 females and 7 males) of Aedes albopictus were collected in a neighborhood from the southern area of the city. The morphological identification of the species was further confirmed by sequencing 2 mitochondrial DNA markers: the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 genes. Aedes albopictus was collected again in 2013 in the same area from July until October. During late summer the species was found also in another location in the city, downtown Bucharest. Larvae were found in water barrels and other types of household containers, as well as in rain catch basins. In 2014, following a nuisance complaint of a Bucharest inhabitant, the entomological investigation found aggressive Ae. albopictus adults on his property that harbored many mosquito larvae in container-type breeding habitats. These findings are the 1st records of this invasive species and of its breeding population in Romania, and show maintenance of the species over 2 winter seasons. Surveillance of the species outside the area of the capital city was not performed, therefore it is not known whether Ae. albopictus has been introduced in other regions of the country. The presence of Ae. albopictus has been reported every year (2012-14) to competent public health authorities, stressing on the importance of surveillance and of implementation of control measures.

  6. Efficiency of three diets for larval development in mass rearing Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Puggioli, Arianna; Balestrino, F; Damiens, D; Lees, R S; Soliban, S M; Madakacherry, O; Dindo, M L; Bellini, R; Gilles, J R L

    2013-07-01

    A fundamental step in establishing a mass production system is the development of a larval diet that promotes high adult performance at a reasonable cost. To identify a suitable larval diet for Aedes albopictus (Skuse), three diets were compared: a standard laboratory diet used at the Centro Agricoltura Ambiente, Italy (CAA) and two diets developed specifically for mosquito mass rearing at the FAO/IAEA Laboratory, Austria. The two IAEA diets, without affecting survival to the pupal stage, resulted in a shorter time to pupation and to emergence when compared with the CAA diet. At 24 h from pupation onset, 50 and 90% of the male pupae produced on the CAA and IAEA diets, respectively, had formed and could be collected. The diet received during the larval stage affected the longevity of adult males with access to water only, with best results observed when using the CAA larval diet. However, similar longevity among diet treatments was observed when males were supplied with sucrose solution. No differences were observed in the effects of larval diet on adult male size or female fecundity and fertility. Considering these results, along with the relative costs of the three diets, the IAEA 2 diet is found to be the preferred choice for mass rearing of Aedes albopictus, particularly if a sugar meal can be given to adult males before release, to ensure their teneral reserves are sufficient for survival, dispersal, and mating in the field.

  7. Gene Flow, Subspecies Composition, and Dengue Virus-2 Susceptibility among Aedes aegypti Collections in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Sylla, Massamba; Bosio, Christopher; Urdaneta-Marquez, Ludmel; Ndiaye, Mady; Black, William C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti, the “yellow fever mosquito”, is the primary vector to humans of the four serotypes of dengue viruses (DENV1-4) and yellow fever virus (YFV) and is a known vector of Chikungunya virus. There are two recognized subspecies of Ae. aegypti sensu latu (s.l.): the presumed ancestral form, Ae. aegypti formosus (Aaf), a primarily sylvan mosquito in sub-Saharan Africa, and Ae. aegypti aegypti (Aaa), found globally in tropical and subtropical regions typically in association with humans. The designation of Ae. aegypti s.l. subspecies arose from observations made in East Africa in the late 1950s that the frequency of pale “forms” of Ae. aegypti was higher in populations in and around human dwellings than in those of the nearby bush. But few studies have been made of Ae. aegypti s.l. in West Africa. To address this deficiency we have been studying the population genetics, subspecies composition and vector competence for DENV-2 of Ae. aegypti s.l. in Senegal. Methods and Findings A population genetic analysis of gene flow was conducted among 1,040 Aedes aegypti s.l. from 19 collections distributed across the five phytogeographic regions of Senegal. Adults lacking pale scales on their first abdominal tergite were classified as Aedes aegypti formosus (Aaf) following the original description of the subspecies and the remainder were classified as Aedes aegypti aegypti (Aaa). There was a clear northwest–southeast cline in the abundance of Aaa and Aaf. Collections from the northern Sahelian region contained only Aaa while southern Forest gallery collections contained only Aaf. The two subspecies occurred in sympatry in four collections north of the Gambia in the central Savannah region and Aaa was a minor component of two collections from the Forest gallery area. Mosquitoes from 11 collections were orally challenged with DENV-2 virus. In agreement with the early literature, Aaf had significantly lower vector competence than Aaa. Among pure Aaa

  8. Larvicidal, oviposition, and ovicidal effects of Artemisia annua (Asterales: Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Cheah, Shao-Xiong; Tay, Jia-Wei; Chan, Lai-Keng; Jaal, Zairi

    2013-09-01

    This study focuses on the larvicidal, oviposition, and ovicidal effects of a crude extract of Artemisia annua against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Dried cells of Artemisia annua from cell suspension cultures were extracted using hexane. The extract showed moderate larvicidal effects against mosquitoes. At 24-h post treatment, the LC50 values for Anopheles sinensis, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus were recorded as 244.55, 276.14, and 374.99 ppm, respectively. The percentage mortality of larvae was directly proportional to the tested concentration. Anopheles sinensis was found to be the most susceptible species, whereas Culex quinquefasciatus was the most tolerant to the Artemisia annua extract. The results indicated that the Artemisia annua extract showed concentration-dependent oviposition deterrent activity and had a strong deterrent effect. At 500 ppm, the percentage effective repellency was more than 85% compared with the control group for all the species, with oviposition activity index values of -0.94, -0.95, and -0.78 for Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. In the ovicidal assay, the percentage hatchability of eggs after treatment with 500 ppm of Artemisia annua extract was significantly lower than the control, with values of 48.84 ± 4.08, 38.42 ± 3.67, and 79.35 ± 2.09% for Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. Artemisia annua was found to be more effective against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles sinensis compared with Culex quinquefasciatus. This study indicated that crude extract of A. annua could be a potential alternative for use in vector management programs.

  9. Investigating the Potential Range Expansion of the Vector Mosquito Aedes Aegypti in Mexico with NASA Earth Science Remote Sensing Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosson, W. L.; Estes, M. G.; Estes, S. M.; Hayden, M.; Monaghan, A. J.; Eisen, L.; Lozano-Fuentes, S.; Ochoa, C.; Tapia, B.; Welsh-Rodriquez, C. M.; Quattrochi, D.; MorenoMadrinan, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    In tropical and sub ]tropical regions, the mosquito Aedes aegypti is the major vector for the virus causing dengue, a serious public health issue in these areas. Through ongoing NSF- and NASA-funded studies, field surveys of Aedes aegypti and an integrated modeling approach are being used to improve our understanding of the potential range of the mosquito to expand toward heavily populated high elevation areas such as Mexico City under various climate change and socio ]economic scenarios. This work serves three primary objectives: (1) Employ NASA remotely-sensed data to supplement the environmental monitoring and modeling component of the project. These data-- for example, surface temperature, precipitation, vegetation indices, soil moisture and elevation-- are critical for understanding the habitat necessary for mosquito survival and abundance; (2) Implement training sessions to instruct scientists and students from Mexico and the U.S. on how to use remote sensing and implement the NASA SERVIR Regional Visualization and Monitoring System; (3) Employ the SERVIR framework to optimize the dissemination of key project results in order to increase their societal relevance and benefits in developing climate adaptation strategies. Field surveys of larval, pupal and adult Aedes aegypti, as well as detailed physical and social household characteristics, were conducted in the summers of 2011and 2012 at geographic scales from the household to the community along a transect from sea level to 2400 m ASL. These data are being used in models to estimate Aedes aegypti habitat suitability. In 2011, Aedes aegypti were identified at an elevation of over 2150 m in Puebla, the highest elevation at which this species has been observed.

  10. Investigating the Potential Range Expansion of the Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti in Mexico with NASA Earth Science Remote Sensing Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosson, W. L.; Eisen, L.; Estes, M. G.; Estes, S. M.; Hayden, M.; Lozano-Fuentes, S.; Monaghan, A. J.; Moreno Madriñán, M. J.; Ochoa, C.; Quattrochi, D.; Tapia, B.; Welsh-Rodriguez, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    In tropical and sub-tropical regions, the mosquito Aedes aegypti is the major vector for the virus causing dengue, a serious public health issue in these areas. Through ongoing NSF- and NASA-funded studies, field surveys of Aedes aegypti and an integrated modeling approach are being used to improve our understanding of the potential range of the mosquito to expand toward heavily populated high elevation areas such as Mexico City under various climate change and socio-economic scenarios. This work serves three primary objectives: (1) Employ NASA remotely-sensed data to supplement the environmental monitoring and modeling component of the project. These data -- for example, surface temperature, precipitation, vegetation indices, soil moisture and elevation -- are critical for understanding the habitat necessary for mosquito survival and abundance; (2) Implement training sessions to instruct scientists and students from Mexico and the U.S. on how to use remote sensing and implement the NASA SERVIR Regional Visualization and Monitoring System; (3) Employ the SERVIR framework to optimize the dissemination of key project results in order to increase their societal relevance and benefits in developing climate adaptation strategies. Field surveys of larval, pupal and adult Aedes aegypti, as well as detailed physical and social household characteristics, were conducted in the summers of 2011and 2012 at geographic scales from the household to the community along a transect from sea level to 2400 m ASL. These data are being used in models to estimate Aedes aegypti habitat suitability. In 2011, Aedes aegypti were identified at an elevation of over 2150 m in Puebla, the highest elevation at which this species has been observed.

  11. Mosquito larvicidal properties of Orthisiphon thymiflorus (Roth) Sleesen. (Family: Labiatae) against mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To determine the larvicidal activity of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of Orthosiphon thymiflorus leaves against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. Methods: Larvicidal activity was determined in laboratory bioassays using var...

  12. The influence of diet on the use of near-infrared spectroscopy to determine the age of female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interventions targeting adult mosquitoes are used to combat transmission of vector-borne diseases, including dengue. Without available vaccines, targeting the primary vector, Aedes aegypti, is essential to prevent transmission. Older mosquitoes (>/='7 days) are of greatest epidemiological significan...

  13. Molecular and phytochemical investigation of Angelica dahurica and Aneelica pubescentis essential oils and their biological activity against Aedes aegypti, Stephanitis pyrioides and Colletotrichum species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water distilled essential oils from the roots of Angelica dahurica and Angelica pubescentis were investigated for their antifungal activity against plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides as well as insecticidal activity against the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes ...

  14. Chikungunya Virus Transmission Potential by Local Aedes Mosquitoes in the Americas and Europe

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Rúa, Anubis; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Mousson, Laurence; Vazeille, Marie; Fuchs, Sappho; Yébakima, André; Gustave, Joel; Girod, Romain; Dusfour, Isabelle; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Vanlandingham, Dana L.; Huang, Yan-Jang S.; Lounibos, L. Philip; Mohamed Ali, Souand; Nougairede, Antoine; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2015-01-01

    Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), mainly transmitted in urban areas by the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, constitutes a major public health problem. In late 2013, CHIKV emerged on Saint-Martin Island in the Caribbean and spread throughout the region reaching more than 40 countries. Thus far, Ae. aegypti mosquitoes have been implicated as the sole vector in the outbreaks, leading to the hypothesis that CHIKV spread could be limited only to regions where this mosquito species is dominant. Methodology/Principal Findings We determined the ability of local populations of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus from the Americas and Europe to transmit the CHIKV strain of the Asian genotype isolated from Saint-Martin Island (CHIKV_SM) during the recent epidemic, and an East-Central-South African (ECSA) genotype CHIKV strain isolated from La Réunion Island (CHIKV_LR) as a well-characterized control virus. We also evaluated the effect of temperature on transmission of CHIKV_SM by European Ae. albopictus. We found that (i) Aedes aegypti from Saint-Martin Island transmit CHIKV_SM and CHIKV_LR with similar efficiency, (ii) Ae. aegypti from the Americas display similar transmission efficiency for CHIKV_SM, (iii) American and European populations of the alternative vector species Ae. albopictus were as competent as Ae. aegypti populations with respect to transmission of CHIKV_SM and (iv) exposure of European Ae. albopictus to low temperatures (20°C) significantly reduced the transmission potential for CHIKV_SM. Conclusions/Significance CHIKV strains belonging to the ECSA genotype could also have initiated local transmission in the new world. Additionally, the ongoing CHIKV outbreak in the Americas could potentially spread throughout Ae. aegypti- and Ae. albopictus-infested regions of the Americas with possible imported cases of CHIKV to Ae. albopictus-infested regions in Europe. Colder temperatures may decrease the local transmission of CHIKV_SM by European Ae

  15. Bioassay and biochemical studies of the status of pirimiphos-methyl and cypermethrin resistance in Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Lee, R M L; Choong, C T H; Goh, B P L; Ng, L C; Lam-Phua, S G

    2014-12-01

    Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus) and Ae. (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) were sampled from five regions of Singapore (Central, North East, North West, South East and South West) and tested with diagnostic concentrations of the technical grade insecticides, pirimiphos-methyl and cypermethrin. Biochemical assays were performed on the same populations of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus to determine activities of detoxifying enzymes, including non-specific esterase (EST), monooxygenase (MFO) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The diagnostic test showed that all Ae. aegypti populations were susceptible to pirimiphos-methyl (mortality = 99 to 100%), but resistant to cypermethrin (mortality = 11 to 76%). Resistance to pirimiphos-methyl was observed in all Ae. albopictus populations (mortality = 49 to 74%) while cypermethrin resistance was detected in most Ae. albopictus populations (mortality = 40 to 75%), except those from Central (mortality = 86%) and South East (mortality = 94%) showing incipient resistance. The biochemical assays showed that there was significant enhancement (P < 0.001) of MFO activity in pyrethroid-resistant Ae. albopictus populations and most Ae. aegypti populations. The biochemical assay results suggested that AChE could play a role in pirimiphos-methyl resistance of Ae. albopictus in South West, South East and North East regions. The small but significant increase in EST activities in Ae. aegypti from all regions suggest that it may play a role in the observed cypermethrin resistance.

  16. Temporal Patterns of Abundance of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of Ae. albopictus in the Central African Republic

    PubMed Central

    Kamgang, Basile; Ngoagouni, Carine; Manirakiza, Alexandre; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Paupy, Christophe; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) was first reported in central Africa in 2000, in Cameroon, with the indigenous mosquito species Ae. aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Today, this invasive species is present in almost all countries of the region, including the Central African Republic (CAR), where it was first recorded in 2009. As invasive species of mosquitoes can affect the distribution of native species, resulting in new patterns of vectors and concomitant risk for disease, we undertook a comparative study early and late in the wet season in the capital and the main cities of CAR to document infestation and the ecological preferences of the two species. In addition, we determined the probable geographical origin of invasive populations of Ae. albopictus with two mitochondrial DNA genes, COI and ND5. Analysis revealed that Ae. aegypti was more abundant earlier in the wet season and Ae. albopictus in the late wet season. Used tyres were the most heavily colonized productive larval habitats for both species in both seasons. The invasive species Ae. albopictus predominated over the resident species at all sites in which the two species were sympatric. Mitochondrial DNA analysis revealed broad low genetic diversity, confirming recent introduction of Ae. albopictus in CAR. Phylogeographical analysis based on COI polymorphism indicated that the Ae. albopictus haplotype in the CAR population segregated into two lineages, suggesting multiple sources of Ae. albopictus. These data may have important implications for vector control strategies in central Africa. PMID:24349596

  17. SEX DETERMINATION. A male-determining factor in the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Hall, Andrew Brantley; Basu, Sanjay; Jiang, Xiaofang; Qi, Yumin; Timoshevskiy, Vladimir A; Biedler, James K; Sharakhova, Maria V; Elahi, Rubayet; Anderson, Michelle A E; Chen, Xiao-Guang; Sharakhov, Igor V; Adelman, Zach N; Tu, Zhijian

    2015-06-12

    Sex determination in the mosquito Aedes aegypti is governed by a dominant male-determining factor (M factor) located within a Y chromosome-like region called the M locus. Here, we show that an M-locus gene, Nix, functions as an M factor in A. aegypti. Nix exhibits persistent M linkage and early embryonic expression, two characteristics required of an M factor. Nix knockout with clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 resulted in largely feminized genetic males and the production of female isoforms of two key regulators of sexual differentiation: doublesex and fruitless. Ectopic expression of Nix resulted in genetic females with nearly complete male genitalia. Thus, Nix is both required and sufficient to initiate male development. This study provides a foundation for mosquito control strategies that convert female mosquitoes into harmless males. PMID:25999371

  18. RNAi-mediated gene knockdown and in vivo diuresis assay in adult female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Drake, Lisa L; Price, David P; Aguirre, Sarah E; Hansen, Immo A

    2012-07-14

    This video protocol demonstrates an effective technique to knockdown a particular gene in an insect and conduct a novel bioassay to measure excretion rate. This method can be used to obtain a better understanding of the process of diuresis in insects and is especially useful in the study of diuresis in blood-feeding arthropods that are able to take up huge amounts of liquid in a single blood meal. This RNAi-mediated gene knockdown combined with an in vivo diuresis assay was developed by the Hansen lab to study the effects of RNAi-mediated knockdown of aquaporin genes on Aedes aegypti mosquito diuresis. The protocol is setup in two parts: the first demonstration illustrates how to construct a simple mosquito injection device and how to prepare and inject dsRNA into the thorax of mosquitoes for RNAi-mediated gene knockdown. The second demonstration illustrates how to determine excretion rates in mosquitoes using an in vivo bioassay.

  19. Investigations of Koutango Virus Infectivity and Dissemination Dynamics in Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo Lobo, Jaime M; Christofferson, Rebecca C; Mores, Christopher N

    2014-01-01

    Aedes aegypti has already been implicated in the emergence of dengue and chikungunya viruses in the southern US. Vector competence is the ability of a mosquito species to support transmission of an arbovirus, which is bounded by its ability to support replication and dissemination of the virus through the mosquito body to the salivary glands to be expectorated in the saliva at the time of feeding on a vertebrate host. Here, we investigate the vector competence of A. aegypti for the arbovirus koutango by orally challenging mosquitoes with two titers of virus. We calculated the effective vector competence, a cumulative measure of transmission capability weighted by mosquito survival, and determined that A. aegypti was competent at the higher dose only. We conclude that further investigation is needed to determine the infectiousness of vertebrate hosts to fully assess the emergence potential of this virus in areas rich in A. aegypti. PMID:25574140

  20. Stochastic eco-epidemiological model of dengue disease transmission by Aedes aegypti mosquito.

    PubMed

    Otero, M; Solari, H G

    2010-01-01

    We present a stochastic dynamical model for the transmission of dengue that takes into account seasonal and spatial dynamics of the vector Aedes aegypti. It describes disease dynamics triggered by the arrival of infected people in a city. We show that the probability of an epidemic outbreak depends on seasonal variation in temperature and on the availability of breeding sites. We also show that the arrival date of an infected human in a susceptible population dramatically affects the distribution of the final size of epidemics and that early outbreaks have a low probability. However, early outbreaks are likely to produce large epidemics because they have a longer time to evolve before the winter extinction of vectors. Our model could be used to estimate the risk and final size of epidemic outbreaks in regions with seasonal climatic variations.

  1. Dispersal of Male Aedes aegypti in a Coastal Village in Southern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Valerio, Laura; Facchinelli, Luca; Ramsey, Janine M.; Scott, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Most Aedes aegypti dispersal studies have focused on females because of their central role in dengue virus transmission. Only a few mark-release-recapture (MRR) studies provided insights into male Ae. aegypti dispersal. To fill this knowledge gap, we conducted five male Ae. aegypti MRR experiments in a coastal village in southern Mexico. Small and large male cohorts were marked with fluorescent dusts, released outside buildings, and recaptures were carried out by using backpack aspirators. Recapture rates ranged between 0.35% and 6.55% and median distance traveled was 12–166 meters. A statistically significant difference in median distance traveled with large males dispersing farther than small ones was detected only in one experiment (MRR5: U = 3.5, P < 0.01). Male dispersal data will be useful for constructing and estimating parameter values and validating models that will be used to plan the most effective release strategies for genetically modified male Ae. aegypti. PMID:22492152

  2. Late-instar Behavior of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae in Different Thermal and Nutritive Environments.

    PubMed

    Reiskind, Michael H; Janairo, M Shawn

    2015-09-01

    The effects of temperature on ectotherm growth have been well documented. How temperature affects foraging behavior is less well explored, and has not been studied in larval mosquitoes. We hypothesized that temperature changes foraging behavior in the aquatic larval phase of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. Based on empirical results in other systems, we predicted that foraging effort would increase at higher temperatures in these insects. We tested this prediction over three temperature conditions at two food levels. We measured behaviors by video recording replicated cohorts of fourth-instar mosquitoes and assessing individual behavior and time budgets using an ethogram. We found both food level and temperature had significant impacts on larval foraging behavior, with more time spent actively foraging at low food levels and at low temperatures, and more occurrences of active foraging at both temperature extremes. These results are contrary to some of our predictions, but fit into theoretical responses to temperature based upon dynamic energy budget models.

  3. Territorial analysis of Aedes aegypti distribution in two Colombian cities: a chorematic and ecosystem approach.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Vallejo, Mauricio; Higuera-Mendieta, Diana Rocío; García-Betancourt, Tatiana; Alcalá-Espinosa, Lucas Andrés; García-Sánchez, Diana; Munévar-Cagigas, David Alejandro; Brochero, Helena Luisa; González-Uribe, Catalina; Quintero, Juliana

    2015-03-01

    A territorial analysis of Aedes aegypti density was conducted in two Colombian cities using an ecosystem and chorematic approach. Entomological and behavioral data (by cluster) and information on the urban context were used to analyze the relationship between territorial structures and dynamics and vector density. The results were represented in graphic (chorematic) models. Arauca showed higher vector density than Armenia. Higher density was related to unplanned urbanization, flood-prone areas, low socioeconomic strata, household water tanks, higher temperature, and recall of control measures for adult mosquitos. Zones with low density indices coincided with diverse socioeconomic, ecological, and behavioral conditions. The study found a relationship between territorial structures and dynamics and vector density in both Arauca and Armenia, where the interaction between ecological and social systems shape areas with high and low A. aegypti density.

  4. A comparison of larval, ovitrap and MosquiTRAP surveillance for Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti.

    PubMed

    Resende, Marcelo Carvalho de; Silva, Ivoneide Maria; Ellis, Brett R; Eiras, Álvaro Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    In Brazil, the entomological surveillance of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti is performed by government-mandated larval surveys. In this study, the sensitivities of an adult sticky trap and traditional surveillance methodologies were compared. The study was performed over a 12-week period in a residential neighbourhood of the municipality of Pedro Leopoldo, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. An ovitrap and a MosquiTRAP were placed at opposite ends of each neighbourhood block (60 traps in total) and inspections were performed weekly. The study revealed significant correlations of moderate strength between the larval survey, ovitrap and MosquiTRAP measurements. A positive relationship was observed between temperature, adult capture measurements and egg collections, whereas precipitation and frequency of rainy days exhibited a negative relationship. PMID:24402144

  5. Time of day that Aedes sierrensis females enter oviposition sites prior to laying eggs.

    PubMed

    Woodward, David L; Colwell, Arthur E; Mills, Brittany M

    2008-03-01

    An ovitrap with a time-segregated entrance was used to separate eggs laid by Aedes sierrensis females according to the time of day that females entered the ovitrap. During a 37-day period in Lake County, CA, females that entered the ovitrap between sunrise and sunset laid 82% of the total number of eggs collected. A daily peak in oviposition (eggs per hour) was produced by females that entered during the 2-h period ending at sunset. Overall, females that oviposited had entered the ovitrap throughout the diel cycle except for a 2-h period ending at sunrise. Those eggs laid by females that entered the ovitrap between 2 h after sunset and 2 h before sunrise provided the 1st evidence that Ae. sierrensis females are capable of locating oviposition sites during the night. PMID:18437823

  6. The presence of white eggs in the monitoring of Aedes albopictus ( Diptera: Culicidae) by ovitraps.

    PubMed

    Drago, Andrea; Martini, Simone; Vettorato, Christian; Pombi, Marco; Dutto, Moreno

    2013-12-01

    Using international trading and passive transportation routes, the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894), has colonized Europe. While the most common tool to monitor the presence of the mosquito is the ovitrap, other kinds of eggs are occasionally found in the traps as well. Most of the eggs are easy to distinguish, however, some white-yellow eggs have a similar shape and size to those of the tiger mosquito and are often falsely identified as freshly laid tiger mosquito eggs. We have shown that these eggs had been laid by Psychoda alternata Say, 1824, and the misinterpretation may cause large errors in calculating density and patterns of Ae. albopictus. To avoid mistakes, a microscopic observation should be done at least 48 h after collecting the sample to permit Ae. albopictus eggs to darken. PMID:24581362

  7. Initial distribution assessment of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Barcelona, Spain, area.

    PubMed

    Roiz, D; Eritja, R; Molina, R; Melero-Alcibar, R; Lucientes, J

    2008-05-01

    The invasive species Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse 1894) (Diptera: Culicidae) has reached several European countries, including Albania, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, France, Greece, Israel, Italy, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia, Switzerland, The Netherlands, and recently Spain (Med. Vet. Entomol. 20: 150-152, 2006). Here, we present the initial characterization of the distribution of Ae. albopictus in the municipality of Sant Cugat del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain, where it was found for the first time in the Iberian Peninsula. An ovitrap sampling campaign was developed from September to December 2004 to assess the spatial distribution and abundance of Ae. albopictus to evaluate the potential of an eradication attempt. The population of Ae. albopictus in the whole area was shown to be widespread within the municipality, and it included at least another one neighboring town, so authorities were advised to develop large-scale control measures. Some indirect evidence was collected on the introduction means and date. PMID:18533426

  8. Sialokinin I and II: vasodilatory tachykinins from the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed Central

    Champagne, D E; Ribeiro, J M

    1994-01-01

    The saliva of the mosquito Aedes aegypti has previously been reported to contain a 1400-Da peptide with pharmacological properties typical of a tachykinin. In the present study this vasodilator has been purified to homogeneity and found to consist of two peptides: sialokinin I, with the sequence Asn-Thr-Gly-Asp-Lys-Phe-Tyr-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2, and sialokinin II, identical to sialokinin I except for an Asp in position 1. These peptides are present in amounts of 0.62 and 0.16 pmol (711 and 178 ng), respectively, per salivary gland pair. When assayed on the guinea pig ileum, both peptides are as active as the mammalian tachykinin substance P, with K0.5 values of 5.07, 6.58, and 4.94 nM for sialokinin I, sialokinin II, and substance P, respectively. PMID:8278354

  9. Larvicidal effect of andiroba oil, Carapa guianensis (Meliaceae), against Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Silva, Onilda S; Prophiro, Josiane S; Nogared, Juliana C; Kanis, Luiz; Emerick, Sheila; Blazius, Rene D; Romão, Pedro R T

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the larvicidal effect of andiroba oil, Carapa guyanensis, against 2 strains of Aedes aegypti. After 8 h after exposure to oil, the lethal concentration (LC)90 and LC95 values for the GCZ (temephos-resistant) strain larvae were 80 and 86 ppm (1st instars), 98 and 106 (2nd instars), 166 and 182 (3rd instars), and 192 and 202 ppm (4th instars), respectively. TheLC90 and LC95 values for the Rockefeller strain larvae were 164 and 182 ppm (1st instars), 212 and 224 (2nd instars), 210 and 226 (3rd instars), and 450 and 490 ppm (4th instars), respectively. Comparison of the 2 laboratory strains of Ae. aegypti in the present study demonstrated significant variation in the susceptibility of larvae to andiroba oil. Whether a higher susceptibility of field populations of Ae. aegypti to andiroba oil occurs remains to be investigated.

  10. Cyt1A from Bacillus thuringiensis Synergizes Activity of Bacillus sphaericus against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Margaret C.; Federici, Brian A.; Walton, William E.

    2000-01-01

    Bacillus sphaericus is a mosquitocidal bacterium recently developed as a commercial larvicide that is used worldwide to control pestiferous and vector mosquitoes. Whereas B. sphaericus is highly active against larvae of Culex and Anopheles mosquitoes, it is virtually nontoxic to Aedes aegypti, an important vector species. In the present study, we evaluated the capacity of the cytolytic protein Cyt1A from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis to enhance the toxicity of B. sphaericus toward A. aegypti. Various combinations of these two materials were evaluated, and all were highly toxic. A ratio of 10:1 of B. sphaericus to Cyt1A was 3,600-fold more toxic to A. aegypti than B. sphaericus alone. Statistical analysis showed this high activity was due to synergism between the Cyt1A toxin and B. sphaericus. These results suggest that Cyt1A could be useful in expanding the host range of B. sphaericus. PMID:10698776

  11. A chikungunya outbreak associated with the vector Aedes albopictus in remote villages of Gabon.

    PubMed

    Paupy, Christophe; Kassa Kassa, Fabrice; Caron, Mélanie; Nkoghé, Dieudonné; Leroy, Eric M

    2012-02-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) recently caused major urban outbreaks in central African countries such as the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Cameroon, and Gabon. In Gabon, the tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus was shown to be the main CHIKV vector during the 2007 outbreak. This invasive Asian species was first identified in Gabon in early 2007, and was thought to be restricted mainly to coastal provinces where urban epidemic CHIKV foci were recorded. Here we report a CHIKV outbreak in a small cluster of villages isolated in the deep forest of southern Gabon, in which A. albopictus was the main vector. This observation indicates concomitant geographic and ecological spread of CHIKV activity and A. albopictus in remote environments in central Africa, as well as an enhanced risk of propagation of epidemic arboviruses.

  12. [A mathematical model for the chemical control of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) having acquired chemical resistance].

    PubMed

    Restrepo-Alape, Leonardo D; Toro-Zapata, Hernán D; Muñoz-Loaiza, Aníbal

    2010-12-01

    Dengue fever is a common vector-borne disease in tropical and subtropical areas. It is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected female Aedes mosquito. Since no vaccines are currently available which can protect against infection, disease control relies on controlling the mosquito population. This work was aimed at modelling such mosquito's population dynamics regarding chemical control of the adult population and its acquired resistance to chemicals. The model was analysed by using classical dynamic system theory techniques and mosquito growth threshold was determined as this establishes when a particular population may prosper in the environment or when it is likely to disappear. A suitable chemical control strategy was developed from such threshold. Simulations were made in control and non-control scenarios; this determined the degree of control application effectiveness against different levels of acquired resistance.

  13. Evidence for an Overwintering Population of Aedes aegypti in Capitol Hill Neighborhood, Washington, DC.

    PubMed

    Lima, Andrew; Lovin, Diane D; Hickner, Paul V; Severson, David W

    2016-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is an invasive, highly anthropophilic mosquito and a major vector for dengue and chikungunya. Population persistence in the continental United States is reportedly limited to southward of the average 10°C winter isotherm, which in the east, bisects Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, and South Carolina. We report on summer collections and genotypic analyses of Ae. aegypti collected in the Capitol Hill neighborhood in Washington, DC (WDC). Analysis of a 441-bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene sequence identified the same two haplotype sequences during 2011-2014, and placed these within two discrete groups known to be derived from lineages resident in the Americas. Analysis of 10 microsatellite loci for specimens collected during 2011-2014 revealed no evidence for introgression of new alleles across years. Overall, our data support a conclusion that this represents a resident WDC population, likely maintained during winter months in a subterranean habitat that facilitates year-round survival.

  14. Occurrence of Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar Knab) in oviposition trap of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Honório, Nildimar A; de Barros, Fábio S M; Tsouris, Pantelis; Rosa-Freitas, Maria G

    2007-01-01

    Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar Knab), a poorly known mosquito species, was observed preying upon Aedes aegypti (L.) larvae, in an oviposition trap placed for routine dengue entomological surveillance, during 2003-2004 in the urban area of Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil. This is the first report for Tx. guadeloupensis using Ae. aegypti oviposition traps as breeding places. This finding may have important consequences in the epidemiology and local dengue control since Ae. aegypti density is a basic variable in dengue prediction. Whether predation of Ae aegypti by Tx. guadeloupensis in the Amazon is of significance, is a question to be examined. Also, larval predation may be a cause for underestimation of the actual Ae aegypti numbers. Together these hypotheses need to be better investigated as they are directly related to dengue epidemiology, to the success of any outbreak prediction and surveillance program.

  15. Sustained, Area-Wide Control of Aedes aegypti Using CDC Autocidal Gravid Ovitraps

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, Roberto; Amador, Manuel; Acevedo, Verónica; Hemme, Ryan R.; Félix, Gilberto

    2014-01-01

    We have shown that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) autocidal gravid ovitraps (AGO trap) reduced the Aedes aegypti population and prevented mosquito outbreaks in southern Puerto Rico. After showing treatment efficacy for 1 year, we deployed three traps per home in an area that formerly did not have traps and in a site that served as the intervention area. Two new areas were selected as reference sites to compare the density of Ae. aegypti without traps. We monitored mosquitoes and weather every week in all four sites. The hypotheses were the density of Ae. aegypti in the former reference area converges to the low levels observed in the intervention area, and mosquito density in both areas having control traps is lower than in the new reference areas. Mosquito density in the former reference area decreased 79% and mosquito density in the new reference areas was 88% greater than in the intervention areas. PMID:25223937

  16. Attraction and trapping of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) with host odors in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    McCall, P J; Harding, G; Roberts, J; Auty, B

    1996-01-01

    Volatile constituents of mouse odor were eluted from an adsorbent after collection within a closed-air system, and offered to host-seeking yellowfever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (L.), in the laboratory. Gas chromatographic analysis showed that individual mouse odors varied in blend, both quantitatively and qualitatively. In a 2-choice bioassay, sticky traps baited with individual mouse odors caught more female mosquitoes than controls (69% caught on baited traps) in all cases. When 2 traps baited with volatiles from the empty collection system were used, no preference occurred (46 and 54%), and fewer mosquitoes (22% of total) were caught overall than when a baited trap was present (46% of total). Equal numbers of male mosquitoes were caught on baited and control traps. Results demonstrated that Ae. aegypti can be attracted to entrained and eluted host odor without the addition of other attractants.

  17. [A mathematical model for the chemical control of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) having acquired chemical resistance].

    PubMed

    Restrepo-Alape, Leonardo D; Toro-Zapata, Hernán D; Muñoz-Loaiza, Aníbal

    2010-12-01

    Dengue fever is a common vector-borne disease in tropical and subtropical areas. It is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected female Aedes mosquito. Since no vaccines are currently available which can protect against infection, disease control relies on controlling the mosquito population. This work was aimed at modelling such mosquito's population dynamics regarding chemical control of the adult population and its acquired resistance to chemicals. The model was analysed by using classical dynamic system theory techniques and mosquito growth threshold was determined as this establishes when a particular population may prosper in the environment or when it is likely to disappear. A suitable chemical control strategy was developed from such threshold. Simulations were made in control and non-control scenarios; this determined the degree of control application effectiveness against different levels of acquired resistance. PMID:22030690

  18. Late-instar Behavior of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae in Different Thermal and Nutritive Environments.

    PubMed

    Reiskind, Michael H; Janairo, M Shawn

    2015-09-01

    The effects of temperature on ectotherm growth have been well documented. How temperature affects foraging behavior is less well explored, and has not been studied in larval mosquitoes. We hypothesized that temperature changes foraging behavior in the aquatic larval phase of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. Based on empirical results in other systems, we predicted that foraging effort would increase at higher temperatures in these insects. We tested this prediction over three temperature conditions at two food levels. We measured behaviors by video recording replicated cohorts of fourth-instar mosquitoes and assessing individual behavior and time budgets using an ethogram. We found both food level and temperature had significant impacts on larval foraging behavior, with more time spent actively foraging at low food levels and at low temperatures, and more occurrences of active foraging at both temperature extremes. These results are contrary to some of our predictions, but fit into theoretical responses to temperature based upon dynamic energy budget models. PMID:26336228

  19. Relative population densities of Aedes albopictus and A. guamensis on Guam

    PubMed Central

    Rozeboom, L. E.; Bridges, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Aedes guamensis Farner & Bohart is indigenous to Guam but A. albopictus is known to have arrived in 1944. The larval ecology of the two species is very similar; both species breed in tree holes, coconut shells, and other natural and man-made water containers. The purpose of the study was to compare the relative densities of larval populations of the two species with those determined in a survey made in 1948-49. The results suggest that as the population density of A. albopictus increased, that of A. guamensis decreased by as much as about 95% in artificial containers, and by 30% or more in natural breeding habitats. Since there seems to be no environmental factor involved in rendering the breeding places unsuitable for A. guamensis, the reduction in A. guamensis populations may be, in part, the result of competition from A. albopictus. PMID:4538192

  20. Identification of Blood Meal Sources in Aedes vexans and Culex quinquefasciatus in Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Jacob A.; Lujan, Daniel A.; DiMenna, Mark A.; Wearing, Helen J.; Hofkin, Bruce V.

    2013-01-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes vexans Meigen are two of the most abundant mosquitoes in Bernalillo County, New Mexico, USA. In this study, a polymerase chain reaction based methodology was used to identify the sources of blood meals taken by these two species. Ae. vexans was found to take a large proportion of its meals from mammals. Although less specific in terms of its blood meal preferences, Cx. quinquefasciatus was found to feed more commonly on birds. The results for Ae. vexans are similar to those reported for this species in other parts of their geographic range. Cx. quinquefasciatus appears to be more variable in terms of its host feeding under different environmental or seasonal circumstances. The implications of these results for arbovirus transmission are discussed. PMID:24224615